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1

JEZEBEL And GODIVA. Informal Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various code options and input data are tested in the calculation of the fast reactor benchmarks, JEZEBEL and GODIVA. Their effects on the eigenvalue and exp 238 U to exp 235 U central fission rate ratio are documented. Although the results can be used to...

R. B. Kidman

1979-01-01

2

Source-Term and building-Wake Consequence Modeling for the Godiva IV Reactor at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this work were to evaluate the consequences of a postulated accident to onsite security personnel stationed near the facility during operations of the Godiva IV critical assembly and to identify controls needed to protect these personnel in case of an extreme criticality excursion equivalent to the design-basis accident (DBA). This paper presents the methodology and results of the source-term calculations, building ventilation rates, air concentrations, and consequence calculations that were performed using a multidisciplinary approach with several phenomenology models. Identification of controls needed to mitigate the consequences to near-field receptors is discussed.

Letellier, B.C.; McClure, P.; Restrepo, L.

1999-06-13

3

Preliminary results of GODIVA-IV prompt burst modeling  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic computer model developed to simulate GODIVA-IV prompt bursts adequately predicts the magnitude of power bursts. Also, it demonstrates the characteristic features of prompt bursts in metal assemblies, such as the change in shape of power pulses and the ringing of fuel surfaces at the onset of inertial effects. The model will be used to test more sophisticated reactivity feedback coefficients and neutronic-hydrodynamic coupling schemes. It will also be used for a more detailed analysis of inertial effects.

Kimpland, R.

1996-06-01

4

Radioactive air effluent emission measurements at two research reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories operates two reactors which fall under US Environmental Protection Agency regulations for emission of radionuclides to the ambient air. These reactors are: (1) the Annular Core Research Reactor, a pool-type reactor and (2) the Sandia Pulsed Reactor III, a Godiva-type reactor. The annual radioactive air emissions from these two reactors had been estimated based on engineering calculations

M. J. McDonald; F. Ghanbari; M. J. Burger; C. Holm

1996-01-01

5

Validation of energy moments from the one-dimensional energy dependent neutron diffusion equation, MCNP5 and Attila-7.1.0 with the GODIVA experiment  

SciTech Connect

Normalized neutron energy moments (moments) from the one-dimensional energy dependent neutron diffusion equation (EDNDE), Monte Carlo N Particle 5 version 1.40 (MCNP5) and Attila-7.1.0-beta version (Attila) are validated with the GODIVA experiment (GODIVA). Energy moments 05 for all three methods are compared to GODIVA moments. GODIVA moments are measured with two methods. The 1st method is a time of flight (T-O-F) measurement of the average energy (moment 1) of the leaking neutrons from the surface of GODIVA and the 2nd method is from back calculating moments from foil activation analysis of various metal foils at the center of GODIVA. The error range of the EDNDE normalized moments compared to GODIVA is from 0% to 24%. The MCNP5 error range compared to GODIVA is 012% and the Attila error range is 079%. The method of moments is shown to be a fast reliable method, compared to either Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5) or 30 multi-energy group methods (Attila) with regard to the GODIVA experiment.

Douglas S. Crawford; Terry A. Ring

2012-12-01

6

Overview of Sandia National Laboratories pulse nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has designed, constructed and operated bare metal Godiva-type and pool-type pulse reactors since 1961. The reactor facilities were designed to support a wide spectrum of research, development, and testing activities associated with weapon and reactor systems.

Schmidt, T.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reuscher, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1994-10-01

7

Effect of acetylation on antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).  

PubMed

Acetylation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety) polysaccharide using acetic anhydride with pyridines as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of pyridine as catalyst could increase the degree of substitution, whereas volume of acetic anhydride had little effect. The acetylated polysaccharides in DPPH scavenging radical activity assay, superoxide anion radical activity assay and reducing power assay exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of unmodified polysaccharide. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives and the derivatives presented higher protective effects. On the whole, acetylated polysaccharide showed relevant antioxidant activity both in vitro and in a cell system. PMID:23987399

Song, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liusheng; Zhou, Chunli; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Li, Quanhong; Hu, Xiaosong

2013-10-15

8

Neutron spectrum measurements at the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor (FBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor (FBR) is an unmoderated, unreflected bare critical assembly of the Godiva II type. The FBR is extensively used for producing a nuclear environment which stimulates the neutron portion of a nuclear weapon. Military systems are exposed to this environment for testing and analysis of their response to a nuclear weapon. The primary

H. L. Wright; J. L. Meason; J. I. Harvey

1976-01-01

9

Neutron initiation probability in fast burst reactor  

SciTech Connect

Based on the probability balance of neutron random events in multiply system, the four random process of neutron in prompt super-critical is described and then the equation of neutron initiation probability W(r,E,{Omega},t) is deduced. On the assumption of static, slightly prompt super-critical and the two factorial approximation, the formula of the average probability of 'one' neutron is derived which is the same with the result derived from the point model. The MC simulation using point model is applied in Godiva- II and CFBR-II, and the simulation result of one neutron initiation is well consistent with the theory that the initiation probability of Godiva- II inverted commas CFBR-II burst reactor are 0.00032, 0.00027 respectively on the ordinary burst operation. (authors)

Liu, X.; Du, J.; Xie, Q.; Fan, X. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, No.64, Mianshan Road, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

2012-07-01

10

Shielding study for fast-burst reactor building  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the radiation levels and the response of various diagnostic components in and around the building that houses the Godiva IV fast-burst reactor assembly. In a typical operation of 1 MW-s (3.610f'iss ions) in a 50 ps fwhm burst the peak power approaches 100,000 MW. The unshielded dose at 3 m is about 500 Rem.

B. G. Rees; R. E. Malenfant

2002-01-01

11

Godiva Rim Member: A new stratigraphic unit of the Green River Formation in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado. Geology of the Eocene Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

The report names and describes the Godiva Rim Member of the Green River Formation in the eastern part of the Washakie basin in southwest Wyoming and the central part of the Sand Wash basin in northwest Colorado. The Godiva Rim Member comprises lithofacies of mixed mudflat and lacustrine origin situated between the overlying lacustrine Laney Member of the Green River Formation and the underlying fluvial Cathedral Bluffs Tongue of the Wasatch Formation. The Godiva Rim Member is laterally equivalent to and grades westward into the LaClede Bed of the Laney Member. The Godiva Rim Member of the Green River Formation was deposited along the southeast margins of Lake Gosiute and is correlated to similar lithologic units that were deposited along the northeast margins of Lake Uinta in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. The stratigraphic data presented provide significant evidence that the two lakes were periodically connected around the east end of the Uinta Mountains during the middle Eocene.

Roehler, H.W.

1991-01-01

12

Radioactive air effluent emission measurements at two research reactors  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories operates two reactors which fall under US Environmental Protection Agency regulations for emission of radionuclides to the ambient air. These reactors are: (1) the Annular Core Research Reactor, a pool-type reactor and (2) the Sandia Pulsed Reactor III, a Godiva-type reactor. The annual radioactive air emissions from these two reactors had been estimated based on engineering calculations and used in the facility Safety Analysis Report. The calculated release rates had never been confirmed through measurements. The purpose of this work was to obtain confirmatory radioactive gas and aerosol concentration measurements for radionuclides in exhaust stacks of these reactors during normal operation; however, the measured production rate of argon-41 was significantly different from the engineering calculations for both reactors. The resolution of this difference is discussed.

McDonald, M.J.; Ghanbari, F.; Burger, M.J.; Holm, C.

1996-10-01

13

Shielding study for fast-burst reactor building  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate the radiation levels and the response of various diagnostic components in and around the building that houses the Godiva IV fast-burst reactor assembly. In a typical operation of 1 MW-s (3.6{approx}10f'is{approx}s ions) in a 50 ps fwhm burst the peak power approaches 100,000 MW. The unshielded dose at 3 m is about 500 Rem. The results will be used to evaluate the radiation levels and shielding requirements for a new facility, and to anticipate problems with new safety, security, and diagnostic instrumentation. The study was required because of the difficulty of making accurate calculations, the intensity of the radiation, the mixed neutron and gamnta-ray source terms, and the complex nature of the structure. In addition to detailed dosimetry, attention was paid to the evaluation of spurious electromagnetic and radiofrequency signals produced in detectors, cables, and conduits.

Rees, B. G. (Brian G.); Malenfant, R. E. (Richard E.)

2002-01-01

14

Feasibility study of noise analysis methods on virtual thermal reactor subcriticality monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the analysis results of Rossi-alpha, cross-correlation, Feynman-alpha, and Feynman difference methods applied to the subcriticality monitoring of nuclear reactors. A thermal spectrum Godiva model has been designed for the analysis of the four methods. This Godiva geometry consists of a spherical core containing the isotopes of H-l, U-235 and U-238, and the H{sub 2}O reflector outside the core. A Monte Carlo code, McCARD, is used in real time mode to generate virtual detector signals to analyze the feasibility of the four methods. The analysis results indicate that the four methods can be used with high accuracy for the continuous monitoring of subcriticality. In addition to that, in order to analyze the impact of the random noise contamination on the accuracy of the noise analysis, the McCARD-generated signals are contaminated with arbitrary noise. It is noticed that, even when the detector signals are contaminated, the four methods can predict the subcriticality with reasonable accuracy. Nonetheless, in order to reduce the adverse impact of the random noise, eight detector signals, rather than a single signal, are generated from the core, one signal from each equally divided eighth part of the core. The preliminary analysis with multiple virtual detector signals indicates that the approach of using many detectors is promising to improve the accuracy of criticality prediction and further study will be performed in this regard. (authors)

Kong, C.; Lee, D. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology UNIST-gil, 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)] [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology UNIST-gil, 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., 1312-70, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., 1312-70, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

15

Reactor technology. Progress report, July-September 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the Space Power Advanced Reactor (SPAR) Program includes indications that revision of the BeO reflector configuration can reduce system weight. Observed boiling limit restrictions on the performance of the annular-wick core heat pipe have accelerated transition to the development of the target-design arterial heat pipe. Successful bends of core heat pipes have been made with sodium as the mandrel material. With the phasing out of the GCFR Program, work on the Low Power Safety Experiments Program is now concentrated on completion of the third 37-rod Full Length Subgroup test. In the Reactor Safety/Structural Analysis area, effort on the Category I Structures Program is toward developing an experimental test plan focusing on a specific structural design. Buckling experiments on thin-walled cylindrical shells with circular cutouts are reported. Results of a three-dimensional analysis of thermal stresses in the Fort St. Vrain core support block are presented. Materials investigations and operation of a molybdenum-core SiC heat pipe are reported. Entrainment limits for gravity-assisted heat pipes and heat pipe configurations for application to energy conservation are being investigated. The new solution critical assembly, SHEBA, was completed. Godiva IV was temporarily relocated at TA-15. Influence of scattered radiations in the test vault on InRad measurements was determined from detector scans of the vault produced by /sup 252/Cf neutron and /sup 137/Cs gamma sources.

Breslow, M. (ed.)

1980-12-01

16

Nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor of the type which uses liquid metal as primary and secondary coolants, and wherein the reactor vessel contains a core and a plurality of vertically extending cylindrical intermediate heat exchangers for carrying out heat exchange between the primary and secondary coolants; primary coolant circulation pumps disposed outside of the reactor vessel; a pipe for conducting to the

1984-01-01

17

Thirty-five years at Pajarito Canyon Site  

SciTech Connect

A history of the research activities performed at the Pajarito Canyon Site from 1946 to 1981 is presented. Critical assemblies described include: the Topsy assembly; Lady Godiva; Godiva 2; Jezebel; Flattop; the Honeycomb assembly for Rover studies; Kiwi-TNT; PARKA reactor; Big Ten; and Plasma Cavity Assembly.

Paxton, H.C.

1981-05-01

18

Disposition of fuel elements from the Aberdeen and Sandia pulse reactor (SPR-II) assemblies  

SciTech Connect

We describe the disposition of fuel from the Aberdeen (APR) and the Sandia Pulse Reactors (SPR-II) which were used to provide intense neutron bursts for radiation effects testing. The enriched Uranium - 10% Molybdenum fuel from these reactors was shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for size reduction prior to shipment to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for final disposition in the H Canyon facility. The Shipper/Receiver Agreements (SRA), intra-DOE interfaces, criticality safety evaluations, safety and quality requirements and key materials management issues required for the successful completion of this project will be presented. This work is in support of the DOE Consolidation and Disposition program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has operated pulse nuclear reactor research facilities for the Department of Energy since 1961. The Sandia Pulse Reactor (SPR-II) was a bare metal Godiva-type reactor. The reactor facilities have been used for research and development of nuclear and non-nuclear weapon systems, advanced nuclear reactors, reactor safety, simulation sources and energy related programs. The SPR-II was a fast burst reactor, designed and constructed by SNL that became operational in 1967. The SPR-ll core was a solid-metal fuel enriched to 93% {sup 235}U. The uranium was alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum to ensure the phase stabilization of the fuel. The core consisted of six fuel plates divided into two assemblies of three plates each. Figure 1 shows a cutaway diagram of the SPR-II Reactor with its decoupling shroud. NNSA charged Sandia with removing its category 1 and 2 special nuclear material by the end of 2008. The main impetus for this activity was based on NNSA Administrator Tom D'Agostino's six focus areas to reenergize NNSA's nuclear material consolidation and disposition efforts. For example, the removal of SPR-II from SNL to DAF was part of this undertaking. This project was in support of NNSA's efforts to consolidate the locations of special nuclear material (SNM) to reduce the cost of securing many SNM facilities. The removal of SPR-II from SNL was a significant accomplishment in SNL's de-inventory efforts and played a key role in reducing the number of locations requiring the expensive security measures required for category 1 and 2 SNM facilities. A similar pulse reactor was fabricated at the Y-12 National Security Complex beginning in the late 1960's. This Aberdeen Pulse Reactor (APR) was operated at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) located at the Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) in Maryland. When the APRF was shut down in 2003, a portion of the DOE-owned Special Nuclear Material (SNM) was shipped to an interim facility for storage. Subsequently, the DOE determined that the material from both the SPR-II and the APR would be processed in the H-Canyon at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because of the SRS receipt requirements some of the material was sent to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for size-reduction prior to shipment to the SRS for final disposition.

Mckerley, Bill [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bustamante, Jacqueline M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Drypolcher, Anthony F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hickey, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

19

Catalytic reactor  

DOEpatents

A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

2009-03-10

20

(Reactor dosimetry)  

SciTech Connect

The lead in most aspects of research reactor design and use passed from the USA about 15 years ago, soon after the construction of the HFIR and HFBR. The Europeans have consistently upgraded and improved their existing facilities and have built new ones including the HFR at Grenoble and ORPHEE at Saclay. They studied ultra-high flux concepts ({approximately}10{sup 20}/m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}) about 10 years ago, and are in the design phase of a new, highly efficient medium flux reactor to be built at Garching, near Munich in Germany. A visit was made to Interatom, the firm -- the equivalent of the Architect/Engineer for the ANS project -- responsible, under contract to the Technical University of Munich, for the new Munich reactor design. There are many similarities to the ANS design, and we reviewed and discussed technical and safety aspects of the two reactors. A request was made for some new, hitherto proprietary, experimental data on reactor thermal hydraulics and cooling that will be very valuable to the ANS project. I presented a seminar on the ANS project. A visit was made to Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe and knowledge was gained from Dr. Kuchle, a true pioneer of ultra-high flux reactor concepts, of their work. Dr. Kuchle kindly reviewed the ANS reference core and cooling system design (with favorable conclusions). I then talked with researchers working on materials irradiation damage and activation of structural materials by neutron irradiation, both key issues for the ANS. I was shown some new techniques they have developed for testing materials irradiation effects at high fluences, in a short time, using accelerated particle beams.

West, C.D.

1990-09-13

21

ELECTRONUCLEAR REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronuclear reactor is described in which a very high-energy ; particle accelerator is employed with appropriate target structure to produce an ; artificially produced material in commercial quantities by nuclear ; transformations. The principal novelty resides in the combination of an ; accelerator with a target for converting the accelerator beam to copious ; quantities of low-energy neutrons for

E. O. Lawrence; E. M. McMillan; L. W. Alvarez

1960-01-01

22

Neutronic reactor  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA) [Augusta, GA; Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE) [Wilmington, DE; Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE) [Wilmington, DE

1983-01-01

23

Catalytic Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substant...

M. M. Shah R. J. Jibb T. M. Aaron

2004-01-01

24

Nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a satellite tank for use in conjunction with a liquid metal reactor. It comprises: an outer tank; a pump; a heat exchanger; inlet and outlet means for liquid metal; the heat exchanger being annularly disposed around the pump; a separate sealed containment vessel around the satellite vessel; and means for a self-contained secondary liquid metal loop contained

Garabedian

1990-01-01

25

Nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor is described including a core having fuel assemblies, upper internals, and neutron-flux adjusting rods and means for moving the neutron-flux adjusting rods between the fuel assemblies and the upper internals. The upper internals includes guide means for guiding the neutron-flux adjusting rods, including columnar guides for guiding certain of the neutron-flux adjusting rods. Each columnar guide coextensive

L. Veronesi; F. D. Obermeyer; J. R. Chrise

1987-01-01

26

Nuclear reactor safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the basic physics and engineering underlying the design of nuclear reactors, descriptions of the types of reactor currently operating, the principles of reactor fault detection and control, safety analysis and hazards assessment. The more serious hypothetical accidents are reviewed for water cooled and gas cooled reactors and for the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor.

J. L. Head; A. J. H. Goddard; P. J. Grant

1979-01-01

27

Photocatalytic reactor  

DOEpatents

A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

1999-01-19

28

Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor  

DOEpatents

A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

2011-03-01

29

Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

30

Reactor safety method  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

Vachon, Lawrence J. (Clairton, PA)

1980-03-11

31

Nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

Thomson, Wallace B. (Severna Park, MD)

2004-03-16

32

Nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear reactor is described including a core having fuel assemblies, upper internals, and neutron-flux adjusting rods and means for moving the neutron-flux adjusting rods between the fuel assemblies and the upper internals. The upper internals includes guide means for guiding the neutron-flux adjusting rods, including columnar guides for guiding certain of the neutron-flux adjusting rods. Each columnar guide coextensive generally vertical guide sections aligned to receive the certain neutron-flux adjusting rods, the guide means also including generally horizontal plate sections connected to the guide sections and positioned generally vertically along the upper internals. Each plate section nested in the manner of a ''jig-saw'' puzzle and secured to, adjacent plate sections at the generally vertical level of each plate section to form an integrated composite plate at each level. These extend laterally substantially throughout the upper internals, each plate section having perforations patterned to pass others of the neutron-flux adjusting rods, the plate sections being oriented each at its generally vertical level with their perforations for the others of the neutron-flux adjusting rods aligned so that the composite plates serve as guides for the others of the neutron-flux adjusting rods.

Veronesi, L.; Obermeyer, F.D.; Chrise, J.R.

1987-07-21

33

THE HIGH FLUX REACTOR OF REACTOR CENTRUM NEDERLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Flux Reactor at Petten went critical November 9, 1961. The ; reactor was furnished by Allis-Chalmers. The following details are described: ; reactor formation. reactor tank, reactor core, control rods, shielding, beam ; tubes, irradiation facilities, cooling systems, and reactor building. The ; reactor fuel consists of 90% enriched uranium; the maximum power amounts to 20 Mw. ;

Nelissen

1962-01-01

34

Tokamak reactor studies  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features.

Baker, C.C.

1981-01-01

35

Catalytic Reactor Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature search identified design and safety concerns for plug flow, pressurized reactors. A modular plug flow reactor was designed. The vaporizer and mixing section were constructed. Thermodynamic calculations show the influence of the water-gas shif...

J. Steciak S. Beyerlein H. Jones M. Klein S. Kramer X. Wang

2001-01-01

36

Reactor physics and reactor computations. Proceedings of the internal conference on reactor physics and reactor computations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main int...

Y. Ronen E. Elias

1994-01-01

37

Attrition reactor system  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxvile, TN)

1993-01-01

38

Biochemical Reactor Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nitrifying culture was developed in a continuous stirred tank reactor system, fed with a pure mineral salts medium containing no carbon. A distinguishing feature of the reactor was the preference of the nitrifying bacteria for available surfaces, expres...

R. C. Ahlert B. Sharma

1977-01-01

39

Advanced spheromak fusion reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spheromak has no toroidal magnetic field coils or other structure along its geometric axis, and is thus more attractive than the leading magnetic fusion reactor concept, the tokamak. As a consequence of this and other attributes, the spheromak reactor...

T. K. Fowler E. B. Hooper

1996-01-01

40

Improved vortex reactor system  

DOEpatents

An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO)

1995-01-01

41

University Reactor Instrumentation Grant  

SciTech Connect

A noble gas air monitoring system was purchased through the University Reactor Instrumentation Grant Program. This monitor was installed in the Kansas State TRIGA reactor bay at a location near the top surface of the reactor pool according to recommendation by the supplier. This system is now functional and has been incorporated into the facility license.

S. M. Bajorek

2000-02-01

42

Mirror reactor surface study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are

A. L. Hunt; C. C. Damm; A. H. Futch; J. R. Hiskes; R. G. Meisenheimer; R. W. Moir; T. C. Simonen; B. W. Stallard; C. E. Taylor

1976-01-01

43

Elmo Bumpy Torus Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Elmo Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) study the feasibility of achieving a fusion power plant based on the EBT confinement concept was evaluated. If the present understanding of the physics can be extrapolated to reactor scale devices the reactor could o...

D. G. McAlees N. A. Uckan L. M. Lidsky

1976-01-01

44

Advanced Test Reactor Tour  

ScienceCinema

The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Miley, Don

2013-05-28

45

Advanced Test Reactor Tour  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Miley, Don

2011-01-01

46

Chemical reactor system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A reactor comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a conically spiraling fluid flow channel coupled between the inlet and the outlet. The reactor may be an electrochemical reactor comprising a fluid flow channel that spirals about an axis, the fluid flow channel comprising an anode, a cathode across from the anode, and a membrane disposed between the anode and the cathode. The reactor may have a number of design parameters that are based upon one or more reaction species and that favor the occurrence of a reaction associated with the species. The reactor may be used for the electrolysis of water or for the production of other chemical products.

2005-09-13

47

Fission reactors and materials  

SciTech Connect

The American-designed boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor dominate the designs currently in use and under construction worldwide. As in all energy systems, materials problems have appeared during service; these include stress-corrosion of stainless steel pipes and heat exchangers and questions regarding crack behavior in pressure vessels. To obtain the maximum potential energy from our limited uranium supplies is is essential to develop the fast breeder reactor. The materials in these reactors are subjected to higher temperatures and neutron fluxes but lower pressures than in the water reactors. The performance required of the fuel elements is more arduous in the breeder than in water reactors. Extensive materials programs are in progress in test reactors and in large test rigs to ensure that materials will be available to meet these conditions.

