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Sample records for gold surfaces investigated

  1. Investigation of the Role of Surface Oxides in Catalysis by Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongqing; Stampfl, Catherine

    2007-03-01

    In contrast to the long held view that gold is catalytically inert, it is now well known that supported gold nanoparticles are notably more active than other transition metals for low temperature catalytic oxidation of CO, as well as promoting several other catalytic reactions [1]. This has stimulated huge efforts in an attempt to understand the mechanisms responsible for the high activity, including investigations into the nature of oxygen on gold surfaces [2]. Through density-functional theory and the approach of ab initio thermodynamics [3] we have found that on the gold (111) surface, thin oxide-like structures are significantly more stable for the pressure and temperature conditions of CO oxidation. The energetic preference for such partially oxidized gold, is in accord with very recent experimental results [4]. For the identified lowest energy surface oxide-like structure, we investigate the adsorption of CO on the surface and determine the reaction pathways for CO oxidation. [1] Haruta, Catal. J. New. Mater. Electro. Sys. 7, 163 (2004). [2] R. Meyer et al., Gold Bull. 37, 72 (2004), and references therein. [3] K. Reuter, C. Stampfl and M. Scheffler, in Handbook of Materials Modeling, Volume 1, Fundamental Models and Methods, Sidney Yip (Ed) 2005, 149-194. [4] L. Fu et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 3704 (2005).

  2. Substrate effects on the surface topography of evaporated gold films—A scanning tunnelling microscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancea, J.; Reiss, G.; Schneider, F.; Bauer, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    1989-08-01

    Direct observation of surface roughness on metal films is a longstanding problem in thin film characterization. In this work the high quality of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) was used for investigation of evaporated gold films. A scanning tunnelling microscope able to scan areas up to 0.8 × 0.8 micro m with high reproducibility is presented. The topography of 80 nm thick gold films grown under identical evaporation conditions was investigated as a function of the selected substrate material (Corning glass, silicon, NaCl, mica and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG)). The incipient growth mechanism on the substrate is the primary reason for the surface roughness. The real space images of the surface topography correlate very well with knowledge achieved from former growth experiments given in the literature. Moreover, very flat gold surfaces on HOPG allowed the observation of atomic corrugations in air environments.

  3. First-principles Investigation of the Stability of Surface Gold Oxides on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongqing; Stampfl, Catherine

    2006-03-01

    In contrast to the long held view that gold is catalytically inert and as such uninteresting, it is now well known that Au is significantly more active than Pt in the catalytic oxidation of CO under basic environments. Au can also promote many other reactions in the form of nanoparticles on metal oxide and activated carbon supports [1].^ This has simulated huge efforts in an attempt to understand the mechanisms responsible for the high activity, including investigations into the nature of oxygen on gold surfaces [2]. In the present work we have investigated the relative stability of oxygen adsorbed on and under the Au(111) surface, as well as thin surface oxides. We identify structures in which the binding of atomic oxygen is stronger than that at under-coordinated surface Au atoms (e.g. at steps). To determine the stability of the structures for different pressure and temperature conditions, we use the approach of ab initio thermodynamics [3], which indicates that these structures should be stable under certain catalytic conditions. [1] Haruta, Catal. J. New. Mater. Electro. Sys. 7, 163 (2004). [2] R. Meyer, et al., Gold Bull. 37, 72 (2004), and references therein. [3] K. Reuter, C. Stampfl and M. Scheffler, in Handbook of Materials Modeling, Volume 1, Fundamental Models and Methods, Sidney Yip (Ed) 2005, 149-194; K. Reuter and M. Scheffler, Phys. Rev. B 65, 035406 (2002).

  4. Quantitative investigation of the poly-adenine DNA dissociation from the surface of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiwen; Wang, Lihua; Li, Jiang; Zhao, Yun; Zhou, Ziang; Shi, Jiye; Zuo, Xiaolei; Pan, Dun

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, poly adenine (polyA) DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) free of modifications was fabricated with high density of DNA attachment and high hybridization ability similar to those of its thiolated counterpart. This nanoconjugate utilized poly adenine as an anchoring block for binding with the AuNPs surface thereby facilitated the appended recognition block a better upright conformation for hybridization, demonstrating its great potential to be a tunable plasmonic biosensor. It’s one of the key points for any of the practical applications to maintaining stable conjugation between DNA oligonucleotides and gold nanoparticles under various experimental treatments. Thus, in this research, we designed a simple but sensitive fluorescence turn-on strategy to systematically investigate and quantified the dissociation of polyA DNA on gold nanoparticles in diverse experimental conditions. DNA desorbed spontaneously as a function of elevated temperature, ion strength, buffer pH, organic solvents and keeping time. What’s more, evaluating this conjugate stability as affected by the length of its polyA anchor was another crucial aspect in our study. With the improved understanding from these results, we were able to control some of our experimental conditions to maintain a good stability of this kind of polyA DNA-AuNPs nanoconjugates.

  5. Formation of host-guest complexes on gold surface investigated by surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Mizuuchi, Takahiro; Ebata, Takayuki; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Haino, Takeharu; Kimura, Tetsunari; Guo, Hao; Furutani, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    We apply surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy to host-guest complexes in liquid phase to examine the structural change in the complex formation. Two thiol derivatives of 18-crown-6 (18C6) are chemisorbed on a gold surface, and aqueous solutions of MCl salts (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) are put to form M+·18C6 complexes. Infrared spectra of these complexes in the 900-2000 cm-1 region are obtained by SEIRA spectroscopy. The observed IR spectra show noticeable peaks due to the complex formation, demonstrating that SEIRA spectroscopy will be a powerful method to investigate the structure of host-guest complexes in supramolecular chemistry.

  6. In situ investigation of the mobility of small gold clusters on cleaved MgO surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metois, J. J.; Heinemann, K.; Poppa, H.

    1976-01-01

    The mobility of small clusters of gold (about 10 A in diameter) on electron-beam-cleaved MgO surfaces was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy under controlled vacuum and temperature conditions. During the first 10 min following a deposition at room temperature, over 10 per cent of the crystallites moved over short distances (about 20 A) discontinuously, with a velocity greater than 150 A/sec. Eighty per cent of the mobility events were characterized by the avoidance of proximity of other crystallites, and this was tentatively explained as the result of repulsive elastic forces between the interacting crystallites.

  7. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  8. Investigation of splashing phenomena during the impact of molten sub-micron gold droplets on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shen, Daozhi; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Duley, Walter W; Norman Zhou, Y

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of splashing accompanying the impact of molten 800 nm diameter gold droplets on silicon, gold coated silicon, gold coated glass and polished solid gold surfaces has been studied. A novel method based on laser induced forward transfer has been developed to generate single submicron molten gold droplets. Splashing morphology has been characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) techniques. It is found that the splashing of submicron gold droplets upon impact is enhanced by high droplet impact energy achieved by reducing the droplet flight distance and that an air layer resulting in a bubble becomes trapped under the impacting droplets even when the size of the droplet is less than one micron. Our results show that, under these conditions, heat transfer between the submicron droplet and the solid substrate is more important than surface roughness and surface tension in the evolution of splashing. A theoretical model has been developed to simulate the splashing characteristics of submicron gold droplets during impact. Both the experimental data and the analytical model show that splashing is enhanced by high heat transfer rates to the surface. PMID:26456326

  9. Immobilization, hybridization, and oxidation of synthetic DNA on gold surface: electron transfer investigated by electrochemistry and scanning tunneling microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Gerald D.; Chen, Fan; Zhou, Anhong

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of interfacial electron transfer (ET) among electrolyte/DNA/solid-surface will facilitate the design for electrical detection of DNA molecules. In this report, the electron transfer characteristics of synthetic DNA (sequence from pathogenic Cryptosporidium parvum) self-assembled on a gold surface was electrochemically studied. The effects of immobilization order on the interface ET related parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D0), surface coverage (θR), and monolayer thickness (di) were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). DNA surface density (ΓDNA) was determined by the integration of the charge of the electro-oxidation current peaks during the initial cyclic voltammetry scans. It was found that the DNA surface density at different modifications followed the order: ΓDNA (dsS-DNA/Au) > ΓDNA (MCH/dsS-DNA/Au) > ΓDNA (dsS-DNA/MCH/Au). It was also revealed that the electro-oxidation of the DNA modified gold surface would involve the oxidation of nucleotides (guanine and adenine) with a 5.51 electron transfer mechanism and the oxidative desorption of DNA and MCH molecules by a 3 electron transfer mechanism. STM topography and current image analysis indicated that the surface conductivity after each surface modification followed the order: dsS-DNA/Au < MCH/dsS-DNA/Au < oxidized MCH/dsS-DNA/Au < Hoechst/oxidized MCH/dsS-DNA/Au. The results from this study suggested a combination of variations in immobilization order may provide an alternative approach for the optimization of DNA hybridization and the further development for electrical detection of DNA. PMID:19446060

  10. Functionalisation of gold surfaces with thiolate SAMs: Topography/bioactivity relationship A combined FT-RAIRS, AFM and QCM investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, E.; Gu, C.; Boujday, S.; Salmain, M.; Herry, J. M.; Pradier, C. M.

    2007-09-01

    Immobilisation of rabbit immunoglobulin G (rIgG) was performed by affinity binding to protein A (PrA) covalently bound to three different thiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), (i) a mixed SAM of mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and mercaptohexanol (C6OH) at a molar ratio of 1-3, (ii) a pure SAM of MUA and (iii) a pure SAM of cystamine (CA). A comparative study of anti-rIgG recognition process on these three surfaces was achieved in order to assess the influence of the attachment layer topography and composition upon the sensor quality. Functionalised gold-coated surfaces were characterised by three complementary analytical techniques, namely atomic force microscopy (AFM), polarization modulation-reflection-adsorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). PM-RAIRS and AFM revealed that the three SAMs were formed on the gold surfaces. AFM observations made it clear that the thiolate and PrA layers were rather homogeneous in the case of pure MUA and CA SAMs, as compared to the MUA/C6OH mixed SAM on which PrA aggregates were observed. Though the highest amount of antibody was bound to the PrA on CA layer, higher anti-rIgG over IgG ratios were measured on the less dense layers of antibody.

  11. In situ synthesis and surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles with curcumin and their antioxidant properties: an experimental and density functional theory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dheeraj K.; Jagannathan, Ramya; Khandelwal, Puneet; Abraham, Priya Mary; Poddar, Pankaj

    2013-02-01

    Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is an active component of turmeric; it is responsible for its characteristic yellow color and therapeutic potential, but its poor bioavailability remains a major challenge. In order to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, various approaches have been used. One of the possible approaches to increase the bioavailability of curcumin is its conjugation on the surface of metal nanoparticles. Therefore, in the present study, we report the binding of curcumin on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs were synthesized by the direct reduction of HAuCl4 using curcumin in the aqueous phase, without the use of any other reducing agents. We found that curcumin acts both as a reducing and capping agent, stabilizing the gold sol for many months. Moreover, these curcumin-capped AuNPs also show good antioxidant activity which was confirmed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) radical test. Thus, the surface functionalization of AuNPs with curcumin may pave a new way of using the curcuminoids towards possible drug delivery and therapeutics. Apart from the experimental study, a detailed quantum chemical calculation using density functional theory (DFT) has been performed, in order to investigate the formation of a complex of curcumin with Au3+ ions in different possible conformational isomeric forms. Our theoretical calculations indicate the evidence of electron transfer from curcumin into the Au center and essentially indicate that as a consequence of complexation, Au3+ ions are reduced to Au0. Our theoretical results also propose that it is the breakage of intramolecular H-bonding that probably leads to the increased availability of curcumin in the presence of gold ions and water molecules.Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is an active component of turmeric; it is responsible for its characteristic yellow color and therapeutic

  12. In situ synthesis and surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles with curcumin and their antioxidant properties: an experimental and density functional theory investigation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dheeraj K; Jagannathan, Ramya; Khandelwal, Puneet; Abraham, Priya Mary; Poddar, Pankaj

    2013-03-01

    Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is an active component of turmeric; it is responsible for its characteristic yellow color and therapeutic potential, but its poor bioavailability remains a major challenge. In order to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, various approaches have been used. One of the possible approaches to increase the bioavailability of curcumin is its conjugation on the surface of metal nanoparticles. Therefore, in the present study, we report the binding of curcumin on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs were synthesized by the direct reduction of HAuCl(4) using curcumin in the aqueous phase, without the use of any other reducing agents. We found that curcumin acts both as a reducing and capping agent, stabilizing the gold sol for many months. Moreover, these curcumin-capped AuNPs also show good antioxidant activity which was confirmed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) radical test. Thus, the surface functionalization of AuNPs with curcumin may pave a new way of using the curcuminoids towards possible drug delivery and therapeutics. Apart from the experimental study, a detailed quantum chemical calculation using density functional theory (DFT) has been performed, in order to investigate the formation of a complex of curcumin with Au(3+) ions in different possible conformational isomeric forms. Our theoretical calculations indicate the evidence of electron transfer from curcumin into the Au center and essentially indicate that as a consequence of complexation, Au(3+) ions are reduced to Au(0). Our theoretical results also propose that it is the breakage of intramolecular H-bonding that probably leads to the increased availability of curcumin in the presence of gold ions and water molecules. PMID:23348618

  13. Tuning plasmonic interaction between gold nanorings and a gold film for surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Jian; Lodewijks, Kristof; Lagae, Liesbet; Van Dorpe, Pol; Shioi, Masahiko; Kawamura, Tatsuro

    2010-10-18

    We investigate the plasmonic properties of gold nanorings in close proximity to a gold film. The rings have been fabricated using nanosphere lithography and are optimized to boost their near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. A SERS enhancement factor as large as 1.4x10{sup 7} has been achieved by tuning the separation between the gold nanorings and the gold film. In addition, we have numerically and experimentally demonstrated an enhanced tunability of the plasmon resonance wavelength and a narrowing of the plasmon linewidth for increasing ring-film interaction.

  14. Formation, structure, and orientation of gold silicide on gold surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. K.; Bauer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of gold silicide on Au films evaporated onto Si(111) surfaces is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Surface condition, film thickness, deposition temperature, annealing temperature, and heating rate during annealing are varied. Several oriented crystalline silicide layers are observed.

  15. Electrically Conductive Polyimide Films Containing Gold Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, Maggie L.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide films exhibiting high thermo-oxidative stability and including electrically conductive surface layers containing gold made by casting process. Many variations of basic process conditions, ingredients, and sequence of operations possible, and not all resulting versions of process yield electrically conductive films. Gold-containing layer formed on film surface during cure. These metallic gold-containing polyimides used in film and coating applications requiring electrical conductivity, high reflectivity, exceptional thermal stability, and/or mechanical integrity. They also find commercial potential in areas ranging from thin films for satellite antennas to decorative coatings and packaging.

  16. Surface plasmons in porous gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, S. P.; Stetsenko, M. O.; Krishchenko, I. M.; Maksimenko, L. S.; Kaganovich, E. B.; Serdega, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    The surface plasmon resonance effects in porous gold (por-Au) films—nanocomposite porous films containing an ensemble of disordered gold nanoparticles—have been investigated by modulation-polarization spectroscopy. Por-Au films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (using a direct particle flow from an erosion torch formed by a YAG:Nd3+ laser in argon). The spectral and angular dependences of the polarization difference ρ(λ, θ) of internal-reflection coefficients of s- and p-polarized radiation in the Kretschmann geometry and the spectral dependences of isotropic reflection angles at ρ(θ) = 0 are measured. Two types of surface plasmon resonance are found: one occurs on isolated nanoparticles (dipole and multipole modes), and the other is due to the dipole-dipole interaction of neighboring nanoparticles. The frequency of electron plasma oscillations for the nanoparticle ensemble and the frequencies and decay parameters of resonances are determined. Dispersion relations for the radiative and nonradiative modes are presented. The negative sign of the dispersion branch of nonradiative modes of dipole-dipole interaction is explained by the spatial dispersion of permittivity. The relationships between the formation conditions of the films, their structure, and established resonance parameters (determining the resonant-optical properties of films) are discussed.

  17. Topological states on the gold surface.

    PubMed

    Yan, Binghai; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Haag, Norman; Jakobs, Sebastian; Seidel, Johannes; Jungkenn, Dominik; Mathias, Stefan; Cinchetti, Mirko; Aeschlimann, Martin; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Gold surfaces host special electronic states that have been understood as a prototype of Shockley surface states. These surface states are commonly employed to benchmark the capability of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Here we show that these Shockley surface states can be reinterpreted as topologically derived surface states (TDSSs) of a topological insulator (TI), a recently discovered quantum state. Based on band structure calculations, the Z2-type invariants of gold can be well-defined to characterize a TI. Further, our ARPES measurement validates TDSSs by detecting the dispersion of unoccupied surface states. The same TDSSs are also recognized on surfaces of other well-known noble metals (for example, silver, copper, platinum and palladium), which shines a new light on these long-known surface states. PMID:26658826

  18. Topological states on the gold surface

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Binghai; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Haag, Norman; Jakobs, Sebastian; Seidel, Johannes; Jungkenn, Dominik; Mathias, Stefan; Cinchetti, Mirko; Aeschlimann, Martin; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Gold surfaces host special electronic states that have been understood as a prototype of Shockley surface states. These surface states are commonly employed to benchmark the capability of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Here we show that these Shockley surface states can be reinterpreted as topologically derived surface states (TDSSs) of a topological insulator (TI), a recently discovered quantum state. Based on band structure calculations, the Z2-type invariants of gold can be well-defined to characterize a TI. Further, our ARPES measurement validates TDSSs by detecting the dispersion of unoccupied surface states. The same TDSSs are also recognized on surfaces of other well-known noble metals (for example, silver, copper, platinum and palladium), which shines a new light on these long-known surface states. PMID:26658826

  19. Direct formation of gold nanorods on surfaces using polymer-immobilised gold seeds.

    PubMed

    Abyaneh, Majid K; Parisse, Pietro; Casalis, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present the formation of gold nanorods (GNRs) on novel gold-poly(methyl methacrylate) (Au-PMMA) nanocomposite substrates with unprecedented growth control through the polymer molecular weight (M w) and gold-salt-to-polymer weight ratio. For the first time, GNRs have been produced by seed-mediated direct growth on surfaces that were pre-coated with polymer-immobilised gold seeds. A Au-PMMA nanocomposite formed by UV photoreduction has been used as the gold seed. The influence of polymer M w and gold concentration on the formation of GNRs has been investigated and discussed. The polymer nanocomposite formed with a lower M w PMMA and 20 wt % gold salt provides a suitable medium for growing well-dispersed GNRs. In this sample, the average dimension of produced GNRs is 200 nm in length with aspect ratios up to 10 and a distribution of GNRs to nanoparticles of nearly 22%. Suitable characterization techniques such as AFM and SEM have been used to support concept of the proposed growth method. PMID:27547597

  20. A novel dual-impedance-analysis EQCM system--investigation of bovine serum albumin adsorption on gold and platinum electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingji; Xiang, Canhui; Yuan, Yu; Zhang, Youyu; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2003-06-01

    Both quartz crystal micro-balance (QCM) impedance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods are widely used in interface studies. This paper presents details about a new strategy for simultaneous, mutual-interference-free and accurate measurements of QCM impedance and EI, through connecting a suitable capacitance in series with the piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) between QCM impedance and EIS measurement instruments. Combined and individual measurements of QCM impedance and EIS during silver deposition gave results comparable with each other, demonstrating the reliability of the proposed method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption on gold and platinum electrodes in Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffers was investigated, and the Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) couple was used as an electrochemical probe to characterize BSA adsorption. While the reversibility of Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) couple on bare Au and Pt electrodes changed very slightly with decreasing solution pH from pH approximately 7 to pH approximately 2, the standard rate constant (ks) of this couple increased abruptly with solution pH below pH approximately 4.5 at a BSA-modified Au electrode, but decreased with solution pH at a BSA-modified Pt electrode. By analyzing the QCM impedance data with a modified BVD equivalent circuit and the EI data with a modified Randle's equivalent circuit, inflexion changes at pH approximately 4.5 were all found at pH-dependent responses of the resonant frequency, the double-layer capacitance, the capacitance of the adsorbed BSA layer, the peak-absorbance values of BSA solutions at 277.5 and 224.5 nm, and so on. It was also found that a BSA adsorption layer can effectively inhibit gold corrosion during ferrocyanide oxidation in a ferrocyanide-containing BR solution. Some preliminary explanations of these findings have been given. The proposed method is highly recommended for wider applications in surface science. PMID:16256587

  1. Silicide surface phases on gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. K.; Bauer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The crystalline silicide layers formed on (111) and (100) surfaces of Au films on various Si single-crystal substrates are studied by LEED and AES in conjunction with sputter-depth profiling as a function of annealing temperature. On the (111) surface, three basic silicide structures are obtained corresponding to layers of various thicknesses as obtained by different preparation conditions. The (100) surface shows only two different structures. None of the structures is compatible with the various bulk silicide structures deduced from X-ray diffraction. Using LEED as a criterion for the presence or absence of silicide on the surface, smaller layer thicknesses are obtained than reported previously on the basis of AES studies.

  2. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-07-01

    In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage.

  3. Direct formation of gold nanorods on surfaces using polymer-immobilised gold seeds

    PubMed Central

    Parisse, Pietro; Casalis, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Summary Herein, we present the formation of gold nanorods (GNRs) on novel gold–poly(methyl methacrylate) (Au–PMMA) nanocomposite substrates with unprecedented growth control through the polymer molecular weight (M w) and gold-salt-to-polymer weight ratio. For the first time, GNRs have been produced by seed-mediated direct growth on surfaces that were pre-coated with polymer-immobilised gold seeds. A Au–PMMA nanocomposite formed by UV photoreduction has been used as the gold seed. The influence of polymer M w and gold concentration on the formation of GNRs has been investigated and discussed. The polymer nanocomposite formed with a lower M w PMMA and 20 wt % gold salt provides a suitable medium for growing well-dispersed GNRs. In this sample, the average dimension of produced GNRs is 200 nm in length with aspect ratios up to 10 and a distribution of GNRs to nanoparticles of nearly 22%. Suitable characterization techniques such as AFM and SEM have been used to support concept of the proposed growth method. PMID:27547597

  4. Superlubricity of graphene nanoribbons on gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shigeki; Benassi, Andrea; Gnecco, Enrico; Söde, Hajo; Pawlak, Rémy; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Passerone, Daniele; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Ruffieux, Pascal; Fasel, Roman; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-02-26

    The state of vanishing friction known as superlubricity has important applications for energy saving and increasing the lifetime of devices. Superlubricity, as detected with atomic force microscopy, appears when sliding large graphite flakes or gold nanoclusters across surfaces, for example. However, the origin of the behavior is poorly understood because of the lack of a controllable nanocontact. We demonstrated the superlubricity of graphene nanoribbons when sliding on gold with a joint experimental and computational approach. The atomically well-defined contact allows us to trace the origin of superlubricity, unraveling the role played by ribbon size and elasticity, as well as by surface reconstruction. Our results pave the way to the scale-up of superlubricity and thus to the realization of frictionless coatings. PMID:26917767

  5. Surface chemistry driven actuation in nanoporous gold

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Wittstock, A; Zepeda-Ruiz, L; Biener, M M; Zielasek, V; Kramer, D; Viswanath, R N; Weissmuller, J; Baumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2008-04-14

    Although actuation in biological systems is exclusively powered by chemical energy, this concept has not been realized in man-made actuator technologies, as these rely on generating heat or electricity first. Here, we demonstrate that surface-chemistry driven actuation can be realized in high surface area materials such as nanoporous gold. For example, we achieve reversible strain amplitudes in the order of a few tenths of a percent by alternating exposure of nanoporous Au to ozone and carbon monoxide. The effect can be explained by adsorbate-induced changes of the surface stress, and can be used to convert chemical energy directly into a mechanical response thus opening the door to surface-chemistry driven actuator and sensor technologies.

  6. Surface plasmon tunneling through a touching gold nanocylinder array on a thin gold film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Suxia; Li, Hongjian; Fu, Shaoli; Xie, Ding; Xu, Haiqing; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Zhimin

    2011-04-01

    The optical property of a structure composed of a touching gold nanocylinder array on a thin gold film is investigated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. It is discovered that the transmission behavior can be tuned by tuning the geometry of the structure. As the film thickness increases, the transmission mode associated with the localized surface plasmon resonance blue shifts accompanied with a decrease of magnitude and full width at half maximum, and a second transmission appear due to the interaction of the plasmons on the cylinder with their images induced on the film. The localized waveguide resonance diminishes but the second resonance peak is intensified and broadened noticeably with the separation of the cylinder array and film increase. The cylinder radius size influences the localized surface plasmon resonance mode obviously. These results may be helpful for the design of a novel optical device.

  7. Control of gold surface diffusion on si nanowires.

    PubMed

    den Hertog, Martien I; Rouviere, Jean-Luc; Dhalluin, Florian; Desré, Pierre J; Gentile, Pascal; Ferret, Pierre; Oehler, Fabrice; Baron, Thiery

    2008-05-01

    Silicon nanowires (NW) were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using gold as the catalyst and silane as the precursor. Gold from the catalyst particle can diffuse over the wire sidewalls, resulting in gold clusters decorating the wire sidewalls. The presence or absence of gold clusters was observed either by high angle annular darkfield scanning transmission electron microscopy images or by scanning electron microscopy. We find that the gold surface diffusion can be controlled by two growth parameters, the silane partial pressure and the growth temperature, and that the wire diameter also affects gold diffusion. Gold clusters are not present on the NW side walls for high silane partial pressure, low temperature, and small NW diameters. The absence or presence of gold on the NW sidewall has an effect on the sidewall morphology. Different models are qualitatively discussed. The main physical effect governing gold diffusion seems to be the adsorption of silane on the NW sidewalls. PMID:18422363

  8. Probing the Surface Properties of Gold at Low Electrolyte Concentration.

    PubMed

    Tivony, Ran; Klein, Jacob

    2016-07-26

    Using the surface force balance (SFB), we studied the surface properties of gold in aqueous solution with low electrolyte concentration (∼10(-5) M and pH = 5.8), i.e., water with no added salt, by directly measuring the interaction between an ultrasmooth gold surface (ca. 0.2 nm rms roughness) and a mica surface. Under these conditions, specific adsorption of ions is minimized and its influence on the surface charge and surface potential of gold is markedly reduced. At open circuit potential, the electrostatic interaction between gold and mica was purely attractive and gold was found to be positively charged. This was further confirmed by force measurements against a positively charged surface, poly-l-lysine coated mica. Successive force measurements unambiguously showed that once gold and mica reach contact all counterions are expelled from the gap, confirming that at contact the surface charge of gold is equal and opposite in charge to that of mica. Further analysis of adhesion energy between the surfaces indicated that adhesion is mostly governed by vdW dispersion force and to a lesser extent by electrostatic interaction. Force measurements under external applied potentials showed that the gold-mica interaction can be regulated as a function of applied potential even at low electrolyte concentration. The gold-mica interaction was described very precisely by the nonlinearized Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation, where one of the surfaces is at constant charge, i.e., mica, and the other, i.e., gold, is at constant potential. Consequently, the gold surface potential could be determined accurately both at open circuit potential (OCP) and under different applied potentials. Using the obtained surface potentials, we were able to derive fundamental characteristics of the gold surface, e.g., its surface charge density and potential of zero charge (PZC), at very low electrolyte concentration. PMID:27357375

  9. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods. PMID:25936063

  10. Surface treatment of gold alloys for resin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Eder, A; Wickens, J

    1996-01-01

    This in vitro study compared three methods of surface treating gold alloys to improve resin adhesion. The tensile bond strengths and modes of failure between specimen pairs cemented with a chemically adhesive resin were recorded. Heat-treated gold alloy specimens were significantly more resistant to bond failure under tensile loading than were either alumina-blasted or tin-plated gold specimens. There was no statistically significant difference in bond failure between alumina-blasted and tin-plated gold specimens. The surface treatment altered the mode of failure from adhesive and/or adhesive-cohesive for alumina-blasted and tinplated gold specimens to cohesive (within the resin) for heat-treated gold specimens. Three case reports are presented to illustrate clinical applications of heat-treated gold alloys. PMID:9063210

  11. Thin gold layer in Ni electroforming process: optical surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Missaglia, N.; Paganini, L.

    2009-08-01

    Mandrel replication by Nickel electroforming is a well-suited process to manufacture X-ray mirrors, making use of Gold layer playing the twofold role of release agent and reflective coating. To increase the optical performances of mirrors it is crucial to minimize the impact of X-ray scattering effects related to surface microroughness, especially when the mirror is intended to operate in hard X-rays. In this case, the Gold layer simply acts as release agent because the reflection is demanded to interferential over-coatings. Even though the replicated optical surface is usually believed to reproduce the smooth topography of the master, a surface degradation is commonly observed. Such a worsening can also suffer from a contribution from the spontaneous roughness growth of the Gold layer itself: if this is the case, the mirror's optical quality could potentially benefit from the utilization of a thin Gold layer (< 100 nm) instead of the traditional thick gold layer (> 100 nm). To prove the effectiveness of the Gold thickness reduction, a microroughness characterization of replicated thin gold layers has been achieved. We report here a preliminary roughness study of 3 electroformed Ni samples replicated from a super-polished Zerodur flat master with various Gold layer thicknesses, in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm. The study is organized as follows: (a) characterization of the 3 replicated samples; (b) comparison of the Gold roughness for thin vs. thick layers; (c) comparison of the two sides of Gold layers.

  12. Ultrafast Imaging of Surface Plasmons Propagating on a Gold Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Hu, Dehong; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-05-13

    We record time-resolved nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (tr-PEEM) images of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from a lithographically patterned rectangular trench on a flat gold surface. Our tr-PEEM scheme involves a pair of identical, spatially separated, and interferometrically-locked femtosecond laser pulses. Power dependent PEEM images provide experimental evidence for a sequential coherent nonlinear photoemission process, in which one laser source creates a PSP polarization state through a linear interaction, and the second subsequently probes the prepared state via two photon photoemission. The recorded time-resolved movies of a PSP allow us to directly measure various properties of the surface-bound wave packet, including its carrier wavelength (785 nm) and group velocity (0.95c). In addition, tr-PEEM in concert with finite-difference time domain simulations together allow us to set a lower limit of 75 μm for the decay length of the PSP on a 100 nm thick gold film.

  13. Interaction of Gold Clusters with a Hydroxylated Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Deen; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    We explore the interaction between gold nanoclusters and a fully hydroxylated surface, Mg(OH){sub 2}'s basal plane, by using a density functional theory-enabled local basin-hopping technique for global-minimum search. We find strong interaction of gold nanoclusters with the surface hydroxyls via a short bond between edge Au atoms and O atoms of the -OH groups. We expect that this strong interaction is ubiquitous on hydroxylated support surfaces and helps the gold nanoclusters against sintering, thereby contributing to their CO-oxidation activity at low temperatures.

  14. Thin gold layer in NiCo and Ni electroforming process: optical surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, G.; Spiga, D.; Raimondi, L.; Pareschi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Borghi, G.; Missaglia, N.; Negri, B.

    2010-07-01

    Mandrel replication by NiCo electroforming is an upgrade of the well-suited X-ray mirrors manufacturing process with pure Nickel. In this process, a Gold layer deposited on the mandrel acts as release agent and, at the same time, as reflective coating. To increase the optical performances of X-ray mirrors, the replicated optical surface is meant to reproduce the smooth topography of the mandrel: a surface degradation is commonly observed, indeed. A factor leading to surface smoothness worsening can be the spontaneous roughness growth of the Gold layer itself; therefore, the optical quality of the reflecting surface might be improved by optimizing the Gold layer thickness. A preliminary study, aimed at investigating the effects of Gold thickness reduction (< 100 nm Vs. the usual 200 nm), had already been dealt in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm: measurements performed on flat electroformed samples showed that the Gold thickness reduction chiefly affects the roughness around 1 μm. Here we presents a study of the effectiveness of a Gold layer with reduced (< 100 nm) thickness in the NiCo X-ray mirrors electroforming, aimed at surface micro-roughness mitigation. The characterization, in the spectral range 0.02-1000 μm, of 3 X-ray mirrors manufactured utilizing Gold layers with different thickness values from a flight mandrel is reported. The performed investigation is organized as follows: (a) characterization of the flight mandrel; (b) dependence of the micro-roughness from different Gold layers thicknesses supported by XRD study; (c) comparison of the micro-roughness of mirrors manufactured in NiCo in Ni, with the same Gold layer thickness. As a conclusive remark the effects of the Gold layer thinning on the angular degradation at high energy are reported.

