Sample records for godiva reactor

  1. Godiva and Juliet Diagnostics CED-1 (IER-176)

    SciTech Connect

    Scorby, J C

    2011-12-21

    A suite of diagnostics are being proposed for use in the Juliet experiment (IER-128). In order to calibrate and test the diagnostics prior to use, the LLNL calibration facility and Godiva pulsed reactor will be used to provide intense sources of neutrons and gammas. Due to the similarities of the Godiva and Juliet radiation fields, the diagnostics being developed and tested for Juliet can also play an on-going role in diagnostics for Godiva as well as, perhaps, other critical assembly experiments. Similar work is also being conducted for IER-147 for the purpose of characterizing the Godiva radiation field in support of an upcoming international nuclear accident dosimetry exercise. Diagnostics developed and fielded under IER-147 can provide valuable data with respect to the neutron and gamma energy spectrums in the vicinity of Godiva which is relevant to the calibration of Juliet diagnostics.

  2. GODIVA2: interactive visualization of environmental data on the Web.

    PubMed

    Blower, J D; Haines, K; Santokhee, A; Liu, C L

    2009-03-13

    GODIVA2 is a dynamic website that provides visual access to several terabytes of physically distributed, four-dimensional environmental data. It allows users to explore large datasets interactively without the need to install new software or download and understand complex data. Through the use of open international standards, GODIVA2 maintains a high level of interoperability with third-party systems, allowing diverse datasets to be mutually compared. Scientists can use the system to search for features in large datasets and to diagnose the output from numerical simulations and data processing algorithms. Data providers around Europe have adopted GODIVA2 as an INSPIRE-compliant dynamic quick-view system for providing visual access to their data. PMID:19087942

  3. Godiva IV and Juliet Diagnostics CED-1, Rev. 1 (IER-176)

    SciTech Connect

    Scorby, J C; Myers, W L

    2012-04-11

    The Juliet experiment is currently in preliminary design (IER-128). This experiment will utilize a suite of diagnostics to measure the physical state of the device (temperature, surface motion, stress, etc.) and the total and time rate of change of neutron and gamma fluxes. A variety of potential diagnostics has been proposed in this CED-1 report. Based on schedule and funding, a subset of diagnostics will be selected for testing using the Godiva IV pulsed reactor as a source of neutrons and gammas. The diagnostics development and testing will occur over a two year period (FY12-13) culminating in a final set of diagnostics to be fielded for he Juliet experiment currently proposed for execution in FY15.

  4. Analysis of Godiva-IV delayed-critical and static super-prompt-critical conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell D Mosteller; Joetta M Goda

    2009-01-01

    Super-prompt-critical burst experiments were conducted on the Godiva-IV assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory from the 1960s through 2005. Detailed and simplified benchmark models have been constructed for four delayed-critical experiments and for the static phase of a super-prompt-critical burst experiment. In addition, a two-dimensional cylindrical model has been developed for the super-prompt-critical condition. Criticality calculations have been performed for

  5. Validation of energy moments from the one-dimensional energy dependent neutron diffusion equation, MCNP5 and Attila-7.1.0 with the GODIVA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas S. Crawford; Terry A. Ring

    2012-12-01

    Normalized neutron energy moments (moments) from the one-dimensional energy dependent neutron diffusion equation (EDNDE), Monte Carlo N Particle 5 version 1.40 (MCNP5) and Attila-7.1.0-beta version (Attila) are validated with the GODIVA experiment (GODIVA). Energy moments 0–5 for all three methods are compared to GODIVA moments. GODIVA moments are measured with two methods. The 1st method is a time of flight (T-O-F) measurement of the average energy (moment 1) of the leaking neutrons from the surface of GODIVA and the 2nd method is from back calculating moments from foil activation analysis of various metal foils at the center of GODIVA. The error range of the EDNDE normalized moments compared to GODIVA is from 0% to 24%. The MCNP5 error range compared to GODIVA is 0–12% and the Attila error range is 0–79%. The method of moments is shown to be a fast reliable method, compared to either Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5) or 30 multi-energy group methods (Attila) with regard to the GODIVA experiment.

  6. Analysis of Godiva-IV delayed-critical and static super-prompt-critical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, Russell D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goda, Joetta M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Super-prompt-critical burst experiments were conducted on the Godiva-IV assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory from the 1960s through 2005. Detailed and simplified benchmark models have been constructed for four delayed-critical experiments and for the static phase of a super-prompt-critical burst experiment. In addition, a two-dimensional cylindrical model has been developed for the super-prompt-critical condition. Criticality calculations have been performed for all of those models with four modern nuclear data libraries: ENDFIB-VI, ENDF/8-VII.0, JEFF-3.1 , and JENDL-3.3. Overall, JENDL-3.3 produces the best agreement with the reference values for k{sub eff}.

  7. Verification and validation of the maximum entropy method for reconstructing neutron flux, with MCNP5, Attila-7.1.0 and the GODIVA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas S. Crawford; Tony Saad; Terry A. Ring

    2013-03-01

    Verification and validation of reconstructed neutron flux based on the maximum entropy method is presented in this paper. The verification is carried out by comparing the neutron flux spectrum from the maximum entropy method with Monte Carlo N Particle 5 version 1.40 (MCNP5) and Attila-7.1.0-beta (Attila). A spherical 100% 235U critical assembly is modeled as the test case to compare the three methods. The verification error range for the maximum entropy method is 15–21% where MCNP5 is taken to be the comparison standard. Attila relative error for the critical assembly is 20–35%. Validation is accomplished by comparing a neutron flux spectrum that is back calculated from foil activation measurements performed in the GODIVA experiment (GODIVA). The error range of the reconstructed flux compared to GODIVA is 0–10%. The error range of the neutron flux spectrum from MCNP5 compared to GODIVA is 0–20% and the Attila error range compared to the GODIVA is 0–35%. The maximum entropy method is shown to be a fast reliable method, compared to either Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5) or 30 multienergy group methods (Attila) and with respect to the GODIVA experiment.

  8. Neutron initiation probability in fast burst reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Du, J.; Xie, Q.; Fan, X. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, No.64, Mianshan Road, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Based on the probability balance of neutron random events in multiply system, the four random process of neutron in prompt super-critical is described and then the equation of neutron initiation probability W(r,E,{Omega},t) is deduced. On the assumption of static, slightly prompt super-critical and the two factorial approximation, the formula of the average probability of 'one' neutron is derived which is the same with the result derived from the point model. The MC simulation using point model is applied in Godiva- II and CFBR-II, and the simulation result of one neutron initiation is well consistent with the theory that the initiation probability of Godiva- II inverted commas CFBR-II burst reactor are 0.00032, 0.00027 respectively on the ordinary burst operation. (authors)

  9. Reevaluation of an individual's radiation exposure at NTS in 1963-64. [FRAN reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.S.

    1983-02-25

    The FRAN prompt burst reactor began operation at NTS on November 1, 1962 and continued in use until April 1965. From January 2, 1963 to August 12, 1964, an individual periodically performed maintenance and troubleshooting functions on various components of the FRAN reactor system. In June, 1980, the individual requested a review of the radiation dose that he received from his involvement with the FRAN reactor. An evaluation of the individual's radiation dose associated with the FRAN reactor operation was performed. This report details the reevaluation of the individual's estimated radiation dose from the FRAN reactor assembly, as derived from computer calculations, GODIVA-IV measurements, personnel dosimetry results, and a reconstruction of work scenarios.

  10. Feasibility study of noise analysis methods on virtual thermal reactor subcriticality monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, C.; Lee, D. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology UNIST-gil, 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., 1312-70, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis results of Rossi-alpha, cross-correlation, Feynman-alpha, and Feynman difference methods applied to the subcriticality monitoring of nuclear reactors. A thermal spectrum Godiva model has been designed for the analysis of the four methods. This Godiva geometry consists of a spherical core containing the isotopes of H-l, U-235 and U-238, and the H{sub 2}O reflector outside the core. A Monte Carlo code, McCARD, is used in real time mode to generate virtual detector signals to analyze the feasibility of the four methods. The analysis results indicate that the four methods can be used with high accuracy for the continuous monitoring of subcriticality. In addition to that, in order to analyze the impact of the random noise contamination on the accuracy of the noise analysis, the McCARD-generated signals are contaminated with arbitrary noise. It is noticed that, even when the detector signals are contaminated, the four methods can predict the subcriticality with reasonable accuracy. Nonetheless, in order to reduce the adverse impact of the random noise, eight detector signals, rather than a single signal, are generated from the core, one signal from each equally divided eighth part of the core. The preliminary analysis with multiple virtual detector signals indicates that the approach of using many detectors is promising to improve the accuracy of criticality prediction and further study will be performed in this regard. (authors)

  11. Verification of Unstructured Mesh Capabilities in MCNP6 for Reactor Physics Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Timothy P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martz, Roger L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-22

    New unstructured mesh capabilities in MCNP6 (developmental version during summer 2012) show potential for conducting multi-physics analyses by coupling MCNP to a finite element solver such as Abaqus/CAE[2]. Before these new capabilities can be utilized, the ability of MCNP to accurately estimate eigenvalues and pin powers using an unstructured mesh must first be verified. Previous work to verify the unstructured mesh capabilities in MCNP was accomplished using the Godiva sphere [1], and this work attempts to build on that. To accomplish this, a criticality benchmark and a fuel assembly benchmark were used for calculations in MCNP using both the Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) native to MCNP and the unstructured mesh geometry generated using Abaqus/CAE. The Big Ten criticality benchmark [3] was modeled due to its geometry being similar to that of a reactor fuel pin. The C5G7 3-D Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Benchmark [4] was modeled to test the unstructured mesh capabilities on a reactor-type problem.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grebe

    1959-01-01

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the ; heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised ; essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main ; coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in ; which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen

  13. Nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Furudate; T. Miyazawa; H. Mizuguchi; K. Sasaki; N. Uesugi

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described which comprises a reactor vessel, a core housed in the reactor vessel, an ultrasonic transducer mounted in the vicinity of the upper end of the core for emitting and receiving an ultrasonic wave pulse signal propagating above the core. A means is provided for rotating the transducer by a prescribed angle to scan horizontally the

  14. Nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, M.

    1984-08-14

    A nuclear reactor of the type which uses liquid metal as primary and secondary coolants, and wherein the reactor vessel contains a core and a plurality of vertically extending cylindrical intermediate heat exchangers for carrying out heat exchange between the primary and secondary coolants; primary coolant circulation pumps disposed outside of the reactor vessel; a pipe for conducting to the circulation pump the primary coolant which has passed through the intermediate heat exchangers after leaving the core; and a pipe for guiding the primary coolant discharged from the circulation pump to the core through the reactor vessel.

  15. Nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Furudate, M.; Miyazawa, T.; Mizuguchi, H.; Sasaki, K.; Uesugi, N.

    1981-09-22

    A nuclear reactor is described which comprises a reactor vessel, a core housed in the reactor vessel, an ultrasonic transducer mounted in the vicinity of the upper end of the core for emitting and receiving an ultrasonic wave pulse signal propagating above the core. A means is provided for rotating the transducer by a prescribed angle to scan horizontally the ultrasonic wave emitted from the transducer. A plurality of reflective means are mounted in the vicinity of the upper end of the core in a manner to face the transducer for reflecting the ultrasonic wave signal emitted from the transducer.

  16. Nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Pennell; W. J. Rowan

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable

  17. Nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Pennell; William J. Rowan

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of

  18. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L. (Stanford, CA); Bachmann, Andre (Palo Alto, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  19. Catalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  20. Disposition of fuel elements from the Aberdeen and Sandia pulse reactor (SPR-II) assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Mckerley, Bill [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bustamante, Jacqueline M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Drypolcher, Anthony F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hickey, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We describe the disposition of fuel from the Aberdeen (APR) and the Sandia Pulse Reactors (SPR-II) which were used to provide intense neutron bursts for radiation effects testing. The enriched Uranium - 10% Molybdenum fuel from these reactors was shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for size reduction prior to shipment to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for final disposition in the H Canyon facility. The Shipper/Receiver Agreements (SRA), intra-DOE interfaces, criticality safety evaluations, safety and quality requirements and key materials management issues required for the successful completion of this project will be presented. This work is in support of the DOE Consolidation and Disposition program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has operated pulse nuclear reactor research facilities for the Department of Energy since 1961. The Sandia Pulse Reactor (SPR-II) was a bare metal Godiva-type reactor. The reactor facilities have been used for research and development of nuclear and non-nuclear weapon systems, advanced nuclear reactors, reactor safety, simulation sources and energy related programs. The SPR-II was a fast burst reactor, designed and constructed by SNL that became operational in 1967. The SPR-ll core was a solid-metal fuel enriched to 93% {sup 235}U. The uranium was alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum to ensure the phase stabilization of the fuel. The core consisted of six fuel plates divided into two assemblies of three plates each. Figure 1 shows a cutaway diagram of the SPR-II Reactor with its decoupling shroud. NNSA charged Sandia with removing its category 1 and 2 special nuclear material by the end of 2008. The main impetus for this activity was based on NNSA Administrator Tom D'Agostino's six focus areas to reenergize NNSA's nuclear material consolidation and disposition efforts. For example, the removal of SPR-II from SNL to DAF was part of this undertaking. This project was in support of NNSA's efforts to consolidate the locations of special nuclear material (SNM) to reduce the cost of securing many SNM facilities. The removal of SPR-II from SNL was a significant accomplishment in SNL's de-inventory efforts and played a key role in reducing the number of locations requiring the expensive security measures required for category 1 and 2 SNM facilities. A similar pulse reactor was fabricated at the Y-12 National Security Complex beginning in the late 1960's. This Aberdeen Pulse Reactor (APR) was operated at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) located at the Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) in Maryland. When the APRF was shut down in 2003, a portion of the DOE-owned Special Nuclear Material (SNM) was shipped to an interim facility for storage. Subsequently, the DOE determined that the material from both the SPR-II and the APR would be processed in the H-Canyon at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because of the SRS receipt requirements some of the material was sent to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for size-reduction prior to shipment to the SRS for final disposition.

  1. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  2. Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Gat; S. R. Daugherty

    1985-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor is a reactor that eliminates the traditional safety concerns of nuclear fission reactors. The US reactor has an insignificant source term and no reasonable criticality accident. Furthermore, the negligible residual after-heat in the reactor renders its shutdown capability comparable or superior to conventional power sources. Fission products are continuously removed at the rate they are

  3. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1999-01-19

    A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

  4. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Fain, Douglas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stockdale, John A. D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A photocatalytic reactor for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane.

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. High flux reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Lake; R. L. Heath; J. L. Liebenthal; D. R. DeBoisblanc; C. F. Leyse; K. Parsons; J. M. Ryskamp; R. P. Wadkins; Y. D. Harker; G. N. Fillmore

    1988-01-01

    A high flux nuclear reactor is described comprising: (a) a pressure vessel including reactor coolant inlet means at the first end thereof and reactor coolant outlet means at the second end thereof; (b) a reactor coolant; (c) a first core segment housed within the pressure vessel, the first core segment including a plurality of concentric, circumferential fuel plates, the spacing

  8. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B. (Severna Park, MD)

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  9. Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Daugherty, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (US) Reactor is a reactor that eliminates the traditional safety concerns of nuclear fission reactors. The US reactor has an insignificant source term and no reasonable criticality accident. Furthermore, the negligible residual after-heat in the reactor renders its shutdown capability comparable or superior to conventional power sources. Fission products are continuously removed at the rate they are produced. The reactor is operated with no excess criticality, hence no criticality accident is reasonably possible. The reactor is controlled safely by its negative temperature coeffiient. The reactor maintains criticality by an internal breeding ratio that is trimmed to be exactly one. The US reactor requires a fluid fuel and on-line, continuous fuel processing. Molten salt fuel was selected for its low vapor pressure at high temperature; adequate solubility of uranium and thorium as fluorides; good compatibility with structural materials; absence of irradiation damage; high negative temperature coefficient and amply developed technology and experience.

  10. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Wysong, A R; Heinrichs, D P; Wong, C T; Merritt, M J; Topper, J D; Gressmann, F A; Madden, D J

    2011-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses neutron activation elements in a Panasonic TLD holder as a personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). The LLNL PNAD has periodically been tested using a Cf-252 neutron source, however until 2009, it was more than 25 years since the PNAD has been tested against a source of neutrons that arise from a reactor generated neutron spectrum that simulates a criticality. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at the CEA Valduc Silene reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at CEA Valduc. The reactor generated neutron irradiations for the 2010 exercise were performed at the Caliban reactor. The Caliban results are described in this report. The procedure for measuring the nuclear accident dosimeters in the event of an accident has a solid foundation based on many experimental results and comparisons. The entire process, from receiving the activated NADs to collecting and storing them after counting was executed successfully in a field based operation. Under normal conditions at LLNL, detectors are ready and available 24/7 to perform the necessary measurement of nuclear accident components. Likewise LLNL maintains processing laboratories that are separated from the areas where measurements occur, but contained within the same facility for easy movement from processing area to measurement area. In the event of a loss of LLNL permanent facilities, the Caliban and previous Silene exercises have demonstrated that LLNL can establish field operations that will very good nuclear accident dosimetry results. There are still several aspects of LLNL's nuclear accident dosimetry program that have not been tested or confirmed. For instance, LLNL's method for using of biological samples (blood and hair) has not been verified since the method was first developed in the 1980's. Because LLNL and the other DOE participants were limited in what they were allowed to do at the Caliban and Silene exercises and testing of various elements of the nuclear accident dosimetry programs cannot always be performed as guests at other sites, it has become evident that DOE needs its own capability to test nuclear accident dosimeters. Angular dependence determination and correction factors for NADs desperately need testing as well as more evaluation regarding the correct determination of gamma doses. It will be critical to properly design any testing facility so that the necessary experiments can be performed by DOE laboratories as well as guest laboratories. Alternate methods of dose assessment such as using various metals commonly found in pockets and clothing have yet to be evaluated. The DOE is planning to utilize the Godiva or Flattop reactor for testing nuclear accident dosimeters. LLNL has been assigned the primary operational authority for such testing. Proper testing of nuclear accident dosimeters will require highly specific characterization of the pulse fields. Just as important as the characterization of the pulsed fields will be the design of facilities used to process the NADs. Appropriate facilities will be needed to allow for early access to dosimeters to test and develop quick sorting techniques. These facilities will need appropriate laboratory preparation space and an area for measurements. Finally, such a facility will allow greater numbers of LLNL and DOE laboratory personnel to train on the processing and interpretation of nuclear accident dosimeters and results. Until this facility is fully operational for test purposes, DOE laboratories may need to continue periodic testing as guests of other reactor facilities such as Silene and Caliban.