Frost, B.R.T.

1981-12-01

48

Spinning fluids reactor  

DOEpatents

A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

2012-11-20

49

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOEpatents

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01

50

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOEpatents

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

1994-12-20

51

SNAP reactor reentry characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive aerospace nuclear safety program was conducted as part of the SNAP 10A flight test program. Considerable effort was expended to characterize the response of the reactor to reentry conditions. The objective of the reentry studies was to demonstrate the breakup of the reactor and the dispersal of the fuel in the upper atmosphere. The program included analyses and tests of reactor disintegration. Hypersonic and arc jet wind tunnel tests were performed. Additionally, a full-size, nonradioactive model of the SNAP 10A reactor was flight tested. Subsequent analyses of the test results indicated that the reactor could not be broken up during reentry. The results of the SNAP 8 tests were used to validate a thermal computer model for analysis of the reentry behavior of an SP-100 type reactor. The results of the SNAP and SP-100 studies support the current SP-100 position to design for intact reentry for safety purposes.

Smith, Thomas W.; Dix, Terry E.; Mills, Joseph C.

52

Improved vortex reactor system  

DOEpatents

An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

1995-05-09

53

High Flux Isotope Reactor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The High Flux Reactor Isotope Facility (HFIR) produces transuranium isotopes for research, industrial, and medical applications. It is also used for a variety of neutron flux experiments. The HFIR Website gives an informative overview of the history, science, and engineering behind the reactor. Other features of the site include illustrated sections on horizontal beam poles and neutron scattering as well as daily operation status of the reactor.

2003-11-10

54

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOEpatents

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01

55

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOEpatents

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

Isaksson, J.

1996-03-19

56

Decommissioning of the Cintichem reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cintichem nuclear reactor facility is located within the town of Tuxedo, New York, in the industrial park known as Sterling Forest. The reactor is a pool type research reactor and licensed to operate at thermal power levels of up to 5 MW. The reactor is a light water moderated, cooled, shielded, and reflected solid fuel reactor. It has graphite

T. S. LaGuardia; J. McGovern

1992-01-01

57

The Oklo Fossil Fission Reactors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page gives an overview of the Oklo Fossil Fission Reactors, including the history of the area where the reactor is located, the science behind the nuclear reactions, and reasons for studying this nuclear reactor. This page also includes graphics describing the Physics behind the reactors, maps, and pictures of the reactor.

Loss, Robert

2012-06-15

58

Fast Reactor Program in Switzerland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The R and D program at the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research is outlined under the following heading: R and D in GCFR core thermohydraulics; experimental reactor physics studies; theoretical fast reactor physics studies; development at mixed ca...

R. W. Stratton

1978-01-01

59

Compact Toroid Refueling of Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of refueling fusion reactors and devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) with high-velocity compact toroids is investigated. For reactors with reasonable limits on recirculating power, it is concluded tha...

M. J. Gouge J. T. Hogan S. L. Milora C. E. Thomas

1988-01-01

60

HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heavy water as moderator offers a number of important ; advantages that was possible to fully realize in the construction of research ; reactors. Even though up to the present time there were not many opportunities ; for ac quiring practical experience with heavy water moderated power reactors, ; our knowledge in the sphere of lattice physics

Ferrarini

1960-01-01

61

Evaluation of Research Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present status of research reactors with highly enriched (93%) uranium fuel at JAERI, JRR-2 and JMTR is described. JRR-2 is a heterogeneous type of reactor, using heavy water as moderator and coolant. It uses both MTR type and cylindrical type of fuel...

1978-01-01

62

Reactor Operations Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reactor Operations Monitoring System (ROMS) is a VME based, parallel processor data acquisition and safety action system designed by the Equipment Engineering Section and Reactor Engineering Department of the Savannah River Site. The ROMS will be analyzing over 8 million signal samples per minute. Sixty-eight microprocessors are used in the ROMS in order to achieve a real-time data analysis.

1989-01-01

63

Nuclear Reactor Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS), published monthly, is a collection of abstracts of worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of reactors, including accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the

J. D. Bales; R. Boshears

1996-01-01

64

Nuclear reactor safety device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two

Hutter

1983-01-01

65

NUCLEAR REACTOR SAFETY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor safety system is designed to provide an automatic ; safeguard for the reactor under fault conditions. It is also important that the ; safety system does not generate faults of its own. The basic layout of a safety ; system is described, and it is shown that application of the principles of ; coincidence and redundancy to

Jervis

1962-01-01

66

Nuclear reactor safety device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a nuclear reactor having a core, a coolant for contacting and cooling the core, at least one control rod movable axially relative to the core for varying the power output of the reactor, and control means for moving the control rod to regulate the power output, a safety device is described to afford additional protection against an upward thermal

Hutter

1986-01-01

67

Nuclear reactor safety device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a

Hutter; Ernest

1986-01-01

68

Open-Plan Schools: Time for a Peek at Lady Godiva  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools systems that employ flexible and new methods of teaching their students must take adequate care to insure that suitable goals are established. Only in this way can the freedom given to students be used to advantage. (CK)

Anderson, D. Carl

1970-01-01

69

Geological age of reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear reactors become obsolete by wearing out or by becoming outclassed or out of date. The lifetime of a conventional power reactor is probably less that 30 years, but the life of its potentially dangerous radioactivity is now known to be of a geological time scale. When a reactor is shutdown permanently, the fuel rods, cooling water, and radioactively hot pieces are removed for long-term storage. High-level and low-level radioactive isotopes contained in the liquids and solids removed present a special problem (see Eos, Feb. 9, 1982, p. 147). It is the main frame and construction of worn out reactors that are the major problem, however. Mainly because of neutron activation processes that occur during reactor operation, components have been found to contain nickel-59 and niobium-94, both of which have very long half-lives: 80,000 and 20,300 years, respectively. The two isotopes are only present in trace amounts in metals incorporated in reactor components, but they emit levels of radiation above acceptable levels. The result is that the entire reactors must be dismantled, reduced to shippable size pieces, and the pieces stored for geologic time periods (several half-lives).

Bell, Peter M.

70

REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REACTOR BASE, SOUTHEAST CORNER. INTERIOR WILL CONTAIN REACTOR TANK, COOLING WATER PIPES, COOLING AIR DUCTS, AND SHIELDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 776. Unknown Photographer, 10/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

71

Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique

P. Delmolino

2005-01-01

72

Reactor physics of natriun-cooled fast breeder reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactor properties of liquid metal fast breeder reactors and pertinent computational methods with their applications and results are presented. Designs of reactor core and fuel are outlined. Main characteristics and layout of the homogenous and the heterogenous core are described. Reactor safety and the possibility of a hypothetical core descriptive accident is discussed. The influence of the neutron flux on

M. Rajamaeki

1980-01-01

73

Simulation fidelity issues in reactor irradiation of electronics -- Reactor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast burst reactors (FBRs), such as SPR III, and pool-type reactors, such as the University of Illinois TRIGA and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor, are used as sources of neutrons and\\/or gamma rays in transient radiation effects in electronics (TREE) research and testing. Here the authors identify the important simulation fidelity issues, compare radiation environments produced in representative reactors,

J. G. Kelly; T. F. Luera; L. D. Posey; J. G. Williams

1988-01-01

74

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOEpatents

The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

1985-10-03

75

Nuclear reactor reflector  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

Hopkins, Ronald J. (Pensacola, FL); Land, John T. (Pensacola, FL); Misvel, Michael C. (Pensacola, FL)

1994-01-01

76

Nuclear reactor reflector  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

1994-06-07

77

Microfluidic electrochemical reactors  

DOEpatents

A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Mitrovski, Svetlana M. (Urbana, IL)

2011-03-22

78

Fast Breeder Reactor studies  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

1980-07-01

79

Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in

Birgitte Kir Ahring

1995-01-01

80

Moving-Medium Biofilm Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four moving-medium biofilm reactors treating wastewater were reviewed in this paper: the rotating biological contactor (RBC), the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), the vertically moving biofilm reactor (VMBR) and the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR). The RBC process has been applied widely. MBBR is a good process for upgrading current wastewater treatment systems. VMBR is suitable for treating small wastewater flows. FBR

M. Rodgers; X.-M. Zhan

2003-01-01

81

Advanced MAPLE reactor concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-flux neutron sources are continuing to be of interest both in Canada and internationally to support materials testing for advanced power reactors, new developments in extracted-neutron-beam applications, and commercial production of selected radioiso...

R. F. Lidstone A. G. Lee G. E. Gillespie H. J. Smith

1989-01-01

82

Physics of Reactor Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Quarterly progress report summarizes work done during the months of July-September 1979 in Argonne National Laboratory's Applied Physics and Components Technology Divisions for the Division of Reactor Safety Research (RSR) of the U.S. Nuclear Regulat...

1980-01-01

83

Advanced spheromak fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

The spheromak has no toroidal magnetic field coils or other structure along its geometric axis, and is thus more attractive than the leading magnetic fusion reactor concept, the tokamak. As a consequence of this and other attributes, the spheromak reactor may be compact and produce a power density sufficiently high to warrant consideration of a liquid `blanket` that breeds tritium, converts neutron kinetic energy to heat, and protects the reactor vessel from severe neutron damage. However, the physics is more complex, so that considerable research is required to learn how to achieve the reactor potential. Critical physics problems and possible ways of solving them are described. The opportunities and issues associated with a possible liquid wall are considered to direct future research.

Fowler, T.K. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hooper, E.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-06-19

84

Mirror Reactor Surface Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena...

A. L. Hunt C. C. Damm A. H. Futch J. R. Hiskes R. G. Meisenheimer

1976-01-01

85

Packed Bed Reactor Experiment  

NASA Video Gallery

The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

86

Indian fusion test reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

87

K-Reactor readiness  

SciTech Connect

This document describes some of the more significant accomplishments in the reactor restart program and details the magnitude and extent of the work completed to bring K-Reactor to a state of restart readiness. The discussion of restart achievements is organized into the three major categories of personnel, programs, and plant. Also presented is information on the scope and extent of internal and external oversight of the efforts, as well as some details on the startup plan.

Rice, P.D.

1991-12-04

88

Molten metal reactors  

DOEpatents

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

2013-11-05

89

Synthol reactor technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Sasol introduced the Kellogg designed circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactors at Sasol 1 in the 1950s, the commercial high-temperature FischerTropsch (HTFT) process has had a dynamic ongoing development resulting, recently, in the introduction of Sasol advanced synthol (SAS) reactor operation only at Secunda, 1999. It has reached a stage now where the emphasis has shifted for developing a catalyst

Dawid J. Duvenhage; Terry Shingles

2002-01-01

90

Nuclear reactor safety system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety system (10) for shutting down a nuclear reactor under overload conditions is provided using a series of parallelconnected computing modules (14a, 14b, 14c, 14d, 14e) each of which receives data on a particular reactor parameter (P, t, phi t, phi b, w) and each of which produces a function (F(P), f(T), f( Phi t), f( Phi b), f(W))

Ball

1981-01-01

91

Nuclear reactor safety system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety system for shutting down a nuclear reactor under overload conditions is provided using a series of parallelconnected computer memory type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular reactor parameter (P, t, phi t, phi b, w) and each of which has stored therein a precalculated functional value (F(P); f(T); f( Phi t); f( Phi b);

R. M. Ball; R. C. Roberts

1981-01-01

92

Trickle-bed reactors  

SciTech Connect

Trickle-bed reactors can be defined as a fixed bed of catalyst particles, contacted by a gas-liquid, two-phase flow. The flow may be cocurrent (downflow or upflow) or countercurrent. In this article, we will focus on cocurrent downflow, which, because of its relatively lower pressure drop and the absence of flooding, is by far the most common mode of operation in industrial practice. Trickle-bed reactors are used primarily in the petroleum industry for hydrocracking, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation. It is estimated that a significant fraction of all the petroleum processed passes through a trickle-bed reactor in one way or another. Other commercial applications of trickle-bed reactors can be found in the petrochemical industry, involving mainly hydrogenation and oxidation of organic compounds. Because of the industrial significance of this reactor type, a large number of review papers and monographs have appeared in the literature, stressing primarily the development and use of various empirical correlations. For this reason, this aspect of trickle-beds, despite its significance, is not emphasized in this article. Instead, the authors intend to offer an overview of the key concepts and design considerations of this reactor type. They also focus on relevant physical phenomena, particularly particle-level physics, which provides insights for evaluating existing correlations or a given design procedure.

Ng, K.M.; Chu, C.F.

1987-11-01

93

Moon base reactor system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

1989-01-01

94

REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

2011-01-28

95

EBT reactor analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with <..beta../sub core/> approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density.

Uckan, N. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Santoro, R. T.; Spong, D. A.; Uckan, T.; Owen, L. W.; Barnes, J. M.; McBride, J. B.

1983-08-01

96

Reactor antineutrino anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Recently, new reactor antineutrino spectra have been provided for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 238}U, increasing the mean flux by about 3%. To a good approximation, this reevaluation applies to all reactor neutrino experiments. The synthesis of published experiments at reactor-detector distances <100 m leads to a ratio of observed event rate to predicted rate of 0.976{+-}0.024. With our new flux evaluation, this ratio shifts to 0.943{+-}0.023, leading to a deviation from unity at 98.6% C.L. which we call the reactor antineutrino anomaly. The compatibility of our results with the existence of a fourth nonstandard neutrino state driving neutrino oscillations at short distances is discussed. The combined analysis of reactor data, gallium solar neutrino calibration experiments, and MiniBooNE-{nu} data disfavors the no-oscillation hypothesis at 99.8% C.L. The oscillation parameters are such that |{Delta}m{sub new}{sup 2}|>1.5 eV{sup 2} (95%) and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub new})=0.14{+-}0.08 (95%). Constraints on the {theta}{sub 13} neutrino mixing angle are revised.

Mention, G.; Fechner, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lasserre, Th.; Cribier, M. [CEA, Irfu, SPP, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Astroparticule et Cosmologie APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Letourneau, A. [CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-04-01

97

Reactor for exothermic reactions  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1993-03-02

98

Thermionic Reactor Design Studies  

SciTech Connect

Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

Schock, Alfred

1994-08-01

99

Nuclear reactor safety device  

DOEpatents

A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL)

1986-01-01

100

Dynamic bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix. 27 figs.

Stormo, K.E.

1996-07-02

101

Dynamic bed reactor  

DOEpatents

A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

1996-07-02

102

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

103

Advanced Light Water Reactor Requirements Document: Chapter 4, Reactor Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this chapter of the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Plant Requirements Document is to establish utility requirements for the design of the Reactor Systems of Advanced LWR plants consistent with the objectives and principles of the ALWR ...

1987-01-01

104

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOEpatents

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

1988-01-01

105

Particle bed reactor modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

1993-01-01

106

Diagnostics for hybrid reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

Orsitto, Francesco Paolo [ENEA Unita' Tecnica Fusione , Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla Fusione C R Frascati v E Fermi 45 00044 Frascati (Italy)

2012-06-19

107

Diagnostics for hybrid reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

2012-06-01

108

Light Water Seed Blanket Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A seed blanket light water breeder reactor and a light water seed blanket thorium burner reactor have been considered. Both these proposals make use of geometry control in order to regulate reactivity. (Atomindex citation 11:538563)

1979-01-01

109

Power calibrations for TRIGA reactors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to establish a framework for the calorimetric power calibration of TRIGA reactors so that reliable results can be obtained with a precision better than {+-} 5%. Careful application of the same procedures has produced power calibration results that have been reproducible to {+-} 1.5%. The procedures are equally applicable to the Mark I, Mark II and Mark III reactors as well as to reactors having much larger reactor tanks and to TRIGA reactors capable of forced cooling up to 3 MW in some cases and 15 MW in another case. In the case of forced cooled TRIGA reactors, the calorimetric power calibration is applicable in the natural convection mode for these reactors using exactly the same procedures as are discussed below for the smaller TRIGA reactors (< 2 MW)

Whittemore, W.L.; Razvi, J.; Shoptaugh, J.R. Jr. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1988-07-01

110

In-Reactor Creep Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Creep studies have produced experimental results which are being used for design and performance analyses of fast breeder reactors. These programs enabled the development of experimental methods which have produced in-reactor creep data over a broad range...

E. R. Gilbert B. A. Chin

1978-01-01

111

Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported...

R. J. Cerbone T. Ginsberg J. G. Guppy C. Sastre

1981-01-01

112

Nuclear Reactor Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents blind pretest predictions of the nuclear LOFT test L2-3 performed with the TRA code, and SIMMER-II analysis of the transition phase behavior of a single LMFBR subassembly. In the gas-cooled reactor area, work continued in support of t...

J. F. Jackson M. G. Stevenson

1979-01-01

113

University Reactor Instrumentation Program  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

Vernetson, W.G.

1992-11-01

114

NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor  

ScienceCinema

NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

None

2014-06-26

115

Progressing Batch Hydrolysis Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In all dilute acid hydrolysis processes for glucose production, conditions severe enough to hydrolyze crystalline cellulose to glucose are also severe enough to degrade the glucose into undesirable compounds such as hydroxy-methylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid, and formic acid. One way to minimize the sugar degradation is to remove the sugars from the reaction zone before substantial degradation occurs. Sugars are most efficiently removed by a reactor system that uses countercurrent flow of liquids and solids, which allows simultaneous achievement of high yields and high sugar concentrations. The progressing batch hydrolysis process, invented and now under development at SERI, uses several percolation reactors in series to simulate countercurrent flow of liquids and solids. In this way, the advantages of countercurrent flow are achieved, and the mechanical and operational simplicity of the percolation reactor is retained. This paper describes the theory and operation of the progressing batch hydrolysis reactor and presents the results of our mathematical modeling of the system. 25 refs., 7 figs.

Wright, J.D.; Bergeron, P.W.; Werdene, P.J.

1985-09-01

116

Metallic fast reactor fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic fuels are neutronically ideal for fast reactors because they produce an extremely hard neutron spectrum. Early metallic fuels had little endurance, due to excessive swelling. By incorporating space for swelling, very high burnups are now routinely achieved. Uranium-plutonium alloys with 10% zirconium to raise the melting point have been shown to be extremely reliable. Fuel swelling, mechanical and chemical

G. L. Hofman; L. C. Walters; T. H. Bauer

1997-01-01

117

Thermal Reactor Safety  

SciTech Connect

Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

Not Available

1980-06-01

118

Nuclear reactor building  

DOEpatents

A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Sirtori, IT)

1994-01-01

119

Nuclear reactor building  

DOEpatents

A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed there above. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define there between an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin. 4 figures.

Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

1994-04-05

120

Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

Fowler, T

2007-04-03

121

Kazakhstan Reactor Becomes Operational.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reactor is a powerful source of neutron and gamma-radiation and is designed for a wide range of scientific research experiments. Water is used both as the moderator and the reflector as well as for the coolant. It is fueled with enriched uranium, and ...

1968-01-01

122

Nuclear reactor dip seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrangements are provided for sealing cover gas from the clearance spaces among primary vessel head structure components in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor. These include a dip seal having a trough and blade respectively suspended from adjacent head structure components, such as rotatable plugs, the trough and blade extending downward to an elevation below the operating level

J. M. Kazan; J. E. Sharbaugh

1982-01-01

123

Nuclear Reactors and Technology  

SciTech Connect

This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

1992-01-01

124

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

125

Cermet fuel reactors  

SciTech Connect

Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomissen, J.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

1987-09-01

126

(Thermal reactor safety)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the trip was for the traveler to participate in The International NUCSAFE 88 Conference on Thermal Reactor Safety, held in Avignon, France, October 3--7, 1988, including presentation of a paper entitled, Results of Material Investigations on Low-Upper-Shelf (LUS) Steel within the Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program (HSST).'' The major thrust of the conference was the safety of commercial power reactors, predominantly light-water reactors (LWRs). The principal areas of discussion and presentation included thermal-hydraulics, operational experience, severe accidents and their predictions and management, reactivity excursions, source-term evaluations, plant aging, and human factors considerations. These areas were considered for both the current and the next generation of LWRs. There was only limited discussion of issues relating to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity other than the prospect of a complete core melt-through, resulting from overall system failure. This report will primarily cover the overall impact of the conference with short sections on the limited information presented on pressure vessels and the results of discussions on the extension and expansion of the cooperative research agreement between the HSST Program and the Swiss-nuclear program. 5 refs.

Corwin, W.R.

1988-10-21

127

NRC Targets University Reactors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

Marshall, Eliot

1984-01-01

128

In and Out Reactor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about material balances, a fundamental concept of chemical engineering. They use stoichiometry to predict the mass of carbon dioxide that escapes after reacting measured quantities of sodium bicarbonate with dilute acetic acid. Students then react the chemicals in a small reactor made from a plastic water bottle and balloon.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

129

Nuclear Reactor Safety; (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication announces on an monthly basis the current worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of reactors, including: accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month.

D. L. Cason; S. C. Hicks

1991-01-01

130

NUCLEAR REACTOR SAFETY DEVICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-contained, self-actuating safety device is designed which will ; shut down the reactor upon the occurrence of a predetermined excessively high ; temperature in the core. The safety device comprises a closed tube partially ; filled with a mixture of fissionable material and a liquid having a high vapor ; pressure at a temperature slightly above the desired operating

1963-01-01

131

Reactor operation environmental information document  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All

J. S. Haselow; V. Price; D. E. Stephenson; H. W. Bledsoe; B. B. Looney

1989-01-01

132

Fast Breeder Reactors in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

France is the only country in the world ever to operate a commercial scale (1,200 MWe) sodium cooled, plutonium fuelled fast breeder reactor, the Superphnix at Creys-Malville. However, the French fast breeder reactor program turned out to be too costly and could never compete with light water reactor technology. Numerous technical problems, low uranium prices and massive opposition exacerbated the

MYCLE SCHNEIDER

2009-01-01

133

Interim normal limits DR reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As specified in PITA IP-26-I, a test has been conducted at DR reactor to find the amount of nonpressure sensitive air entering the reactor, and gain other information on the reactor gas system. The purpose of this document is to place in effect interim no...

D. K. George

1964-01-01

134

Nuclear reactor coolant transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for transporting reactor coolant in nuclear reactors using a liquid coolant is described. The system diverts a portion of the output from the main circulating pump in the nuclear reactor primary flow system and introduces this diverted coolant back into the system upstream of the main circulating pump. This diverted coolant compensates for any pressure drop which may

Mangus

1980-01-01

135

Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor system could provide power to support long term human exploration of the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance

Shawn Kang; Ronald Lipinski; William McAlpine

2006-01-01

136

Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

Roth, R. J.