  15. Nanomechanics of bidentate thiolate ligands on gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zoloff Michoff, Martin E; Ribas-Arino, Jordi; Marx, Dominik

    2015-02-20

    The effect of the chain length separating sulfur atoms in bidentate thiols attached to defective gold surfaces on the rupture of the respective molecule-gold junctions has been studied computationally. Thermal desorption always yields cyclic disulfides. In contrast, mechanochemical desorption leads to cyclic gold complexes, where metal atoms are extracted from the surface and kept in tweezer-like arrangements by the sulfur atoms. This phenomenon is rationalized in terms of directional mechanical manipulation of Au-Au bonds and Au-S coordination numbers. Moreover, the flexibility of the chain is shown to crucially impact on the mechanical strength of the junction. PMID:25763962

  16. Investigations of corrosion phenomena on gold coins with SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhofer, K. E.; Piplits, K.; Traum, R.; Griesser, M.; Hutter, H.

    2005-09-01

    In order to establish a new handling procedure for contaminated coins, the Coin Cabinet and the Conservation Science Department of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, initiated a research project on corrosion effects of gold coins. By now, investigations on historic and contemporary coins included optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron microscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods showing the distribution of pollutants. This work focuses on secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations merely showing the distribution of electronegative elements, such as sulfur, oxygen, and chlorine on the surface. Sulfur is highly suspected of causing the observed corrosion phenomena, and is indeed enriched near polluting splints. Since SIMS is a destructive method, the investigated samples are test coins with intentionally added impurities. These coins were manufactured in cooperation with the Austrian Mint. They were treated with potassium polysulfide (K 2S x) for 8 h gaining a rapid corrosion of the surface. SIMS mass spectra, depth profiles, and images were done (a) at non-polluted areas, (b) near polluted areas with slight coloring, and (c) directly at polluting stains showing enrichments of sulfur and chlorine. Due to the success of these investigations further studies on historic coins are intended.

  17. Investigation of gold embrittlement in connector solder joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, F. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine to what extent typical flight connector solder joints may be embrittled by the presence of gold. In addition to mapping of gold content in connector solder joints by an electron microprobe analyzer, metallographic examinations and mechanical tests (thermal shock, vibration, impact and tensile strength) were also conducted. A description of the specimens and tests, a discussion of the data, and some conclusions are presented.

  18. Triply surface-plasmon resonant four-wave mixing imaging of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masia, Francesco; Langbein, Wolfgang; Watson, Peter; Borri, Paola

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a novel multiphoton microscopy technique not relying on (and hence not limited by) fluorescence emission, which exploits the third-order nonlinearity called four-wave mixing of gold nanoparticles in resonance with their surface Plasmon. The coherent, transient and resonant nature of this signal allows its detection free from backgrounds that limit other contrast methods for gold nanoparticles. We show detection of single 10nm gold nanoparticles with low excitation intensities, corresponding to negligible average thermal heating. Owing to the the third-order nonlinearity we measure a transversal and axial resolution of 140nm and 470nm respectively, better than the one-photon diffraction limit. We also show high-contrast imaging of gold-labels down to 5nm size in Golgi structures of HepG2 cells at useful imaging speeds (10 kHz pixel rate). Thermal dissociation of gold nanoparticles from their bonding sites when varying the excitation intensity is also investigated.

  19. Impedimetric investigation of gold nanoparticles - guanine modified electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcu, A.; Pruneanu, S.; Berghian-Grosan, C.; Olenic, L.; Muresan, L. M.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.

    2013-11-13

    In this paper we report the preparation of a modified electrode with gold nanoparticles and guanine. The colloidal suspension of gold nanoparticles was obtained by Turkevich method and was next analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The gold electrode was modified by self-assembling the gold nanoparticles with guanine, the organic molecule playing also the role of linker. The electrochemical characteristics of the bare and modified electrode were investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A theoretical model was developed based on an electrical equivalent circuit which contain solution resistance (R{sub s}), charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}), Warburg impedance (Z{sub W}) and double layer capacitance (C{sub dl})

  20. Nitrite-triggered surface plasmon-assisted catalytic conversion of p-aminothiophenol to p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene on gold nanoparticle: surface-enhanced Raman scattering investigation and potential for nitrite detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjiang; Tang, Longhua; Niessner, Reinhard; Ying, Yibin; Haisch, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The stunning large enhancement factor (∼10(8)) of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect leads people to wonder about the underlying enhancement mechanisms of the effect. But, a strong evidence of the existence of one commonly accepted mechanism (chemical enhancement), the origin of the symbolic "b2" bands (ca. 1140,1390, 1432 cm(-1)) of p-aminothiophenol (PATP), was recently found to be a false explanation, which were actually arisen from the product of a surface plasmon-assisted coupling reaction of PATP, p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB). However, the debate is far from over, especially because the mechanism of the above reaction has not been fully understood yet. In this paper, we for the first time report a new surface plasmon-assisted catalytic conversion of PATP to DMAB that NO2(-) ions can trigger the formation of DMAB on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) suspension under light illumination. The mechanism of the conversion is also discussed. All relevant data suggest the nitrite-triggered conversion of PATP to DMAB on GNPs is a surface plasmon-assisted oxidation reaction, involving transfer of multiple electrons from PATP to NO2(-) (electron acceptors) and protons, leading to the formation of DMAB. The proposed mechanisms may also help to understand the unclear surface plasmon-assisted catalytic coupling of PATP on the SERS substrates. Furthermore, inspired by the high selectivity of the above nitrite-triggered catalysis reaction, a simple and fast nitrite screening method was also developed, exhibiting good sensitivity. Considering other advantages of the assay, such as rapidness, simplicity of the detection procedures, and requirement of no sample pretreatment, it is a promising method for on-site fast screening or point-of-care application. PMID:25437255

  1. Growth of pentacene on clean and modified gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kaefer, Daniel; Ruppel, Lars; Witte, Gregor

    2007-02-15

    The growth and evolution of pentacene films on gold substrates have been studied. By combining complementary techniques including scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure, and x-ray diffraction, the molecular orientation, crystalline structure, and morphology of the organic films were characterized as a function of film thickness and growth parameters (temperature and rate) for different gold substrates ranging from Au(111) single crystals to polycrystalline gold. Moreover, the influence of precoating the various gold substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) of organothiols with different chemical terminations has been studied. On bare gold the growth of pentacene films is characterized by a pronounced dewetting while the molecular orientation within the resulting crystalline three-dimensional islands depends distinctly on the roughness and cleanliness of the substrate surface. After completion of the first wetting layer where molecules adopt a planar orientation parallel to the surface the molecules continue to grow in a tilted fashion: on Au(111) the long molecular axis is oriented parallel to the surface while on polycrystalline gold it is upstanding oriented and thus parallels the crystalline orientation of pentacene films grown on SiO{sub 2}. On SAM pretreated gold substrates the formation of a wetting layer is effectively suppressed and pentacene grows in a quasi-layer-by-layer fashion with an upstanding orientation leading to rather smooth films. The latter growth mode is observed independently of the chemical termination of the SAM's and the roughness of the gold substrate. Possible reasons for the different growth mechanism as well as consequences for the assignment of spectroscopic data of thin pentacene film are discussed.

  2. Growth of pentacene on clean and modified gold surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käfer, Daniel; Ruppel, Lars; Witte, Gregor

    2007-02-01

    The growth and evolution of pentacene films on gold substrates have been studied. By combining complementary techniques including scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure, and x-ray diffraction, the molecular orientation, crystalline structure, and morphology of the organic films were characterized as a function of film thickness and growth parameters (temperature and rate) for different gold substrates ranging from Au(111) single crystals to polycrystalline gold. Moreover, the influence of precoating the various gold substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM’s) of organothiols with different chemical terminations has been studied. On bare gold the growth of pentacene films is characterized by a pronounced dewetting while the molecular orientation within the resulting crystalline three-dimensional islands depends distinctly on the roughness and cleanliness of the substrate surface. After completion of the first wetting layer where molecules adopt a planar orientation parallel to the surface the molecules continue to grow in a tilted fashion: on Au(111) the long molecular axis is oriented parallel to the surface while on polycrystalline gold it is upstanding oriented and thus parallels the crystalline orientation of pentacene films grown on SiO2 . On SAM pretreated gold substrates the formation of a wetting layer is effectively suppressed and pentacene grows in a quasi-layer-by-layer fashion with an upstanding orientation leading to rather smooth films. The latter growth mode is observed independently of the chemical termination of the SAM’s and the roughness of the gold substrate. Possible reasons for the different growth mechanism as well as consequences for the assignment of spectroscopic data of thin pentacene film are discussed.

  3. Gold-nanoshells as surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyamoorthy, K.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    Coreshell plasmonic nanoparticles (CS) are a class of nanoparticles that exhibit optical absorption in the near IR regime and have potential biomedical applications in imaging, therapy and sensing. We present our preliminary investigation on the applications of CS as a surface plasmon based sensor to study the functional properties of human blood. CS particles of size about 1 μm exhibit broad absorption between 650 nm to 1000 nm, the regime generally used to study blood saturation. We synthesized CS particles of size about 1μm, coated with a thin shell. The core medium was polystyrene and the nano-shell layer was gold. The plasmon peak of CS varied with blood concentration. The study showed that 750 nm plasmonic peak of CS exhibits the wavelength shift of 4.11+/-0.26 nm per hematocrit.

  4. Approach and Coalescence of Gold Nanoparticles Driven by Surface Thermodynamic Fluctuations and Atomic Interaction Forces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Shuai; Cui, Kai; Li, Dangguo; Chen, Darong

    2016-02-23

    The approach and coalescence behavior of gold nanoparticles on a silicon surface were investigated by experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. By analyzing the behavior of the atoms in the nanoparticles in the simulations, it was found that the atoms in a single isolated nanoparticle randomly fluctuated and that the surface atoms showed greater fluctuation. The fluctuation increased as the temperature increased. When there were two or more neighboring nanoparticles, the fluctuating surface atoms of the nanoparticles "flowed" toward the neighboring nanoparticle because of atomic interaction forces between the nanoparticles. With the surface atoms "flowing", the gold nanoparticles approached and finally coalesced. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results. It can be concluded that surface thermodynamic fluctuations and atomic interaction forces are the causes of the approach and coalescence behavior of the gold nanoparticles. PMID:26756675

  5. Orthogonal chemical functionalization of patterned gold on silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Palazon, Francisco; Léonard, Didier; Le Mogne, Thierry; Zuttion, Francesca; Chevalier, Céline; Phaner-Goutorbe, Magali; Souteyrand, Éliane; Chevolot, Yann; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Single-step orthogonal chemical functionalization procedures have been developed with patterned gold on silica surfaces. Different combinations of a silane and a thiol were simultaneously deposited on a gold/silica heterogeneous substrate. The orthogonality of the functionalization (i.e., selective grafting of the thiol on the gold areas and the silane on the silica) was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) mapping. The orthogonal functionalization was used to immobilize proteins onto gold nanostructures on a silica substrate, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results are especially promising in the development of future biosensors where the selective anchoring of target molecules onto nanostructured transducers (e.g., nanoplasmonic biosensors) is a major challenge. PMID:26734519

  6. Orthogonal chemical functionalization of patterned gold on silica surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Léonard, Didier; Le Mogne, Thierry; Zuttion, Francesca; Chevalier, Céline; Phaner-Goutorbe, Magali; Souteyrand, Éliane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Single-step orthogonal chemical functionalization procedures have been developed with patterned gold on silica surfaces. Different combinations of a silane and a thiol were simultaneously deposited on a gold/silica heterogeneous substrate. The orthogonality of the functionalization (i.e., selective grafting of the thiol on the gold areas and the silane on the silica) was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF–SIMS) mapping. The orthogonal functionalization was used to immobilize proteins onto gold nanostructures on a silica substrate, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results are especially promising in the development of future biosensors where the selective anchoring of target molecules onto nanostructured transducers (e.g., nanoplasmonic biosensors) is a major challenge. PMID:26734519

  7. Directional surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nano-gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillibert, Raymond; Sarkar, Mitradeep; Bryche, Jean-François; Yasukuni, Ryohei; Moreau, Julien; Besbes, Mondher; Barbillon, Grégory; Bartenlian, Bernard; Canva, Michael; Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Directional plasmon excitation and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) emission were demonstrated for 1D and 2D gold nanostructure arrays deposited on a flat gold layer. The extinction spectrum of both arrays exhibits intense resonance bands that are redshifted when the incident angle is increased. Systematic extinction analysis of different grating periods revealed that this band can be assigned to a propagated surface plasmon of the flat gold surface that fulfills the Bragg condition of the arrays (Bragg mode). Directional SERS measurements demonstrated that the SERS intensity can be improved by one order of magnitude when the Bragg mode positions are matched with either the excitation or the Raman wavelengths. Hybridized numerical calculations with the finite element method and Fourier modal method also proved the presence of the Bragg mode plasmon and illustrated that the enhanced electric field of the Bragg mode is particularly localized on the nanostructures regardless of their size.

  8. Directional surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nano-gratings.

    PubMed

    Gillibert, Raymond; Sarkar, Mitradeep; Bryche, Jean-François; Yasukuni, Ryohei; Moreau, Julien; Besbes, Mondher; Barbillon, Grégory; Bartenlian, Bernard; Canva, Michael; Chapelle, Marc Lamy de la

    2016-03-18

    Directional plasmon excitation and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) emission were demonstrated for 1D and 2D gold nanostructure arrays deposited on a flat gold layer. The extinction spectrum of both arrays exhibits intense resonance bands that are redshifted when the incident angle is increased. Systematic extinction analysis of different grating periods revealed that this band can be assigned to a propagated surface plasmon of the flat gold surface that fulfills the Bragg condition of the arrays (Bragg mode). Directional SERS measurements demonstrated that the SERS intensity can be improved by one order of magnitude when the Bragg mode positions are matched with either the excitation or the Raman wavelengths. Hybridized numerical calculations with the finite element method and Fourier modal method also proved the presence of the Bragg mode plasmon and illustrated that the enhanced electric field of the Bragg mode is particularly localized on the nanostructures regardless of their size. PMID:26872242

  9. Surface geometry of tryptophan adsorbed on gold colloidal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Shafqat; Pang, Yoonsoo

    2015-09-01

    Two distinct surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra of tryptophan depending on the surface adsorption geometry were obtained by using colloidal gold nanoparticles reduced by borohydride and citrate ions. According to the vibrational assignments based on DFT simulations, the SER spectra of tryptamine and 3-indolepropionic acid, and the pH dependence of tryptophan SER spectrum, we found that some indole ring vibrations are very sensitive to the surface adsorption geometry of the molecules. With citrate-reduced gold colloids, tryptophan and related molecules mainly adsorb via the protonated amine group while maintaining a perpendicular geometry of the indole ring to the surface. However, a flat geometry of the indole ring to the surface is preferred on the borohydride-reduced gold colloids where the surface adsorption occurs mainly through the indole ring π electrons. By comparing our results with previous reports on the SER spectra of tryptophan on various silver and gold surfaces, we propose a general adsorption model of tryptophan on metal nanosurfaces.

  10. Polarization dependent, surface plasmon induced photoconductance in gold nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenbach, S.; Erhard, N.; Schopka, J.; Martin, A.; Karnetzky, C.; Iacopino, D.; Holleitner, A. W.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the photoconductance in two-dimensional arrays of gold nanorods which is strongly enhanced at the frequency of the longitudinal surface plasmon of the nanorods. The arrays are formed by a combination of droplet deposition and stamping of gold nanorod solutions on SiO2 substrates. We find that the plasmon induced photoconductance is sensitive to the linear polarization of the exciting photons. We interpret the occurrence of the photoconductance as a bolometric enhancement of the arrays' conductance upon excitation of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance of the nanorods.

  11. Adsorption of gold subnano-structures on a magnetite(111) surface and their interaction with CO.

    PubMed

    Pabisiak, Tomasz; Winiarski, Maciej J; Ossowski, Tomasz; Kiejna, Adam

    2016-07-21

    Gold deposited on iron oxide surfaces can catalyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The adsorption of gold subnano-structures on the Fe-rich termination of the magnetite(111) surface has been investigated using density functional theory. The structural, energetic, and electronic properties of gold/magnetite systems have been examined for vertical and flattened configurations of adsorbed Aun (n = 1-4) species. Single gold adatoms strongly bonded to the iron atoms of the Fe3O4(111) surface appear to be negatively charged, and consequently increase the work function. For a more stable class of larger, flattened Aun structures the adsorption binding energy per adatom is substantially increased. The structures exhibit a net positive charge, with the Au atoms binding with the oxide having distinctly cationic character. A charge transfer from the larger gold structures to the substrate is consistent with the lowering of the work function. The bonding of a CO molecule to a Au monomer on the Fe3O4(111) surface has been found nearly as strong as that to the iron site of the bare Fe-terminated surface. However, CO bonding to larger, oxide supported Aun structures is distinctly stronger than that to the bare oxide surface. Upon CO adsorption all Aun structures are cationic and CO shows a tendency to bind to the most cationic atom of the Aun cluster. PMID:27332962

  12. Sputtered gold films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, L.; Vallet, C.E.; Lee, Y.H.

    1997-03-01

    Sputtered gold films in a pure form or as nanocomposites in silica or silicon nitride were screened for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity using Rhodamine 6G as a probe. The films were prepared by sputtering pure gold or solidified Au{endash}Si alloys in plasmas generated in a dc glow discharge apparatus. The plasmas were produced with argon, nitrogen, or argon{endash}oxygen as the sputtering gas to directly deposit gold films or in the latter case a gold oxide intermediate. The alloys produce nanocomposite films in a silicon nitride or silica matrix depending on the plasma gas. SERS activity was detected in some of the films thus leading to a search for the critical parameters that controlled this phenomenon. The films were characterized by profilometry, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. SERS activity was found to be correlated to crystallite size in the 10{endash}25 nm range and to roughness larger than 15 nm, and it was independent of film thickness. Sputtered gold films, particularly those containing the gold as a nanocomposite in silica are attractive media for SERS because of excellent adherence, ruggedness, and simplicity in preparation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  13. Shape and surface effects on the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Gold nanospheres versus gold nanostars.

    PubMed

    Favi, Pelagie Marlene; Gao, Ming; Johana Sepúlveda Arango, Liuda; Ospina, Sandra Patricia; Morales, Mariana; Pavon, Juan Jose; Webster, Thomas Jay

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles are materials with unique optical properties that have made them very attractive for numerous biomedical applications. With the increasing discovery of techniques to synthesize novel nanoparticles such as star-shaped gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications, the safety and performance of these new nanomaterials must be systematically assessed before use. In this study, gold nanostars (AuNSTs) with multibranched surface structures were synthesized, and their influence on the cytotoxicity of human skin fibroblasts and rat fat pad endothelial cells (RFPECs) were assessed and compared with that of gold nanospheres (AuNSPs) with unbranched surfaces. Results showed that the AuNSPs with diameters of approximately 61.46 nm showed greater toxicity with fibroblast cells and RFPECs compared with the synthesized AuNSTs with diameters of approximately 33.69 nm. The AuNSPs were lethal at concentrations of 40 μg/mL for both cell lines, whereas the AuNSTs were less toxic at higher concentrations (400 μg/mL). The calculated IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values of the AuNSPs exposed to fibroblast cells were greater at 1 and 4 days of culture (26.4 and 27.7 μg/mL, respectively) compared with the RFPECs (13.6 and 13.8 μg/mL, respectively), indicating that the AuNSPs have a greater toxicity to endothelial cells. It was proposed that possible factors that could be promoting the reduced toxicity effects of the AuNSTs to fibroblast cells and RFPECs, compared with the AuNSPs may be size, surface chemistry, and shape of the gold nanoparticles. The reduced cell toxicity observed with the AuNSTs suggests that AuNSTs may be a promising material for use in biomedical applications. PMID:25904210

  14. Surface functionalities of gold nanoparticles impact embryonic gene expression responses

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Lisa; Tilton, Susan C.; Zaikova, Tatiana; Richman, Erik; Waters, Katrina M.; Hutchison, James E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into consumer products is increasing; however, there is a gap in available toxicological data to determine the safety of AuNPs. In this study, we utilised the embryonic zebrafish to investigate how surface functionalisation and charge influence molecular responses. Precisely engineered AuNPs with 1.5 nm cores were synthesised and functionalized with three ligands: 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MES), N,N,N-trimethylammoniumethanethiol (TMAT), or 2-(2-(2-mercaptoethoxy)ethoxy)ethanol. Developmental assessments revealed differential biological responses when embryos were exposed to the functionalised AuNPs at the same concentration. Using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry, AuNP uptake was confirmed in exposed embryos. Following exposure to MES- and TMAT-AuNPs from 6 to 24 or 6 to 48 h post fertilisation, pathways involved in inflammation and immune response were perturbed. Additionally, transport mechanisms were misregulated after exposure to TMAT and MES-AuNPs, demonstrating that surface functionalisation influences many molecular pathways. PMID:22263968

  15. Microscale Heat Transfer Transduced by Surface Plasmon Resonant Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Roper, D. Keith; Ahn, W.; Hoepfner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Visible radiation at resonant frequencies is transduced to thermal energy by surface plasmons on gold nanoparticles. Temperature in ≤10-microliter aqueous suspensions of 20-nanometer gold particles irradiated by a continuous wave Ar+ ion laser at 514 nm increased to a maximum equilibrium value. This value increased in proportion to incident laser power and in proportion to nanoparticle content at low concentration. Heat input to the system by nanoparticle transduction of resonant irradiation equaled heat flux outward by conduction and radiation at thermal equilibrium. The efficiency of transducing incident resonant light to heat by microvolume suspensions of gold nanoparticles was determined by applying an energy balance to obtain a microscale heat-transfer time constant from the transient temperature profile. Measured values of transduction efficiency were increased from 3.4% to 9.9% by modulating the incident continuous wave irradiation. PMID:19011696

  16. Assessment of modified gold surfaced titanium implants on skeletal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Zainali, Kasra; Danscher, Gorm; Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, Jorgen; Møller, Per; Bechtold, Joan E.; Soballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Noncemented implants are the primary choice for younger patients undergoing total hip replacements. However, the major concern in this group of patients regarding revision is the concern from wear particles, periimplant inflammation, and subsequently aseptic implant loosening. Macrophages have been shown to liberate gold ions through the process termed dissolucytosis. Furthermore, gold ions are known to act in an anti-inflammatory manner by inhibiting cellular NF-κB-DNA binding. The present study investigated whether partial coating of titanium implants could augment early osseointegration and increase mechanical fixation. Cylindrical porous coated Ti-6Al-4V implants partially coated with metallic gold were inserted in the proximal region of the humerus in ten canines and control implants without gold were inserted in contralateral humerus. Observation time was 4 weeks. Biomechanical push out tests and stereological histomorphometrical analyses showed no statistically significant differences in the two groups. The unchanged parameters are considered an improvement of the coating properties, as a previous complete gold-coated implant showed inferior mechanical fixation and reduced osseointegration compared to control titanium implants in a similar model. Since sufficient early mechanical fixation is achieved with this new coating, it is reasonable to investigate the implant further in long-term studies. PMID:22847873

  17. Assessment of modified gold surfaced titanium implants on skeletal fixation.

    PubMed

    Zainali, Kasra; Danscher, Gorm; Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, Jorgen; Møller, Per; Bechtold, Joan E; Soballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Noncemented implants are the primary choice for younger patients undergoing total hip replacements. However, the major concern in this group of patients regarding revision is the concern from wear particles, periimplant inflammation, and subsequently aseptic implant loosening. Macrophages have been shown to liberate gold ions through the process termed dissolucytosis. Furthermore, gold ions are known to act in an anti-inflammatory manner by inhibiting cellular NF-κB-DNA binding. The present study investigated whether partial coating of titanium implants could augment early osseointegration and increase mechanical fixation. Cylindrical porous coated Ti-6Al-4V implants partially coated with metallic gold were inserted in the proximal region of the humerus in ten canines and control implants without gold were inserted in contralateral humerus. Observation time was 4 weeks. Biomechanical push out tests and stereological histomorphometrical analyses showed no statistically significant differences in the two groups. The unchanged parameters are considered an improvement of the coating properties, as a previous complete gold-coated implant showed inferior mechanical fixation and reduced osseointegration compared to control titanium implants in a similar model. Since sufficient early mechanical fixation is achieved with this new coating, it is reasonable to investigate the implant further in long-term studies. PMID:22847873

  18. Mercury Detection with Gold Nanoparticles: Investigating Fundamental Phenomena and Expanding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Jeffrey Scott

    Mercury is a pollutant of grave concern with well documented neurological and developmental health impacts. Better sensing methodology would improve detection and control of mercury and thus reduce its health burden. Gold nanoparticles provide a sensing medium with potential advantages in sensitivity, selectivity, robustness, and cost over established techniques. Mercury readily adsorbs onto the surface of the gold changing the localized surface plasmon resonance which is measured as a shift in the peak optical absorbance wavelength. This shift is dependent on the mercury concentration and predictable with classical electromagnetism. This work investigates some of the fundamental relationships driving sensor response. The effects of mass transfer and surface kinetics on mercury/gold nanoparticle adsorption are determined with analytical models and experimental results based on impinging flow geometry. To decouple mass transfer and surface kinetics adsorption, electrical analogy models are constructed and fit to the experimental data. The models can account for variations in flow conditions and surface coatings on the nanoparticles. These models are generalizable to other systems. Results from these fundamental investigations are used to improve and extend sensor performance. The time response or collection efficiency is optimized depending on system requirements. Using the knowledge gained, the applicability of gold nanoparticle mercury sensors is extended to a fiber optic based system and aqueous detection. Nanorods deposited on the surface of a fiber optic cable have a linear response with concentration and are able to detect mercury down to 1.0 mug/m3. The modification of an established oxidation/reduction scheme for use with the sensor allows for the detection of ionic and organic mercury from water samples which ordinarily would not be reactive with gold nanoparticles. The aqueous sensor was able to detect mercury below the EPA's drinking water limit.

  19. Nonplanar conductive surfaces via "bottom-up" nanostructured gold coating.

    PubMed

    Vinod, T P; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-03-12

    Development of technologies for the construction of bent, curved, and flexible conductive surfaces is among the most important albeit challenging goals in the promising field of "flexible electronics". We present a generic solution-based "bottom-up" approach for assembling conductive gold nanostructured layers on nonplanar polymer surfaces. The simple two-step experimental scheme is based upon incubation of an amine-displaying polymer [the abundantly used poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), selected here as a proof of concept] with Au(SCN)4(-), followed by a brief treatment with a conductive polymer [poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)] solution. Importantly, no reducing agent is co-added to the gold complex solution. The resultant surfaces are conductive and exhibit a unique "nanoribbon" gold morphology. The scheme yields conductive layers upon PDMS in varied configurations: planar, "wrinkled", and mechanically bent surfaces. The technology is simple, inexpensive, and easy to implement for varied polymer surfaces (and other substances), opening the way for practical applications in flexible electronics and related fields. PMID:24548243

  20. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Kun; Sweeny, Brendan C.; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Niu, Wenxin; Graham, Jeremy O.; DuChene, Joseph S.; Qiu, Jingjing; Wang, Yi-Chung; Engelhard, Mark H.; Su, Dong; Stach, Eric A.; Wei, Wei

    2014-07-16

    Water reduction under two visible light ranges (λ > 400 and λ > 435 nm) was investigated using gold-loaded titanium dioxide (Au-TiO2) with different sizes of Au nanoparticles (NPs). Two different mechanisms have been determined to clarify the specific role of Au NPs in visible light-induced photocatalytic reactions. Our study provides solid evidences showing that Au NPs sizes are essential for the surface plasmon-driven water reduction under λ > 435 nm. More specifically, we have demonstrated that the Au NPs sizes are vital for the SPR mediated electron transfer efficiency and play a critical role in determining the reduction potential of the transferred electrons in the TiO2 conduction band (CB) and their following activities. Our discovery provides a facile way to manipulate the reduction potential of transferred electrons by simply varying the Au NPs sizes, which will greatly facilitate the design of suitable plasmonic photocatalysts for water reduction and other valuable solar-to-fuel reactions.

  1. Tuning the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of gold nanocubes by silver coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shu-Jun; Zhu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Colloidal gold nanocubes coated with a silver nanoshell have been synthesized via the seed mediated growth method. By changing the volume of gold seed and silver nitrate, both the edge length of gold nanocube and the thickness of silver shell could be fine-tuned. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of these core-shell structural Au-Ag bimetallic nanocubes has also been investigated by using the rhodamine 6G (R6G) as Raman active probe. It has been found the SERS activity of the silver-coated gold nanocubes greatly depends on their geometry factors. By decreasing the edge length of gold nanocubes or increasing the silver coating thickness, the SERS activity has been greatly enhanced. By comparing with other Raman bands of R6G, the enhancement of the Raman peak corresponding to the Csbnd Csbnd C ring in-plane vibration mode is more sensitive to the geometries of the nanostructure. These improved SERS properties of silver-coated gold nanocubes provide potential application for biologic and chemical sensing based on Raman spectroanalysis.

  2. Influence of ultrathin water layer on the van der Waals/Casimir force between gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palasantzas, G.; Zwol, P. J. van; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we investigate the influence of ultrathin water layer ({approx}1-1.5 nm) on the van der Waals/Casimir force between gold surfaces. Adsorbed water is inevitably present on gold surfaces at ambient conditions as jump-up-to contact during adhesion experiments demonstrate. Calculations based on the Lifshitz theory give very good agreement with the experiment in the absence of any water layer for surface separations d > or approx. 10 nm. However, a layer of thickness h < or approx. 1.5 nm is allowed by the error margin in force measurements. At shorter separations, d < or approx. 10 nm, the water layer can have a strong influence as calculations show for flat surfaces. Nonetheless, in reality the influence of surface roughness must also be considered, and it can overshadow any water layer influence at separations comparable to the total sphere-plate rms roughness w{sub shp}+w.

  3. Surface charge of gold nanoparticles mediates mechanism of toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeublin, Nicole M.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; Schrand, Amanda M.; Miller, John M.; Hutchison, Jim; Schlager, John J.; Hussain, Saber M.

    2011-02-01

    Recently gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have shown promising biological and military applications due to their unique electronic and optical properties. However, little is known about their biocompatibility in the event that they come into contact with a biological system. In the present study, we have investigated whether modulating the surface charge of 1.5 nm Au NPs induced changes in cellular morphology, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium levels, DNA damage-related gene expression, and of p53 and caspase-3 expression levels after exposure in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The evaluation of three different Au NPs (positively charged, neutral, and negatively charged) showed that cell morphology was disrupted by all three NPs and that they demonstrated a dose-dependent toxicity; the charged Au NPs displayed toxicity as low as 10 µg ml-1 and the neutral at 25 µg ml-1. Furthermore, there was significant mitochondrial stress (decreases in MMP and intracellular Ca2+ levels) following exposure to the charged Au NPs, but not the neutral Au NPs. In addition to the differences observed in the MMP and Ca2+ levels, up or down regulation of DNA damage related gene expression suggested a differential cell death mechanism based on whether or not the Au NPs were charged or neutral. Additionally, increased nuclear localization of p53 and caspase-3 expression was observed in cells exposed to the charged Au NPs, while the neutral Au NPs caused an increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 expression. In conclusion, these results indicate that surface charge is a major determinant of how Au NPs impact cellular processes, with the charged NPs inducing cell death through apoptosis and neutral NPs leading to necrosis.Recently gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have shown promising biological and military applications due to their unique electronic and optical properties. However, little is known about their biocompatibility in the

  4. Adsorption of vapreotide on gold colloids studied by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J. A.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejia Ospino, E.