  11. Tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features.

  12. Attrition reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxvile, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  13. Attrition reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  14. Canadian university research reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Ernst; M. F. Collins

    1989-01-01

    In Canada there are seven university research reactors: one medium-power (2-MW) swimming pool reactor at McMaster University and six low-power (20-kW) SLOWPOKE reactors at Dalhousie University, Ecole Polytechnique, the Royal Military College, the University of Toronto, the University of Saskatchewan, and the University of Alberta. This paper describes primarily the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR), which operates on a wider scale

  15. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR SHIELD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Stathoplos; L. A. Wills

    1963-01-01

    A method for constructing radiation shields for reactors so that the ; reactor and shield assembly have a low weight is described. The reactor is ; assumed to have a core of fissionable material in which the fission process ; utilizes predominantly neutrons with a median energy of the order of 10⁵ ev. ; The shield has a first layer

  18. N reactor coproduct demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geier

    1968-01-01

    Early in the N Reactor program it was recognized that coproduct (plutonium plus tritium) operation of the reactor would be economically attractive. Studies indicated that unit cost could be lowered by as much as six dollars per gram of equivalent plutonium. The General Electric Company initiated a coproduct program for N Reactor early in 1963. Fuel and target elements consistent

  19. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  1. THE MERLIN RESEARCH REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Allibone; D. R. Chick; K. Firth; B. Millar; I. Munro; A. J. Salmon

    1959-01-01

    The 5 Mw research reactor, built by private industry at Aldermaston, ; England, is described. The reactor will be used for both fundamental and applied ; research and training by industry, universities, and other research institutions. ; The reactor itself is described in detail with emphasis on the experimental ; facilities and the radiation fluxes available. The control system, ;

  2. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  3. Digital control of research reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C.. Crump; W. J. Richards; C. C. Heidel

    1991-01-01

    Research reactors provide an important service for the nuclear industry. Developments and innovations used for research reactors can be later applied to larger power reactors. Their relatively inexpensive cost allows research reactors to be an excellent testing ground for the reactors of tomorrow. One area of current interest is digital control of research reactor systems. Digital control systems offer the

  4. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  5. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  6. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  7. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  8. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharbaugh

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction comprising: (a) a nuclear reactor core having a bottom platform support structure; (b) a reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core; (c) a containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and having a sidewall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side

  9. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  10. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  11. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1961-01-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant ; is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo-; generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely ; suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which ; nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated

  12. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  13. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1963-01-01

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions ; is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner ; shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the ; solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of ; gas that moves downwardly within

  14. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lineberry, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Reactor Operations Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1991-12-05

    The K-Reactor last operated in April 1988. At that time, K-Reactor was one of three operating reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Following an incident in P-Reactor in August 1988, it was decided to discontinue SRS reactor operation and conduct an extensive program to upgrade operating practices and plant hardware prior to restart of any of the reactors. The K-reactor was the first of three reactors scheduled to resume production. At the present time, it is the only reactor with planned restart. WSRC assumed management of SRS on April 1, 1989. WSRC established the Safety Basis for Restart and a listing of the actions planned to satisfy the Safety Basis. In consultation with DOE, it was determined that proper management of the restart activities would require a single plan that integrated the numerous activities. The plan was entitled the Reactor Operations Management Plan and is referred to simply as the ROMP. The initial version of ROMP was produced in July of 1989. Subsequent modifications led to Revision 3 which was approved by DOE in May, 1990. Other changes were made in a formal change process, resulting in the latest version, Revision 5, being issued in October, 1990. The ROMP contains three key parts: first, the Restart Safety Basis; second, a description of the process for addressing new technical issues and a listing of the established workscope and the associated acceptance criteria; and three, a schedule for executing the work. I will discuss the first two areas, along with the closure process used to assure the intent of ROMP was met. The ROMP activities are all complete and I will not discuss schedule further.

  16. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  17. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING WATER PIPES, COOLING AIR DUCTS, AND SHIELDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 776. Unknown Photographer, 10/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  20. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Mitrovski, Svetlana M. (Urbana, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  1. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  2. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  3. Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgitte Kiær Ahring

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in

  4. The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Laible, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Argonne biophysicist Dr. Philip Laible and Air Force Major Matt Michaud talks about he endurance bioenergy reactor—a device that contains bacteria that can convert energy from the sun into fuel molecules.

  5. K-Reactor readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1991-12-04

    This document describes some of the more significant accomplishments in the reactor restart program and details the magnitude and extent of the work completed to bring K-Reactor to a state of restart readiness. The discussion of restart achievements is organized into the three major categories of personnel, programs, and plant. Also presented is information on the scope and extent of internal and external oversight of the efforts, as well as some details on the startup plan.

  6. Molten metal reactors

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  7. F Reactor Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-10-29

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  8. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  9. F Reactor Inspection

    ScienceCinema

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-11-24

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  10. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  11. EBT reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Santoro, R. T.; Spong, D. A.; Uckan, T.; Owen, L. W.; Barnes, J. M.; McBride, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with <..beta../sub core/> approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density.

  12. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOEpatents

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  13. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  14. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  15. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  16. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  17. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  18. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  19. Reactor core design of Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Shoji Katanishi; Shoji Takada; Xing Yan; Nobumasa Tsuji

    2004-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been designing Japan’s original gas turbine high temperature reactor, Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300 (GTHTR300). The greatly simplified design based on salient features of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) with a closed helium gas turbine enables the GTHTR300 a highly efficient and economically competitive reactor to be deployed in early 2010s.

  20. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  1. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  2. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  3. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  4. Innovative design of uranium startup fast reactors

    E-print Network

    Fei, Tingzhou

    2012-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors are one of the three candidates of GEN-IV fast reactors. Fast reactors play an important role in saving uranium resources and reducing nuclear wastes. Conventional fast reactors rely on transuranic ...

  5. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. The Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, G.R.; McClellan, G.C.; Pruett, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) operated by Argonne National Laboratory is described in this paper. NRAD was designed to allow radiography of highly absorbing reactor fuel assemblies in the vertical position on the routine basis. 7 figs.

  7. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  8. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and

  9. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cohen; J. G. Crocker

    1981-01-01

    Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting

  10. Cusp containment and thermonuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. J. Spalding

    1968-01-01

    Existing theories of the cusp containment of quiescent plasma are reviewed. Some technical and economic requirements of any fusion reactor are then summarized and used to deduce the probable dimensions of open-ended high-? reactors. It is shown that such reactors must be long, pulsed, and of very high output power. Crucial physical problems are the microstability of the high-? plasma

  11. Oscillating liquid flow ICF Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petzoldt

    1990-01-01

    Oscillating liquid flow in a falling molten salt inertial confinement fusion reactor is predicted to rapidly clear driver beam paths of residual liquid droplets. Oscillating flow will also provide adequate neutron and x-ray protection for the reactor structure with a short (2-m) fall distance permitting an 8 Hz repetition rate. A reactor chamber configuration is presented with specific features to

  12. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  13. In and Out Reactor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

    Students learn about material balances, a fundamental concept of chemical engineering. They use stoichiometry to predict the mass of carbon dioxide that escapes after reacting measured quantities of sodium bicarbonate with dilute acetic acid. Students then produce the reactions of the chemicals in a small reactor made from a plastic water bottle and balloon.

  14. Nuclear reactors. [LMFBR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor cooled by a freezable liquid has a vessel for containing said liquid and comprising a structure shaped as a container, and cooling means in the region of the surface of said structure for effecting freezing of said liquid coolant at and for a finite distance from said surface for providing a layer of frozen coolant

  15. High temperature nuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Lockett; S. B. Hosegood

    1973-01-01

    The difficulties which arise, in conducting heat away from the thermal ; shield, which lies between a nuclear reactor core and the concrete pressure ; vessel which contains it, are acute, especially in respect of the underside of ; the core, and in cases where the direction of coolant flow is ventically ; downwards. According to the present invention this

  16. NRC Targets University Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

  17. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  18. Reactor monitoring with Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cribier, Michel

    2011-12-01

    The fundamental knowledge on neutrinos acquired in the recent years open the possibility of applied neutrino physics. Among it the automatic and non intrusive monitoring of nuclear reactor by its antineutrino signal could be very valuable to IAEA in charge of the control of nuclear power plants. Several efforts worldwide have already started.

  19. REACTOR OPERATIONS AND CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Pázsit, Imre

    detectors.1 According to the technical specifications of the Ring- hals power plant, in which this work and the "distorted" axial flux shape, and from the latter, *Current address: The Swedish Nuclear Power InspectorateREACTOR OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: core calculations, neural networks, control rod elevation

  20. Reactor Monitoring with Neutrinos

    E-print Network

    M. Cribier

    2007-04-06

    The fundamental knowledge on neutrinos acquired in the recent years open the possibility of applied neutrino physics. Among it the automatic and non intrusive monitoring of nuclear reactor by its antineutrino signal could be very valuable to IAEA in charge of the control of nuclear power plants. Several efforts worldwide have already started.

  1. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  2. Rasmussen on reactor safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasmussen

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the methodology employed in the reactor ; safety study which formed the basis of the WASH-1400 report. A brief discussion ; is also presented of risks outside the scope of the WASH-1400 report. These ; include hazards in shipping, waste disposal, sabotage, and theft of fissionable ; material. (DG);

  3. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

    1994-01-01

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

  4. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  5. Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and

  6. REACTORS NEED SUPERLATIVE WELDING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1962-01-01

    Discussion is given on Tig, Mig, stick, and electron beam welding of ; atomic reactors using austenitic and ferritic stainless steel, stainless clad ; steel, Inconel, carbon steel, Zr, the precipitation hardening steels, and others. ; Testing by x ray, dye penetration, and magnetic particles is also included. ; (P.C.H.);

  7. THE BATTELLE RESEARCH REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Anno; A. M. Plummer

    1962-01-01

    The characteristics, experimental facllit1es, operating experience, and ; operating costs of the Battelle Research Reaetor, pool-type, are deseribed. The ; 2-Mw reactor is equipped with the following facilities: shielding facility, ; neutron diffractometer, fission gas release facility, neutron activation ; facility, in-pile loop, modified pile oscillator, high vacuura facility, and ; cryogenic facility. A description is given of each. The

  8. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  9. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-04-05

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed there above. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define there between an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin. 4 figures.

  10. Cermet fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomissen, J.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  12. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  13. Reactor physics activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields: nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work.

  14. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  15. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

  16. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  17. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  18. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    DOEpatents

    Bhate, Suresh K. (Niskayuna, NY); Cooper, Martin H. (Monroeville, PA); Riffe, Delmar R. (Murrysville, PA); Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An inherent shutdown system for a nuclear reactor having neutron absorbing rods affixed to an armature which is held in an upper position by a magnetic flux flowing through a Curie temperature material. The Curie temperature material is fixedly positioned about the exterior of an inner duct in an annular region through which reactor coolant flows. Elongated fuel rods extending from within the core upwardly toward the Curie temperature material are preferably disposed within the annular region. Upon abnormal conditions which result in high neutron flux and coolant temperature, the Curie material loses its magnetic permeability, breaking the magnetic flux path and allowing the armature and absorber rods to drop into the core, thus shutting down the fissioning reaction. The armature and absorber rods are retrieved by lowering the housing for the electromagnet forming coils which create a magnetic flux path which includes the inner duct wall. The coil housing then is raised, resetting the armature.

  19. Integrated Microfluidic Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Wang, Yanju; Wang, Shutao; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microfluidic reactors exhibit intrinsic advantages of reduced chemical consumption, safety, high surface-area-to-volume ratios, and improved control over mass and heat transfer superior to the macroscopic reaction setting. In contract to a continuous-flow microfluidic system composed of only a microchannel network, an integrated microfluidic system represents a scalable integration of a microchannel network with functional microfluidic modules, thus enabling the execution and automation of complicated chemical reactions in a single device. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the development of integrated microfluidics-based chemical reactors for (i) parallel screening of in situ click chemistry libraries, (ii) multistep synthesis of radiolabeled imaging probes for positron emission tomography (PET), (iii) sequential preparation of individually addressable conducting polymer nanowire (CPNW), and (iv) solid-phase synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides. These proof-of-principle demonstrations validate the feasibility and set a solid foundation for exploring a broad application of the integrated microfluidic system. PMID:20209065

  20. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  1. Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, Dennis; Butler, Carey; West, Nicole; Cole, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) research program consist of: 1.Study core physics by adapting existing codes: MCNP4C - Monte Carlo code; COMBINE/VENTURE - diffusion theory; SCALE4 - Monte Carlo, with many utility codes. 2. Determine feasibility and study major design parameters: fuel selection, temperature and reflector sizing. 3. Study reactor kinetics: develop QCALC1 to model point kinetics; study dynamic behavior of the power release.

  2. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    DOEpatents

    McEdwards, James A. (Calabasas, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  3. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full-core-height diodes. Moreover, placing the fuel on the outside of the diode makes possible reactors with much higher fuel volume fractions, which enable power-flattened fast reactors scalable to very low power levels without the need for life-limiting hydride moderators or the use of efficiency-limiting driver fuel. In addition, with the fuel on the outside its swelling does not increase the emitter diameter or reduce the interelectrode gap. This should permit long lifetimes even with closer spacings, which can significantly improve the system efficiences. This was confirmed by coupled neutronic, thermal, thermionic, and electrical system analyses - some of which are presented in this paper - and by subsequent experiments. A companion paper presented next describes the fabrication and testing of full-scale converter elements, both fueled and unfueled, and summarizes the test results obtained. There is a duplicate copy in the file.

  4. Reactor Monitoring with Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casimiro Linares, Edgar

    2011-09-01

    The study of the use of neutrino detectors to monitor nuclear reactors is currently a very active field of research. While neutrino detectors located close to reactors have been used to provide information about the global performance of the reactors, a general improvement of the technique is needed in order to use it in a practical way to monitor the fissile contents of the fuel of the nuclear reactors or the thermal power delivered. I describe the current status of the Angra Neutrino Project, aimed to building a low-mass neutrino detector to monitor the Angra II reactor of the Brazilian nuclear power plant Almirante Alvaro Ramos in order to explore new approaches to reactor monitoring with neutrino detectors.

  5. The molten salt reactor adventure

    SciTech Connect

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-08-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF4-ThF4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized.

  6. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  7. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  8. Prospects for spheromak fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, T. K.; Hua, D. D.

    1995-06-01

    The reactor study of Hagenson and Krakowski demonstrated the attractiveness of the spheromak as a compact fusion reactor, based on physics principles confirmed in CTX experiments in many respects. Most uncertain was the energy confinement time and the role of magnetic turbulence inherent in the concept. In this paper, a one-dimensional model of heat confinement, calibrated by CTX, predicts negligible heat loss by magnetic turbulence at reactor scale.

  9. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  10. Decommissioning of a University research reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric W. Abelquist; Amir Huda; J. Takahashi; S. State

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the UCLA Boelter Reactor Decommissioning Project was the release of the Boelter reactor facility for unrestricted use. The facility included a 100 kW Argonaut type research reactor that operated from 1963 to 1985, providing general reactor research. The decommissioning was planned as a two-phase program. Phase I involved removal of the reactor core structure for better access

  11. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1983-03-28

    Progress in a two year study of a 1200 MWe commercial tandem mirror reactor (MARS - Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) has reached the point where major reactor system technologies are identified. New design features of the magnets, blankets, plug heating systems and direct converter are described. With the innovation of radial drift pumping to maintain low plug density, reactor recirculating power fraction is reduced to 20%. Dominance of radial ion and impurity losses into the halo permits gridless, circular direct converters to be dramatically reduced in size. Comparisons of MARS with the Starfire tokamak design are made.

  12. High Flux Reactor Isotope Facility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    Located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Tennessee, the High Flux Reactor Isotope Facility (HFIR) produces transuranium isotopes for research, industrial, and medical applications. It is also used for a variety of neutron flux experiments. The HFIR Website gives an informative overview of the science and engineering behind the reactor. Visitors can get acquainted with HFIR's history, facilities, and experiments. Other features of the site include illustrated sections on horizontal beam poles and neutron scattering as well as daily operation status of the reactor. Photographs and schematics of the reactor and control room are other interesting parts of the site.

  13. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    E-print Network

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-26

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

  14. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    E-print Network

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  15. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    E-print Network

    Petr Vogel; Liangjian Wen; Chao Zhang

    2015-03-03

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  16. Rotating reactor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1991-01-01

    Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is thicker and extends all the way around the reactor.

  17. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  18. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  19. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  20. High flux reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lake, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heath, Russell L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Liebenthal, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R. (Summit, NJ); Leyse, Carl F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parsons, Kent (Idaho Falls, ID); Ryskamp, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wadkins, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fillmore, Gary N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E. (Elk Grove, IL); Crouthamel, Carl E. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  2. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1995-05-02

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor is disclosed whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced. 2 figs.

  3. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  4. Reactor refueling containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes a method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

  5. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Meuschke, Robert E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN THE REACTOR VESSEL OF THE HEAVY WATER COMPONENT TEST REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinson

    2010-01-01

    The Heavy Water Component Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility is a pressurized heavy water reactor that was used to test candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. The reactor operated at nominal power of 50 MW{sub th}. The reactor coolant loop operated at 1200 psig and 250 C. Two isolated test loop were designed into the reactor to provide special

  7. Cascade ICF power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

    1986-05-20

    The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO/sub 2/. The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor.

  8. Standard Operating Procedure (Polypropylene Reactor System)

    E-print Network

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    rotation speed). 2. Prepare the high pressure glass reactor inside of the glove box: a. Fill the reactor, collect the reaction mixture in a glass beaker and add acidic methanol. 8. Clean out and dry the reactor

  9. Argonne National Laboratory's Reactor Performance

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    SHARP Argonne National Laboratory's Reactor Performance and Safety Simulation Suite #12;SHARPcouldsavemillionsinnuclearreactordesignanddevelopment... The Simulation-based High-efficiency Advanced Reactor Prototyping (SHARP) suite of codes'smostpowerfulsupercomputers. Exploiting the power of Argonne Leadership Computing Facility's near-petascale computers, researchers have

  10. ESBWR... An Evolutionary Reactor Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Gamble; David H. Hinds; Steven A. Hucik; Chris E. Maslak

    2006-01-01

    GE's latest evolution of the Boiling Water Reactor, the ESBWR, combines improvements in safety with design simplification and component standardization to produce a safer, more reliable nuclear power plant, with lower projected construction costs than plants in operation today. The ESBWR program started in the early 1990's when GE was developing the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). GE stopped this

  11. BOILING-WATER-REACTOR INSTABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thie

    1958-01-01

    BS>The observed oscillatory behavior of five ANL boiling reactors---the ; Borax I, II, III, IV, and the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor---are described. ; The amplitude, frequency, temperature, and threshold of the oscillation are ; recorded. The kinetic theory of oscillations is illustrated by a simplified ; model using a single series feedback loop and linearized one group kinetic ; equations.

  12. India and Fast Breeder Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. RAMANA

    2009-01-01

    India has long pursued a fast breeder program, motivated in part by the availability of only poor quality uranium resources within the country. But progress so far has been disappointing, with only one test reactor having been constructed and having a chequered operating history. The larger Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor that is being constructed has a design that compromises safety

  13. A NUCLEAR REACTOR SIMULATOR (thesis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1957-01-01

    Since World War II, electronic simulators have played an important role ; in predicting the response of physical systems. Special purpose simulators have ; been developed to solve the nuclear reactor kinetic equations which describe ; power levels. In this thesis a nuclear reactor simulator was designed and ; constructed. It was composed of two major parts, a working model

  14. Neutrino Oscillations with Reactor Neutrinos

    E-print Network

    Anatael Cabrera

    2007-02-22

    Prospect measurements of neutrino oscillations with reactor neutrinos are reviewed in this document. The following items are described: neutrinos oscillations status, reactor neutrino experimental strategy, impact of uncertainties on the neutrino oscillation sensitivity and, finally, the experiments in the field. This is the synthesis of the talk delivered during the NOW2006 conference at Otranto (Italy) during September 2006.

  15. Prospects for spheromak fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Fowler; D. D. Hua

    1995-01-01

    The reactor study of Hagenson and Krakowski demonstrated the attractiveness of the spheromak as a compact fusion reactor, based on physics principles confirmed in CTX experiments in many respects. Most uncertain was the energy confinement time and the role of magnetic turbulence inherent in the concept. In this paper, a one-dimensional model of heat confinement, calibrated by CTX, predicts negligible

  16. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  17. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  18. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-11-08

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream. 1 fig.

  19. Fuel Reformation: Microchannel Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Davis, James M.; Fischer, Christopher M.; King, David L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rawlings, Gregg C.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2005-09-01

    Fuel processing is used to extract hydrogen from conventional vehicle fuel and allow fuel cell powered vehicles to use the existing petroleum fuel infrastructure. Kilowatt scale micro-channel steam reforming, water-gas shift and preferential oxida-tion reactors have been developed capable of achieving DOE required system performance metrics. Use of a microchannel design effectively supplies heat to the highly endothermic steam reforming reactor to maintain high conversions, controls the temperature profile for the exothermic water gas shift reactor, which optimizes the overall reaction conversion, and removes heat to prevent the unwanted hydrogen oxidation in the prefer-ential oxidation reactor. The reactors combined with micro-channel heat exchangers, when scaled to a full sized 50 kWe automotive system, will be less than 21 L in volume and 52 kg in weight.

  20. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  1. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - Zababakhin Institute of Applied Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Square, 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  2. Advanced Reactors Around the World

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Debu

    2003-09-01

    At the end of 2002, 441 nuclear power plants were operating around the globe and providing 17% of the world's electricity. Although the rate of population growth has slowed, recent United Nations data suggest that two billion more people will be added to the world by 2050. A special report commissioned by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that electricity demand would grow almost eight-fold from 2000 to 2050 in a high economic grown scenario and more than double in a low-growth scenario. There is also a global aspiration to keep the environment pristine. Because of these reasons, it is expected that a large number of new nuclear reactors may be operating by 2050. Realization of this has created an impetus for the development of a new generation of reactors in several countries. The goal is to make nuclear power cost-competitive with other resources and to enhance safety to a level that no evacuation outside a plant site would be necessary. It should also generate less waste, prevent materials diversion for weapons production, and be sustainable. This article discusses the status of next-generation reactors under development around the world. Specifically highlighted are efforts related to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and its six reactor concepts for research and development: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR); Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR); Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR); Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR); Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR); and Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). Also highlighted are nuclear activities specific to Russia and India.