1976-01-01

137

Reactor operations Brookhaven medical research reactor, Brookhaven high flux beam reactor informal monthly report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the April 1995 summary report on reactor operations at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor and the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor. Ongoing experiments/irradiations in each are listed, and other significant operations functions are also noted. The HFBR surveillance testing schedule is also listed.

Hauptman, H.M.; Petro, J.N.; Jacobi, O. [and others

1995-04-01

138

The nuclear reactor strategy between light water reactors and advanced pressurized water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor strategy that involves light water reactors (LWRs) and advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) with a high conversion ratio was analyzed in a logistical manner assuming a finite resource of about 5 million metric tons of natural uranium. The emphasis lies in the treatment of the dynamics of deploying this two-component LWR-APWR system. The result is that the

Seifritz

1983-01-01

139

Spatial kinetics in fast reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the solution to the spatial nonstationary equation of neutron transport is presented by the example of a fast reactor. Experiments in spatial kinetics conducted recently at the complex of critical assemblies (fast physical stand) and computations of their data using the TIMER code (for solving the nonstationary equation in multidimensional diffusion approximation for direct and inverse problems of reactor kinetics) have shown that kinetics of fast reactors substantially differs from kinetics of thermal reactors. The difference is connected with influence of the delayed neutron spectrum on rates of the process in a fast reactor.

Seleznev, E. F.; Belov, A. A.; Panova, I. S.; Matvienko, I. P.; Zhukov, A. M.

2013-12-01

140

Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

1980-05-09

141

HAZARDS OF FAST-BURST FACILITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is presented concerning the hazards that are associated ; with the GODIVA reactors and their descendants. lt is noted that safe operation ; of such reactors depends on well-trained personnel, good procedures, and ; incorporation of good instrumentation and interlocks. (J.R.D.);

Pitkanen

1962-01-01

142

Materials for passively safe reactors  

SciTech Connect

Future nuclear power capacity will be based on reactor designs that include passive safety features if recent progress in advanced nuclear power developments is realized. There is a high potential for nuclear systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the current generation of reactors, especially when passive or intrinsic characteristics are applied to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction and to minimize the burden on equipment and operating personnel. Taylor, has listed the following common generic technical features as the most important goals for the principal reactor development systems: passive stability, simplification, ruggedness, case of operation, and modularity. Economic competitiveness also depends on standardization and assurance of licensing. The performance of passively safe reactors will be greatly influenced by the successful development of advanced fuels and materials that will provide lower fuel-cycle costs. A dozen new designs of advanced power reactors have been described recently, covering a wide spectrum of reactor types, including pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, heavy-water reactors, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), and fast breeder reactors. These new designs address the need for passive safety features as well as the requirement of economic competitiveness.

Simnad, T. (Univ. of California, San Diego, (United States))

1993-01-01

143

Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel  

DOEpatents

An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

1987-01-01

144

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOEpatents

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

Jassby, D.L.

1987-09-04

145

Integrated Microfluidic Reactors  

PubMed Central

Summary Microfluidic reactors exhibit intrinsic advantages of reduced chemical consumption, safety, high surface-area-to-volume ratios, and improved control over mass and heat transfer superior to the macroscopic reaction setting. In contract to a continuous-flow microfluidic system composed of only a microchannel network, an integrated microfluidic system represents a scalable integration of a microchannel network with functional microfluidic modules, thus enabling the execution and automation of complicated chemical reactions in a single device. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the development of integrated microfluidics-based chemical reactors for (i) parallel screening of in situ click chemistry libraries, (ii) multistep synthesis of radiolabeled imaging probes for positron emission tomography (PET), (iii) sequential preparation of individually addressable conducting polymer nanowire (CPNW), and (iv) solid-phase synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides. These proof-of-principle demonstrations validate the feasibility and set a solid foundation for exploring a broad application of the integrated microfluidic system.

Lin, Wei-Yu; Wang, Yanju; Wang, Shutao; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

2009-01-01

146

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOEpatents

A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

147

Reactors in orbit  

SciTech Connect

The majority of today's satellites are run off solar cells and batteries and need only 1 or 2 kW. By contrast, laser weapons could require 100 mW. The radar and advanced communications satellites would need a more modest 100 kW or so, but even that is far more than existing space power systems can deliver. Until a new source of power can be devised, all of this exotic space hardware will be so many flashlights without batteries. Discussed is the possibility of nuclear reactors for power in space. The crux of the problem is heat: how materials withstand it, how to discharge the excess. The military does not seem particularly interested now, but technological optimists predict space reactors can be ready when the missile defense and antisatellite weapons are, in the 21st century.

Roberts, L.

1983-12-01

148

Nuclear reactor safety device  

DOEpatents

A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

Hutter, E.

1983-08-15

149

Tokamak fusion power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major parameters and corresponding economic characteristics of a representative class of commercial Tokamak fusion power reactors are examined as a function of four major design parameters: plasma beta-t, toroidal magnetic field strength, first-wall lifetime, and power output. It is shown that for beta-t greater than or equal to 0.06, the minimum cost of energy is obtained for toroidal field

W. M. Stacey Jr.; M. A. Abdou

1978-01-01

150

Privatized multipurpose reactor initiative  

SciTech Connect

ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility.

Davis, G.A. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

1995-12-31

151

Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) research program consist of: 1.Study core physics by adapting existing codes: MCNP4C - Monte Carlo code; COMBINE/VENTURE - diffusion theory; SCALE4 - Monte Carlo, with many utility codes. 2. Determine feasibility and study major design parameters: fuel selection, temperature and reflector sizing. 3. Study reactor kinetics: develop QCALC1 to model point kinetics; study dynamic behavior of the power release.

Albright, Dennis; Butler, Carey; West, Nicole; Cole, John W. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

152

Polarized advanced fuel reactors  

SciTech Connect

The d-/sup 3/He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs.

Kulsrud, R.M.

1987-07-01

153

Nuclear reactor sealing system  

DOEpatents

A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

McEdwards, James A. (Calabasas, CA)

1983-01-01

154

Aging degradation of BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactor internals  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently performed an assessment of the aging of the reactor internals in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), and identified the unresolved technical issues related to the degradation of these components. Several failures in BWR reactor internals have been caused by a combination of susceptible materials, environment, preload stress, and flow-induced vibration. ASME Code Section XI inservice inspection requirements are insufficient for detecting aging-related degradation in reactor internals. Many of the susceptible locations are not accessible for inspection. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Ware, A.G.

1989-01-01

155

Fast quench reactor and method  

DOEpatents

A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

1998-05-12

156

Reactor Coolant Pump seal issues and their applicability to new reactor designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCPs) of various types are used to circulate the primary coolant through the reactor in most reactor designs. RCPs generally contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized reactor coolant along the pump drive shaft int...

C. J. Ruger J. C. Higgins

1993-01-01

157

Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS)  

SciTech Connect

Progress in a two year study of a 1200 MWe commercial tandem mirror reactor (MARS - Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) has reached the point where major reactor system technologies are identified. New design features of the magnets, blankets, plug heating systems and direct converter are described. With the innovation of radial drift pumping to maintain low plug density, reactor recirculating power fraction is reduced to 20%. Dominance of radial ion and impurity losses into the halo permits gridless, circular direct converters to be dramatically reduced in size. Comparisons of MARS with the Starfire tokamak design are made.

Logan, B.G.

1983-03-28

158

High Flux Reactor Isotope Facility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Tennessee, the High Flux Reactor Isotope Facility (HFIR) produces transuranium isotopes for research, industrial, and medical applications. It is also used for a variety of neutron flux experiments. The HFIR Website gives an informative overview of the science and engineering behind the reactor. Visitors can get acquainted with HFIR's history, facilities, and experiments. Other features of the site include illustrated sections on horizontal beam poles and neutron scattering as well as daily operation status of the reactor. Photographs and schematics of the reactor and control room are other interesting parts of the site.

1969-12-31

159

Rotating reactor studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is thicker and extends all the way around the reactor.

Roberts, Glyn O.

1991-01-01

160

Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The

D. Kokkinos

2005-01-01

161

Reactor refueling containment system  

DOEpatents

A method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Meuschke, Robert E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01

162

Reactor refueling containment system  

DOEpatents

A method of refueling a nuclear reactor is disclosed whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced. 2 figs.

Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

1995-05-02

163

High flux reactor  

DOEpatents

A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

Lake, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heath, Russell L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Liebenthal, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R. (Summit, NJ); Leyse, Carl F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parsons, Kent (Idaho Falls, ID); Ryskamp, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wadkins, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fillmore, Gary N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01

164

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOEpatents

A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

165

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOEpatents

A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

1996-02-27

166

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOEpatents

A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

1996-01-01

167

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOEpatents

A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

1995-01-01

168

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOEpatents

A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

1995-04-25

169

Reactor coolant pump flywheel  

DOEpatents

A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

2013-11-26

170

Cascade ICF power reactor  

SciTech Connect

The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO/sub 2/. The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor.

Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

1986-05-20

171

Zero Power Reactor Simulation  

ScienceCinema

Ever wanted to see a nuclear reactor core in action? Here's a detailed simulation of the Zero Power Reactor experiment, run by Argonne's unique "UNIC" code. Here, we use VisIt to visualize a numerical model of the ZPR-6 Assembly 6a experiment simulated using the Argonne UNIC code. 0:00-0:06: The fuel and other plates are dropped into an example drawer, and the drawer is inserted into the matrix tube. 0:06-0:21: The two matrix halves are brought together to make a critical (self-sustaining) assembly. 0:21-0:35: The fission power is revealed to be centralized in the thin, enriched Uranium plates. 0:35-0:53: Returning to our example drawer, we show the detailed local plate powers and their relation to the drawer composition. 0:53-1:11: Our model shows that each plate can have widely-varying local changes in the space and energy neutron densities. Read more at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2010/news100121.html

172

Development of fast breeder reactors in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of a fusion-fission hybrid nuclear reactor is described. The nuclear physics foundation of the hybrid reactor is outlined. Two types of hybrid reactors--fission and retarded fission reactors--are described. The means by which hybrid reactors can advance the use of fusion energy are set forth. Two types of breeder reactors are described: fusion and fission breeder reactors. A case is made that hybrid reactor breeder energy is much greater than that of fast reactors, and that the hybrid reactor is not inhibited by industrial plutonium. It is further maintained that the price of electric energy of the hybrid reactor-pressure water reactor co-generation system is cheaper than that of the fast reactor-pressure water reactor co-generation system; that hybride reactor-LWR co-generation systems consume less uranium than fast reactor systems; that a Th/U system hybrid reactor-LWR co-generation system is economical in the use of thorium resources; and that hybrid reactors are safer than fast reactors.

Li, Shounan

1988-05-01

173

Hybrid Reactor Simulation of Boiling Water Reactor Power Oscillations  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid reactor simulation (HRS) of boiling water reactor (BWR) instabilities, including in-phase and out-of-phase (OOP) oscillations, has been implemented on The Pennsylvania State University TRIGA reactor. The TRIGA reactor's power response is used to simulate reactor neutron dynamics for in-phase oscillation or the fundamental mode of the reactor modal kinetics for OOP oscillations. The reactor power signal drives a real-time boiling channel simulation, and the calculated reactivity feedback is in turn fed into the TRIGA reactor via an experimental changeable reactivity device. The thermal-hydraulic dynamics, together with first harmonic mode power dynamics, is digitally simulated in the real-time environment. The real-time digital simulation of boiling channel thermal hydraulics is performed by solving constitutive equations for different regions in the channel and is realized by a high-performance personal computer. The nonlinearity of the thermal-hydraulic model ensures the capability to simulate the oscillation phenomena, limit cycle and OOP oscillation, in BWR nuclear power plants. By adjusting reactivity feedback gains for both modes, various oscillation combinations can be realized in the experiment. The dynamics of axially lumped power distribution over the core is displayed in three-dimensional graphs. The HRS reactor power response mimics the BWR core-wide power stability phenomena. In the OOP oscillation HRS, the combination of reactor response and the simulated first harmonic power using shaping functions mimics BWR regional power oscillations. With this HRS testbed, a monitoring and/or control system designed for BWR power oscillations can be experimentally tested and verified.

Huang Zhengyu; Edwards, Robert M. [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

2003-08-15

174

Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stella...

R. L. Miller R. A. Krakowski

1981-01-01

175

Induced Sludge Bed Anaerobic Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An induced sludge bed anaerobic reactor includes a vessel in which a septum or other partition is positioned to maintain solids in wastewater being treated toward a lower zone in the reactor. A gas trap, which may also comprise an overpressure protection ...

C. L. Hansen C. S. Hansen E. D. Watts K. D. Pack

2005-01-01

176

DOE/university reactor sharing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the US Department of Energy's program of reactor sharing is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering instruction and nuclear research opportunities in non-reactor-owning colleges and universities. The benefits of the program and need for the continuation of the program in the future are discussed.

Young, H.H.

1985-01-01

177

Reactor internals loose parts strainer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an upright cylindrical nuclear reactor pressure vessel having a hemispherical lower head section with a curved inner surface and defining an annular flange extending radially inward near its upper end, reactor internals suspended within the pressure vessel from the flange. The internals extending downward into the hemispherical lower head section but with the lower end thereof terminating

M. R. Gasparro; R. E. Tome

1987-01-01

178

Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

2003-01-01

179

Dynamics of Molten Salt Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of the Molten Salt Reactor, one of the 'Generation IV International Forum' concepts, was studied in this paper. The graphite-moderated channel type MSR was selected for the numerical simulation. The MSR represents a liquid fueled reactor and its dynamics is very specific because of two physical peculiarities: the delayed neutrons precursors are drifted by the fuel flow and the

Jiri Krepel; Ulrich Rohde; Ulrich Grundmann

2006-01-01

180

LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is ; described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially ; cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid ; member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods ; held in a geometrical arrangement

R. F. Christy; A. M. Weinberg

1957-01-01

181

A FAST NEUTRON BURST REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast-burst reactor constructed at the Joint Institute of Nuclear ; Research became critical in June 1960. The reactor is operating with periodic ; pulse power of nearly 1 kw. The half-width of the power pulse is 36 mu sec. ; The pulse frequency varies from 8 to 80 pulses\\/sec. (tr-auth);

G. E. Blokhin; D. I. Blokhintsev; Yu. A. Blyumkina

1961-01-01

182

CIRCULATING MAGNETICALLY STABILIZED BED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating magnetically stabilized bed reactors (CMSBR's) operate in nearly plug flow for both the catalyst and fluid phases. Computer simulations show that they allow programming of temperature profiles without using either internal heat exchangers or interstage cooling of reactant. For highly exothermic, irreversible reactions, co-current CMSBR's are far less sensitive to temperature runaway than cbnventional nonadiabatic fixed-bed reactors. Thus, significant

J. C. PIRKLE JR; P. A. RUZISKA; L. J. SHULIK

1988-01-01

183

N Reactor secondary loop contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

N Reactor primary loop water circulates entirely within Zone 1 and the piping is, therefore, heavily shielded. Secondary loop piping crosses the Zone 1 boundaries into areas which may be unshielded and accessible during reactor operation. The leakage of primary loop water to the secondary side of the cooling loop permits contaminated fluid to leave the shielded area. It becomes

Stepnewski

1963-01-01

184

Solvent refined coal reactor quench system  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01

185

Decommissioning of the Cintichem reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Cintichem nuclear reactor facility is located within the town of Tuxedo, New York, in the industrial park known as Sterling Forest. The reactor is a pool type research reactor and licensed to operate at thermal power levels of up to 5 MW. The reactor is a light water moderated, cooled, shielded, and reflected solid fuel reactor. It has graphite thermal column and numerous beam tubes arranged radially around the core centerline for experiments. The fuel core is supported and moved on rails by a core support bridge. The primary cooling system consists of a demineralized water system, heat exchangers, and pumps. Primary coolant piping is aluminum except for portions that penetrate concrete. Based on the on-site radiological characterization, Cintichem decided to shut down the facility permanently and begin decommissioning immediately.

LaGuardia, T.S. (TLG Engineering, Inc., Bridgewater, CT (United States)); McGovern, J. (Cintichem, Inc., Tuxedo, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

186

Reactor for making uniform capsules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

1999-01-01

187

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by ?- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

188

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, Saed [ORNL; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Garland, Marc A [ORNL

2011-01-01

189

Reactor antineutrino experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 33 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles ?12, ?23, ?13, and one CP phase. Both ?12 and ?23 are known from previous experiments. ?13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive non-zero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(? 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ? e mass-squared difference ? ? m2ee? = (2.59+0.19-0.20) 10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of ?13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

Lu, Haoqi

2014-05-01

190

University Reactor Sharing Program  

SciTech Connect

Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

W.D. Reese

2004-02-24

191

Nuclear reactor control apparatus  

DOEpatents

Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

Sridhar, Bettadapur N. (Cupertino, CA)

1983-10-25

192

Nuclear reactor engineering: Reactor design basics. Fourth edition, Volume One  

SciTech Connect

This new edition of this classic reference combines broad yet in-depth coverage of nuclear engineering principles with practical descriptions of their application in design and operation of nuclear power plants. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes new material on reactor safety and risk analysis, regulation, fuel management, waste management, and operational aspects of nuclear power. This volume contains the following: energy from nuclear fission; nuclear reactions and radiations; neutron transport; nuclear design basics; nuclear reactor kinetics and control; radiation protection and shielding; and reactor materials.

Glasstone, S.; Sesonske, A.

1994-12-31

193

Reactor service life extension program  

SciTech Connect

A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

1990-01-01

194

Reactor service life extension program  

SciTech Connect

A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

1990-12-31

195

Assessment of torsatrons as reactors  

SciTech Connect

Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Painter, S.L. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)) [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1992-12-01

196

Assessment of torsatrons as reactors  

SciTech Connect

Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R{sub 0} = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B{sup 0} = 4.8-7.5 T, B{sub max} (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

Lyon, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Painter, S.L. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1992-12-01

197

Advances in reactor physics education: Visualization of reactor parameters  

SciTech Connect

Modern computer codes allow detailed neutron transport calculations. In combination with advanced 3D visualization software capable of treating large amounts of data in real time they form a powerful tool that can be used as a convenient modern educational tool for reactor operators, nuclear engineers, students and specialists involved in reactor operation and design. Visualization is applicable not only in education and training, but also as a tool for fuel management, core analysis and irradiation planning. The paper treats the visualization of neutron transport in different moderators, neutron flux and power distributions in two nuclear reactors (TRIGA type research reactor and a typical PWR). The distributions are calculated with MCNP and CORD-2 computer codes and presented using Amira software. (authors)

Snoj, L.; Kromar, M.; Zerovnik, G. [Josef Stefan Inst., Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-07-01

198

Directions for improved fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10 to 15 years have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points towards smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. A generic fusion physics/engineering/costing model is used to provide a quantiative basis for these arguments for specific fusion concepts.

Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Delene, J.G.

1986-01-01

199

Fueling of tandem mirror reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the fueling requirements for experimental and demonstration tandem mirror reactors (TMRs), reviews the status of conventional pellet injectors, and identifies some candidate accelerators that may be needed for fueling tandem mirror reactors. Characteristics and limitations of three types of accelerators are described; neutral beam injectors, electromagnetic rail guns, and laser beam drivers. Based on these characteristics and limitations, a computer module was developed for the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (TMRSC) to select the pellet injector/accelerator combination which most nearly satisfies the fueling requirements for a given machine design.

Gorker, G.E.; Logan, B.G.

1985-01-01

200

Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

2011-02-15

201

Conceptual design study of advanced power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design studies of advanced power reactors are summarized. The concept of power reactors cooled by supercritical water was developed. The coolant system is once through type like a supercritical fossil-fired power plant. It attains higher thermal efficiency and simpler reactor system than the light water reactors. Breeding is possible in the tight lattice core. The coolant void reactivity of

Y. Oka; S. Koshizuka

1998-01-01

202

Novel photocatalytic reactor for water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel photocatalytic reactor design for water treatment is characterized by the use of new extremely narrow diameter lamps, thus allowing for much higher surface area for catalyst coating per unit reactor volume and consequently for much higher specific reactor capacity. Experiments in a reactor containing 21 novel U-shaped lamps coated with catalyst showed a 695% increase in efficiency of

Ajay K. Ray; Antonie A. C. M. Beenackers

1998-01-01

203

Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.

1982-03-09

204

Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can

J. M. OHara; J. Higgins; R. Deem; J. Xing; A. DAgostino

2010-01-01

205

Evolution of the Hanford graphite reactor technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Site (Hanford) has played an important part in the development of nuclear energy and reactors in the first 50 yrs. This paper follows the evolution of the graphite-moderated, light-water cooled reactor technology at Hanford through the various generations of reactor types. Nine reactors were built and operated successfully between 1944 and 1987. Design improvements, safety feature advances, and

Toffer

1989-01-01

206

Plasma Reactor Waste Management Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produc...

R. O. Ness J. R. Rindt S. R. Ness

1992-01-01

207

Sequencing Batch Reactors: Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides information on Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR), a fill-and-draw activated sludge treatment system. SBRs are capable of handling all wastewaters commonly treated by conventional activated sludge plants. The report discusses the process, ...

T. Bartell

1986-01-01

208

Overview of fusion reactor safety  

SciTech Connect

Use of deuterium-tritium burning fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control, (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment, (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions, (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices, and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

Cohen, S.; Crocker, J.G.

1981-01-01

209

Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships  

SciTech Connect

Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized.

Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

1987-01-01

210

Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

1998-01-06

211

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

212

STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems ; employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water ; and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

B. W. Kinyon; G. D. Whitman

1963-01-01

213

Overview of fusion reactor safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

214

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

215

Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

Maupin, Gary D. (Richland, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA); Kurosky, Randal P. (Maple Valley, WA)

1998-01-01

216

Vertical Reactor Coolant Pump Instabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes...

1985-01-01

217

Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent studies have demonstrated the applicability and versatility of immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERS) for chemical and biochemical synthesis and analysis. The majority of IMER systems rely on enzymes immobilized to packed matrices within flow-through ...

H. R. Luckarift

2007-01-01

218

SUMMARY REPORT: SEQUENCING BATCH REACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This 23 - page Technology Transfer Summary Report summarizes one of the potential innovative technologies, Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR) for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. ontained in the report are process descriptions, performance evaluations, and economic com...

219

Modelling anaerobic biofilm reactors--a review.  