    2016-02-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has been used to investigate the somatostatin (SST) analogue Vapreotide (VAP) in gold colloids. The optimum conditions to detect SERS signals of VAP have been studied. The observed SERS bands correspond to different vibrational modes of the peptide; being the most dominant SERS signals the ones derived from the aromatic amino acids Tryptophan (Trp), Phenylalanine (Phe) and Tyrosine (Tyr). Changes in enhancement and wavenumber of the proper bands upon adsorption on gold colloid are consistent with VAP adsorption, primarily through Tryptophan residues.

  5. Selectively deposited silver coatings on gold-capped silicon nanowires for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Becker, M; Stelzner, Th; Steinbrück, A; Berger, A; Liu, J; Lerose, D; Gösele, U; Christiansen, S

    2009-06-01

    Gold caps on silicon nanowires are selectively coated with silver by autometallography (electroless deposition). Changing the conditions of silver deposition, a variety of different coating morphologies can be produced [figure: see text]. The different silver coating morphologies are investigated in terms of their capabilities for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiments.Gold caps on silicon nanowires are hemispherical and only a few tens of nanometers in diameter when grown from metal catalysts by the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using chemical vapor deposition. These gold caps are capable of enhancing Raman signals based on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect. The Raman signal can be enhanced even further (by at least one order of magnitude) when silver is selectively deposited onto these gold caps by autometallography (electroless deposition). By changing the silver deposition conditions, different coating morphologies can be realized on the gold caps that range from very thin, smooth layers to uneven and extremely rough coatings. The SERS signal enhancement and the spatial homogeneity of the achievable enhancement are compared for the different silver coatings using a model dye molecule. PMID:19399821

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on laser-engineered ruthenium dye-functionalized nanoporous gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, Lina; Franzka, Steffen; Biener, Monika; Biener, Jürgen; Hartmann, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Photothermal processing of nanoporous gold with a microfocused continuous-wave laser at λ = 532 nm provides a facile means in order engineer the pore and ligament size of nanoporous gold. In this report we take advantage of this approach in order to investigate the size-dependence of enhancement effects in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Surface structures with laterally varying pore sizes from 25 nm to ≥200 nm are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and then functionalized with N719, a commercial ruthenium complex, which is widely used in dye-sensitized solar cells. Raman spectroscopy reveals the characteristic spectral features of N719. Peak intensities strongly depend on the pore size. Highest intensities are observed on the native support, i.e. on nanoporous gold with pore sizes around 25 nm. These results demonstrate the particular perspectives of laser-fabricated nanoporous gold structures in fundamental SERS studies. In particular, it is emphasized that laser-engineered porous gold substrates represent a very well defined platform in order to study size-dependent effects with high reproducibility and precision and resolve conflicting results in previous studies.

  7. Carbohydrate Coating Reduces Adhesion of Biofilm-Forming Bacillus subtilis to Gold Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kesel, S.; Mader, A.; Seeberger, P. H.; Lieleg, O.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of bacterial biofilms in pipes and food tanks causes severe problems in industry. Biofilms growing on medical implants or catheters are of great concern, as they can cause serious infections and decrease the functionality of the medical device. The prevention of bacterial adhesion—the first step in colonization and biofilm formation—is therefore very important. Current research comprises alterations in surface properties, the prevention of adhesin biosynthesis, inhibition with receptor analogs, or the development of anti-adhesive vaccines. We present a new approach that allows us to study bacterial adhesion with high sensitivity in real-time while testing several different surfaces in parallel. Using the cantilever-array technique we demonstrate that coating of gold surfaces with mono- or disaccharides results in a reduction of the bacterial adhesion of the biofilm-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610 to these gold surfaces. This reduction in bacterial adhesion is independent of the studied carbohydrate. Using several mutant strains, we investigate the underlying molecular interactions, and our results suggest that adhesion to gold surfaces is mediated by thiol groups present in proteins of the bacterial cell membrane or biofilm matrix proteins expressed at low levels by the wild-type strain. Furthermore, our data indicate that the adhesion of B. subtilis NCIB 3610 to carbohydrate-coated gold surfaces is facilitated by interactions between carbohydrates installed on the cantilever gold surface and an exopolysaccharide expressed by this strain. Understanding general and specific contributions of molecular interactions mediating bacterial adhesion will enable its prevention in the future. PMID:25038098

  8. Toward spatial control of gold nanorod surface functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Jonathan R.

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) show much promise for applications in biological, optoelectronic and energy applications. The resonant generation of a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at the GNR surface results in interesting optical properties and unique interactions with molecules. Combined with their biocompatibility, ease of synthesis and facile surface functionalization, these anisotropic metal particles are excellent scaffolds for the study of the interactions between nanoscale surfaces and their chemical/biological environments. Regardless of the application, however, GNR utility will not be fully realized until the chemical nature of the surface is understood and controlled. GNRs can enhance various photophysical properties of molecules. In the case of two-photon absorption (TPA), cross-section enhancements have been shown to increase with strong distance-dependence. Here, a dual approach for the conjugation of a TPA chromophore to GNRs is presented, relying on layer-by- layer (LbL) polymer wrapping and direct thiol coating of the same parent chromophore structure. Together, these approaches allow for estimated chromophore-particle distances from <1nm to more than 15 nm. Composites were confirmed using conventional nanoparticle characterization methods. Imaging of GNR polymer shells indicated anisotropic composite structures, as confirmed by both conventional and cryo-TEM. Optical characterizations were performed using two-photon excited fluorescence and Z-scan techniques, to probe the TPA enhancement. The intrinsic nonlinear optical properties of GNRs is shown to contribute strongly to these measurements, suggesting the utility of these materials for bi-modal imaging platforms. GNR properties, like their shape, are anisotropic. The LSPR-induced near- fields are heterogeneously distributed on the nanorod surface, with the tips being much "hotter" than the sides. To understand and utilize fully the spatially- dependent interactions of GNRs with their

  9. Fabrication of localized surface plasmon resonance fiber probes using ionic self-assembled gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wan, Miao; Luo, Pengfei; Jin, Jiayi; Xing, Jiong; Wang, Zhiyong; Wong, Stephen T C

    2010-01-01

    An nm-thickness composite gold thin film consisting of gold nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes is fabricated through ionic self-assembled multilayers (ISAM) technique and is deposited on end-faces of optical fibers to construct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) fiber probes. We demonstrate that the LSPR spectrum induced by ISAM gold films can be fine-tuned through the ISAM procedure. We investigate variations of reflection spectra of the probe with respect to the layer-by-layer adsorption of ISAMs onto end-faces of fibers, and study the spectral variation mechanism. Finally, we demonstrated using this fiber probe to detect the biotin-streptavidin bioconjugate pair. ISAM adsorbed on optical fibers potentially provides a simple, fast, robust, and low-cost, platform for LSPR biosensing applications. PMID:22163561

  10. Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.C.; Meisel, D.

    1982-08-19

    Several negatively charged dyes were investigated for their possible adsorption on the surface of silver and gold colloidal particles. Those dyes that were found to adsorb on the particles were then checked for surface enhancement of Raman scattering. Highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was observed from a carbocyanine dye in both sols. Excitation-dependence studies as well as adsorption studies confirm the SERS nature of the Raman spectra obtained. The dye is probably aggregated on adsorption and is probably attached through the naphthalene side moiety to the surface. Less efficient SERS was also observed for copper phthalocyanine.

  11. Surface modification of silica particles with gold nanoparticles as an augmentation of gold nanoparticle mediated laser perforation.

    PubMed

    Kalies, Stefan; Gentemann, Lara; Schomaker, Markus; Heinemann, Dag; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2014-08-01

    Gold nanoparticle mediated (GNOME) laser transfection/perforation fulfills the demands of a reliable transfection technique. It provides efficient delivery and has a negligible impact on cell viability. Furthermore, it reaches high-throughput applicability. However, currently only large gold particles (> 80 nm) allow successful GNOME laser perforation, probably due to insufficient sedimentation of smaller gold nanoparticles. The objective of this study is to determine whether this aspect can be addressed by a modification of silica particles with gold nanoparticles. Throughout the analysis, we show that after the attachment of gold nanoparticles to silica particles, comparable or better efficiencies to GNOME laser perforation are reached. In combination with 1 µm silica particles, we report laser perforation with gold nanoparticles with sizes down to 4 nm. Therefore, our investigations have great importance for the future research in and the fields of laser transfection combined with plasmonics. PMID:25136494

  12. Surface modification of silica particles with gold nanoparticles as an augmentation of gold nanoparticle mediated laser perforation

    PubMed Central

    Kalies, Stefan; Gentemann, Lara; Schomaker, Markus; Heinemann, Dag; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle mediated (GNOME) laser transfection/perforation fulfills the demands of a reliable transfection technique. It provides efficient delivery and has a negligible impact on cell viability. Furthermore, it reaches high-throughput applicability. However, currently only large gold particles (> 80 nm) allow successful GNOME laser perforation, probably due to insufficient sedimentation of smaller gold nanoparticles. The objective of this study is to determine whether this aspect can be addressed by a modification of silica particles with gold nanoparticles. Throughout the analysis, we show that after the attachment of gold nanoparticles to silica particles, comparable or better efficiencies to GNOME laser perforation are reached. In combination with 1 µm silica particles, we report laser perforation with gold nanoparticles with sizes down to 4 nm. Therefore, our investigations have great importance for the future research in and the fields of laser transfection combined with plasmonics. PMID:25136494

  13. Surface Plasmon's Dispersion Properties of Porous Gold Films.

    PubMed

    Stetsenko, M O; Maksimenko, L S; Rudenko, S P; Krishchenko, I M; Korchovyi, A A; Kryvyi, S B; Kaganovich, E B; Serdega, B K

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructure porous films with arrays of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been produced by pulsed laser deposition. Dispersion properties of surface plasmons have been studied by the modulation-polarization spectroscopy technique. The dispersion relations for radiative modes and two types of non-radiative modes of localized and propagating surface plasmons were obtained. The branches of propagating modes were characterized by negative group velocity caused by spatial dispersion of dielectric function. The propagating modes are caused by dipole-dipole interactions between adjacent Au NPs. The frequencies and relaxation parameters of surface plasmon resonances and the plasma frequencies for Αu NPs were obtained. The relation between the surface plasmon's properties and formation conditions of films with arrays of Αu NPs is discussed. PMID:26925864

  14. Surface-modified gold nanorods for specific cell targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chan-Ung; Arai, Yoshie; Kim, Insun; Jang, Wonhee; Lee, Seonghyun; Hafner, Jason H.; Jeoung, Eunhee; Jung, Deokho; Kwon, Youngeun

    2012-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have unique properties that make them highly attractive materials for developing functional reagents for various biomedical applications including photothermal therapy, targeted drug delivery, and molecular imaging. For in vivo applications, GNPs need to be prepared with very little or negligible cytotoxicitiy. Most GNPs are, however, prepared using growth-directing surfactants such as cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which are known to have considerable cytotoxicity. In this paper, we describe an approach to remove CTAB to a non-toxic concentration. We optimized the conditions for surface modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol thiol (mPEG), which replaced CTAB and formed a protective layer on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs). The cytotoxicities of pristine and surface-modified GNRs were measured in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human cell lines derived from hepatic carcinoma cells, embryonic kidney cells, and thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that treating cells with GNRs did not significantly affect cell viability except for thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. Thyroid cancer cells were more susceptible to residual CTAB, so CTAB had to be further removed by dialysis in order to use GNRs for thyroid cell targeting. PEGylated GNRs are further modified to present monoclonal antibodies that recognize a specific surface marker, Na-I symporter, for thyroid cells. Antibody-conjugated GNRs specifically targeted human thyroid cells in vitro.

  15. Speciation of surface gold in pressure oxidized carbonaceous gold ores by TOF-SIMS and TOF-LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, S. S.; Chryssoulis, S. L.; Sodhi, R. N.

    2003-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt ever to speciate gold preg-robbed by carbonaceous matter using a surface sensitive microbeam technique. This approach enables the direct determination of gold species sorbed on carbonaceous particulates thus providing a new tool in understanding the chemistry of gold sorption on carbon. The reasoning behind this effort was to study the detrimental effect chloride ions have on gold recovery by pressure oxidation of carbonaceous sulfide ores, a technology largely used by the mining industry. The characterization of the sorbed gold species involved three surface sensitive microbeam analytical techniques (TOF-SIMS, TOF-LIMS and XPS) providing confirmatory results for better accuracy. Optimum conditions for detection of gold compounds with minimum fragmentation by TOF-SIMS and TOF-LIMS mass spectrometers have been determined. A reference library of 16 major gold complexes with halogen, thiosulfate, cyanide and thiocyanate groups relevant to the gold recovery processes has been established. The most suitable of the microbeam techniques tested was found to be negative (-ve) ion TOF-LIMS, offering best sensitivity and a small analytical spot size.

  16. Comparative hyperthermia effects of silica-gold nanoshells with different surface coverage of gold clusters on epithelial tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jaewon; Lee, Taeksu; Bae, Saet-Byeol; Kang, Byunghoon; Huh, Yong-Min; Lee, Sang-Wha; Haam, Seungjoo

    2015-01-01

    Silica-gold nanoshell (SGNS), which is a silica core surrounded by a gold layer, was synthesized by seed-mediated coalescence of gold clusters in an electroless plating solution. SGNS variations with different surface coverage of gold clusters were prepared by adjusting the amounts of gold salts in the presence of formaldehyde-reducing agents. Fully covered SGNS (f-SGNS) with connected gold clusters exhibited stronger intensity and more redshift of plasmon bands located around 820 nm than those of partially covered SGNS (p-SGNS) with disconnected gold clusters. Upon irradiation with near-infrared light (30 W/cm(2), 700-800 nm), f-SGNS caused a larger hyperthermia effect, generating a large temperature change (ΔT =42°C), as compared to the relatively small temperature change (ΔT =24°C) caused by p-SGNS. The therapeutic antibody, Erbitux™ (ERB), was further conjugated to SGNS for specific tumor cell targeting. The f-ERB-SGNS showed excellent therapeutic efficacy based on the combined effect of both the therapeutic antibody and the full hyperthermia dose under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, SGNS with well-controlled surface morphology of gold shells may be applicable for near-infrared-induced hyperthermia therapy with tunable optical properties. PMID:26425093

  17. Comparative hyperthermia effects of silica–gold nanoshells with different surface coverage of gold clusters on epithelial tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jaewon; Lee, Taeksu; Bae, Saet-Byeol; Kang, Byunghoon; Huh, Yong-Min; Lee, Sang-Wha; Haam, Seungjoo

    2015-01-01

    Silica–gold nanoshell (SGNS), which is a silica core surrounded by a gold layer, was synthesized by seed-mediated coalescence of gold clusters in an electroless plating solution. SGNS variations with different surface coverage of gold clusters were prepared by adjusting the amounts of gold salts in the presence of formaldehyde-reducing agents. Fully covered SGNS (f-SGNS) with connected gold clusters exhibited stronger intensity and more redshift of plasmon bands located around 820 nm than those of partially covered SGNS (p-SGNS) with disconnected gold clusters. Upon irradiation with near-infrared light (30 W/cm2, 700–800 nm), f-SGNS caused a larger hyperthermia effect, generating a large temperature change (ΔT =42°C), as compared to the relatively small temperature change (ΔT =24°C) caused by p-SGNS. The therapeutic antibody, Erbitux™ (ERB), was further conjugated to SGNS for specific tumor cell targeting. The f-ERB-SGNS showed excellent therapeutic efficacy based on the combined effect of both the therapeutic antibody and the full hyperthermia dose under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, SGNS with well-controlled surface morphology of gold shells may be applicable for near-infrared-induced hyperthermia therapy with tunable optical properties. PMID:26425093

  18. Morphology modification of gold nanoparticles from nanoshell to C-shape: Improved surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ting-Yang; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2016-06-01

    Morphology modification of nanostructures is of great interest, because it can be used to fabricate nanostructures which are hard to be done using other methods. Different from traditional lithographic technique which is slow and expensive, morphology modification is easy, cheap, and reproducible. In this paper, modification of the optical and morphological properties of a hollow gold nanoshell (HGNS) is achieved by using H2O2 as an oxidizer. The reshaping of these nanostructures has been demonstrated as a consequence of an oxidation process in which HGNSs are dissolved by H2O2 under the acidic conditions provided by HCl. We investigate the oxidation process by a transmission electron microscope and propose a reshaping model involving four different shapes (HGNS, HGNS with hole, gold nanoring, and C-shaped gold nanoparticle) which are corresponding to the oxidation products of HGNSs at different pH values. Besides, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of each oxidation product has been evaluated by using rhodamine 6G as the Raman active probe. It has been observed that the C-shaped gold nanoparticles which are corresponding to the oxidation products at the minimum pH value have the highest SERS activity and this result can also be interpreted by discrete-dipole approximation simulations. We demonstrate that the morphology modification of HGNSs becomes possible in a controlled manner using wet chemistry and can be used in preparation of gold nanoparticles such as HGNS with hole, gold nanoring, and C-shaped gold nanoparticle with large SERS activity. These nanostructures must have potential use in many plasmonic areas, including sensing, catalysis, and biomedicine.

  19. Electrical switching of DNA monolayers investigated by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Qing; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong; Yao, Jing; Li, Huimin

    2006-06-20

    The switching of DNA monolayers between a "lying" and a "standing" state initiated by applying electric field, and the subsequent DNA hybridization at different states were investigated in a contactless, label-free mode by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. The results showed that the strength of the electric field and surface coverage could influence the switching of DNA monolayers. In addition, it was found that DNA hybridization efficiency could be enhanced or decreased when DNA probes stood straight up or lay flat on the gold surface, depending on the potential of the gold substrate. The enhancement of DNA hybridization efficiency reached the maximum when surface coverage reached 5.87 x 10(12) molecules/cm(2) and the potential of gold substrate was more negative than -0.7 V (versus ITO-coated glass). The research may be helpful for the construction of sensitive biosensors, biochips, and nanoscale electronic devices. PMID:16768490

  20. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Polyelectrolyte-Wrapped Gold Nanoparticles in Colloidal Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Sivapalan, Sean T.; DeVetter, Brent M.; Yang, Timothy K.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Bhargava, Rohit; Murphy, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has helped fuel an intense interest in noble metal nanoparticle synthesis. An in-suspension approach for quantifying SERS enhancement and relating that enhancement to a spontaneous Raman equivalent signal is described. Gold nanoparticles of various shapes were wrapped with polyelectrolyte multilayers that trapped Raman reporter molecules at defined distances from the metal core. Electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS) on digested samples was employed to measure the average number of bound Raman reporter molecules per gold nanoparticle, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure the average number of gold atoms per nanoparticle. Using these data, SERS signal intensity was compared to a spontaneous Raman calibration curve to compute a spontaneous Raman equivalent factor. Three different geometries of gold nanoparticles (cubes, spheres, and trisoctahedra) were synthesized to investigate edge and corner effects using these quantitative techniques. Finite element method (FEM) electromagnetic simulations examined the relationship between the different geometries and the observed SERS signal intensities. The experimental observations and theoretical results indicate that cubic gold nanoparticles have the highest effective signal. PMID:24224064

  1. Observation of surface states on gold films by electron tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambe, J.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is a useful technique for the study of vibrational modes of molecules adsorbed on the surface of the insulating layer in a metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction. A detailed study of electron tunneling in aluminum-aluminum oxide-gold (Al-Al2O3-Au) tunnel junctions has been conducted with an overall goal of exploring possible mechanisms in such a thin film device useful for chemical sensing. For an understanding of the electronic effects in the presence of chemicals in a junction, the electronic surface properties of the metallic films in a clean tunnel junction must be established. The present investigation is concerned with room temperature observations of electronic states on the surface of highly oriented gold film in Al-Al2O3-Au junctions.

  2. Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Maria Antonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behavior of the glucose-modified particles in the presence of the maltose binding protein. PMID:26973830

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic analysis of maleic hydrazide adsorbed on gold surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Gu, Huaimin; Lv, Meng; He, Ruoyu; Zhang, Juling

    2014-03-25

    In this paper, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of maleic hydrazide (MH, 6-hydroxy-3(2H)-pyridazinone) were studied by using citrate-reduced gold colloidal nanoparticles. Comparisons between the prominent SERS bands and the precise mode descriptions predicted through density functional theory (DFT) simulations at the B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) level allowed an in-depth orientation analysis of the adsorbed species on gold surfaces. And main forms of hydrogen bonds in the solid state of MH were also determined to be O-H⋯O. Furthermore, the effects of concentration and pH on the SERS spectra of the molecule were discussed. It is found that with the different adsorbate concentration, the SERS spectra of MH show significant changes in their features, indicating different orientations and adsorption sites of the molecule on the gold colloidal surface. The SERS and absorption spectra under different pH conditions show that a basic environment leads to the deprotonation of N2 and the nearly parallel orientation of the MH molecule on the gold surface. Moreover, the enhanced characteristic bands were observed at MH concentrations down to about 1 ppm with the gold colloids, demonstrating a potential of the technique in the analysis of MH residues. PMID:24295778

  4. Single particle optical investigation of gold shell enhanced upconverted fluorescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Kory; Lim, Shuang Fang; Hallen, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) excited in the near IR offer novel advantages as fluorescent contrast agents, allowing for background free bio-imaging. However, their fluorescence brightness is hampered by low quantum efficiency due to the low absorption cross section of Ytterbium and Erbium ions in the near IR. We enhance the efficiency of these particles by investigating the plasmonic coupling of 30nm diameter core NaYF4: Yb, Er upconverting particles (UCNPs) with a gold shell coating. An enhancement of green emission by a factor of five and a three times overall increase in emission intensity has been achieved for single particle spectra. UV-Vis absorption has confirmed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the gold shell to the near IR and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images demonstrates successful growth of a gold shell around the upconversion particle. Time-resolved spectroscopy shows that gold shell coupling changes the lifetime of the energy levels of the Erbium ion that are relevant to the emission process.

  5. An in-vitro investigation of skin tissue soldering using gold nanoshells and diode laser.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad S; Khosroshahi, Mohammad E

    2011-01-01

    Gold-coated silica core nanoparticles have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance (PR). The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell size, allowing nanoshells to be tailored for particular applications. The purpose of this study is to synthesize and use different concentrations of gold nanoshells as exogenous material for in-vitro skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser-soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different concentrations of gold nanoshells were prepared. A full-thickness incision of 2 × 20 mm(2) was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810-nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength σ(t) due to temperature rise, number of scan (N(s)), and scan velocity (V(s)) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σ(t) of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells, N(s) and decreasing V(s). It is therefore important to consider the trade-off between the scan velocity and the skin temperature for achieving an optimum operating condition. In our case, this corresponds to σ(t) = 1,610 g/cm(2) at I ∼ 60 Wcm(-2), T ∼ 65°C, Ns = 10 and Vs = 0.2 mms(-1). PMID:20623244

  6. Surface plasma resonant effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meen, Teen-Hang; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Chao, Shi-Mian; Lin, Yu-Chien; Wu, Tien-Chuan; Chang, Tang-Yun; Ji, Liang-Wen; Water, Walter; Chen, Wen-Ray; Tang, I.-Tseng; Huang, Chien-Jung

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we prepared different shapes of gold nanoparticles by seed-mediated growth method and applied them on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to study the surface plasma resonant (SPR) effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. The analyses of field emission scanning electron microscopy show that the average diameter of the spherical gold nanoparticles is 45 nm, the average length and width of the short gold nanorods were 55 and 22 nm, respectively, and the average length and width of the long gold nanorods were 55 and 14 nm, respectively. The aspect ratio of the short and long gold nanorods was about 2.5 and 4, respectively. The results of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra show that the absorption wavelength is about 540 nm for spherical gold nanoparticles, and the absorption of the gold nanorods reveals two peaks. One is about 510 to 520 nm, and the other is about 670 and 710 nm for the short and long gold nanorods, respectively. The best conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells with spherical gold nanoparticles and short and long gold nanorods added in is 6.77%, 7.08%, and 7.29%, respectively, and is higher than that of the cells without gold nanoparticles, which is 6.21%. This result indicates that the effect of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrodes can increase the conductivity and reduce the recombination of charges in the photoelectrodes, resulting in the increase of conversion efficiency for DSSCs. In addition, the long gold nanorods have stronger SPR effect than the spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods at long wavelength. This may be the reason for the higher conversion efficiency of DSSCs with long gold nanorods than those of the cells with spherical gold nanoparticles and short gold nanorods.

  7. Probing redox proteins on a gold surface by single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmalk, Abdalmohsen T.; Salverda, Jante M.; Tabares, Leandro C.; Canters, Gerard W.; Aartsma, Thijs J.

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between the fluorescently labeled redox protein, azurin, and a thin gold film is characterized using single-molecule fluorescence intensity and lifetime measurements. Fluorescence quenching starts at distances below 2.3 nm from the gold surface. At shorter distances the quantum yield may decrease down to fourfold for direct attachment of the protein to bare gold. Outside of the quenching range, up to fivefold enhancement of the fluorescence is observed on average with increasing roughness of the gold layer. Fluorescence-detected redox activity of individual azurin molecules, with a lifetime switching ratio of 0.4, is demonstrated for the first time close to a gold surface.

  8. Profile Prediction and Fabrication of Wet-Etched Gold Nanostructures for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dispersed nanosphere lithography can be employed to fabricate gold nanostructures for localized surface plasmon resonance, in which the gold film evaporated on the nanospheres is anisotropically dry etched to obtain gold nanostructures. This paper reports that by wet etching of the gold film, various kinds of gold nanostructures can be fabricated in a cost-effective way. The shape of the nanostructures is predicted by profile simulation, and the localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum is observed to be shifting its extinction peak with the etching time. (See supplementary material 1) PMID:20672106

  9. Analysis of surface stains on modern gold coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Cruz, J.

    2013-07-01

    It is a mandatory practice in the European Mint Houses to provide a certificate of guarantee of their products specially when issuing commemorative gold or silver coins. This practise should assure satisfaction and trust both for the mint house and for the demanding numismatic collector. For these reasons the Mint Houses follow a strict quality control in all the production steps in order to ensure a no-defect, fully supervised output. In spite of all the undertaken precautions, different surface stains with diverse origin on gold coins recently minted in Europe were observed. Those were compositionally studied by means of IBA techniques at the end-stage nuclear microprobe installed at IST/ITN. From this study it was possible to identify several possible sources for these stains. The presence of defects at the surface of these commemorative coins address the need of improving the quality control system and the results here presented point out where these improvements should occur, in order to reduce/eliminate them and give the customer a product that with time probably will be revalued.

  10. SURFACE COATING EFFECTS ON THE ASSEMBLY OF GOLD NANOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kent A; Shuford, Kevin L; Whitten, William B; Shaw, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Optical spectra and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of individually selected spheres and mechanically assembled silica-coated gold nanosphere pairs were recorded. The 10-nm spacing of the spheres allowed discrete dipole approximation (DDA) computational simulations to provide a meaningful results regarding the dimers. Both the data and simulation indicate that the silica shell integrity was maintained throughout the assembly, so that the shell therefore served as a means of rigid control of the spacing between the metal cores. Optical perturbative effects due to the presence of the fused silica substrate were negligible. Experimental investigations regarding less rigid polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coatings also were performed and some comparisons were made.

  11. Attaching Thiolated Superconductor Grains on Gold Surfaces for Nanoelectronics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel; Llandro, Justin; Suzuki, Seiichi; Mitrelias, Thanos; Bellido Quispe, Richard; Barnes, Crispin H. W.; Majima, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    We report that the high critical temperature superconductor (HTCS) LaCaBaCu3O7 in the form of nanograins can be linked to Au(111) surfaces through self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of HS-C8H16-HS [octane (di)thiol]. We show that La1113 particles (100 nm mean diameter) can be functionalized by octane (di)thiol without affecting their superconducting critical temperature (TC=80 K). X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the thiol functional heads link the superconducting grain surfaces creating sulfonates and we deduce that bonding between the S atoms and Cu(1) atoms of the La1113 structure would be formed. We suggest a design for a superconducting transistor fabricated by immobilized La1113 nanograins in between two gold electrodes which could be controlled by an external magnetic field gate.

  12. Mesoporous gold sponges: electric charge-assisted seed mediated synthesis and application as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zao; Luo, Jiangshan; Tan, Xiulan; Yi, Yong; Yao, Weitang; Kang, Xiaoli; Ye, Xin; Zhu, Wenkun; Duan, Tao; Yi, Yougen; Tang, Yongjian

    2015-11-01

    Mesoporous gold sponges were prepared using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-stabilized Au seeds. This is a general process, which involves a simple template-free method, room temperature reduction of HAuCl4·4H2O with hydroxylamine. The formation process of mesoporous gold sponges could be accounted for the electrostatic interaction (the small Au nanoparticles (~3 nm) and the positively charged DMAP-stabilized Au seeds) and Ostwald ripening process. The mesoporous gold sponges had appeared to undergo electrostatic adsorption initially, sequentially linear aggregation, welding and Ostwald ripening, then, they randomly cross link into self-supporting, three-dimensional networks with time. The mesoporous gold sponges exhibit higher surface area than the literature. In addition, application of the spongelike networks as an active material for surface-enhanced Raman scattering has been investigated by employing 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules as a probe.

  13. Mesoporous gold sponges: electric charge-assisted seed mediated synthesis and application as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zao; Luo, Jiangshan; Tan, Xiulan; Yi, Yong; Yao, Weitang; Kang, Xiaoli; Ye, Xin; Zhu, Wenkun; Duan, Tao; Yi, Yougen; Tang, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous gold sponges were prepared using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-stabilized Au seeds. This is a general process, which involves a simple template-free method, room temperature reduction of HAuCl4·4H2O with hydroxylamine. The formation process of mesoporous gold sponges could be accounted for the electrostatic interaction (the small Au nanoparticles (~3 nm) and the positively charged DMAP-stabilized Au seeds) and Ostwald ripening process. The mesoporous gold sponges had appeared to undergo electrostatic adsorption initially, sequentially linear aggregation, welding and Ostwald ripening, then, they randomly cross link into self-supporting, three-dimensional networks with time. The mesoporous gold sponges exhibit higher surface area than the literature. In addition, application of the spongelike networks as an active material for surface-enhanced Raman scattering has been investigated by employing 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules as a probe. PMID:26538365

  14. Mesoporous gold sponges: electric charge-assisted seed mediated synthesis and application as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zao; Luo, Jiangshan; Tan, Xiulan; Yi, Yong; Yao, Weitang; Kang, Xiaoli; Ye, Xin; Zhu, Wenkun; Duan, Tao; Yi, Yougen; Tang, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous gold sponges were prepared using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)-stabilized Au seeds. This is a general process, which involves a simple template-free method, room temperature reduction of HAuCl4·4H2O with hydroxylamine. The formation process of mesoporous gold sponges could be accounted for the electrostatic interaction (the small Au nanoparticles (~3 nm) and the positively charged DMAP-stabilized Au seeds) and Ostwald ripening process. The mesoporous gold sponges had appeared to undergo electrostatic adsorption initially, sequentially linear aggregation, welding and Ostwald ripening, then, they randomly cross link into self-supporting, three-dimensional networks with time. The mesoporous gold sponges exhibit higher surface area than the literature. In addition, application of the spongelike networks as an active material for surface-enhanced Raman scattering has been investigated by employing 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules as a probe. PMID:26538365

  15. The pH effect on black spots in surface finish: Electroless nickel immersion gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong Sun; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Jinuk; Kim, Jong-Yun; Lee, Seong-Jae

    2010-10-01

    In order to understand the black spot generation after electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) plating, we investigated the pH effect with a combined approach of experiments and computer aided engineering (CAE). As the pH is increased in IG plating solution, the deprotonation of citric acid as chelating agent is enhanced to stabilize the solution by producing Ni-citrate complex ion. For the substitution reaction between nickel and gold, excess citrate ions (deprotonated citric acids) are adsorbed along nodal boundaries of Ni-P layer to decrease the surface reactivity. Since the low reactivity decreases the overall growth rate, the resulting homogeneous Au layer growth avoids the unfavorable galvanic cell corrosion to control black spot. Based on molecular orbital method and kinetic Monte Carlo calculation, our computational approach well explained the capability of citric acid as chelating agent and the Au growth rate along the nodal boundaries of Ni-P layer depending on the surface reactivity.