  3. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

    1983-10-25

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

  4. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit

    2008-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  5. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  6. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  7. Reactor physics design of supercritical CO?-cooled fast reactors

    E-print Network

    Pope, Michael A. (Michael Alexander)

    2004-01-01

    Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors (GFRs) are among the GEN-IV designs proposed for future deployment. Driven by anticipated plant cost reduction, the use of supercritical CO? (S-CO?) as a Brayton cycle working fluid in a direct ...

  8. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  9. Reactor protection system design alternatives for sodium fast reactors

    E-print Network

    DeWitte, Jacob D. (Jacob Dominic)

    2011-01-01

    Historically, unprotected transients have been viewed as design basis events that can significantly challenge sodium-cooled fast reactors. The perceived potential consequences of a severe unprotected transient in a ...

  10. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  11. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. OHara; J. Higgins; R. Deem; J. Xing; A. DAgostino

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can

  12. Conceptual design study of JSFR reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T.; Katoh, A.; Chikazawa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 4002 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ohya, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Hara, H.; Akiyama, Y. [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc. MFBR, 34-17, Jingumae 2-chome, Shibuya, Tokyo 150-0001 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is planning to adopt the new concepts of reactor building. One is that the steel plate reinforced concrete is adopted for containment vessel and reactor building. The other is the advanced seismic isolation system. This paper describes the detail of new concepts for JSFR reactor building and engineering evaluation of the new concepts. (authors)

  13. Standard Operating Procedure (Microchannel Reactor System)

    E-print Network

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    . 6. Connect the glass reactor to the HPLC pump. 7. Connect the glass reservoir to the outlet to the reaction pressure. 8. Turn on the HPLC pump to start the flow of solvent into the microchannel reactor. 9 toluene to the glass reactor and connect to the HPLC pump. b. Turn on the HPLC pump to purge the reactor

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FLUID FUEL REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1962-01-01

    There are two ineentives for pursuing the development of fluid fuel ; reactors; one short-term, the other long-term. The short-term lncentive is that ; successful fluid fuel reactors should have lower fuel-cyele eosts than any other ; reactor type; hence, to their proponents they look like one of the very few ; reactors which can possibly be economically eompetitive in

  15. Process for handling nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schachtele; L. Thevenot

    1971-01-01

    A process for handling nuclear reactor fuel elements (particularly ; intended for fast sodium cooled nuclear reactors) is presented. The following ; type of reactor is considered: a reactor in which access to the core is gained ; through a single small diameter orifice positioned eccentrically in a first plug ; which is free to rotate about its axis; this

  16. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  17. Novel photocatalytic reactor for water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay K. Ray; Antonie A. C. M. Beenackers

    1998-01-01

    A novel photocatalytic reactor design for water treatment is characterized by the use of new extremely narrow diameter lamps, thus allowing for much higher surface area for catalyst coating per unit reactor volume and consequently for much higher specific reactor capacity. Experiments in a reactor containing 21 novel U-shaped lamps coated with catalyst showed a 695% increase in efficiency of

  18. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring

  19. Nuclear reactor including a reactor vessel and technique for supporting the latter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Cook; W. H. Dauterman; J. V. Facha

    1982-01-01

    A pool type nuclear reactor including a number of reactor components located within a vertically extending cavity which is located under a reactor deck arrangement and which is defined by a circumferential cavity wall assembly is disclosed herein. The reactor also includes a reactor vessel separate and distinct from the deck arrangement and the cavity wall assembly for containing the

  20. University Reactor Matching Grants Program

    SciTech Connect

    John Valentine; Farzad Rahnema; Said Abdel-Khalik

    2003-02-14

    During the 2002 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE matching grant program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors, have been used to support research in the area of thermal-hydraulics. Both experimental and numerical research projects have been performed. Experimental research focused on two areas: (1) Identification of the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors under prototypical reactor conditions, and (2) Fluid dynamic aspects of thin liquid film protection schemes for inertial fusion reactor chambers. Numerical research focused on two areas: (1) Multi-fluid modeling of both two-phase and two-component flows for steam conditioning and mist cooling applications, and (2) Modeling of bounded Rayleigh-Taylor instability with interfacial mass transfer and fluid injection through a porous wall simulating the ''wetted wall'' protection scheme in inertial fusion reactor chambers. Details of activities in these areas are given.

  1. Interfacial effects in fast reactors

    E-print Network

    Saidi, Mohammad Said

    1979-01-01

    The problem of increased resonance capture rates near zone interfaces in fast reactor media has been examined both theoretically and experimentally. An interface traversing assembly was designed, constructed and employed ...

  2. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  3. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  4. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  5. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  6. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, Gary D. (Richland, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA); Kurosky, Randal P. (Maple Valley, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  7. Reactor physics project final report

    E-print Network

    Driscoll, Michael J.

    1970-01-01

    This is the final report in an experimental and theoretical program to develop and apply single- and few-element methods for the determination of reactor lattice parameters. The period covered by the report is January 1, ...

  8. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  9. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  10. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research were undertaken: (1) establishing the design and safety-related basis via neutronic and reactor control assessments with the graphite foam as heat transfer medium; (2) evaluating the thermal performance of the graphite foam for heat removal, reactor stability, reactor operations, and overall core thermal characteristics; (3) characterizing the physical properties of the graphite foam under normal and irradiated conditions to determine any effects on structure, dimensional stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion; and (4) developing a power conversion system design to match the reactor operating parameters.

  11. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. Peinado; S. L. Koutz

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at

  12. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  13. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1983-02-01

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

  14. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  15. Reactor for preparing uranium trioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuels, such as uranium trioxide, are prepared by thermal decomposition of a nitrate in a fluidized bed reactor. The fluidized bed reactor for preparing uranium trioxide from uranyl nitrate by thermal decomposition has (a) a rectangularly shaped bed which satisfies the critical safety shape of ²³⁵U, (b) plural holes to supply an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate into the

  16. Reactor Simulator Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Test Objectives Summary: a) Verify operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation & control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. b) Examine cooling & heat regeneration performance of the cold trap purification. c) Test the ALIP pump at voltages beyond 120V to see if the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s can be obtained in the RxSim. Testing Highlights: a) Gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively for operations (NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain). b) Instrumentation & Control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings and ramped within prescribed constraints. It effectively interacted with reactor simulator control model and defaulted back to temperature control mode if the transient fluctuations didn't dampen. c) Cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the minimum temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. d) ALIP produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  17. Reactor Simulator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  18. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Upton, Hubert A. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  19. Solar solids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  20. Reactor shroud joint

    DOEpatents

    Ballas, G.J.; Fife, A.B.; Ganz, I.

    1998-04-07

    A shroud for a nuclear reactor is described. In one embodiment, the shroud includes first and second shroud sections, and each shroud section includes a substantially cylindrical main body having a first end and a second end. With respect to each shroud section, a flange is located at the main body first end, and the flange has a plurality of bolt openings therein and a plurality of scalloped regions. The first shroud section is welded to the second shroud section, and at least some of the bolt openings in the first shroud section flange align with respective bolt openings in the second shroud section flange. In the event that the onset of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking is ever detected in the weld between the shroud section, bolts are inserted through bolt openings in the first shroud section flange and through aligned bolt openings the second shroud section flange. Each bolt, in one embodiment, has a shank section and first and second threaded end sections. Nuts are threadedly engaged to the threaded end sections and tightened against the respective flanges. 4 figs.

  1. Solar solids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  2. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  3. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  4. Reactor shroud joint

    DOEpatents

    Ballas, Gary J. (San Jose, CA); Fife, Alex Blair (San Jose, CA); Ganz, Israel (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A shroud for a nuclear reactor is described. In one embodiment, the shroud includes first and second shroud sections, and each shroud section includes a substantially cylindrical main body having a first end and a second end. With respect to each shroud section, a flange is located at the main body first end, and the flange has a plurality of bolt openings therein and a plurality of scalloped regions. The first shroud section is welded to the second shroud section, and at least some of the bolt openings in the first shroud section flange align with respective bolt openings in the second shroud section flange. In the event that the onset of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking is ever detected in the weld between the shroud section, bolts are inserted through bolt openings in the first shroud section flange and through aligned bolt openings the second shroud section flange. Each bolt, in one embodiment, has a shank section and first and second threaded end sections. Nuts are threadedly engaged to the threaded end sections and tightened against the respective flanges.

  5. When Do Commercial Reactors Permanently Shut Down?

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    For those wishing to obtain current data, the following resources are available: U.S. reactors, go to the Energy Information Administration's nuclear reactor shutdown list. (Note: As of April 30, 2010, the last U.S. reactor to permanently shut down was Big Rock Point in 1997.) Foreign Reactors, go to the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) on the International Atomic Energy Agency's website.

  6. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOEpatents

    Ehrke, Alan C. (San Jose, CA); Knepp, John B. (San Jose, CA); Skoda, George I. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  7. 56. ARAII. View inside reactor building looking at SL1 reactor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. ARA-II. View inside reactor building looking at SL-1 reactor vessel. November 19, 1957. Ineel photo no. 57-5864. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Reactor Simulator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  9. UCLA program in reactor studies: The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of tokamak reactors with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Four ARIES visions are currently planned for the ARIES program. The ARIES-1 design is a DT-burning reactor based on modest'' extrapolations from the present tokamak physics database and relies on either existing technology or technology for which trends are already in place, often in programs outside fusion. ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 are DT-burning reactors which will employ potential advances in physics. The ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs employ the same plasma core but have two distinct fusion power core designs; ARIES-2 utilize the lithium as the coolant and breeder and vanadium alloys as the structural material while ARIES-4 utilizes helium is the coolant, solid tritium breeders, and SiC composite as the structural material. Lastly, the ARIES-3 is a conceptual D-{sup 3}He reactor. During the period Dec. 1, 1990 to Nov. 31, 1991, most of the ARIES activity has been directed toward completing the technical work for the ARIES-3 design and documenting the results and findings. We have also completed the documentation for the ARIES-1 design and presented the results in various meetings and conferences. During the last quarter, we have initiated the scoping phase for ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs.

  10. International Research Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leopando, Leonardo [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Warnecke, Ernst [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-01-15

    Many research reactors have been or will be shut down and are candidates for decommissioning. Most of the respective countries neither have a decommissioning policy nor the required expertise and funds to effectively implement a decommissioning project. The IAEA established the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P) to help answer this need. It was agreed to involve the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) as model reactor to demonstrate 'hands-on' experience as it is just starting the decommissioning process. Other facilities may be included in the project as they fit into the scope of R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P and complement to the PRR-1 decommissioning activities. The key outcome of the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P will be the decommissioning of the PRR-1 reactor. On the way to this final goal the preparation of safety related documents (i.e., decommissioning plan, environmental impact assessment, safety analysis report, health and safety plan, cost estimate, etc.) and the licensing process as well as the actual dismantling activities could provide a model to other countries involved in the project. It is expected that the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P would initiate activities related to planning and funding of decommissioning activities in the participating countries if that has not yet been done.

  11. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  12. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lukic, Zarija [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Masuda, Koji [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Perry, John O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  13. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  14. On fast reactor kinetics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Seleznev, E. F.; Belov, A. A. [Nuclear Safety Inst. of the Russian Academy of Sciences IBRAE (Russian Federation); Matveenko, I. P.; Zhukov, A. M.; Raskach, K. F. [Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering IPPE (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The results and the program of fast reactor core time and space kinetics experiments performed and planned to be performed at the IPPE critical facility is presented. The TIMER code was taken as computation support of the experimental work, which allows transient equations to be solved in 3-D geometry with multi-group diffusion approximation. The number of delayed neutron groups varies from 6 to 8. The code implements the solution of both transient neutron transfer problems: a direct one, where neutron flux density and its derivatives, such as reactor power, etc, are determined at each time step, and an inverse one for the point kinetics equation form, where such a parameter as reactivity is determined with a well-known reactor power time variation function. (authors)

  15. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  16. Reactor dosimetry. ASTM STP 1228

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, H. IV; Lippincott, E.P.; Williams, J.G.; Vehar, D.W. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    Important advances have been made over the past three decades in neutron and gamma physics and dosimetry. Most of this has been done in support of reactor development programs and the enhanced understanding of radiation damage to reactor fuels, materials, and components. The eighth symposium provided an update of the field of reactor dosimetry. Experts were specifically invited to discuss their latest results under the broad theme of dosimetry for the correlation of radiation effects. This volume has been divided into the following sections: pressure vessel surveillance dosimetry; neutron dosimetry techniques--passive; neutron dosimetry techniques--active; benchmarks; gamma-ray dosimetry techniques; radiation field characterization; nuclear data; and high energy neutron dosimetry. Separate abstracts were prepared for 75 papers in this book.

  17. Prospects for toroidal fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J. D.

    1994-06-01

    Work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak has refined understanding of the realities of a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning magnetic fusion reactor. An ITER-like tokamak reactor using ITER costs and performance would lead to a cost of electricity (COE) of about 130 mills/kWh. Advanced tokamak physics to be tested in the Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX), coupled with moderate components in engineering, technology, and unit costs, should lead to a COE comparable with best existing fission systems around 60 mills/kWh. However, a larger unit size, approximately 2000 MW(e), is favored for the fusion system. Alternative toroidal configurations to the conventional tokamak, such as the stellarator, reversed-field pinch, and field-reversed configuration, offer some potential advantage, but are less well developed, and have their own challenges.

  18. Reactor for preparing uranium trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, K.

    1983-08-16

    Nuclear fuels, such as uranium trioxide, are prepared by thermal decomposition of a nitrate in a fluidized bed reactor. The fluidized bed reactor for preparing uranium trioxide from uranyl nitrate by thermal decomposition has (a) a rectangularly shaped bed which satisfies the critical safety shape of /sup 235/U, (b) plural holes to supply an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate into the reactor, (c) at least two reaction rooms divided by barriers, the bottoms of the barriers being capable of being lifted to control their distance from the floor and a mechanism by which uranium trioxide powder is taken out mainly by being overflowed from the top of the barriers through the reaction rooms, (d) heating means inside and outside of the fluidized-bed, and (e) a head structure which is upwardly V-shaped. Continuous operation can be attained with ease, and uranium trioxide can be made efficiently.

  19. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  20. SP-100 space reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

  1. From CANDLE reactor to pebble-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X. N.; Maschek, W. [Inst. for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O.B. 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper attempts to reveal theoretically, by studying a diffusion-burn-up coupled neutronic model, that a so-called CANDLE reactor and a pebble-bed type reactor have a common burn-up feature. As already known, a solitary burn-up wave that can develop in the common U-Pu and Th-U conversion processes is the basic mechanism of the CANDLE reactor. In this paper it is demonstrated that a family of burn-up wave solution exists in the boundary value problem characterizing a pebble bed reactor, in which the fuel is loaded from above into the core and unloaded from bottom. Among this solution family there is a particular case, namely, a partial solitary wave solution, which begins from the fuel entrance side and extends into infinity on the exit side, and has a maximal bum-up rate in this family. An example dealing with the {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U conversion chain is studied and the solutions are presented in order to show the mechanism of the burn-up wave. (authors)

  2. Computational Analysis of Fluid Flow in Pebble Bed Modular Reactor

    E-print Network

    Gandhir, Akshay

    2012-10-19

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a Generation IV reactor under consideration by Department of Energy and in the nuclear industry. There are two categories of HTGRs, namely, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and Prismatic reactor. Pebble...

  3. 77 FR 60039 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...Manager, Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch...Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation...September 2012. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Chief, Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch...Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor...

  4. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  5. Fuel elements of research reactors in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yongmao, Z.; Dianshan, C.; Guofang, Q.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of design, fabrication of fuel elements for research reactors in China, emphasis is placed on the technology of fuel elements for the High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR).

  6. Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500°C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

  7. Feedstock conversion in cocurrent-flow reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Livshits, R.S.; Kornilova, O.P.; Marchenko, N.M.

    1982-11-01

    Reports on an investigation of the operation of cocurrentflow reactors of the semiopen type, with either upflow or downflow of the gas/vapor/catalyst mixture. Uses a vacuum gasoil from Romashkino crude as the feedstock. Finds that in an upflow reactor, most of the feed is converted in the first part of the reactor, in one-third of its total height; in the downflow reactor, the feed conversion takes place throughout the entire reactor height, but most of the conversion is achieved in the final part of the reactor. Concludes that feedstock conversion in cocurrent-flow reactors is not proportional to the height (position in the reactor), but that the conversion level depends on the direction of flow of the gas/vapor/catalyst mixture.

  8. International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken a program to lay the groundwork for defining proactive actions to manage degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs). This article discusses the international forum for reactor aging management.

  9. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  10. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-09-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

  11. Microfluidic reactors for the synthesis of nanocrystals

    E-print Network

    Yen, Brian K. H

    2007-01-01

    Several microfluidic reactors were designed and applied to the synthesis of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). Initially, a simple single-phase capillary reactor was used for the synthesis of CdSe NCs. Precursors ...

  12. RACEWAY REACTOR FOR MICROALGAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed mathematical model incorporating mass transfer, hydraulics, carbonate/aquatic chemistry, biokinetics, biology and reactor design will be calibrated and validated using the data to be generated from the experiments. The practical feasibility of the proposed reactor...

  13. Digital computer operation of a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Colley, R.W.

    1982-06-29

    A method is described for the safe operation of a complex system such as a nuclear reactor using a digital computer. The computer is supplied with a data base containing a list of the safe state of the reactor and a list of operating instructions for achieving a safe state when the actual state of the reactor does not correspond to a listed safe state, the computer selects operating instructions to return the reactor to a safe state.

  14. Digital computer operation of a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Colley, Robert W. (Richland, WA)

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for the safe operation of a complex system such as a nuclear reactor using a digital computer. The computer is supplied with a data base containing a list of the safe state of the reactor and a list of operating instructions for achieving a safe state when the actual state of the reactor does not correspond to a listed safe state, the computer selects operating instructions to return the reactor to a safe state.

  15. Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koki Hibi; Hitoi Ono; Takashi Kanagawa

    2004-01-01

    Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) has been developed as one of the advanced small-scale light water reactors, with a thermal output of 1000MW. The IMR adopts natural circulation and self-pressurization in the primary cooling system, and a reactor vessel built-in steam generators. The core design has been performed using the current light water reactor technology. Thermal-hydraulic sensitivity analyses have been

  16. Designing the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.

    1987-02-09

    The primary goal in designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors is to produce electrical power as inexpensively as possible, with minimum activation and without compromising safety. This paper discusses a method for designing the Cascade rotating ceramic-granule-blanket reactor (Pitts, 1985) and its associated power plant (Pitts and Maya, 1985). Although focus is on the cascade reactor, the design method and issues presented are applicable to most other ICF reactors.

  17. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  18. European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) plant

    SciTech Connect

    Posta, B.A.; Goldenberg, E.A.; Sawhney, P.S. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, A.S. [General Electric Nuclear Engineering, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper covers innovative ideas which made possible the redesign of the US 660-MW Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Reactor Island for a 1,200-MW size reactor while actually reducing the building cost. This was achieved by breaking down the Reactor Island into multiple buildings separating seismic-1 from non-seismic-1 areas, providing for better space utilization, shorter construction schedule, easier maintainability and better postaccident accessibility.