PubMed

Anaerobic treatment has become a technically as well as economically feasible option for treatment of liquid effluents after the development of reactors such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, anaerobic biofilter and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). Considerable effort has gone into developing mathematical models for these reactors in order to optimize their design, design the process control systems used in their operation and enhance their operational efficiency. This article presents a critical review of the different mathematical models available for these reactors. The unified anaerobic digestion model (ADM1) and its application to anaerobic biofilm reactors are also outlined. PMID:16517049

Saravanan, V; Sreekrishnan, T R

2006-10-01

220

Solid State Reactor Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research were undertaken: (1) establishing the design and safety-related basis via neutronic and reactor control assessments with the graphite foam as heat transfer medium; (2) evaluating the thermal performance of the graphite foam for heat removal, reactor stability, reactor operations, and overall core thermal characteristics; (3) characterizing the physical properties of the graphite foam under normal and irradiated conditions to determine any effects on structure, dimensional stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion; and (4) developing a power conversion system design to match the reactor operating parameters.

Mays, G.T.

2004-03-10

221

Reactor shroud joint  

DOEpatents

A shroud for a nuclear reactor is described. In one embodiment, the shroud includes first and second shroud sections, and each shroud section includes a substantially cylindrical main body having a first end and a second end. With respect to each shroud section, a flange is located at the main body first end, and the flange has a plurality of bolt openings therein and a plurality of scalloped regions. The first shroud section is welded to the second shroud section, and at least some of the bolt openings in the first shroud section flange align with respective bolt openings in the second shroud section flange. In the event that the onset of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking is ever detected in the weld between the shroud section, bolts are inserted through bolt openings in the first shroud section flange and through aligned bolt openings the second shroud section flange. Each bolt, in one embodiment, has a shank section and first and second threaded end sections. Nuts are threadedly engaged to the threaded end sections and tightened against the respective flanges.

Ballas, Gary J. (San Jose, CA); Fife, Alex Blair (San Jose, CA); Ganz, Israel (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01

222

Reactor shroud joint  

DOEpatents

A shroud for a nuclear reactor is described. In one embodiment, the shroud includes first and second shroud sections, and each shroud section includes a substantially cylindrical main body having a first end and a second end. With respect to each shroud section, a flange is located at the main body first end, and the flange has a plurality of bolt openings therein and a plurality of scalloped regions. The first shroud section is welded to the second shroud section, and at least some of the bolt openings in the first shroud section flange align with respective bolt openings in the second shroud section flange. In the event that the onset of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking is ever detected in the weld between the shroud section, bolts are inserted through bolt openings in the first shroud section flange and through aligned bolt openings the second shroud section flange. Each bolt, in one embodiment, has a shank section and first and second threaded end sections. Nuts are threadedly engaged to the threaded end sections and tightened against the respective flanges. 4 figs.

Ballas, G.J.; Fife, A.B.; Ganz, I.

1998-04-07

223

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Upton, Hubert A. (Morgan Hill, CA)

1994-01-01

224

Reactor pressure vessel nozzle  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

1994-10-04

225

Reactor Simulator Testing Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test Objectives Summary: a) Verify operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation & control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. b) Examine cooling & heat regeneration performance of the cold trap purification. c) Test the ALIP pump at voltages beyond 120V to see if the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s can be obtained in the RxSim. Testing Highlights: a) Gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively for operations (NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain). b) Instrumentation & Control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings and ramped within prescribed constraints. It effectively interacted with reactor simulator control model and defaulted back to temperature control mode if the transient fluctuations didn't dampen. c) Cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the minimum temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. d) ALIP produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

Schoenfeld, Michael P.

2013-01-01

226

Reactor Simulator Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

2013-01-01

227

Solar solids reactor  

DOEpatents

A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

Yudow, B.D.

1986-02-24

228

Trickle-Bed Oxidation Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reactions necesitating a solid catalyst and which invoive both reisuvely volatile and nonvclarile reactants, three-phase reactirs are required. Equipment used to achieve intimate contacting of the three phases has been procominantly in the form of slurry reactors, analogous to the stirred-tank homogenous system, or fixed-bed reactors in which the two fluid phases flow through a stationary bed of catalyst

Seigeo Goto; Janez Levec; J. M. Smith

1977-01-01

229

Alternate-fuel reactor studies  

SciTech Connect

A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

1983-02-01

230

MARS: Mirror Advanced Reactor Study  

SciTech Connect

A recently completed two-year study of a commercial tandem mirror reactor design (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS)) is briefly reviewed. The end plugs are designed for trapped particle stability, MHD ballooning, balanced geodesic curvature, and small radial electric fields in the central cell. New technologies such as lithium-lead blankets, 24T hybrid coils, gridless direct converters and plasma halo vacuum pumps are highlighted.

Logan, B.G.

1984-09-10

231

Superphenix 1 reactor block fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactor block constitutes a highly complex key component in a pool-type breeder reactor, the difficulties involved being considerably heightened for Creys-Malville by its prototype character, involving a considerable scale-up from Phenix, with several important design changes. Problems arose in the course of design engineering, but also throughout the manufacturing stage: steel plate elaboration, welding, shaping, etc. The construction approach

J. Branchu; C. Gigarel

1985-01-01

232

Nuclear reactor safety heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewed is a book which has 5 parts: Overview, Fundamental Concepts, Design Basis Accident-Light Water Reactors (LWRs), Design Basis Accident-Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs), and Special Topics. It combines a historical overview, textbook material, handbook information, and the editor's personal philosophy on safety of nuclear power plants. Topics include thermal-hydraulic considerations; transient response of LWRs and LMFBRs following initiating events;

1982-01-01

233

Automatic safety rod for reactors  

DOEpatents

An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

234

Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

Ehrke, Alan C. (San Jose, CA); Knepp, John B. (San Jose, CA); Skoda, George I. (Santa Clara, CA)

1992-01-01

235

Sandia Pulse Reactor-IV Project  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developed, designed and operated fast burst reactors for over 20 years. These reactors have been used for a variety of radiation effects programs. During this period, programs have required larger irradiation volumes primarily to expose complex electronic systems to postulated threat environments. As experiment volumes increased, a new reactor was built so that these components could be tested. The Sandia Pulse Reactor-IV is a logical evolution of the two decades of fast burst reactor development at Sandia.

Reuscher, J.A.

1983-01-01

236

National strategies for nuclear power reactor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document assesses the potential for design innovation in three areas of nuclear power plant technology: light-water reactor systems; liquid-metal reactor systems; and high-temperature-gas reactor systems. The question of how capital costs scale with unit size in nuclear power reactor systems is addressed. Small modular high temperature gas reactor designs are reviewed, and an electric-power-system capacity-planning model that allows estimates

R. K. Lester; M. J. Driscoll; M. W. Golay; D. D. Lanning; L. M. Lidsky

1985-01-01

237

When Do Commercial Reactors Permanently Shut Down?  

EIA Publications

For those wishing to obtain current data, the following resources are available: U.S. reactors, go to the Energy Information Administration's nuclear reactor shutdown list. (Note: As of April 30, 2010, the last U.S. reactor to permanently shut down was Big Rock Point in 1997.) Foreign Reactors, go to the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) on the International Atomic Energy Agency's website.

Information Center

2011-05-10

238

Reactor operations: Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor. Informal report, June 1995  

SciTech Connect

Part one of this report gives the operating history of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor for the month of June. Also included are the BMRR technical safety surveillance requirements record and the summary of BMRR irradiations for the month. Part two gives the operating histories of the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor and the Cold Neutron Facility at HFBR for June. Also included are the HFBR technical safety surveillance requirements record and the summary of HFBR irradiations for the month.

NONE

1995-06-01

239

Reactor Simulator Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon

2013-01-01

240

98. ARAIII. ML1 reactor pressure vessel is lowered into reactor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

98. ARA-III. ML-1 reactor pressure vessel is lowered into reactor pit by hoist. July 13, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4049. Photographer: Lowin. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

241

56. ARAII. View inside reactor building looking at SL1 reactor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. ARA-II. View inside reactor building looking at SL-1 reactor vessel. November 19, 1957. Ineel photo no. 57-5864. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

242

Pulsed reactor experiments at Oak Ridge  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes dynamic experiments for 3 pulsed reactors. 1st reactor was pulsed from some average power by rotating a partial Be reflector past an unreflected core face; the other 2 reactors were pulsed by rapid insertion of a fuel rod into the unmoderated and unreflected reactor at essentially zero neutron level with no significant neutron source present. The first reactor was a mockup of an EURATOM design (never constructed) of the proposed SORA Reactor, and the other two were the Health Physics Research Reactor and the Army Pulse Radiation Facility Reactor (APRFR). This paper describes the experiments performed in initial testing of these systems, including destructive tests of APRFR, to set operating limits for this type of reactor in pulsed operation. All the experiments described were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility.

Mihalczo, J.T.

1994-12-31

243

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) reactor building design study  

SciTech Connect

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is at the midpoint of a two-year conceptual design. The ITER reactor building is a reinforced concrete structure that houses the tokamak and associated equipment and systems and forms a barrier between the tokamak and the external environment. It provides radiation shielding and controls the release of radioactive materials to the environment during both routine operations and accidents. The building protects the tokamak from external events, such as earthquakes or aircraft strikes. The reactor building requirements have been developed from the component designs and the preliminary safety analysis. The equipment requirements, tritium confinement, and biological shielding have been studied. The building design in progress requires continuous iteraction with the component and system designs and with the safety analysis. 8 figs.

Thomson, S.L.; Blevins, J.D.; Delisle, M.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Mississauga, ON (Canada))

1989-01-01

244

Update on reactors and reactor instruments in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1980s have seen the commissioning of several medium flux (?10 14 neutrons/cm 2s) research reactors in Asia. The reactors are based on indigenous design and development in India and China. At Dhruva reactor (India), a variety of neutron spectrometers have been established that have provided useful data related to the structure of high- Tc materials, phonon density of states, magnetic moment distributions and micellar aggregation during the last couple of years. Polarised neutron analysis, neutron interferometry and neutron spin echo methods are some of the new techniques under development. The spectrometers and associated automaton, detectors and neutron guides have all been indigenously developed. This paper summarises the developments and on-going activities in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand.

Rao, K. R.

1991-10-01

245

Rapid starting methanol reactor system  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

1984-01-01

246

International Research Reactor Decommissioning Project  

SciTech Connect

Many research reactors have been or will be shut down and are candidates for decommissioning. Most of the respective countries neither have a decommissioning policy nor the required expertise and funds to effectively implement a decommissioning project. The IAEA established the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P) to help answer this need. It was agreed to involve the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) as model reactor to demonstrate 'hands-on' experience as it is just starting the decommissioning process. Other facilities may be included in the project as they fit into the scope of R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P and complement to the PRR-1 decommissioning activities. The key outcome of the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P will be the decommissioning of the PRR-1 reactor. On the way to this final goal the preparation of safety related documents (i.e., decommissioning plan, environmental impact assessment, safety analysis report, health and safety plan, cost estimate, etc.) and the licensing process as well as the actual dismantling activities could provide a model to other countries involved in the project. It is expected that the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P would initiate activities related to planning and funding of decommissioning activities in the participating countries if that has not yet been done.

Leopando, Leonardo [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Warnecke, Ernst [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

2008-01-15

247

Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons  

SciTech Connect

A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lukic, Zarija [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Masuda, Koji [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Perry, John O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

2013-05-15

248

Proposed reactor coolant density monitor  

SciTech Connect

Until now there has been no feasible method of monitoring coolant density in the environment of an operating reactor core. By analysis of output from self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) in the core of the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor, the author has successfully estimated local coolant densities under post-scram conditions during a large break loss of coolant transient. The model used for estimation is not fully explained by published principles on the interaction of gamma rays with SPNDs. However, based on the success of the model, the author proposes employing self powered gamma detectors (SPGDs) to monitor reactor coolant density and discusses areas of experimental work to establish the best conditions for this application. 9 refs., 12 figs.

Mackley, A.D.

1986-01-01

249

Plasma reactor waste management systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

1992-01-01

250

On fast reactor kinetics studies  

SciTech Connect

The results and the program of fast reactor core time and space kinetics experiments performed and planned to be performed at the IPPE critical facility is presented. The TIMER code was taken as computation support of the experimental work, which allows transient equations to be solved in 3-D geometry with multi-group diffusion approximation. The number of delayed neutron groups varies from 6 to 8. The code implements the solution of both transient neutron transfer problems: a direct one, where neutron flux density and its derivatives, such as reactor power, etc, are determined at each time step, and an inverse one for the point kinetics equation form, where such a parameter as reactivity is determined with a well-known reactor power time variation function. (authors)

Seleznev, E. F.; Belov, A. A. [Nuclear Safety Inst. of the Russian Academy of Sciences IBRAE (Russian Federation); Matveenko, I. P.; Zhukov, A. M.; Raskach, K. F. [Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering IPPE (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

251

Light water reactor health physics.  

PubMed

In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexity with the number and size of nuclear units under construction and in operation. Operational health physics programs evolved to face various challenges confronted by the nuclear industry, increasing the effectiveness of radiological safety measures. Industry improvements in radiological safety performance have resulted in significant decreases in annual collective exposures from a high value of 790 person-rem in 1980 to 117 person-rem per reactor in 2002. Though significant gains have been made, the continued viability of the nuclear power industry is confronted with an aging workforce, as well as the challenges posed by deregulation and the need to maintain operational excellence. PMID:15551785

Prince, Robert J; Bradley, Scott E

2004-11-01

252

Reactor control rod timing system  

DOEpatents

A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

1982-01-01

253

Light water reactor health physics.  

PubMed

In this article an overview of the historical development of light water reactor health physics programs is presented. Operational health physics programs have developed and matured as experience in operating and maintaining light water reactors has been gained. Initial programs grew quickly in both size and complexity with the number and size of nuclear units under construction and in operation. Operational health physics programs evolved to face various challenges confronted by the nuclear industry, increasing the effectiveness of radiological safety measures. Industry improvements in radiological safety performance have resulted in significant decreases in annual collective exposures from a high value of 790 person-rem in 1980 to 117 person-rem per reactor in 2002. Though significant gains have been made, the continued viability of the nuclear power industry is confronted with an aging workforce, as well as the challenges posed by deregulation and the need to maintain operational excellence. PMID:15891460

Prince, Robert J; Bradley, Scott E

2005-06-01

254

Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

1975-01-01

255

The Very High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) and Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) are types of nuclear power plants that, as the names imply, operate at temperatures above those of the conventional nuclear power plants that currently generate electricity in the US and other countries. Like existing nuclear plants, heat generated from the fission of uranium or plutonium atoms is carried off by a working fluid and can be used generate electricity. The very hot working fluid also enables the VHTR to drive other industrial processes that require high temperatures not achievable by conventional nuclear plants (Figure 1). For this reason, the VHTR is being considered for non-electrical energy applications. The reactor and power conversion system are constructed using special materials that make a core meltdown virtually impossible.

Hans D. Gougar; David A. Petti

2011-06-01

256

Nuclear reactor safety heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

Reviewed is a book which has 5 parts: Overview, Fundamental Concepts, Design Basis Accident-Light Water Reactors (LWRs), Design Basis Accident-Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs), and Special Topics. It combines a historical overview, textbook material, handbook information, and the editor's personal philosophy on safety of nuclear power plants. Topics include thermal-hydraulic considerations; transient response of LWRs and LMFBRs following initiating events; various accident scenarios; single- and two-phase flow; single- and two-phase heat transfer; nuclear systems safety modeling; startup and shutdown; transient response during normal and upset conditions; vapor explosions, natural convection cooling; blockages in LMFBR subassemblies; sodium boiling; and Three Mile Island.

Jones, O.C.

1982-07-01

257

Toward reactor monitoring with antineutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental knowledge on neutrino properties acquired in recent years as well as the great experimental progress made on neutrino detection open nowadays the possibility of applied neutrino physics. Among it, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) asked to its member states to study the possibility of nuclear reactor monitoring applications, such as the thermal power measurement or the fuel composition bookkeeping. In this context, we report studies aiming at a better determination of the antineutrino energy spectrum emitted by nuclear power plants, necessary for reactor monitoring applications, but also for experiments studying the ground properties of these particles. (authors)

Guillon, Benoit; Cormon, S.; Fallot, M.; Giot, L.; Martino, J. [SUBATECH-Ecole des Mines, La Chantrerie, Nantes cedex 3, France, 44307 cedex 3 (France); Cribier, M.; Lasserre, T. [CEA/DAPNIA/SPP, APC 10, rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, Paris cedex 13, France, 75205 (France); Letourneau, A.; Lhuillier, D. [CEA/DAPNIA/SPhN, Saclay, Gif sur Yvette, France, 91191 (France)

2007-07-01

258

Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2007-07-01

259

SP-100 space reactor safety  

SciTech Connect

The SP-100 space reactor power system is being developed to meet the large electrical power requirements of civilian and military missions planned for the 1990's and beyond. It will remove the restrictions on electrical power generation that have tended to limit missions and will enable the fuller exploration and utilization of space. This booklet describes the SP-100 space reactor power system and its development. Particular emphasis is given to safety. The design aand operational features as well as the design and safety review process that will assure that the SP-100 can be launched nd operated safely are described.

Not Available

1987-05-01

260

Space reactor preliminary mechanical design  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO/sub 2/ block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug.

Meier, K.L.

1983-01-01

261

Deep beam reactor vessel head and nuclear reactor including same  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a combined calandria and deep beam head adapted to seal the top opening of a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. The pressure vessel has an outer pressure resistant wall with a top edge and the calandria is disposed within the upper portion of the pressure vessel. The calandria has an upper support plate and a lower

Drake

1987-01-01

262

Reactor technology: power conversion systems and reactor operation and maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of advanced fuels permits the use of coolants (organic, high pressure helium) that result in power conversion systems with good thermal efficiency and relatively low cost. Water coolant would significantly reduce thermal efficiency, while lithium and salt coolants, which have been proposed for DT reactors, will have comparable power conversion efficiencies, but will probably be significantly more expensive.

1977-01-01

263

Summary of advanced LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) evaluations: PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) and SAFR (Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed independent analyses of two advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) concepts. The designs, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) (Berglund, 1987) and the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) (Baumeister, 1987), were developed primarily by General Electric (GE)

G. J. Van Tuyle; G. C. Slovik; B. C. Chan; R. J. Kennett; H. S. Cheng; P. G. Kroeger

1989-01-01

264

IPFR: Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The IPFR (Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor) concept is to place a fusion reactor into a pool of molten Flibe. The Flibe will serve the multiple functions of breeding, cooling, shielding, and moderating. Therefore, the only structural material between the su...

D. K. Sze

1986-01-01

265

Fusion Reactor Blanket: Neutronic Studies in France.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of effective tritium regeneration is a crucial issue for the fusion reactor, especially for the power reactor because of the conflicting requirements of heat removal and tritium breeding. For that, calculations are performed to evaluate blanke...

F. Barre F. Gervaise L. Giancarli

1983-01-01

266

Search for Other Natural Fission Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precambrian uranium ores have been surveyed for evidence of other natural fission reactors. The requirements for formation of a natural reactor direct investigations to uranium deposits with large, high-grade ore zones. Massive zones with volumes approxim...

K. E. Apt J. P. Balagna E. A. Bryant G. A. Cowan W. R. Daniels

1977-01-01

267

MAPLE research reactor beam-tube performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has been developing the MAPLE (Multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experimental) reactor concept as a medium-flux neutron source to meet contemporary research reactor applications. This paper gives a brief descripti...

A. G. Lee R. F. Lidstone G. E. Gillespie

1989-01-01

268

REACTOR PHYSICS OF TEAPOT PART I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial criticality studies for boiling water reactor application are ; presented. The critical volume for a 17.5-in.diameter experimental reactor using ; enriched UOSO is calculated. Temperature and pressure effects are ; considered. (D.E.B.);

Kasten

1952-01-01

269

Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included. (ERA citation 05:000957)

T. V. Anderson A. G. Johnson S. L. Bennett J. C. Ringle

1979-01-01

270

Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

D. Kokkinos

2005-04-28

271

Nuclear Reactor: On Schedule and Under Cost.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Society of Professional Engineers has named the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), an experimental nuclear reactor cooled by molten sodium, one of the nation's ten top engineering achievements of 1982. The reactor is located at Richland, Washing...

R. D. Larson

1983-01-01

272

Fuel Systems for Compact Fast Space Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 200 refractory metal clad ceramic fuel pins have been irradiated in thermal reactors under the 1200 K to 1550 K cladding temperature conditions of primary relevance to space reactors. This paper reviews performance with respect to fissile atom densi...

C. M. Cox D. S. Dutt R. A. Karnesky

1983-01-01

273

Superphnix: A Full-Scale Breeder Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design characteristics of LMFBR type reactors are described. The development programs for LMFBR's in different countries are compared. The design specifications and plant layout for the Super Phenix Reactor are presented.

Georges A. Vendryes

1977-01-01

274

What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?  

SciTech Connect

Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2007-07-01

275

What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?  

SciTech Connect

Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

2007-09-01

276

Nuclear Reactor Safety: a current awareness bulletin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Reactor Safety announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of fission reactors, including: accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures.

1985-01-01

277

Comparative evaluation of fuel utilisation by different thermal reactor systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative assessment of fuel utilization efficiency of pressurised water reactors, pressure tube type pressurised heavy water reactors, pressure vessel type pressurised heavy water reactors and high temperature gas cooled graphite reactors operating o...

M. R. Balakrishnan

1992-01-01

278

77 FR 60039 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Manager, Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch...Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation...September 2012. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Chief, Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch...Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor...

2012-10-02

279

Fission reactor pumped lasers: History and prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical account is given of work at Sandia since 1979, beginning with initial experiments on reactor ionized electrical excitation of CO2 lasers. An account of recent work at Sandia is also given centering on the Pulsed Reactor III for experiments at high excitation rates with small laser volumes, and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor for experiments at lower excitation rates with larger laser volume. Prospects are given for future reactor pumped laser work.

McArthur, David A.

280

Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated modular water reactor (IMR) has been developed as one of the advanced small-scale light water reactors, with a thermal output of 1000MW. The IMR adopts natural circulation and self-pressurization in the primary cooling system, and a reactor vessel built-in steam generators. The core design has been performed using the current light water reactor technology. Thermal-hydraulic sensitivity analyses have been

Koki Hibi; Hitoi Ono; Takashi Kanagawa

2004-01-01

281

Reactor Coolant Pump seal issues and their applicability to new reactor designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCPs) of various types are used to circulate the primary coolant through the reactor in most reactor designs. RCPs generally contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized reactor coolant along the pump drive shaft into the containment. The relatively large number of RCP seal and seal auxiliary system failures experienced at US operating plants during

C. J. Ruger; J. C. Higgins

1993-01-01

282

Performance of the PRISM (power reactor - innovative, small module) reactor's passive decay heat removal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PRISM (power reactor - innovative, small module) modular reactor concept has a totally passive decay heat removal system referred to as the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection of air. The system is inherently reliable and is not subject to the failure modes commonly associated with active cooling

P. M. Magee; A. Hunsbedt

1989-01-01

283

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR TEST HOLE OPENING IN WEST FACE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-2-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

284

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S SOUTH FACE. CAMERA FACING NORTHWESTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

285

Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

1996-04-02

286

High performance light water reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) project is to assess the merit and economic feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at thermodynamically supercritical regime. An efficiency of approximately 44% is expected. To accomplish this objective, a highly qualified team of European research institutes and industrial partners together with the University of Tokyo is assessing the

D. Squarer; T. Schulenberg; D. Struwe; Y. Oka; D. Bittermann; N. Aksan; C. Maraczy; R. Kyrki-Rajamki; A. Souyri; P. Dumaz

2003-01-01

287

Requirements for Reactor Physics Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been recognized that there is a need for requirements and guidance for design and operation of nuclear power plants. This is becoming more important as more reactors are being proposed to be built. In parallel with activities in individual countrie...