  16. Two-dimensional ultrathin gold film composed of steadily linked dense nanoparticle with surface plasmon resonance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Noble metallic nanoparticles have prominent optical local-field enhancement and light trapping properties in the visible light region resulting from surface plasmon resonances. Results We investigate the optical spectral properties and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of two-dimensional distinctive continuous ultrathin gold nanofilms. Experimental results show that the one- or two-layer nanofilm obviously increases absorbance in PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layers and the gold nanofilm acquires high Raman-enhancing capability. Conclusions The fabricated novel structure of the continuous ultrathin gold nanofilms possesses high surface plasmon resonance properties and boasts a high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factor, which can be a robust and cost-efficient SERS substrate. Interestingly, owing to the distinctive morphology and high light transmittance, the peculiar nanofilm can be used in multilayer photovoltaic devices to trap light without affecting the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorber layers and yielding new options for solar cell design. PMID:23259927

  17. Decoration of gold nanoparticles on surface-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes for detection of every nanotube by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haibin; Wang, Jinyong; Ding, Lei; Yuan, Dongning; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jie; Li, Yan

    2009-10-14

    An electroless deposition method comprised of seed formation and subsequent seeded growth is developed for the decoration of surface-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with gold nanoparticles of controlled size and interparticle distance. The density of the gold nanoparticles is determined by the density of seeds. Gold seeds are used for the SWCNT arrays grown on SiO(x)/Si substrates. For the dense SWCNT arrays on quartz, palladium seeds are used because it is much easier to obtain higher quantities of seeds. Attributed to both the seed formation specified on SWCNTs and the succedent efficient seeded growth process, the gold nanoparticles deposit on SWCNTs with very high selectivity. This electroless method shows no selectivity on types, defects, and conductivity of the SWCNTs, and thus ensures the uniform decoration of all SWCNTs on the wafer. Most importantly, this method provides the possibility to realize the optimal configurations of gold nanoparticles on SWCNTs for obtaining maximal surface-enhanced effects and consequently surface-enhanced Raman spectrum (SERS) of each SWCNT. Thus, both the in situ Raman detection of every SWCNT including those nonresonant with laser energy and the observation of the radial breathing modes of SWCNTs originally undetectable with resonance Raman spectroscopy are achieved. Further investigations over the effect of the laser wavelength and the interparticle distance on the SERS enhancement factors of SWCNTs prove that the coupled surface plasmon resonance absorption of the high-density gold nanoparticles decorated on SWCNTs contributes most to the strong surface enhancement. PMID:19764748

  18. Synthesis of gold microstructures with surface nanoroughness using a deep eutectic solvent for catalytic and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Seung

    2014-05-01

    We synthesized highly monodisperse gold microparticles (AuMPs) using a deep eutectic solvent (DES) which composed of choline chloride and malonic acid as both a reaction medium and structure-directing agent. These microparticles exhibit distinctive surface nanoroughness and highly defined diameters that can be precisely controlled over a range of a few micrometers under different reductive conditions. The internal and external structures of the particles are thoroughly investigated by electron microscopy, which is further analyzed in association with their optical properties. We also investigate the gold microparticle concentration-dependent catalytic property employing a reductive reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminopenol as a model system. Importantly, the gold microparticles are densely functionalized with DNA and reversibly assemble with DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugate probes for the colorimetric detection of target DNA sequences, demonstrating that these novel structures can be utilized as platforms that quickly regulate the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles for diagnostic applications. PMID:24734628

  19. Investigation of Hemoglobin/Gold Nanoparticle Heterolayer on Micro-Gap for Electrochemical Biosensor Application

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Yoon, Jinho; Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we fabricated a hemoglobin/gold nanoparticle (Hb/GNP) heterolayer immobilized on the Au micro-gap to confirm H2O2 detection with a signal-enhancement effect. The hemoglobin which contained the heme group catalyzed the reduction of H2O2. To facilitate the electron transfer between hemoglobin and Au micro-gap electrode, a gold nanoparticle was introduced. The Au micro-gap electrode that has gap size of 5 µm was fabricated by conventional photolithographic technique to locate working and counter electrodes oppositely in a single chip for the signal sensitivity and reliability. The hemoglobin was self-assembled onto the Au surface via chemical linker 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (6-MHA). Then, the gold nanoparticles were adsorbed onto hemoglobin/6-MHA heterolayers by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method. The fabrication of the Hb/GNP heterolayer was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The redox property and H2O2 detection of Hb/GNP on the micro-gap electrode was investigated by a cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiment. Taken together, the present results show that the electrochemical signal-enhancement effect of a hemoglobin/nanoparticle heterolayer was well confirmed on the micro-scale electrode for biosensor applications. PMID:27171089

  20. Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Billot, L.; Adam, P.-M.; Bachelot, R.; Royer, P.; Grand, J.; Gindre, D.; Dorkenoo, K. D.; Fort, A.

    2007-04-30

    The role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from arrays of gold nanorod particles excited by femtosecond laser pulses is investigated as a function of incident light polarization and irradiation wavelength. In addition to photoluminescence, a peak of second harmonic is observed and is found to depend on the polarization and wavelength of the fundamental frequency laser beam. In particular, the authors found similarities between extinction spectra of the nanoparticles and spectra of emmitted second harmonic. This behavior can be explained by resonant excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances.

  1. In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Topography Changes of Gold (111) in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Produced by Electrochemical Surface Oxidation and Reduction and Relaxation Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, M. A.; Nieto, F. J. Rodríguez; Arvia, A. J.

    The electrochemical formation and reduction of O-layers on gold (111) films in 1 m sulfuric acid under different potentiodynamic routines are investigated utilizing in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. The surface dynamics is interpreted considering the anodic and cathodic reaction pathways recently proposed complemented with concurrent relaxation phenomena occurring after gold (111) lattice mild disruption (one gold atom deep) and moderate disruption (several atoms deep). The dynamics of both oxidized and reduced gold topographies depends on the potentiodynamic routine utilized to form OH/O surface species. The topography resulting from a mild oxidative disruption is dominated by quasi-2D holes and hillocks of the order of 5 nm, involving about 500-600 gold atoms each, and their coalescence. A cooperative turnover process at the O-layer, in which the anion ad-layer and interfacial water play a key role, determines the oxidized surface topography. The reduction of these O-layers results in gold clusters, their features depending on the applied potential routine. A moderate oxidative disruption produces a surface topography of hillocks and holes several gold atoms high and deep, respectively. The subsequent reduction leads to a spinodal gold pattern. Concurrent coalescence appears to be the result of an Ostwald ripening that involves the surface diffusion of both gold atoms and clusters. These processes produce an increase in surface roughness and an incipient gold faceting. The dynamics of different topographies can be qualitatively explained employing the arguments from colloidal science theory. For 1.1 V ≤ E ≅ Epzc weak electrostatic repulsions favor gold atom/cluster coalescence, whereas for E < Epzc the attenuated electrostatic repulsions among gold surfaces stabilize small clusters over the substrate producing string-like patterns.

  2. Evaluation of Nanoporous Gold with Controlled Surface Structures for Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) Analysis: Surface Area Versus LDI Signal Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jang Mi; Choi, Suhee; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-09-01

    The structural effect of a nanoporous gold (NPG) surface on the signal intensities of laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) were investigated using NPG surfaces with controlled structures. The relationship between surface area and LDI efficiency was compared and evaluated. Comparisons between bare flat gold and NPG surfaces show that nanostructures increased LDI efficiency. We also found that the LDI signal decreased with increasing depth of nanoporous layers, thus increasing the surface area. This result agrees with a previous report (Shin J. A. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2010, 21, 989) in which the LDI efficiency of small molecules decreased for ZnO wires with longer lengths. This observation was explained by the penetration and deposition of samples into locations inaccessible to photons because of structural screening. The LDI-MS analysis of oils with NPG surfaces (but without matrix) showed the same trend whereby the NPG with about a 200 nm depth of porous area showed the highest sensitivity. This study clearly shows that the active surface area for solution chemistry can differ from LDI-MS and that NPGs can function as a substrate for LDI oil analysis.

  3. Sulfur-induced structural motifs on copper and gold surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walen, Holly

    The interaction of sulfur with copper and gold surfaces plays a fundamental role in important phenomena that include coarsening of surface nanostructures, and self-assembly of alkanethiols. Here, we identify and analyze unique sulfur-induced structural motifs observed on the low-index surfaces of these two metals. We seek out these structures in an effort to better understand the fundamental interactions between these metals and sulfur that lends to the stability and favorability of metal-sulfur complexes vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur. We choose very specific conditions: very low temperature (5 K), and very low sulfur coverage (≤ 0.1 monolayer). In this region of temperature-coverage space, which has not been examined previously for these adsorbate-metal systems, the effects of individual interactions between metals and sulfur are most apparent and can be assessed extensively with the aid of theory and modeling. Furthermore, at this temperature diffusion is minimal and relatively-mobile species can be isolated, and at low coverage the structures observed are not consumed by an extended reconstruction. The primary experimental technique is scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental observations presented here---made under identical conditions---together with extensive DFT analyses, allow comparisons and insights into factors that favor the existence of metal-sulfur complexes, vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur, on metal terraces. We believe this data will be instrumental in better understanding the complex phenomena occurring between the surfaces of coinage metals and sulfur.

  4. Self-organization of gold nanoparticles on silanated surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kyaw, Htet H; Sellai, Azzouz; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Summary The self-organization of monolayer gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized glass substrate is reported. The orientation of APTES molecules on glass substrates plays an important role in the interaction between AuNPs and APTES molecules on the glass substrates. Different orientations of APTES affect the self-organization of AuNps on APTES-functionalized glass substrates. The as grown monolayers and films annealed in ultrahigh vacuum and air (600 °C) were studied by water contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Results of this study are fundamentally important and also can be applied for designing and modelling of surface plasmon resonance based sensor applications. PMID:26734526

  5. Oxidation of Au by surface OH: nucleation and electronic structure of gold on hydroxylated MgO(001).

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew A; Fujimori, Yuichi; Ringleb, Franziska; Shao, Xiang; Stavale, Fernando; Nilius, Niklas; Sterrer, Martin; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2011-07-13

    The nucleation and electronic structure of vapor-deposited Au on hydroxylated MgO(001) surfaces has been investigated under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Hydroxylated MgO(001) surfaces with two different hydroxyl coverages, 0.4 and 1 monolayer, respectively, were prepared by exposure to water (D(2)O) at room temperature. Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments show significantly higher gold particle densities and smaller particle sizes on the hydroxylated MgO surface as compared to gold deposited on clean MgO(001). Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were performed to reveal details about the initial nucleation of gold. Gold atoms are found to chemically interact with a specific type of hydroxyl groups on the MgO surface, leading to the formation of oxidized gold particles. The enhanced adhesion of Au particles, which is due to the formation of strong Au-O interfacial bonds, is responsible for the observed higher stability of small Au clusters toward thermal sintering on hydroxylated MgO surfaces. The results are compared to similar studies on Au/TiO(2)(110) model systems and powder samples prepared by the deposition-precipitation route. PMID:21634792

  6. Surface Charge Controls the Suborgan Biodistributions of Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elci, Sukru Gokhan; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Bo; Kim, Sung Tae; Saha, Krishnendu; Moyano, Daniel F; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Jackson, Liam C; Rotello, Vincent M; Vachet, Richard W

    2016-05-24

    Surface chemistry plays a deciding role in nanoparticle biodistribution, yet very little is known about how surface chemistry influences the suborgan distributions of nanomaterials. Here, using quantitative imaging based on laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we demonstrate that surface charge dictates the suborgan distributions of nanoparticles in the kidney, liver, and spleen of mice intravenously injected with functionalized gold nanoparticles. Images of the kidney show that positively charged nanoparticles accumulate extensively in the glomeruli, the initial stage in filtering for the nephron, suggesting that these nanoparticles may be filtered by the kidney at a different rate than the neutral or negatively charged nanoparticles. We find that positively and negatively charged nanoparticles accumulate extensively in the red pulp of the spleen. In contrast, uncharged nanoparticles accumulate in the white pulp and marginal zone of the spleen to a greater extent than the positively or negatively charged nanoparticles. Moreover, these uncharged nanoparticles are also more likely to be found associated with Kupffer cells in the liver. Positively charged nanoparticles accumulate extensively in liver hepatocytes, whereas negatively charged nanoparticles show a broader distribution in the liver. Together these observations suggest that neutral nanoparticles having 2 nm cores may interact with the immune system to a greater extent than charged nanoparticles, highlighting the value of determining the suborgan distributions of nanomaterials for delivery and imaging applications. PMID:27164169

  7. Orthogonal, three-component, alkanethiol-based surface-chemical gradients on gold.

    PubMed

    Beurer, Eva; Venkataraman, Nagaiyanallur V; Rossi, Antonella; Bachmann, Florian; Engeli, Roman; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2010-06-01

    An orthogonal surface-chemical gradient composed of self-assembled monolayers on gold has been prepared by successive, controlled immersions in orthogonal directions into dilute solutions of dodecanethiol and perfluorododecanethiol. The resulting two-component orthogonal gradient in surface coverage was backfilled with 11-mercaptoundecanol, leading to a two-directional, three-component surface-chemical gradient. Water and hexadecane show distinctly different wetting behaviors on the gradient surface because of the differences in the hydrophobic and oleophobic natures of the three different constituents. These results are correlated with the chemical composition maps of the surface obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The homogeneity and the ordering of the self-assembled monolayer were investigated by dynamic water contact angle measurements and polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. PMID:20166727

  8. Surface enhanced Raman scattering, antibacterial and antifungal active triangular gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, S. L.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    Shape controlled syntheses of gold nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as their optical, electronic, magnetic and biological properties are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Here is a report on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth reduced gold nanoparticles consisting of triangular and spherical like particles, using 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. Nanoparticles prepared with a minimum leaf broth concentration, having a greater number of triangular like particles exhibit a SERS activity of the order of 107. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against the tested gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations on the antifungal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum positive is also discussed.

  9. Effect of Ti adhesive layer on individual gold nanodisk surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debu, Desalegn Tadesse; Ghosh, Pijush; French, David; Bauman, Stephen; Herzog, Joseph B.

    We investigate localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold nanodisks of various diameter and height fabricated on extremely thin Ti adhesive layers. Dark field scattering measurements reveal significant dependence of SPR in the size nano structures and polarization of the light. Comparisons of peak resonance extracted from spectra using Gaussian fitting of different Ti adhesive layer thickness indicates significant red shifting and damping of the plasmon mode. Experimental results are supported by numerical simulation based on three dimensional finite element time domain analysis. From the simulation and experimental results we quantitatively developed optimized model equation of resonance mode of the nanodisks with respect to adhesive layer thickness and broadening effect of the line shape. Such optimized model is very helpful in guiding targeted nanofabrication such as gold nanodisk antennas or biosensors.

  10. Gold nanoparticle based surface enhanced fluorescence for detection of organophosphorus agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasary, Samuel S. R.; Rai, Uma S.; Yu, Hongtao; Anjaneyulu, Yerramilli; Dubey, Madan; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2008-07-01

    Organophosphorus agents (OPA) represent a serious concern to public safety as nerve agents and pesticides. Here we report the development of gold nanoparticle based surface enhanced fluorescence (NSEF) spectroscopy for rapid and sensitive screening of organophosphorus agents. Fluorescent from Eu 3+ ions that are bound within the electromagnetic field of gold nanoparticles exhibit a strong enhancement. In the presence of OPA, Eu 3+ ions are released from the gold nanoparticle surface and thus a very distinct fluorescence signal change was observed. We discussed the mechanism of fluorescence enhancement and the role of OPA for fluorescence intensity change in the presence of gold nanoparticles.

  11. Mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography for low surface energy materials of teflon, graphene, and gold.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Hoon; Lee, Duck Hyun; Kim, Ju Young; Shin, Dong Ok; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Seonki; Yun, Je Moon; Koo, Chong Min; Lee, Haeshin; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-12-15

    Mussel-inspired interfacial engineering is synergistically integrated with block copolymer (BCP) lithography for the surface nanopatterning of low surface energy substrate materials, including, Teflon, graphene, and gold. The image shows the Teflon nanowires and their excellent superhydrophobicity. PMID:22021119

  12. Pharmacological Investigation of Fluoro-Gold Entry into Spinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Falgairolle, Melanie; O’Donovan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The fluorescent tracer Fluoro-Gold has been widely used to label neurons retrogradely. Here we show that Fluoro-Gold can also enter neurons through AMPA receptor endocytosis. We found that a 30 minute application of Fluoro-Gold to the isolated spinal cord labeled neurons under control conditions and in the presence of glutamatergic agonists including NMDA and AMPA. The labeling was abolished or greatly reduced by glutamatergic antagonists and the endocytic inhibitors Dynasore and dynamin inhibitory peptide. Whole cell recordings from spinal neurons exposed to extracellular AMPA revealed large inward currents that spontaneously decayed in the presence of the agonist but were maintained when a dynamin inhibitory peptide was included in the electrode. These findings suggest that Fluoro-Gold enters spinal neurons through AMPA-mediated receptor internalization. Drugs used to induce locomotor-like activity in the spinal cord also increased and decreased Fluoro-Gold labeling in a drug and lamina specific manner, indicating that AMPAR endocytosis is altered in the presence of the locomotor cocktail. Our findings suggest that endocytosis of Fluoro-Gold could potentially complicate the interpretation of experiments in which the tracer is used to label neurons retrogradely. Moreover, they also demonstrate that many drugs, including the locomotor cocktail, can modulate the number and/or the composition of AMPA receptors on spinal neurons and thereby affect network excitability. PMID:26102354

  13. Work function response of thin gold film surfaces to phosphine and arsine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Young, , Sir; Evans, Keenan; Glaunsinger, William

    1998-01-01

    The work function changes of thin gold films upon exposure to phosphine and arsine in the concentration range 20-80 parts per billion (ppb) concentrations were studied using the Kelvin probe method under ambient conditions. The work function of gold surfaces decreases significantly in the presence of these gases. This decrease is attributed to charge transfer from these hydride molecules to the gold surface through σ-bonding of their lone-pair electrons. Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface chemical components of thin gold films. The extraordinarily high sub-ppb sensitivity of the work function response for phosphine and arsine on gold surfaces under ambient conditions can be used to detect ultra-trace concentration of these toxic gases.

  14. Sequence and Temperature Influence on Kinetics of DNA Strand Displacement at Gold Electrode Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Biala, Katarzyna; Sedova, Ada; Flechsig, Gerd-Uwe

    2015-09-16

    Understanding complex contributions of surface environment to tethered nucleic acid sensing experiments has proven challenging, yet it is important because it is essential for interpretation and calibration of indispensable methods, such as microarrays. We investigate the effects of DNA sequence and solution temperature gradients on the kinetics of strand displacement at heated gold wire electrodes, and at gold disc electrodes in a heated solution. Addition of a terminal double mismatch (toehold) provides a reduction in strand displacement energy barriers sufficient to probe the secondary mechanisms involved in the hybridization process. In four different DNA capture probe sequences (relevant for the identification of genetically modified maize MON810), all but one revealed a high activation energy up to 200 kJ/mol during hybridization, that we attribute to displacement of protective strands by capture probes. Protective strands contain 4 to 5 mismatches to ease their displacement by the surface-confined probes at the gold electrodes. A low activation energy (30 kJ/mol) was observed for the sequence whose protective strand contained a toehold and one central mismatch, its kinetic curves displayed significantly different shapes, and we observed a reduced maximum signal intensity as compared to other sequences. These findings point to potential sequence-related contributions to oligonucleotide diffusion influencing kinetics. Additionally, for all sequences studied with heated wire electrodes, we observed a 23 K lower optimal hybridization temperature in comparison with disc electrodes in heated solution, and greatly reduced voltammetric signals after taking into account electrode surface area. We propose that thermodiffusion due to temperature gradients may influence both hybridization and strand displacement kinetics at heated microelectrodes, an explanation supported by computational fluid dynamics. DNA assays with surface-confined capture probes and temperature

  15. Geologic, geophysical, and in situ stress investigations in the vicinity of the Dining Car Chimney, Dining Car/Hybla gold tunnels, Nevada Test Site, with sections on geologica investigations, geophysical investigations, and in situ stress investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Townsend, D.R.; Baldwin, M.J.; Carroll, R.D.; Ellis, W.L.; Magner, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Hybla Gold experiment was conducted in the U12e.20 drifts of the E-tunnel complex beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. Though the proximity of the Hybla Gold working point to the chimney of the Dining Car event was important to the experiment, the observable geologic effects from Dining Car on the Hybla Gold site were minor. Overburden above the working point is approximately 385 m (1,263 ft). The pre-Tertiary surface, probably quartzite, lies approximately 254 m (833 ft) below the working point. The drifts are mined in zeolitized ash-fall tuffs of tunnel bed 4, subunits K and J, all of Miocene age. The working point is in subunit 4J. Geologic structure in the region around the working point is not complex. The U12e.20 main drift follows the axis of a shallow depositional syncline. A northeast-dipping fault with displacement of approximately 3 m (10 ft) passes within 15.2 m (50 ft) of the Hybla Gold working point. Three faults of smaller displacement pass within 183-290 m (600-950 ft) of the working point, and are antithetic to the 3-m (10-ft) fault. Three exploratory holes were drilled to investigate the chimney of the nearby Dining Car event. Four horizontal holes were drilled during the construction of the U12e.20 drifts to investigate the geology of the Hybla Gold working point.

  16. Computational Investigation of Quantum Size Effects in Gold Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Electron density perturbation from carbon monoxide adsorption on a multi-hundred atom gold nanoparticle. The perturbation causes significant quantum size effects in CO catalysis on gold particles. Science: Jeff Greeley and Nick Romero, Argonne National Laboratory; Jesper Kleis, Karsten Jacobsen, Jens Nørskov, Technical University of Denmark
 Visualization: Joseph Insley, Argonne National Laboratory This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on dielectrophoresis induced diffusion limited aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Faisal Khair

    Wires formed by diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) induced by dielectrophoresis (DEP) of gold nanoparticles were investigated as an effective sample preparation method for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Thymine was used as a test molecule and its SERS was measured to investigate the effectiveness of this technique that reproducibly resulted in x10 9 enhancement. It is known that molecules adsorbed near or at the surface of certain nanostructures produce strongly increased Raman signals and such phenomena is attributed to the concentration of electromagnetic (EM) optical fields at "hotspots" that usually occur at nanoscale junctions or clefts in metal nanostructures. Similarly, the enhancement obtained is attributed to the localized surface Plasmon's of the gold nanoparticles and the formation of "hotspots" in DEP wires. There are other methods that reproducibly yield in excess of x108 enhancement in SERS using tunable lasers and very elaborate Raman spectroscopy. The results presented here are obtained using a fixed laser excitation source at 785 nm and a simple spectrometer (5 cm-1 resolution).

  18. ESSENTIAL ROLE OF SURFACE HYDROXYLS FOR THE STABILIZATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF TiO2-SUPPORTED GOLD NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Lupini, Andrew R; Dudney, Nancy J

    2009-01-01

    We report the investigation of titania supported gold catalysts prepared by magnetron sputtering. Catalysts grown on natural fumed titania were structurally unstable resulting in the rapid coarsening of 2.3 nm gold clusters into large ~20 nm gold clusters in a few days at room temperature under normal atmospheric conditions. However, treating the titania support powder to a mock-deposition-precipitation process, at pH 4 or pH 10, followed by the subsequent deposition of gold onto this treated powder produced a remarkable enhancement in gold particle stability and a 20-40 fold enhancement of catalytic activity respectively. This enhancement can not be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface. Instead, it appears to be associated with the formation of strongly bound hydroxyl species on the TiO2 surface. The formation of surface hydroxyls during the deposition-precipitation method is coincidental and contributes significantly to the properties of Au/TiO2 catalysts.

  19. Vibrational properties of an adamantane monolayer on a gold surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yuki; Nguyen, Giang D.; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Coh, Sinisa; Pechenezhskiy, Ivan V.; Hong, Xiaoping; Crommie, Michael F.; Wang, Feng; Saito, Susumu; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2014-03-01

    We study the vibrational properties of an adamantane monolayer on a Au(111) surface. The IR spectrum of a self-assembled monolayer of adamantane on Au(111) is measured by a newly developed infrared scanning tunneling microscopy (IRSTM) technique. We analyze the IR spectrum of this system by a density functional theory and find that the IR spectrum is severely modified by both adamantane-gold and adamantane-adamantane interactions. One of three gas-phase C-H bond stretching modes is significantly red-shifted due to the molecule-substrate interactions. The intermolecular interactions cause a suppression of the IR intensity of another gas-phase IR peak. The techniques used in this work can be applied for an independent estimate of molecule-substrate and intermolecular interactions in related diamondoid/metal-substrate systems. This work was supported by NSF grant No. DMR10-1006184 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. Coadsorption of gold with chlorine on CeO2 (111) surfaces: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhan-Sheng; He, Bing-Ling; Ma, Dong-Wei; Yang, Zong-Xian

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of chlorine on the Au/ceria catalysts, the adsorption of gold or chlorine and their coadsorpiton on the stoichiometric and partially reduced CeO2 (111) surfaces are studied from the first principles. It is found that the adsorption of Au is significantly enhanced by the chlorine preadsorption on the stoichiometric CeO2 (111) surface; while on the partially reduced CeO2 (111) surface, the preadsorbed chlorine inhabits the oxygen vacancy (which is the preferred adsorption site for gold), leading to a CeOCl phase and the dramatical weakening of the Au adsorption. Therefore, chlorine on the CeO2 (111) surface can affect the Au adsorption thus the activity of the Au/CeO2 catalyst. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174070, 51401078, and 11147006), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2012M521399), the Postdoctoral Research Sponsorship in Henan Province, China (Grant No. 2011038), and the Foundation for the Key Young Teachers of Henan Normal University and Start-up Foundation for Doctors of Henan Normal University, China.

  1. Gold nanoparticles with externally controlled, reversible shifts of local surface plasmon resonance bands.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Mustafa S; Jensen, Gary C; Penaloza, David P; Seery, Thomas A P; Pendergraph, Samuel A; Rusling, James F; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2009-11-17

    We have achieved reversible tunability of local surface plasmon resonance in conjugated polymer functionalized gold nanoparticles. This property was facilitated by the preparation of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) containing polynorbornene brushes on gold nanoparticles via surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Reversible tuning of the surface plasmon band was achieved by electrochemically switching the EDOT polymer between its reduced and oxidized states. PMID:19839619

  2. Positively charged supported lipid bilayer formation on gold surfaces for neuronal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Eun; Greben, Kyrylo; Wördenweber, Roger; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are widely used as cell membrane models and sensor platforms, but the usage on gold surface needs additional surface modification or optimized experimental conditions. In this work, the authors show lipid bilayer formation on plasma activated gold surfaces in physiological conditions without any other modification if at least 30% positively charged lipids are present. Details of bilayer formation from small unilamellar vesicles were monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation in both basic and acidic environment. The authors also confirmed that this positively charged bilayer system can sustain primary cortical neuron growth and lipid transfer. This method will provide simple means to construct biomimetic interface on gold electrodes. PMID:27052005

  3. Gold and aluminum based surface plasmon resonance biosensors: sensitivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biednov, Mykola; Lebyedyeva, Tetyana; Shpylovyy, Pavlo

    2015-05-01

    In this work we considered Gold and Aluminum thin films coated with additional dielectric layers as sensing platforms. Operation of these sensors is based on measuring shift in the position of the reflectivity dip in angular reflectivity spectrum of the sample. Shift can be caused by changes in the refraction index of either liquid that interacts with sensors surface (refractometric measurements) or thin adjacent biolayer on top of the sensor due to immobilization of the target molecules (biosensing). Calculations based on Fresnel equations and transfer matrix formalism allowed us to make comprehensive analysis of the angular sensitivity, shape of the reflectivity dip and dynamic range of the sensors with different dielectric coatings. Calculations were performed for both cases of bio and refractometric sensing. Results showed different dependence of the sensitivity of Au an Al based sensors upon refraction index of the dielectric coating. For Au-based surface Plasmon resonance sensor up to two times increased sensitivity can be achieved using dielectric coating with high refraction index 2.3 of proper thickness. For sensors based on aluminum we were able to achieve 50% increased angular sensitivity. At the same time width of the reflectivity dip increased proportionally to the optical thickness of the dielectric coating. For estimating sensors quality we analyzed ratio of the angular sensitivity to the width of the reflectivity dip. This ratio decreased with increase in optical thickness of the dielectric, however angular sensitivity of the sensor increased significantly. Deposition of the additional dielectric layer with high refraction index such as Niobium Oxide can also improve chemical and mechanical stability of the sensor.

  4. Analysis of rat plasma proteins desorbed from gold and methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated alkane thiols on gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Källtorp, M; Carlén, A; Thomsen, P; Olsson, J; Tengvall, P

    2000-03-01

    It is believed that adsorbed blood or plasma components, such as water, peptides, carbohydrates and proteins, determine key events in the concomitant inflammatory tissue response close to implants. The aim of the present study was to develop a procedure for the collection and analysis of minor amounts of proteins bound to solid metal implant surfaces. The combination of a sodium dodecyl sulfate washing method coupled with a polyacylamide gel electrophoretic protein separation technique (SDS-PAGE), Western blot and image analysis enabled the desorption, identification and semiquantification of specific proteins. The analyzed proteins were albumin, immunoglobulin G, fibrinogen and fibronectin. Concentration procedures of proteins were not required with this method despite the small area of the test surfaces. The plasma proteins were adsorbed to pure gold and hydroxylated and methylated gold surfaces, which elicit different tissue responses in vivo and plasma protein adsorption patterns in vitro. The image analysis revealed that the pure gold surfaces adsorbed the largest amount of total and specific proteins. This is in accordance with previous ellipsometry/antibody experiments in vitro. Further, the principles described for the protein analysis can be applied on implant surfaces ex vivo. PMID:15348048

  5. Highly stable gelatin layer-protected gold nanoparticles as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changwon; Zhang, Peng

    2014-06-01

    Amine and carboxylic groups rich gelatin was used as reducing and stabilizing agent to form highly stable gold nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. The size of the particle was determined to be 13 nm by TEM with mono-dispersity. The size of the gold nanoparticles was little affected by the initial gelatin concentration. The gelatin-gold nanoparticles show strong SERS activity with Rhodamine 6G and Ruthenium bipyridine as reporter molecules. Both carboxylic acid groups and amine groups were identified by FT-IR to be present on the gelatin-gold nanoparticle surface, providing the possibility of further conjugation with other molecules. The gelatin-protected gold nanoparticles prepared by this simple, green, method displayed very good solubility and stability in many solvents, and good monodispersity, all desirable features as good SERS substrates. PMID:24738391

  6. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy to explore DNA-mediated gold nanoparticle growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguy, Amanda

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achieved through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than

  7. Electrical, Spectroscopic and Morphological Investigation of Mercury Adsorption on Thin Gold Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Michael Albert

    The structures and properties of mercury adsorbates on thin gold films were examined by several techniques. The impetus for this study was to better understand the transducing mechanism of gold films used as mercury sensors. A characterization of the structure and morphology of annealed and unannealed film surfaces both before and after mercury adsorption was performed. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) revealed mobile mercury atoms that migrate to grain boundaries and other surface defects. A mercury-induced overlayer developed that was also polycrystalline, but softer than the gold substrate, as evidenced by STM tip effects. On epitaxial gold films on mica, mercury was found to grow layer-by -layer, which resulted in dramatic surface changes. The mercury-induced features were fractal-like in appearance. The results suggest a possible (23 x surd3) or some other ordered reconstruction of the surface. X -ray diffraction was used to perform a real-time study of the formation of mercury-gold alloys. The gold (111) peak shifted and decreased in intensity, while diffraction peaks associated with mercury-gold amalgams appeared. It was also observed during the course of this experiment that relatively thick (>50 ML) overlayers of mercury led to the formation of a much smoother film with very large grains. This phenomenon was described as an ambient-temperature chemical annealing of the gold film. X -ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to characterize the surfaces of clean and mercury-dosed gold films. The adsorption of mercury was found to result in an increase of surface carbon and, particularly, oxygen. Resistivity measurements were made on gold films deposited on alumina, silica and mica substrates. The resistivities were measured as a function of thickness, temperature and mercury adsorption. Thickness dependence was evident in the results, particularly for unannealed alumina films. The results indicated that unannealed alumina films showed the

  8. Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Part I: Copper and gold electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, S. M.; Katz, L. F.; Archibald, D. D.; Lin, L. T.; Honigs, D. E.