  19. REACTOR: An Expert System for Diagnosis and Treatment of Nuclear Reactor Accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Nelson

    1982-01-01

    REACTOR is an expert system under development at EG&G Idaho, Inc., that will assist operators in the diagnosis and treatment of nuclear reactor accidents. This paper covers the background of the nuclear industry and why expert system tech- nology may prove valuable in the reactor control room. Some of the basic features of the REACTOR system are discussed, and future

  20. Research reactor standards and their impact on the TRIGA reactor community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society has established a standards committee devoted to writing standards for research reactors. This committee was formed in 1971 and has since that time written over 15 standards that cover all aspects of research reactor operation. The committee has representation from virtually every group concerned with research reactors and their operation. This organization includes University reactors, National

  1. Fusion reactors as a future energy source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Seifritz

    1975-01-01

    A detailed update of fusion research concepts is given. Discussions are given for the following areas: (1) the magnetic confinement principle, (2) UWMAK I: conceptual design for a fusion reactor, (3) the inertial confinement principle, (4) the laser fusion power plant, (5) electron-induced fusion, (6) the long-term development potential of fusion reactors, (7) the symbiosis between fusion and fission reactors,

  2. SWR 1000: The Innovative Boiling Water Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Brettschuh; Greg Hudson

    2004-01-01

    Framatome ANP has developed the boiling water reactor SWR 1000 in close cooperation with German nuclear utilities and with support from various European partners. This advanced reactor design marks a new era in the successful tradition of boiling water reactor technology and, with a gross electric output of between 1290 and 1330 MW, is aimed at assuring competitive power generating

  3. Simplified boiling water reactor passive safety features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Upton; F. E. Cooke; J. K. Sawabe

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the system functions and related hardware of key passive safety features of the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR). The SBWR is a nominal 600-MW(electric) BWR that incorporates simplified systems and passive emergency equipment to enhance reactor operability and safety in an economical design that can be rapidly constructed. The SBWR reactor system is based on a nuclear

  4. Search for other natural fission reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Apt; J. P. Balagna; E. A. Bryant; G. A. Cowan; W. R. Daniels; R. J. Vidale

    1977-01-01

    Precambrian uranium ores have been surveyed for evidence of other natural fission reactors. The requirements for formation of a natural reactor direct investigations to uranium deposits with large, high-grade ore zones. Massive zones with volumes approximately greater than 1 m³ and concentrations approximately greater than 20 percent uranium are likely places for a fossil reactor if they are approximately greater

  5. The Reactor An ObjectOriented Framework

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    between select and WaitForMultipleObjects 2. Reactor portability -- The modularity of the internal OOThe Reactor An Object­Oriented Framework for Event Demultiplexing and Event Handler Dispatching Douglas C. Schmidt 1 Overview ffl The Reactor is an object­oriented frame­ work that encapsulates OS event

  6. Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion

    E-print Network

    Jumars, Pete

    of reactants into and products out of the reaction vessel. Composition at any point within the reactorJ 310 Chemical Reactor Analysis and Optimal Digestion An optimal digestion theory can be readily derived from basic principles o f chemical reactor analysis and design Deborah L. Penry and Peter

  7. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt

  8. METHODS OF MEASURING TEMPERATURE IN NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Jr

    1963-01-01

    The safe operation of high-power nuclear reactors depends upon the ; accurate measurement of temperatures of their components. Temperature ; measurement devices are affected by nuclear radiation, heat flux, and other ; conditions which exist in nuclear reactors. Thermocouples are used in reactors ; more than other methods because of their small size, remote output and relative ; insensitivity to

  9. Photocatalytic reactors: design for effective air purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Birnie; Saffa Riffat; Mark Gillott

    2006-01-01

    This report is intended to review existing photocatalytic reactors as used in research and commercial applications. The guiding principles of effective reactor design are discussed, stressing the challenges faced by design teams. An account of specific reactor designs is given, highlighting innovative work and novel concepts. A concerted effort has been made to draw information from a wide variety of

  10. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  11. Experimental reactor for analysing biomass combustion properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Recman

    The objective of the present contribution is to summarise the main parameters of a new- generation experimental grate combustion reactor. The conclusions are based on a review of the main properties and construction details of existing grate combustion reactors. Grate combustion reactors are used for the collection of data necessary for detailed modelling of grate combustion of solid biomass fuels,

  12. Random Fluctuations in a Nuclear Fission Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Kemeny; Samaun

    1961-01-01

    THE theory of the stochastic dynamics of a nuclear fission reactor has been formulated by Moore1. The present investigation is concerned with the measurement of time-dependent reactor parameters, using a spectral analysis technique and the formulation of both theory and experiment for the correlation analysis and measurement of spatially dependent reactor parameters.

  13. POWER CALIBRATION OF THE SANDIA PULSED REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Snyder; W. E. Taylor

    1963-01-01

    The power recording instruments of the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR) were ; calibrated at low-power (0.1 to 2.5 watts), continuous operation with the reactor ; at the outdoor site. A boron-trifluoride neutron detector in a moderator of ; paraffin was used to compare the intensity of an NBS reference neutron source and ; the recorded neutron intensity of the reactor

  14. CLOSED-CYCLE WATER-BOILER REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1962-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a liquid homogeneous reactor ; providing ultimate protection of the surrounding area against radioactive ; contamination are described. The reactor system is comprised of a water boiler ; reactor having a water solution of enriched uranyl nitrate for a core, hydrogen-; oxygen recombiner system, nitrogen-oxygen recombiner system, sealed closed cycle ; gas recirculating system operating

  15. THE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziegler

    1962-01-01

    The 50-Mw electrical multi-purpose research reactor being built at the ; Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center is a heavy-water pressurized reactor. The ; construction of the entire installation and of the planned experimental ; facilities is described. In order to assess the economic possibilities of this ; reactor, an attempt is made to show, with the aid of an arnual balance

  16. Compact reactor\\/ORC power source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Meier; W. L. Kirchner; G. J. Willcutt

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor\\/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite

  17. NERVA Reactor Based on NRX A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1963 shows a proposed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) incorporating the NRX-A1, the first NERVA-type cold flow reactor. The NERVA engine, based on Kiwi nuclear reactor technology, was intended to power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  18. METHANE COUPLING USING CATALYTIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaomin Liu; Xiaoyao Tan; K. Li; R. Hughes

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to provide readers with an extensive account on methane-coupling reactions performed in membrane reactors available in literature up to 2000. The principles, advantages or disadvantages, and crucial problems of all kinds of membrane reactors used in methane coupling are discussed. Some areas such as solid oxide membrane reactors for methane oxidative coupling are

  19. James P. Mosquera Director, Reactor Plant Components

    E-print Network

    . These include Director, Reactor Plant Components and Auxiliary Equipment (current assignment); Program ManagerJames P. Mosquera Director, Reactor Plant Components and Auxiliary Equipment Naval Sea Systems working for the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (a.k.a. Naval Reactors). This program is a joint

  20. Petascale algorithms for reactor hydrodynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.; Lottes, J.; Pointer, W. D.; Siegel, A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); ( NE)

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent algorithmic developments that have enabled large eddy simulations of reactor flows on up to P = 65, 000 processors on the IBM BG/P at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. Petascale computing is expected to play a pivotal role in the design and analysis of next-generation nuclear reactors. Argonne's SHARP project is focused on advanced reactor simulation, with a current emphasis on modeling coupled neutronics and thermal-hydraulics (TH). The TH modeling comprises a hierarchy of computational fluid dynamics approaches ranging from detailed turbulence computations, using DNS (direct numerical simulation) and LES (large eddy simulation), to full core analysis based on RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) and subchannel models. Our initial study is focused on LES of sodium-cooled fast reactor cores. The aim is to leverage petascale platforms at DOE's Leadership Computing Facilities (LCFs) to provide detailed information about heat transfer within the core and to provide baseline data for less expensive RANS and subchannel models.

  1. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  2. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1998-06-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  3. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1998-04-14

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  4. Computer aided nuclear reactor modeling

    E-print Network

    Warraich, Khalid Sarwar

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear reactor modeling is an important activity that lets us analyze existing as well as proposed systems for safety, correct operation, etc. The quality of a analysis is directly proportional to the quality of the model used. In this work we look...

  5. Liquid sodium cooled fast reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Gama; J. Lallement; L. Pugnet

    1977-01-01

    A set of cylindrical shells is interposed between the main vessel wall of an integrated sodium-cooled fast reactor and the primary core containment vessel so as to form a siphon having two downwardly directed branches. One branch opens into the intervessel zone which is separated from the primary vessel by a shell. The other branch which is nearest the main

  6. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather R. Luckarift

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the applicability and versatility of immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) for chemical and biochemical synthesis and analysis. The majority of IMER systems rely on enzymes immobilized to packed matrices within flow-through devices. This review focuses primarily on the use of silica as a support for enzyme immobilization and specific applications of the resulting silica-based IMERs. A number

  7. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1995-11-07

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  8. Turbulence may sink titanic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glanz, J.

    1996-12-06

    The $10 billion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project is meant to show that fusion is a practical energy source, but a new set of calculations says ITER will fizzle. This article describes the expectations and the projections about its future, as well as the challenges recently mounted using new calculations. 3 figs.

  9. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  10. Rationale for university research reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    University research reactors (URRs), of which 36 are currently operating, have been declining in number, at the rate of â¼ 2\\/yr, since the mid-1980s. This decrease is often attributed to the continuing malaise of the nuclear power industry. However, such reasoning is specious because, while many URRs do provide training to prospective power plant operators, few, if any, were constructed

  11. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1996-04-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  12. INVESTIGATIONS WITH MERCURY FLOW REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the research performed in the Mercury Flow Reactor is to investigate short residence-time (seconds) adsorption of mercury species using different sorbents. Emphasis is placed on the effects of mercury concentration, flow rates, reaction temperatures, exposure ti...

  13. Nuclear reactor safeguards and monitoring with antineutrino detectors A. Bernsteina)

    E-print Network

    Gratta, Giorgio

    Nuclear reactor safeguards and monitoring with antineutrino detectors A. Bernsteina) Sandia of nuclear reactor types, including power reactors, research reactors, and plutonium production reactors-understood principles that govern the core's evolution in time, can be used to determine whether the reactor is being

  14. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  15. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  16. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Olson, A.P.; Wade, D.C.; Robinson, B.W.

    1984-06-05

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion. 8 figs.

  17. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F. (Naperville, IL); Olson, Arne P. (Western Springs, IL); Wade, David C. (Naperville, IL); Robinson, Bryan W. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1984-01-01

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion.

  18. Self isolating high frequency saturable reactor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A. (Powell, TN)

    1998-06-23

    The present invention discloses a saturable reactor and a method for decoupling the interwinding capacitance from the frequency limitations of the reactor so that the equivalent electrical circuit of the saturable reactor comprises a variable inductor. The saturable reactor comprises a plurality of physically symmetrical magnetic cores with closed loop magnetic paths and a novel method of wiring a control winding and a RF winding. The present invention additionally discloses a matching network and method for matching the impedances of a RF generator to a load. The matching network comprises a matching transformer and a saturable reactor.

  19. Neutrino Mixing Discriminates Geo-reactor Models

    E-print Network

    S. T. Dye

    2009-05-16

    Geo-reactor models suggest the existence of natural nuclear reactors at different deep-earth locations with loosely defined output power. Reactor fission products undergo beta decay with the emission of electron antineutrinos, which routinely escape the earth. Neutrino mixing distorts the energy spectrum of the electron antineutrinos. Characteristics of the distorted spectrum observed at the earth's surface could specify the location of a geo-reactor, discriminating the models and facilitating more precise power measurement. The existence of a geo-reactor with known position could enable a precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter delta-mass-squared.

  20. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Idaho Falls, ID); West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a fety control rod to desired positions within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump/motor, an electric gear motor, and solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

  1. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, N S

    2008-09-07

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  2. Savannah River Site production reactor technical specifications. K Production Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    These technical specifications are explicit restrictions on the operation of the Savannah River Site K Production Reactor. They are designed to preserve the validity of the plant safety analysis by ensuring that the plant is operated within the required conditions bounded by the analysis, and with the operable equipment that is assumed to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Technical specifications preserve the primary success path relied upon to detect and respond to accidents. This report describes requirements on thermal-hydraulic limits; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance for the reactor, power distribution control, instrumentation, process water system, emergency cooling and emergency shutdown systems, confinement systems, plant systems, electrical systems, components handling, and special test exceptions; design features; and administrative controls.

  3. CONSOLIDATED EDISON THORIUM REACTOR-REACTOR VESSEL INTERNAL COMPONENTS DESIGN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ficor; D. M. Collings; R. J. Sandrock; D. D. Kalen

    1960-01-01

    The design functions and fabrication details for internal components of ;\\u000a the CETR are presented and pertinent analytical stress studies are summarized. ;\\u000a Functions of the internal components include proper orientation and support for ;\\u000a the fuel elements, proper distribution of primary coolant within the reactor ;\\u000a vessel, and the establishment of guide channels for the control rods. (J.R.D.)

  4. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie; Terai, Takayuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Muroya, Yusa; Abe, Hiroaki [Nuclear Professional School / Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokaimura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan); Mori, Hideo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan); Akiba, Masato; Akimoto, Hajime; Okumura, Keisuke; Akasaka, Naoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); GOTO, Shoji [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is not breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)

  5. Safety control circuit for a neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Ellsworth, Howard C. (Richland, WA)

    2004-04-27

    A neutronic reactor comprising an active portion containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy, means to control a neutronic chain reaction within the reactor comprising a safety device and a regulating device, a safety device including means defining a vertical channel extending into the reactor from an aperture in the upper surface of the reactor, a rod containing neutron-absorbing materials slidably disposed within the channel, means for maintaining the safety rod in a withdrawn position relative to the active portion of the reactor including means for releasing said rod on actuation thereof, a hopper mounted above the active portion of the reactor having a door disposed at the bottom of the hopper opening into the vertical channel, a plurality of bodies of neutron-absorbing materials disposed within the hopper, and means responsive to the failure of the safety rod on actuation thereof to enter the active portion of the reactor for opening the door in the hopper.

  6. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOEpatents

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  7. Fission fragment assisted reactor concept for space propulsion: Foil reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is to fabricate a reactor using thin films or foils of uranium, uranium oxide and then to coat them on substrates. These coatings would be made so thin as to allow the escaping fission fragments to directly heat a hydrogen propellant. The idea was studied of direct gas heating and direct gas pumping in a nuclear pumped laser program. Fission fragments were used to pump lasers. In this concept two substrates are placed opposite each other. The internal faces are coated with thin foil of uranium oxide. A few of the advantages of this technology are listed. In general, however, it is felt that if one look at all solid core nuclear thermal rockets or nuclear thermal propulsion methods, one is going to find that they all pretty much look the same. It is felt that this reactor has higher potential reliability. It has low structural operating temperatures, very short burn times, with graceful failure modes, and it has reduced potential for energetic accidents. Going to a design like this would take the NTP community part way to some of the very advanced engine designs, such as the gas core reactor, but with reduced risk because of the much lower temperatures.

  8. Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, K.R. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Trinh, T.Q. [Nuclear Facility Operations, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 0614, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Luker, S. M. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

  9. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  10. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

  11. Microwave coupling in EBT reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Uckan, T.; Dandl, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    For a typical size ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor (approx. 1000 MWe), microwave frequencies required lie in the range of 60 to 110 GHz at power levels of 50 to 75 MW. As the frequency rises, the unloaded cavity (i.e., without plasma) quality factor Q decreases. Because of the short wavelengths of microwave heating power and the large cavity dimensions of a reactor, it is possible to apply quasi-optical principles in the efficient coupling of power to the plasma. The use of a confocal Fabry-Perot resonator with spherical mirrors is discussed; these serve to confine the microwave power to the region occupied by the plasma. The potential advantages of these resonators include high efficiency utilization of microwave power, minimal thermal burden on the cryopumping system, and significant benefit in preventing microwave leakage from the device. An estimation of the unloaded cavity quality factor Q and the design considerations of Fabry-Perot resonator are given.

  12. Low power unattended defense reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, W.L.; Meier, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, walk-away safe design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (O and M) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System.

  13. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  14. Operate Your Own Tokamak Reactor!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stotler, Daren.

    Princeton University's Plasma Physics Laboratory's Interactive Plasma Physics Education Experience Web site has updated its interactive Virtual Tokamak. The Java applet is designed to illustrate the basic principles of magnetically confined fusion, and users can now type in the three parameters that include the heating power, magnetic field, and plasma density. Although the applet doesn't work on older PCs, older browsers, and on most Macs, it's worth finding a newer PC to interactively learn about these specific types of reactors.

  15. Stijgstroomslibbed reactor voor anaërobe zuivering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lettinga

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to an upflow sludge-bed reactor for anaerobic purification with a feed distribution system (2), a fermentation room (1) and a gas collector-sludge separation device (3, 6), whereby for improvement of the sludge-water contact at least a sheet, fleece, cloth and\\/or diaphragm (5) is suspended in the fermentation room. The sheet, fleece, cloth and\\/or diaphragm has preferably a

  16. The Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane Kennedy; Robert Robinson

    2004-01-01

    The 20-MW Australian Replacement Research Reactor represents possibly the greatest single research infrastructure investment in Australia's history. Construction of the facility has commenced, following award of the construction contract in July 2000, and the construction licence in April 2002. The project includes a large state-of-the-art liquid deuterium cold-neutron source and supermirror guides feeding a large modern guide hall, in which

  17. Microstructured reactors for catalytic reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker; Albert Renken

    2005-01-01

    This review addresses the catalytic reactions performed in microstructured reactors, which are more and more recognized in recent years as a novel approach for chemistry and chemical process industry. They are particularly suited for highly exothermic and fast reactions allowing temperature control and isothermal operation. A brief evaluation of the advantages for gas-phase, liquid-phase, and gas–liquid–solid reactions carried out in

  18. Launch of Russian reactor postponed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-05

    Astronomers and weapons scientists seemed heated on a collision course a few months ago over the military's plans to send a Russian nuclear reactor into space. But an agreement reached in late January has prevented a pile-up, at least for 6 months. The astronomers, led by Donald Lamb of the University of Chicago, were objecting to plans by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) to launch Topaz 2, an experimental Russian nuclear reactor, arguing that rogue particles from it might ruin sensitive gamma ray experiments. The reactor is designed to propel itself in space with a jet of xenon ions. One worry was that leaking gamma rays and positrons, which can travel in the earth's magnetic field and pop up in the darndest places, might cause false signals in gamma ray monitors (Science, 18 December 1992, p. 1878). The worry has abated now that SDI officials will postpone choosing a rocket and mission altitutde for Topaz 2 for 6 months, while experts study how its emissions at various altitudes might affect instruments aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory and other satellites. In effect, the SDIO has agreed to an environmental impact study for space, following an unusual meeting organized by former Russian space official Roald Sagdeev at the University of Maryland on 19 January. There the Russian designers of Topaz 2, its new owners at the SDIO, and critics in the astronomy community achieved common ground: that more study was needed.

  19. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  20. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  1. Russian RBMK reactor design information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document concerns the systems, design, and operations of the graphite-moderated, boiling, water-cooled, channel-type (RBMK) reactors located in the former Soviet Union (FSU). The Russian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Safety Institute (NSI) in Moscow, Russia, researched specific technical questions that were formulated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and provided detailed technical answers to those questions. The Russian response was prepared in English by NSI in a question-and-answer format. This report presents the results of that technical exchange in the context they were received from the NSI organization. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is generating this document to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) community in responding to requests from FSU states, which are seeking Western technological and financial assistance to improve the safety systems of the Russian-designed reactors. This report expands upon information that was previously available to the United States through bilateral information exchanges, international nuclear society meetings, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reactor safety programs, and Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) reports. The response to the PNL questions have not been edited or reviewed for technical consistency or accuracy by PNL staff or other US organizations, but are provided for use by the DOE community in the form they were received.

  2. Computational geometry for reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F.B.; Bischoff, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes for simulating particle transport involve three basic computational sections: a geometry package for locating particles and computing distances to regional boundaries, a physics package for analyzing interactions between particles and problem materials, and an editing package for determining event statistics and overall results. This paper describes the computational geometry methods in RACER, a vectorized Monte Carlo code used for reactor physics analysis, so that comparisons may be made with techniques used in other codes. The principal applications for RACER are eigenvalue calculations and power distributions associated with reactor core physics analysis. Successive batches of neutrons are run until convergence and acceptable confidence intervals are obtained, with typical problems involving >10{sup 6} histories. As such, the development of computational geometry methods has emphasized two basic needs: a flexible but compact geometric representation that permits accurate modeling of reactor core details and efficient geometric computation to permit very large numbers of histories to be run. The current geometric capabilities meet these needs effectively, supporting a variety of very large and demanding applications.

  3. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  4. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Fiorentini, Giovanni; Mantovani, Fabio; Ricci, Barbara; Strati, Virginia; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-03-01

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework, we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO +), and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA, and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation, and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo-based approach, which provides an overall site-dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes, and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of ten years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.

  5. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    E-print Network

    Marica Baldoncini; Ivan Callegari; Giovanni Fiorentini; Fabio Mantovani; Barbara Ricci; Virginia Strati; Gerti Xhixha

    2015-02-16

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO+) and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo based approach, which provides an overall site dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of 10 years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.