D. J. Diamond

2008-01-01

288

Fluidized-Bed Reactor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gas pyrolysis in hot fluidized beds minimized by use of selectively filtered radiation and parabolic cavity. Reactor is parabolic cavity of two or more axes in which light emanating from one axis bounces off walls of cavity and passes through object axis to heat sample.

Morrison, A. D.

1985-01-01

289

A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

1981-01-01

290

SRP reactor moderator piping inspections  

SciTech Connect

A program has been planned and initiated to provide inspection of SRP reactor moderator piping for intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Inspections will be accomplished by SRP personnel and subcontractors, using state of the art inspection techniques and equipment. Computerized ultransonic inspection systems are being evaluated on R-Area piping. A related program is in progress to determine acceptance criteria for inspection results.

Sprayberry, R.E.

1984-01-01

291

SRP reactor moderator piping inspections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program has been planned and initiated to provide inspection of SRP reactor moderator piping for intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Inspections will be accomplished by SRP personnel and subcontractors, using state of the art inspection techniques and equipment. Computerized ultransonic inspection systems are being evaluated on R-Area piping. A related program is in progress to determine acceptance criteria for inspection

Sprayberry

1984-01-01

292

Petascale algorithms for reactor hydrodynamics.  

SciTech Connect

We describe recent algorithmic developments that have enabled large eddy simulations of reactor flows on up to P = 65, 000 processors on the IBM BG/P at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. Petascale computing is expected to play a pivotal role in the design and analysis of next-generation nuclear reactors. Argonne's SHARP project is focused on advanced reactor simulation, with a current emphasis on modeling coupled neutronics and thermal-hydraulics (TH). The TH modeling comprises a hierarchy of computational fluid dynamics approaches ranging from detailed turbulence computations, using DNS (direct numerical simulation) and LES (large eddy simulation), to full core analysis based on RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) and subchannel models. Our initial study is focused on LES of sodium-cooled fast reactor cores. The aim is to leverage petascale platforms at DOE's Leadership Computing Facilities (LCFs) to provide detailed information about heat transfer within the core and to provide baseline data for less expensive RANS and subchannel models.

Fischer, P.; Lottes, J.; Pointer, W. D.; Siegel, A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); ( NE)

2008-01-01

293

Particle Bed Reactor engine technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight

S. Sandler; R. Feddersen

1992-01-01

294

Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

1995-11-07

295

Fast neutron source reactor, YAYOI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the fast neutron source reactor, YAYOI of the University of Tokyo are described. The results of major researches are summarized. Those are the studies of fast neutron shielding and neutron transport, development of standard neutron field, advanced neutron detection, measurement of decay heat, development of epithermal neutron columns for boron neutron capture therapy, on-line tritium recovery from

Y. Oka; S. Koshizuka; I. Saito; K. Okamura; N. Aizawa; N. Sasuga; T. Sukegawa; T. Terakado; Y. Mabuchi; T. Nakagawa; S. An

1998-01-01

296

Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

297

Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

298

Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01

299

Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

300

Catalytic reactor with disposable cartridge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catalytic reactor, disposable cartridge enclosing iron catalyst, acts as container for solid carbon formed by decomposition of carbon monoxide. Deposition of carbon in other parts of oxygen recovery system does not occur because of lack of catalytic activity; filters trap carbon particles and prevent their being transported outside reaction zone.

Mccullough, C. M.

1973-01-01

301

Nuclear Reactor Core Clamping System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The clamping system is for the core of a nuclear reactor having a neutron reflector control system. The clamping system is situated between the core and the reflector system and is of such a size to permit closer spacing of the reflector system to the cor...

R. W. Guenther

1965-01-01

302

Directions in advanced reactor technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful nuclear power plant concepts must simultaneously performance in terms of both safety and economics. To be attractive to both electric utility companies and the public, such plants must produce economical electric energy consistent with a level of safety which is acceptable to both the public and the plant owner. Programs for reactor development worldwide can be classified according to

Golay

1990-01-01

303

Physics of nuclear reactor safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides a concise review of the physical aspects of safety of nuclear fission reactors. It covers the developments of roughly the last decade. The introductory chapter contains an analysis of the changes in safety philosophy that are characteristic of the last decade and that have given rise to an increased importance of physical aspects because of the emphasis on passive

H. van Dam

1992-01-01

304

Nuclear reactor safety heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Reactor Safety Heat Transfer is presented in five major sections.The first section presents the background material placing nuclear power in perspective. Starting with a historical overview, followed by fundamental concepts of nuclear energy and the philosphy of risk, the first three chapters: give the reader a brief but thorough introduction to nuclear power generation; describe the different types of

O. C. Jr

1981-01-01

305

Nuclear-reactor-safety computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual safety computers monitor coolant flow and temperature for each fuel and target assembly in the Savannah River Plant production reactors, providing rapid shutdown capability if any assembly is in danger of melting. The same computers also monitor twenty-four other safety circuits and enforce shutdown by a second mechanism if the primary (safety rod) system fails.

Kritz

1981-01-01

306

Global Trends in Reactor Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper offers a synthetical description of the main advanced reactor designs currently being developed in the world. The aim is to make comparisons and give an indication of new technological trends. The advanced designs are relevant to PWR, BWR, HTGR...

1987-01-01

307

INVESTIGATIONS WITH MERCURY FLOW REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the research performed in the Mercury Flow Reactor is to investigate short residence-time (seconds) adsorption of mercury species using different sorbents. Emphasis is placed on the effects of mercury concentration, flow rates, reaction temperatures, exposure ti...

308

Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

1998-06-02

309

Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor  

DOEpatents

A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

1998-04-14

310

Immobilized enzyme reactors in proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast, efficient characterization of proteins is becoming one of the hottest topics in the bioanalytical community, especially for large-scale proteomic studies. As an attractive approach, protein digestion by enzymes supported on various matrices (referred to as immobilized enzyme reactors, IMERs) has recently attracted much attention.In this article, we present a critical overview of some highly efficient IMERs and related analytical

Junfeng Ma; Lihua Zhang; Zhen Liang; Yichu Shan; Yukui Zhang

2011-01-01

311

Advances in ICF power reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen ICF power reactor design studies published since 1980 are reviewed to illuminate the design trends they represent. There is a clear, continuing trend toward making ICF reactors inherently safer and environmentally benign. Since this trend accentuates inherent advantages of ICF reactors, it is expected to be further emphasized in the future. An emphasis on economic competitiveness appears to be

W. J. Hogan; G. L. Kulcinski

1985-01-01

312

Fuel transfer system for a nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a fuel transfer system for moving nuclear reactor fuel assemblies from a new fuel storage pit to a containment area containing the nuclear reactor, and for transferring spent fuel assemblies under water from the reactor to a spent fuel storage area. The system includes an underwater track which extends through a wall dividing the fuel building from the

L. R. Katz; J. R. Marshall; W. E. Desmarchais

1977-01-01

313

Fuel transfer system for a nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel transfer system is described for moving nuclear reactor fuel assemblies from a new fuel storage pit to a containment area containing the nuclear reactor, and for transferring spent fuel assemblies under water from the reactor to a spent fuel storage area. The system includes an underwater track which extends through a wall dividing the fuel building from the

L. R. Katz; J. R. Marshall; W. Desmarchais

1976-01-01

314

Safety of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some physical and technical aspects of sodium-cooled fast reactor safety are discussed. An approach to the solution of safety problems in the designs of the first fast-reactor generation in the USSR was based (as a result of thermal reactor operating expe...

Y. E. Bagdasarov L. A. Kochetkov V. I. Matveev M. Y. Kulakovskii I. A. Kuznetsov

1977-01-01

315

Search for other natural fission reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precambrian uranium ores have been surveyed for evidence of other natural fission reactors. The requirements for formation of a natural reactor direct investigations to uranium deposits with large, high-grade ore zones. Massive zones with volumes approximately greater than 1 m³ and concentrations approximately greater than 20 percent uranium are likely places for a fossil reactor if they are approximately greater

K. E. Apt; J. P. Balagna; E. A. Bryant; G. A. Cowan; W. R. Daniels; R. J. Vidale

1977-01-01

316

Element immersed in coolant of nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the method of processing a coolant-displacement rod of a nuclear reactor, preparatory to the installation of the rod in the nuclear reactor, to preclude the formation undesirably of an unsupported permanent axial gap in the cladding of the rod over the anticipated time of use of the rod in the nuclear reactor by reason of neutron bombardment

1990-01-01

317

TRIGA Mark-II, III Reactor Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TRIGA Mark-II reactor has been primarily utilized for the fundamental reactor experiments, which were offered to the junior and senior students of Seoul National University and Hanyang University for 328 hours. The annual operating time of this reactor wa...

J. B. Lee C. K. Lee S. W. Cho B. J. Juhn G. Y. Han

1983-01-01

318

Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reactor at AFRRI is a Mark F, 1 megawatt TRIGA (training, research, isotope, General Atomic) reactor. The reactor hangs in a cloverleaf-shaped tank that contains 15,000 gallons of demineralized water. The aluminum tank varies in thickness from 1/4 inc...

J. Dickson L. Moore M. Moore R. George

1993-01-01

319

FUZZY MODELLING APPLIED TO AN UASB REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-rate anaerobic systems, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, are widely used in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Even though UASB reactors have several operational advantages, many industries are still reluctant to use them due to the fact that these reactors usually demand constant monitoring of effluent quality, excess sludge discharge and biogas production rate. Otherwise, they

R. M. Borges; C. J. Munaro; R. F. Gonalves

320

FAST NEUTRON REACTORS OVER THE WORLD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast reactors should lead to very efficient use of all nuclear fuel ; stocks through the conversion of uranium-238 and thorium-232 into flssile ; materials. The use of plu tonium-240 produced in thermal reactors should also be ; possible. A review is given of accomplishments in this field, viz experimental ; reactors of zero or low power and nuclear plant

M. M. Solanes; C. P. Zaleski

1962-01-01

321

Compact reactor\\/ORC power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor\\/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite

K. L. Meier; W. L. Kirchner; G. J. Willcutt

1986-01-01

322

Sandia Pulse Reactor-IV Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has developed, designed and operated fast burst reactors for over 20 years. These reactors have been used for a variety of radiation effects programs. During this period, programs have required larger irradiation volumes primarily to expose complex electronic systems to postulated threat environments. As experiment volumes increased, a new reactor was built so that these components could

Reuscher

1983-01-01

323

Simulation fidelity in reactor irradiation of electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast Burst Reactors (FBRs), and pool-type reactors, such as TRIGAs and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), are used as sources of neutrons and gamma rays in radiation effects testing of electronics. The applicability of test results to other test or operational radiation environments depends on adequate measurement and control of the test environment, and on the use of

Theodore F. Luera; Patrick J. Griffin; John G. Kelly

1991-01-01

324

The modular high-temperature reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all problems encountered in large high-temperature reactor power plants with respect to design and safety are related to the mere physical size of a larger reactor core. Our analyses show that it is feasible to subdivide a larger reactor core into modular units, analogous to the common practice of using several smaller units instead of one large unit. In

H. Reutler; G. H. Lohnert

1983-01-01

325

Optimal temperature profile in methanol synthesis reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal temperature profile is determined for a methanol synthesis reactor of LURGI type. The temperature profile is estimated so that methanol production rate in the reactor outlet will be maximized. First, the reactor is simulated based on heterogeneous one- and two-dimensional models. The comparison of the simulation results and plant data shows that the heterogeneous one-dimensional model can reliably

A. Jahanmiri; R. Eslamloueyan

2002-01-01

326

Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor ...

A. Shenoy K. Schultz L. Brown M. Fukuie M. Richards

2006-01-01

327

Design and operation of immobilized enzyme reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review encompasses recent advances in the design and operation of immobilized enzyme reactors for industrial applications. Basic immobilized enzyme reactor engineering concepts are described as a reference point for recent innovations. Although practical examples are cited, the subject is approached from the viewpoint of reactor design and operation and the potential general applicability of new concepts or developments. Areas

328

REACTOR PHYSICS CALCULATIONS FOR THE MSRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation is presented of results obtained to date from a number of ; reactor physics calculations for the molten salt reactor experiment (MSRE). ; Included are one-dimensional multigroup and two-dimensional twogroup calculations ; of critical mass, flux, and power density distributions; gamma heating in the ; core can, reactor vessel, and core support grid; drain tank criticality; and an

Nestor; C. W. Jr

1960-01-01

329

Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors history and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core

Jan Uhlr

2007-01-01

330

Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal  

DOEpatents

An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

Hunsbedt, Anstein N. (Los Gatos, CA)

1988-01-01

331

Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion.

Groh, Edward F. (Naperville, IL); Olson, Arne P. (Western Springs, IL); Wade, David C. (Naperville, IL); Robinson, Bryan W. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1984-01-01

332

Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device  

DOEpatents

A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a fety control rod to desired positions within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump/motor, an electric gear motor, and solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Idaho Falls, ID); West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

333

Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)  

SciTech Connect

A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

1985-09-01

334

Self isolating high frequency saturable reactor  

DOEpatents

The present invention discloses a saturable reactor and a method for decoupling the interwinding capacitance from the frequency limitations of the reactor so that the equivalent electrical circuit of the saturable reactor comprises a variable inductor. The saturable reactor comprises a plurality of physically symmetrical magnetic cores with closed loop magnetic paths and a novel method of wiring a control winding and a RF winding. The present invention additionally discloses a matching network and method for matching the impedances of a RF generator to a load. The matching network comprises a matching transformer and a saturable reactor.

Moore, James A. (Powell, TN)

1998-06-23

335

Savannah River Site production reactor technical specifications. K Production Reactor  

SciTech Connect

These technical specifications are explicit restrictions on the operation of the Savannah River Site K Production Reactor. They are designed to preserve the validity of the plant safety analysis by ensuring that the plant is operated within the required conditions bounded by the analysis, and with the operable equipment that is assumed to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Technical specifications preserve the primary success path relied upon to detect and respond to accidents. This report describes requirements on thermal-hydraulic limits; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance for the reactor, power distribution control, instrumentation, process water system, emergency cooling and emergency shutdown systems, confinement systems, plant systems, electrical systems, components handling, and special test exceptions; design features; and administrative controls.

NONE

1996-02-01

336

Reactor instrumentation renewal of the TRIGA reactor Vienna, Austria  

SciTech Connect

The TRIGA Mark-II reactor at the Atominstitut in Vienna, Austria is replacing its twenty-four year old instrumentation system with a microprocessor based control system supplied by General Atomics. Ageing components, new governmental safety requirements and a need for state of the art instrumentation for training students has spurred the demand for new reactor instrumentation. In Austria a government appointed expert is assigned the responsibility of reviewing the proposed installation and verifying all safety aspects. After a positive review, final assembly and checkout of the instrumentation system may commence. The instrumentation system consists of three basic modules: the control system console, the data acquisition console and the NH-1000 wide range channel. Digital communications greatly reduce interwiring requirements. Hardwired safety channels are independent of computer control, thus, the instrumentation system in no way relies on any computer intervention for safety function. In addition, both the CSC and DAC computers are continuously monitored for proper operation via watchdog circuits which are capable of shutting down the reactor in the event of computer malfunction. Safety channels include two interlocked NMP-1000 multi-range linear channels for steady state mode, an NPP-1000 linear safety channel for pulse mode and a set of three independent fuel temperature monitoring channels. The microprocessor controlled wide range NM- 1000 digital neutron monitor (fission chamber based) functions as a startup/operational channel, and provides all power level related Interlocks. The Atominstitut TRIGA reactor is configured for four modes of operation: manual mode, automatic mode (servo control), pulsing mode and square wave mode. Control of the standard control rods is via stepping motor control rod drives, which offers the operator the choice of which control rods are operated by the servo system in automatic and square wave model. (author)

Boeck, H. [Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Weiss, H. [Technical University, Graz (Austria); Hood, W.E.; Hyde, W.K. [General Atomics, TRIGA Division, San Diego, CA (United States)

1992-07-01

337

Fission fragment assisted reactor concept for space propulsion: Foil reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept is to fabricate a reactor using thin films or foils of uranium, uranium oxide and then to coat them on substrates. These coatings would be made so thin as to allow the escaping fission fragments to directly heat a hydrogen propellant. The idea was studied of direct gas heating and direct gas pumping in a nuclear pumped laser program. Fission fragments were used to pump lasers. In this concept two substrates are placed opposite each other. The internal faces are coated with thin foil of uranium oxide. A few of the advantages of this technology are listed. In general, however, it is felt that if one look at all solid core nuclear thermal rockets or nuclear thermal propulsion methods, one is going to find that they all pretty much look the same. It is felt that this reactor has higher potential reliability. It has low structural operating temperatures, very short burn times, with graceful failure modes, and it has reduced potential for energetic accidents. Going to a design like this would take the NTP community part way to some of the very advanced engine designs, such as the gas core reactor, but with reduced risk because of the much lower temperatures.

Wright, Steven A.

1991-01-01

338

Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

DePriest, K.R. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Trinh, T.Q. [Nuclear Facility Operations, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 0614, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Luker, S. M. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)

2011-07-01

339

TerraPower's Traveling Wave Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TerraPower is moving forward with detailed plans for a sustainable, economic, and safe nuclear reactor. The Traveling Wave Reactor (TWR) -- a reactor in the 500-megawatt electric range - uses unique core physics to initiate a breed and burn wave which can be completely sustained in fertile material. This process allows the TWR to convert depleted uranium waste into usable fuel as the reactor operates, providing a sustainable base-load power source. TerraPower is the first company to create a practical engineering embodiment of this previously studied concept thanks to a powerful advanced reactor modeling interface, developed in-house, which enables the analysis of traveling wave reactor technology in a way that has not been possible before. This presentation will provide more detail about the origins of the TWR, the project's current status as well as some of the safety differences between TWRs and currently operating light water reactors.

Ellis, Tyler

2011-11-01

340

Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier  

DOEpatents

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

2013-03-19

341

Design analysis of the upgraded TREAT reactor  

SciTech Connect

The TREAT reactor, fueled by a dilute dispersion of fully enriched UO/sub 2/ in graphite, has been a premier transient testing facility since 1959. A major Upgrade of the reactor is in progress to enhance its transient testing capability in support of the LMFBR safety program. The TREAT Upgrade (TU) reactor features a modified central zone of the core with higher fissile loadings of the same fuel, clad in Inconel to allow operation at higher temperatures. The demanding functional requirements on the reactor necessitated the use of unique features in the core design which, in turn, presented major calculational complexities in the analysis. Special design methods had to be used in many cases to treat these complexities. The addition of an improved Reactor Control System, a safety grade Plant Protection System and an enhanced Coolant/Filtration System produces a reactor that can meet the functional requirements on the reactor in a safe manner.

Bhattacharyya, S.K.

1982-01-01

342

Safety control circuit for a neutronic reactor  

DOEpatents

A neutronic reactor comprising an active portion containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy, means to control a neutronic chain reaction within the reactor comprising a safety device and a regulating device, a safety device including means defining a vertical channel extending into the reactor from an aperture in the upper surface of the reactor, a rod containing neutron-absorbing materials slidably disposed within the channel, means for maintaining the safety rod in a withdrawn position relative to the active portion of the reactor including means for releasing said rod on actuation thereof, a hopper mounted above the active portion of the reactor having a door disposed at the bottom of the hopper opening into the vertical channel, a plurality of bodies of neutron-absorbing materials disposed within the hopper, and means responsive to the failure of the safety rod on actuation thereof to enter the active portion of the reactor for opening the door in the hopper.

Ellsworth, Howard C. (Richland, WA)

2004-04-27

343

Reactor for gasifying solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

Solid fuels are gasified in a fixed bed with gasifying agents passed through the fixed bed from below. The gasification residues are withdrawn as solid ash or as liquid slag under the fixed bed. The reactor is charged with solid fuels through a lock chamber and with tar through a supply conduit. The tar is delivered to the fuel in numerous individual streams, which are distributed over the cross-section of the fixed bed. In the gasifying reactor, an inclined distributor surface is disposed over the fixed bed and has numerous passage openings for the tar and the solid fuels. The outlet end of the tar supply conduit is directed to the upper portion of the distributor surface. A tar tub having outlet openings is associated with the distributor surface and serves to receive the tar. The distributor surface is rotatable on a vertical axis.

Kupfer, H.; Rudolph, P.

1984-01-24

344

Microwave coupling in EBT reactor  

SciTech Connect

For a typical size ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor (approx. 1000 MWe), microwave frequencies required lie in the range of 60 to 110 GHz at power levels of 50 to 75 MW. As the frequency rises, the unloaded cavity (i.e., without plasma) quality factor Q decreases. Because of the short wavelengths of microwave heating power and the large cavity dimensions of a reactor, it is possible to apply quasi-optical principles in the efficient coupling of power to the plasma. The use of a confocal Fabry-Perot resonator with spherical mirrors is discussed; these serve to confine the microwave power to the region occupied by the plasma. The potential advantages of these resonators include high efficiency utilization of microwave power, minimal thermal burden on the cryopumping system, and significant benefit in preventing microwave leakage from the device. An estimation of the unloaded cavity quality factor Q and the design considerations of Fabry-Perot resonator are given.

Uckan, N.A.; Uckan, T.; Dandl, R.A.

1980-02-01

345

Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

1994-04-01

346

Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (inventors)

1981-01-01

347

Reactor safeguards against insider sabotage  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual safeguards system is structured to show how both reactor operations and physical protection resources could be integrated to prevent release of radioactive material caused by insider sabotage. Operational recovery capabilities are addressed from the viewpoint of both detection of and response to disabled components. Physical protection capabilities for preventing insider sabotage through the application of work rules are analyzed. Recommendations for further development of safeguards system structures, operational recovery, and sabotage prevention are suggested.

Bennett, H.A.

1982-03-01

348

Thermophysical properties of reactor fuels  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of the literature on the enthalpy of uranium, thorium, and plutonium oxide and an approach is described for calculating the vapor pressure and gaseous composition of reactor fuel. In these calculations, thermodynamic functions of gas phase molecular species (obtained from matrix-isolation spectroscopy) are employed in conjunction with condensed phase therodynamics. A summary is presented of the status of this work.