    1988-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectra of pyridine on copper and gold electrodesin the near-infrared were obtained with a Fourier transform Ramanspectrometer. Surface-enhanced Raman spectra were observed forpyridine adsorbed on copper and gold electrodes while a Nd:YAG laser(1.064 ..mu..m) was used for excitation. Good-quality spectra were recordedfor 0.08 mM pyridine on a copper electrode with a single oxidation-reductioncycle, whereas for a gold electrode, several ORCs were necessary.A very intense low-energy Raman band was observed on bothmetals at positive potentials, which may be due to a metal-oxidevibrational mode.

  9. Electroless Gold-Modified Diatoms as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannico, Marianna; Rea, Ilaria; Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Musto, Pellegrino; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Porous biosilica from diatom frustules is well known for its peculiar optical and mechanical properties. In this work, gold-coated diatom frustules are used as low-cost, ready available, functional support for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Due to the morphology of the nanostructured surface and the smoothness of gold deposition via an electroless process, an enhancement factor for the p-mercaptoaniline Raman signal of the order of 105 is obtained.

  10. Electroless Gold-Modified Diatoms as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Supports.

    PubMed

    Pannico, Marianna; Rea, Ilaria; Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Musto, Pellegrino; Voelcker, Nicolas H; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-12-01

    Porous biosilica from diatom frustules is well known for its peculiar optical and mechanical properties. In this work, gold-coated diatom frustules are used as low-cost, ready available, functional support for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Due to the morphology of the nanostructured surface and the smoothness of gold deposition via an electroless process, an enhancement factor for the p-mercaptoaniline Raman signal of the order of 10(5) is obtained. PMID:27356562

  11. Initial stages of gold adsorption on silicon stepped surface at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kosolobov, S. S. Song, Se Ahn; Rodyakina, E. E.; Latyshev, A. V.

    2007-04-15

    Experimental study performed by ultrahigh vacuum reflection electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveals step instability on Si(111) surface during gold deposition at elevated temperatures (higher than 900 deg. C). Our results show that transformations of regular atomic steps into the system of step bunches and vice versa depend on the gold coverage and direction of the electrical current heating the sample. The mechanism and conditions of the surface morphology transformations are discussed.

  12. Surface properties of plasma-functionalized graphite-encapsulated gold nanoparticles prepared by a direct current arc discharge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Enbo; Chou, Han; Tsumura, Shun; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    The graphite-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (Au@C NPs) fabricated by a direct current arc discharge method were surface-functionalized by an inductively-coupled radio frequency ammonia plasma with a particle explosion technique for enhancing surface modification efficiency. To investigate the structural and surface properties of Au@C NPs, characterizations using x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been conducted on the untreated and plasma treated Au@C NPs. Based on the experimental results, we give insight into the possible formation of Au ions in the interface between the graphite layers and gold core particles of the Au@C NPs. Finally, the role of the plasma treatment on the surface functionalization of Au@C NPs with amino groups is discussed.

  13. Enhancing the Properties of Carbon and Gold Substrates by Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Anne Harnisch

    2002-06-27

    The properties of both carbon and gold substrates are easily affected by the judicious choice of a surface modification protocol. Several such processes for altering surface composition have been published in literature. The research presented in this thesis primarily focuses on the development of on-column methods to modify carbon stationary phases used in electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). To this end, both porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and glassy carbon (GC) particles have been modified on-column by the electroreduction of arenediazonium salts and the oxidation of arylacetate anions (the Kolbe reaction). Once modified, the carbon stationary phases show enhanced chromatographic performance both in conventional liquid chromatographic columns and EMLC columns. Additionally, one may also exploit the creation of aryl films to by electroreduction of arenediazonium salts in the creation of nanostructured materials. The formation of mercaptobenzene film on the surface of a GC electrode provides a linking platform for the chemisorption of gold nanoparticles. After deposition of nanoparticles, the surface chemistry of the gold can be further altered by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation via the chemisorption of a second thiol species. Finally, the properties of gold films can be altered such that they display carbon-like behavior through the formation of benzenehexathiol (BHT) SAMs. BHT chemisorbs to the gold surface in a previously unprecedented planar fashion. Carbon and gold substrates can be chemically altered by several methodologies resulting in new surface properties. The development of modification protocols and their application in the analytical arena is considered herein.

  14. Magnetic memory of a single-molecule quantum magnet wired to a gold surface.

    PubMed

    Mannini, Matteo; Pineider, Francesco; Sainctavit, Philippe; Danieli, Chiara; Otero, Edwige; Sciancalepore, Corrado; Talarico, Anna Maria; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cornia, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta

    2009-03-01

    In the field of molecular spintronics, the use of magnetic molecules for information technology is a main target and the observation of magnetic hysteresis on individual molecules organized on surfaces is a necessary step to develop molecular memory arrays. Although simple paramagnetic molecules can show surface-induced magnetic ordering and hysteresis when deposited on ferromagnetic surfaces, information storage at the molecular level requires molecules exhibiting an intrinsic remnant magnetization, like the so-called single-molecule magnets (SMMs). These have been intensively investigated for their rich quantum behaviour but no magnetic hysteresis has been so far reported for monolayers of SMMs on various non-magnetic substrates, most probably owing to the chemical instability of clusters on surfaces. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism synchrotron-based techniques, pushed to the limits in sensitivity and operated at sub-kelvin temperatures, we have now found that robust, tailor-made Fe(4) complexes retain magnetic hysteresis at gold surfaces. Our results demonstrate that isolated SMMs can be used for storing information. The road is now open to address individual molecules wired to a conducting surface in their blocked magnetization state, thereby enabling investigation of the elementary interactions between electron transport and magnetism degrees of freedom at the molecular scale. PMID:19182788

  15. Magnetic memory of a single-molecule quantum magnet wired to a gold surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannini, Matteo; Pineider, Francesco; Sainctavit, Philippe; Danieli, Chiara; Otero, Edwige; Sciancalepore, Corrado; Talarico, Anna Maria; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cornia, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta

    2009-03-01

    In the field of molecular spintronics, the use of magnetic molecules for information technology is a main target and the observation of magnetic hysteresis on individual molecules organized on surfaces is a necessary step to develop molecular memory arrays. Although simple paramagnetic molecules can show surface-induced magnetic ordering and hysteresis when deposited on ferromagnetic surfaces, information storage at the molecular level requires molecules exhibiting an intrinsic remnant magnetization, like the so-called single-molecule magnets (SMMs). These have been intensively investigated for their rich quantum behaviour but no magnetic hysteresis has been so far reported for monolayers of SMMs on various non-magnetic substrates, most probably owing to the chemical instability of clusters on surfaces. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism synchrotron-based techniques, pushed to the limits in sensitivity and operated at sub-kelvin temperatures, we have now found that robust, tailor-made Fe4 complexes retain magnetic hysteresis at gold surfaces. Our results demonstrate that isolated SMMs can be used for storing information. The road is now open to address individual molecules wired to a conducting surface in their blocked magnetization state, thereby enabling investigation of the elementary interactions between electron transport and magnetism degrees of freedom at the molecular scale.

  16. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Gold in the Presence of Laser Excited Surface Plasma Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Raynaud, M.

    2010-02-02

    Surface plasmon excitation with ultrashort intense laser pulses enhances efficiently laser absorption in metals and creates local high fields and non-equilibrium hot electrons population that have attractivity for numerous applications such as the development of intense sources of high-energy particles or photons and in the fast ignitor scheme in the framework of inertial fusion. In this context, the knowledge of the dynamics of relaxation of the collective electrons behavior is of importance. Using gold grating, we have investigated electrons relaxation in the presence of laser excited surface plasmon waves using a multiple-wavelengh femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results yield evidence of longer relaxation time in the presence of the collective excitation than that of individual electronic states.

  17. Controlling wave-vector of propagating surface plasmon polaritons on single-crystalline gold nanoplates

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Si; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Chen, Xingxing; Qiu, Min; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating at metal nanostructures play an important role in breaking the diffraction limit. Chemically synthesized single-crystalline metal nanoplates with atomically flat surfaces provide favorable features compared with traditional polycrystalline metal films. The excitation and propagation of leaky SPPs on micrometer sized (10–20 μm) and thin (30 nm) gold nanoplates are investigated utilizing leakage radiation microscopy. By varying polarization and excitation positions of incident light on apexes of nanoplates, wave-vector (including propagation constant and propagation direction) distributions of leaky SPPs in Fourier planes can be controlled, indicating tunable SPP propagation. These results hold promise for potential development of chemically synthesized single-crystalline metal nanoplates as plasmonic platforms in future applications. PMID:26302955

  18. Investigation of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticle sensors for gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Jared S.

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air and exhaled breath by sensor array is a very useful testing technique. It can provide non-invasive, fast, inexpensive testing for many diseases. Breath analysis has been very successful in identifying cancer and other diseases by using a chemiresistor sensor or array with gold nanoparticles to detect biomarkers. Acetone is a biomarker for diabetes and having a portable testing device could help to monitor diabetic and therapeutic progress. An advantage to this testing method is it is conducted at room temperature instead of 200 degrees Celsius. 3. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles based on sensor(s) detection of VOCs. The VOCs to be tested are acetone, ethanol, and a mixture of acetone and ethanol. Each chip is tested under all three VOCs and three concentration levels (0.1, 1, and 5.0 ppm). VOC samples are used to test the sensors' ability to detect and differentiate VOCs. Sensors (also referred to as a chip) are prepared using several types of thiol derivatized gold nanoparticles. The factors are: thiol compound and molar volume loading of the thiol in synthesis. The average resistance results are used to determine the VOC selectivity of the sensors tested. The results show a trend of increasing resistance as VOC concentration is increased relative to dry air; which is used as baseline for VOCs. Several sensors show a high selectivity to one or more VOCs. Overall the 57 micromoles of 4-methoxy-toluenethiol sensor shows the strongest selectivity for VOCs tested. 3. Gerfen, Kurt. 2012. Detection of Acetone in Air Using Silver Ion Exchanged ZSM-5 and Zinc Oxide Sensing Films. Master of Science thesis, University of Louisville.

  19. Annealing Effects on the Surface Plasmon of MgO Implanted with Gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueda, A.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y. -S.; Henderson, D. O.; White, C. W.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zhu, Jane G.; Wang, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Gold ion implantation was carried out with the energy of 1.1 MeV into (100) oriented MgO single crystal. Implanted doses are 1, 3, 6, 10 x 10(exp 16) ions/sq cm. The gold irradiation results in the formation of gold ion implanted layer with a thickness of 0.2 microns and defect formation. In order to form gold colloids from the as-implanted samples, we annealed the gold implanted MgO samples in three kinds of atmospheres: (1)Ar only, (2)H2 and Ar, and (3)O2 and Ar. The annealing over 1200 C enhanced the gold colloid formation which shows surface plasmon resonance band of gold. The surface plasmon bands of samples annealed in three kinds of atmospheres were found to be at 535 nm (Ar only), 524 nm(H2+Ar), and 560 nm (02+Ar), The band positions of surface plasmon can be reversibly changed by an additional annealing.

  20. Selective Growth and SERS Property of Gold Nanoparticles on Amorphized Silicon Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Nishi, M.; Sakakura, M.; Shimotsuma, Y.; Miura, K.; Hirao, K.

    2011-02-01

    We have fabricated gold patterns on a silicon substrate by a simple three-step method using a focused ion beam (FIB). The obtained gold patterns consisted of a large number of gold nanoparticles which grew selectively on the preprocessed silicon surface from an Au ion-containing solution dropped on the substrate. The solution was prepared by reacting HAuCl4 aqueous solution with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). It was found that the size and shape of the precipitating gold nanoparticles is controllable by changing the mixing ratio between HAuCl4 aqueous solution and MPTMS. Additionally, we confirmed that the fabricated gold structures were surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active; the enhanced Raman peaks of rhodamin 6G (R6G) were detected on the fabricated gold structures, whereas no peak was detected on the alternative silicon surface. We also demonstrated the gold patterning using a femtosecond laser instead of an FIB. We believe that our method is a favorable candidate for fabricating SERS-active substrates, since the substrates can be prepared very simply and flexibly.

  1. Thermal-induced surface plasmon band shift of gold nanoparticle monolayer: morphology and refractive index sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemin; Zhang, Junhu; Wang, Huan; Hao, Yudong; Zhang, Xun; Wang, Tieqiang; Wang, Yunan; Zhao, Ran; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2010-11-19

    In this paper, thermal-induced behaviors of a gold nanoparticle monolayer on glass slides are investigated. First, through horizontal lifting, gold nanoparticle monolayers are transferred from a water/hexane interface to glass slides. Then thermal treatment is carried out in air, after which an apparent color change of the obtained samples is noticed, depending on the annealing temperature, reflecting a shift of the surface plasmon band (SPB). Depending on the trend of SPB shift, the overall thermal process is divided into three stages. In the first stage, SPB shows a redshift trend with concomitant band broadening. Further increase of the annealing temperature in the second stage results in an increase of interparticle distance. Thus an apparent decrease in absorbance takes place with SPB shift to shorter wavelengths. In the third stage, the SPB redshifts again. Bulk refractive index sensitivity (RIS) measurements are taken by immersing the obtained samples in solutions of various refractive indices and a linear dependence of RIS(λ) and RIS(ext) on refractive index is concluded. In particular, the influences of parameters such as particle sizes, location of SPB, substrate effect and morphology effect on RIS are discussed in detail. The corresponding performance of each sample as a localized surface plasmon resonance-based sensor is evaluated by a figure of merit (FOM) represented as FOM(λ) and FOM(ext). It is found that the optimum annealing temperature is 500 °C. In terms of nanoparticle sizes, samples with a 35 nm gold nanoparticle monolayer perform better than those with 15 nm. The current strategy is simple and facile to achieve fine control of the SPB, in which large-size precision instruments or complex chemosynthesis are unnecessary. Therefore, this method has not only significance for theory but also usefulness in practical applications. PMID:20972320

  2. Thermal-induced surface plasmon band shift of gold nanoparticle monolayer: morphology and refractive index sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemin; Zhang, Junhu; Wang, Huan; Hao, Yudong; Zhang, Xun; Wang, Tieqiang; Wang, Yunan; Zhao, Ran; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, thermal-induced behaviors of a gold nanoparticle monolayer on glass slides are investigated. First, through horizontal lifting, gold nanoparticle monolayers are transferred from a water/hexane interface to glass slides. Then thermal treatment is carried out in air, after which an apparent color change of the obtained samples is noticed, depending on the annealing temperature, reflecting a shift of the surface plasmon band (SPB). Depending on the trend of SPB shift, the overall thermal process is divided into three stages. In the first stage, SPB shows a redshift trend with concomitant band broadening. Further increase of the annealing temperature in the second stage results in an increase of interparticle distance. Thus an apparent decrease in absorbance takes place with SPB shift to shorter wavelengths. In the third stage, the SPB redshifts again. Bulk refractive index sensitivity (RIS) measurements are taken by immersing the obtained samples in solutions of various refractive indices and a linear dependence of RISλ and RISext on refractive index is concluded. In particular, the influences of parameters such as particle sizes, location of SPB, substrate effect and morphology effect on RIS are discussed in detail. The corresponding performance of each sample as a localized surface plasmon resonance-based sensor is evaluated by a figure of merit (FOM) represented as FOMλ and FOMext. It is found that the optimum annealing temperature is 500 °C. In terms of nanoparticle sizes, samples with a 35 nm gold nanoparticle monolayer perform better than those with 15 nm. The current strategy is simple and facile to achieve fine control of the SPB, in which large-size precision instruments or complex chemosynthesis are unnecessary. Therefore, this method has not only significance for theory but also usefulness in practical applications.

  3. Gold nanoparticles assisted characterization of amine functionalized polystyrene multiwell plate and glass slide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharanivasan, Gunasekaran; Rajamuthuramalingam, Thangavelu; Michael Immanuel Jesse, Denison; Rajendiran, Nagappan; Kathiravan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated citrate-capped gold nanoparticles assisted characterization of amine functionalized polystyrene plate and glass slide surfaces through AuNPs staining method. The effect of AuNPs concentration on the characterization of amine modified surfaces was also studied with different concentration of AuNPs (ratios 1.0-0.0). 3-Aminopropylyl triethoxy silane has been used as amine group source for the surface modification. The interactions of AuNPs on modified and unmodified surfaces were investigated using atomic force microscopy and the dispersibility, and the aggregation of AuNPs was analyzed using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Water contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to further confirmation of amine modified surfaces. The aggregation of AuNPs in modified multiwell plate leads to the color change from red to purple and they are found to be adsorped on the modified surfaces. Aggregation and adsorption of AuNPs on the modified surfaces through the electrostatic interactions and the hydrogen bonds were revealed by XPS analysis. Remarkable results were found even in the very low concentration of AuNPs (ratio 0.2). This AuNPs staining method is simple, cost-effective, less time consuming, and required very low concentration of AuNPs. These results can be read out through the naked eye without the help of sophisticated equipments.

  4. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of amino acids assisted by gold nanoparticles and Gd(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    López-Neira, Juan Pablo; Galicia-Hernández, José Mario; Reyes-Coronado, Alejandro; Pérez, Elías; Castillo-Rivera, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS) signal from the l-tyrosine (tyr) molecule adsorbed on gold nanoparticles (Au-tyr) is compared with the SERS signal assisted by the presence of gadolinium ions (Gd(3+)) coordinated with the Au-tyr system. An enhancement factor of the SERS signal in the presence of Gd(3+) ions was ∼5 times higher than that produced by l-tyrosine adsorbed on gold nanoparticles. The enhancement of the SERS signal can be attributed to a corresponding increase in the local electric field due to the presence of Gd(3+) ions in the vicinity of a gold dimer configuration. This scenario was confirmed by solving numerically Maxwell equations, showing an increase of 1 order of magnitude in the local electric scattered field when the Gd(3+) ion is located in between a gold dimer compared with naked gold nanoparticles. PMID:25860315

  5. Surface Engineering of Triboelectric Nanogenerator with an Electrodeposited Gold Nanoflower Structure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Jae; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Kim, Daewon; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A triboelectric nanogenerator composed of gold nanoflowers is demonstrated. The proposed triboelectric nanogenerator creates electricity by contact-separation-based electrification between an anodic metal and a cathodic polymer. For the improvement of output power via the enlargement of the effective surface area in the anodic metal, gold nanoflowers that produce a hierarchical morphology at a micro-to-nano scale by electrodeposition are utilized. The hierarchical morphology is controlled by the applied voltage and deposition time. Even though the triboelectric coefficient of gold is inferior to those of other metals, gold is very attractive to make a flower-like structure by electrodeposition. Moreover, gold is stable against oxidation by oxygen in air. From a reliability and practicality point of view, the aforementioned stability against oxidation is preferred. PMID:26365054

  6. Embrittlement of surface mount solder joints by hot solder-dipped, gold-plated leads

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1993-07-01

    The detachment of beam-leaded transistors from several surface mount circuit boards following modest thermal cycling was examined. Microstructural analysis of the package leads and bonding pads from the failed units indicated that gold embrittlement was responsible for a loss of solder joint mechanical integrity that caused detachment of transistors from the circuit boards. An analysis of the hot dipping process used to remove gold from the leads prior to assembly demonstrated that the gold, although dissolved from the lead, remained in the nearby solder and was subsequently retained in the coating formed on the lead upon withdrawal from the bath. This scenario allowed gold to enter the circuit board solder joints. It was hypothesized, and later confirmed by experimental trials, that increasing the number of dips prevented gold from entering the solder coatings.

  7. Modified gold surfaces by 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol/dendrimer/gold nanoparticles as a platform for the mediated biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Murat; Geyik, Caner; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Ertas, F Nil; Timur, Suna

    2013-03-01

    An electrochemical biosensor mediated by using 6-(Ferrocenyl) hexanethiol (FcSH) was fabricated by construction of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the surface of polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) modified gold electrode. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was used as a model enzyme and was immobilized onto the gold surface forming a self assembled monolayer via FcSH and cysteamine. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used for the characterization of electrochemical response towards glucose substrate. Following the optimization of medium pH, enzyme loading, AuNP and FcSH amount, the linear range for the glucose was studied and found as 1.0 to 5.0mM with the detection limit (LOD) of 0.6mM according to S/N=3. Finally, the proposed Au/AuNP/(FcSH+Cyst)/PAMAM/GOx biosensor was successfully applied for the glucose analysis in beverages, and the results were compared with those obtained by HPLC. PMID:25427467

  8. Far- and near-field properties of gold nanoshells studied by photoacoustic and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Weber, V; Feis, A; Gellini, C; Pilot, R; Salvi, P R; Signorini, R

    2015-09-01

    Gold nanoshells, with a silica core and different core and shell dimensions, have been extensively investigated. Optical far-field properties, namely extinction and absorption, have been separately determined by means of spectrophotometry and photoacoustic spectroscopy, respectively, in the 440-900 nm range. The enhancement factor for surface-enhanced Raman scattering, which is related to near-field effects, has been measured from 568 to 920 nm. The absorption contribution to extinction decreases as the overall diameter increases. Moreover, absorption and scattering display different spectral distributions, the latter being red shifted. The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering enhancement profile, measured using thiobenzoic acid as a Raman probe, is further shifted to the red. The latter result suggests that the enhancement is dominated by the presence of hot spots, which are possibly related to the surface roughness of gold nanoshell particles. PMID:25559555

  9. Surface-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbates on microemulsion synthesized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fasasi, Ayuba; Griffiths, Peter R; Pan, Horng-Bin; Wai, Chien M

    2011-07-01

    Very small (<10 nm) monodisperse gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with a monolayer of decanethiol were prepared and their surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectra were measured in the transmission mode. The AuNPs were prepared by the borohydride reduction of HAuCl(4) inside reverse micelles that were made by adding water to a hexane solution of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT). The gold nanoparticles were then stabilized by the addition of decanethiol. Subsequent addition of p-nitrothiophenol both facilitated the removal of excess AOT and showed that the gold surface was completely covered by the decanethiol. SEIRA spectra of decanethiol on gold particles prepared in AOT microemulsions were about twelve times more intense than corresponding layers on gold produced by electroless deposition and gave a significantly less noisy spectrum compared to the corresponding surface-enhanced Raman spectrum. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of the same samples showed that the most intense spectrum was obtained from gold nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 2.5 nm. This result is in contrast to previous statements that SERS spectra could only be obtained from particles larger than 10 nm. PMID:21740634

  10. Surface chemistry of gold nanorods: origin of cell membrane damage and cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liming; Jiang, Xiumei; Ji, Yinglu; Bai, Ru; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Xiaochun; Chen, Chunying

    2013-08-01

    We investigated how surface chemistry influences the interaction between gold nanorods (AuNRs) and cell membranes and the subsequent cytotoxicity arising from them in a serum-free cell culture system. Our results showed that the AuNRs coated with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) molecules can generate defects in the cell membrane and induce cell death, mainly due to the unique bilayer structure of CTAB molecules on the surface of the rods rather than their charge. Compared to CTAB-capped nanorods, positively charged polyelectrolyte-coated, i.e. poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDAC), AuNRs show improved biocompatibility towards cells. Thus, the present results indicate that the nature of surface molecules, especially their packing structures on the surface of AuNRs rather than surface charge, play a more crucial role in determining cytotoxicity. These findings about interfacial interactions could also explain the effects of internalized AuNRs on the structures or functions of organelles. This study will help understanding of the toxic nature of AuNRs and guide rational design of the surface chemistry of AuNRs for good biocompatibility in pharmaceutical therapy.

  11. A comparison of the abrasiveness of six ceramic surfaces and gold.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, R; Shillingburg, H T; Duncanson, M G

    1991-09-01

    A type III gold alloy and six different ceramic surfaces were secured in an abrasion machine opposing extracted teeth to determine their relative abrasiveness and resistance to wear. The rankings of restorative materials from least abrasive to most abrasive were: gold alloy, polished; cast ceramic, polished; porcelain, polished; cast ceramic, polished and shaded; porcelain, polished and glazed; cast ceramic, cerammed skin shaded; and cast ceramic, cerammed skin unshaded. The ranking of materials from most wear-resistant to least wear-resistant was: gold alloy, cast ceramic cerammed, cast ceramic cerammed and shaded, porcelain polished, porcelain glazed, cast ceramic polished and shaded, and cast ceramic polished. PMID:1800724

  12. Gold nanoparticles with different amino acid surfaces: serum albumin adsorption, intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huanxin; Yao, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles with aspartate, glycine, leucine, lysine, and serine surfaces were produced from the mixed solutions of HAuCl4 and respective amino acids via UV irradiation. The amino acids bind to the nanoparticle surfaces via amine groups and their carboxylic groups extend out to stabilize the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have diameters of 15-47 nm in pH 7.4 aqueous solution and have diameters of 62-73 nm after 48 h incubation in cell culture containing serum. The nanoparticles adsorb human and bovine serum albumins on their surfaces by specific interactions, characterized by the intrinsic fluorescence quenching of the albumins. The albumin adsorption effectively decreases the aggregation of the nanoparticles in cell culture and also decreases the intracellular uptake of the nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles produced from leucine and lysine, which have amphiphilic groups on their surfaces, present better biocompatibility than the other gold nanoparticles. PMID:25466455

  13. Attomolar detection of protein biomarkers using biofunctionalized gold nanorods with surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hye Rim; Wark, Alastair W; Lee, Hye Jin

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes an ultrasensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection method using biofunctionalized gold nanorods for the direct detection of protein biomarkers. Immunoglobulin E (IgE), which has separate antibody and DNA aptamer binding sites, was chosen as a model protein for which a sandwich assay platform was designed. Detection was achieved via the specific adsorption of unlabelled IgE proteins onto the surface immobilized aptamer followed by the specific adsorption of anti-IgE coated gold nanorods (Au-NRs). Using the biofunctionalized nanorods in conjunction with SPR, we were able to directly measure IgE proteins at attomolar concentrations. This is a remarkable 10(8) enhancement compared to conventional SPR measurements of the same surface sandwich assay format 'anti-IgE/IgE/surface bound IgE-aptamer' in the absence of gold nanorod signal amplification. PMID:20725693

  14. Titanium dental implants surface-immobilized with gold nanoparticles as osteoinductive agents for rapid osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Nyoung; Ko, Wan-Kyu; Lee, Hak Rae; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Donghyun; Um, Soong Ho; Lee, Jung Haeng; Woo, Yi-Hyung; Zhang, Lijie Grace; Lee, Deok-Won; Kwon, Il Keun

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are quite attractive materials for use as osteogenic agents due to their potential effects on the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation. In this study, an osseo-integrated titanium (Ti) implant surface coated with GNPs was used for promotion of bone regeneration. We prepared a silanized Ti surface by chemical treatment of (3-Mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and immobilized the GNP layer (Ti-GNP) on their surfaces via Au-S bonding. The GNP layer is uniformly immobilized on the surface and the layer covers the titanium oxide surface well, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Ti-GNP was used to investigate the effectiveness of this system both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro results showed that the Ti-GNP significantly enhances the osteogenic differentiation with increased mRNA expression of osteogenic differentiation specific genes in human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Furthermore, the in vivo results showed that Ti-GNP had a significant influence on the osseous interface formation. Through these in vitro and vivo tests, we found that Ti-GNP can be useful as osseo-integration inducing dental implants for formation of an osseous interface and maintenance of nascent bone formation. PMID:26874978

  15. Fast self-assembly kinetics of alkanethiols on gold nanoparticles: simulation and characterization by localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiaei, Sasan; Denomme, Ryan C.; Marr, Chelsea; Nieva, Patricia M.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2012-03-01

    This study demonstrates improved kinetics for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols on gold nanoparticle substrates. A computational model was developed to predict SAM growth kinetics. Based on the predictions from the model, SAMs of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and 1-octanethiol (1-OT) were formed by incubation of gold nanoparticle chips in an ethanolic 10 mM solution within 20 min. The performance of this novel rapid SAM formation protocol was compared with a conventional 24 hour incubation protocol. Binding capacity of the alkanethiol SAM was investigated for a 20 min incubation protocol using biotin-streptavidin. For this purpose, the SAM loaded gold nanoparticle chips were modified with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) to allow attachment of EZ-Link amine PEG3 biotin to the 11-MUA molecules. Binding reactions were monitored in real time using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy. The resulting LSPR absorbance peak shift was comparable to the experimental results for biotin-streptavidin reported in literature. Results of this study suggest that formation of a high quality alkanethiol SAM within 20 min on gold nanoparticles surfaces is possible and could greatly reduce the time and cost compared to conventional 24 h incubation protocols.

  16. Anisotropic shift of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles doped in nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Amit; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-10-01

    Study of the liquid crystal (LC) director around nanoparticles has been an important topic of research very recently, since it allows design and fabrication of next-generation LC devices that are impossible in the past. In our experiment, alkanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were dispersed in nematic LC. Analysis of the LC director around GNPs was performed by investigating the behavior of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) absorption peaks of the GNPs using spectrophotometry technique. It is found that the incident linearly polarized light orientated at 0°, 45°, and 90° angles with respect to the rubbing direction experiences varying interaction with the LC medium. The corresponding transmission of light reveals the anisotropic shift in wavelength of SPP peak. The anisotropic behavior of SPPs of the GNPs is in agreement with theoretical calculations. PMID:25322010

  17. Anisotropic shift of surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles doped in nematic liquid crystal

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Amit; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Study of the liquid crystal (LC) director around nanoparticles has been an important topic of research very recently, since it allows design and fabrication of next-generation LC devices that are impossible in the past. In our experiment, alkanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were dispersed in nematic LC. Analysis of the LC director around GNPs was performed by investigating the behavior of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) absorption peaks of the GNPs using spectrophotometry technique. It is found that the incident linearly polarized light orientated at 0°, 45°, and 90° angles with respect to the rubbing direction experiences varying interaction with the LC medium. The corresponding transmission of light reveals the anisotropic shift in wavelength of SPP peak. The anisotropic behavior of SPPs of the GNPs is in agreement with theoretical calculations. PMID:25322010

  18. Ammonia gas sensing behavior of graphene surface decorated with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Madhav; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.

    2012-12-01

    Ammonia gas sensing behavior of graphene synthesized by CVD on copper substrate using a methane and hydrogen gas mixture was investigated. The Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the quality of graphene films transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates. The sensitivity and the recovery time of the device were enhanced by the deposition of gold nanoparticles on the surface of graphene films. The dependence of the sensing response with the operating temperature was studied. The adsorption and desorption curves were analyzed using Langmuir kinetic theory and Freundlich isotherm for the adsorption of ammonia gas. The activation energy and the heat of adsorption were estimated to be around 38 and 41 meV, respectively for NH3 gas concentration of 58 ppm at room temperature.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from finite arrays of gold nano-patches

    SciTech Connect

    Vincenti, M. A.; Ceglia, D. de; Grande, M.; Petruzzelli, V.; D'Orazio, A.; Bianco, G. V.; Bruno, G.; Stomeo, T.; De Vittorio, M.; Scalora, M.

    2013-01-07

    We experimentally investigate the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response of a 2D-periodic array of square gold nano-patches, functionalized by means of a conjugated, rigid thiol. We measure a Raman signal enhancement up to 200 times more intense compared to other plasmon-based nanostructures functionalized with the same molecule, and show that the enhancement is not strictly correlated to the presence of plasmonic resonances. The agreement between experimental and theoretical results reveals the importance of a full-wave analysis based on the inclusion of the actual scattering cross section of the molecule. The proposed numerical approach may serve not only as a tool to predict the enhancement of Raman signal scattered from strongly resonant nanostructure but also as an effective instrument to engineer SERS platforms that target specific molecules.