  6. Evaluation of in-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling for integral reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R. J.; Lee, J. R.; Kim, S. B.; Jin, Y.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    In-vessel corium retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) for a small integral reactor has been evaluated to determine the thermal margin for the prevention of a reactor vessel failure. A thermal load analysis from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel wall in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel has been performed to determine the heat flux distribution. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the outer reactor vessel wall has been determined to fix the maximum heat removal rate through the external coolant between the outer reactor vessel and the insulation of the reactor vessel. Finally, the thermal margin has been evaluated by comparison of the thermal load with the maximum heat removal rate of the CHF on the outer reactor vessel wall. The maximum heat flux from the corium pool to the outer reactor vessel is estimated at approximately 0.25 MW/m{sup 2} in the metallic layer because of the focusing effect. The CHF of the outer reactor vessel is approximately 1.1 MW/m{sup 2} because of a two phase natural circulation mass flow. Since the thermal margin for the IVR-ERVC is sufficient, the reactor vessel integrity is maintained during a severe accident of a small integral reactor. (authors)

  7. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, D. K.; Coleman, C. E.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G. A.; Theaker, J. R.; Muir, I.; Bahurmuz, A. A.; Lawrence, S. St.; Resta Levi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS, and fracture toughness), and delayed-hydride-cracking properties (crack growth rate Vc, and threshold stress intensity factor, KIH) change with irradiation; the former reach a limiting value at a fluence of <1 × 10 25 n m -2, while Vc and KIH reach a steady-state condition after a fluence of about 3 × 10 25 n m -2 and 3 × 10 24 n m -2, respectively. At saturation the UTS is raised by about 200 MPa, toughness is reduced to about 40% of its initial value, Vc increases by about a factor of ten while KIH is only slightly reduced. The role of microstructure and trace elements in these behaviours is described. Pressure tubes exhibit elongation and diametral expansion. The deformation behaviour is a function of operating conditions and material properties that vary from tube-to-tube and as a function of axial location. Semi-empirical predictive models have been developed to describe the deformation response of average tubes as a function of operating conditions. For corrosion and, more importantly deuterium pickup, semi-empirical predictive models have also been developed to represent the behaviour of an average tube. The effect of material variability on corrosion behaviour is less well defined compared with other properties. Improvements in manufacturing have increased fracture resistance by minimising trace elements, especially H and Cl, and reduced variability by tightening controls on forming parameters, especially hot-working temperatures.

  8. Jules Horowitz Reactor: a high performance material testing reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iracane, Daniel; Chaix, Pascal; Alamo, Ana

    2008-04-01

    The physical modelling of materials' behaviour under severe conditions is an indispensable element for developing future fission and fusion systems: screening, design, optimisation, processing, licensing, and lifetime assessment of a new generation of structure materials and fuels, which will withstand high fast neutron flux at high in-service temperatures with the production of elements like helium and hydrogen. JANNUS and other analytical experimental tools are developed for this objective. However, a purely analytical approach is not sufficient: there is a need for flexible experiments integrating higher scales and coupled phenomena and offering high quality measurements; these experiments are performed in material testing reactors (MTR). Moreover, complementary representative experiments are usually performed in prototypes or dedicated facilities such as IFMIF for fusion. Only such a consistent set of tools operating on a wide range of scales, can provide an actual prediction capability. A program such as the development of silicon carbide composites (600-1200 °C) illustrates this multiscale strategy. Facing the long term needs of experimental irradiations and the ageing of present MTRs, it was thought necessary to implement a new generation high performance MTR in Europe for supporting existing and future nuclear reactors. The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) project copes with this context. It is funded by an international consortium and will start operation in 2014. JHR will provide improved performances such as high neutron flux ( 10 n/cm/s above 0.1 MeV) in representative environments (coolant, pressure, temperature) with online monitoring of experimental parameters (including stress and strain control). Experimental devices designing, such as high dpa and small thermal gradients experiments, is now a key objective requiring a broad collaboration to put together present scientific state of art, end-users requirements and advanced instrumentation. To cite this article: D. Iracane et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  9. Zirconium Hydride Space Power Reactor design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asquith, J. G.; Mason, D. G.; Stamp, S.

    1972-01-01

    The Zirconium Hydride Space Power Reactor being designed and fabricated at Atomics International is intended for a wide range of potential applications. Throughout the program a series of reactor designs have been evaluated to establish the unique requirements imposed by coupling with various power conversion systems and for specific applications. Current design and development emphasis is upon a 100 kilowatt thermal reactor for application in a 5 kwe thermoelectric space power generating system, which is scheduled to be fabricated and ground tested in the mid 70s. The reactor design considerations reviewed in this paper will be discussed in the context of this 100 kwt reactor and a 300 kwt reactor previously designed for larger power demand applications.

  10. Antineutrino Monitoring for Heavy Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Eric; Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas E.

    2014-07-01

    In this Letter we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a nonproliferation measure. An above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet IAEA verification goals for reactor plutonium inventories. While detectors with the needed spectral sensitivity have been demonstrated below ground, additional research and development is needed to demonstrate an above-ground detector with this same level of sensitivity. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shut down, provided very low detector backgrounds can be achieved. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to reestablish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary.

  11. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-print Network

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  12. Water treatment process for nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Marwan, M.A.; Khattab, M.S.; Hanna, A.N. [AEA, Nuclear Research Center (Egypt)

    1993-12-31

    Water treatment for purification is very important in reactor cooling systems as well as in many industrial applications. Since impurities in water are main source of problems, it is necessary to achieve and maintain high purity of water before utilization in reactor cooling systems. The present work investigates water treatment process for nuclear reactor utilization. Analysis of outwater chemistry proved that demineralizing process is an appropriate method. Extensive experiments were conducted to determine economical concentration of the regenerants to obtain the optimum quantity of pure water which reached to 15 cubic-meter instead of 10 cubic-meter per regeneration. Running cost is consequently decreased by about 30%. Output water chemistry agrees with the recommended specifications for reactor utilization. The radionuclides produced in the primary cooling water due to reactor operation are determined. It is found that 70% of radioactive contaminants are retained by purification through resin of reactor filter. Decontamination factor and filter efficiency are also determined.

  13. Flux and spectrum of reactor antineutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeikin, V. I., E-mail: kopeikin@kiae.ru [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    In order to perform reactor experiments aimed at studying the nature of the neutrino and measurements in the realms of geo- and astrophysical neutrinos and to meet practical requirements in this field, it is highly desirable to obtain deeper insight into the operation of nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos. The fluxes and spectra of neutrinos from a reactor in the on and off modes and from a reservoir intended for storing a spent reactor fuel and situated near the reactor being considered are calculated. Features that are peculiar to the flux and spectrum of reactor antineutrinos and which are of importance for implementing and interpreting experiments, but which were disregarded previously, are analyzed here.

  14. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homeyer, W. G.; Merrill, M. H.; Holland, J. W.; Fisher, C. R.; Allen, D. T.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic reactor designs for a variety of space power applications spanning the range from 5 kWe to 3 MWe are described. In all of these reactors, nuclear heat is converted directly to electrical energy in thermionic fuel elements (TFEs). A circulating reactor coolant carries heat from the core of TFEs directly to a heat rejection radiator system. The recent design of a thermionic reactor to meet the SP-100 requirements is emphasized. Design studies of reactors at other power levels show that the same TFE can be used over a broad range in power, and that design modifications can extend the range to many megawatts. The design of the SP-100 TFE is similar to that of TFEs operated successfully in test reactors, but with design improvements to extend the operating lifetime to seven years.

  15. Antineutrino monitoring for heavy water reactors.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Eric; Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas E

    2014-07-25

    In this Letter we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a nonproliferation measure. An above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet IAEA verification goals for reactor plutonium inventories. While detectors with the needed spectral sensitivity have been demonstrated below ground, additional research and development is needed to demonstrate an above-ground detector with this same level of sensitivity. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shut down, provided very low detector backgrounds can be achieved. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to reestablish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary. PMID:25105612

  16. Energy deposition in STARFIRE reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Brooks, J.N.

    1985-04-01

    The energy deposition in the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor was calculated based on detailed models for the different reactor components. The heat deposition and the 14 MeV neutron flux poloidal distributions in the first wall were obtained. The poloidal surface heat load distribution in the first wall was calculated from the plasma radiation. The Monte Carlo method was used for the calculation to allow an accurate modeling for the reactor geometry.

  17. Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) - Design status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Brunings; E. Guenther; R. Hren

    1986-01-01

    The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program. The SAFR plant concept employs a 350-MWe pool-type LMR Power Pak as its basic module. Each Power Pak is a standardized, shop-fabricated unit that can

  18. Desirability of small reactors, HTGR in particular

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Tsuchie

    2000-01-01

    Small reactors of about 100–300 MWe, High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) in particular, are considered desirable in future, based on the following ways of thinking;Global scale enhancement of nuclear energy is considered necessary from reduction of environment impact point of view.Small reactors are desirable, due to (a) enhanced safety in terms of fuel inventory and inherent safety, then (b)

  19. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  20. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lafuente; M. Piera

    2010-01-01

    Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. The need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-Reactor-based fuel cycles,

  1. Dynamics of heat-pipe reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederauer, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    A split-core heat pipe reactor, fueled with either U(233)C or U(235)C in a tungsten cermet and cooled by 7-Li-W heat pipes, was examined for the effects of the heat pipes on reactor while trying to safely absorb large reactivity inputs through inherent shutdown mechanisms. Limits on ramp reactivity inputs due to fuel melting temperature and heat pipe wall heat flux were mapped for the reactor in both startup and at-power operating modes.

  2. Small reactor power system for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirbacheh, M.

    1987-01-01

    A development history and comparative performance capability evaluation is presented for spacecraft nuclear powerplant Small Reactor Power System alternatives. The choice of power conversion technology depends on the reactor's operating temperature; thermionic, thermoelectric, organic Rankine, and Alkali metal thermoelectric conversion are the primary power conversion subsystem technology alternatives. A tabulation is presented for such spacecraft nuclear reactor test histories as those of SNAP-10A, SP-100, and NERVA.

  3. Components of antineutrino emission in nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Kopeikin; L. A. Mikaelyan; V. V. Sinev

    2004-01-01

    New ?\\u000a e\\u000a e scattering experiments aimed at sensitive searches for the ?\\u000a e magnetic moment and projects to explore small mixing angle neutrino oscillations at reactors require a better understanding\\u000a of the reactor antineutrino spectrum. Six components which contribute to the total ?\\u000a e spectrum generated in a nuclear reactor are considered. They are beta decays of the fission

  4. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-05-30

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  5. Neutron shielding panels for reactor pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-11-22

    In a nuclear reactor neutron panels varying in thickness in the circumferential direction are disposed at spaced circumferential locations around the reactor core so that the greatest radial thickness is at the point of highest fluence with lesser thicknesses at adjacent locations where the fluence level is lower. The neutron panels are disposed between the core barrel and the interior of the reactor vessel to maintain radiation exposure to the vessel within acceptable limits.

  6. Review of light water reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.

    1980-12-01

    A review of the present status of light water reactor (LWR) safety is presented. The review starts with a brief discussion of the outstanding accident scenarios concerning LWRs. Where possible the areas of present technological uncertainties are stressed. To provide a better perspective of reactor safety, it then reviews the probabilistic assessment of the outstanding LWR accidents considered in the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and discusses the potential impact of the present technological uncertainties on WASH-1400.

  7. Feedstock conversion in cocurrent-flow reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Livshits; N. M. Marchenko; O. P. Kornilova

    1982-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of the operation of cocurrentflow reactors of the semiopen type, with either upflow or downflow of the gas\\/vapor\\/catalyst mixture. Uses a vacuum gasoil from Romashkino crude as the feedstock. Finds that in an upflow reactor, most of the feed is converted in the first part of the reactor, in one-third of its total height; in the

  8. The fixed bed nuclear reactor concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sümer ?ahin; Farhang Sefidvash

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the basic features of a new reactor type, the so-called Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) is presented. FBNR is a small reactor (40MWe) without the need of on-site refueling. It utilizes the PWR technology but uses the HTGR type fuel elements. It has the characteristics of being simple in design, modular, inherent safety, passive cooling, proliferation

  9. Silane-Pyrolysis Reactor With Nonuniform Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K.

    1991-01-01

    Improved reactor serves as last stage in system processing metallurgical-grade silicon feedstock into silicon powder of ultrahigh purity. Silane pyrolized to silicon powder and hydrogen gas via homogeneous decomposition reaction in free space. Features set of individually adjustable electrical heaters and purge flow of hydrogen to improve control of pyrolysis conditions. Power supplied to each heater set in conjunction with flow in reactor to obtain desired distribution of temperature as function of position along reactor.

  10. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposes to build a nuclear research reactor which will be located in the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this report is to inform the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in regard to the design Lq of the reactor facility, the characteristics of the site, and the hazards of operation at this location. The purpose of this research reactor is to make pumped loop studies of aircraft reactor fuel elements and other reactor components, radiation effects studies on aircraft reactor materials and equipment, shielding studies, and nuclear and solid state physics experiments. The reactor is light water cooled and moderated of the MTR-type with a primary beryllium reflector and a secondary water reflector. The core initially will be a 3 by 9 array of MTR-type fuel elements and is designed for operation up to a power of 60 megawatts. The reactor facility is described in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the nuclear characteristics and performance of the reactor. Then details of the reactor control system are discussed. A summary of the site characteristics is then presented followed by a discussion of the larger type of experiments which may eventually be operated in this facility. The considerations for normal operation are concluded with a proposed method of handling fuel elements and radioactive wastes. The potential hazards involved with failures or malfunctions of this facility are considered in some detail. These are examined first from the standpoint of preventing them or minimizing their effects and second from the standpoint of what effect they might have on the reactor facility staff and the surrounding population. The most essential feature of the design for location at the proposed site is containment of the maximum credible accident.

  11. Fuel handling apparatus for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Basil C. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Fuel handling apparatus for transporting fuel elements into and out of a nuclear reactor and transporting them within the reactor vessel extends through a penetration in the side of the reactor vessel. A lateral transport device carries the fuel elements laterally within the vessel and through the opening in the side of the vessel, and a reversible lifting device raises and lowers the fuel elements. In the preferred embodiment, the lifting device is supported by a pair of pivot arms.

  12. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-11-29

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  13. D-D tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.E. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Finn, P.A.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A tokamak D-D reactor design, utilizing the advantages of a deuterium-fueled reactor but with parameters not unnecessarily extended from existing D-T designs, is presented. Studies leading to the choice of a design and initial studies of the design are described. The studies are in the areas of plasma engineering, first-wall/blanket/shield design, magnet design, and tritium/fuel/vacuum requirements. Conclusions concerning D-D tokamak reactors are stated.

  14. Vertical tubular reactor for microalgae cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Miyamoto; O. Wable; J. R. Benemann

    1988-01-01

    Summary Vertical glass tubular reactors, 5 cm in diameter and 2.35 m high, were used to grow several species of cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms. The reactors were gassed with an air\\/CO2 mixture, to supply CO2, remove O2, and provide mixing. Most of the 10 strains tested had productivities similar to those observed with mechanically mixed reactors. The advantages of

  15. Influence of the Reprocessing on Molten Salt Reactor Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric LIATARD; Jean-Marie LOISEAUX; Olivier MEPLAN; Alexis NUTTIN

    The Molten Salt Reactor is one of the systems studied as a Generation IV reactor. Its main characteristic is the strong coupling between neutronics and salt reprocessing. Such nuclear reactors use a liquid fuel which is also the coolant. Elements produced during the reactor's operation, like Fission Products (FP) or TransUranians, modify the neutronic balance of the reactor by capturing

  16. Nuclear reactor coolant pump with internal self-cooling arrangement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Raymond; C. I. Thompson

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor coolant pump for pumping reactor coolant fluid in a reactor coolant system. It comprises a casing having an end defining a central inlet nozzle for receiving a reactor coolant fluid, a peripheral outlet nozzle, for discharging the reactor coolant fluid, and an annular passage interconnecting the inlet nozzle and the outlet nozzle; a central

  17. SHIELDING COMPUTER PROGRAM 04-1, REACTOR SHIELD ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Edwards; M. A. Capo; K. Paine

    1958-01-01

    Shielding Computer Program 04-1 is available for computing reactor-; shield weight and fast neutron and gamma ray dose rates in and around complex ; reactor-shield assemblies. Reactor and shleld geometries are described by ; combinations of regions formed by rotating rectangles or trapezoids about the ; reactor axis or by translating rectangles parallel to the reactor axis. ; Compositions are

  18. The IRIS Spool-Type Reactor Coolant Pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Kujawski; D. M. Kitch; L. E. Conway

    2002-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a light water cooled, 335 MWe power reactor which is being designed by an international consortium as part of the US DOE NERI Program. IRIS features an integral reactor vessel that contains all the major reactor coolant system components including the reactor core, the coolant pumps, the steam generators and the pressurizer. This

  19. Steam Generator of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Cinotti; M. Bruzzone; N. Meda; G. Corsini; C. V. Lombardi; M. Ricotti; L. E. Conway

    2002-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a light water cooled, 335 MWe power reactor which is being designed by an international consortium as part of the US DOE NERI Program. IRIS features an integral reactor vessel that contains all the main reactor coolant system components including the reactor core, the coolant pumps, the steam generators and the pressurizer. This

  20. Thermomechanical analysis of fast-burst reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    Fast-burst reactors are designed to provide intense, short-duration pulses of neutrons. The fission reaction also produces extreme time-dependent heating of the nuclear fuel. An existing transient-dynamic finite element code was modified specifically to compute the time-dependent stresses and displacements due to thermal shock loads of reactors. Thermomechanical analysis was then applied to determine structural feasibility of various concepts for an EDNA-type reactor and to optimize the mechanical design of the new SPR III-M reactor.

  1. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

    2011-08-03

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

  2. Nuclear reactor multiphysics via bond graph formalism

    E-print Network

    Sosnovsky, Eugeny

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes a simple and effective approach to modeling nuclear reactor multiphysics problems using bond graphs. Conventional multiphysics simulation paradigms normally use operator splitting, which treats the ...

  3. Non-equilibrium radiation nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    An externally moderated thermal nuclear reactor is disclosed which is designed to provide output power in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The reactor is a gaseous fueled nuclear cavity reactor device which can operate over wide ranges of temperature and pressure, and which includes the capability of processing and recycling waste products such as long-lived transuranium actinides. The primary output of the device may be in the form of coherent radiation, so that the reactor may be utilized as a self-critical nuclear pumped laser.

  4. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M. [ENEA CR Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi, 45, 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); ENEA CR casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 301, 00123, Santa Maria di Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2012-06-19

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  5. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner

    DOEpatents

    Gluekler, Emil L. (San Jose, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Lazarus, Jonathan D. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

  6. Water level gauge for a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morooka, S.

    1983-07-19

    A water level gauge for a nuclear reactor includes heat conduction means for absorbing and conducting heat to the outside of the drywell, the heat being supplied to reference water head water inside a reference water head tube defining a reference water level inside a reference water level container, and to water inside a lower part pressure pipe connecting a nuclear reactor pressure vessel with a differential pressure detector. The water level gauge further includes heat exchanger for removing the heat. With this device, the water level of the nuclear reactor may be correctly detected even in the case of leakage accident of the coolant of the nuclear reactor.

  7. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner

    DOEpatents

    Gluekler, E.L.; Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    A nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel is described in this disclosure. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

  8. Operate Your Own Tokamak Reactor!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stotler, Daren.

    2001-01-01

    Princeton University's Plasma Physics Laboratory's Interactive Plasma Physics Education Experience Web site (last mentioned in the July 26, 2002 NSDL Physical Sciences ) has updated its interactive Virtual Tokamak. The Java applet is designed to illustrate the basic principles of magnetically confined fusion, and users can now type in the three parameters that include the heating power, magnetic field, and plasma density. Although the applet doesn't work on older PCs, older browsers, and on most Macs, it's worth finding a newer PC to interactively learn about these specific types of reactors.

  9. Fast pulse nonthermal plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2005-06-14

    A fast pulsed nonthermal plasma reactor includes a discharge cell and a charging assembly electrically connected thereto. The charging assembly provides plural high voltage pulses to the discharge cell. Each pulse has a rise time between one and ten nanoseconds and a duration of three to twenty nanoseconds. The pulses create nonthermal plasma discharge within the discharge cell. Accordingly, the nonthermal plasma discharge can be used to remove pollutants from gases or break the gases into smaller molecules so that they can be more efficiently combusted.

  10. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  11. Spheromak reactor-design study

    SciTech Connect

    Les, J.M.

    1981-06-30

    A general overview of spheromak reactor characteristics, such as MHD stability, start up, and plasma geometry is presented. In addition, comparisons are made between spheromaks, tokamaks and field reversed mirrors. The computer code Sphero is also discussed. Sphero is a zero dimensional time independent transport code that uses particle confinement times and profile parameters as input since they are not known with certainty at the present time. More specifically, Sphero numerically solves a given set of transport equations whose solutions include such variables as fuel ion (deuterium and tritium) density, electron density, alpha particle density and ion, electron temperatures.

  12. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  13. Trip setpoint analysis for the reactor protection system of an advanced integral reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo Hyung Yang; Soo Hyung Kim; Young Jong Chung; Sung Quun Zee

    2007-01-01

    The trip setpoints for the reactor protection system of a 65-MWt advanced integral reactor have been analyzed through sensitivity evaluations by using the Transients and Setpoint Simulation\\/System-integrated Modular Reactor code. In the analysis, an inadvertent control rod withdrawal event has been considered as an initiating event because this event results in the worst consequences from the viewpoint of the minimum

  14. REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS OF CANDIDATE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR DESIGNS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans D. Gougar; Cliff B. Davis; George Hayner; Kevan Weaver

    Analyses were performed to determine maximum temperatures in the reactor pressure vessel for two potential Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs during normal operation and during a depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The purpose of the analyses was to aid in the determination of appropriate reactor vessel materials for the VHTR. The designs evaluated utilized both prismatic and pebble-bed cores that generated

  15. 155. ARAIII Reactor building (ARA608) Details of reactor pit showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. ARA-III Reactor building (ARA-608) Details of reactor pit showing tray supports and fuel element storage rack. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-608-MS-2. Date: November 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0608-40-013-102625. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Hybrid simulation of boiling water reactor dynamics using a university research reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Turso; R. M. Edwards; J. March-Leuba

    1995-01-01

    A ``hybrid`` reactor\\/simulation (HRS) testing arrangement has been developed and experimentally verified using The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) TRIGA Reactor. The HRS uses actual plant components to supply key parameters to a digital simulation (and vice versa). To implement the HRS on the Penn State TRIGA reactor, an experimental or secondary control rod drive mechanism is used to introduce

  17. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT NUCLEAR RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR SNM ATTRIBUTION AND NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sternat; D. Beals; R. Webb; T. Nichols

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear research reactors are the least safeguarded type of reactor; in some cases this may be attributed to low risk and in most cases it is due to difficulty from dynamic operation. Research reactors vary greatly in size, fuel type, enrichment, power and burnup providing a significant challenge to any standardized safeguard system. If a whole fuel assembly was interdicted,

  18. Development of the package-reactor (1) -reactor for pioneering new nuclear markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koki Hibi; Hiroki Takimoto; Masao Chaki; Masayoshi Matsuura; Kumiaki Moriya

    2005-01-01

    A new small reactor concept named Package-Reactor has been developed through a joint research of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and Hitachi, Ltd. Several key designs have been investigated, taking into account both PWR and BWR technologies. The Package-Reactor is designed to attain high reliability, high safety, good maintainability, good operability and low construction cost. To achieve the aims, its nuclear

  19. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merk, John

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation. Long-duration surface missions necessitate reliable autonomous operation, and manned missions impose added requirements for failsafe reactor protection. There is a need for an advanced instrumentation and control system for space-nuclear reactors that addresses both aspects of autonomous operation and safety. The Reactor Instrumentation and Control System (RICS) consists of two functionally independent systems: the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Supervision and Control System (SCS). Through these two systems, the RICS both supervises and controls a nuclear reactor during normal operational states, as well as monitors the operation of the reactor and, upon sensing a system anomaly, automatically takes the appropriate actions to prevent an unsafe or potentially unsafe condition from occurring. The RPS encompasses all electrical and mechanical devices and circuitry, from sensors to actuation device output terminals. The SCS contains a comprehensive data acquisition system to measure continuously different groups of variables consisting of primary measurement elements, transmitters, or conditioning modules. These reactor control variables can be categorized into two groups: those directly related to the behavior of the core (known as nuclear variables) and those related to secondary systems (known as process variables). Reliable closed-loop reactor control is achieved by processing the acquired variables and actuating the appropriate device drivers to maintain the reactor in a safe operating state. The SCS must prevent a deviation from the reactor nominal conditions by managing limitation functions in order to avoid RPS actions. The RICS has four identical redundancies that comply with physical separation, electrical isolation, and functional independence. This architecture complies with the safety requirements of a nuclear reactor and provides high availability to the host system. The RICS is intended to interface with a host computer (the computer of the spacecraft where the reactor is mounted). The RICS leverages the safety features inherent in Earth-based reactors and also integrates the wide range neutron detector (WRND). A neutron detector provides the input that allows the RICS to do its job. The RICS is based on proven technology currently in use at a nuclear research facility. In its most basic form, the RICS is a ruggedized, compact data-acquisition and control system that could be adapted to support a wide variety of harsh environments. As such, the RICS could be a useful instrument outside the scope of a nuclear reactor, including military applications where failsafe data acquisition and control is required with stringent size, weight, and power constraints.

  20. Coupled Reactor Kinetics and Heat Transfer Model for Heat Pipe Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    WRIGHT,STEVEN A.; HOUTS,MICHAEL

    2000-11-22

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). The paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities.

  1. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  2. Criticality of spent reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The storage capacity of spent reactor fuel pools can be greatly increased by consolidation. In this process, the fuel rods are removed from reactor fuel assemblies and are stored in close-packed arrays in a canister or skeleton. An earlier study examined criticality consideration for consolidation of Westinghouse fuel, assumed to be fresh, in canisters at the Millstone-2 spent-fuel pool and in the General Electric IF-300 shipping cask. The conclusions were that the fuel rods in the canister are so deficient in water that they are adequately subcritical, both in normal and in off-normal conditions. One potential accident, the water spill event, remained unresolved in the earlier study. A methodology is developed here for spent-fuel criticality and is applied to the water spill event. The methodology utilizes LEOPARD to compute few-group cross sections for the diffusion code PDQ7, which then is used to compute reactivity. These codes give results for fresh fuel that are in good agreement with KENO IV-NITAWL Monte Carlo results, which themselves are in good agreement with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. These methodologies are in reasonable agreement with critical measurements for undepleted fuel.

  3. Simulated nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Berta, Victor T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end.

  4. Simulated nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Berta, V.T.

    1993-04-06

    An apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end.

  5. 75 FR 51500 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...Accumulation on Pressurized Water Reactor Sump Performance (Open...Certified Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) Design (Open/Closed...Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) Design (Open/ Closed...Assessment of Beyond-Design Basis Aircraft Impacts.'' [Note: A...

  6. 22.312 Engineering of Nuclear Reactors, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Todreas, Neil E.

    Engineering principles of nuclear reactors, emphasizing power reactors. Power plant thermodynamics, reactor heat generation and removal (single-phase as well as two-phase coolant flow and heat transfer), and structural ...

  7. 22.312 Engineering of Nuclear Reactors, Fall 2004

    E-print Network

    Buongiorno, Jacopo, 1971-

    Engineering principles of nuclear reactors, emphasizing power reactors. Power plant thermodynamics, reactor heat generation and removal (single-phase as well as two-phase coolant flow and heat transfer), and structural ...

  8. 10 CFR 1.44 - Office of New Reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Office of New Reactors. 1.44 Section 1.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...1.44 Office of New Reactors. The Office of New...or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities licensed...

  9. 10 CFR 1.44 - Office of New Reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Office of New Reactors. 1.44 Section 1.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...1.44 Office of New Reactors. The Office of New...or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities licensed...

  10. 10 CFR 1.44 - Office of New Reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Office of New Reactors. 1.44 Section 1.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...1.44 Office of New Reactors. The Office of New...or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities licensed...

  11. APPLICATION OF DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO NUCLEAR REACTOR

    E-print Network

    Kunz, Robert Francis

    1 APPLICATION OF DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO NUCLEAR REACTOR SYSTEMS CODE ACCURACY ASSESSMENT) has been developed by the authors to provide quantitative comparisons between nuclear reactor systems. 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, the commercial nuclear reactor industry has focused significant

  12. 10 CFR 1.44 - Office of New Reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Office of New Reactors. 1.44 Section 1.44 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...1.44 Office of New Reactors. The Office of New...or the safeguarding of nuclear reactor facilities licensed...

  13. NUCLEAR POWER AND RESEARCH REACTORS 1939 1942 1943 1944

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Reactor, setting stage for Hanford reactors' production of plutonium for war-ending atomic bomb More than, Washington; in 1945 these reactors produced plutonium for the atomic bomb that ended World War II. Wigner

  14. Neural antecedents of the endowment effect Supplementary Material

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Brian

    the Godiva chocolate instead of $4.00. You would choose "No" if you want $4.00 instead of the Godiva Chocolate. Choose Product? Chocolates> Godiva Chocolate $4.00 Press the Space Bar to continue of the Godiva chocolate. You would choose "No" if you want the Godiva Chocolate instead of $4.00. Choose Money

  15. University of Virginia Reactor Facility Decommissioning Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, P. F.; Lundberg, L. A.; Benneche, P. E.; Mulder, R. U.; Steva, D. P.

    2003-02-24

    The University of Virginia Reactor Facility started accelerated decommissioning in 2002. The facility consists of two licensed reactors, the CAVALIER and the UVAR. This paper will describe the progress in 2002, remaining efforts and the unique organizational structure of the project team.

  16. SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT FOR NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dix

    1962-01-01

    An inexpensive and simple containment device is designed which will ; effectively retain incident products from nuclear accidents. Part or all of the ; reactor is located in an underground chamber lined with concrete or other ; impermeable material. An aggregate of heatconducting particles is placed in the ; chamber to surround the reactor. The particles may be quartz or

  17. Reactor Antineutrinos Signal all over the world

    E-print Network

    B. Ricci; F. Mantovani; M. Baldoncini; J. Esposito; L. Ludhova; S. Zavatarelli

    2014-03-17

    We present an updated estimate of reactor antineutrino signal all over the world, with particular attention to the sites proposed for existing and future geo-neutrino experiment. In our calculation we take into account the most updated data on Thermal Power for each nuclear plant, on reactor antineutrino spectra and on three neutrino oscillation mechanism.

  18. Topaz-II reactor control unit development

    SciTech Connect

    Wyant, F.J.; Jensen, D.; Logothetis, J.

    1994-12-31

    The development for a new digital reactor control unit for the Topaz-II reactor is described. The unit is expected to provide the means for automated control during a possible Topaz flight experiment. The breadboard design and development is discussed.

  19. NPD2, CANADA'S PROTOTYPE POWER REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wyatt

    1962-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD), the Canadian prototype power ; reactor, is described. The description includes information on total and ; individual costs, 17-Mw electrical output reactor, turbine-generator plant, ; calandria, coolant tube assemblies, fueling, refueling cycle, primary heat ; transport system, moderator and helium systems, reflector system, heavy water ; purification, control systems, manpower, and general specifications. (N.W.R.);

  20. SAFEGUARDS ASPECTS OF PWR REACTOR COOLANT CHEMISTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1957-01-01

    In the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) light water serves as both ; moderator and as coolant. The water at the same time participates in a variety ; of chemical process of concern in the design and operation of the reactor. These ; include corrosion of the primary coolant system, mechanisms, and fuel elements; ; radiation chemical reactions involving dissociation and

  1. APPLICATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON IN REACTOR CONTAINMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prigge

    1962-01-01

    An activated-carbon bed, or filter, was designed to remove 99.9+% of the ; radioactive halogen vapor that could be released as the result of a containable ; accident of a watermoderated-and-cooled reactor. The filter was intended for ; installation in the exhaust of the ventilation system of the reactor building and ; was designed on the basis of results from

  2. Modularization of advanced-fuel plasmoid reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Gilligan; R. E. Olson; G. H. Miley

    1979-01-01

    A new general class of potential fusion reactors is discussed, especially with regards to their engineering attractiveness. The Moving Plasmoid Reactors (MPR) consist of a linear arrangement of 'modules' which perform the functions of startup, heating-fueling, energy recovery, etc., as a plasmoid is moved from one module to the next during a burn scenario. Considerable flexibility is possible for the

  3. A new ordered bed modular reactor concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiafu Tian

    2007-01-01

    The Ordered Bed Modular Reactor (OBMR) is an advanced modular HTGR design in which the annular reactor core is filled with an ordered bed of fuel spheres. This arrangement allows fuel elements to be poured into the core cavity which is shaped so that an ordered bed is formed and to be discharged from the core through the opening holes

  4. Update; Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Oldenkamp; J. E. Brunings; E. Guenther; R. Hren

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel during the 3-year period extending from January 1985 to December 1987 as one element in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Program. In January 1988, the team was expanded to include Duke Engineering and Services,

  5. Explosive demolition of K East Reactor Stack

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-09-02

    Using $420,000 in Recovery Act funds, the Department of Energy and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company topped off four months of preparations when they safely demolished the exhaust stack at the K East Reactor and equipment inside the reactor building on July 23, 2010.

  6. FISSION REACTORS KEYWORDS: high-temperature

    E-print Network

    Yildiz, Bilge

    conversion system, and the progress in the electrolysis cell materials field can help the econom- icalFISSION REACTORS KEYWORDS: high-temperature steam electrolysis, advanced gas reactor, supercritical CO2 cycle HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS SUPPORTED BY ADVANCED GAS

  7. Hydrogasification reactor and method of operating same

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, Raymond; Karner, Donald; Sun, Xiaolei; Boyle, John; Noguchi, Fuyuki

    2013-09-10

    The present invention provides a system and method for evaluating effects of process parameters on hydrogasification processes. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, a pressurized feed system, a hopper system, a hydrogen gas source, and a carrier gas source. Pressurized carbonaceous material, such as coal, is fed to the reactor using the carrier gas and reacted with hydrogen to produce natural gas.

  8. Bifurcation Analysis of Chemical Reactors with Energy

    E-print Network

    are amplified in the reactor and fed back through the heat exchanger causing growing temperature waves. It turns Points #12;Abstract This thesis is a study of packed-bed reactors with integrated heat exchangers conditions and it is shown through simulations that this causes moving hot spots as a consequence

  9. Reactivity oscillations in a point reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ravetto

    1997-01-01

    The analytic solution to a reactivity oascillation problem in the point reactor model is presented. A critical condition for the existence of stationary power oscillations is established. The results for both stationary and non-stationary oscillations allow to get some physical insight on the role of the delayed neutron emission phenomenon in reactor dynamics.

  10. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  11. Control console replacement at the WPI Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    With partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) University Reactor Instrumentation Upgrade Program (DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-90ER12982), the original control console at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Reactor has been replaced with a modern system. The new console maintains the original design bases and functionality while utilizing current technology. An advanced remote monitoring system has been added to augment the educational capabilities of the reactor. Designed and built by General Electric in 1959, the open pool nuclear training reactor at WPI was one of the first such facilities in the nation located on a university campus. Devoted to undergraduate use, the reactor and its related facilities have been since used to train two generations of nuclear engineers and scientists for the nuclear industry. The reactor power level was upgraded from 1 to 10 kill in 1969, and its operating license was renewed for 20 years in 1983. In 1988, the reactor was converted to low enriched uranium. The low power output of the reactor and ergonomic facility design make it an ideal tool for undergraduate nuclear engineering education and other training.

  12. Chemical Reactor Models of Digestion Modulation

    E-print Network

    Logan, David

    Chemical Reactor Models of Digestion Modulation William Wolesensky & J. David Logan Department give an overview of the application of chemical reactor theory to models of digestion processes and indicate how those models extend to eco-physiological questions of modulation of digestion and feeding

  13. Application of Reactor Antineutrinos: Neutrinos for Peace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suekane, F.

    2013-02-01

    In nuclear reactors, 239Pu are produced along with burn-up of nuclear fuel. 239Pu is subject of safeguard controls since it is an explosive component of nuclear weapon. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is watching undeclared operation of reactors to prevent illegal production and removal of 239Pu. In operating reactors, a huge numbers of anti electron neutrinos (?) are produced. Neutrino flux is approximately proportional to the operating power of reactor in short term and long term decrease of the neutrino flux per thermal power is proportional to the amount of 239Pu produced. Thus rector ?'s carry direct and real time information useful for the safeguard purposes. Since ? can not be hidden, it could be an ideal medium to monitor the reactor operation. IAEA seeks for novel technologies which enhance their ability and reactor neutrino monitoring is listed as one of such candidates. Currently neutrino physicists are performing R&D of small reactor neutrino detectors to use specifically for the safeguard use in response to the IAEA interest. In this proceedings of the neutrino2012 conference, possibilities of such reactor neutrinos application and current world-wide R&D status are described.

  14. Aerosol reactor production of uniform submicron powders

    DOEpatents

    Flagan, Richard C. (Pasadena, CA); Wu, Jin J. (Pasadena, CA)

    1991-02-19

    A method of producing submicron nonagglomerated particles in a single stage reactor includes introducing a reactant or mixture of reactants at one end while varying the temperature along the reactor to initiate reactions at a low rate. As homogeneously small numbers of seed particles generated in the initial section of the reactor progress through the reactor, the reaction is gradually accelerated through programmed increases in temperature along the length of the reactor to promote particle growth by chemical vapor deposition while minimizing agglomerate formation by maintaining a sufficiently low number concentration of particles in the reactor such that coagulation is inhibited within the residence time of particles in the reactor. The maximum temperature and minimum residence time is defined by a combination of temperature and residence time that is necessary to bring the reaction to completion. In one embodiment, electronic grade silane and high purity nitrogen are introduced into the reactor and temperatures of approximately 770.degree. K. to 1550.degree. K. are employed. In another embodiment silane and ammonia are employed at temperatures from 750.degree. K. to 1800.degree. K.

  15. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Ruther; H. M. Chung; O. K. Chopra; T. F. Kassner; S. Majumdar; J. Y. Park; J. E. Sanecki; A. G. Hins; W. J. Shack

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) during the six months from April 1992 to September 1992. Topics that have been investigated include (1) fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of low-alloy steel used in piping, steam generators. and reactor pressure vessels. (2) EAC of cast

  16. Ceramic fuel development for space reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the renewed interest in manned exploration of space has rejuvenated development of advanced ceramic fuels for nuclear power and propulsion reactors. Because of their attractive thermal and neutronic properties, uranium carbides and nitrides have been developed as fuels for space propulsion and power reactors. Desirable fuel characteristics include high density, high thermal conductivity, high melting point,

  17. Review of light water reactor safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A review of the present status of light water reactor (LWR) safety is presented. The review starts with a brief discussion of the outstanding accident scenarios concerning LWRs. Where possible the areas of present technological uncertainties are stressed. To provide a better perspective of reactor safety, it then reviews the probabilistic assessment of the outstanding LWR accidents considered in the

  18. Reactor accident consequence analysis code (MACCS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Nian Jow; J. L. Sprung; D. I. Chanin; J. C. Helton; J. A. Rollstin; NM Albuquerque

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in the performance of risk assessments for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for more than a decade. As part of this effort, Sandia developed the reactor consequence analysis codes, CRAC2, and more recently, MACCS. CRAC2 is an improved version of CRAC, which was used in the Reactor Safety Study (also known as WASH-1400). MACCS

  19. Fifty years of progress in reactor safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Okrent

    1992-01-01

    This paper chronicles the major watershed occurrences in the evaluation of current reactor safety principles and concepts. The author covers such issues as the development of siting criteria in the early 1960s, development and design of engineered safety features and emergency cooling systems (ECCS), core meltdown scenarios, anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) issues, WASH-1400 Reactor Safety study employing probabilistic risk

  20. The First Reactor, 40th Anniversary (rev.)

    SciTech Connect

    Allardice, Corbin; Trapnell, Edward R.; Fermi, Enrico; Fermi, Laura; Williams, Robert C.

    1982-12-01

    This booklet, an updated version of the original booklet describing the first nuclear reactor, was written in honor of the 40th anniversary of the first reactor or "pile". It is based on firsthand accounts told to Corbin Allardice and Edward R. Trapnell, and includes recollections of Enrico and Laura Fermi.

  1. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor

    E-print Network

    Oxygen H2O #12;8 ITM Syngas Technology Challenges Materials ­ Stable Performance ­ Catalysis ReactorEngineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor Systems for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen Is the Global Leader in Hydrogen Supply CRYOGENICS PSA MEMBRANES REFORMERS SYNTHESIS GAS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

  2. Preventing Cracks in Silicon-Reactor Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1987-01-01

    Correct placement helps prevent contamination while eliminating crack-causing deposits. Repositioning quartz liner in silicon fluidized-bed reactor prevents cracking of liner when cools. Liner protects stainless-steel walls of reactor from abrasion by particles in fluidized bed. Prevents contamination of newly formed silicon by material abraded from wall and ensures high-quality product.