Leibowitz, L.

1981-01-01

349

Operate Your Own Tokamak Reactor!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Princeton University's Plasma Physics Laboratory's Interactive Plasma Physics Education Experience Web site has updated its interactive Virtual Tokamak. The Java applet is designed to illustrate the basic principles of magnetically confined fusion, and users can now type in the three parameters that include the heating power, magnetic field, and plasma density. Although the applet doesn't work on older PCs, older browsers, and on most Macs, it's worth finding a newer PC to interactively learn about these specific types of reactors.

Stotler, Daren.

2008-03-11

350

International standards for reactor technology  

SciTech Connect

The role of normative standards is to enhance the economic competitiveness of a nation by facilitating the free exchange of goods and services. Approximately 80 percent of all globally traded products are affected by standards and regulations that embody standards. In the present paper we provide a general discussion about the role of normative standards both in the United States and globally, and conclude with a specific discussion of international standards in the area of reactor technology. (authors)

Adams, J. M.; Londono, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 28099 (United States)

2006-07-01

351

Parallel Monte Carlo reactor neutronics  

SciTech Connect

The issues affecting implementation of parallel algorithms for large-scale engineering Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations are discussed. For nuclear reactor calculations, these include load balancing, recoding effort, reproducibility, domain decomposition techniques, I/O minimization, and strategies for different parallel architectures. Two codes were parallelized and tested for performance. The architectures employed include SIMD, MIMD-distributed memory, and workstation network with uneven interactive load. Speedups linear with the number of nodes were achieved.

Blomquist, R.N.; Brown, F.B.

1994-03-01

352

Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment, currently under construction in China, will be the most sensitive experiments in the world searching for the yet unknown neutrino mixing parameters, theta-13(theta13). With a thermal power of 17.4GW by 2011, the Daya Bay site provides an intense electron antineutrino flux, which together with 3 years of data taking from 4 pairs of identical

Yuenkeung Hor

2009-01-01

353

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid

Neal P. Sullivan; Ellen Beth Stechel; Connor J. Moyer; Andrea Ambrosini; Robert J. Key

2010-01-01

354

Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

1995-04-01

355

Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

Daugherty, W.L.

1990-01-30

356

Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nuclear reactor system could provide power to support long term human exploration of the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance of oxidizing lunar regolith and its good conversion efficiency. The goals of the shielding studies were to determine a material shielding configuration that reduces the dose (rem) to the required level in order to protect astronauts, and to estimate the mass of regolith that would provide an equivalent protective effect if it were used as the shielding material. All calculations were performed using MCNPX, a Monte Carlo transport code. Lithium hydride must be kept between 600 K and 700 K to prevent excessive swelling from large amounts of gamma or neutron irradiation. The issue is that radiation damage causes separation of the lithium and the hydrogen, resulting in lithium metal and hydrogen gas. The proposed design uses a layer of B4C to reduce the combined neutron and gamma dose to below 0.5Grads before the LiH is introduced. Below 0.5Grads the swelling in LiH is small (less than about 1%) for all temperatures. This approach causes the shield to be heavier than if the B4C were replaced by LiH, but it makes the shield much more robust and reliable.

Kang, Shawn; Lipinski, Ronald; McAlpine, William

2006-01-01

357

Using reactor operating experience to improve the design of a new Broad Application Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Increasing regulatory demands and effects of plant aging are limiting the operation of existing test reactors. Additionally, these reactors have limited capacities and capabilities for supporting future testing missions. A multidisciplinary team of experts developed sets of preliminary safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor design concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). Anticipated missions for the new reactor include fuels and materials irradiation testing, isotope production, space testing, medical research, fusion testing, intense positron research, and transmutation doping. The early BATR design decisions have benefited from operating experiences with existing reactors. This paper discusses these experiences and highlights their significance for the design of a new BATR.

Fletcher, C.D.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Drexler, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.

1993-07-01

358

The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor and Light Water Breeder Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, located in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, which was the first large-scale nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. A program was started in 1953 at the Bettis Laboratory to confirm the practical application of nuclear power for large-scale electric power generation. It led to the development of zirconium alloy (Zircaloy) clad fuel element containing bulk actinide oxide ceramics (UO{sub 2}, ThO{sub 2}, ThO{sub 2} -- UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} -- UO{sub 2}) as nuclear reactor fuels. The program provided much of the technology being used for design and operation of the commercial, central-station nuclear power plants now in use. The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) began initial power operation on December 18, 1957, and was a reliable electric power producer until February 1974. In 1965, subsequent to the successful operation of the Shippingport PWR (UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} -- UO{sub 2} fuels), the Bettis Laboratory undertook a research and development program to design and build a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core for operation in the Shippingport Station. Thorium was the fertile fuel in the LWBR core and was the base oxide for ThO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2} -- UO{sub 2} fuel pellets. The LWBR core was installed in the pressure vessel of the original Shippingport PWR as its last core before decommissioning. The LWBR core started operation in the Shippingport Station in the autumn of 1977 and finished routine power operation on October 1, 1982. Successful LWBR power operation to over 160% of design lifetime demonstrated the performance capability of the core for both base-load and swing-load operation. Postirradiation examinations confirmed breeding and successful performance of the fuel system.

Clayton, J.C.

1993-11-01

359

Jules Horowitz Reactor: a high performance material testing reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical modelling of materials' behaviour under severe conditions is an indispensable element for developing future fission and fusion systems: screening, design, optimisation, processing, licensing, and lifetime assessment of a new generation of structure materials and fuels, which will withstand high fast neutron flux at high in-service temperatures with the production of elements like helium and hydrogen. JANNUS and other analytical experimental tools are developed for this objective. However, a purely analytical approach is not sufficient: there is a need for flexible experiments integrating higher scales and coupled phenomena and offering high quality measurements; these experiments are performed in material testing reactors (MTR). Moreover, complementary representative experiments are usually performed in prototypes or dedicated facilities such as IFMIF for fusion. Only such a consistent set of tools operating on a wide range of scales, can provide an actual prediction capability. A program such as the development of silicon carbide composites (600-1200 C) illustrates this multiscale strategy. Facing the long term needs of experimental irradiations and the ageing of present MTRs, it was thought necessary to implement a new generation high performance MTR in Europe for supporting existing and future nuclear reactors. The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) project copes with this context. It is funded by an international consortium and will start operation in 2014. JHR will provide improved performances such as high neutron flux ( 10 n/cm/s above 0.1 MeV) in representative environments (coolant, pressure, temperature) with online monitoring of experimental parameters (including stress and strain control). Experimental devices designing, such as high dpa and small thermal gradients experiments, is now a key objective requiring a broad collaboration to put together present scientific state of art, end-users requirements and advanced instrumentation. To cite this article: D. Iracane et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

Iracane, Daniel; Chaix, Pascal; Alamo, Ana

2008-04-01

360

Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers  

SciTech Connect

A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

Edwards, R.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Weng, C.K. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lindsay, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-01-01

361

Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers  

SciTech Connect

A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability at commercial facilities. Prior to completing an experimental sequence, the benefits and utility of candidate advanced controllers should be established through theoretical development and simulation testing. The applicability of a robust optimal observer-based state feedback controller design process for improving reactor temperature response for a TRIGA research reactor, Liquid Metal-cooled Reactor (LMR), and a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed experimental development concept.

Edwards, R.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Weng, C.K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lindsay, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-06-01

362

Comparison of Fischer-Tropsch reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Fischer-Tropsch process for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen, discovered in 1925, was used in Germany to produce military fuel during the 1940s and discontinued after World War II. Sasol has been running the process at its South Africa facility for over 20 years. The Sasol operations employ two different reactor systems, the Arge fixed bed reactor and the Synthol entrained bed reactor. Numerous other reactor types have been proposed for the process, all claiming superiority over each of the others. In order to provide guidance for further development efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested a direct comparison of four reactor systems available for Fischer-Tropsch technology. Of the four systems studied, the slurry reactor provided the best gasoline yield and had the lowest investment and catalyst costs. 17 refs.

Riekena, M.L.; Vickers, A.G.; Haun, E.C.; Koltz, R.C.

1982-04-01

363

Profiling a reactor component using ultrasonics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactors have many components within the reactor vessel. During the life of a reactor it is possible for these components to be displaced or deformed because of the thermal cycles to which they are subject. Also, these components in situ therefore becomes important for the upkeep of the reactor. However, high radiation levels make it difficult to monitor using optical methods. This paper describes an ultrasonic method which was successfully employed in profiling a deformed guide tube of a reactor. The method uses the well-known ultrasonic ranging technique. However, the specialty of the method is the use of air transducers at 40 kHz to overcome the inherent divergence problems and the difficulties associated with high temperatures inherent in a sodium cooled reactor.

Pathak, L.; Seshadri, V.R.; Kumaravadivelu, C.; Sreenivasan, G.; Raghunathan, V.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)] [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

1995-04-01

364

Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermionic reactor designs for a variety of space power applications spanning the range from 5 kWe to 3 MWe are described. In all of these reactors, nuclear heat is converted directly to electrical energy in thermionic fuel elements (TFEs). A circulating reactor coolant carries heat from the core of TFEs directly to a heat rejection radiator system. The recent design of a thermionic reactor to meet the SP-100 requirements is emphasized. Design studies of reactors at other power levels show that the same TFE can be used over a broad range in power, and that design modifications can extend the range to many megawatts. The design of the SP-100 TFE is similar to that of TFEs operated successfully in test reactors, but with design improvements to extend the operating lifetime to seven years.

Homeyer, W. G.; Merrill, M. H.; Holland, J. W.; Fisher, C. R.; Allen, D. T.

1985-01-01

365

PID Control Effectiveness for Surface Reactor Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control of space and surface fission reactors should be kept as simple as possible, because of the need for high reliability and the difficulty to diagnose and adapt to control system failures. Fortunately, compact, fast-spectrum, externally controlled reactors are very simple in operation. In fact, for some applications it may be possible to design low-power surface reactors without the need for any reactor control after startup; however, a simple proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller can allow a higher performance concept and add more flexibility to system operation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of a PID control scheme for several anticipated transients that a surface reactor might experience. To perform these analyses, the surface reactor transient code FRINK was modified to simulate control drum movements based on bulk coolant temperature.

Dixon, David D.; Marsh, Christopher L.; Poston, David I.

2007-01-01

366

Recent progress in stellarator reactor conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The Stellarator/Torsatron/Heliotron (S/T/H) class of toroidal magnetic fusion reactor designs continues to offer a distinct and in several ways superior approach to eventual commercial competitiveness. Although no major, integrated conceptual reactor design activity is presently underway, a number of international research efforts suggest avenues for the substantial improvement of the S/T/H reactor embodiment, which derive from recent experimental and theoretical progress and are responsive to current trends in fusion-reactor projection to set the stage for a third generation of designs. Recent S/T/H reactor design activity is reviewed and the impact of the changing technical and programmatic context on the direction of future S/T/H reactor design studies is outlined.

Miller, R.L.

1985-01-01

367

NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposes to build a nuclear research reactor which will be located in the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this report is to inform the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in regard to the design Lq of the reactor facility, the characteristics of the site, and the hazards of operation at this location. The purpose of this research reactor is to make pumped loop studies of aircraft reactor fuel elements and other reactor components, radiation effects studies on aircraft reactor materials and equipment, shielding studies, and nuclear and solid state physics experiments. The reactor is light water cooled and moderated of the MTR-type with a primary beryllium reflector and a secondary water reflector. The core initially will be a 3 by 9 array of MTR-type fuel elements and is designed for operation up to a power of 60 megawatts. The reactor facility is described in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the nuclear characteristics and performance of the reactor. Then details of the reactor control system are discussed. A summary of the site characteristics is then presented followed by a discussion of the larger type of experiments which may eventually be operated in this facility. The considerations for normal operation are concluded with a proposed method of handling fuel elements and radioactive wastes. The potential hazards involved with failures or malfunctions of this facility are considered in some detail. These are examined first from the standpoint of preventing them or minimizing their effects and second from the standpoint of what effect they might have on the reactor facility staff and the surrounding population. The most essential feature of the design for location at the proposed site is containment of the maximum credible accident.

1959-01-01

368

Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide  

DOEpatents

An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01

369

Neutron shielding panels for reactor pressure vessels  

DOEpatents

In a nuclear reactor neutron panels varying in thickness in the circumferential direction are disposed at spaced circumferential locations around the reactor core so that the greatest radial thickness is at the point of highest fluence with lesser thicknesses at adjacent locations where the fluence level is lower. The neutron panels are disposed between the core barrel and the interior of the reactor vessel to maintain radiation exposure to the vessel within acceptable limits.

Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

2011-11-22

370

Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. The need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-Reactor-based fuel cycles,

A. Lafuente; M. Piera

2010-01-01

371

Silane-Pyrolysis Reactor With Nonuniform Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved reactor serves as last stage in system processing metallurgical-grade silicon feedstock into silicon powder of ultrahigh purity. Silane pyrolized to silicon powder and hydrogen gas via homogeneous decomposition reaction in free space. Features set of individually adjustable electrical heaters and purge flow of hydrogen to improve control of pyrolysis conditions. Power supplied to each heater set in conjunction with flow in reactor to obtain desired distribution of temperature as function of position along reactor.

Iya, Sridhar K.

1991-01-01

372

Characteristics of Two-Reactor Electronuclear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate electronuclear systems consisting of two-cascade subcritical zones: a liquid-metal fast reactor, which is used as a booster, and a thermal reactor, where most of the energy is released. Reactors of the type VVR-1000, MSBR-1000, and CANDU-6 are considered. The systems considered, functioning in the safe regime (keff = 0.940.98), possess much higher

S. A. Bznuni; V. M. Zhamkochyan; A. G. Khudaverdyan; V. S. Barashenkov; A. N. Sosnin; A. Polyanski

2002-01-01

373

Fuel handling apparatus for a nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

Fuel handling apparatus for transporting fuel elements into and out of a nuclear reactor and transporting them within the reactor vessel extends through a penetration in the side of the reactor vessel. A lateral transport device carries the fuel elements laterally within the vessel and through the opening in the side of the vessel, and a reversible lifting device raises and lowers the fuel elements. In the preferred embodiment, the lifting device is supported by a pair of pivot arms.

Hawke, Basil C. (Solana Beach, CA)

1987-01-01

374

A CANDU-Based Fast Irradiation Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new steady-state fast neutron reactor is needed to satisfy the testing needs of Generation IV reactors, the Space Propulsion Program, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. This paper presents a new concept for a CANDU-based fast irradiation reactor that is horizontal in orientation, with individual pressure tubes running the entire length of the scattering-medium tank (Calandria) filled with Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic

Shatilla

2006-01-01

375

Dynamics of heat-pipe reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A split-core heat pipe reactor, fueled with either U(233)C or U(235)C in a tungsten cermet and cooled by 7-Li-W heat pipes, was examined for the effects of the heat pipes on reactor while trying to safely absorb large reactivity inputs through inherent shutdown mechanisms. Limits on ramp reactivity inputs due to fuel melting temperature and heat pipe wall heat flux were mapped for the reactor in both startup and at-power operating modes.

Niederauer, G. F.

1971-01-01

376

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

SciTech Connect

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2012-11-29

377

Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration  

ScienceCinema

This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

None

2014-05-30

378

Analytical applications of reactors containing immobilized enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory for analytical packed-enzyme reactors is discussed and it is shown that a 100% conversion efficiency gives many\\u000a advantages. This concept has been applied to methods for substrate determinations of urea, amino acids, and glucose. Enzyme\\u000a reactors have also been used in the effluent from a Chromatographic column to enhance selectivity and sensitivity for cholesterol.\\u000a Enzyme reactors for the

Gillis Johansson

1982-01-01

379

Desirability of small reactors, HTGR in particular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small reactors of about 100300 MWe, High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) in particular, are considered desirable in future, based on the following ways of thinking;Global scale enhancement of nuclear energy is considered necessary from reduction of environment impact point of view.Small reactors are desirable, due to (a) enhanced safety in terms of fuel inventory and inherent safety, then (b)

Yasuo Tsuchie

2000-01-01

380

Space power reactor ground test in the Experimental Gas Cooled Reactor (EGCR) at Oak Ridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Experimental Gas Cooled Reactor (EGCR) facility and the supporting technical infrastructure at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have the capabilities of performing ground tests of space nuclear power reactor systems. A candidate test would be a 10 MW...

M. H. Fontana R. S. Holcomb R. H. Cooper

1992-01-01

381

PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Reactor vessel ready for insertion into ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Reactor vessel ready for insertion into pit. Photographer: Holmes. Date: February 26, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-991 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

382

PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Reactor vessel slips delicately into pit. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Reactor vessel slips delicately into pit. Photographer: Holmes. Date: February 26, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-982 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

383

Arkansas Tech University TRIGA nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the TRIGA nuclear reactor (ATUTR) proposed for construction on the campus of Arkansas Tech University in Russellville, Arkansas. The reactor will be part of the Center for Energy Studies located at Arkansas Tech University. The reactor has a steady state power level of 250 kW and can be pulsed with a maximum reactivity insertion of $2.0. Experience gained in dismantling and transporting some of the components from Michigan State University, and the storage of these components will be presented. The reactor will be used for education, training, and research. (author)

Sankoorikal, J.; Culp, R.; Hamm, J.; Elliott, D.; Hodgson, L.; Apple, S. [Arkansas Tech University, Engineering, Russellville, AR 72801 (United States)

1990-07-01

384

Thermomechanical analysis of fast-burst reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fast-burst reactors are designed to provide intense, short-duration pulses of neutrons. The fission reaction also produces extreme time-dependent heating of the nuclear fuel. An existing transient-dynamic finite element code was modified specifically to compute the time-dependent stresses and displacements due to thermal shock loads of reactors. Thermomechanical analysis was then applied to determine structural feasibility of various concepts for an EDNA-type reactor and to optimize the mechanical design of the new SPR III-M reactor.

Miller, J.D.

1994-08-01

385

TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project  

SciTech Connect

This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

1991-06-01

386

Utilization of reactor bays of decommissioned submarines  

SciTech Connect

Radiation concerns regarding dismantling and storage of decommissioned reactors and reactor bays from nuclear submarines are briefly summarized. Calculation results are presented for gamma dose rates, contamination density, and the expected location of maximum exposure dose rate on the submarine hull. However, it is noted that radiation measurements must be obtained for each ship due to differences in operating conditions. Long-term storage options for containerized reactors and reactor bays are very briefly outlined; these include placing them in concrete-lined trenches shielded from the atmosphere or in underground tunnels shielded from water. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lugavtsov, O.V.; Malakhov, A.G.; Popkov, K.K.

1994-11-01

387

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

ScienceCinema

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

388

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03

389

BN800: Next Generation of Russian Sodium Fast Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a brief information on major characteristics of BN-800 reactor plant. It is underlined that BN-800 is relied upon technical solutions earlier implemented in the running BN-600 reactor, which are corroborated by the reactor successful operation since 1980. General safety provision principles are described along with additional design solutions aiming to enhance the reactor safety. The reactor inherent

A. I. Kiryushin; B. A. Vasiliev; N. G. Kuzavkov; G. V. Shestakov; V. M. Poplavsky; I. Yu. Krivitsky

2002-01-01

390

Neutronics of a Mixed-Flow Gas-Core Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was made to investigate the neutronic feasibility of a mixed-flow gas-core reactor. Three reactor concepts were studied: four- and seven-cell radial reactors and a seven-cell scallop reactor. The reactors were fueled with UF sub 6 (either U-233 ...

P. D. Soran G. E. Hansen

1977-01-01

391

Multiphase chemical reactors:Theory, design, scale-up  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on chemical plant reactors. Topics considered include mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction, the hydrodynamics of fixed bed reactors, mass transfer in fixed bed reactors, heat transfer in fixed bed three phase reactors, scale up strategies for trickle bed reactors, and applications to coal liquefaction.

Gianetto, A.; Silveston, P.L.

1986-01-01

392

SOME ASPECTS OF LIGHT WATER MODERATED REACTORS FOR POWER APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the propulsion unit in a nuclear powered ship, a hydrogen-moderated, ; heterogeneous reactor, using slightly enriched fuel would have a number of ; advantsges. Such types as the pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, ; organic moderated reactor, and solid hydridemoderated, gas-cooled reactor are ; included in this classification. Some results of studies conducted by the Ship ; Group

1957-01-01

393

Concentric pipe loop arrangement for pressurized water nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a nuclear reactor primary coolant system having a reactor vessel, a steam generator, and a reactor coolant pump, a pipe loop arrangement is described comprising: a first pipe connecting an outlet of the reactor vessel with an inlet of the steam generator whereby hot reactor coolant is ducted to the steam generator; a second pipe substantially concentrically mounted within

Veronesi

1988-01-01

394

Engineering activities at the MIT research reactor in support of power reactor technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) research reactor (MITR-II) is a 5-MW(thermal) light-water-cooled and-moderated reactor (LWR) with in-core neutron and gamma dose rates that closely approximate those in current LWRs. Compact in-pile loops that simulate pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) thermal hydraulics and coolant chemistry have been designed for installation in the MITR-II. A PWR loop

O. K. Harling; J. A. Bernard; M. J. Driscoll; G. E. Kohse; R. G. Ballinger

1989-01-01

395

Plutonium breeding in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors and light water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of breeding in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) and light water reactors (LWRs) are compared in two ways. The feasibility of breeding has been demonstrated in the Phenix reactor with a measured gain of 0.14. The gain in Superphenix will amount to about0.20. The studies show that while maintaining the performance of commercial reactors their breeding gain can

Vendryes

1985-01-01

396

Operate Your Own Tokamak Reactor!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Princeton University's Plasma Physics Laboratory's Interactive Plasma Physics Education Experience Web site (last mentioned in the July 26, 2002 NSDL Physical Sciences ) has updated its interactive Virtual Tokamak. The Java applet is designed to illustrate the basic principles of magnetically confined fusion, and users can now type in the three parameters that include the heating power, magnetic field, and plasma density. Although the applet doesn't work on older PCs, older browsers, and on most Macs, it's worth finding a newer PC to interactively learn about these specific types of reactors.

Stotler, Daren.

2001-01-01

397

Reactor pressure vessel vented head  

DOEpatents

A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-11

398

Reactor vital equipment determination techniques  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Vital Equipment Determination Techniques program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is discussed. The purpose of the program is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with technical support in identifying vital areas at nuclear power plants using a fault-tree technique. A reexamination of some system modeling assumptions is being performed for the Vital Area Analysis Program. A short description of the vital area analysis and supporting research on modeling assumptions is presented. Perceptions of program modifications based on the research are outlined, and the status of high-priority research topics is discussed.