  20. Dynamic nanoproteins: self-assembled peptide surfaces on monolayer protected gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garcia Martin, Sergio; Prins, Leonard J

    2016-07-19

    Here, we demonstrate the formation of dynamic peptide surfaces through the self-assembly of small peptides on the surface of monolayer protected gold nanoparticles. The complexity of the peptide surface can be simply tuned by changing the chemical nature of the added peptides and the ratio in which these are added. The dynamic nature of the surface permits adaptation to changes in the environment. PMID:27374419

  1. Slanted gold mushroom array: a switchable bi/tridirectional surface plasmon polariton splitter.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Fang, Guisheng; Cerjan, Alexander; Chi, Zhenguo; Fan, Shanhui; Jin, Chongjun

    2016-08-25

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) show great promise in providing an ultracompact platform for integrated photonic circuits. However, challenges remain in easily and efficiently coupling light into and subsequently routing SPPs. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a switchable bi/tridirectional beam splitter which can simultaneously perform both tasks. The photonic device consists of a periodic array of slanted gold 'mushrooms' composed of angled dielectric pillars with gold caps extruding from a periodic array of perforations in a gold film. The unidirectional coupling results from the interference of the in-plane guided modes scattered by a pair of dislocated gold gratings, while the output channel is determined by the polarization of the incident beam. This device, in combination with dynamic polarization modulation techniques, has the potential to serve as a router or switch in plasmonic integrated circuits. PMID:27523083

  2. Monitoring Gold Nanorod Synthesis based on their Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Amneet; Liao, Hongwei; Hafner, Jason

    2006-03-01

    The extinction spectra of structurally anisotropic gold nanoparticles exhibit surface plasmon resonances that may be tuned through the visible and near-infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum by controlling their geometry. Gold nanorods, whose longitudinal extinction peak is proportional to their aspect ratio, are synthesized by reduction of gold chloride onto gold seed nanoparticles. While growth anisotropy is known to be induced by a surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), the detailed growth mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we study the growth kinetics of nanorods by continually monitoring their extinction spectra during synthesis. The spectra are analyzed by Rayleigh-Gans theory to determine the instantaneous length and diameter of the growing nanorods. This data yields microscopic growth rates which provide insight into the mechanism of nanorod synthesis.

  3. Charge Retention by Gold Clusters on Surfaces Prepared Using Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2012-01-24

    Monodisperse gold clusters have been prepared on surfaces in different charge states through soft landing of mass-selected ions. Ligand-stabilized gold clusters were prepared in methanol solution by reduction of chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) with borane tert-butylamine complex in the presence of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane. Electrospray ionization was used to introduce the clusters into the gas-phase and mass-selection was employed to isolate a single ionic cluster species (Au11L53+, L = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) which was delivered to surfaces at well controlled kinetic energies. Using in-situ time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) it is demonstrated that the Au11L53+ cluster retains its 3+ charge state when soft landed onto the surface of a 1H,1H,2H,2H-

  4. High surface area electrodes by template-free self-assembled hierarchical porous gold architecture.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Golub, Tatiana; Becker, James; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-06-15

    The electrode active surface area is a crucial determinant in many electrochemical applications and devices. Porous metal substrates have been employed in electrode design, however construction of such materials generally involves multistep processes, generating in many instances electrodes exhibiting incomplete access to internal pore surfaces. Here we describe fabrication of electrodes comprising hierarchical, nano-to-microscale porous gold matrix, synthesized through spontaneous crystallization of gold thiocyanate in water. Cyclic voltammetry analysis revealed that the specific surface area of the conductive nanoporous Au microwires was very high and depended only upon the amount of gold used, not electrode areas or geometries. Application of the electrode in a pseudo-capacitor device is presented. PMID:27016632

  5. Grain boundary character distribution and texture evolution during surface energy-driven grain growth in nanocrystalline gold thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Takagi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tadao

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of grain boundary microstructure during annealing in sputtered gold thin films was investigated on the basis of FEG-SEM/EBSD/OIM analyses of nanocrystalline microstructure, in order to find a clue to the precise control of grain boundary microstructure for development of high performance polycrystalline thin films. Remarkably high fractions of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries with specific Σ values such as Σ1, Σ3, Σ7, Σ13, Σ19 and Σ21 occurred in the gold thin film specimens on Pyrex glass substrate by annealing in air. The occurrence of higher fraction of these specific low-Σ boundaries is probably attributed to the evolution of a very sharp {111}-textures of different degrees which results from the preferential growth of {111}-oriented grains due to surface energy-driven grain growth. The fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries increased with increasing area fraction of {111}-texture. The grain boundary character distribution in the gold thin film specimens was strongly affected by the annealing atmosphere and substrate materials. The sharpness of {111}-texture in the specimen annealed in low-vacuum was weaker than that in the specimen annealed in air, and an extraordinarily high fraction of Σ3 CSL boundaries occurred. The grain growth of gold thin film specimens on SiO2 glass substrate was much slower than that of specimens on Pyrex glass substrate. The fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries observed for the gold thin film specimens on SiO2 glass substrate was lower than that in the specimens on Pyrex glass substrate. The inverse cubic root Σ dependence of low-Σ CSL boundaries in the gold thin film specimens was discussed in connection with the process of the evolution of grain boundary microstructure.

  6. Atom and Amine Adsorption on Flat and Stepped Gold Surfaces & Structure, Stability and Spin Ordering in Manganese Sulfide Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewoczko, April D.

    In part I, we investigate gold catalysis in the chemistry of organonitrogen compounds. We examine the adsorption of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur atoms on the gold (111), (100) and (211) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT). Sulfur atoms bind most strongly, followed by oxygen and nitrogen atoms with stronger adsorption for greater coordination to the surface. We see a trend of stronger adsorption to undercoordinated gold, but find it is non-universal with the adsorption strength trend: (111) > (211) > (100). We consider the diffusion of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur adatoms and find facile long-range diffusion of oxygen atoms on the (100) surface. Lastly, we compare the adsorption of methylamine on gold to that of a selection of alkylamines, methanol and methanethiol. In each case, the ontop site is preferred with stronger adsorption at low coordinated gold. At oxygen atom coverages of 0.125 -- 0.25 ML on Au (111), we find cooperative adsorption of methylamine and oxygen atoms. Energetic costs for adsorbate tilt from the surface normal and rotation about the gold-nitrogen bond are calculated. While methylamine rotation is barrierless on the (111) and (211) surfaces, it has a low energetic barrier for the 0.125 ML and 0.25 ML O atom pre-covered Au (111) surfaces. In part II, we interpret the experimental mass spectrum of small gas phase manganese sulfide clusters using DFT and elucidate the role of ionicity and spin ordering in sizes with special stability, i.e. magic clusters. We first consider nine low lying minima (MnS)6 structures and reveal antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin ordering with a ˜0.1 eV/pair AFM energy benefit and a ˜0.1 A shrinkage of average Mn-Mn distances over clusters with ferromagnetic (FM) spin ordering. We calculate energetic barriers for interconversion between the two lowest lying (MnS)6 isomers and predict an elevated cluster melting temperature due to increased configurational entropy in a pre-melted state. Second, we demonstrate the

  7. Excitation energy migration in yellow fluorescent protein (citrine) layers adsorbed on modified gold surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Hanis Mohd; Rzeźnicka, Izabela I.; Hoshi, Hirotaka; Kajimoto, Shinji; Horimoto, Noriko Nishizawa; Sogawa, Kazuhiro; Fukumura, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    The nature of functional proteins adsorbed on solid surfaces is interesting from the perspective of developing of bioelectronics and biomaterials. Here we present evidence that citrine (one of yellow fluorescent protein variants) adsorbed on modified gold surfaces would not undergo denaturation and energy transfer among the adsorbed citrine molecules would occur. Gold substrates were chemically modified with 3-mercaptopropionic acid and tert-butyl mercaptan for the preparation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. A pure solution of citrine was dropped and dried on the modified gold substrates and their surface morphology was studied with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The obtained STM images showed multilayers of citrine adsorbed on the modified surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces, citrine was adsorbed more randomly, formed various non-uniform aggregates, while on hydrophilic surfaces, citrine appeared more aligned and isolated uniform protein clusters were observed. Fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay of these dried citrine layers were also measured using the time correlated single photon counting method. Fluorescence anisotropy of citrine on the hydrophobic surface decayed faster than citrine on the hydrophilic surface. From these results we concluded that fluorescence energy migration occurred faster among citrine molecules which were randomly adsorbed on the hydrophobic surface to compare with the hydrophilic surface.

  8. Efficient coupling and transport of a surface plasmon at 780 nm in a gold nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-08-01

    We study plasmonic nanostructures in single-crystal gold with scanning electron and femtosecond photoemission electron microscopies. We design an integrated laser coupling and nanowire waveguide structure by focused ion beam lithography in single-crystal gold flakes. The photoemission results show that the laser field is efficiently coupled into a propagating surface plasmon by a simple hole structure and propagates efficiently in an adjacent nano-bar waveguide. A strong local field is created by the propagating surface plasmon at the nano-bar tip. A similar structure, with a decreased waveguide width and thickness, displayed significantly more intense photoemission indicating enhanced local electric field at the sharper tip.

  9. Efficient Coupling and Transport of a Surface Plasmon at 780 nm in a Gold Nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-08-28

    We studied plasmonic nanostructures in single-crystal gold with scanning electron and femtosecond photoemission electron microscopies. We designed an integrated laser coupling and nanowire waveguide structure by focused ion beam lithography in single-crystal gold flakes. The photoemission results show that the laser field is efficiently coupled into a propagating surface plasmon by a simple hole structure and propagates efficiently in an adjacent nano-bar waveguide. A strong local field is created by the propagating surface plasmon at the nano-bar tip. A similar structure, with a decreased waveguide width and thickness, displayed significantly more intense photoemission indicating enhanced local electric field at the sharper tip.

  10. Anchoring gold nanoparticles onto a mica surface by oxygen plasma ashing for sequential nanocomponent assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Akihiko; Ojima, Kaoru; Mikamo, Eriko; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kawai, Tomoji

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble gold nanoparticles were immobilized in both polar (water) and nonpolar (chloroform) liquids on hydrophilic mica surface by oxygen plasma ashing. It is then demonstrated that a DNA with a thiol at an extremity is attached to the immobilized nanoparticles due to the gold-thiol coupling and stretched in the flow direction of the following water rinse. This technique allows a sequential integration of nanoparticles and molecules for various solutions, since the nanoparticles remain on a solid surface rather than dissolve into the solution.

  11. Anchoring gold nanoparticles onto a mica surface by oxygen plasma ashing for sequential nanocomponent assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Akihiko; Ojima, Kaoru; Mikamo, Eriko; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kawai, Tomoji

    2007-01-22

    Water-soluble gold nanoparticles were immobilized in both polar (water) and nonpolar (chloroform) liquids on hydrophilic mica surface by oxygen plasma ashing. It is then demonstrated that a DNA with a thiol at an extremity is attached to the immobilized nanoparticles due to the gold-thiol coupling and stretched in the flow direction of the following water rinse. This technique allows a sequential integration of nanoparticles and molecules for various solutions, since the nanoparticles remain on a solid surface rather than dissolve into the solution.

  12. Understanding support mediated activity by investigating highly active, thermally stable, silica supported gold catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Lupini, Andrew R; Rashkeev, Sergey; Pennycook, Stephen J; Schwartz, Viviane; Mullins, David R; Dudney, Nancy J

    2009-01-01

    2.5 nm gold nanoparticles were grown on a fumed silica support using the physical vapor deposition technique magnetron sputtering. Combining electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and catalytic studies revealed that the silica supported gold catalysts are thermally stable when annealed in an oxygen containing environment up to at least 500oC. This surprising stability is attributed to the absence of residual halide impurities and a strong bond between gold and defects at the silica surface (2.7 - 3.8 eV), as estimated from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The Au/SiO2 catalysts are slightly less active for CO oxidation than the prototypical Au/TiO2 catalysts, however they can be regenerated far more easily, fully recovering the activity of a freshly prepared catalyst after deactivation.

  13. Preparation of porous polymer monoliths featuring enhanced surface coverage with gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yongqin; Alejandro, Fernando Maya; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths with enhanced coverage of pore surface with gold nanoparticles has been developed. First, a generic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was reacted with cystamine followed by the cleavage of its disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine which liberated the desired thiol groups. Dispersions of gold nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 40 nm were then pumped through the functionalized monoliths. The materials were then analyzed using both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. We found that the quantity of attached gold was dependent on the size of nanoparticles, with the maximum attachment of more than 60 wt% being achieved with 40 nm nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of all the monoliths revealed the formation of a non-aggregated, homogenous monolayer of nanoparticles. The surface of the bound gold was functionalized with 1-octanethiol and 1-octadecanethiol, and these monolithic columns were used successfully for the separations of proteins in reversed phase mode. The best separations were obtained using monoliths modified with 15, 20, and 30 nm nanoparticles since these sizes produced the most dense coverage of pore surface with gold. PMID:22542442

  14. Early diagnosis of oral cancer based on the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kah, James Chen Yong; Kho, Kiang Wei; Lee, Caroline Guat Leng; James, Colin; Sheppard, Richard; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee; Olivo, Malini Carolene

    2007-01-01

    The high mortality rate in cancer such as oral squamous cell carcinoma is commonly attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease at an early treatable stage. In this study, we exploited the ability of gold nanoparticles to undergo coupled surface plasmon resonance and set up strong electric fields when closely-spaced to improve the molecular contrast signal in reflectance-based imaging and also to enhance the Raman signal of bioanalytes in cancer. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and conjugated to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for imaging. A self-assembled surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active gold nanoparticle monolayer film was also developed as a biosensing surface using a simple drop-dry approach. We have shown that gold nanoparticles could elicit an optical contrast to discriminate between cancerous and normal cells and their conjugation with antibodies allowed them to map the expression of relevant biomarkers for molecular imaging under confocal reflectance microscopy. We have also shown that the SERS spectra of saliva from the closely-packed gold nanoparticles films was differentiable between those acquired from normal individuals and oral cancer patients, thus showing promise of a simple SERS-based saliva assay for early diagnosis of oral cancer. PMID:18203445

  15. Super-Period Gold Nanodisc Grating-Enabled Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectrometer Sensor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xueli; Guo, Hong; Bhatt, Ketan H; Zhao, Song Q; Wang, Yi; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a surface plasmon resonance spectrometer sensor by using an e-beam-patterned super-period gold nanodisc grating on a glass substrate. The super-period gold nanodisc grating has a small subwavelength period and a large diffraction grating period. The small subwavelength period enhances localized surface plasmon resonance, and the large diffraction grating period diffracts surface plasmon resonance radiation into different directions corresponding to different wavelengths. Surface plasmon resonance spectra are measured in the first order diffraction spatial profiles captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) in addition to the traditional way of measurement using an external optical spectrometer in the zeroth order transmission. A surface plasmon resonance sensor for the bovine serum albumin protein nanolayer bonding is demonstrated by measuring the surface plasmon resonance shift in the first order diffraction spatial intensity profiles captured by the CCD. PMID:26449812

  16. Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold-Raman-probe-silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Cushing, Scott K.; Zhang, Jianming; Lankford, Jessica; Aguilar, Zoraida P.; Ma, Dongling; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-03-01

    To meet the requirement of Raman probes (labels) for biocompatible applications, a synthetic approach has been developed to sandwich the Raman-probe (malachite green isothiocyanate, MGITC) molecules between the gold core and the silica shell in gold-SiO2 composite nanoparticles. The gold-MGITC-SiO2 sandwiched structure not only prevents the Raman probe from leaking out but also improves the solubility of the nanoparticles in organic solvents and in aqueous solutions even with high ionic strength. To amplify the Raman signal, three types of core, gold nanospheres, nanorods and nanostars, have been chosen as the substrates of the Raman probe. The effect of the core shape on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been investigated. The colloidal nanostars showed the highest SERS enhancement factor while the nanospheres possessed the lowest SERS activity under excitation with 532 and 785 nm lasers. Three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation showed significant differences in the local electromagnetic field distributions surrounding the nanospheres, nanorods, and nanostars, which were induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The electromagnetic field was enhanced remarkably around the two ends of the nanorods and around the sharp tips of the nanostars. This local electromagnetic enhancement made the dominant contribution to the SERS enhancement. Both the experiments and the simulation revealed the order nanostars > nanorods > nanospheres in terms of the enhancement factor. Finally, the biological application of the nanostar-MGITC-SiO2 nanoparticles has been demonstrated in the monitoring of DNA hybridization. In short, the gold-MGITC-SiO2 sandwiched nanoparticles can be used as a Raman probe that features high sensitivity, good water solubility and stability, low-background fluorescence, and the absence of photobleaching for future biological applications.

  17. Birth of the localized surface plasmon resonance in monolayer-protected gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Malola, Sami; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Enkovaara, Jussi; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2013-11-26

    Gold nanoclusters protected by a thiolate monolayer (MPC) are widely studied for their potential applications in site-specific bioconjugate labeling, sensing, drug delivery, and molecular electronics. Several MPCs with 1-2 nm metal cores are currently known to have a well-defined molecular structure, and they serve as an important link between molecularly dispersed gold and colloidal gold to understand the size-dependent electronic and optical properties. Here, we show by using an ab initio method together with atomistic models for experimentally observed thiolate-stabilized gold clusters how collective electronic excitations change when the gold core of the MPC grows from 1.5 to 2.0 nm. A strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) develops at 540 nm (2.3 eV) in a cluster with a 2.0 nm metal core. The protecting molecular layer enhances the LSPR, while in a smaller cluster with 1.5 nm gold core, the plasmon-like resonance at 540 nm is confined in the metal core by the molecular layer. Our results demonstrate a threshold size for the emergence of LSPR in these systems and help to develop understanding of the effect of the molecular overlayer on plasmonic properties of MPCs enabling engineering of their properties for plasmonic applications. PMID:24107127

  18. Selective electrowinning of mercury from gold cyanide solutions. Report of investigations/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sheya, S.A.N.; Maysilles, J.H.; Sandberg, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken by the Bureau of Mines to develop techniques for removing mercury from cyanide mill solutions by selective electrowinning to reduce the potential hazards. Sixty-five percent of the mercury was selectively electrowon from synthetic-carbon strip solution at applied potentials of 1.00 to 1.50 V when using a mercury-coated platinum or copper-plate cathode. Increasing the active surface area by using mercury-coated copper wool resulted in up to 96 pct of the mercury being electrowon from mill carbon strip solutions that contained 1.9 to 20 ppm Hg, 20 to 345 ppm Au, and 0.35 to 39.5 ppm Ag. About 98 pct of the silver was electrowon with the mercury onto the mercury cathode. Gold extraction ranged between 0 and 20 pct. Results of the investigation showed that choice of cathode material was critical to the success of the process. Selectivity was not achieved using uncoated steel wool cathodes.

  19. Gold nanomolecules: Developing synthetic protocols, characterization and investigating the ligand effects on structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy

    The term "Nano" in chemistry refers to particles/molecules in the size range 1 to 100 nm. Gold nanoparticles were used in ancient times in making decorative glass as they produce vibrant, size dependent, colors upon interaction with light. Gold is a preferred choice of metal for the synthesis of nanoparticles mainly due to its inertness to atmospheric conditions and most chemicals. Gold thiolate nanomolecules, which is the primary focus of this dissertation research, are chemical molecules with a fixed number of gold atoms and organo-thiolate ligands. They are of the form Aux(SR)y and possess molecule-like properties as a result of distinctive quantum confinement effects occurring at the nanoscale size. The optical and electronic properties of these molecules change as a function of "x" and "y" in the formulation Aux(SR) y. The stability of these nanomolecules can be attributed due in part to their symmetrical geometry as evidenced by the X-ray crystallography. Recent research in the field has focused on exploiting the size-dependent properties of gold nanomolecules in applications like nano-electronics, biological sensing and catalysis. But much of the hindrance to these advances come from the lack of established protocols to synthesize monodisperse nanomolecules in high yields. Brust-schiffrin protocol for the synthesis of nanomolecules yields stable products in a two-phase system which can be dried and re-dispersed without affecting the stability. But the protocol has a major drawback of producing a polydisperse mixture of different sizes of nanomolecules. A major portion of my dissertation focuses on addressing this issue of polydispersity of products. In this regard, I have investigated the one-phase synthesis protocol for synthesis of gold-thiolate nanomolecules wherein the gold salt and the capping ligands are essentially dissolved in a single solvent system. This protocol is peculiar in that it yields various sizes which are otherwise not observed.

  20. Surface plasmon enhanced heating of gold nanoparticles: A plasmonic optical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Philip G.

    Recent work by Lereu et al. (Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 86, 154101, 2005) demonstrates a method of all-optical transfer of modulation signals using surface plasmon excitation on thin gold films. Localized heating of the film, resulting from surface plasmon decay, alter the optical properties of the device. A similar optical modulation method is now presented using gold nanoparticles. Computational models are used to generate realistic values of the thermo-optical response of gold and the thermal dynamics of a hot nanoparticle-substrate device. Differential pump-probe reflectivity measurements were perferomed and demonstrate modulation frequencies of upto 10kHz, an improvement of two orders of magnitude over the thin-film device. Sample fabrication techniques using physical vapor deposition and interference lithography, and heat transport on the nanoscale are also discussed.

  1. Optimization of second harmonic generation of gold nanospheres and nanorods in aqueous solution: the dominant role of surface area.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hoang Minh; Nguyen, Phuong Phong; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2016-01-28

    Size and shape of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have a strong influence on their second order nonlinear optical properties. In this work, we propose a systematic investigation of surface and shape effects in the case of small gold nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions on AuNPs with different sizes and shapes have been synthesized, i.e. nanospheres (diameters 3.0; 11.6; 15.8; 17.4; 20.0 and 43 nm) and nanorods (aspect ratios 1.47; 1.63 and 2.30). The first hyperpolarizability β values of these AuNPs have been measured by harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm. For nanospheres and nanorods, we found that their β values are governed by a purely local, dipolar contribution, as confirmed by their surface area dependence. As an important consequence of these surface effects, we have revisited the previously reported aspect ratio dependence of β values for gold nanorods, and evidenced the predominant influence of nanoparticle area over aspect ratio considerations. PMID:26751609

  2. Guided cell patterning on gold-silicon dioxide substrates by surface molecular engineering.

    PubMed

    Veiseh, Mandana; Wickes, Bronwyn T; Castner, David G; Zhang, Miqin

    2004-07-01

    We report an effective approach to patterning cells on gold-silicon dioxide substrates with high precision, selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. This technique is based on photolithography and surface molecular engineering and requires no cell positioning or delivery devices, thus significantly reducing the potential damage to cells. The cell patterning was achieved by activating the gold regions of the substrate with functionalized thiols that covalently bind proteins onto the gold regions to guide subsequent cell adhesion while passivating the silicon dioxide background with polyethylene glycol to resist cell adhesion. Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy verified the successful immobilization of proteins on gold surfaces. Protein patterns were visualized by tagging proteins with Rhodamine fluorescent probes. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to characterize the chemistry of both the cell-adhesive and cell-resistant regions of surfaces after each key chemical reaction occurring during the molecular surface engineering. The ability of the engineered surfaces to guide cell adhesion was illustrated by differential interference contrast (DIC) reflectance microscopy. The cell patterning technique introduced in this study is compatible with micro- and photo-electronics, and may have many medical, environmental, and defense applications. PMID:14980426

  3. In situ surface characterization and oxygen reduction reaction on shape-controlled gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J; Solla-Gullón, J; Herrero, E; Feliu, J M; Aldaz, A

    2009-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles of different shapes/surface structures were synthesized and electrochemically characterized. An in-situ surface characterization of the Au nanoparticles, which was able to obtain qualitative information about the type and relative sizes of the different facets present in the surface of the Au nanoparticles, was carried out by using Pb Under Potential Deposition (UPD) in alkaline solutions as a surface sensitive tool. The results obtained show that the final atomic arrangement on the surface can be different from that expected from the bulk structure of the well-defined shape Au nanoparticles. In this way, the development of precise in-situ methods to measure the distribution of the different sites on the nanoparticle surface, as lead UPD on gold surfaces, is highlighted. Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) was performed on the different Au nanoparticles. In agreement with the particular sensitivity of the oxygen reduction to the presence of Au(100) surface domains, cubic Au nanoparticles show much better electrocatalytic activity for ORR than small spherical particles and long nanorods, in agreement with the presence of a great fraction of (100) terrace sites on the surface of cubic gold nanoparticles. PMID:19437963

  4. Characterization of cellular response to thiol-modified gold surfaces implanted in mouse peritoneal cavity.

    PubMed

    Nygren, H; Kanagaraja, S; Braide, M; Eriksson, C; Lundström, I

    1999-05-01

    The early inflammatory reaction in vivo to three well defined surfaces-gold, gold coated with glutathione (GSH), and 3-mercapto-1, 2-propanediol (MG)-was assessed as manifested by the adherence and activation of inflammatory cells during implantation intraperitoneally in mice. Evaluation of cell adhesion and activation was done by immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies directed against cell differentiation antigens CD11b/CD18, CD74, and CD25 or by measurement by chemoluminescence of reactive oxygen radical species produced by adhering cells. Cell recruitment and activation was slow on the GSH-coated gold surfaces. These surfaces also had the highest percentage of adhering cells with an intact cell membrane. The MG-coated surfaces, on the other hand, rapidly recruited and activated cells and also caused cell membrane leakage to propidium iodide, suggesting cell membrane damage or cell death. The respiratory burst of adhering cells was stimulated by phorbol-myristate acetate on the GSH-coated surface but not on the MG-coated surface and by opsonized zymosan on the Mg-coated surface but only to a small degree on the GSH-coated surface. The respiratory burst following zymosan activation of cells adhering to the MG-coated surface was inhibited by treatment with 2. 3-diphosphoglycerate, a phospholipase D inhibitor. The presented data suggest that peritoneal leukocytes adhering to foreign materials may raise a respiratory burst response via a phospholipase D-dependent and protein kinase C-independent pathway. PMID:10397965

  5. A Microfluidic Device for the Investigation of Rapid Gold Nanoparticle Formation in Continuous Turbulent Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, G.; Tofighi, G.; Rinke, G.; Baier, S.; Ewinger, A.; Urban, A.; Wenka, A.; Heideker, S.; Jahn, A.; Dittmeyer, R.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.

    2016-05-01

    A new setup with an integrated microfluidic chip with small dead time, high time resolution and compatibility with in situ X-ray absorption (XAS) measurements is presented. It can also be combined with a free liquid jet. By using the microfluidic chip the short reaction times from 2 to 20 milliseconds can be observed, beyond that an external cyclone mixer for extended observation times was applied. The reduction of gold ions with tetrakis(hydroxy-methyl)phosphonium (THPC) has been investigated in the microfluidic setup to monitor this reaction yielding small gold nanoparticles, requiring preferentially a free liquid jet.

  6. Investigation of Venus Surface Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    Strong localized radar echoes have been observed at decimeter wavelengths from the highlands of Venus since the earliest radar maps were obtained over 30 years ago. These echoes are some five to ten times stronger than those from the presumably basaltic rocks seen at lower altitudes elsewhere on Venus. Observations of thermal emission from the visible disk of Venus at wavelengths corresponding to those used in the radar mapping confirm that the regions of high reflectivity also exhibit low emissivity, as expected from considerations of detailed thermodynamic balance. Two possibilities have been put forward to explain this unexpected aspect of the Venus highlands: 1) surface materials of high effective dielectric constant, probably associated with finite electrical conductivity, and 2) volume scattering associated with multiple scattering from a layer of very-low-loss material containing voids and extending down a few hundred wavelengths beneath the surface. Analogs to these two mechanisms are found elsewhere in the solar system, and each is capable of explaining the basic observations. as of the early 1990's. In 1993, however, it became possible to carry out a bistatic observation of the anomalous highland regions using the Magellan spacecraft, then in orbit about Venus. In this experiment the on-board telemetry transmitter was aimed at the planet's surface with its linear S-band polarization vector oriented at 45 deg to the spacecraft-Venus-Earth scattering plane. The pointing of the transmitting antenna was adjusted so that the spacecraft-to-illuminated-surface incidence angle equalled the Earth-to-Venus-surface incidence angle. In this way, the experiment emphasized the specular scattering component. A full Stokes-Vector analysis of the reflected signal as received on Earth was carried out as the illuminated region scanned across the highland regions of Venus. From the observed position angle of the echo, it was possible to calculate the Fresnel reflectivity of

  7. Single-step, high yield synthesis of gold nanoworms and their surface enhanced Raman scattering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Waqqar; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M.

    Rod-shaped gold nanoparticles have attracted enormous attention owing to their interesting optical properties arising from the surface plasmon resonances. Slight deviation from the rod morphology can markedly change the optical properties. For-example, worm-shaped gold nanoparticles can have more than two plasmon peaks. Furthermore, they show much higher local field enhancements as compared to their rod-shaped counterparts. We have devised a simple seedless, high-yield protocol for the synthesis of gold nanoworms (NWs). NWs were grown simply by reducing HAuCl4 with ascorbic acid in a high pH reaction medium, and in the presence of growth directional agents, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and AgNO3. In contrast to the seed-mediated growth of gold nanorods where a seed grows into a rod, NWs grow by oriental attachment of nanoparticles. By varying different reaction parameters we were able to control the length of NWs from a few nanometers to micrometers. Furthermore, the aspect ratio can also be tuned over a wide range. Gold NWs show excellent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties. Ultra-low concentrations of various target molecules were detected using NWs based SERS substrates.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the nonlinear optical properties of gold(III) dithiolene complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guezguez, I.; Karakas, A.; Iliopoulos, K.; Derkowska-Zielinska, B.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Ranganathan, A.; Batail, P.; Migalska-Zalas, A.; Sahraoui, B.; Karakaya, M.

    2013-11-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) experiments have been performed to determine the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities (χ(3)) of gold(III) maleimide dithiolate tetraphenylphosphonium, (PPh4)[Au(midt)2], (Au-P) and gold(III) maleimide dithiolate melamine melaminium hybrid solvate, (C3N6H6)(CNH7+)[Au(midt)2]-·2DMF·2H2O, (Au-Mel). Ab-initio quantum mechanical calculations (time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method) of Au-P and Au-Mel have been carried out to compute the electric dipole moment (μ), the dispersion-free and frequency-dependent dipole polarizability (α) and the second hyperpolarizability (γ) values. These theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results by the DFWM technique. All the investigations show clearly the effect played by the counter ion on the resulting NLO properties of the two gold complexes.

  9. Influence of surface charge on the rate, extent, and structure of adsorbed Bovine Serum Albumin to gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Beykal, Burcu; Herzberg, Moshe; Oren, Yoram; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the rate, extent, and structure of amphoteric proteins with charged solid surfaces over a range of applied potentials and surface charges. We use Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (E-QCM-D) to investigate the adsorption of amphoteric Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) to a gold electrode while systematically varying the surface charge on the adsorbate and adsorbent by manipulating pH and applied potential, respectively. We also perform cyclic voltammetry-E-QCM-D on an adsorbed layer of BSA to elucidate conformational changes in response to varied applied potentials. We confirm previous results demonstrating that increasing magnitude of applied potential on the gold electrode is positively correlated with increasing mass adsorption when the protein and the surface are oppositely charged. On the other hand, we find that the rate of BSA adsorption is not governed by simple electrostatics, but instead depends on solution pH, an observation not well documented in the literature. Cyclic voltammetry with simultaneous E-QCM-D measurements suggest that BSA protein undergoes a conformational change as the surface potential varies. PMID:26348658

  10. Watching single gold nanorods grow.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhongqing; Qi, Hua; Li, Min; Tang, Bochong; Zhang, Zhengzheng; Han, Ruiling; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Yuliang

    2012-05-01

    The consecutive evolution process of single gold nanorods is monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The single-crystal gold nanorods investigated are grown directly on surfaces to which gold seed particles are covalently linked. The growth kinetics for single nanorods is derived from the 3D information recorded by AFM. A better understanding of the seed-mediated growth mechanism may ultimately lead to the direct growth of aligned nanorods on surfaces. PMID:22378704

  11. Switching of localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles on a GeSbTe film mediated by nanoscale phase change and modification of surface morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Hira, T.; Homma, T.; Uchiyama, T.; Kuwamura, K.; Saiki, T.

    2013-12-09

    As a platform for active nanophotonics, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) switching via interaction with a chalcogenide phase change material (GeSbTe) was investigated. We performed single-particle spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles placed on a GeSbTe thin film. By irradiation with a femtosecond pulsed laser for amorphization and a continuous wave laser for crystallization, significant switching behavior of the LSPR band due to the interaction of GeSbTe was observed. The switching mechanism was explained in terms of both a change in the refractive index and a modification of surface morphology accompanying volume expansion and reduction of GeSbTe.

  12. Effect of Pore Size and Film Thickness on Gold-Coated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kassu, Aschalew; Farley, Carlton; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Wonkyu; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensor is demonstrated by using inexpensive gold-coated nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates. To optimize the performance of the substrates for sensing by the Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, the size of the nanopores is varied from 18 nm to 150 nm and the gold film thickness is varied from 30 nm to 120 nm. The sensitivity of gold-coated nanoporous surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor is characterized by detecting low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G laser dye molecules. The morphology of the SERS substrates is characterized by atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of the nanoporous SERS substrates including transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance are also investigated. Relative signal enhancement is plotted for a range of substrate parameters and a detection limit of 10−6 M is established. PMID:26633402

  13. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    This paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of a long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) in gold strip waveguides. The plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, tantalum pentoxide adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length, and the chromatic dispersion does not affect the propagation of the plasmonic mode. We find that the third-order susceptibility of the gold layer has a dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the LRSPP mode. The real part of the effective third-order susceptibility leads to the observed spectral broadening through the self-phase modulation effect, and its imaginary part determines the nonlinear absorption parameter and leads to the observed nonlinear power transmission. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are obtained. They indicate an effective enhancement of the third-order susceptibility for the gold layers, comparing to the bulk gold values. This enhancement is explained in terms of the change of the electrons motion.

  14. Tuning the Surface Composition, Spatial Arrangement, and Thermal Release Behavior of DNA-Gold Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Julian

    Combining multiple functions and controlling their relative organization on the surface, as well as controlling the release of payloads will be essential properties of nanomaterials for future medical applications. In this thesis we studied these properties using as a model DNA-gold nanoparticles, one of the most promising nanomaterials for medical purposes. First, we studied strategies to control the density and the ratio of combinations of labeled DNA on gold nanoparticles. Using two approaches, thiol self-assembly and DNA-directed assembly (hybridization) we found that thiol self-assembly leads to a higher density of labeled DNA per particle, but poor ratio control, while DNA-directed assembly is better at controlling the proportions of labeled DNA on the particle but the number of strands is lower than the thiol self-assembly approach. Second, to control the relative position of the labels on the particle we used DNA-doublers and Y-shaped DNA complexes to tune the distance between tags. Off particle experiments indicated that the spacing between labels can be controlled in the Angstrom-nanometer scale. On particle experiments showed the apparent formation of these constructs; however more experiments are needed to attain quantitative results. The aim of the last investigation was to achieve thermal stepwise release of DNA from DNA-gold nanoparticles. To do so, it is necessary to obtain sharp thermal dissociation, or melting, transitions as well as control over the melting temperature. Taking advantage of the cooperative properties of DNA, we found that sharpened melting can be achieved using branched DNA-doublers hybridized with complementary DNA bound to the nanoparticle. Tuning the melting temperature can be achieved by modifying the branches of the hybridized doublers with abasic groups. Using these two findings, we sequentially released two DNA-doublers from the same nanoparticle, in a very narrow temperature window, and with minimal overlapping. Current

  15. Experimental investigations of creep in gold RF-MEMS microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somà, Aurelio; De Pasquale, Giorgio; Saleem, Muhammad Mubasher

    2015-05-01

    Lifetime prediction and reliability evaluation of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are influenced by permanent deformations caused by plastic strain induced by creep. Creep in microstructures becomes critical in those applications where permanent loads persist for long times and thermal heating induces temperature increasing respect to the ambient. Main goal of this paper is to investigate the creep mechanism in RF-MEMS microstructures by means of experiments. This is done firstly through the detection of permanent deformation of specimens and, then, by measuring the variation of electro-mechanical parameters (resonance frequency, pull-in voltage) that provide indirect evaluation of mechanical stiffness alteration from creep. To prevent the errors caused be cumulative heating of samples and dimensional tolerances, three specimens with the same nominal geometry have been tested per each combination of actuation voltage and temperature. Results demonstrated the presence of plastic deformation due to creep, combined with a component of reversible strain linked to the viscoelastic behavior of the material.

  16. Deep eutectic solvents for the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles: a SAXS, UV-Vis, and TEM investigation.

    PubMed

    Raghuwanshi, Vikram Singh; Ochmann, Miguel; Hoell, Armin; Polzer, Frank; Rademann, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we report the formation and growth mechanisms of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in eco-friendly deep eutectic solvents (DES; choline chloride and urea). AuNPs are synthesized on the DES surface via a low-energy sputter deposition method. Detailed small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV-Vis, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) investigations show the formation of AuNPs of 5 nm diameter. Data analysis reveals that for a prolonged gold-sputtering time there is no change in the size of the particles. Only the concentration of AuNPs increases linearly in time. More surprisingly, the self-assembly of AuNPs into a first and second shell ordered system is observed directly by in situ SAXS for prolonged gold-sputtering times. The self-assembly mechanism is explained by the templating nature of DES combined with the equilibrium between specific physical interaction forces between the AuNPs. A disulfide-based stabilizer, bis((2-mercaptoethyl)trimethylammonium) disulfide dichloride, was applied to suppress the self-assembly. Moreover, the stabilizer even reverses the self-assembled or agglomerated AuNPs back to stable 5 nm individual particles as directly evidenced by UV-Vis. The template behavior of DES is compared to that of nontemplating solvent castor oil. Our results will also pave the way to understand and control the self-assembly of metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles. PMID:24814886

  17. Single-particle Raman measurements of gold nanoparticles used in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sandwich immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Young; Lipert, Robert J.; Porter, Marc D.

    2004-12-01

    The effect of particle size on the intensity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using labeled gold nanoparticles has been investigated. Two sets of experiments were preformed, both of which employed 632.8-nm laser excitation. The first entailed a sandwich immunoassay in which an antibody coupled to a smooth gold substrate selectively captured free-prostate specific antigen (f-PSA) from buffered aqueous solutions. The presence of captured f-PSA was then detected by the response of Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 30, 40, 50, 60, or 80 nm. The resulting SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were determined by atomic force microscopy, by calculating the average response per particle after accounting for differences in particle surface area. This analysis showed that the magnitude of the SERS response increased with increasing particle size. The second set of experiments examined the response of individual nanoparticles. These experiments differed in that the labeled nanoparticles were coupled to the smooth gold substrate by an amine-terminated thiolate, yielding a much smaller average separation between the particles and substrate. The results revealed that particles with a diameter of ~70 nm exhibited the largest enhancement. The origin of the difference in the two sets of findings, which is attributed to the distance dependence of the plasmon coupling between the nanoparticles and underlying substrate, is briefly discussed.

  18. Self-Catalyzed Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Metal-Organic Chains on Gold Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Min; Sun, Hao; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-08-26

    Efficient capture of CO2 by chemical means requires a microscopic understanding of the interactions of the molecule-substrate bonding and adsorption-induced collective phenomena. By molecule-resolved imaging with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we investigate self-catalyzed CO2 adsorption on one-dimensional (1D) substrates composed of self-assembled metal-organic chains (MOCs) supported on gold surfaces. CO2 adsorption turns on attractive interchain interactions, which induce pronounced surface structural changes; the initially uniformly dispersed chains gather into close packed bundles, which are held together by highly ordered, single molecule wide CO2 ranks. CO2 molecules create more favorable adsorption sites for further CO2 adsorption by mediating the interchain attraction, thereby self-catalyzing their capture. The release of CO2 molecules by thermal desorption returns the MOCs to their original structure, indicating that the CO2 capture and release are reversible processes. The real space microscopic characterization of the self-catalyzed CO2 adsorption on 1D substrates could be exploited as platform for design of molecular materials for CO2 capture and reduction.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from graphene covered gold nanocap arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Kailin; Luo, Xiaoguang; Nan, Haiyan; Du, Deyang; Zhao, Weiwei; Ni, Zhenhua; Qiu, Teng

    2013-11-01

    This work reports an efficient method to fabricate large-area flexible substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application. Our technique is based on a single-step direct imprint process via porous anodic alumina stamps. Periodic hexagonal arrangements of porous anodic alumina stamps are transferred to the polyethylene terephthalate substrates by mechanically printing process. Printed nanocaps will turn into "hot spots" for electromagnetic enhancement with a deposited gold film by high vacuum evaporation. The gaps between the nanocaps are controllable with a tight correspondence to the thickness of the deposited gold, which dramatically influence the enhancement factor. After covered with a single-layer graphene sheet, the gold nanocap substrate can be further optimized with an extra enhancement of Raman signals, and it is available for the trace detection of probe molecules. This convenient, simple, and low-cost method of making flexible SERS-active substrates potentially opens a way towards biochemical analysis and disease detection.

  20. Coordination power adjustment of surface-regulating polymers for shaping gold polyhedral nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Joo; Park, Garam; Seo, Daeha; Ka, Duyoun; Kim, Sang Youl; Chung, Im Sik; Song, Hyunjoon

    2011-07-18

    PVP (poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)) is a common polymer that behaves as a surface-regulating agent that shapes metal nanocrystals in the polyol process. We have used different polymers containing tertiary amide groups, namely PVCL (poly(vinyl caprolactam)) and PDMAm (poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)), for the synthesis of gold polyhedrons, including octahedrons, cuboctahedrons, cubes, and higher polygons, under the present polyol reaction conditions. The basicity and surface coordination power of the polymers are in the order of PVCL, PVP, and PDMAm. A correlation is observed between the coordination power of the polymers and the resulting gold nanocrystal size. Strong coordination and electron donation from the polymer functional groups to the gold surface restrict particle growth rates, which leads to small nanocrystals. The use of PVCL can yield gold polyhedral structures with small sizes, which cannot be achieved in the reactions with PVP. Simultaneous hydrolysis of the amide group in PDMAm leads to carboxylate functionality, which is very useful for generating chemical and bioconjugates through the formation of ester and amide bonds. PMID:21656861

  1. Regenerating Titanium Ventricular Assist Device Surfaces after Gold/ Palladium Coating for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Achneck, Hardean E.; Serpe, Michael J; Jamiolkowski, Ryan; Eibest, Leslie M.; Craig, Stephen L.; Lawson, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium is one of the most commonly used materials for implantable devices in human s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) serves as an important tool for imaging titanium surfaces and analyzing cells and other organic matter adhering to titanium implants. However, high-vacuum SEM imaging of a non-conductive sample requires a conductive coating on the surface. A gold/ palladium coating is commonly used and to date no method has been described to ‘clean’ such gold/ palladium covered surfaces for repeated experiments without etching the titanium itself. This constitutes a major problem with titanium based implantable devices which are very expensive and thus in short supply. Our objective was to devise a protocol to regenerate titanium surfaces after SEM analysis. In a series of experiments, titanium samples from implantable cardiac assist devices were coated with fibronectin, seeded with cells and then coated with gold/palladium for SEM analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra were obtained before and after five different cleaning protocols. Treatment with aqua regia (a 1:3 solution of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acid), with or without ozonolysis, followed by sonication in soap solution and sonication in deionized water, allowed regenerating titanium surfaces to their original state. Atomic force microscopy confirmed that the established protocol did not alter the titanium microstructure. The protocol described herein is applicable to almost all titanium surfaces used in biomedical sciences and because of its short exposure time to aqua regia, will likely work for many titanium alloys as well. PMID:19642216

  2. Catalytic and surface properties of nanocrystalline gold water gas shift catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan

    A series of CeO2 supported gold catalysts were prepared and found to possess a high activities for the water gas shift reaction (WGS), a critical step in the production of H2 for use in petroleum refining, chemicals synthesis, and proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The deposition-precipitation method was employed in synthesizing these highly active, nanocrystalline gold catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic sorption analyses were performed to characterize the gold catalysts. While some of these catalysts were initially four times more active than a commercial Cu-based catalyst, they were susceptible to deactivation. Characterization using techniques including temperature programmed oxidation, XPS, and FT-IR indicated that the deactivation was caused primarily by blockage of the active sites by carbonates and/or formates. Formation of these carbonaceous species appeared to be facilitated by oxygen deficient sites on the ceria surface and may have been associated with hydroxyl groups formed on the nanocrystalline gold particles under the H2 rich conditions. The deactivation could be managed by conditioning the CeO2 surface or adding constituents to minimize oxygen deficiency. The catalytic activity was fully recovered by calcining the deactivated materials in flowing air at elevated temperatures. The gold catalyst was washcoated onto microporous Fe-Al alloy foams for use in a micro-channel WGS reactor. The performance of these coated foams was inferior to that of the powder catalyst; however, a two stage micro-channel WGS reactor employing the gold catalyst was sufficient for a 100 W fuel processor system.

  3. Investigation on micro-patterned gold-plated polymer substrate for a micro hydraulic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Vishnu Baba; Akle, Barbar; Leo, Donald J.

    2006-03-01

    Plants have the ability to develop large mechanical force from chemical energy available with bio-fuels. The energy released by the cleavage of a terminal phosphate ion during the hydrolysis of a bio-fuel assists the transport of ions and fluids in cellular homeostasis. Materials that develop pressure and hence strain similar to the response of plants to an external stimuli are classified as nastic materials. This new class of actuators use protein transporters as functional units to move species and result in deformation [Leo et al 2005 (Proceedings of IMECE - 06)]. The ion transporters are hydrocarbons which are formed across the cellular membranes. The membranes that house the ion transporters are aggregates of phospholipids rigidized by cytoskeleton. Reconstituting these nano-machines on a harder matrix is quintessential to build a functional device. Artificial phospholipid membranes or Biliayer lipid membranes (BLM) have poor structural integrity and do not adhere to most surfaces. Patterned arrays of pores made on Poly-propylene glycol-diacrylate (PPG-DA) substrate, a photo curable polymer was made available to us for initial design iterations for an actuator. Hydrophobicity of PPG-DA posed initial problems to support a BLM. We modified the surface of micropatterned PPG-DA membrane by gold plating it. The surface of the porous PPG-DA membranes was plated with gold (Au). A 10nm seeding layer of Au was sputtered on the surface of the membrane. Further gold was reduced onto the sputtered gold surface [Supriya et al(Langmuir 2004, 20, 8870-8876)] by suspending the samples in a solution of hydroxylamine and Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate [HAuCl4.3H2O]. This reduction process increased the thickness of the gold, enhanced its adhesion to the PPG-DA substrate and improved the shapes of the pores. This surface modification of PPG-DA helped us form stable BLM with 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3- [Phospho-L-Serine] (Sodium Salt) (POPS), 1-Palmitoyl-2

  4. Investigation of Mercury Reduction in Gold Stripping Process at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramudya, Irawan

    Mercury is present in many gold ores. By processing these ores, there is a potential of emitting mercury to the environment. Carbon regeneration kiln stacks have been observed as one of the primary source of mercury emission into the atmosphere. Before it is recycled back into the carbon in leach (CIL) or carbon in columns (CIC), carbon used in the gold extraction process needs to be reactivated thermally. Emission of mercury can be minimized by keeping the mercury left in the carbon low before it goes to the carbon regeneration kiln stacks. The objective of this study is establishing the optimum elution conditions of mercury cyanide from loaded carbon (which includes the eluent, concentration, temperature and elution time) with respect to gold stripping. Several methods such as acid washing (UNR-100, HCl or ethanol/UNR-100) were investigated prior to the stripping process. Furthermore, conventional pressurized Zadra and modified Zadra were also studied with regards to mercury concentration in the solution and vapor state as well as maximizing the gold stripping from industrial loaded carbon. 7% UNR-100 acid washing of loaded carbon at 80°C was able to wash out approximately 90% of mercury while maintaining the gold adsorption on the carbon (selective washing). The addition of alcohol in the UNR-100 acid washing solution was able to enhance mercury washing from 90% to 97%. Furthermore, mercury stripping using conventional pressurized (cyanide-alkaline) Zadra was best performed at 80°C (minimal amount of mercury reduced and volatilized) whereas using the same process only 40% of gold was stripped, which makes this process not viable. When alcohol was added to the stripping solution, at 80°C, 95% of gold was detected in the solution while keeping the reduction and volatilization of mercury low. The outcome of this study provides a better understanding of mercury behavior during the acid washing and stripping processes so that the risk of mercury exposure and

  5. Effects of surface charges of gold nanoclusters on long-term in vivo biodistribution, toxicity, and cancer radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Ying; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Guo, Meili; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have exhibited great advantages in medical diagnostics and therapies due to their efficient renal clearance and high tumor uptake. The in vivo effects of the surface chemistry of Au NCs are important for the development of both nanobiological interfaces and potential clinical contrast reagents, but these properties are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we prepared glutathione-protected Au NCs of a similar hydrodynamic size but with three different surface charges: positive, negative, and neutral. Their in vivo biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity were investigated over a 90-day period, and tumor uptake and potential application to radiation therapy were also evaluated. The results showed that the surface charge greatly influenced pharmacokinetics, particularly renal excretion and accumulation in kidney, liver, spleen, and testis. Negatively charged Au NCs displayed lower excretion and increased tumor uptake, indicating a potential for NC-based therapeutics, whereas positively charged clusters caused transient side effects on the peripheral blood system. PMID:27555769

  6. Effects of surface charges of gold nanoclusters on long-term in vivo biodistribution, toxicity, and cancer radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ying; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Guo, Meili; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have exhibited great advantages in medical diagnostics and therapies due to their efficient renal clearance and high tumor uptake. The in vivo effects of the surface chemistry of Au NCs are important for the development of both nanobiological interfaces and potential clinical contrast reagents, but these properties are yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we prepared glutathione-protected Au NCs of a similar hydrodynamic size but with three different surface charges: positive, negative, and neutral. Their in vivo biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity were investigated over a 90-day period, and tumor uptake and potential application to radiation therapy were also evaluated. The results showed that the surface charge greatly influenced pharmacokinetics, particularly renal excretion and accumulation in kidney, liver, spleen, and testis. Negatively charged Au NCs displayed lower excretion and increased tumor uptake, indicating a potential for NC-based therapeutics, whereas positively charged clusters caused transient side effects on the peripheral blood system. PMID:27555769

  7. Gold Incorporated Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Model Surface as a Robust SERS and Catalytically Active Substrate.

    PubMed

    Sunil Sekhar, Anandakumari Chandrasekharan; Vinod, Chathakudath Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using FESEM shows crack-free films with a perpendicular pore arrangement. The applicability of these thin films as catalysts as well as a robust SERS active substrate for model catalysis study is tested. Compared to bare silica film our gold incorporated silica, GSM-23F gave an enhancement factor of 10³ for RhB with a laser source 633 nm. The reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride from our thin films shows a decrease in peak intensity corresponding to -NO₂ group as time proceeds, confirming the catalytic activity. Such model surfaces can potentially bridge the material gap between a real catalytic system and surface science studies. PMID:27213321

  8. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles on aryl diazonium monolayer functionalized HOPG surfaces.

    PubMed

    González, M C R; Orive, A G; Salvarezza, R C; Creus, A H

    2016-01-21

    Gold nanoparticle electrodeposition on a modified HOPG surface with a monolayer organic film based on aryl diazonium chemistry has been studied. This organic monolayer is electrochemically grown with the use of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a radical scavenger. The electrodeposition of gold on this modified surface is highly favored resulting in an AuNP surface density comparable to that found on glassy carbon. AuNPs grow only in the areas covered by the organic monolayer leaving free clean HOPG zones. A progressive mechanism for the nucleation and growth is followed giving hemispherical AuNPs, homogeneously distributed on the surface and their sizes can be well controlled by the applied electrodeposition potential. By using AFM, C-AFM and electrochemical measurements with the aid of two redox probes, namely Fe(CN)6(4-)/Fe(CN)6(3-) and dopamine, relevant results about the electrochemical modified surface as well as the gold nanoparticles electrodeposited on them are obtained. PMID:26685776

  9. Influence of attachment strategy on the thermal stability of hybridized DNA on gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Petty, Tyler J; Wagner, Caleb E; Opdahl, Aric

    2014-12-23

    The thermal stabilities of double-stranded DNA hybrids immobilized on gold surfaces are shown to be significantly affected by the conformation of the hybrid. To analyze this behavior, DNA probes were immobilized using attachment strategies where the nucleotides within the strand had varying levels of interactions with the gold substrate. The abilities of these probes to form double-stranded hybrids with solution DNA targets were evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) over a temperature range 25-60 °C. The measurements were used to construct thermal stability profiles for hybrids in each conformation. We observe that DNA hybrids formed with probe strands that interact extensively with the gold surface have stability profiles that are shifted lower by 5-10 °C compared to hybrids formed with end-tethered probes that have fewer interactions with the surface. The results provide an understanding of the experimental conditions in which these weaker DNA hybrids can form and show the additional complexity of evaluating denaturation profiles generated from DNA on surfaces. PMID:25457775

  10. Regenerating titanium ventricular assist device surfaces after gold/palladium coating for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Achneck, Hardean E; Serpe, Michael J; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M; Eibest, Leslie M; Craig, Stephen L; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2010-01-01

    Titanium is one of the most commonly used materials for implantable devices in humans. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) serves as an important tool for imaging titanium surfaces and analyzing cells and other organic matter adhering to titanium implants. However, high-vacuum SEM imaging of a nonconductive sample requires a conductive coating on the surface. A gold/palladium coating is commonly used and to date no method has been described to "clean" such gold/palladium covered surfaces for repeated experiments without etching the titanium itself. This constitutes a major problem with titanium-based implantable devices which are very expensive and thus in short supply. Our objective was to devise a protocol to regenerate titaniumsurfaces after SEM analysis. In a series of experiments, titanium samples from implantable cardiac assist devices were coated with fibronectin, seeded with cells and then coated with gold/palladium for SEM analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra were obtained before and after five different cleaning protocols. Treatment with aqua regia (a 1:3 solution of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acid), with or without ozonolysis, followed by sonication in soap solution and sonication in deionized water, allowed regenerating titanium surfaces to their original state. Atomic force microscopy confirmed that the established protocol did not alter the titanium microstructure. The protocol described herein is applicable to almost all titanium surfaces used in biomedical sciences and because of its short exposure time to aqua regia, will likely work for many titanium alloys as well. PMID:19642216

  11. Layered Gold and Titanium Dioxide Substrates for Improved Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Sensing.

    PubMed

    Strobbia, Pietro; Henegar, Alex J; Gougousi, Theodosia; Cullum, Brian M

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript describes a simple process for fabricating gold-based, multi-layered, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates that can be applied to a variety of different nanostructures, while still providing multi-layer enhancement factors comparable to those previously achieved only with optimized silver/silver oxide/silver substrates. In particular, gold multi-layered substrates generated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been fabricated and characterized in terms of their optimal performance, revealing multi-layer enhancements of 2.3-fold per spacer layer applied. These substrates were fabricated using TiO2 as the dielectric spacer material between adjacent gold layers, with ALD providing a conformal thin film with high surface coverage and low thickness. By varying the spacer layer thicknesses from sub-monolayer (non-contiguous) films through multiple TiO2 layer thick films, the non-monotonic spacer layer thickness response has been elucidated, revealing the importance of thin, contiguous dielectric spacer layers for optimal enhancement. Furthermore, the extended shelf life of these gold multi-layered substrates was characterized, demonstrating usable lifetimes (i.e. following storage in ambient conditions) of greater than five months, with the further potential for simple limited electrochemical regeneration even after this time. PMID:27329834

  12. Star-like gold nanoparticles as highly active substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasso, Carlo; Mehn, Dora; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Pascual García, César; Prosperi, Davide; Gramatica, Furio

    2013-02-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a popular method in bio-analytical chemistry and a potentially powerful enabling technology for in vitro diagnostics. SERS combines the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy with the good sensitivity provided by enhancement of the signal that is observed when a molecule is located on (or very close to) the surface of nanostructured metallic materials. Star-like gold nanoparticles (SGN) are a new class of multibranched nanoparticles that in the last few years have attracted the attention of SERS community for their plasmonic properties. In this work we present a new method to prepare star-like gold nanoparticles with a simple one step protocol at room temperature using hydroquinone as reducing agent. Besides we compare the enhancement of Raman signal of malachite green, a dye commonly employed as label in biological studies, by star-like gold nanoparticles having different size, directly in liquid. This study shows that SGN provide good enhancement of Raman signal and that the effect of their dimension is strongly dependent on the wavelength used. Moreover preliminary results suggest that SGN produced using this method are characterized by good physical-chemical properties and they can be functionalized using the standard thiol chemistry. Overall, these results suggest that star-like gold nanoparticles produced through this method could be used for the further development of highly specific and sensitive SERS-based bio-analytical tests.

  13. Interactions of skin with gold nanoparticles of different surface charge, shape, and functionality.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rute; Smyth, Neil R; Muskens, Otto L; Nitti, Simone; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Kanaras, Antonios G

    2015-02-11

    The interactions between skin and colloidal gold nanoparticles of different physicochemical characteristics are investigated. By systematically varying the charge, shape, and functionality of gold nanoparticles, the nanoparticle penetration through the different skin layers is assessed. The penetration is evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using a variety of complementary techniques. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is used to quantify the total number of particles which penetrate the skin structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and two photon photoluminescence microscopy (TPPL) on skin cross sections provide a direct visualization of nanoparticle migration within the different skin substructures. These studies reveal that gold nanoparticles functionalized with cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) TAT and R7 are found in the skin in larger quantities than polyethylene glycol-functionalized nanoparticles, and are able to enter deep into the skin structure. The systematic studies presented in this work may be of strong interest for developments in transdermal administration of drugs and therapy. PMID:25288531

  14. Electron transport in two-dimensional arrays of gold nanocrystals investigated by scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liljeroth, Peter; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Ruiz, Virginia; Kontturi, Kyösti; Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko; Quinn, Bernadette M

    2004-06-01

    This article reports the use of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to investigate the electronic properties of Langmuir monolayers of alkane thiol protected gold nanocrystals (NCs). A substantial increase in monolayer conductivity upon mechanical compression of the Au NC monolayer is reported for the first time. This may be the room temperature signature of the insulator to metal transition previously reported for comparable silver NC monolayers. Factors influencing the conductivity of the monolayer NC array are discussed. PMID:15174884

  15. Monolithic nanoporous gold disks with large surface area and high-density plasmonic hot-spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Arnob, Md Masud Parvez; Santos, Greggy M.; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic metal nanostructures have shown great potential in sensing, photovoltaics, imaging and biomedicine, principally due to enhancement of the local electric field by light-excited surface plasmons, the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons. Thin films of nanoporous gold have received a great deal of interest due to the unique 3- dimensional bicontinuous nanostructures with high specific surface area. However, in the form of semi-infinite thin films, nanoporous gold exhibits weak plasmonic extinction and little tunability in the plasmon resonance, because the pore size is much smaller than the wavelength of light. Here we show that by making nanoporous gold in the form of disks of sub-wavelength diameter and sub-100 nm thickness, these limitations can be overcome. Nanoporous gold disks (NPGDs) not only possess large specific surface area but also high-density, internal plasmonic "hot-spots" with impressive electric field enhancement, which greatly promotes plasmon-matter interaction as evidenced by spectral shifts in the surface plasmon resonance. In addition, the plasmonic resonance of NPGD can be easily tuned from 900 to 1850 nm by changing the disk diameter from 300 to 700 nm. The coupling between external and internal nanoarchitecture provides a potential design dimension for plasmonic engineering. The synergy of large specific surface area, high-density hot spots, and tunable plasmonics would profoundly impact applications where plasmonic nanoparticles and non-plasmonic mesoporous nanoparticles are currently employed, e.g., in in-vitro and in-vivo biosensing, molecular imaging, photothermal contrast agents, and molecular cargos.

  16. Surface roughness, asperity contact and gold RF MEMS switch behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanian, O.; Zikry, M. A.; Brown, C.; Krim, J.

    2007-10-01

    Modeling predictions and experimental measurements were obtained to characterize the electro-mechanical response of radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical (MEM) switches due to variations in surface roughness and finite asperity deformations. Three-dimensional surface roughness profiles were generated, based on a Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal representation, to match the measured roughness characteristics of contact bumps of manufactured RF MEMS switches. Contact asperity deformations due to applied contact pressures were then obtained by a creep constitutive formulation. The contact pressure is derived from the interrelated effects of roughness characteristics, material hardening and softening, temperature increases due to Joule heating and contact forces. This modeling framework was used to understand how contact resistance evolves due to changes in the real contact area, the number of asperities in contact, and the temperature and resistivity profiles at the contact points. The numerical predictions were qualitatively consistent with the experimental measurements and observations of how contact resistance evolves as a function of deformation time history. This study provides a framework that is based on integrated modeling and experimental measurements, which can be used in the design of reliable RF MEMS devices with extended life cycles.

  17. The effect of surface symmetry on the adsorption energetics of SCH 3 on gold surfaces studied using Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masens, C.; Ford, M. J.; Cortie, M. B.

    2005-04-01

    Adsorption of methanethiol onto the three, high symmetry gold surfaces has been studied at the density functional level using a linear combination of atomic orbitals approach. In all three cases the bond energy between the thiolate radical and surface is typical of a covalent bond, and is of the order of 40 kcal mol -1. For the (1 1 1) surface the fcc hollow site is slightly more stable than the bridge site. For the (1 0 0) surfaces the four-fold hollow is clearly the most stable, and for the reconstructed (1 1 0) surface the bridge/edge sites either side of the first layer atoms are preferred. The calculated differences in binding energy between the three surfaces indicate that the thiolate will preferentially bind to the Au(1 1 0) or (1 0 0) before (1 1 1) surface, by about 10 kcal mol -1. The (1 1 0) surface is slightly more favourable than the (1 0 0), although the energy difference is only 3 kcal mol -1. The results suggest the possibility of selectively functionalising the different facets offered by a gold nanoparticle.

  18. Effect of substrate discontinuities on the propagating surface plasmon polariton modes in gold nanobars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Paul; Yu, Kuai; Devadas, Mary Sajini; Li, Zhongming; Major, Todd A.; Hartland, Gregory V.

    2014-11-01

    The surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes of gold nanobars (nanowires with rectangular dimensions) have been investigated by scanning pump-probe microscopy. In these experiments the nanobars were suspended over trenches cut in glass coverslips, and propagating SPP modes were launched in the supported portion of the nanobar by focusing a near-IR pump laser beam at the end of the nanobar. Transient absorption images were then collected by scanning the probe laser over the nanobar using a galvo-mirror system. The images show that the trench has a large effect on the SPP modes, specifically, for approximately half the nanowires the propagation length is significantly reduced after the trench. Finite element calculations were performed to understand this effect. The calculations show that the pump laser excites bound and leaky modes (modes that have their fields localized at the nanobar/glass or nanobar/air interfaces, respectively) in the supported portions of the nanobars. These modes propagate along the nanobar. When they meet the trench their field distributions are altered. The modes that derive from the bound mode are strongly damped over the trench. Thus, the bound mode is not reconstituted on the opposite side of the trench, and only the leaky mode contributes to the signal. Because the bound and leaky modes can have different propagation lengths, the propagation lengths measured in our experiments can change from one side of the trench to the other. The results show how the substrate can be engineered to control the SPP modes in metal nanostructures.The surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes of gold nanobars (nanowires with rectangular dimensions) have been investigated by scanning pump-probe microscopy. In these experiments the nanobars were suspended over trenches cut in glass coverslips, and propagating SPP modes were launched in the supported portion of the nanobar by focusing a near-IR pump laser beam at the end of the nanobar. Transient absorption images

  19. Effects of surface ligands on the uptake and transport of gold nanoparticles in rice and tomato.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Xinxin; Guo, Xisheng; Geng, Zhigang; Wang, Guozhong

    2016-08-15

    Nanotechnology is advancing rapidly and substantial amounts of nanomaterials are released into the environment. Plants are an essential base component of the ecological environment and play a critical role in the fate and transport of nanomaterials in the environment through plant uptake and bioaccumulation. In this study, plant uptake of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) functionalized with three types of short ligands [cysteamine (CA), cysteine (CYS) and thioglycolic acid (TGA)] and of nearly identical hydrodynamic size (8-12nm) was investigated in the major crops rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Uptake and translocation of GNPs not only depended on particle surface charge, but were also related to the species of ligand on the GNPs. The negatively charged GNPs capped with the CYS ligand (GNP-CYS) were more efficiently absorbed in roots and transferred to shoots (including stems and leaves) than that of GNPs capped with CA and TGA. The absorption process of GNPs involved a combination of both clathrin-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The endocytosis of GNPs was strongly inhibited by wortmannin, suggesting that clathrin-independent endocytosis was an important pathway of nanoparticle internalization in plants. Competition experiments with a free ligand (CYS) showed that the CYS ligand probably facilitated the endocytosis process of GNPs and increased the internalization of GNP-CYS in plants. The results will aid understanding of the mechanisms of nanoparticle uptake and translocation in plants. PMID:27131459

  20. Pulse Laser Deposition Fabricating Gold Nanoclusters on a Glassy Carbon Surface for Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensing.