  3. Fluidized bed reactor with protected fluid distributor

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, F.

    1993-07-27

    A fluidized bed reactor is described comprising: a reactor chamber having substantially vertical side walls for laterally confiding a bed of fluidized particulate material; a gas distributor plate disposed in said reactor chamber; nozzle means for supplying fluidizing gas through said gas distributor plate into the reactor chamber; means for supplying fluid into said reactor chamber at a level above said gas distributor plate, said fluid supplying means comprising at least one fluid conduit extending horizontally from one side wall substantially perpendicularly to said side wall into the reactor chamber at a level between about 100-1,000 mm above said fluidizing gas supplying nozzle means, and less than one-half the dimension of the reactor chamber from said one side wall to an opposite side wall; and means for covering said fluid conduit, said covering means comprising an upright partition mounted on said gas distributor plate and extending from said one side wall substantially the entire length of said fluid conduit into said reactor chamber.

  4. Occupational health physics at a fusion reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Shank; C. E. Easterly; R. L. Shoup

    1975-01-01

    Future generation of electrical power using controlled thermonuclear ; reactors will involve both traditional and new concerns for health protection. A ; review of the problems associated with exposures to tritium and magnetic fields ; is presented with emphasis on the occupational worker. The radiological aspects ; of tritium, inventories and loss rates of tritium for fusion reactors, and ;

  5. ICP Reactor Modeling: CF4 Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Bose; T. R. Govindan; M. Meyyappan

    1999-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors are widely used now for etching and deposition applications due to their simpler design compared to other high density sources. Plasma reactor modeling has been playing an important role since it can, in principle, reduce the number of trial and error iterations in the design process and provide valuable understanding of mechanisms. Flurocarbon precursors have

  6. Alternative multiphase reactors for fine chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H Stitt

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally the intermediate scale and fine chemicals industries have relied on stirred tank reactors, operated continuously or more commonly batchwise, as the work horse of their manufacturing plant to the almost total exclusion of any other type of liquid reactor. The switch to continuous processing has generally been resisted on the basis that this compromises plant flexibility and thus, reduces

  7. URANIUM TRIOXIDE IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Philoon; E. F. Sanders; W. T. Trask

    1960-01-01

    A continuous method for the production of uranium trioxide from uranyl ; nitrate solution was developed, and its advantages over the batch process pointed ; out. Uranyl nitrate and fluidizing air are sprayed into the reactor, heat being ; supplied by molten heat transfer salt. The UOâ product overflows from the ; reactor into a packaging station. The best range

  8. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Kassner; J. Y. Park; W. E. Ruther; W. J. Shack; W. K. Soppet

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors during the six months from October 1989 to March 1990. Low-cycle fatigue tests were performed on Type 316NG SS to better understand the effects of cyclic strain range, frequency, and temperature on fatigue life in air and in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)

  9. Aerosol reactor production of uniform submicron powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagan, Richard C. (Inventor); Wu, Jin J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of producing submicron nonagglomerated particles in a single stage reactor includes introducing a reactant or mixture of reactants at one end while varying the temperature along the reactor to initiate reactions at a low rate. As homogeneously small numbers of seed particles generated in the initial section of the reactor progress through the reactor, the reaction is gradually accelerated through programmed increases in temperature along the length of the reactor to promote particle growth by chemical vapor deposition while minimizing agglomerate formation by maintaining a sufficiently low number concentration of particles in the reactor such that coagulation is inhibited within the residence time of particles in the reactor. The maximum temperature and minimum residence time is defined by a combination of temperature and residence time that is necessary to bring the reaction to completion. In one embodiment, electronic grade silane and high purity nitrogen are introduced into the reactor and temperatures of approximately 770.degree. K. to 1550.degree. K. are employed. In another embodiment silane and ammonia are employed at temperatures from 750.degree. K. to 1800.degree. K.

  10. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN RESEARCH REACTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1959-01-01

    At the present time, 105 research and test reactors are in operation ; being built, or planned in the United States, compared to 22 in operation by the ; end of 1955. The most popular types are the low power training reactors and the ; high flux pool or tank type. This is due to the relatively low cost of

  11. HIGH FLUX REACTORS FOR UNIVERSITY RESEARCH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Leyse; W. S. Chmielewski; W. S. Delicate; W. A. Gbeaney; W. E. Knabe; M. J. Kornfeld; A. M. Larson; J. E. Stewart

    1958-01-01

    A description of the facilities and money required to conduct useful ; work with nuclear reactors designed for engineering test or research purposes is ; presented. This includes not only information on the nuclear, physical, and cost ; characteristics of various reactors suitable for university use, but also ; auxiliary information pertaining to hot caves, radiological laboratories hazards ; evaluation,

  12. Measuring the productivity of university research reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Voth

    1989-01-01

    University Research Reactors (URRs) on 33 campuses in the United States provide valuable contributions to academic instruction and research programs. In most cases, there are no alternative diagnostic techniques to supplant the need for a reactor and associated facilities. Since URRs constitute a major financial commitment, it is important that they be operated in a productive manner. Productivity may be

  13. Decommissioning of the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Link; A. F. Voigt

    1982-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) was constructed between 1961 and 1965 on a 35 acre open site about 1 1\\/2 miles from the Iowa State University campus and the rest of the Ames Laboratory facilities. Initial criticality was attained in February and full power in July 1965. Full-time operation was initiated in June 1966. Final reactor shutdown occurred on

  14. University research reactors: key ingredients for success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Miller; B. W. Wehring

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with a review of the key ingredients for successful operation and continued development of a research reactor in a university environment. North Carolina State University's (NCSU's) PULSTAR reactor is presented as a representative successful facility along with its relevant background for achieving this status. Key ingredients include continued support by university administration, adequate staffing levels, local utility

  15. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  16. Low power reactor for remote applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Meier; R. G. Palmer; W. L. Kirchner

    1985-01-01

    A compact, low power reactor is being designed to provide electric power for remote, unattended applications. Because of the high fuel and maintenance costs for conventional power sources such as diesel generators, a reactor power supply appears especially attractive for remote and inaccessible locations. Operating at a thermal power level of 135 kWt, the power supply achieves a gross electrical

  17. Submerged ultrasonic viewer for a nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasama

    1981-01-01

    A submerged ultrasonic viewer for use in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor vessel to detect floated reactor core components includes an ultrasonic transducer, a transducer scanning drive mechanism and a related electrical control circuit, an image display circuit, and a reflecting surface. A handling head of a core element or a reflecting plate, is improved to enhance image accuracy

  18. Mechanical cutting of irradiated reactor internal components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael G. [MOTA Corporation: 3410 Sunset Boulevard, West Columbia, SC, 29169 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package reactor internal components are now a viable solution for stakeholders challenged with the retirement of first generation nuclear facilities. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods, inclusive of plasma arc and abrasive water-jet cutting, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. Reactor internal components were segmented, packaged, and removed from the reactor building for shipment or storage, allowing the reactor cavity to be drained and follow-on reactor segmentation activities to proceed in the dry state. Area exposure rates at the work positions during the segmentation process were generally 1 mR per hr. Radiological exposure documented for the underwater segmentation processes totaled 13 person rem. The reactor internals weighing 343,000 pounds were segmented into over 200 pieces for maximum shipping package efficiency and produced 5,600 lb of stainless steel chips and shavings which were packaged in void spaces of existing disposal containers, therefore creating no additional disposal volume. Because no secondary waste was driven into suspension in the reactor cavity water, the water was free released after one pass through a charcoal bed and ion exchange filter system. Mechanical cutting techniques are capable of underwater segmentation of highly radioactive components on a large scale. This method minimized radiological exposure and costly water cleanup while creating no secondary waste.

  19. A small, 1400 K, reactor for Brayton space power systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, E.; Mayo, W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine minimum dimensions and minimum weight obtainable in a design for a reactor using uranium-233 nitride or plutonium-239 nitride as fuel. Such a reactor had been considered by Krasner et al. (1971). Present space power status is discussed, together with questions of reactor design and power distribution in the reactor. The characteristics of various reactor types are compared, giving attention also to a zirconium hydride reactor.

  20. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; M, Wan Munirah W.; Abdullah, M. Adib

    2014-07-01

    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  1. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; M, Wan Munirah W. [Department of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Shamsuddin, Mustaffa [Institute of Ibnu Sina, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Abdullah, M. Adib [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  2. TREAT Reactor Control and Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, W.C.; Brookshier, W.K.; Burrows, D.R.; Lenkszus, F.R.; McDowell, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The main control algorithm of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Automatic Reactor Control System (ARCS) resides in Read Only Memory (ROM) and only experiment specific parameters are input via keyboard entry. Prior to executing an experiment, the software and hardware of the control computer is tested by a closed loop real-time simulation. Two computers with parallel processing are used for the reactor simulation and another computer is used for simulation of the control rod system. A monitor computer, used as a redundant diverse reactor protection channel, uses more conservative setpoints and reduces challenges to the Reactor Trip System (RTS). The RTS consists of triplicated hardwired channels with one out of three logic. The RTS is automatically tested by a digital Dedicated Microprocessor Tester (DMT) prior to the execution of an experiment. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Self-actuating reactor shutdown system

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA); Brummond, Willian A (Livermore, CA); Peterson, Leslie F. (Danville, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A control system for the automatic or self-actuated shutdown or "scram" of a nuclear reactor. The system is capable of initiating scram insertion by a signal from the plant protection system or by independent action directly sensing reactor conditions of low-flow or over-power. Self-actuation due to a loss of reactor coolant flow results from a decrease of pressure differential between the upper and lower ends of an absorber element. When the force due to this differential falls below the weight of the element, the element will fall by gravitational force to scram the reactor. Self-actuation due to high neutron flux is accomplished via a valve controlled by an electromagnet and a thermionic diode. In a reactor over-power, the diode will be heated to a change of state causing the electromagnet to be shorted thereby actuating the valve which provides the changed flow and pressure conditions required for scramming the absorber element.

  4. [Fission Working Group -- Molten salt reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Engel, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of molten salt reactors (MSRs) which are fluid fuel reactors and, as such, have several unique features, some which are important to the burning of fissile material from dismantled weapons. This material can be added on-line during operation in either continuous or batch form. The added fuel need only be in an acceptable chemical form, but no fuel manufacturing or minimum discrete amounts for a fuel element are required. Fluid fuel reactors can have partial or full on-line fuel processing. When online fuel processing is utilized, a particular fuel component, for example the plutonium, can be burned completely, or in some sense can be converted to other kinds of fuel, for example into [sup 233]U. There is no equivalent of fuel burnup in continuous processing reactors, and no need for reprocessing in external plants and manufacturing of fuel elements, transportation, and reinsertion in the reactor.

  5. [Fission Working Group -- Molten salt reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Engel, J.R.

    1992-12-31

    This report provides an assessment of molten salt reactors (MSRs) which are fluid fuel reactors and, as such, have several unique features, some which are important to the burning of fissile material from dismantled weapons. This material can be added on-line during operation in either continuous or batch form. The added fuel need only be in an acceptable chemical form, but no fuel manufacturing or minimum discrete amounts for a fuel element are required. Fluid fuel reactors can have partial or full on-line fuel processing. When online fuel processing is utilized, a particular fuel component, for example the plutonium, can be burned completely, or in some sense can be converted to other kinds of fuel, for example into {sup 233}U. There is no equivalent of fuel burnup in continuous processing reactors, and no need for reprocessing in external plants and manufacturing of fuel elements, transportation, and reinsertion in the reactor.

  6. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  7. Slurry Bubble Column Reactor Optimization (book chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    Gamwo, I.K.; Gidaspow, D. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL); Jung, J. (ANL)

    2007-03-01

    Slurry bubble column reactors (SBCR) are the preferred contactors for the conversion of syngas to fules and chemicals partially due to their superior heat and mass transfer characteristics. The multiphase fluid dynamics in these systems greatly affect the reactor volumetric productivity. Here, we have developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assisted design methodology for searching the optimum particle size for maximum production in a SBCR. Reactor optimization due to heat exchanger configuration was also investigated. We have rearranged the heat exchangers in a SBCR and constructed a CFD model for a baffled reactor. The novel arrangement of the exchangers prevents the unfavorable high catalysts concentration at the lower stage of the reactor. Thus an optimum catalyst concentration is maintained during the course of the production of liquid fuels.

  8. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, O.M.; West, P.B.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a safety control rod to desired elevations within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump motor, an electric gear motor, and a solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch, allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

  9. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  10. Liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A perforated depressor plate extending across the bottom of the instrument ree of a fast breeder reactor cooperates with a circular cylindrical metal bellows forming a part of the upper adapter of each core assembly and bearing on the bottom of the depressor plate to restrict flow of coolant between core assemblies, thereby reducing significantly the pressure differential between the coolant inside the core assemblies and the coolant outside of the core assemblies. Openings in the depressor plate are slightly smaller than the top of the upper adapter so the depressor plate will serve as a backup mechanical holddown for the core. In addition coolant mixing devices and locating devices are provided attached to the depressor plate.

  11. Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

  12. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.; Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wilde, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large United States Department of Energy installation on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The SRS contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, varied wetlands including Carolina Bays, the Savannah River swamp system, and impoundment related and riparian wetlands, and the aquatic habitats of several stream systems, two large cooling reservoirs, and the Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a large variety of plants and animals including many commercially or recreational valuable species and several rare, threatened or endangered species. This volume describes the major habitats and their biota found on the SRS, and discuss the impacts of continued operation of the K, L, and P production reactors.

  13. Inspecting the reactor vessel penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bodson, F. [Framatome, Chalon-Sur-Saone (France); Fleming, K.W. [BWNT, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The susceptibility of Alloy 600 to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) continues to plague nuclear power plants. Recently, the problem of PWSCC cracking has manifested itself in Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) head penetrations in nuclear plants in Europe. Framatome has been extensively involved in the performance of both inspections and repairs of CRDM head penetrations at Electricite de France (EdF) plants. B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT), building on Framatome technology, has developed a fully integrated service package and robotic manipulator to inspect and repair CRDM head penetrations for US utilities. Reactor vessel bottom penetration are also made of Alloy 600 and to tackle this potential PWSCC problem at EdF plants, Framatome has been performing specific inspections in order to detect the appearance of the phenomenon. This paper describes the overall range of inspection techniques and toolings developed to address these issues.

  14. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  15. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  16. Coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Swanson, Mercedes; Menger, Fredric M.

    2012-10-01

    Coacervates are colloidal systems that are comprised of two immiscible aqueous layers, the colloid-rich layer, so-called coacervate, and the colloid-poor layer, so-called equilibrium liquid. Although immiscible, the two phases are both water-rich. Coacervates are important for prebiotic chemistry, but also have various practical applications, notably as transport vehicles of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Our objectives are to explore the potential of coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors. Since the reaction medium in coacervates is water, this creates a challenge, since most organic reactants are not water-soluble. To overcome this challenge we are utilizing recent Green Chemistry examples of the organic reactions in water, such as the Passerini reaction. We have investigated this reaction in two coacervate systems, and report here our preliminary results.

  17. Gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

  18. Pneumatic solids feeder for coal gasification reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.; Halow, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a pneumatic feeder system for a coal gasification reactor which includes one or more feeder tubes entering the reactor above the level of the particle bed inside the reactor. The tubes are inclined downward at their outer ends so that coal particles introduced into the tubes through an aperture at the top of the tubes slides downward away from the reactor and does not fall directly into the reactor. Pressurized gas introduced into, or resulting from ignition of recycled combustible gas in a chamber adjacent to the tube ends, propels the coal from the tube into the reactor volume and onto the particle bed. Leveling of the top of the bed is carried out by a bladed rotor mounted on the reactor stirring shaft. Coal is introduced into the tubes from containers above the tubes by means of rotary valves placed across supply conduits. This system avoids placement of feeder hardware in the plenum above the particle bed and keeps the coal from being excessively heated prior to reaching the particle bed.

  19. Antineutrinos from nuclear reactors: recent oscillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear reactors are the most intense man-made source of antineutrinos, providing a useful tool for the study of these particles. Oscillation due to the neutrino mixing angle {{? }13} is revealed by the disappearance of reactor {{\\bar{? }}e} over ˜km distances. Use of additional identical detectors located near nuclear reactors reduce systematic uncertainties related to reactor {{\\bar{? }}e} emission and detector efficiency, significantly improving the sensitivity of oscillation measurements. The Double Chooz, RENO, and Daya Bay experiments set out in search of {{? }13} using these techniques. All three experiments have recently observed reactor {{\\bar{? }}e} disappearance, and have estimated values for {{? }13} of 9.3? ± 2.1°, 9.2? ± 0.9°, and 8.7? ± 0.4° respectively. The energy-dependence of {{\\bar{? }}e} disappearance has also allowed measurement of the effective neutrino mass difference, \\mid ? mee2\\mid ? \\mid ? m312\\mid . Comparison with \\mid ? m? ? 2\\mid ? \\mid ? m322\\mid from accelerator {{? }? } measurements supports the three-flavor model of neutrino oscillation. The current generation of reactor {{\\bar{? }}e} experiments are expected to reach ˜3% precision in both {{? }13} and \\mid ? mee2\\mid . Precise knowledge of these parameters aids interpretation of planned {{? }? } measurements, and allows future experiments to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP-violation in neutrino oscillation. Absolute measurements of the energy spectra of {{\\bar{? }}e} deviate from existing models of reactor emission, particularly in the range of 5–7 MeV.

  20. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  1. Control system for a small fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Burelbach, James P. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Kann, William J. (Park Ridge, IL); Saiveau, James G. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A system for controlling the reactivity of a small fission reactor includes an elongated, flexible hollow tube in the general form of a helical coiled spring axially positioned around and outside of the reactor vessel in an annular space between the reactor vessel and a surrounding cylindrical-shaped neutron reflector. A neutron absorbing material is provided within the hollow tube with the rate of the reaction controlled by the extension and compression of the hollow tube, e.g., extension of the tube increases reactivity while its compression reduces reactivity, in varying the amount of neutron absorbing material disposed between the reactor vessel and the neutron reflector. Conventional mechanical displacement means may be employed to control the coil density of the hollow tube as desired. In another embodiment, a plurality of flexible hollow tubes each containing a neutron absorber are positioned adjacent to one another in spaced relation around the periphery of the reactor vessel and inside the outer neutron reflector with reactivity controlled by the extension and compression of all or some of the coiled hollow tubes. Yet another embodiment of the invention envisions the neutron reflector in the form of an expandable coil spring positioned in an annular space between the reactor vessel and an outer neutron absorbing structure for controlling the neutron flux reflected back into the reactor vessel.

  2. The Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, J. H.; Hogan, W. J.; Tobin, M. T.; Bourque, R. F.; Meier, W. R.

    1990-12-01

    The Cascade reactor concept has the potential of converting inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy into electrical power safely, efficiently, and with low activation. Its flexibility permits a number of options for materials, blankets, fuel-pellet designs and drivers. This report documents a theoretical and experimental study culminating in a reference Cascade conceptual design that produces 890 MW of electrical power with a net plant efficiency of 47 percent if a heavy-ion driver if used. The reactor is double-cone shaped and rotates at 50 rpm. A ceramic-granule blanket flows through the reactor held against the reactor wall by the rotation. The blanket serves several functions: it absorbs energy from fusion reactions that occur at 5 Hz in the center of the reactor, thereby protecting the reactor wall and extending its lifetime to that of power plant; it acts as a heat-exchange medium to transfer fusion energy to high-pressure helium gas used in power conversion; and it produces tritium to replace that burned in the fusion process. Cascade's illumination geometry is restricted, so that good energy coupling to presently-envisioned fuel pellets is practical only with heavy-ion drivers. Laser drivers would require the use of fuel pellets with advanced design features. We discuss the reactor concept, heat exchanger, balance of plant, other systems that would be necessary for a full-scale production of electrical power, and experiments that prove the feasibility of a flowing granular blanket. A cost study predicts that Cascade, using a heavy-ion driver, could produce electricity for between 5.5 and 6.8 cents/kWh-comparable to the cost of power using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, pressurized-water reactors, or coal-fired power plants. Finally, we include an annotated bibliography of the over 50 reports which have been written about Cascade.

  3. Advances in ICF power reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1985-04-17

    Fifteen ICF power reactor design studies published since 1980 are reviewed to illuminate the design trends they represent. There is a clear, continuing trend toward making ICF reactors inherently safer and environmentally benign. Since this trend accentuates inherent advantages of ICF reactors, we expect it to be further emphasized in the future. An emphasis on economic competitiveness appears to be a somewhat newer trend. Lower cost of electricity, smaller initial size (and capital cost), and more affordable development paths are three of the issues being addressed with new studies.

  4. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  5. Waste management for JAERI fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobita, K.; Nishio, S.; Konishi, S.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2004-08-01

    In the fusion reactor design study at Japan Atomic Energy Institute (JAERI), several waste management strategies were assessed. The assessed strategies are: (1) reinforced neutron shield to clear the massive ex-shielding components from regulatory control; (2) low aspect ratio tokamak to reduce the total waste; (3) reuse of liquid metal breeding material and neutron shield. Combining these strategies, the weight of disposal waste from a low aspect ratio reactor VECTOR is expected to be comparable with the metal radwaste from a light water reactor (˜4000 t).

  6. Nuclear reactor fissile isotopes antineutrino spectra

    E-print Network

    V. Sinev

    2012-07-30

    Positron spectrum from inverse beta decay reaction on proton was measured in 1988-1990 as a result of neutrino exploration experiment. The measured spectrum has the largest statistics and lowest energy threshold between other neutrino experiments made that time at nuclear reactors. On base of the positron spectrum the standard antineutrino spectrum for typical reactor fuel composition was restored. In presented analysis the partial spectra forming this standard spectrum were extracted using specific method. They could be used for neutrino experiments data analysis made at any fuel composition of reactor core.

  7. Reactor power system/spacecraft integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The new national initiative in space reactor technology evaluation and development is strongly tied to mission applications and to spacecraft and space transportation system (STS) compatibility. This paper discusses the power system integration interfaces with potential using spacecraft and the STS, and the impact of these requirements on the design. The integration areas of interest are mechanical, thermal, electrical, attitude control, and mission environments. The mission environments include space vacuum, solar input, heat sink, space radiation, weapons effects, and reactor power system radiation environments. The natural, reactor, and weapons effects radiation must be evaluated and combined to define the design requirements for spacecraft electronic equipment.

  8. Thermal embrittlement of reactor vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Stoller, R.E.; Wang, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Odette, G.R. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

    1995-06-01

    As a result of observations of possible thermal embrittlement from recent studies with welds removed from retired steam generators of the Palisades Nuclear Plant (PNP), an assessment was made of thermal aging of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under nominal reactor operating conditions. Discussions are presented on (1) data from the literature regarding relatively low-temperature thermal embrittlement of RPV steels; (2)relevant data from the US power reactor-embrittlement data base (PR-EDB); and (3)potential mechanisms of thermal embrittlement in low-alloy steels.

  9. Optimized Conditioning of Activated Reactor Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Tress, G.; Doehring, L.; Pauli, H.; Beer, H.-F.

    2002-02-25

    The research reactor DIORIT at the Paul Scherrer Institute was decommissioned in 1993 and is now being dismantled. One of the materials to be conditioned is activated reactor graphite, approximately 45 tons. A cost effective conditioning method has been developed. The graphite is crushed to less than 6 mm and added to concrete and grout. This graphite concrete is used as matrix for embedding dismantling waste in containers. The waste containers that would have been needed for separate conditioning and disposal of activated reactor graphite are thus saved. Applying the new method, the cost can be reduced from about 55 SFr/kg to about 17 SFr/kg graphite.

  10. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harto, Andang Widi

    2012-06-01

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  11. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  12. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Udovich, Carl A. (Joliet, IL)

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  13. SPECIAL MATERIALS FOR REACTOR CONSTRUCTION AND THEIR METHODS OF FABRICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1963-01-01

    ABS>A survey is made of the literature dealing with the materials used ; in nuclear reactors and the methods of fabrication of these materials into ; reactor components. The reactor concepts examined are those for civilian power ; generation; coolants include water, deuterium oxide, sodium, organic liquids, or ; gases. The reactor components considered are the pressure vessel, pressure ;

  14. FEM calculation of an acoustic field in a sonochemical reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyuichi Yasui; Teruyuki Kozuka; Toru Tuziuti; Atsuya Towata; Yasuo Iida; John King; Patrick Macey

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the acoustic amplitude in a sonochemical reactor has been numerically calculated using the finite element method (FEM). In the FEM program, the acoustic field in a sonochemical reactor is coupled with the vibration of the reactor’s wall. The present calculations have revealed that the thin (thick) glass or stainless steel wall is nearly a free (rigid)

  15. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahisa Yamamoto; Koshi Mitachi; Takashi Suzuki

    2005-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor

  16. Weld monitor and failure detector for nuclear reactor system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Jr

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a detection system for monitoring the integrity of inaccessible weld means throughout the life of a reactor system and providing a responsive signal indicative of weld failure. The nuclear reactor system includes a steel nuclear reactor vessel having an outer wall surface and an inner wall surface and reactor vessel structural support means projecting inwardly from the

  17. CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS OF THE FIXED BED NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhang Sefidvash; Tomas Matela; Robson Silva da Silva

    Small nuclear reactors without the need for on-site refuelling have greater simplicity, better compliance with passive safety systems, and are more adequate for countries with small electric grids and limited investment capabilities. The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) is a small 40 MWe reactor based on the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) technology. FBNR is an integrated primary circuit and simple

  18. SHIELDING COMPUTER PROGRAM 04-0, REACTOR SHIELD ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Edwards; J. E. MacDonald; B. Goldberg; K. Paine

    1958-01-01

    Shielding Computer Program 04-0 is available for computing reactor-; shield weight and fast neutron and gamma ray dose rates in and around complex ; resctorshield assemblies. Reactor and shield geometries are described by ; combinations of regions formed by rotating rectangles or trapezoids about the ; reactor axis or by translating rectangles parallel to the reactor axis. ; Compositions are

  19. SHIELDING COMPUTER PROGRAM 04-2, REACTOR SHIELD ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Edwards; J. E. MacDonald; J. J. Loechler

    1957-01-01

    Shielding Computer Program 04-2 is available for computing reactor-; shield weight and fast neutron and gamma ray dose rates in and around complex ; reactor-shield assemblies. Reaetor and shield geometries are described by ; combinations of regions formed by rotating rectangles or trapezoids about the ; reactor axis or by translating rectangles parallel to the reactor axis. ; Compositions are

  20. PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR TO EMBEDMENT IN CONCRETE. HIGHER PIPE IS INLET; THE OTHER, THE OUTLET LOOP. INLET PIPE WILL CONNECT TO TOP SECTION OF REACTOR VESSEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1287. Unknown Photographer, 1/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors

    E-print Network

    Z. Djurcic; J. A. Detwiler; A. Piepke; V. R. Foster Jr.; L. Miller; G. Gratta

    2008-08-06

    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in electron anti-neutrino detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties and their relevance to reactor anti-neutrino experiments.

  2. LIMITED POWER BURSTS IN DISTRIBUTED MODELS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

    E-print Network

    Bazhenov, Maxim

    LIMITED POWER BURSTS IN DISTRIBUTED MODELS OF NUCLEAR REACTORS M. V. Bazhenov and E. F. Sabaev UDC employed for analyzing reactor dynamics. Equations of this type are used for analyzing the stability of the reactor power, etc. Among these problems the question of the boundedness of reactor power bursts

  3. Research Reactors and Radiation Facilities for Joint Use Program

    E-print Network

    Takada, Shoji

    Research Reactors and Radiation Facilities for Joint Use Program Kyoto University Research Reactor at the Hida Observatory The Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) was established in 1963 of nuclear energy and radiation application. The main facility, called the Kyoto University Research Reactor

  4. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview purposes and is a sampling of advanced SMR concepts, which will be considered as part of the current DOE SMR program but whose estimated deployment time is beyond CAP’s current investment time horizon. Attachment I is the public DOE statement describing the present approach of their SMR Program.

  5. Control system for a small fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Burelbach, J.P.; Kann, W.J.; Saiveau, J.G.

    1985-02-08

    A system for controlling the reactivity of a small fission reactor includes an elongated, flexible hollow tube in the general form of a helical coiled spring axially positioned around and outside of the reactor vessel in an annular space between the reactor vessel and a surrounding cylindrical-shaped neutron reflector. A neutron absorbing material is provided within the hollow tube with the rate of the reaction controlled by the extension and compression of the hollow tube, e.g., extension of the tube increases reactivity while its compression reduces reactivity, in varying the amount of neutron absorbing material disposed between the reactor vessel and the neutron reflector. Conventional mechanical displacement means may be employed to control the coil density of the hollow tube as desired.

  6. Heating of the structures surrounding nuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Komarovskii

    1958-01-01

    In the paper is considered the question of the effect of heating and radioactive radiation from a nuclear reactor on the concrete biological shield surrounding it. Various types of concrete used for the indicated purpose are described.

  7. Actinide minimization using pressurized water reactors

    E-print Network

    Visosky, Mark Michael

    2006-01-01

    Transuranic actinides dominate the long-term radiotoxity in spent LWR fuel. In an open fuel cycle, they impose a long-term burden on geologic repositories. Transmuting these materials in reactor systems is one way to ease ...

  8. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment - Duration: 17 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  9. Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.; Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Thatcher, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) incorporating a full-scope external events analysis which has been completed for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  10. Reactor physics project progress report no. 2

    E-print Network

    Driscoll, Michael J.

    1969-01-01

    This is the second annual report in an experimental and theoretical program to develop and apply single and few element heterogeneous methods for the determination of reactor lattice parameters. During the period covered ...

  11. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT).

  12. Corrosion Minimization for Research Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Shaber; Gerard Hofman

    2005-06-01

    Existing university research reactors are being converted to use low-enriched uranium fue to eliminate the use of highly-enriched uranium. These conversions require increases in fuel loading that will result in the use of elements with more fuel plates, resulting in a net decrease in the water annulus between fuel plates. The proposed decrease in the water annulus raises questions about the requirements and stability of the surface hydroxide on the aluminum fuel cladding and the potential for runaway corrosion resulting in fuel over-temperature incidents. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as regulator for these university reactors, must ensure that proposed fuel modifications will not result in any increased risk or hazard to the reactor operators or the public. This document reviews the characteristics and behavior of aluminum hydroxides, analyzes the drivers for fuel plate corrosion, reviews relevant historical incidents, and provides recommendations on fuel design, surface treatment, and reactor operational practices to avoid corrosion issues.

  13. Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Studies

    E-print Network

    Reactor Fuels and Chemicals Generator Steam Turbine Combustion Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generator Combustor Air Generator Stack Electric Power Electric Power Electric Power Hydrogen H2 Separation Fuel Cells

  14. Glassy materials investigated for nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, E. D.

    1968-01-01

    Studies determine the feasibility of preparing fuel-bearing glasses and glasses bearing neutron-absorbing materials for use as crystalline fuel and control rods for reactors. Properties investigated were devitrification resistance, urania solubility, and density.

  15. Reactor monitoring with Neutrinos Michel Cribier

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    production. Nevertheless the net balance in plutonium is positive and a standard pressurized water power reactor produces around 200 kg of plutonium per year. Every fission of a fissile isotope produce two

  16. Self-Sustaining Thorium Boiling Water Reactors

    E-print Network

    Ganda, Francesco

    A thorium-fueled water-cooled reactor core design approach that features a radially uniform composition of fuel rods in stationary fuel assembly and is fuel-self-sustaining is described. This core design concept is similar ...

  17. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  18. Core design of the upgraded TREAT reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D.C.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Lipinski, W.C.; Stone, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The upgrading of the TREAT reactor involves the replacement of the central 11 x 11 subzone of the 19 x 19 fuel assembly array by new, Inconel-clad, high-temperature fuel assemblies, and the additions of a new reactor control system, a safety-grade plant protection system, and an enhanced reactor filtration/coolant system. The final design of these modifications will be completed in early 1983. The TREAT facility is scheduled to be shut down for modification in mid-1984, and should resume the safety test program in mid-1985. The upgrading will provide a capability to conduct fast reactor safety tests on clusters of up to 37 prototypic LMFBR pins.

  19. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  20. Critical assessment of thorium reactor technology

    E-print Network

    Drenkhahn, Robert (Robert A.)

    2012-01-01

    Thorium-based fuels for nuclear reactors are being considered for use with current and future designs in both large and small-scale energy production. Thorium-232 is as abundant on Earth as lead, far more common than all ...

  1. Downstream extent of the N Reactor plume

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Ecker, R.M.; Vail, L.W.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    The downstream extent of the N Reactor thermal plume was studied to assess the potential for fisheries impacts downstream of N Reactor. The N Reactor plume, as defined by the 0.5/sup 0/F isotherm, will extend less than 10 miles downstream at river flows greater than or equal to annual average flows (120,000 cfs). Incremental temperature increases at the Oregon-Washington border are expected to be less than 0.5/sup 0/F during all Columbia River flows greater than the minimum regulated flows (36,000 cfs). The major physical factor affecting Columbia River temperatures in the Hanford Reach is solar radiation. Because the estimated temperature increase resulting from N Reactor operations is less than 0.3/sup 0/F under all flow scenarios, it is unlikely that Columbia River fish populations will be adversely impacted.

  2. Validation of the reactor dynamics code TRAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raety, Hanna; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, Riitta; Rajamaeki, Markku

    1991-05-01

    The validation of the one dimensional reactor dynamics code TRAB (Transient Analysis code for BWR's) is summarized. TRAB was validated with benchmark problems, comparative calculations against independent analyses, analyses of start up experiments of nuclear power plants, and real plant transients. The initial power excursion of the Chernobyl reactor accident was calculated with TRAB. TRAB was originally designed for BWR analyses, but it can in its present version be used for various modeling purposes. The core model of TRAB can be used separately for LWR calculations. For PWR modeling the core model of TRAB was coupled to circuit model SMABRE to form the SMATRA code. The versatile modeling capabilities of TRAB were used in analyses of e.g., the heating reactor SECURE and the RBMK type reactor (Chernobyl).

  3. Safe new reactor for radionuclide production

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.L.

    1995-02-15

    In late 1995, DOE is schedule to announce a new tritium production unit. Near the end of the last NPR (New Production Reactors) program, work was directed towards eliminating risks in current designs and reducing effects of accidents. In the Heavy Water Reactor Program at Savannah River, the coolant was changed from heavy to light water. An alternative, passively safe concept uses a heavy-water-filled, zircaloy reactor calandria near the bottom of a swimming pool; the calandria is supported on a light-water-coolant inlet plenum and has upflow through assemblies in the calandria tubes. The reactor concept eliminates or reduces significantly most design basis and severe accidents that plague other deigns. The proven, current SRS tritium cycle remains intact; production within the US of medical isotopes such as Mo-99 would also be possible.

  4. Gaseous fuel reactors for power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. S.; Rodgers, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors have significant advantages as energy sources for closed-cycle power systems. The advantages arise from the removal of temperature limits associated with conventional reactor fuel elements, the wide variety of methods of extracting energy from fissioning gases, and inherent low fissile and fission product in-core inventory due to continuous fuel reprocessing. Example power cycles and their general performance characteristics are discussed. Efficiencies of gaseous fuel reactor systems are shown to be high with resulting minimal environmental effects. A technical overview of the NASA-funded research program in gaseous fuel reactors is described and results of recent tests of uranium hexafluoride (UF6)-fueled critical assemblies are presented.

  5. Rethinking the light water reactor fuel cycle

    E-print Network

    Shwageraus, Evgeni, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    The once through nuclear fuel cycle adopted by the majority of countries with operating commercial power reactors imposes a number of concerns. The radioactive waste created in the once through nuclear fuel cycle has to ...

  6. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  7. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  8. Removal of hydrogen bubbles from nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Method proposed for removing large hydrogen bubbles from nuclear environment uses, in its simplest form, hollow spheres of palladium or platinum. Methods would result in hydrogen bubble being reduced in size without letting more radioactivity outside reactor.

  9. Advanced reactor development: The LMR integral fast reactor program at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor technology for the 21st Century must develop with characteristics that can now be seen to be important for the future, quite different from the things when the fundamental materials and design choices for present reactors were made in the 1950s. Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 3 figs.

  10. Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, E. O.; Fuji-Ie, Y.

    This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20-30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC) - as an advanced and promising reactor system that offers solutions to the above problems. The difference (not confrontation) between the approaches to nuclear power development based on the principles of “inherent safety” and “natural safety” is demonstrated.

  11. APPLYING NEW METHODS TO RESEARCH REACTOR ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. CHENG; L. HANSON; A. XU; J. CAREW

    2004-01-01

    Detailed reactor physics and safety analyses are being performed for the 20 MW DO-moderated research reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods and will contribute to an update to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Three-dimensional MCNP Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations are performed to determine power and reactivity

  12. The next generation of fast reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Adamov; V. Orlov; A. Filin; V. Leonov; A. Sila-Novitski; V. Smirnov; V. Tsikunov

    1997-01-01

    The results of computational and design studies of a 1200 MW, lead-cooled pool-type fast reactor with U?Pu nitride fuel based on the same principles as the previously considered BREST-300 design (Adamov, E.O., Orlov, V.V., Filin et al. Proc. Int. Topical Meeting on Advanced Reactors Safety, ARS'94, Pittsburgh, USA, 1994, pp. 509–516.) are presented. In connection with a capacity increase and

  13. MOLTEN FLUORIDES AS POWER REACTOR FUELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Briant; A. M. Weinberg

    1957-01-01

    Molten fluorides of uranium, thorium, plutonium, and other elements ; potentially- have wide applicability- as fuels for power reactors. Because of ; their low vapor pressure they' can be used in very high-temperature but low-; pressure liquid-fuel reactors. In addition, they- possess great chemical ; flexibility-the molten-salt principle can be applied to burners, thorium-uranium ; thermal breeders, plutoniumuranium converters, and

  14. The 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanosdol, J. H. (editor)

    1973-01-01

    Design of the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system was initiated in February 1972 and extended through the conceptual design phase into the preliminary design phase. Design effort was terminated in January, 1973. This report documents the system and component requirements, design approaches, and performance and design characteristics for the 5-kwe system. Included is summary information on the reactor, radiation shields, power conversion systems, thermoelectric pump, radiator/structure, liquid metal components, and the control system.

  15. Monitoring structural vibrations inside reactor vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. N. Andryushenkov; V. V. Bulavin; S. I. Vladimirtsev; F. V. Karmanov; A. G. Smolyar

    1980-01-01

    The traditional visual (TV) inspection of in-reactor equipment, carried out as a rule once in several years of power plant operation, is obviously unable to provide a warning of vibration-caused damage. Straingauge measurements are now used to check vibrations of in-reactor requipment during hydrodynamic tests of nuclear power plants in start-up works. This method is quite effective as far as

  16. Development of the reactor safety film

    SciTech Connect

    Sheheen, N.N.; Hodson, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The first computer-generated film of LASL's Reactor Safety efforts was developed using the ANIMATE framework, a program that adds visual capabilities to MAPPER. Numerous software limitations had to be overcome within a very limited production schedule. A significant achievement was the 15,000-vector-per-frame sequence depicting a pressurized water reactor core with parts flashing while pumps circulate fluid through the system.

  17. Space reactors: What is a kilogram

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.; Ek, D.; Voss, S.

    1984-01-01

    The use of nuclear electric propulsion can triple payloads to GEO for a single Shuttle launch. Life orbits of 300 years can be used to allow most of the fission and activation products to decay before a reactor reenters the biosphere. Enough radioactive materials remain with very long lifetimes to make it desirable to design the reactor to disperse upon reentry and little additional risk to the biosphere is introduced by initiating NEP operations from 300 km.

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferg, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.

  19. Engineering aspects of demonstration fusion power reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Biggio; G. Casini; F. Farfaletti-Casali; F. Lanza; R. Matera; G. Pierini; C. Ponti; F. W. Reiter; M. Rieger; P. Rocco

    1979-01-01

    Conceptual design study of a demonstration power reactor plant (FINTOR-D), of tokamak-type, is reviewed. FINTOR-D is defined as a full fusion plant generating electric power, able to demonstrate the feasibility of all the technologies required for a prototype reactor station. The study objective is to assess the principal physical and engineering limits connected with varying levels of capability of experimental

  20. Enhanced Singular Wave Reactor for Surface Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Popa-Simil

    2011-01-01

    The “CANDLE” (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) also known as singular wave reactor has many significant advantages related to elimination of the need for enrichment. The use of micro-hetero structured fuel, generically called “cer-liq-mesh” will further improve burnup up to 90%. In spite it has typically large dimensions,