Bott, T.F.; Thomas, W.S.

1983-01-01

399

A LOW COST PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING TRAINING REACTOR. Reactor Design and Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a low cost training reactor for the instruction ; of physicists and engineers is covered. It is conceived as an instructional tool ; for a course such as that given at the Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology. ; The reactor is of a modified pool type, and is designed for a maximum power level ;

R. A. Brown; M. W. Ackerman; J. F. Jr. Batter; D. W. Bell; J. B. Dunlay; G. K. Ellis; E. I. Nowstrup; L. W. Pokallus

1956-01-01

400

97. ARAIII. ML1 reactor has been moved into GCRE reactor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. ARA-III. ML-1 reactor has been moved into GCRE reactor building (ARA-608) for examination of corrosion on its underside and repair. May 24, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-3485. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

401

Reactor FaceMap Tool: A modern graphics tool for displaying reactor data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prominent graphical user interface in reactor physics applications at the Savannah River Site is the reactor facemap display. This is a two dimensional view of a cross section of a reactor. In the past each application which needed a facemap implemented...

J. C. Roberts

1991-01-01

402

THE EXPERIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES WITH REACTOR OPERATION AND REACTOR SAFEGUARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactors are operating or planned at locations in the United States in ; cities, near cities, and at remote locations. There is a general pattern that ; the higher power reactors are not in, but fairly uear cities, and the testing ; reactors for more hazardous experiments are at remote locations. A great deal ; has been done on the

1958-01-01

403

PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Reactor vessel descends into pit, still ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Reactor vessel descends into pit, still under control of handling beams and pulleys. Vertical-lift door (to Reactor Building) is in background. Photographer: Holmes. Date: February 26, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-986 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

404

10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors J Appendix...Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors This appendix...licenses under part 52 of this chapter for water-cooled power reactors as...

2014-01-01

405

The direct partial oxidation of methane to organic oxygenates using a dielectric barrier discharge reactor as a catalytic reactor analog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work discusses the direct oxidative conversion of methane to organic oxygenates (methanol, formaldehyde, methyl formate, and formic acid) using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The DBD reactor can be considered an analog to a catalytic reactor because, just as with the catalytic reactor, the DBD reactor reduces the required temperature and pressure needed for reactions to occur

David W Larkin; Lance L Lobban; Richard G Mallinson

2001-01-01

406

Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation. Long-duration surface missions necessitate reliable autonomous operation, and manned missions impose added requirements for failsafe reactor protection. There is a need for an advanced instrumentation and control system for space-nuclear reactors that addresses both aspects of autonomous operation and safety. The Reactor Instrumentation and Control System (RICS) consists of two functionally independent systems: the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Supervision and Control System (SCS). Through these two systems, the RICS both supervises and controls a nuclear reactor during normal operational states, as well as monitors the operation of the reactor and, upon sensing a system anomaly, automatically takes the appropriate actions to prevent an unsafe or potentially unsafe condition from occurring. The RPS encompasses all electrical and mechanical devices and circuitry, from sensors to actuation device output terminals. The SCS contains a comprehensive data acquisition system to measure continuously different groups of variables consisting of primary measurement elements, transmitters, or conditioning modules. These reactor control variables can be categorized into two groups: those directly related to the behavior of the core (known as nuclear variables) and those related to secondary systems (known as process variables). Reliable closed-loop reactor control is achieved by processing the acquired variables and actuating the appropriate device drivers to maintain the reactor in a safe operating state. The SCS must prevent a deviation from the reactor nominal conditions by managing limitation functions in order to avoid RPS actions. The RICS has four identical redundancies that comply with physical separation, electrical isolation, and functional independence. This architecture complies with the safety requirements of a nuclear reactor and provides high availability to the host system. The RICS is intended to interface with a host computer (the computer of the spacecraft where the reactor is mounted). The RICS leverages the safety features inherent in Earth-based reactors and also integrates the wide range neutron detector (WRND). A neutron detector provides the input that allows the RICS to do its job. The RICS is based on proven technology currently in use at a nuclear research facility. In its most basic form, the RICS is a ruggedized, compact data-acquisition and control system that could be adapted to support a wide variety of harsh environments. As such, the RICS could be a useful instrument outside the scope of a nuclear reactor, including military applications where failsafe data acquisition and control is required with stringent size, weight, and power constraints.

Merk, John

2013-01-01

407

Simulated nuclear reactor fuel assembly  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end.

Berta, Victor T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

408

New Production Reactors Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

Part I of this New Production Reactors (NPR) Program Plan: describes the policy basis of the NPR Program; describes the mission and objectives of the NPR Program; identifies the requirements that must be met in order to achieve the mission and objectives; and describes and assesses the technology and siting options that were considered, the Program's preferred strategy, and its rationale. The implementation strategy for the New Production Reactors Program has three functions: Linking the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities to policies requirements, and the process for selecting options. The development of an implementation strategy ensures that activities and procedures are consistent with the rationale and analysis underlying the Program. Organization of the Program. The strategy establishes plans, organizational structure, procedures, a budget, and a schedule for carrying out the Program. By doing so, the strategy ensures the clear assignment of responsibility and accountability. Management and monitoring of the Program. Finally, the strategy provides a basis for monitoring the Program so that technological, cost, and scheduling issues can be addressed when they arise as the Program proceeds. Like the rest of the Program Plan, the Implementation Strategy is a living document and will be periodically revised to reflect both progress made in the Program and adjustments in plans and policies as they are made. 21 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-01

409

Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

2001-02-01

410

Coupled Reactor Kinetics and Heat Transfer Model for Heat Pipe Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). The paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities.

WRIGHT,STEVEN A.; HOUTS,MICHAEL

2000-11-22

411

Looking Northeast in Oxide Building at Reactors on Second Floor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northeast in Oxide Building at Reactors on Second Floor Including Reactor One (Left) and Reactor Two (Right) - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

412

REMOVAL OF CREOSOTE FROM SOIL BY BIOSLURRY REACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological slurry reactors were tested for removal of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from creosote contaminated soil. ive bioslurry reactors, operated in parallel, kept the soil aerated, partially suspended and well mixed. he reactors were inoculated with indigenous mic...

413

Biofilm Reactor for a Bacteria Fuel Cell System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A biofilm reactor has been investigated to replace a traditional bioreactor for a bacterial fuel cell system. In the fuel cell system studied, the biofilm reactor is used to separate biological reaction from electrode (anode) reaction. The reactor is made...

X. Zhang A. Halme

1999-01-01

414

Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conversion and coating of particle nuclear fuel is performed in spouted (fluidized) bed reactors. The reactor must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in inert, flammable, and coating gas environments. The spouted bed reactor geom...

D. S. Wendt R. L. Bewley W. E. Windes

2007-01-01

415

Human Factors Issues for Multi-Modular Reactor Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Smaller and multi-modular reactors (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactor configurations (e.g., addition/removal of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of such systems may...

B. P. Hallbert H. Garcia J. C. Joe R. L. Boring T. Q. Tran

2007-01-01

416

SRP process description for L reactor restart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the process for producing defense nuclear materials at SRP is required for the Environmental Impact Statement on the restart of L Reactor. This memorandum briefly presents the facilities and generally reviews the processes directly associated with the production of plutonium and tritium. L Reactor has been on standby since 1968 and is currently undergoing renovation for a

Johnson

1983-01-01

417

Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the

H. E. Jr

1982-01-01

418

Experimental development of power reactor advanced controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic approach for developing and verifying advanced controllers with potential application to commercial nuclear power plants is suggested. The central idea is to experimentally demonstrate an advanced control concept first on an ultra safe research reactor followed by demonstration on a passively safe experimental power reactor and then finally adopt the technique for improving safety, performance, reliability and operability

R. M. Edwards; C. K. Weng; R. W. Lindsay

1992-01-01

419

Advanced power reactors with improved safety characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of nuclear safety is the protection of individuals, society and environment against radiological hazards from accidental releases of radioactive materials contained in nuclear reactors.At a worldwide scale, several advanced reactor concepts are currently being considered, some of them already at a design stage. Essential safety objectives include both further strengthening the prevention of accidents and improving the

A. Birkhofer

1995-01-01

420

SOAR: Space orbiting advanced fusion power reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Orbiting Advanced Fusion Power Reactor (SOAR) is described. The SOAR reactor delivers 250 to 1000 MWe for at least 10 minutes from a D\\/He-3 plasma. About 99 percent of the fusion energy is in charged particles, and much of this energy is electrostatically converted directly into electricity at high efficiency. Advanced materials and shielding techniques allow SOAR to

J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski; H. Attaya; M. L. Corradini; L. A. El-Guebaly; G. A. Emmert; C. W. Maynard; M. E. Sawan; I. N. Sviatoslavsky; W. F. Vogelsang

1987-01-01

421

Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses

Duncton, P. J.; And Others

422

Reactor Design from a Stability Viewpoint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course uses stability as a central theme around which to organize a wide range of reactor concerns. This approach brings together the subject matter of catalyst particles with that of well-stirred vessels and tubular reactor geometry. (Author/BB)

Perlmutter, D. D.

1978-01-01

423

Fluidized bed biofilm reactor for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FBBR) represents a recent innovation in biofilm processes. Immobilization of microorganisms on the small, fluidized particles of the medium results in a high reactor biomass holdup which enables the process to be operated at significantly higher liquid throughputs with the practical absence of biomass wash-out. The process intensification (i.e., a reduction in process size while

Wen K. Shieh; John D. Keenan

424

Comparison of three ICF reactor designs  

SciTech Connect

Three concepts for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors are described and compared with each other, and with magnetic fusion and fission reactors on the basis of environmental impact, safety and efficiency. The critical technical developments of each concept are described. The three concepts represent alternative development paths for inertial fusion.

Hogan, W.J.

1984-09-20

425

Explosive demolition of K East Reactor Stack  

ScienceCinema

Using $420,000 in Recovery Act funds, the Department of Energy and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company topped off four months of preparations when they safely demolished the exhaust stack at the K East Reactor and equipment inside the reactor building on July 23, 2010.

None

2010-09-02

426

New Production Reactor project-management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides a project management plan for the first phase of a project to design and build a new production reactor (NPR) at SRP. The design of the NPR is based upon proven SRP heavy water reactor design, with several enhancements such as full containment, moderator detritiation, improved cooling, and modernized control rooms and instrumentation. The first phase of

F. J. McCrosson; L. Hibbard; M. R. Buckner

1982-01-01

427

Aerosol reactor production of uniform submicron powders  

DOEpatents

A method of producing submicron nonagglomerated particles in a single stage reactor includes introducing a reactant or mixture of reactants at one end while varying the temperature along the reactor to initiate reactions at a low rate. As homogeneously small numbers of seed particles generated in the initial section of the reactor progress through the reactor, the reaction is gradually accelerated through programmed increases in temperature along the length of the reactor to promote particle growth by chemical vapor deposition while minimizing agglomerate formation by maintaining a sufficiently low number concentration of particles in the reactor such that coagulation is inhibited within the residence time of particles in the reactor. The maximum temperature and minimum residence time is defined by a combination of temperature and residence time that is necessary to bring the reaction to completion. In one embodiment, electronic grade silane and high purity nitrogen are introduced into the reactor and temperatures of approximately 770.degree. K. to 1550.degree. K. are employed. In another embodiment silane and ammonia are employed at temperatures from 750.degree. K. to 1800.degree. K.

Flagan, Richard C. (Pasadena, CA); Wu, Jin J. (Pasadena, CA)

1991-02-19

428

Transients at Fast Pulse Reactors. Simulation Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of simulating transients in a pulsed reactor with IBR-2 parameters in the regime of maintaining a pre-set power level. The modes of regular and random reactivity insertions, various coolant flow rates and conversion of the reactor to...

A. K. Popov A. D. Rogov

1977-01-01

429

Tomographic imaging of trickle-bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trickle-bed reactors are used for a number of different reaction applications in chemical engineering processing. Among these applications hydrodesulfurization and hydrotreatment are the most common. For certain operating parameters of the reactor, the flow through the packing becomes instable and the pulse flow regime is established. In this regime, the mass transfer as well as the pressure drop is increased.

N. Reinecke; D. Mewes

1996-01-01

430

Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves p...

J. P. Church

1991-01-01

431

PARR-2: Reactor Description and Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PARR-2 is a Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) Tank-in-Pool type research reactor. Experimental facilities include irradiation sites located inside and outside the beryllium reflector annulus. The maximum thermal neutron flux of 10(sup 12)nv is avail...

M. F. Wyne J. H. Meghji

1990-01-01

432

TMI2 reactor vessel plenum final lift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand

1986-01-01

433

ICP Reactor Modeling: CF4 Discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors are widely used now for etching and deposition applications due to their simpler design compared to other high density sources. Plasma reactor modeling has been playing an important role since it can, in principle, reduce the number of trial and error iterations in the design process and provide valuable understanding of mechanisms. Flurocarbon precursors have

Deepak Bose; T. R. Govindan; M. Meyyappan

1999-01-01

434

Kinetics of Coupled-Core Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for obtaining the frequency response of a nuclear reactor using a pulsed neutron source has been investigated. Pulsed neutron measurements have been performed in the UTR-10 coupled-core Argonaut type reactor with neutron detectors placed in th...

R. A. Danofsky

1971-01-01

435

CONTROL OF POWER REACTORS. PART I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In power reactors, control over positive temperature coefficients of ; reactivity is provided by the U²³⁸ component of the fuel and the large ; thermal inertia of the mcderator. However, if the mcderator is in close ; asscciation with the fuel, as in recent reactor designs, the response is much ; more rapid, which may affect manual handling of the

1960-01-01

436

Hydrogasification reactor and method of operating same  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a system and method for evaluating effects of process parameters on hydrogasification processes. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, a pressurized feed system, a hopper system, a hydrogen gas source, and a carrier gas source. Pressurized carbonaceous material, such as coal, is fed to the reactor using the carrier gas and reacted with hydrogen to produce natural gas.

Hobbs, Raymond; Karner, Donald; Sun, Xiaolei; Boyle, John; Noguchi, Fuyuki

2013-09-10

437

Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future.

Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

1980-01-01

438

Preventing Cracks in Silicon-Reactor Liners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Correct placement helps prevent contamination while eliminating crack-causing deposits. Repositioning quartz liner in silicon fluidized-bed reactor prevents cracking of liner when cools. Liner protects stainless-steel walls of reactor from abrasion by particles in fluidized bed. Prevents contamination of newly formed silicon by material abraded from wall and ensures high-quality product.

Lutwack, R.

1987-01-01

439

Plasma-gun fueling for tokamak reactors  

SciTech Connect

In light of the uncertain extrapolation of gas puffing for reactor fueling and certain limitations to pellet injection, the snowplow plasma gun has been studied as a fueling device. Based on current understanding of gun and plasma behavior a design is proposed, and its performance is predicted in a tokamak reactor environment.

Ehst, D.A.

1980-11-01

440

Explosive demolition of K East Reactor Stack  

ScienceCinema

Using $420,000 in Recovery Act funds, the Department of Energy and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company topped off four months of preparations when they safely demolished the exhaust stack at the K East Reactor and equipment inside the reactor building on July 23, 2010.

441

Graphite bar irradiation history, C-Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following is all the information the authors can get on the graphite bar history from the A and G test holes at C-Reactor. The A test hole was charged with 18--23 1/2 inch long graphite bars before the original startup of C-Reactor. This was 6/12/53. ...

W. B. Olson

1968-01-01

442

Multiphysics Analysis of Spherical Fast Burst Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling neutronics to thermomechanics is important for the analysis of fast burst reactors, because the criticality and safety study of fast burst reactors depends on the thermomechanical behavior of fuel materials. For instance, the shut down mechanism or the transition between super and subcritical states are driven by the fuel material expansion or contraction. The material expansion or contraction is

Samet Y. Kadioglu; Dana A. Knoll; Cassiano de Oliveira

2009-01-01

443

Thermal shock effects in fast burst reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal shock effects that occur in a fast burst reactor (FBR) during its operation are analyzed. The thermoelastic displacement equation for radial motion is solved for a reactor initially at rest and having stress-free boundaries. Numerical results are presented for the dynamic displacements and stresses that occur in the White Sands Missile Range FBR for a burst of 1.2

G. P. Mulholland; T. F. Luera

1977-01-01

444

SNAP (Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power) reactor overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SNAP reactor programs are outlined in this report. A summary of the program is included along with a technical outline of the SER, S2DR, SNAP 10A/SNAPSHOT, S8ER, and S8DR reactor systems. Specifications of the designs, the design logic and a conclusion outlining some of the program weaknesses are given.

Voss, S. S.

1984-08-01

445

Reactivity oscillations in a point reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytic solution to a reactivity oascillation problem in the point reactor model is presented. A critical condition for the existence of stationary power oscillations is established. The results for both stationary and non-stationary oscillations allow to get some physical insight on the role of the delayed neutron emission phenomenon in reactor dynamics.

P. Ravetto

1997-01-01

446

Mechanical cutting of irradiated reactor internal components  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical cutting methods to volume reduce and package reactor internal components are now a viable solution for stakeholders challenged with the retirement of first generation nuclear facilities. The recent completion of the removal of the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) from within the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant demonstrates that unlike previous methods, inclusive of plasma arc and abrasive water-jet cutting, mechanical cutting minimizes exposure to workers, costly water cleanup, and excessive secondary waste generation. Reactor internal components were segmented, packaged, and removed from the reactor building for shipment or storage, allowing the reactor cavity to be drained and follow-on reactor segmentation activities to proceed in the dry state. Area exposure rates at the work positions during the segmentation process were generally 1 mR per hr. Radiological exposure documented for the underwater segmentation processes totaled 13 person rem. The reactor internals weighing 343,000 pounds were segmented into over 200 pieces for maximum shipping package efficiency and produced 5,600 lb of stainless steel chips and shavings which were packaged in void spaces of existing disposal containers, therefore creating no additional disposal volume. Because no secondary waste was driven into suspension in the reactor cavity water, the water was free released after one pass through a charcoal bed and ion exchange filter system. Mechanical cutting techniques are capable of underwater segmentation of highly radioactive components on a large scale. This method minimized radiological exposure and costly water cleanup while creating no secondary waste.

Anderson, Michael G. [MOTA Corporation: 3410 Sunset Boulevard, West Columbia, SC, 29169 (United States)

2008-01-15

447

Scaling study for SP100 reactor technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several ways were explored of extending SP-100 reactor technology to higher power levels. One approach was to use the reference SP-100 pin design and increase the fuel pin length and the number of fuel pins as needed to provide higher capability. The impact on scaling of a modified and advanced SP-100 reactor technology was also explored. Finally, the effect of

A. C. Marshall; B. McKissock; OH Cleveland

1989-01-01

448

ADVANCED HIGH FLUX RESEARCH REACTOR TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of high-flux research reactors is discussed. The major ; factor limiting further advance, restricted power density, is described. One ; method of improvement considered is designing for specific experimental use. ; Limitations were investigated in a comparative study of HO, DO, and ; Na cooled reactors of annularcore type. It is shown that power densities can be ;

C. N. Kelber; B. I. Spinrad; L. J. Templin

1962-01-01

449

Methanol synthesis in a multifunctional reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic methanol synthesis from syngas is conducted in a multifunctional reactor. The reactor consists in an annular catalyst layer surrounded by a wound copper tube acting as a condenser. The condensed products are separated in-situ from the reacting medium through a hydraulic seal, in order to drive the equilibrium composition towards the product.A first set of experiments were carried out

H. Ben Amor; V. L. Halloin

1999-01-01

450

DOE reactor-pumped laser program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FALCON is a high-power, steady-state, nuclear reactor-pumped laser (RPL) concept that is being developed by the Department of Energy. The FALCON program has experimentally demonstrated reactor-pumped lasing in various mixtures of xenon, argon, neon, and h...

J. R. Felty R. J. Lipinski D. A. McArthur P. S. Pickard

1993-01-01

451

Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop  

DOEpatents

Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2001-01-01

452

A Taylor vortex reactor for heterogeneous photocatalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising advanced oxidation process for water purification. One of the limitations in photocatalysis has been inherently low photoefficiencies. Recent studies show that the photoefficiency of formate decomposition can be increased through the use of controlled periodic illumination. In this study, a Taylor vortex reactor was designed, constructed and tested as a novel photocatalytic reactor that incorporated

Richard D. Noble; C KOVAL

1995-01-01

453

Modeling of Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to model a full fuel cycle in a nuclear reactor, it is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics ...

M. Johnson, P. Tsvetkov, S. Lucas

2010-01-01

454

Nuclear reactor safety in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactor safety in the USA has emphasized a defense-in-depth approach to protecting the public from reactor accidents. This approach was severely tested by the Three Mile Island accident and was found to be effective in safeguarding the public health and safety. However, the economic impact of the TMI accident was very large. Consequently, more attention is now being given

Vigil

1983-01-01

455

Nuclear reactor safety: Physics and engineering aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to carry out the sort of probabilistic risk analysis referred to in Professor F. R. Farmer's paper (Farmer 1981), it is necessary to have a good understanding of the processes involved in both normal and accident conditions in a nuclear reactor. Some of these processes, for a variety of different reactor systems, are considered in the following sections

G. H. Kinchin

1982-01-01

456

Bond Graph Modeling of Nuclear Reactor Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tenth-order linear model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is developed using bond graph techniques. The model describes the nuclear heat generation process and the transfer of this heat to the reactor coolant. Comparisons between the calculated mode...

J. L. Tylee

1981-01-01

457

NUCLEAR REACTORS FOR ROCKET SPACE PROPULSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing nuclear reactors as thermal sources for heating rocket ; propellants, it is possible to achieve higher specific impulses than those ; currently obtained through chemical combustion. Thermal, mechanical, and nuclear ; features of possible materials are examined. A compromise between low values of ; the specific mass and relatively low investment in fissionable material indicates ; that epithermal reactors

B. Coppi; C. Casci

1962-01-01

458

Effluent releases at the TRIGA reactor facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal effluent from the operating TRIGA reactors in our facility is argon-41. As monitored by a recording gas and particulate stack monitor, the values shown in the table, the Mark III operating 24 hours per day for very long periods produced the largest amount of radioactive argon. The quantity of 23.7 Ci A-41 when diluted by the normal reactor

Whittemore

1974-01-01

459

Aerosol reactor production of uniform submicron powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of producing submicron nonagglomerated particles in a single stage reactor includes introducing a reactant or mixture of reactants at one end while varying the temperature along the reactor to initiate reactions at a low rate. As homogeneously small numbers of seed particles generated in the initial section of the reactor progress through the reactor, the reaction is gradually accelerated through programmed increases in temperature along the length of the reactor to promote particle growth by chemical vapor deposition while minimizing agglomerate formation by maintaining a sufficiently low number concentration of particles in the reactor such that coagulation is inhibited within the residence time of particles in the reactor. The maximum temperature and minimum residence time is defined by a combination of temperature and residence time that is necessary to bring the reaction to completion. In one embodiment, electronic grade silane and high purity nitrogen are introduced into the reactor and temperatures of approximately 770.degree. K. to 1550.degree. K. are employed. In another embodiment silane and ammonia are employed at temperatures from 750.degree. K. to 1800.degree. K.