    PubMed

    Shu, Honghui; Chang, Gang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Pai; Zhang, Yuting; He, Yunbin

    2015-01-01

    A One-step technique for depositing gold nanoclusters (GNCs) onto the surface of a glassy carbon (GC) plate was developed by using pulse laser deposition (PLD) with appropriate process parameters. The method is simple and clean without using any templates, surfactants, or stabilizers. The experimental factors (pulse laser number and the pressure of inert gas (Ar)) that affect the morphology and structure of GNCs, and thus affect the electrocatalytic oxidation performance towards glucose were systematically investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammograms (CV) and chronoamperometry methods). The GC electrode modified by GNCs exhibited a rapid response time (about 2 s), a broad linear range (0.1 to 20 mM), and good stability. The sensitivity was estimated to be 31.18 μA cm(-2) mM(-1) (vs. geometric area), which is higher than that of the Au bulk electrode. It has a good resistance to the common interfering species, such as ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) and 4-acetaminophen (AP). Therefore, this work has demonstrated a simple and effective sensing platform for the nonenzymatic detection of glucose, and can be used as a new material for a novel non-enzymatic glucose sensor. PMID:26165282

  1. Biotin avidin amplified magnetic immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection using GoldMag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, An; Geng, Tingting; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Chao; Cui, Yali

    2007-04-01

    Using GoldMag (Fe3O4/Au) nanoparticles as a carrier, a biotin-avidin amplified ELISA was developed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A specific antibody was labeled with biotin and then used to detect the antigen with an antibody coated on GoldMag nanoparticles by a sandwich ELISA assay. The results showed that 5 mol of biotin were surface bound per mole of antibody. The biotin-avidin amplified ELISA assay has a higher sensitivity than that of the direct ELISA assay. There is 5-fold difference between HBsAg positive and negative serum even at dilution of 1:10000, and the relative standard deviation of the parallel positive serum at dilution of 1:4000 is 5.98% (n=11).

  2. Surface plasmon polaritons in a composite system of porous silicon and gold

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, J. S.; Goryachev, D. N.; Ken, O. S. Sreseli, O. M.

    2015-04-15

    A composite system of silicon quantum dots and gold particles with properties periodically changing along the surface (i.e., a system exhibiting the properties of a diffraction grating) is obtained by a one-step metal-assisted chemical etching. The spectral and angular dependences of the photoresponse for the composite system on single-crystal silicon are studied. The photoresponse peaks were observed, which behavior (the dependence on the parameters of the diffraction grating, wavelength and incidence angles of light) is attributed to the excitation of plasmon-polariton modes at the surface of the composite system with the diffraction grating. At the same time, the obtained values of the wave vectors for these modes are smaller than those calculated for plasmon polaritons excited at the interface between air and metal (gold) diffraction grating.

  3. Surface enhanced Raman scattering detection of single R6G molecules on nanoporous gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongwen; Zhang, L.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Iwasaki, H.; Inouye, Y.; Xue, Q. K.; Chen, M. W.

    2011-03-01

    Detecting single molecules with high sensitivity and molecular specificity is of great practical interest in many fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and pharmacology. For this purpose, cheap and highly active substrates are of crucial importance. Recently, nanoporous metals (NPMs), with a three-dimensional continuous network structure and pore channels usually much smaller than the wavelength of visible light, revealed outstanding optical properties in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, we further modify the nanoporous gold films by growing a high density of gold nano-tips on the surface. Extremely focused electromagnetic fields can be produced at the apex of the nano-tips, resulting in so-called hot spots. With this NPM-based and affordable substrate, single molecule-detection is achievable with ultrahigh enhancement in SERS.

  4. Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Part II: Copper and gold colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, S. M.; Katz, L. F.; Archibald, D. D.; Honigs, D. E.

    1989-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) on copper and gold metal colloids were obtained with a Fourier transform Raman spectrometer using a Nd:YAG laser (1.064 ..mu..m) for excitation. Enhanced spectra were observed for pyridine and 3-chloropyridine (CP) on copper colloids and for tris(orthophenanthroline)ruthenium(II), Ru(o-phen)/sup 2 +//sub 3/, on copper and gold colloids. The copper-colloid surface-enhanced Raman spectra of pyridine and CP were compared with spectra measured for these molecules on copper electrodes. NIR-SERS enhancements on the metal colloids were at least as large as for visible-wavelength excited SERS. Good-quality spectra of Ru(o-phen)/sup 2 +//sub 3/ were obtained at solution concentrations as low as 0.025 mM.

  5. Annealing relaxation of ultrasmall gold nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Except serving as an excellent gift on proper occasions, gold finds applications in life sciences, particularly in diagnostics and therapeutics. These applications were made possible by gold nanoparticles, which differ drastically from macroscopic gold. Versatile surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles allows coating with small molecules, polymers, biological recognition molecules. Theoretical investigation of nanoscale gold is not trivial, because of numerous metastable states in these systems. Unlike elsewhere, this work obtains equilibrium structures using annealing simulations within the recently introduced PM7-MD method. Geometries of the ultrasmall gold nanostructures with chalcogen coverage are described at finite temperature, for the first time.

  6. Gold replica of olive branch left on moons surface by Apollo 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, which was left on the Moon's surface by the Apollo 11 crew members. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, was in charge of placing the replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represents a fresh wish for peace for all mankind. astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  7. Sensitive surface plasmon resonance enabled by templated periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xuan; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Choi, Baeck; Wu, Kedi; Jiang, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Here we report a simple and scalable colloidal lithography technology for fabricating periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts for sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. This new bottom-up approach leverages a unique polymer wetting layer between a self-assembled, non-close-packed monolayer silica colloidal crystal and a silicon substrate to template ordered gold nanodonuts with tunable geometries over wafer-sized areas. The processes involved in this templating nanofabrication approach, including spin coating, oxygen plasma etching, and metal sputtering, are all compatible with standard microfabrication technologies. Specular reflection measurements reveal that the efficient electromagnetic coupling of the incident light with the tunable SPR modes of the templated gold nanodonut arrays enables good spectral tunability. Bulk refractive index sensing experiments show that a high SPR sensitivity of ∼758 nm per refractive index unit, which outperforms many plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by both top-down and bottom-up approaches, can be achieved using the templated gold nanodonut arrays. Numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations have also been performed to complement the optical characterization and the theoretical results match well with the experimental measurements.

  8. Sensitive surface plasmon resonance enabled by templated periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xuan; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Choi, Baeck; Wu, Kedi; Jiang, Peng

    2016-05-13

    Here we report a simple and scalable colloidal lithography technology for fabricating periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts for sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. This new bottom-up approach leverages a unique polymer wetting layer between a self-assembled, non-close-packed monolayer silica colloidal crystal and a silicon substrate to template ordered gold nanodonuts with tunable geometries over wafer-sized areas. The processes involved in this templating nanofabrication approach, including spin coating, oxygen plasma etching, and metal sputtering, are all compatible with standard microfabrication technologies. Specular reflection measurements reveal that the efficient electromagnetic coupling of the incident light with the tunable SPR modes of the templated gold nanodonut arrays enables good spectral tunability. Bulk refractive index sensing experiments show that a high SPR sensitivity of ∼758 nm per refractive index unit, which outperforms many plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by both top-down and bottom-up approaches, can be achieved using the templated gold nanodonut arrays. Numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations have also been performed to complement the optical characterization and the theoretical results match well with the experimental measurements. PMID:27040938

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of crystal violets from periodic array of gold nanocylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Gang; Wang, Li; Cai, Chunfeng; Ueno, Kosei; Misawa, Hiroaki; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-09-01

    The periodic arrays of gold nanocylinder with 121 nm in diameter, 6.3 nm in gap, and 34 nm in thickness are fabricated on glass by electron-beam lithography and lift-off techniques. Some crystal violet molecules are coated on the array by using the dipping and drawing method. In addition, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of these samples with and without gold nanocylinder arrays are characterized specifically. The largest enhancement factor is obtained when the excitation wavelength corresponds to the peak wavelength of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The density functional theory and the finite-difference time-domain method are used for the calculations of the extinction spectrum of the arrays and Raman spectra of the crystal violet, respectively. These results unambiguously demonstrate that the periodic arrays of gold nanocylinder have good and effective surface-enhanced properties for Raman scattering of crystal violets, and they also show that the excitation wavelength corresponding to the peak one of the LSPR is one of the major reasons causing SERS.

  10. Synthesis of gold nanorods with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of around 1250 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Nhat Hang; Le Trinh Nguyen, Thi; Thanh Tuyen Luong, Thi; Thang Nguyen, Canh Minh; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Phong

    2016-03-01

    We prepared gold nanorods and joined them to chemicals such as tetrachloauric (III) acid trihydrate, silver nitrate, hydroquinone, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride using the seed-mediated method. The combination of hydroquinone, with or without salicylic acid, influences the size of the gold nanorods, and this is demonstrated by the results of TEM images, UV-vis spectra and the value of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak with respect to the UV-vis spectra. By changing the Ag+ ion and hydroquinone concentration and the combination of hydroquinone and salicylic acid, the size of the gold nanorods can be controlled and this is manifested by longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks forming between 875 and 1278 nm. In particular, sample E2 achieved a longitudinal surface plasmon peak at 1273 nm and an aspect ratio of more than 10 by modifying the hydroquinone to 2.5 mM and salicylic acid to 0.5 mM concentration in the growth solution.

  11. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies.

    PubMed

    Jeynes, J C G; Merchant, M J; Spindler, A; Wera, A-C; Kirkby, K J

    2014-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect.Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays. PMID:25296027

  12. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Merchant, M. J.; Spindler, A.; Wera, A.-C.; Kirkby, K. J.

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect. Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays.

  13. Patterning of gold nanoparticles on fluoropolymer films by using patterned surface grafting and layer-by-layer deposition techniques.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak; Kwon, Oh-Sun; Shin, Kwanwoo

    2013-09-11

    The patterning of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the surface of a fluoropolymer substrate by using patterned surface grafting and layer-by-layer deposition techniques is described. The surface of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl ether) (PFA) substrate was selectively implanted with 150 keV proton ions. Peroxide groups were successfully formed on the implanted PFA surface, and their concentration depended on the fluence. Acrylic acid was graft polymerized onto the implanted regions of the PFA substrate, resulting in well-defined patterns of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on the PFA substrate. The surface properties of the PAA-patterned PFA surface, such as chemical compositions, wettability, and morphology, were investigated. The surface analysis results revealed that PAA was definitely present on the implanted regions of the PFA surface, and the degree of grafting was dependent on three factors: fluence, grafting time, and monomer concentration. Furthermore, GNP patterns were generated on the prepared PAA-patterned PFA surface by layer-by-layer deposition of GNPs and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride). The multilayers of GNPs were deposited only onto the PAA-grafted regions separated by bare PFA regions, and the resulting GNP patterns exhibited good electrical conductivity. PMID:23927646

  14. New insights into colloidal gold flakes: structural investigation, micro-ellipsometry and thinning procedure towards ultrathin monocrystalline layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, B.; Bashouti, M. Y.; Feichtner, T.; Mačković, M.; Dieker, C.; Salaheldin, A. M.; Richter, P.; Gordan, O. D.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Spiecker, E.; Christiansen, S.

    2016-02-01

    High-quality fabrication of plasmonic devices often relies on wet-chemically grown ultraflat, presumably single-crystalline gold flakes due to their superior materials properties. However, important details about their intrinsic structure and their optical properties are not well understood yet. In this study, we present a synthesis routine for large flakes with diameters of up to 70 μm and an in-depth investigation of their structural and optical properties. The flakes are precisely analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and micro-ellipsometry. We found new evidence for the existence of twins extending parallel to the Au flake {111} surfaces which have been found to not interfere with the presented nanopatterning. Micro-Ellipsometry was carried out to determine the complex dielectric function and to compare it to previous measurements of bulk single crystalline gold. Finally, we used focused ion beam milling to prepare smooth crystalline layers and high-quality nanostructures with desired thickness down to 10 nm to demonstrate the outstanding properties of the flakes. Our findings support the plasmonics and nano optics community with a better understanding of this material which is ideally suited for superior plasmonic nanostructures.High-quality fabrication of plasmonic devices often relies on wet-chemically grown ultraflat, presumably single-crystalline gold flakes due to their superior materials properties. However, important details about their intrinsic structure and their optical properties are not well understood yet. In this study, we present a synthesis routine for large flakes with diameters of up to 70 μm and an in-depth investigation of their structural and optical properties. The flakes are precisely analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and micro-ellipsometry. We found new evidence for the existence of twins extending parallel to the Au flake {111} surfaces which have

  15. Morphology, stresses, and surface reactivity of nanoporous gold synthesized from nanostructured precursor alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouya, Eric

    Nanoporous metallic materials (NMMs) are generally synthesized using dealloying, whereby the more reactive component is dissolved from a homogeneous alloy in a suitable electrolyte, and the more noble metal atoms simultaneously diffuse into 3-D clusters, forming a bi-continuous network of interconnected ligaments. Nanoporous gold (NPG) in particular is a well-known NMM; it is inert, bio-compatible, and capable of developing large surface areas with 1--100nm pores. While several studies have demonstrated its potential usefulness in fuel cell and sensing devices, its structural, mechanical, and electrocatalytic properties still require further investigation, particularly if NPG is synthesized from precursor alloy films exhibiting metastable nanostructures. In this dissertation, the electrodeposition (ECD) process, microstrucural characteristics, and metatstability of Au-Ni precursor alloys are investigated. The stresses evolved during Au-Ni alloy nucleation and growth are investigated in situ and correlated with microstructural and electrochemical data in order to identify the various stress-inducing mechanisms. In situ stresses generated during Au-Ni and Au-Ag dealloying were investigated, and additionally correlated with the growth stresses. Finally, the surface area and electrocatalytic properties of NPG are characterized using a variety of electrochemical techniques. Potentiostatically electrodeposited Au1-x-Nix (x: 0--90at%) films form a continuous series of metastable solid solutions and exhibit a nanocrystalline morphology, with ˜10--20 nm grains, the size of which decreases with increasing Ni content. The formation of a metastable structure was interpreted in terms of the limited surface diffusivities of adatoms at the growing interface and atomic volume differences (˜15%). Internal stresses generated during ECD of Ni-rich films can be explained assuming a 3-D Volmer-Weber growth mode, where the stress is initially compressive, then transitions into tension

  16. Immobilization and surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles monitored via streaming current/potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Greben, Kyrylo; Li, Pinggui; Mayer, Dirk; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wördenweber, Roger

    2015-05-14

    A streaming current/potential method is optimized and used for the analysis of the variation of the surface potential upon chemical modifications of a complex interface consisting of different organic molecules and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The surfaces of Si/SiO2 substrates modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), AuNPs, and 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (aminothiols) are analyzed via pH and time dependent ζ potential measurements that reveal the stability and modification of the surface and identify crucial parameters for each individual preparation step. For instance, surface activation and especially molecular adsorbate layers tend not to be stable in time, whereas the substrate and the AuNPs provide a stable surface potential as long as impurities are avoided. It is shown that the streaming potential/current technique represents an ideal tool to analyze and monitor the complex surfaces and their modification. PMID:25905436

  17. Improved Efficiency of Silicon Nanoholes/Gold Nanoparticles/Organic Hybrid Solar Cells via Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ronghua; Xu, Ling; Ge, Zhaoyun; Li, Rui; Xu, Jun; Yu, Linwei; Chen, Kunji

    2016-03-01

    Silicon is the most widely used material for solar cells due to its abundance, non-toxicity, reliability, and mature fabrication process. In this paper, we fabricated silicon nanoholes (SiNHS)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPS)/organic hybrid solar cells and investigated their spectral and opto-electron conversion properties. SiNHS nanocomposite films were fabricated by metal-assisted electroless etching (EE) method. Then, we modified the surface of the nanocomposite films by exposing the samples in the air. After that, polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) blended with AuNPS were spin-coated on the surface of the SiNHS nanocomposite films as a hole-transporting layer. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) values of the solar cells with AuNPS are higher than that of the samples without AuNPS in the spectral region of 600-1000 nm, which were essential to achieve high performance photovoltaic cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cells incorporating AuNPS exhibited an enhancement of 27 %, compared with that of the solar cells without AuNPS. We thought that the improved efficiency were attributed to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) triggered by gold nanoparticles in SiNHS nanocomposite films.

  18. Fabrication Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance sensor chip of gold nanoparticles and detection lipase-osmolytes interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodselahi, T.; Hoornam, S.; Vesaghi, M. A.; Ranjbar, B.; Azizi, A.; Mobasheri, H.

    2014-09-01

    Co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD from acetylene gas and Au target were used to prepare sensor chip of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Deposition conditions were optimized to reach a Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Au NPs with particle size less than 10 nm. The RF power was set at 180 W and the initial gas pressure was set at 0.035 mbar. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data were used to investigate particles size and surface morphology of LSPR sensor chip. The Au and C content of the LSPR sensor chip of Au NPs was obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) thin film was used as intermediate material to immobilize Au NPs on the SiO2 substrate. The interaction between two types of osmolytes, i.e. sorbitol and trehalose, with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PCL) were detected by the prepared LSPR biosensor chip. The detection mechanism is based on LSPR spectroscopy in which the wavelength of absorption peak is sensitive to the refractive index of the environment of the Au NPs. This mechanism eliminates the use of a probe or immobilization of PCL on the Au NPs of LSPR sensor chip. The interaction between PCL and osmolytes can change refractive index of the mixture or solution. We found that unlike to trehalose, sorbitol interacts with the PCL. This interaction increases refractive index of the PCL and sorbitol mixture. Refractive index of PCL in the presence of different concentration of sorbitol was obtained by Mie theory modeling of LSPR peaks. This modeling stated that the present LSPR sensor chip has sensitivity as high as wavelength shift of 175 nm per refractive index. Moreover, the detection of such weakly interaction between bio-molecules cannot be achieved by other analysis.

  19. Composite fluorocarbon membranes by surface-initiated polymerization from nanoporous gold-coated alumina.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Carlos A; Zulkifli, Ahmad R; Faulkner, Christopher J; Trzeciak, Alex; Jennings, G Kane

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript describes the versatile fabrication and characterization of a novel composite membrane that consists of a porous alumina support, a 100 nm thick nanoporous gold coating, and a selective poly(5-(perfluorohexyl)norbornene) (pNBF6) polymer that can be grown exclusively from the nanoporous gold or throughout the membrane. Integration of the three materials is achieved by means of silane and thiol chemistry, and the use of surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SI-ROMP) to grow the pNBF6. The use of SI-ROMP allows tailoring of the extent of polymerization of pNBF6 throughout the structure by varying polymerization time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that the thin polymer films cover the structure entirely. Cross-sectional SEM images of the membrane not only corroborate growth of the pNBF6 polymer within both the porous alumina and the nanoporous gold coating but also show the growth of a pNBF6 layer between these porous substrates that lifts the nanoporous gold coating away from the alumina. Advancing contact angle (θ(A)) measurements show that the surfaces of these composite membranes exhibit both hydrophobic (θ(A) = 121-129)° and oleophobic (θ(A) = 69-74)° behavior due to the fluorocarbon side chains of the pNBF6 polymer that dominate the surface. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirm that the membranes provide effective barriers to aqueous ions, as evidenced by a resistive impedance on the order of 1 × 10(7) Ω cm(2). Sulfonation of the polymer backbone substantially enhances ion transport through the composite membrane, as indicated by a 40-60 fold reduction in resistive impedance. Ion transport and selectivity of the membrane change by regulating the polymerization time. The fluorinated nature of the sulfonated polymer renders the membrane selective toward molecules with similar chemical characteristics. PMID:22195729

  20. Silver- and Gold-Ordered Structures on Single-Crystal Silicon Surface After Thermal Deposition.

    PubMed

    Karbivskyy, Vladimir; Karbivska, Love; Artemyuk, Viktor

    2016-12-01

    The formation mechanisms of Ag- and Au-ordered structures on single-crystal silicon (Si) (111) and Si (110) surfaces were researched using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy method. It was shown that different patterns of self-assembled nanostructures with very precise and regular geometric shapes can be produced by controlling process parameters of thermal metal spraying on the substrate. The surfaces of nanorelieves at each stage of deposition were researched, and the main stages of morphological transformation were fixed.Self-ordered hexagonal pyramid-shaped nanostructures were formed at thermal deposition of gold on the Si (111), whereas only monolayer hexagonal formation could be observed on the plane Si (110). Gold monolayer flake nanostructures were obtained under certain technological parameters.Atomically smooth Ag film cannot be obtained on the Si (111) surface by means of thermal spraying at room temperature. The formation of two-dimensional (2D) clusters takes place; heating of these clusters at several hundred degrees Celsius leads to their transformation into atomically smooth covering.The weak interaction between Ag multilayer coatings and substrate was established that allows to clear crystal surface from metal with reproduction of the reconstructed Si (111) 7 × 7 surface by slight warming. The offered method can be used for single-crystal surface protection from destruction. PMID:26847695

  1. The surface structure of silver-coated gold nanocrystals and its influence on shape control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Padmos, J. Daniel; Personick, Michelle L.; Tang, Qing; Duchesne, Paul N.; Jiang, De-en; Mirkin, Chad A.; Zhang, Peng

    2015-07-08

    Understanding the surface structure of metal nanocrystals with specific facet indices is important due to its impact on controlling nanocrystal shape and functionality. However, this is particularly challenging for halide-adsorbed nanocrystals due to the difficulty in analysing interactions between metals and light halides (for example, chloride). Here we uncover the surface structures of chloride-adsorbed, silver-coated gold nanocrystals with {111}, {110}, {310} and {720} indexed facets by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory modelling. The silver–chloride, silver–silver and silver–gold bonding structures are markedly different between the nanocrystal surfaces, and are sensitive to their formation mechanism and facet type. A uniquemore » approach of combining the density functional theory and experimental/simulated X-ray spectroscopy further verifies the surface structure models and identifies the previously indistinguishable valence state of silver atoms on the nanocrystal surfaces. Overall, this work elucidates the thus-far unknown chloride–metal nanocrystal surface structures and sheds light onto the halide-induced growth mechanism of anisotropic nanocrystals.« less

  2. The surface structure of silver-coated gold nanocrystals and its influence on shape control

    PubMed Central

    Padmos, J. Daniel; Personick, Michelle L.; Tang, Qing; Duchesne, Paul N.; Jiang, De-en; Mirkin, Chad A.; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the surface structure of metal nanocrystals with specific facet indices is important due to its impact on controlling nanocrystal shape and functionality. However, this is particularly challenging for halide-adsorbed nanocrystals due to the difficulty in analysing interactions between metals and light halides (for example, chloride). Here we uncover the surface structures of chloride-adsorbed, silver-coated gold nanocrystals with {111}, {110}, {310} and {720} indexed facets by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory modelling. The silver–chloride, silver–silver and silver–gold bonding structures are markedly different between the nanocrystal surfaces, and are sensitive to their formation mechanism and facet type. A unique approach of combining the density functional theory and experimental/simulated X-ray spectroscopy further verifies the surface structure models and identifies the previously indistinguishable valence state of silver atoms on the nanocrystal surfaces. Overall, this work elucidates the thus-far unknown chloride–metal nanocrystal surface structures and sheds light onto the halide-induced growth mechanism of anisotropic nanocrystals. PMID:26153854

  3. The surface structure of silver-coated gold nanocrystals and its influence on shape control

    SciTech Connect

    Padmos, J. Daniel; Personick, Michelle L.; Tang, Qing; Duchesne, Paul N.; Jiang, De-en; Mirkin, Chad A.; Zhang, Peng

    2015-07-08

    Understanding the surface structure of metal nanocrystals with specific facet indices is important due to its impact on controlling nanocrystal shape and functionality. However, this is particularly challenging for halide-adsorbed nanocrystals due to the difficulty in analysing interactions between metals and light halides (for example, chloride). Here we uncover the surface structures of chloride-adsorbed, silver-coated gold nanocrystals with {111}, {110}, {310} and {720} indexed facets by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory modelling. The silver–chloride, silver–silver and silver–gold bonding structures are markedly different between the nanocrystal surfaces, and are sensitive to their formation mechanism and facet type. A unique approach of combining the density functional theory and experimental/simulated X-ray spectroscopy further verifies the surface structure models and identifies the previously indistinguishable valence state of silver atoms on the nanocrystal surfaces. Overall, this work elucidates the thus-far unknown chloride–metal nanocrystal surface structures and sheds light onto the halide-induced growth mechanism of anisotropic nanocrystals.

  4. Surface modification of a gold-coated microcantilever and application in biomarker detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh Pham, Van; Nhat Khoa Phan, Thanh; Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Pham, Xuan Thanh Tung; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-12-01

    Biosensors have been rapidly developed recently. Biological receptors, such as antibodies, must be immobilized on these sensors’ surfaces to make the sensor capable of capturing a target analyte. In this research we studied how to modify a gold-coated surface of a microcantilever, a sensor with high potential in biological and medical applications. Thiol chemistry was adapted to create a cysteamine layer on a gold surface, and subsequently glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linking agent to react with amine groups in receptors. In order to evaluate the efficiency of immobilizing protein on an Au surface and also whether the protein retains its biological activity, horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) with its activity to catalyze a reaction between 2,2‧-azino-bis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) and {{{H}}}2{{{{O}}}2}- was used as a testing protein. The result showed that HRP was immobilized successfully on cysteamine and glutaraldehyde layers and retained its activity. The cantilever’s tip deflection was also measured, and results showed that each layer created surface stress and made the cantilever bend—in particular, the cysteamine layer induced bending as high as 6 μm. An antibody of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was immobilized on the cantilever surface, and the measurement deflection showed that the sensor responded to solution containing AFP with concentration from 100 to 500 ng ml-1.

  5. Photocatalytic Destruction of Tetracycline Hydrochloride on the Surface of Titanium Dioxide Films Modified by Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, O. P.; Zhukovskiy, M. A.; Starukh, G. N.; Smirnova, N. P.; Gaponenko, N. V.; Asharif, A. M.; Khoroshko, L. S.; Borisenko, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    Films of titania (TiO2) and titania modified with gold nanoparticles (TiO2:Au) were synthesized by a sol-gel method on substrates of glass, aluminum, and aluminum with a layer of nanotextured aluminum or porous anodic alumina. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated in an aqueous solution of the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). TC decomposition was observed in the presence of all samples as a reduction of the solution optical density in the range below 500 nm. Titania was in the crystalline anatase phase with incorporated spherical gold nanoparticles primarily of sizes 1-10 nm after heat treatment at 400°C. Modification of TiO2 films with gold nanoparticles on glass or aluminum substrates did not increase the photocatalytic activity of the samples. It was found that complexes of TC with Al3+ in solution formed only in the presence of gold nanoparticles in the film either in the dark or with UV irradiation.

  6. Assembly of gold nanoparticles on functionalized Si(100) surfaces through pseudorotaxane formation.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Alice; D'Orazi, Fabio; Carabelli, Elena; Bussolati, Rocco; Arduini, Arturo; Secchi, Andrea; Marrani, Andrea G; Zanoni, Robertino

    2013-06-10

    The assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a hydrogenated Si(100) surface, mediated by a series of hierarchical and reversible complexation processes, is reported. The proposed multi-step sequence involves a redox-active ditopic guest and suitable calix[n]arene-based hosts, used as functional organic monolayers of the two inorganic components. Surface reactions and controlled release of AuNPs have been monitored by application of XPS, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and electrochemistry. PMID:23606638

  7. Pure surface plasmon resonance enhancement of the first hyperpolarizability of gold core-silver shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abid, Jean-Pierre; Nappa, Jérôme; Girault, Hubert H; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2004-12-22

    We report the optical second harmonic (SH) response from gold core-silver shell nanoparticles supported at a liquid-liquid interface in the spectral region where the second harmonic generation (SHG) frequency is resonant with the surface plasmon (SP) resonance excitation of the nanoparticles. We compare these results with that obtained by classical linear optical absorption spectroscopy and show that the nonlinear optical response is dominated by the SP resonance enhancement with negligible contributions from the interband transitions. As a result, the SH spectrum exhibits two clear SP resonance bands attributed to the two SP resonances of the composite nanostructure formed by the gold core-silver shell nanoparticles. Absolute values of the hyperpolarizabilities are measured by hyper Rayleigh scattering (HRS) and compared that of pure gold nanoparticles. The hyperpolarizability measured at a harmonic energy of 3.0 eV, enhanced through excitation of the high energy SP resonance of the nanoparticle, increases with the silver content whereas the hyperpolarizability measured at a harmonic energy of 2.4 eV, enhanced through the excitation of the low energy SP resonance of the nanoparticle, decreases because of the shift of this resonance away from the harmonic frequency. The hyperpolarizability determined by HRS and the square root of the SHG intensities, scaling with the nanoparticle hyperpolarizability, have similar trends with respect to the silver content indicative of closely related adsorption properties yielding similar surface concentrations at the liquid-liquid interface. PMID:15606279

  8. Photon emission via surface state at the gold/acetonitrile solution interface

    SciTech Connect

    Uosaki, Kohei; Murakoshi, Kei; Kita, Hideaki )

    1991-01-24

    The emission of light caused by an electron-transfer reaction at a gold electrode in acetonitrile solution containing one of three redox species (benzophenone, trans-stilbene, and benzonitrile) with different redox potentials was studied. The high-energy threshold of the spectrum decreases linearly as the potential of the gold electrode becomes more negative. The peak position with respect to the high-energy threshold of the spectrum varies with electrode potential and is not affected by the redox potential of the electron injection species at the same electrode potential. The emission efficiency also depends on the potential. From these results, the authors proposed that the emission is due to a charge-transfer reaction inverse photoemission (CTRIP) process that takes place via a surface state.

  9. Gold Nanoparticle Assemblies on Surfaces: Reactivity Tuning through Capping-Layer and Cross-Linker Design.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sreejith; Orbach, Meital; Kaminker, Revital; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E

    2016-01-26

    The immobilization of metal nanoparticles (NPs) with molecular control over their organization is challenging. Herein, we report the formation of molecularly cross-linked AuNP assemblies using a layer-by-layer approach. We observed four types of assemblies: 1) small aggregates of individual AuNPs, 2) large aggregates of individual AuNPs, 3) networks of fused AuNPs, and 4) gold islands. Interestingly, these assemblies with the different cross-linkers and capping layers represent different stages in the complete fusion of AuNPs to afford islands of continuous gold. We demonstrate that the stability toward fusion of the nanoparticles of the on-surface structures can be controlled by the reactivity of the cross-linkers and the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles. PMID:26743768

  10. Fabrication of gold nanorods with tunable longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks by reductive dopamine.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaoxing; Yang, Chi; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-01-20

    Hydroxyphenol compounds are often used as reductants in controlling the growth of nanoparticles. Herein, dopamine was used as an effective reductant in seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods (GNRs). The as-prepared GNRs (83 × 16 nm) were monodisperse and had a high degree of purity. The conversion ratio from gold ions to GNRs was around 80%. In addition, dopamine worked as an additive. At a very low concentration of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB; 0.025 M), thinner and shorter GNRs (60 × 9 nm) were successfully prepared. By regulating the concentration of silver ions, CTAB, seeds, and reductant, GNRs with longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks ranging from 680 to 1030 nm were synthesized. The growth process was tracked using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, and it was found that a slow growth rate was beneficial to the formation of GNRs. PMID:25521416