Flagan, Richard C. (Inventor); Wu, Jin J. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

460

Liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a fast neutron nuclear reactor in which the primary pumps and exchangers are suspended on the rigid slab sealing the vessel containing the reactor core. The slab has in its thickness housings of reduced dimensions in which are confined the heads of the exchangers and the primary pumps. The flywheels of the pumps and part of

Costes

1985-01-01

461

Primary coolant pumps for pressurized water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

From international nuclear industries fair; Basel, Switzerland (16 Oct ; 1972). The circulating pumps developed and constructed by Maschinenfabrik ; ANDRITZ AG for nuclear power stations with light and heavy water reactors are ; described, with a detailed account of the main coolant pumps for pressurized ; water reactors. A short description is presented of the development, ; construction, trial

Moritz

1972-01-01

462

HRE2 REPLACEMENT REACTOR STUDY NO. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a second HRE-2 replacement reactor design study are ; reported in which the mechanical, hydrodynamic, and nuclear aspects are discussed ; in detail. The reactor design which evolved from this study has a 21-in. dia x ; 42-in. long cylindrical core (vol = 200 liters) partially reflected by a 4-in. ; thick beryllium reflector, surrounded by a

1961-01-01

463

Neutronics design of a medical therapy reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a Medical Therapy Reactor (MTR) facility for the treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme and other presently incurable cancer types is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This paper addresses the feasibility of utilizing existing reactor technologies to deliver therapeutic doses of epithermal neutrons with minimal fast neutron and gamma contaminants. The two primary fuel candidates are

W. A. Neuman; D. K. Parsons; J. A. Lake

1988-01-01

464

Fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect

A fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor comprises a locking mechanism that is capable of locking the fuel assembly to the core plate of a nuclear reactor to prevent inadvertent movement of the fuel assembly. The locking mechanism comprises a ratchet mechanism that allows the fuel assembly to be easily locked to the core plate but prevents unlocking except when the ratchet is disengaged.

Gjertsen, R.K.

1983-04-26

465

Explosive demolition of K East Reactor Stack  

SciTech Connect

Using $420,000 in Recovery Act funds, the Department of Energy and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company topped off four months of preparations when they safely demolished the exhaust stack at the K East Reactor and equipment inside the reactor building on July 23, 2010.

2010-07-26

466

The importance of hydrodynamics in UV advanced oxidation reactors.  

PubMed

The flow field of UV reactors was characterised experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and modelled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The reactor flow was integrated with the radiation fluence rate and photolysis kinetics to calculate the overall conversion of photo-reactant components in annular UV reactors with an inlet parallel and perpendicular to the reactor axis. The results indicated that the fluid flow distribution within the reactor volume affects photo-reactor performance. PMID:17674827

Sozzi, A; Taghipour, F

2007-01-01

467

Thermal and flow design of helium-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

This book continues the American Nuclear Society's series of monographs on nuclear science and technology. Chapters of the book include information on the first-generation gas-cooled reactors; HTGR reactor developments; reactor core heat transfer; mechanical problems related to the primary coolant circuit; HTGR design bases; core thermal design; gas turbines; process heat HTGR reactors; GCFR reactor thermal hydraulics; and gas cooling of fusion reactors.

Melese, G.; Katz, R.

1984-01-01

468

Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

2012-01-01

469

ICP Reactor Modeling: CF4 Discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors are widely used now for etching and deposition applications due to their simpler design compared to other high density sources. Plasma reactor modeling has been playing an important role since it can, in principle, reduce the number of trial and error iterations in the design process and provide valuable understanding of mechanisms. Flurocarbon precursors have been the choice for oxide etching. We have data available on CF4 from our laboratory. These are current voltage characteristics, Langmuir probe data, UV-absorption, and mass spectrometry measurements in a GEC-ICP reactor. We have developed a comprehensive model for ICP reactors which couples plasma generation and transport and neutral species dynamics with the gas flow equations. The model has been verified by comparison with experimental results for a nitrogen discharge in an ICP reactor. In the present work, the model has been applied to CF4 discharge and compared to available experimental data.

Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

1999-10-01

470

TREAT Reactor Control and Protection System  

SciTech Connect

The main control algorithm of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Automatic Reactor Control System (ARCS) resides in Read Only Memory (ROM) and only experiment specific parameters are input via keyboard entry. Prior to executing an experiment, the software and hardware of the control computer is tested by a closed loop real-time simulation. Two computers with parallel processing are used for the reactor simulation and another computer is used for simulation of the control rod system. A monitor computer, used as a redundant diverse reactor protection channel, uses more conservative setpoints and reduces challenges to the Reactor Trip System (RTS). The RTS consists of triplicated hardwired channels with one out of three logic. The RTS is automatically tested by a digital Dedicated Microprocessor Tester (DMT) prior to the execution of an experiment. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Lipinski, W.C.; Brookshier, W.K.; Burrows, D.R.; Lenkszus, F.R.; McDowell, W.P.

1985-01-01

471

Methane oxidative coupling using membrane reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of membrane reactors has great potential to increase the desired product yield of reactions which are limited by thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity due to undesired parallel and/or series reactions. In the present research program, oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is studied by using catalytic inorganic membrane reactors in order to achieve higher selectivity and yield towards Csb2 hydrocarbons (mainly ethylene and ethane). The use of membrane reactor configurations enables the control of the oxygen supply to the methane coupling reaction system and thus suppresses the further oxidation of the Csb2 hydrocarbons. Methane oxidative coupling catalysts, different perovskites and other oxygen conducting materials were synthesized by co-precipitation, sol-gel, and cavitation methods and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, DSC, as well as by permeation measurements. In addition to materials research, various membrane synthesis techniques, such as pore filling of porous membranes, stabilization of gamma alumina membranes, and preparation and modification of dense oxygen conducting membranes, were investigated. Both porous and dense membrane reactors were used in this study. A thermally treated porous Vycor membrane tube has sufficient resistance to the permeate gas flow and therefore provides a uniform supply of oxygen to the OCM catalyst side of the membrane reactor. The oxygen flow rate can be easily regulated by adjusting the pressure on the oxygen-feed side. Experimental study of OCM in the porous Vycor membrane reactor showed that, under the same operating conditions, higher Csb2 selectivity could be achieved in a membrane reactor than in a conventional co-feed quartz tube reactor. For the same conversion level, higher Csb2 yield was achieved in a Vycor membrane reactor. Oxygen-conducting dense membranes have the unique property of allowing selective permeation of oxygen, and a cheap oxygen source such as air can be used as the oxidant for OCM, thus eliminating the contamination of the product by nitrogen. Although the dense membrane reactor gave slightly lower Csb2 yield than the conventional co-feed, packed bed quartz tube reactor, it outperformed the co-feed reactor with the catalyst packed inside the dense membrane tube. To further elucidate the effect of reactor configuration, operation conditions and kinetic parameters on the performance of membrane reactors, a cross-flow reactor model including staged-feed of one of the reactants and product removal along the reactor length was developed. The performances of the cross-flow reactors with different feed policies were analyzed in terms of residence time, reaction order, and rate constant, and the feed distribution or overall feed ratio was optimized so that the yield of the desired product at the outlet of the reactor was maximized. Based on the general model, methane oxidative coupling in cross-flow reactors was analyzed by using the OCM kinetics, and the effects of contact time, temperature, total pressure, dilution gas, and gas permeability on the reactor performance were investigated.

Lu, Yaping

472

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR  

DOEpatents

This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

Bollinger, L.R.

1982-03-17

473

ICP Reactor Modeling: CF4 Discharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors are widely used now for etching and deposition applications due to their simpler design compared to other high density sources. Plasma reactor modeling has been playing an important role since it can, in principle, reduce the number of trial and error iterations in the design process and provide valuable understanding of mechanisms. Fluorocarbon precursors have been the choice for oxide etching. We have data available on CF4 from our laboratory. These are current voltage characteristics, La.ngmuir probe data, UV-absorption, and mass spectrometry measurements in a GEC-ICP reactor. We have developed a comprehensive model for ICP reactors which couples plasma generation and transport and neutral species dynamics with the gas flow equations. The model has been verified by comparison with experimental results for a nitrogen discharge in an ICP reactor. In the present work, the model has been applied to CF4 discharge and compared to available experimental data.

Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

1999-01-01

474

Hot Gas Desulfurization Using Transport Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Sierra Pacific Power Company is building a 100 MW, IGCC power plant based on KRW fluid bed gasifier technology that utilizes transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Use of a transport absorber avoids the need for pre-filtration of dust-laden gasifier effluent, while a transport regenerator allows for the use of 100% air without the need for heat exchange equipment. Selection of transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization using a proprietary sorbent, based on testing performed in a transport reactor test unit (TRTU) at the M. W. Kellogg Technology Development Center and in a fixed bed reactor at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is outlined. The results obtained in these two test facilities and reasons for selecting transport reactors for the IGCC power plant in preference to either fixed bed or fluidized bed reactors are discussed. This paper reviews the evolution of the hot gas desulfurization system designs and includes selected results on H{sub 2}S absorption and regeneration of sulfided sorbent over several absorption/regeneration cycles conducted in the TRTU and the METC fixed bed reactor. The original design for the Sierra Pacific Project was based on fixed bed reactors with zinc ferrite as the sorbent. Owing to the high steam requirements of this sorbent, zinc titanate was selected and tested in a fixed bed reactor and was found unacceptable due to loss of strength on cyclic absorption/regeneration operation. Another sorbent evaluated was Z-Sorb{reg_sign}, a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company, was found to have excellent sulfur capacity, structural strength and regenerability. Steam was found unsuitable as fixed bed regenerator diluent, this results in a requirement for a large amount of inert gas, whereas a transport regenerator requires no diluent. The final Sierra design features transport reactors for both desulfurization and regeneration steps using neat air. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Moorehead, E.L. [Kellogg (M.W.) Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

475

(Meeting on fusion reactor materials)  

SciTech Connect

During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-11-01

476

Reactor pressure vessel vented head  

DOEpatents

A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

Sawabe, J.K.

1994-01-11

477

Coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coacervates are colloidal systems that are comprised of two immiscible aqueous layers, the colloid-rich layer, so-called coacervate, and the colloid-poor layer, so-called equilibrium liquid. Although immiscible, the two phases are both water-rich. Coacervates are important for prebiotic chemistry, but also have various practical applications, notably as transport vehicles of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Our objectives are to explore the potential of coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors. Since the reaction medium in coacervates is water, this creates a challenge, since most organic reactants are not water-soluble. To overcome this challenge we are utilizing recent Green Chemistry examples of the organic reactions in water, such as the Passerini reaction. We have investigated this reaction in two coacervate systems, and report here our preliminary results.

Kolb, Vera M.; Swanson, Mercedes; Menger, Fredric M.

2012-10-01

478

Solar Thermal Reactor Materials Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Current research into hydrogen production through high temperature metal oxide water splitting cycles has created a need for robust high temperature materials. Such cycles are further enhanced by the use of concentrated solar energy as a power source. However, samples subjected to concentrated solar radiation exhibited lifetimes much shorter than expected. Characterization of the power and flux distributions representative of the High Flux Solar Furnace(HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) were compared to ray trace modeling of the facility. In addition, samples of candidate reactor materials were thermally cycled at the HFSF and tensile failure testing was performed to quantify material degradation. Thermal cycling tests have been completed on super alloy Haynes 214 samples and results indicate that maximum temperature plays a significant role in reduction of strength. The number of cycles was too small to establish long term failure trends for this material due to the high ductility of the material.

Lichty, P. R.; Scott, A. M.; Perkins, C. M.; Bingham, C.; Weimer, A. W.

2008-03-01

479

Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration  

DOEpatents

An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

2009-11-10

480

Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly  

DOEpatents

A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

481

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01

482

Photoneutron effects on pulse reactor kinetics for the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR).  

SciTech Connect

The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is a swimming-pool type pulsed reactor that maintains an epithermal neutron flux and a nine-inch diameter central dry cavity. One of its uses is neutron and gamma-ray irradiation damage studies on electronic components under transient reactor power conditions. In analyzing the experimental results, careful attention must be paid to the kinetics associated with the reactor to ensure that the transient behavior of the electronic device is understood. Since the ACRR fuel maintains a substantial amount of beryllium, copious quantities of photoneutrons are produced that can significantly alter the expected behavior of the reactor power, especially following a reactor pulse. In order to understand these photoneutron effects on the reactor kinetics, the KIFLE transient reactor-analysis code was modified to include the photoneutron groups associated with the beryllium. The time-dependent behavior of the reactor power was analyzed for small and large pulses, assuming several initial conditions including following several pulses during the day, and following a long steady-state power run. The results indicate that, for these types of initial conditions, the photoneutron contribution to the reactor pulse energy can have a few to tens of percent effect.

Parma, Edward J., Jr.

2009-06-01

483

Control system for a small fission reactor  

DOEpatents

A system for controlling the reactivity of a small fission reactor includes an elongated, flexible hollow tube in the general form of a helical coiled spring axially positioned around and outside of the reactor vessel in an annular space between the reactor vessel and a surrounding cylindrical-shaped neutron reflector. A neutron absorbing material is provided within the hollow tube with the rate of the reaction controlled by the extension and compression of the hollow tube, e.g., extension of the tube increases reactivity while its compression reduces reactivity, in varying the amount of neutron absorbing material disposed between the reactor vessel and the neutron reflector. Conventional mechanical displacement means may be employed to control the coil density of the hollow tube as desired. In another embodiment, a plurality of flexible hollow tubes each containing a neutron absorber are positioned adjacent to one another in spaced relation around the periphery of the reactor vessel and inside the outer neutron reflector with reactivity controlled by the extension and compression of all or some of the coiled hollow tubes. Yet another embodiment of the invention envisions the neutron reflector in the form of an expandable coil spring positioned in an annular space between the reactor vessel and an outer neutron absorbing structure for controlling the neutron flux reflected back into the reactor vessel.

Burelbach, James P. (Glen Ellyn, IL) [Glen Ellyn, IL; Kann, William J. (Park Ridge, IL) [Park Ridge, IL; Saiveau, James G. (Hickory Hills, IL) [Hickory Hills, IL

1986-01-01

484

Changing optical axis due to reactor operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During reactor operation, the neutron flux distribution is modified by the reactor control mechanisms and in the case of the reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, this is determined by the angular position of the Cd shim arms and the vertical position of an Al regulating rod. The changing flux distribution results in a change in the optical axis of neutron beams, whose view is a fixed position within the reactor core. The changing optical axis results in two noticeable image artifacts: poor registration between images of a static object taken at different times and a change in the shape of the flat field intensity. These two effects were measured during the first four days of reactor operation. Both measurements show correlation with the reactor control mechanisms, with combined correlation coefficients during the first two days after reactor startup approaching 1. The change in the edge position is well below the image spatial resolution, and has more uncertainty associated with it. However, the change in the flat-field shape demonstrates a clear correlation with both shim arm angle and regulating rod position.

Hussey, D. S.; Jacobson, D. L.; Baltic, E.

2011-09-01

485

The advanced neutron source reactor: An overview  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be a new user facility for all kinds of neutron research, including neutron scattering, materials testing, materials analysis, isotope production and nuclear physics experiments. The centerpiece of the facility is to be the world's highest flux beam reactor. There will be beams of hot, cold and thermal neutrons for more than 40 simultaneous scattering and nuclear physics experiments. In addition, there will be irradiation positions and rabbit tubes for in-pile experiments, testing and isotopes production (including transuranium isotopes). To reduce technical risks and to minimize safety issues, the reactor design is based on technology already employed in existing research reactors. The fuel elements are annular assemblies of aluminum clad involute fuel plates, similar to the design of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) Reactor in Grenoble. As is common with many other research reactors, the core is cooled, moderated and reflected by heavy water. The preferred fuel is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} - a high-density fuel form developed by Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock and Wilcox that has been extensively tested in reactors in the United States, Europe and Japan. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

West, C.D.

1990-01-01

486

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30

487

Simulation and parameter estimation in heterogeneous two and three phase reactor modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Generalized models for catalytic packed bed reactors, trickle bed reactors, slurry reactors and gas-liquid tank reactors are presented. For the catalytic packed bed reactor the pseudo- homogeneous and heterogeneous one-dimensional models were considered. ...

J. Waernaa

1994-01-01

488

Optimized Conditioning of Activated Reactor Graphite  

SciTech Connect

The research reactor DIORIT at the Paul Scherrer Institute was decommissioned in 1993 and is now being dismantled. One of the materials to be conditioned is activated reactor graphite, approximately 45 tons. A cost effective conditioning method has been developed. The graphite is crushed to less than 6 mm and added to concrete and grout. This graphite concrete is used as matrix for embedding dismantling waste in containers. The waste containers that would have been needed for separate conditioning and disposal of activated reactor graphite are thus saved. Applying the new method, the cost can be reduced from about 55 SFr/kg to about 17 SFr/kg graphite.

Tress, G.; Doehring, L.; Pauli, H.; Beer, H.-F.

2002-02-25

489

Advances in ICF power reactor design  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen ICF power reactor design studies published since 1980 are reviewed to illuminate the design trends they represent. There is a clear, continuing trend toward making ICF reactors inherently safer and environmentally benign. Since this trend accentuates inherent advantages of ICF reactors, we expect it to be further emphasized in the future. An emphasis on economic competitiveness appears to be a somewhat newer trend. Lower cost of electricity, smaller initial size (and capital cost), and more affordable development paths are three of the issues being addressed with new studies.

Hogan, W.J.; Kulcinski, G.L.

1985-04-17

490

Cooldown criteria for light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

This Standard provides design criteria for systems and equipment necessary for the performance of those nuclear safety functions that are required to achieve and maintain a safe shutdown of the reactor to cold shutdown conditions from a hot standby or post accident condition. The following nuclear safety functions are addressed in this Standard: (1) reactivity control; (2) reactor coolant system heat removal; and (3) reactor coolant system integrity, i.e., pressure control, and inventory control. This Standard provides criteria for the design of systems used to accomplish these functions.

Not Available

1983-01-01

491

Simulation fidelity in reactor irradiation of electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast Burst Reactors (FBRs), and pool-type reactors, such as TRIGAs and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), are used as sources of neutrons and gamma rays in radiation effects testing of electronics. The applicability of test results to other test or operational radiation environments depends on adequate measurement and control of the test environment, and on the use of a valid damage equivalence methodology. Specific considerations which affect this applicability (simulation fidelity) are discussed. Damage equivalence methodology is discussed in the context of ASTM Standards.

Luera, Theodore F.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Kelly, John G.

492

Simulation fidelity in reactor irradiation of electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast Burst Reactors (FBRs), and pool-type reactors, such as TRIGAs and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), are used as sources of neutrons and gamma rays in radiation effects testing of electronics. The applicability of test results to other test or operational radiation environments depends on adequate measurement and control of the test environment, and on the use of a valid damage equivalence methodology. Specific considerations which affect this applicability (simulation fidelity) are discussed. Damage equivalence methodology is discussed in the context of ASTM Standards.

Luera, Theodore F.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Kelly, John G.

1991-01-01

493

Nonlinear dynamics of boiling water reactors  

SciTech Connect

Recent stability tests in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have indicated that these reactors can exhibit the special nonlinear behavior of following a closed trajectory called limit cycle. The existence of a limit cycle corresponds to an oscillation of fixed amplitude and period. During these tests, such oscillations had their amplitudes limited to about +- 15% of the operating power. Since limit cycles are fairly insensitive to parameter variations, it is possible to operate a BWR under conditions that sustain a limit cycle (of fixed amplitude and period) over a finite range of reactor parameters.

March-Leuba, J.; Cacuci, D.G.; Perez, R.B.

1983-01-01

494

Understanding the boiling water reactor limit cycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an interpretation of the physical mechanisms involved in the development of limit cycle oscillations in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Based on this interpretation, approximate correlations for some oscillation parameters are developed and shown to be largely independent of the particular reactor operating condition. The stability of the limit cycle is also studied in this paper. It is shown that the BWR limit cycle may become unstable and bifurcate. The bifurcation process leads to aperiodic (chaotic) behavior of the reactor power and causes the peak oscillation powers to be larger than those from a nonbifurcated limit cycle. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

March-Leuba, J.

1989-01-01

495

Review of Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this document we will review the current status of reactor neutrino oscillation experiments and present their physics potentials for measuring the ?13 neutrino mixing angle. The neutrino mixing angle ?13 is currently a high-priority topic in the field of neutrino physics. There are currently three different reactor neutrino experiments, DOUBLE CHOOZ, DAYA BAY and RENO and a few accelerator neutrino experiments searching for neutrino oscillations induced by this angle. A description of the reactor experiments searching for a nonzero value of ?13 is given, along with a discussion of the sensitivities that these experiments can reach in the near future.

Mariani, C.

496

Simulation fidelity in reactor irradiation of electronics  

SciTech Connect

Fast Burst Reactors (FBRs), and pool-type reactors, such as TRIGAs and the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), are used as sources of neutrons and gamma rays in radiation effects testing of electronics. The applicability of test results to other test or operational radiation environments depends on adequate measurement and control of the test environment, and on the use of a valid damage equivalence methodology. Specific considerations which affect this applicability (simulation fidelity) are discussed. Damage equivalence methodology is discussed in the context of ASTM Standards.

Luera, T.F.; Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G. (Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1991-01-05

497

Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor  

DOEpatents

A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

1984-01-01

498

Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Udovich, Carl A. (Joliet, IL)

1994-01-01

499

Immobilized cell reactor with simultaneous product separation. II. Experimental reactor performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Immobilized Cell Reactor-Separator (ICRS) consists of two column reactors: a cocurrent gas-liquid enricher followed by a countercurrent stripper. The columns are four-phase tubular reactors consisting of 1) an inert gas phase, 2) the liquid fermentation broth, 3) the solid column internal packing, and 4) the immobilized biological catalyst or cells. The application of the ICRS to the ethanol-from-whey-lactose fermentation

M. C. Dale; M. R. Okos; P. C. Wankat

1985-01-01

500

PBF Reactor Building (PER620). After lowering reactor vessel onto blocks, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). After lowering reactor vessel onto blocks, it is rolled on logs into PBF. Metal framework under vessel is handling device. Various penetrations in reactor bottom were for instrumentation, poison injection, drains. Large one, below center "manhole" was for primary coolant. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: February 13, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-736 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID