Sample records for golden cuttlefish sepia

  1. Isozymes analysis of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianmin; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Rucai; Wang, Shidang; Zhou, Weiwu

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM) show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (P<0.99). The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

  2. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  3. Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203 Hg the juvenile common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis following exposures via seawater and food28 using sensitive radiotracer technique (203 Hg). The cuttlefish readily concentrated 203 Hg when29 exposed via seawater

  4. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food.envpol.2004.07.010 #12;2 ABSTRACT The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed

  5. Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

  6. ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF THE FIN MUSCULATURE OF THE CUTTLEFISH SEPIA OFFICINALIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. KIER; KATHLEEN K. SMITH; JALEEL A. MIYAN

    1989-01-01

    Summary The musculature of the fins of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) was studied with electromyography to test predictions of the functional role of the various muscle masses. Previous research had shown the fins to consist of a tightly packed, three-dimensional array of muscle with distinct zones of anaerobic glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibres. In addition, a network of

  7. Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN GEARY BOAL; REBECCA A. HYLTON; SUSAN A. GONZALEZ; ROGER T. HANLON

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of crowding on cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a benthic cephalopod, the behavior of captive-reared cuttlefish was monitored for a period of 1 month. One group of 6 cuttlefish was housed in a tank 6.1 m in diameter (4.87 m 2 per cuttlefish); another group of 6 was housed in a tank 1.5 m in diameter (0.29 m

  8. Chemical composition and thermal property of cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis) muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amonrat Thanonkaew; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition and thermal property of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) muscle were studied. The head and mantle contained 11.9–14.9% protein, 0.5% fat, 1.2–1.3% ash, and 0.6–1.8% collagen. Lipids from the head and mantle contained phospholipid as the major component (78.6–87.8% of total lipid), with 10.6–19.5% diglyceride. Polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted 50.3–54.9% of fatty acids with a high content of DHA

  9. Isolation and characterisation of collagen from the outer skin waste material of cuttlefish ( Sepia lycidas)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nagai; Eiji Yamashita; Kei Taniguchi; Norio Kanamori; Nobutaka Suzuki

    2001-01-01

    In an investigation into making more effective use of underutilized resources, collagen was prepared from the outer skin of cuttlefish (Sepia lycidas). Initial extraction of the cuttlefish outer skin in acetic acid yielded only 2% of collagen (dry weight basis). On subsequent digestion of the residue with 10% pepsin (w\\/v), a solubilized collagen (PSC) was obtained in a yield of

  10. Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

    2005-01-01

    The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

  11. The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    that cuttlefish--although color blind--actively match various colors of their immediate surroundings, yet and signaling, despite their apparent color-blindness (Brown and Brown 1958; Hanlon and Messenger 1996; MarshallORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Lydia M. Ma

  13. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

  14. Respiration of the eggs of the giant cuttlefish Sepia apama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Cronin; R. S. Seymour

    2000-01-01

    On the roofs of subtidal crevices, the giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) of southern Australia lays clutches of lemon-shaped eggs which hatch after 3 to 5?mo. Diffusion of oxygen through the capsule\\u000a and chorion membrane to the perivitelline fluid and embryo was modelled using the equation V?\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?G\\u000a \\u000a O2(P\\u000a \\u000a O2out?P\\u000a \\u000a O2in), where V?\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?rate of oxygen consumption, G\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?oxygen conductance of

  15. Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2014-03-01

    To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration. PMID:23982859

  16. Principal features of the mating system of a large spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hall; R. T. Hanlon

    2002-01-01

    Every winter thousands of cuttlefish (Sepia apama Gray) aggregate to spawn along a restricted area of rocky reef in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia. It is the only known spawning aggregation of cuttlefish in the world and represents an exceptional cuttlefish mating system. Spawning population structure and reproductive behavior were studied quantitatively by underwater visual transects and by focal-animal behavioral

  17. Molecular and morphological analyses of the cuttlefish Sepia apama indicate a complex population structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Kassahn; S. C. Donnellan; A. J. Fowler; K. C. Hall; M. Adams; P. W. Shaw

    2003-01-01

    The giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama Gray, 1849 annually forms a massive and unique spawning aggregation in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia, which has attracted commercial fishing interests in recent years. However, many basic life-history characteristics of S. apama are unknown, and anecdotal evidence suggests that there is more than one species. The present study assessed the population structure and

  18. Allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcos Pérez-Losada; Ángel Guerra; Andrés Sanjuan

    1999-01-01

    The Atlantic–Mediterranean area has recently been proposed as a new phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance of genetic differentiation patterns observed in several marine species. However, additional taxa need to be studied to establish the phylogeographical relationship between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Eleven samples of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis around the Iberian Peninsula, one from the Canary Islands, and

  19. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia M. Mäthger; Alexandra Barbosa; Simon Miner; Roger T. Hanlon

    2006-01-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to

  20. A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Je´re´my Enault1 migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones the identification of sex pheromones, 576 59-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library

  1. Rapid taste aversion learning in adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq; Ludovic Dickel; Marie-Paule Chichery; Véronique Agin; Raymond Chichery

    2004-01-01

    The common cuttlefish is an opportunistic predator with certain prey preferences. The literature suggests that learning plays a role in the predatory behaviour of cuttlefish. However, nothing is known about taste aversion learning in cephalopods. We developed a learning procedure in which the preferred prey of the experimental cuttlefish was made distasteful by a bitter taste (quinine). In the training

  2. Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

    Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

  3. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains. PMID:16376404

  4. Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Dunn

    1999-01-01

    Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

  5. Sensory, microbiological, physical and chemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii) stored in ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas; Micaela Mota; Judite Lapa-Guimarães; Jana Pickova; Andreia Lindo; Teresa Silva

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize whole raw cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) during storage in ice through sensory, microbiological, chemical and physical analyses. The recently developed Quality Index Method (QIM) tables for these species were used for sensory analysis. Shelf-life of whole cuttlefish and shortfin squid were estimated as around 10 and 9 days,

  6. The effect of ration size, temperature and body weight on specific dynamic action of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Grigoriou; C. A. Richardson

    2008-01-01

    The effect of meal size (shrimp Crangon crangon) [0.83–18.82% dry body weight (Dw)] on specific dynamic action (SDA) was assessed in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (1.03–6.25 g Dw) held at 15 and 20°C. Cuttlefish <2 g significantly expended less energy in feeding and digesting their meal\\u000a than cuttlefish >2 g when given the same quantity of food. Handling, eating and digesting

  7. Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ?150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (?) monounsaturated fatty acids, ? n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less ? n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

  8. Distance chemoreception in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G Boal; D. K Golden

    1999-01-01

    Cephalopods are highly visual animals; the importance of chemical perception to these complex mollusks is less well understood. In this experiment, ventilation rate was used to measure the perception of chemical stimuli by cultured juvenile cuttlefish. The test tank had opaque sides and top to visually isolate the cuttlefish. A clear bottom permitted direct observation of funnel movements associated with

  9. Electron-dense tracer evidence for a blood—brain barrier in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Abbott; M. Bundgaard

    1992-01-01

    Summary Electron-dense tracers were used to study the permeability of the blood—brain interface in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefishSepia officinalis. Gel filtration established that horseradish peroxidase is a suitable tracer forin vivo injection, but microperoxidase is not, being subject to binding by plasma proteins. Perfusion-fixed brain vertical and optic lobes showed no endogenous peroxidatic activity. Horseradish peroxidase was injected intravenously,

  10. Behavioral aspects of sperm competition in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Sepioidea: Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Hanlon; S. A. Ament; H. Gabr

    1999-01-01

    Sexual selection studies in cephalopods indicate that sperm competition is a central feature of their mating systems, yet\\u000a this has not been studied experimentally in any detail. In 1998 we staged 20 matings of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L., in the laboratory. Males rapidly initiated mating in the “head-to-head” position, with no apparent courtship. Mating\\u000a lasted an average of 10?min

  11. Social recognition using chemical cues in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Boal; S. E. Marsh

    1998-01-01

    Forty-five full-sized, virgin cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus) were tested for social discriminations on the basis of chemical cues alone. Subjects were tested by placing them in the base of a Y-maze and permitting them to choose between the two arms of the maze, each arm with a different water supply. Each subject was tested three times: once with water from

  12. Variation of acid phosphatases and cathepsins activities in the cuttlefish1 (Sepia officinalis) eggs: specific activity and effects of Ag, Cd, Cu exposures2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Variation of acid phosphatases and cathepsins activities in the cuttlefish1 (Sepia officinalisP) and cathepsin24 activities throughout the cuttlefish embryo development. The enzyme activity kinetics25 appeared-11Oct2010 #12;3 Introduction40 41 Among cephalopods, Sepioidea (cuttlefishes) lay singly medium size

  13. Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia1 officinalis and responses to the Ag and Cu exposure2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia1 officinalis and responses in the cuttlefish embryo sampled at the end of the26 organogenesis and few hours before hatching. Various modulators demonstrated the28 evidence of a true phenoloxidase activity in the cuttlefish embryo. However, SDS and LPS29

  14. Effect of aging on manipulative behavior in the cuttlefish, sepia.

    PubMed

    Halm, M P; Agin, V; Chichery, M P; Chichery, R

    2000-02-01

    The cuttlefish is an active predator that is able to catch crabs of a size that is large relative to its own. The capture is followed by a complex manipulative behavior leading to paralysis of the prey by injection of a cephalotoxin. This manipulative behavior is relatively stereotyped, and earlier research has shown that the cuttlefish concentrates its bite on the articular basi-ischiocoxopodite membrane of the crab's fifth pair of pereiopods. By placing mechanical constraints on the base of the fifth pereiopods, we were able to demonstrate that this manipulative behavior presents a marked degree of stereotypy but is not rigidly fixed. Substantial behavioral differences, however, were observed between subadult and senescent cuttlefish. The existence of a reduction in behavioral flexibility in the older animals in reaction to the constraints is discussed. PMID:10713295

  15. Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

  16. Development of new quality index method (QIM) schemes for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of sensory schemes for freshness grading of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) based on the recent quality index method (QIM). As preliminary work, four storage experiments were performed to choose the relevant sensory parameters for building the schemes. From an initial large set of parameters, some were chosen to be attributes

  17. The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

  18. Extensive population subdivision of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) around the Iberian Peninsula indicated by microsatellite DNA variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Pérez-Losada; A Guerra; G R Carvalho; A Sanjuan; P W Shaw

    2002-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea junction has been proposed as an important phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance in genetic patterns observed at allozyme, mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers in several marine species. This study presents microsatellite DNA data for a mobile invertebrate species in this area, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, allowing comparison of this relatively new class of DNA

  19. Maturation, fecundity and seasonality of reproduction of two commercially valuable cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis and S. dollfusi, in the Suez Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howaida R Gabr; Roger T Hanlon; Mahmoud H Hanafy; Salah G El-Etreby

    1998-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (maximum 250mm mantle length, ML) and S. dollfusi (maximum 150mm ML) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea to Japan and Australia. They are the primary fishery in the Suez Canal and the most valuable commercial cephalopods in the northern Indian Ocean. However, their reproductive biology, essential for fishery management, is poorly known.

  20. Isolation and Identification of a Novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-Related Peptide Inhibiting the Motility of the Mature Oviduct in the Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Henry; Pascal Favrel; Eve Boucaud-Camou

    1997-01-01

    Henry J., P. Favrel and E. Boucaud-Camou. Isolation and identification of a novel APGW-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Peptides 18(10) 1469–1474, 1997.—A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide

  1. First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Jeffree, Ross; Bustamante, Paco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a first insight on the incorporation of eight metals in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques ((110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn, (75)Se and (65)Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily with radiolabelled crabs for two weeks; it then started to spawn every three days. Among the eight tracers, only (110m)Ag, (75)Se and (65)Zn were significantly transferred to the eggs. The radiotracer distribution among the egg compartments showed that (75)Se and (65)Zn were accumulated mainly in the vitellus whereas (110m)Ag was found in similar proportion in the vitellus and the eggshell. During the embryonic development, (75)Se and (65)Zn contained in the vitellus were progressively transferred to the embryo, likely to supply its metabolic needs in these essential elements. Although it has no known biological functions, Ag contained in both vitellus and eggshell was also transferred to the embryo. Overall, our results showed that transfer of Ag, Se, and Zn does actually occur from a female cuttlefish to its eggs, at least during the last two weeks before spawning. PMID:18342895

  2. Effects of feeding live or frozen prey on growth, survival and the life cycle of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

    2003-01-01

    The effects of feeding live or frozen grass shrimp (Palaemonetes varians) to the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, were determined in two experiments. During Experiment I, two populations of 30 cuttlefish (aged 90 days old) were fed either\\u000a live or frozen grass shrimp. Cuttlefish fed live shrimp grew larger, matured earlier, had a shorter life cycle (255 days)\\u000a than the ones fed

  3. Physiological perturbations in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis induced by subchronic exposure to dissolved zinc.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Dallas, Lorna; Koueta, Noussithé

    2015-06-30

    Although cephalopod early life stage development often occurs in coastal areas where contamination is real and continuous, the physiological perturbations induced by contaminants have been rarely investigated. This study focused on the Zn as it is one of the trace metals the most concentrated in coastal waters, worldwide. As Zn-tolerance limits were unknown in juvenile Sepia officinalis, the aim of this study was to estimate the threshold inducing mortality during the 2-first weeks post-hatching, and to determine its sensitivity using digestive and immune enzymatic assays, as well as growth and behavior follow-up during the first 5weeks post-hatching. Our study highlighted a Zn-mortality threshold lying between 185 and 230?gl(-1), and growth reductions occurring after 5-week at 108?gl(-1) and above, associated with enzymatic perturbations. These results underline a relatively important sensitivity of juvenile cuttlefish to Zn, pointed out by a wide diversity of biomarkers. PMID:25749315

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the common cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanchao; Guo, Baoying; Li, Jiji; Qi, Pengzhi; Wu, Changwen

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the common cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis was determined first. The genome was 16,208?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)], the gene composition and order of which were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. pharaonis is T: 36.3%, C: 14.7%, A: 40.9% and G: 8.1%, with a hightly A?+?T bias of 77.2%. Two control regions all contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigations of the phylogenetic relationships, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:23725482

  5. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mäthger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

  6. The effects of feeding with shrimp or fish fry on growth and mantle lipid composition of juvenile and adult cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Almansa; Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Noemi Tejera; António Lorenzo; José P. Andrade

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) aged 60-day-old (age-group I) and 120-day-old (age-group II) were fed with live shrimp and live fish fry for 60 days, in order to study the diet influence on growth, mantle lipid composition, and astaxanthin content in the skin. The most noteworthy difference was the higher growth observed in shrimp-fed cuttlefish with respect to

  7. Identification and expression of two oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Henry, Joël; Cornet, Valerie; Bernay, Benoit; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2013-08-01

    Two novel members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily have been identified in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Oxytocin/vasopressin gene sequences were cloned by Race PCR. The two precursors we identified exhibit the classical organization of OT/VP superfamily precursors: a signal peptide followed by a nonapeptide and a neurophysin domain. The neurophysin domain is entirely conserved for the cuttlefish precursors, but the nonapeptides and the signal peptides differ. The first nonapeptide, called sepiatocin, is highly homologous to Octopus vulgaris octopressin. The second nonapeptide, called pro-sepiatocin, shows sequence homologies with a Crustacean oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide identified in Daphnia culex and with a novel form of oxytocin described in New World monkeys. The expression of pro-sepiatocin is restricted to the supraesophageal and subesophageal masses of the brain whereas sepiatocin is expressed in the entire central nervous system. Sepiatocin, as described for octopressin, modulates the contractile activity of several muscles such as penis, oviduct and vena cava muscles; this suggests its involvement in reproduction and blood circulation. Pro-sepiatocin is released in the hemolymph; it is a neurohormone able to target numerous peripheral organs. PMID:23764263

  8. Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Dupavillon, Jacqueline L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2009-01-01

    With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different concentrations of desalination brine on the growth, survival and condition of cuttlefish embryos were investigated. The primary egg-laying sites for the cuttlefish were in the vicinity of Stony Point (sites 4 and 3) and the area with the least egg abundance was on the eastern and western areas around Point Lowly (sites 9 and 7) where no eggs were found. The survival of embryos decreased with an increase in salinity, with no embryos surviving to full term in salinities greater than 50 per thousand. Mean weight and mantle length also decreased with increasing salinity. Besides elevated salinity, the brine also had increased concentrations of Ba, Ca, K, Sr and Mg relative to water near Point Lowly. Brine discharge from seawater desalination poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia. PMID:19332355

  9. Cuttlefish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arad M. (None; )

    2006-09-25

    Cuttlefish have the ability to change their skin coloring and pattern to match their surroundings. The cuttlefish uses this ability to camouflage, or hide, itself against its background and also to communicate with other ocean dwellers.

  10. The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2013-05-01

    The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field. PMID:23474299

  11. Response of female cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda) to mirrors and conspecifics: evidence for signaling in female cuttlefish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Palmer; M. Richard Calvé; Shelley A. Adamo

    2006-01-01

    Cuttlefish have a large repertoire of body patterns that are used for camouflage and interspecific signaling. Intraspecific\\u000a signaling by male cuttlefish has been well documented but studies on signaling by females are lacking. We found that females\\u000a displayed a newly described body pattern termed Splotch toward their mirror image and female conspecifics, but not to males,\\u000a prey or inanimate objects.

  12. Effect of enriched natural diet on survival and growth of juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Koueta; E Boucaud-Camou; B Noel

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile cuttlefish hatched in the laboratory were reared for 30 days with different enriched diets, in spring and in summer. The groups fed an enriched natural diet exhibited a high rate of survival even when seawater quality decreased during the summer. The natural diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) induced faster growth in juvenile cuttlefish; the stimulating effect of

  13. Effects of culture density and live prey on growth and survival of juvenile cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Domingues; R. Poirier; L. Dickel; E. Almansa; A. Sykes; J. P. Andrade

    2003-01-01

    The effects of culture density on growth and survival of juvenile cuttlefish were tested. Groups of 1, 3 and 5 hatchlings were placed in small containers with bottom surface of 80 cm2, obtaining individual densities of 125, 375 and 625 cuttlefish m-2, respectively. Additionally, groups of 5 hatchlings were placed in containers with 2 different bottom areas (80 and 240

  14. Evidence for a specific short-term memory in the cuttlefish, Sepia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Véronique Agin; Ludovic Dickel; Raymond Chichery; Marie-Paule Chichery

    1998-01-01

    Cuttlefish quickly learn to inhibit their predatory motor pattern when shown prawns in a glass tube. The available literature suggests that cuttlefish show an excellent retention between 2 and 8 min, a recovery of the predatory responses around 20 min and good retention after 1 h of the training phase. These results have been considered as the product of two

  15. The effect of metal ions on lipid oxidation, colour and physicochemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis) subjected to multiple freeze–thaw cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amonrat Thanonkaew; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Eric A. Decker

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different metal ions at various concentrations (0, 5, 25ppm) on lipid oxidation, discolouration and physicochemical properties of muscle protein in cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) subjected to multiple freeze–thaw cycles, were investigated. Lipid oxidation of all treatments increased as the freeze–thaw cycle increased. However, the rate of the TBARS increases varied, depending on concentration, type and valency of the

  16. Octopine metabolism in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis : Octopine production by muscle and its role as an aerobic substrate for non-muscular tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth B. Storey; Janet M. Storey

    1979-01-01

    1.The metabolism of the glycolytic end product, octopine, was investigated in vivo in the cuttlefish,Sepia officinalis. Octopine was the major mantle muscle end product produced during hypoxia, exhaustive swimming, or exhaustive swimming followed by hypoxia (muscle octopine rose from 0.2 to 3.7, 8.6, and 13.4 µmol\\/g wet wt. respectively). Octopine concentration was inversely correlated with muscle glycogen and arginine phosphate

  17. Dimorphic growth in male and female cuttlefish Sepia orbignyana (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae) from the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Giambattista

    2001-04-01

    The relationships between mantle length and number of cuttlebone chambers (or septa), and between weight and number of cuttlebone chambers were studied in Sepia orbignyana collected in the south-western Adriatic Sea. Weight-at-chamber count and mantle length-at-chamber count were statistically higher in females than in males. As the available literature suggests that the rate of cuttlebone septum formation is the same in both sexes of Sepia species, it follows that in S. orbignyana females have higher growth rates than males.

  18. Changes in composition of digestive gland and mantle muscle of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis during starvation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Castro; J. L. Garrido; C. G. Sotelo

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the biochemical composition of the digestive gland and in the proteins of the mantle muscle of Sepia officinalis L, collected in September 1989 from the Ria de Vigo (northwest Spain), were measured during periods of 2, 4, 10 and >53 d starvation. The digestive gland lost weight faster than the rest of the body throughout the whole period

  19. The Functional Organization of the Brain of the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Boycott

    1961-01-01

    The functional organization of the brain of Sepia has been investigated by electrical stimulation. As a result several new divisions of the brain have been made. The pedal ganglion has been shown to consist of four parts: (1) the anterior chromatophore lobes innervating the skin and muscles of the anterior part of the head and arms; (2) the anterior pedal

  20. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: radiotracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T; Warnau, M; Metian, M; Oberhänsli, F; Rouleau, C; Bustamante, P

    2009-12-01

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved (203)Hg and (210)Pb were determined during the entire embryonic development of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50d at 17 degrees C). (203)Hg and (210)Pb were accumulated continuously by the eggs all along the development time reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 467+/-43 and 1301+/-126g, respectively. During the first month, most of the (203)Hg and (210)Pb remained associated with the eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From this time onwards, (203)Hg accumulated in the embryo, indicating that it passed through the eggshell, whereas (210)Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a significant source of exposure for the embryo. This study highlighted that the maturing embryo could be subjected to the toxic effects of Hg in the coastal waters where the embryonic development is taking place. PMID:19783030

  1. Using the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) mass breeding aggregation to explore the life cycle of dicyemid parasites.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R; Whittington, Ian D; Donnellan, Stephen C; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2013-12-01

    Dicyemid mesozoan parasites, microscopic organisms found with high intensities in the renal appendages of benthic cephalopods, have a complex, partially unknown life cycle. It is uncertain at which host life cycle stage (i.e. eggs, juvenile, adult) new infection by the dispersive infusoriform embryo occurs. As adult cephalopods have a short lifespan and die shortly after reproducing only once, and juveniles are fast-moving, we hypothesize that the eggs are the life cycle stage where new infection occurs. Eggs are abundant and sessile, allowing a huge number of new individuals to be infected with low energy costs, and they also provide dicyemids with the maximum amount of time for survival compared with infection of juvenile and adult stages. In our study we collected giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) eggs at different stages of development and filtered seawater samples from the S. apama mass breeding aggregation area in South Australia, Australia, and tested these samples for the presence of dicyemid DNA. We did not recover dicyemid parasite cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences from any of the samples, suggesting eggs are not the stage where new infection occurs. To resolve this unknown in the dicyemid life cycle, we believe experimental infection is needed. PMID:24338325

  2. Characterization of homeobox genes reveals sophisticated regionalization of the central nervous system in the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  3. Characterization of Homeobox Genes Reveals Sophisticated Regionalization of the Central Nervous System in the European Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  4. Basic growth relations in experimental rearing of early juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Koueta; E Boucaud-Camou

    2001-01-01

    Basic growth relations were studied in experimental rearing of juvenile cuttlefish during 40 days. Eleven different rations of food were offered in order to establish the maintenance, optimum, and maximum rations during the early life of these animals. The maintenance ration, 2–3.5% of body weight, decreased with age. The optimum rations were, respectively, 16.2%, 14% and 9% during 10, 20

  5. First multi-generation culture of the tropical cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Minton; L. S. Walsh; P. G. Lee; J. W. Forsythe

    2002-01-01

    Sepiapharaonis, the pharaoh cuttlefish was cultured through multiplegenerations in the laboratory (5 consecutive generations) using closed,recirculating water filtration systems. The eggs of the original parentalgeneration (GP) were spawned by a wild caught Gulf of Thailandfemale in alocal fisheries laboratory, then packed and shipped air cargo to Texas wherehatching occurred. The culture temperature ranged 25°–28°C, except for one generation that was

  6. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor

    E-print Network

    Checa, Antonio G; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin-protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that tw...

  7. Differential bioaccumulation behaviour of Ag and Cd during the early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T; Warnau, M; Oberhänsli, F; Teyssié, J-L; Koueta, N; Bustamante, P

    2008-02-18

    Cuttlefish eggs were exposed to background concentrations of dissolved Ag and Cd, using the radiotracers (110m)Ag and (109)Cd. At different time of the embryonic development (50 days), some eggs were placed in non-contaminating conditions. During the experiment, the uptake and depuration kinetics, and distribution of these metals among the egg compartments (i.e. eggshell, vitellus, peri-vitelline fluid and embryo) were assessed. In parallel, experiments were conducted with sub-lethal concentrations of stable Ag and Cd (2 and 1 microgl(-1), respectively) to compare the metal behaviour at higher concentrations. From the spawning date up to 1 month of development, both metals were taken up efficiently by the eggs, reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 1059+/-75 and 239+/-22 for (110m)Ag and (109)Cd, respectively. From this time onwards, (110m)Ag activity continued to increase in eggs, whereas (109)Cd kinetics displayed a significant decrease. Whatever the developmental stage, Cd was mainly associated with the eggshell all along the exposure experiment. In addition, both stable Cd concentrations and (109)Cd LCR remained low in the embryo all along the embryonic development, indicating that the eggshell acted as an efficient shield against the penetration of this metal. In contrast, (110m)Ag passed through the eggshell from day 30 onwards and was then accumulated in the embryo, which contained more than 40% of the whole egg metal burden at the end of the exposure period. In depuration conditions, it is noteworthy that Ag continued to accumulate in the embryo indicating translocation processes from the eggshell and a high affinity of the metal for the embryo tissues. Overall our results showed that at day 30 of the embryonic development the cuttlefish eggshell becomes permeable to Ag but not to Cd. Exposure to stable metals confirmed the saturation capacities of the eggshell for Cd and the Ag penetration properties. PMID:18243362

  8. Variation of heavy metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, V, and Zn) during the life cycle of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Miramand, Pierre; Bustamante, Paco; Bentley, Daniel; Kouéta, Noussithé

    2006-05-15

    The developmental changes in the concentration of 8 essential and non-essential heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Pb, V, Zn) in the tissues (digestive gland, cuttlebone and whole animal) of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis collected in the bay of the river Seine were monitored from the end of the embryogenesis until the adult reproductive stage. Compared to embryos, juveniles after hatching displayed much higher concentrations of Ag, Cu, Fe and Zn, suggesting an efficient incorporation from seawater. Conversely, the amounts of Cd, Pb and V in hatchlings remained constant suggesting that these metals are barely bioavailable for juveniles. Once the juveniles start to feed, the digestive gland appears to play a major role in the storage of all metals. After only one month of benthic life, the digestive gland already contains up to 90% of the total metal body burden, indicating that it plays a major role in the storage and presumed detoxification of the selected metals. Metal concentrations in the digestive gland increase in a logarithmic fashion with age during the entire life of cuttlefish, except for Ag, which decreases as soon as cuttlefish migrate to open sea. This strongly suggests that (1) Ag is excreted from the digestive gland in relation to presumably lower exposure in less contaminated environments compared to coastal waters and (2) the digestive gland of cephalopods could be a very good indicator of Ag contamination in the marine environment. PMID:16336990

  9. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P.; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin–protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation. PMID:26086668

  10. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin-protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation. PMID:26086668

  11. Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

    2012-07-01

    The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

  12. Evidence for biased use of sperm sources in wild female giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama)

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Marie-José; Shaw, Paul W; Hanlon, Roger T; Havenhand, Jon N

    2005-01-01

    In species where females store sperm from their mates prior to fertilization, sperm competition is particularly probable. Female Sepia apama are polyandrous and have access to sperm from packages (spermatangia) deposited by males onto their buccal area during mating and to sperm stored in internal sperm-storage organs (receptacles) located below the beak. Here, we describe the structure of the sperm stores in the female's buccal area, use microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the genetic diversity of stored sperm and combine these data with offspring genotypes to determine the storage location of paternal sperm. The number of male genotypes represented in the sperm receptacles was significantly lower than that found among the spermatangia. Estimation of the volumes of sperm contained in the receptacles and the spermatangia were statistically comparable; however, paternal sperm were more likely to have come from spermatangia than from the sperm receptacles. These results confirm a genetic polyandrous mating system in this species and suggest that fertilization pattern with respect to the sperm stores used is not random. PMID:16024363

  13. Growth and survival of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) of different ages fed crustaceans and fish. Effects of frozen and live prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Anne Sommerfield; Eduardo Almansa; António Lorenzo; José P. Andrade

    2004-01-01

    Three feeding experiments, using live mysid shrimp, grass shrimp or fish fry as prey for 1-, 30- and 60-day-old cuttlefish were conducted to determine the efficiency of each dietary source in relation to cuttlefish size and age. Additionally, a fourth experiment using fish fry and grass shrimp, but previously frozen, was also conducted. The results showed that when 1-day-old cuttlefish

  14. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 ?m×12.2 ?m. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 ?m2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 ?m×12.1 ?m. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 ?m×5.5 ?m. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231

  15. Postembryonic Maturation of the Vertical Lobe Complex and Early Development of Predatory Behavior in the Cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Dickel; Marie-Paule Chichery; Raymond Chichery

    1997-01-01

    In two groups of newly hatched cuttlefish, from eggs incubated at different temperatures, the emergence of predatory pursuit was correlated with the development of some characteristics of the vertical lobe complex (namely, the development of the vertical and superior frontal lobes and the appearance of the vertical–subvertical lobe tracts) and with the state of resorption of the inner yolk sac.

  16. Rearing of Cuttlefishes and Squids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Choe; YASUO OHSHIMA

    1963-01-01

    WE have succeeded (through improving the feed during the earlier stages after hatching) in rearing three species of the cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta Hoyle, Sepia subaculeata Sasaki and Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune) and two species of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson and Euprymna beryii Sasaki)1. The main points to note in rearing these animals are as follows:

  17. Behavioural and genetic assessment of reproductive success in a spawning aggregation of the Australian giant cuttlefish, Sepia apama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-José Naud; Roger T. Hanlon; Karina C. Hall; Paul W. Shaw; Jonathan N. Havenhand

    2004-01-01

    The only known spawning aggregation of cuttlefish occurs in winter in southern Australia. The operational sex ratio in this aggregation is highly skewed towards males (range 11:1 to 4:1). Using SCUBA, we videotaped females as they mated with up to six males\\/h. Females rejected and accepted mates of any status or size. We obtained individual eggs and tissue samples from

  18. Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and responses to the Ag and Cu exposure.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T; Bustamante, P; Hörlin, E; Luna-Acosta, A; Bado-Nilles, A; Thomas-Guyon, H

    2009-09-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) system catalyzing the melanin production is considered as implicated in the innate immune system in invertebrates. The phenoloxidase (PO)-like activity was detected in the cuttlefish embryo sampled at the end of the organogenesis and few hours before hatching. Various modulators of the PO activity were used to assess the triggering of the proPO activating system. The results demonstrated the evidence of a true PO activity in the cuttlefish embryo. However, SDS and LPS granted contrasting effects on the PO-like activity between the developmental stages suggesting a progressive maturation of the proPO system from the embryonic to the juvenile stages. In eggs exposed to dissolved trace metals all along the embryonic development, Ag (1.2 microg L(-1)) inhibited the PO-like activity in the cuttlefish embryo except at hatching time, suggesting the synthesis of a new "juvenile" form of the PO enzyme. In similar conditions as for Ag, Cu (230 microg L(-1)) stimulated and then inhibited the PO-like activity according to a progressive metal accumulation within the egg and suggesting the occurrence of a threshold, above which the toxicity of the essential metal reduced the PO activity. PMID:19616632

  19. The influence of culture density and enriched environments on the first stage culture of young cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António V. Sykes; Pedro M. Domingues; Maria Loyd; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

    2003-01-01

    The culture of Sepia officinalis hatchlings and juveniles at different densities and enriched environments was investigated. Experiments were conducted to\\u000a determine effects of culture density and the use of a substrate on growth and survival. Experiment I studied the effect of\\u000a three different densities (52, 515 and 1544 hatchlings m?2). Experiment II tested the effects of the enriched environment, using

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences – a case study using trawl fishery data in French Atlantic coastal, English Channel, and adjacent waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Wang; Graham J. Pierce; Peter R. Boyle; Vincent Denis; Jean-paul Robin; Jose M. Bellido

    2003-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of cuttlefish abundance and the relationships between cuttlefish abundance and environmental variables in the French Atlantic coast, the English Channel, and adjacent waters were studied using both geographical information system and statistical methods. Cuttlefish have a clear general annual migration pattern, consistently occurring in broadly the same areas in different years. The strength of

  1. Sexually mature cuttlefish are attracted to the eggs of conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Boal, Jean G; Prosser, Krista N; Holm, Johanna B; Simmons, Tiffany L; Haas, Robert E; Nagle, Gregg T

    2010-08-01

    Cuttlefish typically are solitary, but form aggregations to spawn. We tested the hypothesis that bioactive factors in the eggs of conspecifics may facilitate the formation of spawning groups of Sepia officinalis. Cuttlefish detected odors from cuttlefish eggs, resulting in an increased ventilation rate. Extracts from female ovaries induced the largest increase in ventilation rate, suggesting that this organ could be a potential source of the bioactive chemicals. In y-maze assays, sexually mature, but not subadult, cuttlefish, were attracted to odors of cuttlefish eggs. These data suggest that Sepia eggs could be a source of reproductive pheromones. PMID:20593225

  2. Tightness of the blood-brain barrier and evidence for brain interstitial fluid flow in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, N J; Bundgaard, M; Cserr, H F

    1985-01-01

    Cephalopod molluscs have complex brains and behaviour, yet little is known about the permeability of their blood-brain interface. The accompanying paper characterized the fluid compartments of the brain and presented evidence for restricted permeability of the blood-brain interface to albumin. The present paper investigates the permeability of the interface to small non-electrolytes. [14C]Polyethylene glycol (PEG, mol. wt. 4000), and [51Cr]EDTA (mol. wt. 342) were injected intravenously or intramuscularly, and their penetration into brain and muscle studied up to 48 h. Tracers equilibrated with muscle interstitial fluid (ISF) at relatively short times, but in brain ISF reached only 0.5-0.65 X their plasma concentration. This is qualitative evidence for the presence in brain of a barrier to these molecules and an efficient drainage mechanism for ISF. Quantitative treatment of the uptake data allows calculation of the permeability X surface area product (PS) and the permeability coefficient (P). For the brain PS and P are in the range 1-3 X 10(-4) ml g-1 min-1 and 1-3 X 10(-8) cm s-1 respectively, (PEG), and 3 X 10(-4) ml g-1 min-1 and 3-4 X 10(-8) cm s-1 respectively (Cr-EDTA). The P values are close to those reported for mammalian brain. Assuming that the lack of equilibration in brain is due to ISF flow, the rate of flow can be calculated. Values for vertical and optic lobe are approximately 0.2 microliter g-1 min-1, again close to those reported for mammalian brain. It is concluded that the tightness of the Sepia blood-brain barrier approaches that of mammals, and a flowing ISF system is present. An association between a tight barrier and higher central nervous system integrative function is suggested. The significance of these findings for the evolution of control of the brain microenvironment is discussed. Images Fig. 5 PMID:3935776

  3. Time differences in the emergence of short- and long-term memory during post-embryonic development in the cuttlefish, Sepia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Dickel; Marie-Paule Chichery; Raymond Chichery

    1998-01-01

    When shown prawns in a glass tube, cuttlefish quickly learn to inhibit their predatory behaviour. The available literature suggests that cuttlefish show an excellent retention between 2 and 8 min, a recovery of the predatory responses around 20 min, and good retention after 1 h of the training phase. These results have been interpreted as the product of separate short-

  4. Cuttlefish use polarization sensitivity in predation on silvery fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadav Shashar; Roland Hagan; Jean G Boal; Roger T Hanlon

    2000-01-01

    Cephalopods are sensitive to the linear polarization characteristics of light. To examine if this polarization sensitivity plays a role in the predatory behavior of cuttlefish, we examined the preference of Sepia officinalis when presented with fish whose polarization reflection was greatly reduced versus fish whose polarization reflection was not affected. Cuttlefish preyed preferably on fish with normal polarization reflection over

  5. Uptake, transfer and distribution of silver and cobalt in tissues of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at different stages of its life cycle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    officinalis at different stages of its life cycle P. Bustamante1, *, J.-L. Teyssié2 , B. Danis3 , S. W. Fowler experiments were conducted on adult cuttlefish and their eggs/embryos in order to assess bioaccumulation patterns at different stages of the organism's life cycle. Eggs, juveniles and adults readily accumulated

  6. Signaling to the enemy? Body pattern expression and its response to external cues during hunting in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Ehgoetz, Kelly; Sangster, Cheryl; Whitehorne, Ivy

    2006-06-01

    Cuttlefish can rapidly alter their appearance by using neurally controlled chromatophore organs. This ability may provide a window into their cognitive capacity. We test whether the changes in body pattern that occur during hunting depend on context. If they do, then it may be possible to use these changes to study cephalopod cognition while the animal is engaged in ecologically relevant tasks. We found consistent individual differences in the tendency of cuttlefish to hunt with the first two arms raised. We also found that cuttlefish usually darken their skin after they seize a prey item. This darkening is observed regardless of the identity of the prey (fish, crab, or shrimp), prey context (buried in sand, in a bare tank, or on top of a rock pile), or the presence of a sudden stimulus. The sudden stimulus was created by presenting an overhead model bird to the cuttlefish. The model induced components of the Deimatic Display, which is a form of antipredator behavior, suggesting that the model was perceived as a potential threat. Passing Cloud displays and the Darkening of the arms were significantly reduced after exposure to the model bird. The effect of a potential predator on body pattern expression during hunting suggests it may be possible to use these changes as a sensitive indicator of ecologically relevant learning. PMID:16801494

  7. The effects of temperature in the life cycle of two consecutive generations of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), cultured in the Algarve (South Portugal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

    2002-01-01

    We are presently culturing the 4th generation of thecuttlefish, Sepia officinalis in our laboratory. A firstgeneration (F1) was grown from eggs collected from the wild (Ria Formosa–South Portugal) during the summer, at mean temperatures of 27°C ± 3°. In the present study, a second generation(F2), originated from eggs laid in the laboratory by females from F1 wascultured between the start

  8. The scaling effects of substrate texture on camouflage patterning in cuttlefish Chuan-Chin Chiao a,b,*, Charles Chubb c

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    The scaling effects of substrate texture on camouflage patterning in cuttlefish Chuan-Chin Chiao a pattern Crypsis Sepia officinalis Defense a b s t r a c t Camouflage is the primary defense in cuttlefish the role of spatial scales of substrate texture in modulating the expres- sion of camouflage body patterns

  9. Disruptive coloration in cuttlefish: a visual perception mechanism that regulates ontogenetic adjustment of skin patterning.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chubb, Charles; Florio, Christopher; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

    2007-04-01

    Among the changeable camouflage patterns of cuttlefish, disruptive patterning is shown in response to certain features of light objects in the visual background. However, whether animals show disruptive patterns is dependent not only on object size but also on their body size. Here, we tested whether cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are able to match their disruptive body patterning with increasing size of background objects as they grow from hatchling to adult size (0.7 to 19.6 cm mantle length; factor of 28). Specifically, do cuttlefish have a single ;visual sampling rule' that scales accurately during ontogeny? For each of seven size classes of cuttlefish, we created black and white checkerboards whose check sizes corresponded to 4, 12, 40, 120, 400 and 1200% of the area of the cuttlefish's White square, which is a neurophysiologically controlled component of the skin. Disruptive body patterns were evoked when, regardless of animal size, the check size measured either 40 or 120% of the area of the cuttlefish's White square, thus demonstrating a remarkable ontogenetic conformity to a single visual sampling rule. Cuttlefish have no known visual feedback loop with which to adjust their skin patterns. Since the area of a cuttlefish's White square skin component is a function of body size, our results indicate that cuttlefish are solving a visual scaling problem of camouflage presumably without visual confirmation of the size of their own skin component. PMID:17371913

  10. Sensory evoked potentials in unanesthetized unrestrained cuttlefish: a new preparation for brain physiology in cephalopods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore H. Bullock; Bernd U. Budelmann

    1991-01-01

    Up to five microelectrodes inserted through short hypodermic needles in the cranial cartilage of Sepia officinalis recorded potentials while the cuttlefish moved freely in a small enclosure. Compound field potentials and unit spikes were seen during ongoing, spontaneous activity and after sensory stimulation.

  11. How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning Chuan-Chin Chiao a,b,

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning Chuan-Chin Chiao a Sepia officinalis a b s t r a c t Rapid adaptive camouflage is the primary defense of soft Cephalopod camouflage is the fastest changing and most versa- tile in the animal kingdom. These visually

  12. Cuttlefish use visual cues to determine arm postures for camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve effective visual camouflage, prey organisms must combine cryptic coloration with the appropriate posture and behaviour to render them difficult to be detected or recognized. Body patterning has been studied in various taxa, yet body postures and their implementation on different backgrounds have seldom been studied experimentally. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), masters of rapid adaptive camouflage, use visual cues from adjacent visual stimuli to control arm postures. Cuttlefish were presented with a square wave stimulus (period = 0.47 cm; black and white stripes) that was angled 0°, 45° or 90° relative to the animals' horizontal body axis. Cuttlefish positioned their arms parallel, obliquely or transversely to their body axis according to the orientation of the stripes. These experimental results corroborate our field observations of cuttlefish camouflage behaviour in which flexible, precise arm posture is often tailored to match nearby objects. By relating the cuttlefishes' visual perception of backgrounds to their versatile postural behaviour, our results highlight yet another of the many flexible and adaptive anti-predator tactics adopted by cephalopods. PMID:21561967

  13. Nine novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) muscle protein hydrolysates and antihypertensive effect of the potent active peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; Sila, Assaâd; Guillochon, Didier; Dhulster, Pascal; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to identify novel ACE inhibitory peptides from the muscle of cuttlefish. Proteins were hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were then subjected to various types of chromatography to isolate the active peptides. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated and their molecular masses and amino acid sequences were determined using ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS, respectively. The structures of the most potent peptides were identified as Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro, Ala-Phe-Val-Gly-Tyr-Val-Leu-Pro and Glu-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro. The first peptide displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 5.22?M. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro acts as a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE. Furthermore, antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) also revealed that oral administration of Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro can decrease systolic blood pressure significantly (p<0.01). These results suggest that the Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro would be a beneficial ingredient for nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals acting against hypertension and its related diseases. PMID:25306378

  14. CUTTLEFISH CAMOUFLAGE: VISUAL PERCEPTION OF SIZE, CONTRAST AND NUMBER OF WHITE SQUARES ON ARTIFICIAL CHECKERBOARD SUBSTRATA INITIATES DISRUPTIVE COLORATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; ROGER T. HANLON

    We investigated some visual background features that influence young cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, to change their skin patterning from 'general resemblance' of the substratum to disruptive coloration that breaks up their body form. Using computer-generated black\\/white checkerboard patterns as substrata, we first found that the size of the white squares had to be within a certain narrow range (relative to the

  15. The scaling effects of substrate texture on camouflage patterning in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Buresch, Kendra; Siemann, Liese; Hanlon, Roger T

    2009-06-01

    Camouflage is the primary defense in cuttlefish. The rich repertoire of their body patterns can be categorized into three types: uniform, mottle, and disruptive. Several recent studies have characterized spatial features of substrates responsible for eliciting these body patterns on natural and artificial backgrounds. In the present study, we address the role of spatial scales of substrate texture in modulating the expression of camouflage body patterns in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Substrate textures were white noise patterns first filtered into various octave-wide spatial frequency bands and then thresholded to generate binary (black/white) images. Substrate textures differed in spatial frequency but were identical in all other respects; this allowed us to examine the effects of spatial scale on body patterning. We found that as the spatial scale of substrate texture increased, cuttlefish body patterns changed from uniform, to mottle, to disruptive, as predicted from the camouflage mechanism of background matching. For substrates with spatial scales larger than skin patterning components, cuttlefish showed reduced disruptive patterning. These results are consistent with the idea that the body pattern deployed by a cuttlefish attempts to match the energy spectrum of the substrate, and underscore recent reports suggesting that substrate spatial scale is a key determinant of body patterning responses in cuttlefish. PMID:19362570

  16. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and FTIR characterization of the sepia melanin pigment used in works of art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Silvia A.; Shamir, Jacob

    2008-02-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and FTIR were used for the vibrational characterization of the sepia melanin pigment extracted from the cuttlefish or Sepia officinalis, a material used in works of art from at least the late 18th century. The heterogeneous polymeric nature of the pigment, together with its fluorescent background, makes its identification by normal Raman spectroscopy difficult. In the present study, SERS and FTIR spectra of sepia were obtained. SERS proved to be suitable to characterize this complex material in micro-samples because of its sensitivity, ability to quench fluorescence, and minimal preparation required. For the SERS measurements, different substrates were tested in contact with the sepia pigment. It was found that a sodium borohydride reduced silver colloid gave the best performance, particularly when applied as a drop on top of a solid sepia sample, and subsequently dried. A larger enhancement was observed in the SERS spectrum of the sepia sample extracted in the laboratory, when compared to the more pure commercial sample, consistently with the higher metal binding capacity of less pure sepia melanin reported by other authors. The FTIR and SERS frequencies observed were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature for closely related compounds, such as indole, pyrrole and substituted pyrroles, and were assigned by comparison with them and with other published data for functional groups in organic chemistry.

  17. Cuttlefish camouflage: context-dependent body pattern use during motion

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    It is virtually impossible to camouflage a moving target against a non-uniform background, but strategies have been proposed to reduce detection and targeting of movement. Best known is the idea that high contrast markings produce ‘motion dazzle’, which impairs judgement of speed and trajectory. The ability of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis to change its visual appearance allows us to compare the animal's choice of patterns during movement to the predictions of models of motion camouflage. We compare cuttlefish body patterns used during movement with those expressed when static on two background types; one of which promotes low-contrast mottle patterns and the other promotes high-contrast disruptive patterns. We find that the body pattern used during motion is context-specific and that high-contrast body pattern components are significantly reduced during movement. Thus, in our experimental conditions, cuttlefish do not use high contrast motion dazzle. It may be that, in addition to being inherently conspicuous during movement, moving high-contrast patterns will attract attention because moving particles in coastal waters tend to be of small size and of low relative contrast. PMID:19692411

  18. Cuttlefish camouflage: visual perception of size, contrast and number of white squares on artificial checkerboard substrata initiates disruptive coloration.

    PubMed

    Chiao, C C; Hanlon, R T

    2001-06-01

    We investigated some visual background features that influence young cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, to change their skin patterning from 'general resemblance' of the substratum to disruptive coloration that breaks up their body form. Using computer-generated black/white checkerboard patterns as substrata, we first found that the size of the white squares had to be within a certain narrow range (relative to the size of the cuttlefish 'white square') for the animal to exhibit disruptive skin patterning. Second, given the appropriate size of checker, cuttlefish regulated their disruptive skin patterns according to the contrast between white and black squares. Third, by manipulating the number of white squares on a black background, we found that as few as four white squares among 316 black squares (or 1.25%) produced disruptive patterning, yet increasing the number of white squares to 20, 40 or 80 did not increase the frequency of appearance of the cuttlefish 'white square', but only its clarity of expression. These results demonstrate that the size, contrast and number of white objects in the surrounding substratum influence the production and expression of disruptive skin patterns in young cuttlefish. PMID:11441053

  19. Organization of the nervous system in the pygmy cuttlefish, Idiosepius paradoxus ortmann (Idiosepiidae, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Masamichi

    2002-10-01

    The idiosepiid cuttlefish is a suitable organism for behavioral, genetic, and developmental studies. As morphological bases for these studies, organization of the nervous system was examined in Idiosepius paradoxus Ortmann, 1881, using Cajal's silver technique and immunohistochemical staining with anti-acetylated alpha-tubulin antibody. The nervous architecture is generally identical to that described in Sepia and Loligo, but some features characterize the idiosepiid nervous system. The olfactory system is highly developed in the optic tract region. The dorsolateral lobes show large neuropils, connected with each other by a novel well-fasciculated commissure. Each olfactory lobe is subdivided into two lobules. The neuropils of the anterior and the posterior chromatophore lobes are very poorly developed. Neuronal gigantism is not extensive in the brain; enlarged neuronal cells are visible only in the perikaryal layer of the posterior subesophageal mass. The giant nerve fiber system is of the Sepia type; the axons are not markedly thick and the first-order giant fibers do not fuse with each other at the chiasma. Three-dimensional images by whole-mount immunostaining clarified the innervation pattern in the peripheral nervous system in detail. Two commissural fibers link the left and right posterior funnel nerves ventrally and dorsally. The stellate commissure, which is absent in Sepia and Sepiola, connects the stellate ganglia with each other. A branch of the visceral nerve innervating the median pallial adductor muscle is characteristically thick. Tubulinergic reactivity of the cilia and axons reveals the presence of many ciliated cells giving off an axon toward brain nerves in the surface of the funnel, head integument, arm tips, and epidermal lines. Some of these features seem to reflect the inactive nekto-benthic life of the idiosepiid cuttlefish in the eelgrass bed. PMID:12219344

  20. Assessment of the effect of the climate variations of coastal surface water and study of Sepia officinalis spawing.

    PubMed

    Giansante, Carla; Conte, Annamaria; Giovannini, Armando; Castriota, Luca; Andaloro, Franco; Ferri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether climate change affected migratory behaviour of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), which is an important resource for small-scale fishermen of Abruzzo region (Italy). Starting at the beginning of March until the end of April, the cuttlefish in this area migrates from deep cold water towards warmer coastal waters, where they spawn. Small-scale fishing of cuttlefish is permitted in costal waters from March to September. During the study period, between March and September 2008, both cuttlefish traps and trammel nets were used in 5 sampling areas along the Abruzzo coast to test their relative efficiency in catching cuttlefish. Trapped specimens were counted, weighed and measured, their gender and sexual maturity were also determined. The data obtained from the sampling were correlated to surface water temperature to assess possible changes in migration behaviours. The obtained data show that during the first months of migration (March and April), a greater percentage of large males was caught, while females and smaller males predominated later in the year. The study also showed that surface water temperature did not reveal any significant shifts from the trend over the last 10 years. As for the efficiency of the fishing methods, traps were found to be more effective than trammel nets. PMID:25110776

  1. Progress towards elucidating the structure-function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deravi, Leila F.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Bell, George R. R.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-03-01

    The adaptive coloration observed in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis skin is facilitated in part by properties of pigmented chromatophores that have not been previously reported. We found that chromatophore coloration is enabled by a tethering system that distributes layered pigment granules, comprised of fluorescent nanostructures, to optimize color intensity as the chromatophores are actuated. The design features gleaned from these studies provide intriguing insights into the development of artificial photonic systems useful for products ranging from conformable, high-definition color displays to optical fabrics capable of adapting their coloration within an ambient environment.

  2. Comparative morphology of changeable skin papillae in octopus and cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Velankar, Sachin S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-04-01

    A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae. Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. officinalis small dorsal papillae, Octopus vulgaris small dorsal and ventral eye papillae, Macrotritopus defilippi dorsal eye papillae, Abdopus aculeatus major mantle papillae, O. bimaculoides arm, minor mantle, and dorsal eye papillae, and S. apama face ridge papillae. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla's perimeter toward its core and determine shape. A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla's apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. S. apama face ridge papillae are different: the contraction of erector muscles perpendicular to the ridge causes overlying tissues to buckle. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support. These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies. Future research on papilla morphology, biomechanics and neural control in the many unexamined species of octopus and cuttlefish may uncover new principles of actuation in soft, flexible tissue. PMID:24741712

  3. Cuttlefish capsule: An effective shield against contaminants in the wild.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Inês C; Raimundo, Joana; Lopes, Vanessa M; Brandão, Cláudio; Couto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Cabecinhas, Adriana S; Cereja, Rui; Calado, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Rosa, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures in estuaries are responsible for the rise of contaminants in several compartments of these ecosystems. Species that benefit from the nursery services provided by estuaries are exposed to such contaminants (e.g. metals and metalloids). It is therefore relevant to understand if marine invertebrates that use these areas as spawning grounds accumulate contaminants in their tissues throughout embryogenesis. This study aimed to quantify As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Pb, V and Zn concentrations in both capsule and embryos of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) in Sado Estuary (Portugal). Moreover, embryos at their initial, intermediate and final stage of development were collected in sites subjected to different anthropogenic pressures. In general, the capsule accumulated higher element concentration throughout embryogenesis which indicates that the capsule acts as an effective barrier against contaminants uptake by the embryo. Although the capsule becomes thinner throughout embryogenesis, embryo's protection does not seem to be compromised at later development stages. Additionally, the higher concentrations of As, Cu, Se and Zn in the embryo in comparison to the capsule suggests important biological roles during the embryogenesis of this cephalopod mollusc. PMID:25876030

  4. New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.

    PubMed

    Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

  5. Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion.

    PubMed

    Graindorge, Nicolas; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2008-10-31

    The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis. PMID:18722358

  6. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  7. Reproductive versus somatic tissue growth during the life cycle of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howaida R. Gabr; Roger T. Hanlon; Salah G. El-Etreby; Mahmoud H. Hanafy

    The effect of maturation on relative growth of somatic tissues was investigated by measuring and compar- ing monthly changes in dry weight of somatic tissues and reproductive or- gans. In both sexes, reproductive tis- sues grew in relation to total body mass; at maturity female reproductive tissue was 16% of total dry body mass, whereas male reproductive tissue was 2.6%.

  8. Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development Principality of Monaco b. Biological Oceanography, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR), 24105 Kiel investigated the effects of seawater pH (i.e. 8.10, 7.85 and 7.60) and temperature (16 and 19°C) on (i

  9. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    explored in cephalopods. In Octopus vulgaris, putative sleep states were observed that showed compensatory@mail.med.upenn.edu (MGF); Jean.Boal@millersville.edu (JGB) Introduction The Coleoid cephalopods (e.g. octopuses

  10. First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in similar proportion in the vitellus and the eggshell. During the embryonic development, 75 Se and 65 Zn and eggshell was also transferred to the embryo. Overall, our results showed that transfer of Ag, Se, and Zn) whereas Am, Cd, Pb, and V remained mainly associated with the glycoproteinic eggshell (Bustamante et al

  11. Differential bioaccumulation behaviour of Ag and Cd during the early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    compartments (i.e. eggshell, vitellus, peri-vitellin fluid and embryo) were assessed. In parallel, experiments, Cd was mainly associated with the eggshell all along the exposure experiment. In addition, both, indicating that the eggshell acted as an efficient shield against the penetration of this metal. In contrast

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences a case study using

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    . Boyle, and J. M. Bellido: Department of Zoology, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords

  13. Five new species of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from two Australian cuttlefish species, with comments on dicyemid fauna composition.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-10-01

    Five new species of dicyemid mesozoans in two genera are described from two Australian cuttlefish species, Sepia apama Gray (giant Australian cuttlefish) and S. novaehollandiae Hoyle (nova cuttlefish): Dicyema coffinense n. sp. from S. apama collected from Coffin Bay, South Australia (SA), Australia; D. koinonum n. sp. from S. apama and S. novaehollandiae collected from Gulf St Vincent (GSV) and Spencer Gulf (SG), SA, Australia; D. multimegalum n. sp. from S. apama collected from Cronulla and North Bondi, New South Wales, Australia; D. vincentense n. sp. from S. novaehollandiae collected from GSV, SA, Australia; and Dicyemennea spencerense n. sp. from S. novaehollandiae and S. apama collected from SG, SA, Australia. Totals of 51 S. apama and 27 S. novaehollandiae individuals were examined, of which all except for four S. apama were infected by at least one dicyemid species. Dicyemid parasites were also observed in host individuals that were held in tanks for 2-3 months prior to examination, including nematogen-exclusive infections, leading to questions about persistence of dicyemids after host death and the mechanism responsible for the switch between a nematogen phase and a rhombogen phase. Variations in host size, calotte shape and collection locality are explored as predictors of differences in observed composition of the parasite fauna. In particular, dicyemid parasite fauna varied with host collection locality. As these parasites are highly host-species specific, their use as biological tags to assess cephalopod population structure using a combined morphological and molecular approach is discussed. This study increases the number of dicyemid species described from Australian cephalopods from five to ten, and from 117 to 122 species described worldwide. PMID:24048746

  14. RAPID COMMUNICATION Sexually Mature Cuttlefish are Attracted

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    .0­13.0 cm mantle length) for J. G. Boal (*) :K. N. Prosser :J. B. Holm :T. L. Simmons : R. E. HaasRAPID COMMUNICATION Sexually Mature Cuttlefish are Attracted to the Eggs of Conspecifics Jean G. Boal & Krista N. Prosser & Johanna B. Holm & Tiffany L. Simmons & Robert E. Haas & Gregg T. Nagle

  15. Lower hypoxia thresholds of cuttlefish early life stages living in a warm acidified ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Repolho, Tiago; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Baptista, Miguel; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Dionísio, Gisela; Leal, Miguel Costa; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of future ocean acidification and global warming on the hypoxia thresholds of marine biota are, to date, poorly known. Here, we show that the future warming and acidification scenario led to shorter embryonic periods, lower survival rates and the enhancement of premature hatching in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Routine metabolic rates increased during the embryonic period, but environmental hypercapnia significantly depressed pre-hatchling's energy expenditures rates (independently of temperature). During embryogenesis, there was also a significant rise in the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the perivitelline fluid (PVF), bicarbonate levels, as well as a drop in pH and oxygen partial pressure (pO2). The critical partial pressure (i.e. hypoxic threshold) of the pre-hatchlings was significantly higher than the PVF oxygen partial pressure at the warmer and hypercapnic condition. Thus, the record of oxygen tensions below critical pO2 in such climate scenario indicates that the already harsh conditions inside the egg capsules are expected to be magnified in the years to come, especially in populations at the border of their thermal envelope. Such a scenario promotes untimely hatching and smaller post-hatching body sizes, thus challenging the survival and fitness of early life stages. PMID:23926158

  16. Scaffolds for bone restoration from cuttlefish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. G. Rocha; A. F. Lemos; S. Agathopoulos; P. Valério; S. Kannan; F. N. Oktar; J. M. F. Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Scaffolds of pure hydroxyapatite suitable for either direct clinical use or tissue-engineering applications were successfully produced via hydrothermal transformation of aragonite, obtained from fresh cuttlefish bones, at 200°C followed by sintering. Beyond low production cost, worldwide availability and natural–biological origin of raw materials, the produced scaffolds have ideal pore size and interconnectivity features suitable for supporting biological activities, such as

  17. 14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (Original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) First and second floor plans - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  18. 15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Elevations - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  19. 16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Interior details - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  20. Introduction Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) can produce a variety of

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    2133 Introduction Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) can produce a variety of body patterns to the behavior of these animals (Young, 1971). Indeed, Octopus vulgaris can quickly learn to visually

  1. Acid-base regulatory ability of the cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) in response to environmental hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, F; Langenbuch, M; Bock, C; Claireaux, G; Pörtner, H O

    2010-03-01

    Acidification of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions is a currently developing scenario that warrants a broadening of research foci in the study of acid-base physiology. Recent studies working with environmentally relevant CO(2) levels, indicate that some echinoderms and molluscs reduce metabolic rates, soft tissue growth and calcification during hypercapnic exposure. In contrast to all prior invertebrate species studied so far, growth trials with the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis found no indication of reduced growth or calcification performance during long-term exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2). It is hypothesized that the differing sensitivities to elevated seawater pCO(2) could be explained by taxa specific differences in acid-base regulatory capacity. In this study, we examined the acid-base regulatory ability of S. officinalis in vivo, using a specially modified cannulation technique as well as (31)P NMR spectroscopy. During acute exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2), S. officinalis rapidly increased its blood [HCO(3)(-)] to 10.4 mM through active ion-transport processes, and partially compensated the hypercapnia induced respiratory acidosis. A minor decrease in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and stable intracellular phosphagen levels indicated efficient pH(i) regulation. We conclude that S. officinalis is not only an efficient acid-base regulator, but is also able to do so without disturbing metabolic equilibria in characteristic tissues or compromising aerobic capacities. The cuttlefish did not exhibit acute intolerance to hypercapnia that has been hypothesized for more active cephalopod species (squid). Even though blood pH (pHe) remained 0.18 pH units below control values, arterial O(2) saturation was not compromised in S. officinalis because of the comparatively lower pH sensitivity of oxygen binding to its blood pigment. This raises questions concerning the potentially broad range of sensitivity to changes in acid-base status amongst invertebrates, as well as to the underlying mechanistic origins. Further studies are needed to better characterize the connection between acid-base status and animal fitness in various marine species. PMID:19838713

  2. Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) of networked systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, David P.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; McDonald, Michael James; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Tarman, Thomas David; Urias, Vincent E.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes recent progress made in developing and utilizing hybrid Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) environments. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models separately to analyze interplay between threats and safeguards. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments. Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools. The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches.

  3. 1996,52.529-537 Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish,

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    . .fllim. B.-htlV, 1996,52.529-537 @ Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish, Sepiaofficinalis L. No evidenceof Insli- Cuttlefish are neither solitary, .as arc octo- lute, 301 UnivcrsilY Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555

  4. Statolith chemistry of two life history stages of cuttlefish: Effects of temperature and seawater trace element concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Wilkinson, Leanne M.; Munro, Andrew R.; de Vries, Melita C.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry of the giant Australian cuttlefish, Sepia apama, was compared between encapsulated embryos and recently hatched juveniles under controlled laboratory conditions. Seawater Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca were positively related to statolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca in embryos and hatchlings for all temperatures. For statoliths of embryos the effect of spiking increased at 14 °C compared to 20 °C but for hatchlings increased Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in statoliths were found at 20 °C compared to 14 °C. The results imply that the influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry was driven by elemental discrimination as described by partition coefficients but was reversed between life history stages. Differences in respiration and haemocyanin between the two life history stages may influence elemental uptake and discrimination. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that differences in element uptake in statoliths can occur among life history stages of S. apama and must be considered when reconstructing environmental histories of S. apama and other statolith bearing organisms.

  5. A new species of Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 (Phylum Dicyemida) from Sepia latimanus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Decapodidae) off Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Hidetaka

    2006-11-01

    A new species of dicyemid mesozoan is described from a cuttlefish Sepia latimanus Quoy and Gaimard collected off Nago, Naha and Onnason, Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Dicyemennea ryukyuense n. sp. is a large species that reaches about 5 mm in length. The vermiform stage is characterised by 23 peripheral cells, a conical calotte and an axial cell that extends to the base of the propolar cells. The infusoriform embryo consists of 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell and the refringent bodies are solid. In the type of reproductive strategy, rhombogens of D. ryukyuense form a small number of infusorigens and produce a relatively large number of gametes per infusorigen. In the family Dicyemidae, Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 is the largest group after Dicyema von Kölliker, 1849. Other dicyemid species, including those belonging to Dicyema, were not detected. Dicyemids have never previously been detected in cephalopods living on corals and rocks off the Ryukyu Islands, even though they are benthonic in habitat. This is the first report of a dicyemid mesozoan from S. latimanus and also from off the Ryukyu Islands. S. latimanus inhabits coral reefs, often swimming over the coral but usually lying on the sandy bottom. Dicyemids cannot possibly infect cephalopods which live exclusively over coral and rock. PMID:16955340

  6. Golden Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that architects, musicians and other thoughtful people have, since the time of Pythagoras, been fascinated by various harmonious proportions. One, is the visual harmony attributed to Euclid, called "the golden section". He explores this concept in geometries of one, two and three dimensions. He added, that in…

  7. Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro R. Costa; Rui Rosa; Alexandra Duarte-Silva; Vanda Brotas; Maria Antónia M. Sampayo

    2005-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in

  8. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the1 common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: radiotracer experiments2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    with the32 eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From eggshell, whereas 210 Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also35 demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a36 significant source of exposure

  9. Integration of sediment contamination with multi-biomarker responses in a novel potential bioindicator (Sepia officinalis) for risk assessment in impacted estuaries.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, A P; Costa, P M; Costa, M H; Caeiro, S

    2013-12-01

    For the purpose of biomonitoring, species that combine ecological and commercial importance may provide a link between ecological and human health risk. The common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, holds both characteristics in south-western Europe, albeit remaining unsurveyed in ecotoxicological studies. Cuttlefish collected from an impacted estuary in SW Portugal and a reference location off the coast were analysed for a battery of biomarker responses in the digestive gland and gills. The contrast to reference animals revealed that biomarker responses, especially those related to oxidative stress, were consistent with sediment contamination by PAHs, even in a situation that combines complex toxicant mixtures, moderate levels of contamination and high ecotoxicological diversity. However, environmental parameters related to the differences between shore and estuarine habitats should not be overruled. Also, digestive gland metallothionein retained significant specificity to metals even though previous studies in the area with clams and fish failed to trigger a conclusive response. The highest net differences in biomarker responses were detected in the gills, likely indicating higher sensitivity to environmental stressors. Still, the digestive gland responses were overall the most consistent with sediment contamination and effectively differentiated between estuarine industrial- and rural-impacted sites. The results indicate that S. officinalis may be a candidate to meet the European Union's requirements for efficient biomonitoring programmes, with the additional importance of being cosmopolitan, abundant, commercially valuable and combining the molluscan biology that has been granting bivalves their high value for biomonitoring with foraging behaviour, thus better able to reflect anthropogenic stressors impacting a wider area than sedentary organisms. Nevertheless, further investigations in unpolluted sites are needed to better evaluate the background levels of biomarker responses in the species. PMID:24142132

  10. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  11. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-02-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  12. How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Siemann, Liese A; Buresch, Kendra C; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-05-01

    Rapid adaptive camouflage is the primary defense of soft-bodied cuttlefish. Previous studies have shown that cuttlefish body patterns are strongly influenced by visual edges in the substrate. The aim of the present study was to examine how cuttlefish body patterning is differentially controlled by various aspects of edges, including contrast polarity, contrast strength, and the presence or absence of "line terminators" introduced into a pattern when continuous edges are fragmented. Spatially high- and low-pass filtered white or black disks, as well as isolated, continuous and fragmented edges varying in contrast, were used to assess activation of cuttlefish skin components. Although disks of both contrast polarities evoked relatively weak disruptive body patterns, black disks activated different skin components than white disks, and high-frequency information alone sufficed to drive the responses to white disks whereas high- and low-frequency information were both required to drive responses to black disks. Strikingly, high-contrast edge fragments evoked substantially stronger body pattern responses than low-contrast edge fragments, whereas the body pattern responses evoked by high-contrast continuous edges were no stronger than those produced by low-contrast edges. This suggests that line terminators vs. continuous edges influence expression of disruptive body pattern components via different mechanisms that are controlled by contrast in different ways. PMID:23499977

  13. Female impersonation as an alternative reproductive strategy in giant cuttlefish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Norman; Julian Finn; Tom Tregenza

    1999-01-01

    Out of all the animals, the cephalopods possess an unrivalled ability to change their shape and body patterns. Our observations of giant cuttle¢sh (Sepia apama) suggest this ability has allowed them to evolve alternative mating strategies in which males can switch between the appearance of a female and that of a male in order to foil the guarding attempts of

  14. Cuttlefish camouflage: The effects of substrate contrast and size in evoking uniform, mottle or disruptive body patterns

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Cuttlefish camouflage: The effects of substrate contrast and size in evoking uniform, mottle are cephalopod molluscs that achieve dynamic camouflage by rapidly extracting visual information from an objective, automated method of assessing cuttlefish camouflage patterns that quantitatively differentiated

  15. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties.

  16. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE FOR INTRASPECIFIC SIGNALING WITH ACHROMATIC AND POLARIZED LIGHT BY

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE FOR INTRASPECIFIC SIGNALING WITH ACHROMATIC AND POLARIZED LIGHT BY CUTTLEFISH quantitatively by testing the behavior of Sepia officinalis, the common cuttlefish, as senders and receivers

  17. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  18. Dveloppement et volution de la coquille de seiche, Sepia officinalis (Mollusque, Cphalopode)

    E-print Network

    Développement et évolution de la coquille de seiche, Sepia officinalis (Mollusque, Céphalopode'embryon de seiche, Sepia officinalis. L'équipe 2 montre une expertise en développement des Céphalopodes et utilise la seiche comme modèle biologique pour explorer l'évolution des structures du complexe

  19. The Golden Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work through proofs are…

  20. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J. Kenneth; Allen, Justine J.; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision. PMID:21576487

  1. Delayed and asynchronous ganglionic maturation during cephalopod neurogenesis as evidenced by Sof-elav1 expression in embryos of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Canali, Ester; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2013-05-01

    Among the Lophotrochozoa, centralization of the nervous system reaches an exceptional level of complexity in cephalopods, where the typical molluscan ganglia become highly developed and fuse into hierarchized lobes. It is known that ganglionic primordia initially emerge early and simultaneously during cephalopod embryogenesis but no data exist on the process of neuron differentiation in this group. We searched for members of the elav/hu family in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, since they are one of the first genetic markers of postmitotic neural cells. Two paralogs were identified and the expression of the most neural-specific gene, Sof-elav1, was characterized during embryogenesis. Sof-elav1 is expressed in all ganglia at one time of development, which provides the first genetic map of neurogenesis in a cephalopod. Our results unexpectedly revealed that Sof-elav1 expression is not similar and not coordinated in all the prospective ganglia. Both palliovisceral ganglia show extensive Sof-elav1 expression soon after emergence, showing that most of their cells differentiate into neurons at an early stage. On the contrary, other ganglia, and especially both cerebral ganglia that contribute to the main parts of the brain learning centers, show a late extensive Sof-elav1 expression. These delayed expressions in ganglia suggest that most ganglionic cells retain their proliferative capacities and postpone differentiation. In other molluscs, where a larval nervous system predates the development of the definitive adult nervous system, cerebral ganglia are among the first to mature. Thus, such a difference may constitute a cue in understanding the peculiar brain evolution in cephalopods. PMID:23047428

  2. Calcium carbonate crystallization on xiphoid of the cuttlefish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoli, F.; Dalas, E.

    2000-08-01

    A mollusc shell, the xiphoid from cuttlefish was found to be a substrate favouring the deposition of aragonite crystals from stable supersaturated solutions at pH 8.50 and 25°C. The crystallization was studied at constant solution composition, thus making it possible for a relatively large amount of the overgrowths to be formed and to be identified exclusively as aragonite crystals. The apparent order found from kinetics data was n=4.1±0.4, thus suggesting a polynuclear mechanism. A surface energy of 24±3 mJ m -2 was calculated for the growing phase and a four-ion cluster forming the critical nucleus, according to the classical nucleation theory.

  3. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Goux, Didier; Duval, Emilie; Bernay, Benoit; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Corre, Erwan; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection. PMID:26168161

  4. The use of Artemia sp. or mysids as food source for hatchlings of the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.); effects on growth and survival throughout the life cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

    2001-01-01

    Twoexperiments were conducted to determine the effects ofArtemia sp. or mysids on growth and survival ofS. officinalis hatchlings, and their effect throughout thelife cycle. For experiment I, for the first 20 days, one group was fed adultArtemia sp. and the other was fed mysid shrimp(Paramysis nouvelli). Eggs laid by females in both groupswere counted and weighed, and hatchlings were weighed,

  5. Temperature and pCO2 effect on the bioaccumulation of radionuclides and1 trace elements in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis2

    E-print Network

    through44 the eggshell, suggesting that an alternative pathway ensures the supply of this essential metal45 for the embryo. 241 Am was totally retained by the eggshell irrespective of pH and temperature.46, ocean warming, eggshell, embryonic50 development, metal.51 52 hal-00659887,version1-14Jan2012 #12

  6. Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium experiments were performed to study the uptake,19 assimilation and retention of americium (241 Am) and cesium

  7. Philippine Golden Links

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Designed by Kenneth Y. Ilio, Philippine Golden Links (also known as Tanikalang Ginto) has been online since 1994. The site contains numerous links, divided into thematic areas in an attempt to provide a broad range of online resources dealing with the Philippines. Two nice features on the site are the Golden Links of the Day and the Noteworthy Discovery of the Day. The Golden Links of the Day profile important links dealing with the Philippines, while the Noteworthy Discovery profiles new material on the Web. While the site does feature some commercial advertisements, there are some important resources covered here, and in particular, the sections dealing with travel and tourism throughout the area are thorough and authoritative.

  8. Golden Age Spanish Sonnets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingber, Alix.

    Created and maintained by Alix Ingber, Professor of Spanish at Sweet Briar College, this site hosts 107 Golden Age (Sixteenth Century) Spanish sonnets and English translations. The poems may be browsed by poet or by their first line. Each poet page includes links to related resources, most of which are in Spanish only. Also included are bibliographies and some other related links.

  9. Steroidogenesis in the brain of Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; Di Donato, Paola; Palumbo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco; Paolucci, Marina; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The presence of vertebrate-like steroids, steroidogenic enzymes and steroid receptors has been reported exclusively in cephalopods gonads. The role played by these steroids has been also recently investigated. We here give evidence of steroidogenic activity in the brain of cephalopods. The activity of two key steroidogenic enzymes: 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17beta-HSD is present in the lobes of the nervous system of both Sepia and Octopus. Such enzymes convert pregnenolone to progesterone and androstenedione to testosterone respectively. Binding experiments seem to assign a functional role to the androgens in the brain of cephalopods. According to the present results, the absence of any progesterone binding moiety supports the hypothesis that progesterone may be a metabolite product along the steroidogenic chain leading to androgens. The presence of steroidogenic enzymes in specific lobes of the central nervous system is discussed in terms of the possible role that steroids can play in the sexual differentiation of the brain and in influencing some coded behaviours of cephalopods, such as learning processes. PMID:20036911

  10. The "Prawn-in-the-Tube" Procedure in the Cuttlefish: Habituation or Passive Avoidance Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickel, Ludovic; Chichery, Marie-Paule; Agin, Veronique; Chichery, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether or not habituation contributes to the regulation of the inhibition of predatory behavior observed during the "prawn-in-the-tube" training procedure. When presented with prawns that are visible behind glass but untouchable, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their capture attempts. The first three experiments…

  11. Do cuttlefish (Cephalopoda) signal their intentions to conspecifics during agonistic encounters?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHELLEY A. ADAMO; R. T. HANLON

    1996-01-01

    Abstract. Male cuttlefish adopt a specific body pattern during agonistic behaviour called the Intense Zebra Display. Some components of the Display were variable, especially the chromatic component termed ‘dark face’, which could vary in the degree of darkness. Facial darkness was measured using a video analysis system. Males that eventually withdrew from conspecifics without fighting maintained a lighter face during

  12. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish, Irvine, CA, and approved April 13, 2011 (received for review December 30, 2010) Camouflage visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree

  13. Changes in cholinergic enzyme activities in the cuttlefish brain during memory formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cécile Bellanger; François Dauphin; Marie-Paule Chichery; Raymond Chichery

    2003-01-01

    Cephalopods are promising invertebrate models to investigate the neurobiology of learning and memory due to their advanced behavioral abilities. In the present study, acetylcholine synthesis and catabolism were studied in various central nervous system (CNS) regions of cuttlefish subjected to associative learning procedures with different retention delays, with the aim of characterizing the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmission in learning and

  14. From Trap to Nursery. Mitigating the Impact of an Artisanal Fishery on Cuttlefish Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Melli, Valentina; Riginella, Emilio; Nalon, Marco; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexploitation and the impact of several types of human activities have caused declines of marine resources. The direct and active involvement of fishermen in the management of marine resources is effective not only for resource conservation, but also for changing fishermen’s attitudes. In this study, we proposed and tested the efficacy and suitability of a measure for mitigating the impact of a trap fishery on cuttlefish eggs in the North Adriatic Sea. This measure directly involves fishermen in promoting the conservation of the early, and more vulnerable, stages of the cuttlefish life cycle. Methodology/Principal findings Through surveys on fishing boats and interviews with fishermen, we found that traps placed in coastal areas during the cuttlefish breeding season have a high impact on cuttlefish eggs, with over 3 million eggs likely being destroyed by 3750 traps of 15 fishermen in less than 3 miles of coast. The use of removable ropes attached inside traps as an additional substrate for egg deposition allowed the recovery of 23.7% of the eggs deposited on the traps on average, without affecting the catch rate of adults. Experiments examining hatching success in the field highlighted the need for a careful choice of hatching sites to maximise the efficacy of the mitigation measure. Conclusions/Significance The proposed mitigation measure reduced the impact of fishing on cuttlefish eggs, with no significant effect on the commercial catch. Fishermen showed a positive attitude towards the application of this measure, which is inexpensive and easy to employ. The direct involvement of fishermen in the management of this resource and the maintenance of traditional fishing methods are a novel aspect of the proposed measure and represent the basis for its success. PMID:24587390

  15. EFFECTS OF INCREASED pCO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON TRACE ELEMENT1 (Ag, Cd and Zn) BIOACCUMULATION IN THE EGGS OF THE COMMON2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IN THE EGGS OF THE COMMON2 CUTTLEFISH, SEPIA OFFICINALIS3 4 Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas1,2, , Martin, Sophie2 of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing38 permeability of the eggshell during of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish.53 54 55 Keywords: metal; uptake; tissue

  16. Microstructure, rheological and wound healing properties of collagen-based gel from cuttlefish skin.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Rebaii, Tarak; Souissi, Nabil; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-06-01

    Collagen-based biomaterials are of the utmost importance for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate structural and rheological properties of collagen-based gel obtained from cuttlefish skin, and to investigate its ability to enhance wound healing. Scanning electron microscopy of resulted gel showed a dense fibrillar microstructure with high interconnection network with a smaller pore size. In addition, the rheological characterization of collagen gel showed an excellent reversibility, when subjected to a temperature variation. Moreover, in the wound-healing study, topical application of collagen based gel increased significantly the percentage of wound closure over a period of 12 days, when compared to the untreated and CICAFLORA(®)-treated groups. Wound-healing activity of collagen gel was confirmed by histopathology study. Thus, cuttlefish collagen based gel might be useful as a wound healing agent. PMID:25796451

  17. Analysis of tissue condition based on interaction between inorganic and organic matter in cuttlefish bone.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    The absorption properties of an inner layer of cuttlefish bone were measured using a transmission terahertz time-domain spectrometer in a band from approximately 0.1 to 4 THz. For oriented samples, an absorption peak related to the behavior of calcium carbonate appeared at approximately 2 THz. The peak magnitude and frequency depended on the direction of the incident terahertz electric field, indicating that calcium carbonate crystals constituting the inner layer were oriented in a certain direction. The absorbance of a sample heated to 350 °C for 0 to 2 h to remove organic matter tended to decrease with heating time in the oriented direction, while the peak frequency shifted to higher frequencies. Furthermore, we showed that the peak frequency depended on the interaction area within the unheated sample and we thus obtained a two-dimensional image reflecting crystal regularity inside the cuttlefish bone from the spectral data at each position. PMID:23860837

  18. Golden Gate cloning.

    PubMed

    Engler, Carola; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    DNA assembly methods are essential tools for biological research and biotechnology. Therefore various methods have been developed to clone DNA fragments of interest. Conventional methods usually require several cloning steps to generate a construct of interest. At each step, a single DNA fragment is transferred from a donor plasmid or PCR product to a recipient vector. In the past few years, a number of methods have been developed to facilitate and speed up this process. One of these methods, Golden Gate cloning, allows assembling up to nine fragments at a time in a recipient plasmid. Cloning is performed by pipetting in a single tube all plasmid donors, the recipient vector, a type IIS restriction enzyme and ligase, and incubating the mix in a thermal cycler. Despite the simplicity of the cloning procedure, the majority of clones obtained after transformation contain the expected construct. Using Golden Gate cloning however requires the use of carefully designed donor and recipient plasmids. We provide here a protocol describing how to design these plasmids and also describe the conditions necessary to perform the assembly reaction. PMID:24395361

  19. Reference: Biol. Bull. 201: 269270. (October 2001) Cuttlefish Cue Visually on Area--Not Shape or Aspect Ratio--of Light Objects in the Substrate

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    assigned for each animal on each substrate. The combined mean values (and overall standard deviation on their bodies, and this helps them achieve camouflage as it is defined by Endler (3), "A colour or pattern cuttlefish on each substrate). Although cuttlefish cannot perfectly match backgrounds that are completely

  20. Nitric oxide mediates the glutamate-dependent pathway for neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis chromatophore organs.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2010-07-30

    Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

  1. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs

    PubMed Central

    Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

  2. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    are the demersal long-fin squid Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris, and the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Pierce et to southern Europe (Shaw, 1994). Landings of cuttlefish into the UK ranged from 1600 to 4900 tons during 1997

  3. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  4. Radioisotopes demonstrate the contrasting bioaccumulation1 capacities of heavy metals in embryonic stages of cephalopod2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    contamination. Eggs of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis,29 European squid Loligo vulgaris, common octopus Octopus vulgaris and the sepiolid Rossia30 macrosoma were exposed during embryonic development European squid Loligo vulgaris, the common octopus Octopus vulgaris and the common cuttlefish52 Sepia

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanchao; Guo, Baoying; Li, Jiji; Wang, Hailing; Qi, Pengzhi; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis. The genome was 16,191?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)]. The composition and order of genes, for the mitogenome found in S. inermis were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. inermis is T 35.6%, C 16.4%, A 40.0% and G 8.0%, with a highly A?+?T bias of 75.6%. Two control regions contain both termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Thus, mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:24006867

  6. Characteristics of the tertiary egg membrane of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Xiamin; Song, Weiwei; Xu, Yongjian

    2010-11-01

    We separated tertiary egg membrane (TGM) from 2- and 25-day-old eggs of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune, and revealed its ultrastructure, physical (solubility, barrier property) and biochemical (histology, histochemistry, nutritional components, bacteriostasis) characteristics. The results show that TGM could not be dissolved with natural seawater, alcohol, ether or hydrochloric acid (HCl), but it could be dissolved with 2-chloroethanol, diethylamine, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The black TGM was more effective in blocking off mud particulates, microorganisms ( Chlorella vulgaris, Vibrio alginolyticus) and lighter than the white TGM. The elasticity of black and white TGMs was 1.8 N and 1.5 N, respectively. There were some ink particulates and rod-shaped bacteria in the black TGM. The nutritional components were different between black and white TGMs: Lipid content was lower and protein content was higher in the black TGM. TGM could also inhibit the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus.

  7. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis. PMID:22548232

  8. Stable isotope records from Sepia officinalis—a key to understanding the ecology of belemnites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexfort, A.; Mutterlose, J.

    2006-07-01

    The stable isotope ratios (? 18O, ? 13C) of the aragonite of cuttlebones of Sepia officinalis were measured on a high resolution scale where every septum was measured. Our studies aim at understanding whether variations of the isotope signature are controlled by ontogenetic and/or ecological factors. Five specimens were reared from eggs under known water temperatures, a sixth specimen was caught in the German part of the North Sea. The data suggest that the oxygen isotope composition is in isotopic equilibrium with the surrounding seawater and reflects ambient temperature. Migration and seasonal temperature changes are visible in the acquired data set. The carbon isotope signature shows signs of biofractionation and no direct correlation to the oxygen signature as far as ontogeny and ecology are concerned.

  9. 76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-531-000] Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden Triangle) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  10. 77 FR 22185 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY...interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships...these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

  11. Feel, smell and see in an egg: emergence of perception and learning in an immature invertebrate, the cuttlefish embryo.

    PubMed

    Romagny, Sébastien; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Guibé, Mathieu; Bellanger, Cécile; Dickel, Ludovic

    2012-12-01

    It is now well established that prenatal sensory experience affects development itself and has long-term consequences in terms of postnatal behavior. This study focused on the functionality of the sensory system in cuttlefish in ovo. Embryos of stage 23, 25 and 30 received a tactile, chemical or visual stimulus. An increase of mantle contraction rhythm was taken to indicate a behavioral response to the stimulus. We clearly demonstrated that tactile and chemical systems are functional from stage 23, whereas the visual system is functional only from stage 25. At stage 25 and 30, embryos were also exposed to a repeated light stimulus. Stage 30 embryos were capable of habituation, showing a progressive decrease in contractions across stimulations. This process was not due to fatigue as we observed response recovery after a dishabituation tactile stimulus. This study is the first to show that cuttlefish embryos behaviorally respond to stimuli of different modalities and that the visual system is the last to become functional during embryonic development, as in vertebrate embryos. It also provides new evidence that the memory system develops in ovo in cuttlefish. PMID:23136152

  12. 75 FR 68398 - Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Golden Triangle Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35428] Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Golden Triangle Railroad Company Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC (GTRA), a noncarrier, has filed a verified...

  13. Golden Quantum Oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci Calculus

    E-print Network

    Pashaev, Oktay K

    2011-01-01

    The Binet-Fibonacci formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number (and q-operator) with Golden ratio bases $q=\\phi$ and $Q=-1/\\phi$. Quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given just by Fibonacci numbers. Ratio of successive energy levels is found as the Golden sequence and for asymptotic states it appears as the Golden ratio. This why we called this oscillator as the Golden oscillator. By double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived.

  14. Golden Quantum Oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci Calculus

    E-print Network

    Oktay K. Pashaev; Sengul Nalci

    2011-07-21

    The Binet-Fibonacci formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number (and q-operator) with Golden ratio bases $q=\\phi$ and $Q=-1/\\phi$. Quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given just by Fibonacci numbers. Ratio of successive energy levels is found as the Golden sequence and for asymptotic states it appears as the Golden ratio. This why we called this oscillator as the Golden oscillator. By double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived.

  15. Immunoelectron-microscopic study of G-protein distribution in photoreceptor cells of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Schraermeyer; Hennig Stieve; Michael Rack

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that more than one single light-stimulated transduction pathway seems to be present in photoreceptor cells of invertebrates. Accordingly, more than one light-dependent G-protein has been detected in squid photoreceptor cells.Two different antibodies were used to locate the distribution of G-proteins in Sepia photoreceptors. One antiserum (anti-G?-common) has been raised against the peptide CGAGESGKSTIVKQMK. This sequence is found

  16. The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martin

    1982-01-01

    The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)

  17. 3. Herzog, E. H., M. K. Powers, and R. B. Barlow. 1996. Vis. Neu-Fish, R. H. Douglas, R. H., and M. B. A. Djamgoz eds. Chapman rosci. 13: 31-41. and Hall, Ltd. London, England.

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    of cuttlefish, Sepia ofJicinalis (5), and possibly octopus (6) is partially linearly polarized (termed here"). In cuttlefish, the polarized patterns have been suggested to be produced by dermal reflecting cells such as those found in the "Pink iridophore arm stripes" (7). Cuttlefish are diurnal animals that interact

  18. UNCORRECTED Anim Cogn (2006)

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Alves · Raymond Chichery · Jean Geary Boal · Ludovic Dickel 44 45 Orientation in the cuttlefish Sepia with vertebrates. A new spatial learning procedure56 using a T-maze was designed. In this maze, the cuttlefish57 cuttlefish showed59 an untrained side-turning preference (preference for turn-60 ing right or left) in the T

  19. officinalis) Abstract ITo

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    --""."-- - -t- -- I ' REPORTS I Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Se as to avoid oilier cuttlefish. Those in die small tank hovered more and sat on die bottom less, showed more-cultured cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) have been the that are sufficiently large to permit a s~udy of this kind; we

  20. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DISEASE Reference: Biol. Bull. 195: 223-225. (October, 1998)

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Laboratory Culture Techniques for the European Cuttlefish Sepia officim-dis Janice S. Hanley, Nadav Shashar Resources Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02.543) The cuttlefish-scale re- circulating seawater systems. Recently, cuttlefish were brought to the Marine Resources Center

  1. Intake of essential and non-essential elements from consumption of octopus, cuttlefish and squid.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Garofalo, R; Giungato, D; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2010-01-01

    Total concentrations of essential (Cu, Zn, Se and Cr) and non-essential (Hg, Cd, Pb and As) trace elements were measured in the flesh and hepatopancreas of Octopodidae (Eledone moschata, Eledone cirrhosa, Octopus salutii), Sepiidae (Sepia elegans, Sepia orbignyana) and Loliginidae (Illex coindeti, Loligo vulgaris) from the Mediterranean Sea. As expected, the hepatopancreas showed higher metal concentrations than flesh; the only exceptions were Hg and As, which were equally distributed in the two tissues. Regarding the edible portion, the highest toxic metal concentrations were in Octopodidae (Hg: 0.44, Cd: 0.49, Pb: 0.10 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Sepiidae (Hg: 0.27, Cd: 0.50, Pb: 0.12 µg g(-1) wet weight), while Loliginidae tended to accumulate less metal, especially Hg (Hg: 0.11, Cd: 0.30, Pb: 0.05 µg g(-1) wet weight). The other elements showed a heterogeneous distribution among the different cephalopod families. Loliginidae showed the highest Se concentrations (1.18 µg g(-1) wet weight), Octopodidae of Cu (37.37 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Zn (42.00 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Sepiidae of As (61.43 µg g(-1) wet weight), while Cr was uniformly distributed among the various families (0.38-0.43 µg g(-1) wet weight). In these seafoods, the concentrations of essential and non-essential elements were within the prescribed limits set by various authorities, except for Cu and As. Health risks posed by toxic elements to humans via dietary intake of these mollusks were assessed on the basis on Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), while the estimated intakes of essential elements were compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (RDIs). A 70-g serving of these mollusks was shown to provide a large contribution to Cd intake (0.89 µg kg(-1) body weight), corresponding to 35.6% of PTWI. Concerning the essential elements, the consumption of these mollusks made an important contribution to daily dietary intake of Se, Cu and Zn. PMID:24785311

  2. Discovering Phi: The Golden Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students discover the mathematical constant phi, the golden ratio, through hands-on activities. They measure dimensions of "natural objects"—a star, a nautilus shell and human hand bones—and calculate ratios of the measured values, which are close to phi. Then students learn a basic definition of a mathematical sequence, specifically the Fibonacci sequence. By taking ratios of successive terms of the sequence, they find numbers close to phi. They solve a squares puzzle that creates an approximate Fibonacci spiral. Finally, the instructor demonstrates the rule of the Fibonacci sequence via a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot equipped with a pen. The robot (already created as part of the companion activity, The Fibonacci Sequence & Robots) draws a Fibonacci spiral that is similar to the nautilus shape.

  3. The golden rule of reviewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPeek, Mark A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Shaw, Ruth G.; Moore, Allen J.; Rausher, Mark D.; Strong, Donald R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Barrett, Louise; Rieseberg, Loren; Breed, Michael D.; Sullivan, Jack; Osenberg, Craig W.; Holyoak, Marcel; Elgar, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A major bottleneck in the time required to publish a scientific or scholarly paper is the speed with which reviews by peers are returned to journals. Peer review is a reciprocal altruistic system in which each individual may perform every task—editors, reviewers, and authors—at different times. Journals have no way to coerce reviewers to return their critiques faster. To greatly shorten the time to publication, all actors in this altruistic network should abide by the Golden Rule of Reviewing: review for others as you would have others review for you. Say yes to reviewing whenever your duties and schedule allow; provide a thorough, fair, and constructive critique of the work; and do it at your first opportunity regardless of the deadline.

  4. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. PMID:24530330

  5. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant property of chitosan from cuttlebone Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885).

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-03-01

    Chitin was extracted from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis and chitosan was prepared through deacetylation. The chitosan was characterized for its structural, physical and thermal (CHN, DDA, FT-IR, NMR, XRD, Viscometric analysis, SEM and DSC) properties. Further, the chitosan exhibited the antioxidant activity of 50.68-74.36% at 1-10 mg ml(-1) and it also showed the reducing power of 0.28% at 1 mg ml(-1). At 10 mg ml(-1), the chitosan exhibited the scavenging ability of 46.17%, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, 23.38-73.70% on superoxide radicals at 0.05-1.6 mg ml(-1) and 18.34% to 62.39% (0.1-3.2 mg ml(-1)) on hydroxyl radicals; whereas at 1-10 mg ml(-1) the chelating ability on ferrous ions was calculated as 49.74-73.59%. Based on the potential antioxidant activity, scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating abilities on ferrous ions, the chitosan from the cuttlebone of S. kobiensis may not only be used as a potent natural antioxidant but also as a possible food quality enhancer ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24333227

  6. Effects of chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge on the blood parameters of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-04-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its bene?cial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the ?eld of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  7. [Effects of temperature on the embryonic development and larval growth of Sepia lycidas].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia-Min; Peng, Rui-Bing; Luo, Jiang; Tang, Feng

    2013-05-01

    A single-factor experiment was conducted to study the effects of different temperature (15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, and 33 degrees C) on the embryonic development and larval growth of Sepia lycidas, aimed to search for the optimum temperature for the development and growth of S. lycidas. The results showed that temperature had significant effects on the embryonic development and larval growth of S. lycidas (P < 0.05). The suitable temperature for hatching ranged from 21 degrees C to 30 degrees C, and the optimum temperature was 24 degrees C. At the optimum temperature, the hatching rate was (93.3 +/- 2.9)%, incubation period was (24.33 +/- 0.58) d, hatching period was (6.00 +/- 1.00) d, completely absorked rate of yolk sac was (96.4 +/- 3.1)%, and newly hatched larvae mass was (0.258 +/- 0.007) g. The effective accumulated temperature model was N = 284.42/(T-12.57). The suitable temperature for the larval survival and growth ranged from 21 degrees C to 30 degrees C, and the optimum temperature was from 24 degrees C to 27 degrees C. At the optimum temperature, the survival rate ranged from 70.0% to 73.3%, and the specific growth rate was from 2.4% to 3.8%. PMID:24015570

  8. Evidence of early nervous differentiation and early catecholaminergic sensory system during Sepia officinalis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baratte, S; Bonnaud, L

    2009-12-01

    Within Mollusca, cephalopods exhibit a particularly complex nervous system. The adult brain is formed from the fusion of several "typical" molluscan ganglia but it remains poorly understood how these ganglia emerge, migrate, and differentiate during embryogenesis. We studied the development of both central and peripheral nervous system by antibodies raised against alpha-tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in Sepia officinalis embryos to visualize neurites and catecholamine-containing neurons, respectively. In early embryos, when organs start delineating, some ganglia already exhibited a significant fiber network. TH-like immunoreactivity was detected in these fibers and in some primary sensory neurons in the embryo periphery. These data attest to the occurrence of an early embryonic sensory nervous system, likely effective, transient in part, and in relation to the perception of external cues. Concerning the peripheral nervous network, the stellate ganglia emerged as a plexus of numerous converging axons from TH-like immunoreactive sensory cells, first at the mantle edge, and then in the whole mantle surface. Later, TH-immunopositive motor fibers, originating from the stellate ganglia, penetrated the circular muscles of the mantle. These patterns reveal the setup of a mantle midline with likely attractive and repulsive properties. Our findings seem to challenge the widespread, still accepted, view of a late differentiation of cephalopod ganglia, and provides significant data for further investigations about axonal guidance during cephalopod development. PMID:19795495

  9. Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis. PMID:19683074

  10. Leonardo of Pisa and the Golden Rectangle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2012-01-01

    This brief article describes the number sequence of Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci), and its connecton to the golden ratio and rectangle. Links to related topics and a link to a printable page are included.

  11. Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  12. The Golden Section as Optical Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, Jonas; Brodsky, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The golden section, ? = (1 + ?5)/2 = 1.618… and its companion ? = 1/? = ? -1 = 0.618…, are irrational numbers which for centuries were believed to confer aesthetic appeal. In line with the presence of golden sectioning in natural growth patterns, recent EEG recordings show an absence of coherence between brain frequencies related by the golden ratio, suggesting the potential relevance of the golden section to brain dynamics. Using Mondrian-type patterns comprising a number of paired sections in a range of five section-section areal ratios (including golden-sectioned pairs), participants were asked to indicate as rapidly and accurately as possible the polarity (light or dark) of the smallest section in the patterns. They were also asked to independently assess the aesthetic appeal of the patterns. No preference was found for golden-sectioned patterns, while reaction times (RTs) tended to decrease overall with increasing ratio independently of each pattern’s fractal dimensionality. (Fractal dimensionality was unrelated to ratio and measured in terms of the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting dimension). The ease of detecting the smallest section also decreased with increasing ratio, although RTs were found to be substantially slower for golden-sectioned patterns under 8-paired sectioned conditions. This was confirmed by a significant linear relationship between RT and ratio (p <.001) only when the golden-sectioned RTs were excluded [the relationship was non-significant for the full complement of ratios (p = .217)]. Image analysis revealed an absence of spatial frequencies between 4 and 8 cycles-per-degree that was exclusive to the 8-paired (golden)-sectioned patterns. The significance of this was demonstrated in a subsequent experiment by addition of uniformly distributed random noise to the patterns. This provided a uniform spatial-frequency profile for all patterns, which did not influence the decrease in RT with increasing ratio but abolished the elevated RTs to golden-sectioned patterns. This suggests that optical limitation in the form of reduced inter-neural synchronization during spatial-frequency coding may be the foundation for the perceptual effects of golden sectioning. PMID:26154761

  13. 69 FR 21039 - Golden Nematode; Regulated Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-04-20

    We are adopting as a final rule, with one change, an interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by adding a field in Steuben County, NY, to the list of generally infested regulated areas. In this document, we are making an editorial change in order to correct a reference in the regulations. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of golden nematode to......

  14. AMRA's golden years: 1979-1988.

    PubMed

    Buckland, A

    1988-10-01

    Ten years ago AMRA had a golden anniversary celebrating 50 years of existence. Today, in 1988, we have accumulated 60 years of service to our members, to health record science, to the world of allied health, and to the protection of patients' confidentiality rights. Inasmuch as the first years of AMRA were chronicled in articles appearing in Medical Record News, August 1978 and February 1979, this article will review only the golden years, the period following our 50th anniversary. PMID:10302852

  15. Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashaev, Oktay K.; Nalci, Sengul

    2012-01-01

    The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = ? and Q = -1/?, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels is found to be the Golden sequence, and for asymptotic states in the limit n ? ? it appears as the Golden ratio. We call this oscillator the Golden oscillator. Using double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived. Relations of Fibonacci calculus with a q-deformed fermion oscillator and entangled N-qubit states are indicated.

  16. Paraparesis in a Golden Retriever.

    PubMed

    Aschenbroich, S; Woolcock, A; Rissi, D R

    2014-09-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Golden Retriever dog presented with fever and a 10-day history of neurological signs, including ambulatory paraparesis and pelvic limb ataxia. Neurological examination initially revealed a T3-L3 myelopathy. Thoracic radiographs revealed a diffuse miliary pulmonary pattern. Endotracheal washes and fine-needle aspirates from several organs aimed at identifying a potential infectious agent or neoplastic process were all unsuccessful. Due to worsening of the clinical signs, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy findings included multifocal, pale to dark red, firm nodules infiltrating the lungs, heart, mesentery, pancreas, small intestine, brain, and spinal cord. Cytological examination of impression smears obtained from the pulmonary nodules during necropsy revealed clusters of epithelioid cells admixed with fewer spindle cells, erythrocytes, and scattered leukocytes. Clinical signs and cytological findings initially suggested the possibility of a widespread granulomatous disease or a metastatic epithelial neoplasm as possible clinical differentials in this case. The final diagnosis was based on the gross and histological findings, with confirmation following histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. PMID:24193142

  17. Microsatellite DNA variation reveals high gene flow and panmictic populations in the Adriatic shared stocks of the European squid and cuttlefish (Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Garoia; I Guarniero; A Ramšak; N Ungaro; M Landi; C Piccinetti; P Mannini; F Tinti

    2004-01-01

    In the semienclosed Adriatic Sea, the shared stocks of the cephalopods Loligo vulgaris and Sepia officinalis represent important marine fisheries resources exploited by all coastal countries. The improving of knowledge on the demographic features of these shared stocks is internationally relevant for adopting responsible management and conservation of these marine resources. Analyses of microsatellite variation in geographical samples collected from

  18. GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2009-03-01

    We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes. PMID:18692104

  19. TOURISM IN GOLDEN BAY Economic Impacts & Resource Use Issues

    E-print Network

    TOURISM IN GOLDEN BAY Economic Impacts & Resource Use Issues - Preliminary Report - June 2000 NZ Tourism Research Institute Victoria University of Wellington Auckland University of Technology #12;INTRODUCTION Golden Bay's tourism industry faces a number of pressing issues. Intensifying competition

  20. Spectral Imaging Through the Atmosphere Steven Adler-Golden

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    Spectral Imaging Through the Atmosphere Steven Adler-Golden Leader, Passive Sensing Group Spectral Speaker Biography: Dr. Steven Adler-Golden is the leader of the Passive Sensing Group at Spectral Sciences of atmospheric correction and data analysis algorithms for spectral imagery. Dr. Adler-Golden received his B

  1. Turning Points of the Spherical Pendulum and the Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essen, Hanno; Apazidis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To…

  2. Inflow and Infiltration in Golden Valley

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The city of Golden Valley (MN) Web site offers the interactive Inflow and Infiltration in Golden Valley activity. This Flash based animation attempts to show homeowners how connecting a sump pump directly to the sewer system, besides being illegal, can cause other unforeseen problems. The characters explain that this could lead to higher water and sewer charges and even basement flooding of neighboring homes. Even though there isn't in-depth information on these subjects, the site does do a good job of explaining and illustrating how an average municipal sewerage system works, how a home sump pump works, and what happens to storm water.

  3. Whooping crane preyed upon by golden eagle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Stiles, H.E.; Drewien, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is the largest predatory bird in North America and is well known for its predatory abilities. Attacks have been reported on mammals such as whitetail jackrabbits (Lepus townsendi) (McGahan 1967, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 31: 496), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) (Bruhns 1970, Can. Field-Natur. 84: 301), Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (Kelleher and O'Malia 1971, Auk 88: 186), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) (Carnie 1954, Condor 56: 3). This communication describes an attack on an immature Whooping Crane (Grus americana) by a Golden Eagle and the subsequent necropsy findings.

  4. Golden Valley County Secondary Data Analysis

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Infarction prevalence (Heart Attack) 4.3% 4.1% 6.0% All Sites Cancer 510.8 455.5 543.2 1 Community County1 Montana1,2 Nation2 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. Unintentional Injuries** 1. Cancer 2. Heart Disease 3.CLRD* 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. CLRD* #12; Golden Valley County Secondary Data

  5. The Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ron Knott, Ph.D.

    2007-12-12

    This award-winning site explores not only who Fibonacci was, but also the Fibonacci number properties, where they occur in nature, and much, much more. Puzzles with answers, illustrations, diagrams, and graphs are included. The Golden Ratio and Lucas numbers are addressed here as well. This site contains over 200 pages of information.

  6. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. The Golden Heads of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lynn Bohs (University of Utah; Department of Biology ADR; POSTAL)

    2004-03-09

    The golden heads of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia covering the foothills herald spring in Utah's Wasatch Mountains. Balsamorhiza macrophylla, the cutleat balsamroot (shown here), commonly grows interspersed with B. sagittata (arrowleaf balsamroot) and W. amplexicaulis (mule's ear) on hillsides and in open woods.

  8. Golden-Thompson's inequality for deformed exponentials

    E-print Network

    Frank Hansen

    2014-10-21

    Deformed logarithms and their inverse functions, the deformed exponentials, are important tools in the theory of non-additive entropies and non-extensive statistical mechanics. We formulate and prove counterparts of Golden-Thompson's trace inequality for q-exponentials with parameter q in the interval [1,3].

  9. Identification of the major ACE-inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate from cuttlefish wastewater.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC?? = 76.8 ± 15.2 ?g mL?¹) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC?? value of 58.4 ± 4.6 ?g mL?¹. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A-D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC?? values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 ?g mL?¹, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. PMID:24619242

  10. 76 FR 31920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) as endangered or threatened...golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) from governmental agencies...golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is a neotropical...

  11. The sisters of the golden section.

    PubMed

    Navon, David

    2011-01-01

    The golden proportion is widely believed to be extraordinarily prevalent in nature and the arts, which is often ascribed to it being the limit of the ratio between any two successive elements in the Fibonacci sequence. It is suggested here that the golden ratio may not be as exceptional as generally believed. Mathematically, some interesting properties are common to all members of a family of sequences, denoted ARS, characterised as solutions to the classic rabbit reproduction problem varying on some parameter, j, including the Fibonacci sequence as a prototypical member--ARS2. Furthermore, for j > 1, any limit of the ratio between successive elements in ARS(j), shares the same formal properties with all other such limits. Three actual interpretations and three further geometric applications of ARS3, all intimately analogous to corresponding ARS2 ones, are presented for the sake of illustration. Empirically, it is suggested here that, owing to the communality of interesting mathematical properties between ARS sequences, as well as between corresponding limits, nature might appear to have made use of some other limits, aside of its variegated use of the limit of ARS2--the golden ratio. Initial empirical clues are provided. Finally, the issue whether there really is special import to golden proportions in nature and the arts is revisited in view of some empirical comparisons of appearances related to Fibonacci numbers and ARS3 numbers, particular its limit (-1.466) and the inverse of that limit (-0.682). It is argued that the claim that Fibonacci-related numbers are especially distinguished seems to warrant a more qualified approach than it has often met. PMID:21936299

  12. A golden opportunity: Researchers making progress in understanding toxic algae 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 20 cientists at three Texas universities investigating golden algae, its explosive growth, and its deadly toxins have dis- covered an apparent competition between golden algae and blue green algae in certain Texas lakes...) Scientists researching golden algae, its explosive growth, and possible management strategies have studied the affects of nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate have on control- ling the organism. tx H2O | pg. 22 ents, and low salinity that stress...

  13. Battling golden algae: Results suggest preventative lake managment approaches 

    E-print Network

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    14 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Danielle Supercinski Battling golden algae Results suggest preventative lake management approaches Golden algae blooms, or the explosive growth of algae, are known to be toxic, but recent #28;ndings from... for golden algae. #22;e salinity has not gone back up from that year, and P. parvum is even further removed from its growth optimum.? Grover said when they #28;rst started this research, they had two important questions about golden algae. ?First, we had...

  14. Battling Golden Algae: Results suggest preventative lake management approaches 

    E-print Network

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    14 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Danielle Supercinski Battling golden algae Results suggest preventative lake management approaches Golden algae blooms, or the explosive growth of algae, are known to be toxic, but recent #28;ndings from... for golden algae. #22;e salinity has not gone back up from that year, and P. parvum is even further removed from its growth optimum.? Grover said when they #28;rst started this research, they had two important questions about golden algae. ?First, we had...

  15. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

  16. LEXSEE 35 GOLDEN GATE U.L. REV. 429 Copyright (c) 2005 Golden Gate University

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and environmental harms associated with the petro indus- try. n7 Comprising oil companies, refineries, engine University Law Review Spring, 2005 35 Golden Gate U.L. Rev. 429 LENGTH: 28993 words COMMENT: SMOKE BEFORE OIL: MODELING A SUIT AGAINST THE AUTO AND OIL INDUSTRY ON THE TOBACCO TORT LITIGATION IS FEASIBLE NAME: ANGELA

  17. Productivity of golden eagles wearing backpack radiotransmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzluff, J.M.; Vekasy, M.S.; Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    1997-01-01

    We examined the association between the presence of backpack radiotransmitters and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)reproduction (percentage of occupied territories producing young, and number of nestlings produced) over three years. The association between radio-tagging and nesting success and the number of nestlings produced varied significantly among years. A negative association with tagging was observed in one of three years, which coincided with low prey (jackrabbit) populations and a cold spring. However, small sample size and breeding by subadults may confound this result.

  18. Golden Rice An Intimate Debate Case

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annie Prud?homme Genereux

    2009-01-01

    In this intimate debate case, students consider whether to support the development and use of Golden Rice as a means to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in the developing world. Students are exposed to arguments supporting and opposing the use of this genetically modified crop for humanitarian purposes. Since many of the arguments typically raised against genetically modified organisms (GMOs) do not apply to this particular GM crop, students are forced to analyze the facts rather than rely on what they have heard in the media. Developed for an introductory molecular biology undergraduate course, the case could also be used at more senior levels.

  19. International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?

    E-print Network

    Gabrieli, John

    International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du and Sergey Paltsev Report No. 271;1 International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where

  20. Is University Education a Golden Key for a Happy Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    This article explores what the ultimate purpose of university education is, and whether a university is indeed a golden key for a happy life. Two research questions are addressed as follows: for what the young study in a university?; and a university, is it a golden key for happiness? To defend the research questions systematically, the author…

  1. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...will be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation agencies...be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation...

  2. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...will be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation agencies...be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation...

  3. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...will be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation agencies...be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation...

  4. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...will be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation agencies...be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation...

  5. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...will be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation agencies...be an enhancement of the Golden Eagle program which would complement the program as it is administered by Federal recreation...

  6. COMPLETE MIGRATION CYCLE OF GOLDEN EAGLES BREEDING IN NORTHERN QUEBEC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Brodeur; David M. Bird; Mark Fuller

    Abstract. Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles (five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three ofwhich completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and

  7. Making History Mythical: The Golden Age of Peisistratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Zatta

    2010-01-01

    :This paper examines the association in Aristotle (Ath. Pol. 16.7) of the mythical Golden Age with the tyranny of Peisistratus and, by means of an array of both iconographic and textual evidence, suggests that Peisistratus made use of Golden Age imagery during his regime. This paper also discusses the tyrant's attempts to relieve the twin problems of overpopulation in the

  8. Making History Mythical: The Golden Age of Peisistratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Zatta

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the association in Aristotle (Ath. Pol. 16.7) of the mythical Golden Age with the tyranny of Peisistratus and, by means of an array of both iconographic and textual evidence, suggests that Peisistratus made use of Golden Age imagery during his regime. This paper also discusses the tyrant's attempts to relieve the twin problems of overpopulation in the

  9. THE STATUS OF WINTERING GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLERS IN NICARAGUA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID I. KING; EDGARD HERRERA; SANDRA HERNANDEZ; CAROL A. LIVELY; DAVID W. MEHLMAN; JOHN H. RAPPOLE; DANA ROTH

    The Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) is an endangered Neotropical-Nearctic migrant that winters in Mexico and Central America. Although previous studies delineated the winter range of this species in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras and established that wintering Golden-cheeked Warblers are closely associated with montane forest pine-oak forest with abundant narrow-leaved \\

  10. GOLDEN EAGLE PREDATION ON PRONGHORNS IN WYOMING'S GREAT DIVIDE BASIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. DEBLINGER; A. WILLIAM ALLDREDGE

    From 1980-85, while studying pronghorn antelope in Wyoming's Great Divide Basin, we recorded seven inci- dents of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) attacking prong- horns (Antilocapra americana). Most reported observa- uons of golden eagle predation on pronghorns involve newborn fawns during spring and summer (Beale and Smith 1973, Barrett 1978, Beale 1978, Bodie 1978, Von Gunten 1978, Autenrieth 1980), but a

  11. Golden Ratio in a Coupled-Oscillator Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Goff, John Eric

    2007-01-01

    The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

  12. Current Biology 21, 17731782, November 8, 2011 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2011.09.011 Alternative Sites of Synaptic Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Hochner, Binyamin

    , in two phylogenet- ically close cephalopod mollusks, Octopus vulgaris and the cuttlefish Sepia Cephalopod mollusks, such as Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis studied here (phylum Mollusca, class officinalis, provides a surprising answer to this question. Results: We show that in both the octopus

  13. INTERSPECIFIC AND GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATIONS OF TRACE METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN CEPHALOPODS FROM TUNISIAN WATERS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) of three cephalopod species from the Tunisian waters: the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), the common reported in different cephalopod species (i.e., Sepia officinalis, Octopus vulgaris and Eledone cirrhosa cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). Whatever the species or the sites

  14. A golden approach to ion channel inhibition?

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Gavin E.; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: ‘Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?’ We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio. PMID:23972927

  15. (Golden Optimal Value in Discrete-time Dynamic Optimization Processes)

    E-print Network

    Yasuda, Masami

    University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan E­mail: $iwamotoQen.kyushu-u.ac.jp$ (Masami YASUDA) Chiba University(Golden Optimal Value in Discrete-time Dynamic Optimization Processes) ­ (Seiichi IWAMOTO) Kyushu

  16. 13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, California, 1850's) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF CONVENTO BEFORE RESTORATION, 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  17. Habitat use by the golden-cheeked warbler in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Newnam, John Calvin

    2009-05-15

    Understanding species-habitat relationships is fundamental to the conservation of a species. This is especially important when the species is considered endangered. The Golden-cheeked Warbler is a habitat specialist that breeds only in oak...

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park - San Francisco, California Original: c1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM NORTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  19. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San Francisco, California Original: Ante 1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  20. 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day: pharmacogenomics and individualized therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are international scientific meetings aiming to educate healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists about pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. In this meeting report, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day that was held in Belgrade, Serbia last June 5, 2012. The scientific program included lectures by the local and international speakers from Europe and the United States. PMID:23157848

  1. 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day: pharmacogenomics and individualized therapy.

    PubMed

    Stojiljkovic, Maja; Fazlagic, Amira; Dokmanovic-Krivokapic, Lidija; Nikcevic, Gordana; Patrinos, George P; Pavlovic, Sonja; Zukic, Branka

    2012-01-01

    The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are international scientific meetings aiming to educate healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists about pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. In this meeting report, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day that was held in Belgrade, Serbia last June 5, 2012. The scientific program included lectures by the local and international speakers from Europe and the United States. PMID:23157848

  2. The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    John, T Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), developed in the USA by Jonas Salk in the early 1950s, was field tested in 1954, and found to be safe and effective. The year 2004 marks the golden jubilee of this breakthrough. From 1955 IPV was used extensively in the US and polio incidence declined by more than 95 per cent. However, in 1962, when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) became available, the national policy was shifted to its exclusive use, for reasons other than science and economics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) also adopted the policy of the exclusive use of OPV in developing countries. Thus IPV fell into disrepute in much of the world, while Northern European countries continued to use it. New research led to improving its potency, reducing its manufacturing costs and combining it with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine to simplify its administration and reduce programmatic costs. All countries that chose to persist with IPV eliminated poliovirus circulation without OPV-induced polio or the risk of live vaccine viruses reverting to wild-like nature. IPV is highly immunogenic, confers mucosal immunity and exerts herd protective effect, all qualities of a good vaccine. It can be used in harmony with the extendend programme on immunization (EPI) schedule of infant immunisation with DTP, thus reducing programmatic costs. During the last ten years IPV has once again regained its popularity and some 25 industrialised countries use it exclusively. The demand is increasing from other countries and the supply has not caught up, leaving market forces to dictate the sale price of IPV. Anticipating such a turn of events India had launched its own IPV manufacturing programme in 1987, but the project was closed in 1992. Today it is not clear if we can complete the job of global polio eradication without IPV, on account of the genetic instability of OPV and the consequent tendency of vaccine viruses to revert to wild-like properties. The option to use IPV is complicated since it is not yet licensed in India, we do not manufacture it and imported vaccine would be prohibitively costly. However, in this golden jubilee year we have much to celebrate as the global eradication of wild polioviruses is within sight. Had we strictly followed the principles of science and health economics, perhaps we could have achieved success earlier and cheaper, with the absence of vaccine-induced polio as the bonus. PMID:14997988

  3. The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

  4. Dendritic cell leukemia in a Golden Retriever.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robin W; Brunker, Jill D; Breshears, Melanie A; Avery, Anne C; Moore, Peter F; Affolter, Verena K; Vernau, William

    2008-06-01

    An 8-year-old castrated male Golden Retriever was evaluated for decreased appetite, lethargy, and labored breathing of 1-week duration. Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were present. Results of a CBC revealed marked leukocytosis (62,600/microL; reference interval 4000-15,500/microL) and large numbers of atypical cells (30,700/microL) with abundant cytoplasm. There was no concurrent anemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia. Morphology of the atypical cells was most consistent with a histiocytic origin. Similar cells were identified in bone marrow aspirates, and were morphologically suggestive of the macrophage variant of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. However, flow cytometry of the abnormal circulating cells revealed CD1c, CD11c, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II expression without expression of CD11d or lymphoid markers, consistent with myeloid dendritic antigen-presenting cells. At necropsy, the splenic architecture was effaced by neoplastic histiocytes that were also infiltrating lung, liver, an abdominal lymph node, myocardium, an bone marrow. Immunohistochemistry of the splenic neoplastic cells confirmed dendritic cell origin (CD1c+, CD11c+, MHC II+, no expression of CD11d and lymphoid markers). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of canine dendritic cell leukemia-in this instance accompanied by marked tissue infiltration. PMID:18533919

  5. 76 FR 54762 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...Docket No. CP11-531-000] Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To...Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Golden Triangle Storage Expansion Project and Request...the environmental impacts of the Golden Triangle Storage Expansion Project (GTS...

  6. Geographic Variability in Mitochondrial Introgression Among HybrGeographic Variability in Mitochondrial Introgression Among Hybridizingidizing Populations of GoldenPopulations of Golden--winged and Bluewinged and Blue--winged Warblerswinged Warblers

    E-print Network

    .J. Lovette, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera. ABSTRACTABSTRACT The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) has declined throughout the northeastern U

  7. Is California still the Golden State?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2011-07-01

    The Rise of the Third Coast: The Gulf's Region's Ascendancy in U.S.http://blogs.forbes.com/joelkotkin/2011/06/23/the-rise-of-the-third-coast-the-gulf-regions-ascendancy-in-u-s/California homicides decline to lowest rate in 45 yearshttp://losangelescrimereport.com/california-homicides-decline-to-lowest-rate-in-45-yearsHuntington-USC Institute on California and the Westhttp://dornsife.usc.edu/icwPublic Policy Institute of Californiahttp://www.ppic.org/main/home.aspOnline Archive of Californiahttp://www.oac.cdlib.org/California is known as the Golden State for a host of reasons. Native Americans who lived in the state found a bounty of fish, pleasant climates, and a rather hospitable way of life. Europeans arriving from Spain, Britain, and Russia found much to enjoy here as well in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the middle of the 19th century, the proverbial and literal "gold in them hills" brought prospectors from all corners of the globe who dreamed of making a vast fortune. The 20th century saw a feverish period of land speculation, the explosive growth of Southern California, and glittering dreamscapes promoted by real estate developers and movie moguls alike. Today, things are much different, as the state continues to attract fewer new residents every year, and taxes continue to be quite onerous for middle-income families. During the 2000s, the state did continue to grow by about 10% in terms of population, but this was meager compared with growth rates of 53% in the 1950s. Speaking on this recent transformation, Professor Dowell Myers noted, "If things go really bad in the Midwest, Southern California could be a beacon of hope. But in general, immigration has slowed down now and is not likely to turn upward." The director of the Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West, William Deverell, offered another perspective recently, "The hold California has on people has been every bit as much psychological as actual-but people are leaving. It can be very, very difficult here."The first link will take visitors to an excellent piece on the current state of California from CNN's series "Defining America". It contains first-hand experiences from current residents, along with comments from public policy experts and others. The second link leads visitors to a bit of commentary from Joel Kotkin on the rise of the Gulf Region in and around Texas and Louisiana, and its potential effect on California's future prospects. Moving on, the third link will take interested parties to a bit more positive piece from the Washington Examiner which discusses the continued decline in California's homicide rate. The fourth link leads to the homepage of the Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West. Here visitors can learn about their work on examining and analyzing the state of California and its relationship with nearby states and regions. The fifth link will whisk users away to the homepage of the Public Policy Institute of California. Here visitors will find podcasts, working papers and other items that discuss housing, public finance, social policy, and water issues in the Golden State. Finally, the last link leads to the very comprehensive Online Archive of California, which contains links to hundreds of digital collections that document the state's history and culture.

  8. 78 FR 51802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Silla: Korea's Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...for Exhibition Determinations: ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...be included in the exhibition ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  9. 75 FR 27432 - Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco...support of Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise. These temporary security zones are...the statewide port security full scale exercise. Persons and vessels are...

  10. Ranking Fiscal Policy Rules: the Golden Rule of Public Finance vs. the Stability and Growth Pact

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Ranking Fiscal Policy Rules: the Golden Rule of Public Finance vs. the Stability and Growth Pact of the application of a "golden rule of public finance" to the European Union (EU). Blanchard and Giavazzi (2003

  11. 76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ...Exhibition Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of Renaissance Bronzes'' Summary: Notice is hereby given of the following...included in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age of Renaissance Bronzes,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  12. Golden Grove dolomite, Barbados: Origin from modified seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Machel, H.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology); Burton, E.A. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1994-10-03

    Dolomite is known from Pleistocene carbonates in the southeastern part of Barbados. Most dolomite was found in a roadcut called Golden Grove. This occurrence is of interest because (1) some textures are rare; (2) the [delta][sup 13]C values of many dolomite samples are unusually low; (3) these dolomites have been interpreted to be diagenetic products of a coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zone with as little as 5% seawater; and (4) these dolomites have been used for modeling of extensive dolomitization in coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zones elsewhere (Humphrey and Quinn 1989). The authors investigated dolomite samples from Golden Grove, calcite samples from Golden Grove and elsewhere on Barbados, and groundwater samples from several locations on the island (first results have been reported in Machel and Burton 1991). The major objective of their study is to establish the geochemical and/or hydrological conditions of dolomitization.

  13. Geology of the Golden Zone mine area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawley, C.C.; Clark, Allen L.; Benfer, J. Alan

    1968-01-01

    The Golden Zone mine area, in the upper Chulitna district, is underlain mainly by siltstone and tuff, volcanic conglomerate and breccia, and limestone. These rocks were invaded, probably in the Tertiary, by dikes and a small stock of porphyry. The ore deposits of the area are the Golden Zone breccia pipe, a nearly vertical body about in the center of the porphyry stock, and steeply dipping veins. Most veins strike north to northeast and are commonly only 1-5 feet thick, but locally are as much as 15 feet thick. Both pipe and vein deposits are gold deposits of low to moderate grade that are characterized by abundant arsenopyrite; some contain possibly economic amounts of copper, lead and zinc minerals. Of the deposits of the mine area, only the Golden Zone has been explored to any extent, and both it and some of. the veins deserve further exploration to determine their potential.

  14. 78 FR 27856 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0079] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston...interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston...these two counties are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

  15. How does the running wheel affect the behaviour and reproduction of golden hamsters kept as pets?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine G. Gebhardt-Henrich; Evelyne M. Vonlanthen; Andreas Steiger

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many studies on the running wheel in laboratory animals, it is not clear if a running wheel should be provided for golden hamsters kept as pets. Unlike laboratory animals, golden hamsters kept as pets usually have larger cages, more varied food, and are kept singly. In this study, 10 sister-pairs of golden hamsters were kept singly in

  16. Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Social Subjugation during Puberty in Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Social Subjugation during Puberty in Golden Hamsters Department, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 In golden hamsters subjugation) during puberty. Male golden hamsters were weaned at postna- tal day 25 (P25), exposed daily

  17. Golden Rice – five years on the road – five years to go?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Al-Babili; Peter Beyer

    2005-01-01

    Provitamin A accumulates in the grain of Golden Rice as a result of genetic transformation. In developing countries, where vitamin A deficiency prevails, grain from Golden Rice is expected to provide this important micronutrient sustainably through agriculture. Since its original production, the prototype Golden Rice has undergone intense research to increase the provitamin A content, to establish the scientific basis

  18. Golden catfish microsatellite analysis reveals a distinct Iinbred stock of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden-colored fish have been reported for rainbow trout, tilapia, several species of carps and Clarias catfish. The current golden catfish stock was created through mixing fish with predominant gold/yellow pigment and spots to normal sized and colored catfish. The golden catfish possess a distinct...

  19. Genetics and Implications of the Golden Color Morph in Green Sunfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rex A. Dunham; William F. Childers

    1980-01-01

    A color mutation of green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), resulting in whitish, golden-colored fish, was studied to determine the inheritance and ecological significance of this mutation. The offspring of six golden green sunfish were used in this study. The color trait is recessive and is believed to be caused by a genetically induced malfunction during melanoblast differentiation. The golden green sunfish

  20. DETECTION HETEROGENEITY AND ABUNDANCE ESTIMATION IN POPULATIONS OF GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLERS

    E-print Network

    Weckerly, Floyd "Butch" - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    DETECTION HETEROGENEITY AND ABUNDANCE ESTIMATION IN POPULATIONS OF GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLERS abundance of Golden- cheeked Warblers (Setophaga chrysoparia) in two years at six study sites 2013. Key words: abundance estimators, detection probability, Golden-cheeked Warbler, N-mixture model

  1. Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide Golden-cheeked Warbler breeding habitat

    E-print Network

    Weckerly, Floyd "Butch" - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide Golden-cheeked Warbler breeding habitat ADAM DUARTE,1. Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide Golden-cheeked Warbler breeding habitat. Ecosphere 4(12):152. http quantified the degree of change in range-wide breeding habitat for the Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga

  2. RELIABILITY OF OCCUPANCY AND BINOMIAL MIXTURE MODELS FOR ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLERS

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    for monitoring the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) on a preserve in central, accepted 5 December 2011. Key words: binomial mixture model, detection probability, Golden-cheeked WarblerRELIABILITY OF OCCUPANCY AND BINOMIAL MIXTURE MODELS FOR ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF GOLDEN-CHEEKED

  3. Presencenonpresence surveys of golden-cheeked warblers: detection, occupancy and survey effort

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Presence­nonpresence surveys of golden-cheeked warblers: detection, occupancy and survey effort C evaluated a detection­nondetection survey method for the federally endan- gered golden-cheeked warbler (GCWA Department, Austin, TX, USA Keywords closure; detection­nondetection survey; detection probability; golden-cheeked

  4. Experimental Crystallization of a High-K Arc Basalt: the Golden Pumice, Stromboli Volcano (Italy)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental Crystallization of a High-K Arc Basalt: the Golden Pumice, Stromboli Volcano (Italy ABSTRACT The near-liquidus crystallization of a high-K basalt (PST-9 golden pumice, 49·4 wt % SiO2, 1·85 wt pre- eruptive parameters refer to the storage region of golden pumice melts, which is located

  5. A golden gate modular cloning toolbox for plants.

    PubMed

    Engler, Carola; Youles, Mark; Gruetzner, Ramona; Ehnert, Tim-Martin; Werner, Stefan; Jones, Jonathan D G; Patron, Nicola J; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2014-11-21

    Plant Synthetic Biology requires robust and efficient methods for assembling multigene constructs. Golden Gate cloning provides a precision module-based cloning technique for facile assembly of multiple genes in one construct. We present here a versatile resource for plant biologists comprising a set of cloning vectors and 96 standardized parts to enable Golden Gate construction of multigene constructs for plant transformation. Parts include promoters, untranslated sequences, reporters, antigenic tags, localization signals, selectable markers, and terminators. The comparative performance of parts in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana is discussed. PMID:24933124

  6. [Isolation and identification of coxsackievirus in Sichuan golden monkey].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-qi; Lu, Hui-jun; Song, De-guang; Cheng, Jun; Gai, Xian-ying; Chen, Qi-jun; Gao, Feng

    2008-07-01

    A coxsackievirus B strain was successfully isolated by cells culture from cardiac muscle tissues of a dead Sichuan golden monkey with myocarditis from a zoo of Changchun in China. The isolate was consistent with CVB by morphology, physicochemistry test, animal regression test and RT-PCR. Analysis of VP1 partial gene sequence and detection of mice specific serum IgG showed that the strain isolated was a coxsackievirus B3. It was the first CVB case report in Sichuan golden monkey and the strain isolated was named CVB/SGM-05. PMID:18780636

  7. Golden Eagle Indifference to Heli-Skiing and Military Helicopters

    E-print Network

    Golden Eagle Indifference to Heli-Skiing and Military Helicopters in Northern Utah TERYL G. GRUBB,1-Skiing and Military Helicopters in Northern Utah TERYL G. GRUBB,1 United States Forest Service, Rocky Mountain, Utah, USA, we recorded 303 helicopter passes between 0 m and 3,000 m (horizontal distance) near L 30

  8. 2000 Golden Eagle Fact Sheet, Denali National Park and Preserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol McIntyre

    Denali National Park and Preserve is one of the best places in the world to watch Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and many other subarctic nesting raptors including Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Merlins (Falco columbarius) and Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus). Eagles and other wildlife in Denali provide visitors and employees with wonderful opportunities to observe wild animals in their natural environment. The

  9. Renal nephroblastoma in a 3-month-old golden retriever

    PubMed Central

    Montinaro, Vincenzo; Boston, Sarah E.; Stevens, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Nephrectomy was performed in a 3-month-old intact female golden retriever dog for a renal nephroblastoma. The dog has remained disease-free for 19 months with nephrectomy alone. The adoption of human Wilms’ tumor grading criteria may be useful in determining clinical stage, adjuvant treatment options, and prognosis in this rare disease. PMID:24155463

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) of male golden hamsters (Mesocricitus auratus) was measured repeatedly by placing the animals in a temperature gradient for 80 min. A total of 180 observations were made during the last 20 min of treatment in the gradient. The mean preferred Ta ...

  11. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...therein and that I am duly entitled to be issued free of charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l -6a (Supp., 1974), as amended by Pub. L. 93-303....

  12. A Mutation of the Circadian System in Golden Hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin R. Ralph; Michael Menaker

    1988-01-01

    A mutation has been found that dramatically shortens the period of the circadian locomotor rhythm of golden hamsters. The pattern of inheritance of this mutation suggests that it occurred at a single, autosomal locus (tau). Wild-type animals have rhythms with free-running periods averaging about 24 hours; animals heterozygous for the mutation have periods of about 22 hours, whereas homozygous animals

  13. Gas diffusion in ‘Golden’ papaya fruit at different maturity stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talita Pereira; Paulo Sergio Gomes de Almeida; Inga Gonçalves de Azevedo; Maura da Cunha; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Helion Vargas

    2009-01-01

    In this work the gas diffusion of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was evaluated as a function of different maturity stages, by using a photoacoustic spectrometer. The maturity stages were characterized by the anatomical changes, membrane integrity, pulp firmness, and skin color. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the

  14. THE STATUS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE (AQUILA CHRYSAETOS) IN POLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRZYSZTOF WAC; TADEUSZ MIZERA

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is a very rare breeding species in Poland and it is included in the Polish Red Data Book. At the end of twentieth century, only 30-35 pairs were nesting in the country. It has had protected species status for several decades and its nests have also been protected since 1984. All types of human disturbance

  15. Dispersal of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Grant; M. J. McGrady

    1999-01-01

    Two nestling Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos were radio?tracked from fledging until the birds were unable to be located. In addition two other free flying young birds ? one juvenile and one sub?adult ? were opportunistically caught, radio?tagged and tracked. After fledging one nestling stayed in the home range for six months and then left, while the other stayed for four

  16. The Image of Aestheticism: Burne-Jones's The Golden Stairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Gilhooly

    with suggesting 'to his crony W. S. Gilbert that he might like to write an opera based on Burne-Jones's maidens descending the golden stairs.'2 Bur why should this work, described by a contemporary critic as '... simply a troop of young girls descending a winding flight of stairs bearing musical instruments in their hands',3 have become the epitome of the

  17. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A.; Smallwood, Kenneth S.; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  18. Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…

  19. Squids, cuttlefish and octopuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Okutani

    1990-01-01

    General biology of cephalopods is described. First, all commercially important cephalopods are classified and the general morphology and distribution of all major families is described in detail. Mating and spawning characteristics of all major families are discussed in detail. This is followed by a discussion on early life history, growth and principal ecoological changes that occur during the growth period.

  20. Habitat Selection and Movement Patterns of California Golden Trout in Degraded and Recovering Stream Sections in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen R. Matthews

    1996-01-01

    I used radio transmitters to determine habitat selection and movement patterns of California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in two areas defined by their different levels of habitat recovery in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California. Study areas were differentiated by the amount of streamside vegetation (low or high coverage of beaked sedge Carex rostrata). Lower amounts of streamside vegetation were

  1. Habitat Selection and Movement Patterns of California Golden Trout in Degraded and Recovering Stream Sections in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN R. MATTHEWS

    1996-01-01

    I used radio transmitters to determine habitat selection and movement patterns of California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in two areas defined by their different levels of habitat recovery in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California. Study areas were differ- entiated by the amount of streamside vegetation (low or high coverage of beaked sedge Carex rostrata). Lower amounts of streamside vegetation

  2. Autoradiography in fetal golden hamsters treated with tritiated diethylnitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik-Schueller, H.M.; Hague, B.F. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Tritiated diethylnitrosamine was administered to female Syrian golden hamsters on each of the last 4 days (days 12-15) of pregnancy. The distribution of bound radioactivity was monitored by light microscopic autoradiography of fetal tracheas and livers, the placentas, and the maternal livers. In the trachea, the fetal target organ, bound radioactivity was restricted to the respiratory epithelium, where diethylnitrosamine-induced tracheal tumors arise. Mucous cells and nonciliated stem cells were identified as the principal sites of binding; other cell types within the tracheal epithelium contained only small amounts of bound radioactivity. The level of binding observed in the fetal trachea increased steadily from day 12 to day 15, which correlated well with the levels of differentiation of this tissue during this period. This observation also agrees with the previously reported observation that tumor incidence increases from 40 to 95% in Syrian golden hamsters between days 12 and 15.

  3. Helminth fauna of a Japanese golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos japonica.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sudo, Akiko; Uchida, Tadayoshi; Kakogawa, Masayoshi; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-12-01

    A Japanese golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos japonica, was found dead in Nagano Prefecture PB 399-8200, Japan, and subjected to necropsy. The necropsy revealed that the entire length of the intestine was filled with several masses of intestinal parasites. The recovered helminths were identified as one digenean trematode species, Neodiplostomum reflexum; two species of nematodes, Synhimantus sp. and larvae of Porrocaecum sp.; and a single species of Acanthocephala, Centrorhynchus sp. Digenea and acanthocephalans were found in massive numbers, obliterating the intestinal lumen, which suggests that the bird died as a result of the parasitic intestinal obstruction. The same type of helminths as those observed in this case was previously recorded in crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela perplexus) in Japan, but the present study emphasizes the presence of the four species in the Japanese golden eagle as a new host record. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of N. reflexum in Japan. PMID:23272374

  4. [Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture with golden needles].

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually. PMID:24195225

  5. A golden-silk spider spins its web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of Kennedy Space Center, a female Golden-Silk Spider repairs its web. The female can be identified by its brownish-green abdomen with a white spotted irregular pattern. The golden-silk spider repairs the webbing each day, replacing half but never the whole web at one time. Its web may measure two to three feet across. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a 92,000-acre refuge that is a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  6. San Francisco Public Library: Golden Gate International Exposition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Opened on February 18, 1939 the Golden Gate International Exposition was designed to celebrate the completion of the Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. The theme of this exposition was "Pageant of the Pacific,� and offered a gauzy Pacific Rim influence to the art, architecture, and landscape design at the fairgrounds while blending in modernism and technological innovations. Originally running through October of 1939, it was brought back for a second round from May 25 - September 29, 1940. This digital collection from the San Francisco Public Library brings together 130 plus photos that document the built environment of this grand exposition, including shots of the Danish Pavilion, sculptors working on the various monuments around the fairgrounds, and some rather elaborate molds of the Bay Bridge.

  7. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo bioactivity: cuttlefish-bone-derived hydroxyapatite and synthetic hydroxyapatite granules as a bone graft substitute.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yang, Sun-Sik; Lee, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Bone reconstruction in clinical settings often requires bone substitutes. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a widely used bone substitute due to its osteoconductive properties and bone bonding ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate HAp granules derived from cuttlefish bone (CB-HAp) as a substitute biomaterial for bone grafts. In this study, HAp granules were prepared from raw CB by using a hydrothermal reaction. The formation of HAp from CB was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The bioactivity of the CB-HAp granules was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that CB-HAp is non-toxic and that CB-HAp granules supported improved cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared to stoichiometric synthetic HAp granules. Furthermore, in vivo bone defect healing experiments show that the formation of bone with CB-HAp is higher than that with pure HAp. These results show that CB-HAp granules have excellent potential for use as a bone graft material. PMID:24487123

  8. WINTER ECOLOGY OF THE ENDANGERED GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN H. RAPPOLE; DAVID I. KING; WYLIE C. BARROW JR

    We studied the ecology of the Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chryso- paria) during three winter seasons, 1995-1998, in Honduras, Guatemala, and Mexico. In- dividuals of this species occurred almost exclusively as members of mixed-species flocks, occupying sites with greater densities of encino oak and ground cover and fewer pines than random sites. Most foraging observations were recorded in mid-story, encino oak.

  9. Golden half ring sign for identification of pseudophacocele

    PubMed Central

    Chandravanshi, Shivcharan Lal; Dwivedi, Anamika; Tirkey, Eva R; Choudhary, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Dislocation of intraocular lens (IOL) is a serious complication of blunt ocular trauma in pseudophakic eyes. Here, a 72-year-old male patient with subconjunctival dislocation of an IOL (pseudophacocele) secondary to bull horn injury was reported. In this case report, a new sign named as “golden half ring sign” was described for easy identification and localization of subconjunctival dislocation of IOL in patient with open globe injury (surgical wound dehiscence) associated dense subconjunctival hemorrhage. PMID:25971173

  10. Perception, Action, and Experience: Unraveling the Golden Braid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Much of our human mental life looks to involve a seamless unfolding of perception, action and experience: a golden braid in which each element twines intimately with the rest. We see the very world we act in and we act in the world we see. But more than this, visual experience presents us with the world in a way apt for the control and fine…

  11. Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos breeding success and afforestation in Argyll

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Watson

    1992-01-01

    Breeding success (fledged young\\/pair) was recorded for 15 pairs of Golden Eagles in Argyll over 10 years 1980–89. The amount of young plantation forestry in the potential hunting ranges of the 15 pairs of eagles was measured. There was no significant relationship between the amount of forestry in each range in 1980 and mean breeding success over the period 1980–89.

  12. Monitoring Golden-Cheeked Warblers on Private Lands in Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bret A. Collier; Michael L. Morrison; Shannon L. Farrell; Andrew J. Campomizzi; Jerrod A. Butcher; K. Brian Hays; Darryl I. Mackenzie; R. Neal Wilkins

    2010-01-01

    A majority of North American breeding habitat for neotropical migrants exists on private lands, requiring monitoring strategies focused on habitat in these private holdings. We outline study designs and protocols using repeated presence-absence surveys across a gradient of patch sizes to develop a range-wide monitoring program for the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia )i n Texas, USA. We surveyed 200-400

  13. FOREST EDGES NEGATIVELY AFFECT GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER NEST SURVIVAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REBECCA G. PEAK

    2007-01-01

    I used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning the effects of edge and temporal factors on Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) nest survival on Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas, during 2003-2006. I predicted that nest survival would be greater earlier in the breeding season than later in the breeding season, in areas with less forest edge than in

  14. Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodeur, Serge; DeCarie, R.; Bird, D.M.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles(Aquila chrysaetosc anadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles(five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three of which completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and migrated to known wintering areas in the eastern United States. They used different routes but each followed the same general path during fall and spring migrations which lasted between 26 and 40 days,and 25 and 51 days, respectively. Eagles wintered from 93 to 135 days in areas located 1,650 to 3,000 km south of their breeding territory. In spring 1993, satellite telemetry located the eagles in their former breeding territory in late March, mid-April and early May. This study confirms previous suggestion that some breeding Golden Eagles wintering in eastern United States come from northern Quebec and describes the first successful tracking of the complete yearly migration cycle of a bird of prey.

  15. Lead poisoning and heavy metal exposure of golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ) from the European Alps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Kenntner; Yvon Crettenand; Hans-Joachim Fünfstück; Martin Janovsky; Frieda Tataruch

    2007-01-01

    Lead poisoning and organ levels of the non-essential heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury of seven free-ranging golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) from the European Alps, and of one 23-year-old captive golden eagle are reported. All birds were found dead or moribund\\u000a during the years 2000 and 2001 in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. One golden eagle from Switzerland with extraordinarily\\u000a high

  16. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...would be exported from the existing Golden Pass LNG Terminal (Golden Pass Terminal), a facility located in Sabine Pass, Texas...in Houston, Texas. GPP is owned by QTL U.S. Terminal LLC (an affiliate of Qatar Petroleum...

  17. 76 FR 53424 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Larose to Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...Statement for the Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project, Post-Authorization...SEIS) for the Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project, Post-Authorization...before development of the post-Katrina Hurricane and Storm Damage Risk Reduction...

  18. Detection of Golden apples' climacteric peak by laser biospeckle measurements.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Rana; Nader, Christelle Abou; Afif, Charbel; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Brun, Guy; Le Jeune, Bernard; Abboud, Marie

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, we report a study in which a laser biospeckle technique is used to detect the climacteric peak indicating the optimal ripeness of fruits. We monitor two batches of harvested Golden apples going through the ripening phase in low- and room-temperature environments, determine speckle parameters, and measure the emitted ethylene concentration using gas chromatography as reference method. Speckle results are then correlated to the emitted ethylene concentration by a principal component analysis. From a practical point of view, this approach allows us to validate biospeckle as a noninvasive and alternative method to respiration rate and ethylene production for climacteric peak detection as a ripening index. PMID:25608070

  19. Modified evisceration technique in a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).

    PubMed

    Dees, D Dustin; Knollinger, Amy M; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2011-09-01

    Two different modified techniques have been described for enucleation in raptors, including the transaural approach and the globe-collapsing procedure. This case report describes an alternative, modified evisceration procedure in a mature female Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The advantages of this procedure are decreased anesthetic time, ease of procedure, decreased risk of excessive traction of the optic nerve, decreased intraoperative orbital trauma, and preservation of the natural symmetry of the head. The major disadvantage of this procedure is that it does not allow complete histologic examination of the globe. Patients with intraocular infection or neoplasia, or significant orbital disease may be poor candidates for this technique. PMID:21929613

  20. Topographic map of Golden Gate Estates, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurado, Antonio

    1981-01-01

    Construction of canals related to land development in the Golden Gate Estates area of Collier County, Fla., has altered the natural drainage pattern of the watershed. The area of approximately 300 square miles was topographically mapped with a contour interval of 0.5 foot to assist in determining the effects of canal construction on the surface-water and ground-water resources in the watershed. The topographic map was prepared at a scale of 1:48,000 using aerial photography and ground-control points. (USGS)

  1. Mtodo de Fibonacci Como no mtodo da "Golden Section" o procedimento de procura de Fibonacci faz

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Método de Fibonacci Como no método da "Golden Section" o procedimento de procura de Fibonacci faz incerteza varia duma iteração para outra. O procedimento é baseado na sequência de Fibonacci Fn{ } definida acontece com os métodos da procura dicotómica e de "Golden section", o método de Fibonacci requer que o

  2. Nest predation and numbers of Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria and other moorland waders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Parr

    1993-01-01

    The recovery of a declining population of Golden Plovers may have been prevented by high nest predation from Carrion Crows Corvus corone and Common Gulls Larus canus. In order to test this hypothesis predators were experimentally removed from Kerloch moor in NE Scotland during 1986–89. Although the numbers of crows and gulls were significantly reduced, no young Golden Plover hatched

  3. Shearing the Golden Fleece: Chilling the Discussion of Science in the Public Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhard, Wallace B.

    This paper briefly describes the history of the Golden Fleece Award given monthly by Senator William Proxmire for "the biggest waste of taxpayers' money" in the form of grants for research. It particularly focuses on the case brought by Dr. R. R. Hutchinson who was the recipient of the Golden Fleece Award for his research on the aggressive…

  4. The geology and mineralisation at the Golden Pride gold deposit, Nzega Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. A. Vos; F. P. Bierlein; J. S. Standing; G. Davidson

    2009-01-01

    The Golden Pride gold deposit (˜3 Moz) is located in the central part of the Nzega Greenstone Belt at the southern margin of the Lake Victoria Goldfields in Tanzania. It represents an inferred Late Archaean, orogenic gold deposit and is hosted in intensely deformed meta-sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the approximately E-W striking Golden Pride Shear Zone. The

  5. Dihydroflavonol reductase activity and anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Delicious’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Indo’ apples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiguo Ju; Yongbing Yuan; Chenglian Liu; Yongzhang Wang; Xiaopeng Tian

    1997-01-01

    Dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) activity and its relationships with the accumulation of free procyanidin (including catechin and methanol-soluble procyanidin), bound procyanidin (methanol-nonsoluble procyanidin), quercetin glycosides and anthocyanin in fruit peel of red (‘Delicious’) and nonred (‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Indo’) fruited cultivars were studied. DFR activity was higher in the red fruited cultivar than that in nonred fruited cultivars. ‘Golden delicious’ and

  6. Has the Golden Rule of Public Finance Made a Difference in the UK ?

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Has the Golden Rule of Public Finance Made a Difference in the UK ? N° 2007-13 Avril 2007 Jérôme THE GOLDEN RULE OF PUBLIC FINANCE MADE A DIFFERENCE IN THE UK? Jérôme CREEL (OFCE) Paola MONPERRUS rule of public finance. We extend the existing literature by estimating a model of the British economy

  7. Des Belges participent au dchiffrage du gnome de la pomme "Golden Delicious"

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    variétés de pommes, en fonction notamment du goût et de leur résistance aux maladies. L'étude expliqueDes Belges participent au déchiffrage du génome de la pomme "Golden Delicious" Une équipe'Université de Gand, a déchiffré le code génétique de la pomme "Golden Delicious", ce qui permettra de

  8. IMPROVING PREDICTION OF GOLDEN EAGLE (AQUILA CHRYSAETOS) RANGING IN WESTERN SCOTLAND USING GIS AND TERRAIN MODELING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID R. A. MCLEOD; D. PHILIP WHITFIELD; MICHAEL J. McGRADY

    2002-01-01

    A current model for predicting range use of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in western Scotland is derived from observed ranging behavior, a central point, and elevation. An improvement to this model is described that incorporates terrain tatures. Ridges are modeled as an assumed surrogate for deflected updrafts of air currents. Golden Eagles preferred areas close to ridges and close to

  9. First Breeding Attempt of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos L.) in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rimgaudas Treinys

    2006-01-01

    Golden Eagle is treated as extinct species in Lithuania, though the birds are regularly observed in suitable habitats in various places of Lithuania during migration and even during the breeding season. Nevertheless, there has been no reliable data on the breeding of this species since 1843. In 2004, Golden Eagle was recorded attached (foraging and displaying) to one territory in

  10. Unexpected role of ungulate carcasses in the diet of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Mediterranean mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Eguía; Miguel Blázquez; Marcos Moleón; Francisco Botella

    2010-01-01

    Capsule Golden Eagles consumed more carrion than shown by traditional analyses.Aims To determine whether the traditional methods for diet determination in avian predators are subject to biases in relation to the consumption of carrion.Methods The consumption by Golden Eagles of ungulate carcasses supplied through sport hunting in a typical Mediterranean area of southeast Spain was monitored by camera trapping through

  11. Gene pool variability of a golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) population from the Swiss Alps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Suchentrunk; Heinrich Haller; Peider Ratti

    1999-01-01

    Numbers of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were severely reduced by hunting towards the end of the last century over large parts of central Europe. To estimate the genetic variation in a currently thriving golden eagle population from the Swiss Alps, organ samples of 15 carcasses, collected during 1975–1993, were used for electrophoretic analysis of 31 isozyme systems encoding for 37

  12. Title: Distribution and Habitat Selection/Space Use of Migratory and Resident Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Areas with

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    is the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Golden eagles are long-lived birds that mature late (approximately 4Title: Distribution and Habitat Selection/Space Use of Migratory and Resident Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Areas with High Potential for Wind Energy Development in New Mexico Principal Investigator

  13. Reassessing the ichthyotoxin profile of cultured Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) and comparing it to samples collected from recent

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    online 23 February 2010 Keywords: Prymnesium parvum Golden algae Harmful algal bloom Ichthyotoxin Fatty northerly distributed watersheds. In its wake, golden algae blooms have left an alarming trail of ecologicalReassessing the ichthyotoxin profile of cultured Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) and comparing

  14. The normal electrocardiogram of conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos).

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Moghaddam, Abdol Karim Zamani; Bashi, Mehdi Cheraghchi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal electrocardiographic patterns and values in conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). The standard bipolar and augmented unipolar limb leads' electrocardiograms were recorded in the golden eagles. The waveforms were analyzed in all leads at 50 mm/sec and at 10 mm = 1 mV to determine P, PR (segment and interval), QRS, ST, and QT durations and P, net QRS complex, and T amplitudes. The polarity of each waveform was tabulated in all leads. The mean electrical axis for the frontal plane was calculated using standard bipolar leads II and III. The mean heart rate was 346.7 +/- 14.29 beats/min. The P wave was predominantly positive in standard bipolar leads I and II and augmented unipolar limb leads aVL and aVF. The dominant pattern ofwaveforms of the QRS complexes were QS in leads I, II, III, and aVF, whereas in leads aVR and aVL, the pattern was always R. The T wave was slightly positive in leads I, II, and aVF. The average value of the heart mean electrical axis was -85.9 +/- 7.50 degrees. Establishment of normal electrocardiogram values will facilitate a better understanding of electrocardiographic changes seen in many avian diseases. PMID:20945639

  15. Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days: educational activities on pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Squassina, Alessio; Severino, Giovanni; Grech, Godfrey; Fenech, Anthony; Borg, Joseph; Patrinos, George P

    2012-04-01

    The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are high-profile international educational scientific meetings discussing pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 4th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day, held in Cagliari, Italy, on 7 October 2011, and the 5th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day, that was held in Msida, Malta, on 3 December 2011. The scientific programs of both events included scientific and company lectures on pharmacogenomics, bioinformatics and personalized medicine by local and international speakers from Europe and the USA. PMID:22462744

  16. Cumulative Diminuations with Fibonacci Approach, Golden Section and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükk?l?ç, F.; Demirhan, D.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, physical quantities of a nonequilibrium system in the stages of its orientation towards equilibrium has been formulated by a simple cumulative diminuation mechanism and Fibonacci recursion approximation. Fibonacci p-numbers are obtained in power law forms and generalized diminuation sections are related to diminuation percents. The consequences of the fractal structure of space and the memory effects are concretely established by a simple mechanism. Thus, the reality why nature prefers power laws rather than exponentials ones is explained. It has been introduced that, Fibonacci p-numbers are elements of a Generalized Cantor set. The fractal dimensions of the Generalized Cantor sets have been obtained by different methods. The generalized golden section which was used by M.S. El Naschie in his works on high energy physics is evaluated in this frame.

  17. Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework). PMID:23146157

  18. A magnetic field effect on learning in male golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    ?opuch, Sylwia

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of repeated exposure to 10, 20, 30 or 40 Hz magnetic fields at 0.1T on the learning of male golden hamsters in a Skinner box, in which the animals learned to press a lever to receive a food reward. The latency of the first response was not affected by exposure to the magnetic fields used in this experiment. No significant field-dependent effects on the performance of the task were observed in males exposed to 10 and 20 Hz magnetic fields at 0.1T. However, exposure significantly improved the learning of the task in animals exposed to 30 and 40 Hz magnetic fields at 0.1T. PMID:19150395

  19. Thinking about feathers: Adaptations of Golden Eagle rectrices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The striking black and white plumage of the juvenile Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) provides an excellent opportunity to examine the possible selective forces influencing the strategic placement of dark pigment in birds. The conflict between opposing selective pressures (first, toward large white patches, which may allay aggression in adults, and second, toward dark plumage to promote camouflage and limit solar and abrasive wear) provides the stage whereon are revealed a score of pigmentation traits of potential adaptive value. The general pigmentation trend is for zones that are more exposed to the sun to be darker than elsewhere. More specifically: (1) for rectrices and remiges, outer webs are darker than inner; (2) for those few feathers (e.g., central rectrices, some scapulars, and some tertials), where both inner and outer webs are heavily and nearly equally solar exposed, pigmentation is supplied similarly on both webs; (3) outermost primaries and rectrices are darkest of all and are structurally similar; (4) for central rectrices, subject to high levels of abrasion with substrate, the tip is paler (resultant flexibility may limit breakage); and (5) pigment is heavier along or on the rachis than on the webs. Many of the traits listed above for the Golden Eagle are also found in other families of birds. Traits of the tail common to many species were a terminal pale tip, a subterminal dark band, rachis darker than vane, and outer webs darker than inner for both remiges and rectrices. The most widespread traits likely have adaptive value. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  20. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 2009, 47, 111-190 R. N. Gibson, R. J. A. Atkinson, and J. D. M. Gordon, Editors

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    in the north-eastern Atlantic are Eledone cirrhosa, Illex coin- detii, Loligo forbesi, Loligo vulgaris, Octopus), seven sepiolid (bobtail), three sepiid (cuttlefish) and 10 octopod (octopus) species. A number vulgaris, Todarodes sagittatus, Todaropsis eblanae and Sepia officinalis. other species including

  1. Composition in essential and non-essential elements of early stages of cephalopods and dietary effects on the elemental profiles of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    effects on the elemental profiles of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae Roger Villanueva1 and Paco Bustamante2 (1 octopus Octopus vulgaris laboratory hatchlings and wild juveniles were analysed. In addition, for O profiles of the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the European squid Loligo vulgaris and the common

  2. Composition in essential and non-essential elements of early stages of cephalopods and dietary effects on the elemental profiles of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Villanueva; Paco Bustamante

    2006-01-01

    During the present study, we aimed at providing a first look at the elemental composition of the early stages of cephalopods as an approach to their elemental requirements in culture. Essential and non-essential elemental profiles of the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the European squid Loligo vulgaris and the common octopus Octopus vulgaris laboratory hatchlings and wild juveniles were analysed. In

  3. Amino acid composition of early stages of cephalopods and effect of amino acid dietary treatments on Octopus vulgaris paralarvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Villanueva; J. Riba; C. Ru??z-Capillas; A. V. González; M. Baeta

    2004-01-01

    During the present study, we aimed to provide a first look at the amino acid composition of the early stages of cephalopods and follow possible effects of certain dietary treatments. Amino acid profiles of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, squid Loligo vulgaris and octopus, Octopus vulgaris hatchlings and wild juveniles of L. vulgaris and O. vulgaris were analysed. Cephalopod hatchlings showed high

  4. From the Golden Rectangle and Fibonacci to Pedagogy and Problem Posing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen I.

    1976-01-01

    Beginning with an analysis of the golden rectangle, the author shows how a series of problems for student investigation arise from queries concerning changes in conditions and analogous situations. (SD)

  5. Waterfront developments in the Middle East case study : the Golden Horn Project, Istanbul, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Alamuddin, Hana S. (Hana Slieman)

    1987-01-01

    This thesis examines waterfront developments in the Middle East . It concentrates on the Golden Horn project in Istanbul as it raises a number of issues that are central to any such development in that region. In order for ...

  6. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF DIETARY EXPOSURE TO AMOSITE AND CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays of amosite, short range (SR), intermediate range (IR) or intermediate range chrysotile asbestos in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Syrian golden hamsters. Amosite and both forms o...

  7. TRANSGRESSION-OBSESSED: A CROSS-CULTURAL READING OF JUDOU AND CURSE OF THE GOLDEN FLOWER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LI ZENG

    When asked about the leitmotif of his latest film Curse of the Golden Flower (2006), Zhang Yimou, the internationally renowned Chinese film director, clearly answered that the film is mainly about the courtly corruption beneath the palace extravagance (\\

  8. Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: How exotic species turn native predators into prey

    E-print Network

    Courchamp, Franck

    involving an exotic species, the feral pig (Sus scrofa), an apex predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and two endemic carnivores, the island fox (Urocyon littoralis) and island spotted skunk

  9. AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER DURING SUBCHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF CLORGYLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic administration of clorgyline, a type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, leads to a decrease in peritoneal (i.e., core) temperature of golden hamsters. o better understand the mechanisms of clorgyline's thermoregulatory effects, autonomic and behavioral thermoregulatory effect...

  10. Results of NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC1999), October 4-10, 1999, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2000-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  11. Canopy Characteristics Affecting Avian Reproductive Success: The Golden-cheeked Warbler 

    E-print Network

    Klassen, Jessica Anne

    2012-07-16

    differently to the surrounding environment at different spatial scales. Thus, multi-scale studies on bird abundance and reproductive success is necessary for evaluating the effects of habitat alterations. The golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia...

  12. Habitat use of Golden-Cheeked Warblers in Travis County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Beardmore, Carol Jeannette

    1994-01-01

    Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) behavior was correlated with microhabitat (i.e., tree species and height) and microhabitat availability. Vegetation in territories was quantitatively described, related to behavioral observations...

  13. Factors contributing to nest predation within habitat of the Golden-checked Warbler, Travis County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Fink, Mark Lewis

    1996-01-01

    Nest failure is considered an important factor contributing to the decline of Golden-cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia), yet relatively little is known of the extent of nest predation on this species. In April 1994 and 1995, 1 placed...

  14. 'Ten Golden Rules' for Designing Software in Medical Education: Results from a Formative Evaluation of DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jha, Vikram; Duffy, Sean

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of an evaluation of Distance Interactive Learning in Obstetrics and Gynecology (DIALOG) which is an electronic program for continuing education. Presents 10 golden rules for designing software for medical practitioners. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Guilty but insane: psychology, law and selfhood in golden age crime fiction 

    E-print Network

    Walton, Samantha

    2013-07-04

    Writers of golden age crime fiction (1920 to 1945), and in particular female writers, have been seen by many critics as socially and politically detached. Their texts have been read as morality tales, theoretically rich ...

  16. Individual variation in endocrine systems: moving beyond the `tyranny of the Golden Mean'

    E-print Network

    Review Individual variation in endocrine systems: moving beyond the `tyranny of the Golden Mean and functional significance of phenotypic variation, plasticity and flexibility in endocrine systems, and argue interest to evolutionary biologists (cf. behavioural endocrinology). Keywords: endocrine systems; inter

  17. "You Can't Always Get What You Want" - Linearity as the Golden Ratio of Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bast, Aalt; Hanekamp, Jaap C

    2014-12-01

    Referring to the Golden Ratio (i.e. expressed in the Fibonacci sequence) in nature and art, we conclude that toxicology knows its own Golden Ration, namely linearity. The latter seems imposed on pharmaco-toxicological processes that in fact show far more complexity than simple linearity could hope to elucidate. Understanding physiological and pharmaco-toxicological processes as primarily linear is challenged in this contribution based on very straightforward principles and examples. PMID:25552963

  18. The geology and mineralisation at the Golden Pride gold deposit, Nzega Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. A. Vos; F. P. Bierlein; J. S. Standing; G. Davidson

    2009-01-01

    The Golden Pride gold deposit (?3 Moz) is located in the central part of the Nzega Greenstone Belt at the southern margin\\u000a of the Lake Victoria Goldfields in Tanzania. It represents an inferred Late Archaean, orogenic gold deposit and is hosted\\u000a in intensely deformed meta-sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the approximately E–W striking Golden Pride Shear Zone.\\u000a The hanging-wall

  19. Weaning of the Golden Perch, Macquaria ambigua ambigua, Percichthyidae, onto Prepared Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett Herbert; Peter Graham

    2004-01-01

    Trials to wean golden perch, Macquaria ambigua ambigua, were conducted using two commercially-available prepared diets. Co-feeding with brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii or abrupt transition to the prepared diets, were compared. Golden perch fingerlings (25-30 mm total length) were most successfully weaned onto prepared diets using frozen ice blocks made of brine shrimp and commercial diet crumbles, with a 77%

  20. Quantitative Relationships Among Golden-Cheeked Warbler Occurrence and Landscape Size, Composition, and Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAWN R. MAGNESS; R. NEAL WILKINS; SALLIE J. HEJL

    2006-01-01

    The golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) is a federally listed endangered species with an extremely limited breeding range (Edwards Plateau, Tex., USA) and specific habitat requirements. Although localized habitat composition and structure correlate well with golden-cheeked warbler occurrence and nest location, the effects of landscape composition and structure are largely untested. To investigate landscape-scale influences on habitat occupancy, we surveyed 202

  1. Effects of Tree Species Composition and Foraging Effort on the Productivity of Golden-Cheeked Warblers 

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Mike E.

    2012-07-16

    EFFECTS OF TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FORAGING EFFORT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLERS A Thesis by MIKE E. MARSHALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Warblers Copyright 2011 Mike E. Marshall EFFECTS OF TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FORAGING EFFORT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLERS A Thesis by MIKE E. MARSHALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  2. Radiation-induced emission from golden hamster embryo cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Nagasaka, Shigeru; Maeda, Isao; Matsumoto, Takuro; Koyama, Shinji; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami

    1996-06-01

    Emission from high-energy-electron-irradiated golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells has been studied over the temperature range 12-300 K both by a one-shot-single-photon-counting method and by photocurrent measurements with an oscilloscope. Emission from the irradiated phosphate buffered saline (PBS) also has been studied. The emission spectra from PBS at 12 and 77 K show a maximum around 330 and 380 nm, respectively, which are the same spectra as those from irradiated pure H 2O. The emission from irradiated GHE consists of the new band at 480 nm in addition to the emission from H 2O. The 480 nm emission is observed at the temperature range of 12-300 K, though the emission at 300 K is much lower than that at low temperature. The 480 nm emission is ascribed to the transition from excited organic substances in GHE cells. The intensity of 480 nm emission at 300 K increases linearly with increasing irradiation-dose in the range of 11-600 Gy.

  3. Evidence for "twisted plane" undulations in golden hamster sperm tails

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, DM

    1977-01-01

    Motile spermatozoa from the golden hamster have been arrested by rapid freezing and then fixed with glutaraldehyde at low temperature after substitution with ethylene glycol. As far as can be judged, the flagellar waveforms thus stabilized are similar to those seen in living sperm; in contrast, fixation in glutaraldehyde, without prior freezing, induces agonal changes in flagellar conformation. The characteristics waveform after freeze substitution contains three bends. Approx. half of these flagella are entirely planar. The rest are three dimensional, with the third bend displaced in a regular way from the plane containing the proximal two bends. From the geometry of these flagella, it is concluded that the plane of action of a given bending cycle undergoes a clockwise twist (from a forward viewpoint) as the cycle is succeeded by new bending cycles. This "twisted plane" undulation is quite different from helical movement. The twisting seems to occur abruptly, between cycles, as if each bending cycle has a preferred plane of action. The mechanism underlying the twisting is uncertain. However, on the basis of the angular displacements between the preferred planes, and the findings from electron microscopy, the following idea is presented as a working hypothesis: that, if the most proximal plane of bending is topographically determined by peripheral doublet 1, then successive distal planes of action are influenced predominantly by doublets 2, 3, etc., in clockwise sequence. The merits and weaknesses of this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:925084

  4. Saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi isolated from golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Bagy, M M; el-Shanawany, A A; Abdel-Mallek, A Y

    1998-01-01

    Healthy hair samples from golden hamsters were examined for the presence of dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes using baiting technique and direct inoculation. Thirty-four species and 2 varieties attributed to 17 genera were recovered. Paecilomyces variotii (isolated from 84.4% of the examined hair) and Aspergillus niger (81.3%) were the more frequent isolates on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide. Our results have clearly demonstrated that the hair of hamster was free from true dermatophytes. Using the dilution plate method many fungal species were isolated from cage material (7 genera and 10 species + 1 variety); from faeces (10 genera and 17 species); from standard chow (3 genera and 6 species) of hamster. P. variotii which was the most frequent fungus in the preceding 3 substrates was completely absent in the presence of cycloheximide in SDA. The present study has demonstrated for the first time the isolation of Trichophyton rubrum from hamster faeces. Also, several saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi were isolated. In the air of hamster cage Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Alternaria alternata and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis were the most dominant species on SDA with or without cycloheximide. Using the agar diffusion method, Aloe sap, onion oil, garlic bulb extract and aqueous leaf extracts of Andropogon citratus, Euphorbia sp. and Ruta graveolens were tested for their antifungal activity on 10 fungal species. It was observed that onion oil exhibited a high inhibitory effect against most of the tested fungi. PMID:9768288

  5. Asian Pacific American Medical Students: Beyond the 'golden stethoscope'

    PubMed

    Li, B U.K.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: The purpose of this paper is to present a keynote address given in 1995 immediately prior to the formal inauguration of the Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association (APAMSA) in New York. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Asian Pacific American (APA) medical students have increased ten­fold as a percentage of the entering class from 1975­1995 to its current level of 18.2%. The recent history of the APA medical student movement is traced from its inception in regional conferences in 1993 to the formation of a national electronic mail bulletin board ("AAMSnet") in 1994, and its culmination in the first national conference and inauguration of the Asian Pacific AMerican Medical Student Association (APAMSA) at New York University in 1995. CONCLUSIONS: Although the "golden stethoscope" image is used to represent the pinnacle for APA students entering the medical profession, beneath the image lie difficult challenges specific to APAs including those of family and culture, academic performance, professional acceptance, and community responsibility. The potential of the APAMSA organization to address local, regional, and national APA health issues is explored. PMID:11567373

  6. Rift Valley fever virus infection in golden Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Scharton, Dionna; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Bailey, Kevin W; Vest, Zachary; Westover, Jonna B; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Gowen, Brian B

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a formidable pathogen that causes severe disease and abortion in a variety of livestock species and a range of disease in humans that includes hemorrhagic fever, fulminant hepatitis, encephalitis and blindness. The natural transmission cycle involves mosquito vectors, but exposure can also occur through contact with infected fluids and tissues. The lack of approved antiviral therapies and vaccines for human use underlies the importance of small animal models for proof-of-concept efficacy studies. Several mouse and rat models of RVFV infection have been well characterized and provide useful systems for the study of certain aspects of pathogenesis, as well as antiviral drug and vaccine development. However, certain host-directed therapeutics may not act on mouse or rat pathways. Here, we describe the natural history of disease in golden Syrian hamsters challenged subcutaneously with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Peracute disease resulted in rapid lethality within 2 to 3 days of RVFV challenge. High titer viremia and substantial viral loads were observed in most tissues examined; however, histopathology and immunostaining for RVFV antigen were largely restricted to the liver. Acute hepatocellular necrosis associated with a strong presence of viral antigen in the hepatocytes indicates that fulminant hepatitis is the likely cause of mortality. Further studies to assess the susceptibility and disease progression following respiratory route exposure are warranted. The use of the hamsters to model RVFV infection is suitable for early stage antiviral drug and vaccine development studies. PMID:25607955

  7. Uterine progesterone receptors in the aged golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Blaha, G C; Leavitt, W W

    1978-11-01

    Uterine capacity to form cytoplasmic progesterone receptor was compared in ovariectomized golden hamsters at three months and 15-17 months of age. A dose-response test with 17beta-estradiol(E2) showed that the uterine content of progesterone receptor (pmole/uterus) was equal in young and old at all dose levels. However, heavier old uteri had less receptor per gm tissue. Old and young hamsters were mated, ovariectomized on day 7 post coitum and after two weeks, all were given the same dose of E2. Endometrium was separated from myometrium before analysis of progesterone receptor. Myometrium was analyzed for both estrogen and progesterone receptors. Myometrium of both groups had comparable levels of both receptors. The mean concentration of progresterone receptor (pmole/gm tissue) was higher in old endometrium. Some old animals with liver, kidney and adrenal disease had more endometrial reaction after E2 treatment. A few with low endometrial receptor levels had normal livers but at least one sterile uterine horn. There was, however, no general decline with age in intrinsic uterine capacity to form progesterone receptors. PMID:744855

  8. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  9. RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION IN UNSEDATED DOGS WITH GOLDEN RETRIEVER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    DeVanna, Justin C.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Bogan, Daniel J.; Bogan, Janet R.; Dow, Jennifer L.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a well-established model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The value of this model would be greatly enhanced with practical tools to monitor progression of respiratory dysfunction during treatment trials. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal breathing spirometry, and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) were performed to determine if quantifiable abnormalities could be identified in unsedated, untrained, GRMD dogs. Results from 11 dogs with a mild phenotype of GRMD and 11 age-matched carriers were compared. Arterial blood gas analysis was successfully performed in all dogs, spirometry in 21 of 22 (95%) dogs, and RIP in 18 of 20 (90%) dogs. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration were higher in GRMD dogs. Tidal breathing peak expiratory flows were markedly higher in GRMD dogs. Abnormal abdominal motion was present in 7 of 10 (70%) GRMD dogs. Each technique provided objective, quantifiable measures that will be useful for monitoring respiratory function in GRMD dogs during clinical trials while avoiding the influence of sedation on results. Increased expiratory flows and the pattern of abdominal breathing are novel findings, not reported in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and might be a consequence of hyperinflation. PMID:24295812

  10. Assembly of Designer TAL Effectors by Golden Gate Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ernst; Gruetzner, Ramona; Werner, Stefan; Engler, Carola; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2011-01-01

    Generation of customized DNA binding domains targeting unique sequences in complex genomes is crucial for many biotechnological applications. The recently described DNA binding domain of the transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas consists of a series of repeats arranged in tandem, each repeat binding a nucleotide of the target sequence. We present here a strategy for engineering of TALE proteins with novel DNA binding specificities based on the 17.5 repeat-containing AvrBs3 TALE as a scaffold. For each of the 17 full repeats, four module types were generated, each with a distinct base preference. Using this set of 68 repeat modules, recognition domains for any 17 nucleotide DNA target sequence of choice can be constructed by assembling selected modules in a defined linear order. Assembly is performed in two successive one-pot cloning steps using the Golden Gate cloning method that allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA fragments. Applying this strategy, we assembled designer TALEs with new target specificities and tested their function in vivo. PMID:21625552

  11. Implications of the Higgs discovery in the MSSM golden region.

    SciTech Connect

    Low, I.; Shalgar, S.; High Energy Physics; Northwestern Univ.

    2009-01-01

    If the lightest CP-even Higgs boson in the MSSM is discovered at the LHC, two measurements could be made simultaneously: the Higgs mass m{sub h} and the event rate B{sigma}(gg {yields} h {yields} {gamma}{gamma}). We study to what extent the combination of these two measurements would allow us to extract parameters in the stop mass matrix, including the off-diagonal mixing term, with a focus on the MSSM golden region where the stops are light and the mixing is large. Even though both the production cross-section and the decay amplitude are not sensitive to supersymmetric parameters outside of the stop sector, the branching ratio depends on the total decay width, which is dominated by the Higgs decay to b quarks and sensitive to both the pseudo-scalar mass m{sub A} and the supersymmetric Higgs mass {mu}. In the end we find m{sub A} is an important input in extracting the stop mass parameters, while a fair estimate of the off-diagonal mixing term could be obtained without prior knowledge of {mu}.

  12. Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.; Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6–11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4–5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3–4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal. PMID:25020045

  13. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  14. Long-term health effects of neutering dogs: comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Hart, Benjamin L; Hart, Lynette A; Thigpen, Abigail P; Willits, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6-11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4-5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3-4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal. PMID:25020045

  15. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from Western north america.

    PubMed

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit. PMID:25686747

  16. Age-related changes of the ultrastrucure in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Michiya; Moriguchi, Keiichi; Kato, Akiko; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Ohno, Norikazu

    2014-01-01

    We qualitatively and quantitatively investigated the parathyroid glands of golden hamsters aged 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. Percent area of rER in the parathyroid gland in golden hamsters at 24 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 6 and 12 months of age, and the percent area at 30 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 12 months of age, but there were no significant differences between 24 and 30 months of age. Percent area of the Golgi apparatus at 24 and 30 months of age was significantly higher when compared to 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Ultrastructurally, we believe that in the parathyroid gland of the golden hamster, synthesis and release of parathyroid hormone increase gradually from 6 to 24months of age and are maintained from 24 to 30 months of age. PMID:25492843

  17. The Golden-Thompson inequality: Historical aspects and random matrix applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Peter J., E-mail: p.forrester@ms.unimelb.edu.au; Thompson, Colin J. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    The Golden-Thompson inequality, Tr?(e{sup A+B}) ? Tr?(e{sup A}e{sup B}) for A, B Hermitian matrices, appeared in independent works by Golden and Thompson published in 1965. Both of these were motivated by considerations in statistical mechanics. In recent years the Golden-Thompson inequality has found applications to random matrix theory. In this article, we detail some historical aspects relating to Thompson's work, giving in particular a hitherto unpublished proof due to Dyson, and correspondence with Pólya. We show too how the 2 × 2 case relates to hyperbolic geometry, and how the original inequality holds true with the trace operation replaced by any unitarily invariant norm. In relation to the random matrix applications, we review its use in the derivation of concentration type lemmas for sums of random matrices due to Ahlswede-Winter, and Oliveira, generalizing various classical results.

  18. Dispersion modelling during particulate matter episode events in Golden, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Tyler

    The CALPUFF modeling system was used to investigate two episodes of high particulate matter (PM) during December 2005 and February 2006. During this time, Golden was a British Columbia Ministry of Environment (BC MOE) intensive observation site for air quality research specific to PM. Observations from 4 meteorological stations were used to characterize the winds and dispersion parameters within CALMET. Emission rates were determined from the existing Golden Emissions Inventory and receptor modelling commissioned by the BC MOE. Statistical comparison of model predicted and observed PM concentrations show that model performance compares well to similar CALPUFF studies at two of the air quality monitoring stations in Golden. The source apportionment of the CALPUFF results identified the major contributors to degraded air quality levels during the two episodes under investigation as space heating, road dust and, intermittently, Louisiana Pacific operations.

  19. Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research: Interdisciplinary research and educational activities in pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Innocenti, Federico; van Schaik, Ron H.; Lezhava, Alexander; Tzimas, Giannis; Kollia, Panagoula; Macek, Milan; Fortina, Paolo; Patrinos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    The Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research is an international non-profit scientific organization with interdisciplinary research and educational activities in the field of genome medicine in Europe, Asia and Latin America. These activities are supervised by an international scientific advisory council, consisting of world leaders in the field of genomics and translational medicine. Research activities include the regional coordination of the Pharmacogenomics for Every Nation Initiative in Europe, in an effort to integrate pharmacogenomics in developing countries, the development of several National/Ethnic Genetic databases and related web services and the critical assessment of the impact of genetics and genomic medicine to society in various countries. Also, educational activities include the organization of the Golden Helix Symposia®, which are high profile scientific research symposia in the field of personalized medicine, and the Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days, an international educational activity focused on pharmacogenomics, as part of its international pharmacogenomics education and outreach efforts. PMID:22379996

  20. Daytime cover, diet and space-use of golden jackals ( Canis aureus ) in agro-ecosystems of Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Jaeger; Emdadul Haque; Parvin Sultana; Richard L. Bruggers

    2007-01-01

    Golden jackals are locally common in Bangladesh despite intensive cultivation and high human densities. We studied the relative importance of seasonal flooding, rodent prey-base, and daytime cover on the occurrence of golden jackals in the two major agro-ecosystems in Bangladesh, one with annual monsoon flooding and the other without. Jackals were less common throughout the year where floodwaters occurred that

  1. Spawning by California Golden Trout: Characteristics of Spawning Fish, Seasonal and Daily Timing, Redd Characteristics, and Microhabitat Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland A. Knapp; Vance T. Vredenburg

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the spawning biology of California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita, an endemic subspecies of rainbow trout, in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California. We investigated the influence of stream temperature on the seasonal and daily timing of spawning, measured characteristics of completed redds, and quantified microhabitat use and preferences by spawning females. We also quantified size at sexual maturity,

  2. Herd defensive behaviour of chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra , in response to predation on the young by a golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bertolino

    2003-01-01

    Summary Young Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) are vulnerable to golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), while adults are probably eaten only as carrion. Here I report the observation of predation by a golden eagle on an Alpine chamois kid and the attempt at female defensive behaviour. During the eagle attack, the females of the herd surrounded their kids and tried to protect

  3. Effects of golden shiner ( Notemigonuscrysoleucas ) nest association on host pumpkinseeds ( Lepomisgibbosus ?): evidence for a non-parasitic relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binbin Shao

    1997-01-01

    The reproductive success of male parental pumpkinseeds, Lepomisgibbosus, was studied in relation to the use of their nests by spawning golden shiners, Notemigonuscrysoleucas. The brood size of pumpkinseeds with and without golden shiner's young was compared in a field population. Mean egg and larval\\u000a numbers of pumpkinseeds did not differ between broods with and without shiners, suggesting that shiners had

  4. Golden-cheeked warbler males participate in nest-site selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graber, A.E.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Nest-site selection behaviors have rarely been described for songbirds. Furthermore, male involvement in nest-site selection is generally assumed to be minimal among most species, especially those predominantly exhibiting female nest building. This assumption has held true for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia), a breeding resident of central Texas. We observed Golden-cheeked Warbler males and females searching for nest sites together on three separate occasions, 2001-2003. Although rare, such observations add to our knowledge of the life history of songbirds.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING HATCHING SUCCESS OF GOLDEN APPLE SNAIL EGGS: EFFECTS OF WATER IMMERSION AND CANNIBALISM

    E-print Network

    Siemann, Evan

    -mail: khorn@rice.edu Abstract: The golden apple snail (Pomacea maculata Perry) is an invasive species, invasive management, invasive species, Pomacea INTRODUCTION Invasive species are present in many ecosystems, Henderson et al. 2006). Invasive species impact community composition and habitat struc- ture in both

  6. Analysis in Blood of Golden Hamster by Naa for Clinical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  7. Golden Key Program. Common Education for Visually Impaired Children in Western China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Bailun

    This paper describes a new program in the Western provinces of China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet, and Inner Mongolia) that is designed to integrate 20,000 children with low-vision into general education classrooms. The Golden Key Research Center of Education for Visually Impaired has been working with the…

  8. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Keung, W M; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L

    1997-03-01

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin. PMID:9050837

  9. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden?hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Keung, Wing Ming; Klyosov, Anatole A.; Vallee, Bert L.

    1997-01-01

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin. PMID:9050837

  10. A Jubilant Connection: General Jubal Early's Troops and the Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Linda A.; Noon, Tim R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The golden ratio, one of the most beautiful numbers in all of mathematics, arises in some surprising places. At first glance, we might expect that a General checking his troops' progress would be nothing more than a basic distance-rate-time problem. However, further exploration reveals a multi-faceted problem, one in which the ratio of rates…

  11. Genetic diversity of a newly established population of golden eagles on the Channel Islands, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Coonan, Timothy J.; Latta, Brian C.; Sage, George K.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene flow can have profound effects on the genetic diversity of a founding population depending on the number and relationship among colonizers and the duration of the colonization event. Here we used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess genetic diversity in golden eagles of the recently colonized Channel Islands, California. Genetic diversity in the Channel Island population was low, similar to signatures observed for other recent colonizing island populations. Differences in levels of genetic diversity and structure observed between mainland California and the islands suggests that few individuals were involved in the initial founding event, and may have comprised a family group. The spatial genetic structure observed between Channel Island and mainland California golden eagle populations across marker types, and genetic signature of population decline observed for the Channel Island population, suggest a single or relatively quick colonization event. Polarity in gene flow estimates based on mtDNA confirm an initial colonization of the Channel Islands by mainland golden eagles, but estimates from microsatellite data suggest that golden eagles on the islands were dispersing more recently to the mainland, possibly after reaching the carrying capacity of the island system. These results illustrate the strength of founding events on the genetic diversity of a population, and confirm that changes to genetic diversity can occur within just a few generations.

  12. Resistance of the potato cv. Simcoe to the golden nematode, Globodera rostochiensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Brodie; R. G. Rowberry; R. H. Coffin

    1983-01-01

    The early potato cultivar Simcoe was released in 1981 and described in the American Potato Journal (1). At that time, through a breakdown in communication, it was not realized that it had been tested in the New York laboratory of the ARS, USDA, under its accession number (G6880-1) for resistance to the golden nematode, Globodera rostochiensis. This is a brief

  13. California Golden Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Are Susceptible to Proliferative Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Morris; M. Longshaw; A. Adams

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of proliferative kidney disease affecting farmed California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in the United Kingdom is described. The fish displayed the clinical signs of the disease, such as characteristic swelling of the posterior kidney and spleen. Confirmation of infection with Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in the renal tissue was done by means of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using a

  14. A Field Comparison of the Substrate Composition of California Golden Trout Redds Sampled with Two Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland A. Knapp; Vance T. Vredenburg

    1996-01-01

    Stream substrates are frequently sampled with several different devices, and it is often assumed that the resulting samples have comparable compositions. We compared substrate samples taken with an excavated corer (15-cm-diameter plastic pipe) with those taken with a freeze corer from redds of California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in a stream dominated by small substrates (geometric mean diameter of

  15. Memory Recall and Participation Levels in the Elderly: A Study of Golden Age Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Pamela R.; Whittemore, Margaret P.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve women (mean age 90) in a nursing home listened to Golden Age radio programs and answered trivia questions. Reactions to musical programs showed they encouraged reminiscence; trivia stimulated recall of historical and life events. In contrast, comedy programs evoked little response. (SK)

  16. MEMORY RECALL AND PARTICIPATION LEVELS IN THE ELDERLY: A STUDY OF GOLDEN AGE RADIO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela R. Durham; Margaret P. Whittemore

    1993-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly people often appear to live in the past, or in their long?term memories. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of playing tapes of Golden Age radio shows, both musical and comedy, on the residents of a nursing home. In particular, the researchers were interested in memory recall, reactions to the memories, and the effects

  17. Golden Rice Can Provide Vitamin A Effectively as Assessed Using Isotope Reference Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR) is enriched with beta-carotene (beta-C) genetically. To determine its vitamin A value, intrinsically labeled GR was obtained by growing plants in a nutrient solution containing 23% D2O. The GR beta-C was enriched with deuterium with the highest abundance isotopomer peak at M+9. Hea...

  18. Gone for Good - Tales of University Life after the Golden Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Rojstaczer

    1999-01-01

    Amid the clamorous debates on political correctness, the Western canon, and alcohol abuse on campus, many observers have failed to notice the most radical change in the American University: the Golden Age of massive government funding is gone. And, as Stuart Rojstaczer points out in this incisive look at higher education, the consequences are affecting virtually every aspect of university

  19. Navigating Robot Swarms Using Collective Intelligence Learned from Golden Shiner Fish

    E-print Network

    Gao, Grace Xingxin

    . In this abstract, we consider the following modified Gaussian random walk model: pi[t + 1] - pi[t] = U exp(j V consumption increase quadratically, or even exponentially. Inspired by golden shiners, we apply adaptive. The decision-making algorithm is also as simple as a modification of Gaussian random walk. By swarming together

  20. Date: 31 March 2009 To: Lead Cluster Deans: Gilles Bousquet, Adam Gamoran, Robert Golden, Molly Jahn,

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Date: 31 March 2009 To: Lead Cluster Deans: Gilles Bousquet, Adam Gamoran, Robert Golden, Molly that you launch internal program reviews of the individual cluster programs for which you serve as Lead Dean. In a separate attached document, you will find a list of clusters with their lead deans

  1. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, C.L.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  2. Were the Fibonacci Series and the Golden Section Known in Ancient Egypt?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinna Rossi; Christopher A. Tout

    2002-01-01

    The Fibonacci series and the Golden Section have often been used to explain the proportions of ancient Egyptian art and architecture. All such theories, however, are based on our modern mathematical system. They have never been examined in the realm of ancient Egyptian mathematics as we understand it from studying the surviving mathematical sources. This article analyses the compatibility of

  3. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hunt

    1995-01-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam

  4. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...0648-XA701 Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector...length of the 2011 recreational fishing season for golden tilefish based on the 2010...reduce the length of the following fishing season by the amount necessary to ensure...

  5. Is Management for Golden-winged Warblers and Cerulean Warblers Compatible?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul B. Hamel; Kenneth V. Rosenberg; David A. Buehler

    Conservation of species with high Partners in Flight concern scores may suggest management for apparently conflicting habitat needs on a given property or specific site, such as birds requiring early-successional vs. later- successional broadleaved forests. Two species of concern with distinctly different habitat needs provide a case study for consideration. Declining populations of Golden- winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), which require

  6. A short history of the Fibonacci and golden numbers with their applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lokenath Debnath

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a brief history of Fibonacci's life and career. It includes Fibonacci's major mathematical discoveries to establish that he was undoubtedly one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the Medieval Period. Special attention is given to the Fibonacci numbers, the golden number and the Lucas numbers and their fundamental properties with enlightening examples. A large number of

  7. KAC-MOODY FIBONACCI SEQUENCES, HYPERBOLIC GOLDEN RATIOS, AND REAL QUADRATIC FIELDS

    E-print Network

    Carbone, Lisa

    and phrases. Kac-Moody, Fibonacci and Lucas numbers and polynomials, flag varieties. The second authorKAC-MOODY FIBONACCI SEQUENCES, HYPERBOLIC GOLDEN RATIOS, AND REAL QUADRATIC FIELDS KASPER K. S and corresponding root lattice, we associate a `Fibonacci type' integer sequence. These sequences are derived from

  8. A Short History of the Fibonacci and Golden Numbers with Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a brief history of Fibonacci's life and career. It includes Fibonacci's major mathematical discoveries to establish that he was undoubtedly one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the Medieval Period. Special attention is given to the Fibonacci numbers, the golden number and the Lucas numbers and their fundamental…

  9. The Rise of Radio, from Marconi through the Golden Age (A. Balk; 2006) [Book Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Brown

    2008-01-01

    This book is organized in a chronological pattern with short chapters (34 chapters in 290 pages). There are three main parts. The first part follows the growth and development of radio. The second section focuses on programming that characterized radio's golden age. The final section discusses the years when radio's success peaked, was challenged by television, and ultimately declined under

  10. Morphometric features of Pacific and American Golden-Plovers with comments on field identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OSCAR W. JOHNSON; PATRICIA M. JOHNSON

    We measured linear dimensions and evaluated identification criteria in Pacific and American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialisfidva and P. dominica) captured for banding. Most of thefidva sampled were wintering birds in Hawaii, representative of the mid-Pacific flyway; additionalfidva and all dominica were from breeding grounds on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The sexes were monomorphic in dominica, and for all practical purposes infidva as

  11. Marker-assisted Characterization of Durum Wheat Langdon-Golden Ball Disomic Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The durum wheat cultivar ‘Golden Ball’ (GB) has superior solid stem, which is a source of resistance to wheat sawfly and also a potential source of biofeed for producing biofuel. Dr. Leonard Joppa previously used GB as the chromosome donor and Langdon (LDN) durum as the recipient to develop a compl...

  12. Do Egg Carrying and Protracted Copulation Affect Mobility in the Golden Egg Bug?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minna Miettinen; Arja Kaitala; Robert L. Smith; Rogelio Macías Ordóñez

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Golden egg bug Phyllomorpha laciniata (Heteroptera, Coreidae) females oviposit on male and female conspecifics that carry ova until they hatch. Embryos benefit from being carried because of diminished risks of predation. Female carriers are never the parents of carried eggs, and males are only rarely the fathers of any carried eggs. Eggs develop and hatch without being carried in the

  13. A mini fish tailed lion The intelligent fishbone based on golden fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan Luo; Zehui Qu; Yalan Ye; Qiong-hai Dai

    2012-01-01

    For observing 3 years' birthday of an intelligent stream cipher, which is named as Golden Fish, we design a remembrance of fishbone named Fish tailed lion based on it. The Fish tailed lion is a mini intelligent stream cipher, which includes one stream cipher and one block cipher and two HASHs. It's just a fishbone because we only care about

  14. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  15. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    PubMed

    K?l?ç, Önder; Belivermi?, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of ?stanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03±0.23, 389±41.6, 2.61±1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96±37.88 and 11.48±4.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in<63 ?m particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn. PMID:25023437

  16. A NEURAL NETWORK UNDERLYING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN EMOTION AND AGGRESSION IN MALE GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    HAMSTERS J. T. DAVID, M. C. CERVANTES, K. A. TROSKY, J. A. SALINAS AND Y. DELVILLE* Psychology Department a common neural network. Male golden hamsters were first screened for offensive aggression. Then. Similar protocols have been used to test behaviors associated with frustration. At first, all hamsters

  17. Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Repeated Stress during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Hamsters J. C. Wommack,* A. Salinas,* R. H. Melloni Jr, and Y. Delville* *Psychology Department, the consequences of stress are often severe and long lasting. Repeated subjugation in adult male golden hamsters-pubertal changes in stress hormones may explain why juvenile hamsters are more resilient to social stress than

  18. Characteristics of a Short Incubation Model of Scrapie in the Golden Hamster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Kimberlin; CAROL A. WALKER

    1977-01-01

    SUMMARY Repeated passage of the ' Chandler' strain of scrapie in female golden hamsters using the intracerebral route of inoculation reduces the minimum incubation period to 60 days, about half of the minimum incubation period so far found in any of the mouse models of scrapie. The infectivity titres in brain in the clinical stage of the disease are considerably

  19. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  20. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to evaluate the ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilana Urbano Bron; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Marisa Azzolini; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Eduardo Caruso Machado

    2004-01-01

    Fruit classification based on one or more physical or physiological attributes is important to improve quality during storage and marketing. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different ripeness stages and during the ripening to determine if this non-destructive technique might assist the evaluation of fruit ripeness. Maximal (Fm),

  1. Effects of Light, Cold Storage, and Temperature on Seed Germination of Golden Thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Osman Sari; Mehmet Tutar

    2010-01-01

    Golden thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L., family Asteraceae), is used as both a medicinal plant and a vegetable in the Mediterranean region. Although the plant grows in the wild, information to promote seed germination is needed for the cultivation necessary to meet demand. In this study, seed from two wild-grown and one cultivated source were used to determine the effect of

  2. A review of "Tulipmania: Money, Honor, and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age" by Anne Goldgar 

    E-print Network

    Cruz, Laura

    2008-01-01

    : Money, Honor, and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2007. 425 pp. $65.00 Review by LAURA CRUZ. The story of tulipmania is well known to scholars. The frenzied trading and high prices it engendered...

  3. The Boy with the Golden Tooth: A 1593 Case Report of the First Molded Gold Crown

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Spielman

    2009-01-01

    The case of the Boy with the Golden Tooth, a “miracle” in a remote village in Silesia, in what is today southwestern Poland, was reported extensively in 1593. Here we report that the hoax, perpetrated by someone close to the family and with knowledge of goldsmith techniques, is the first documented case of the use of a molded gold crown.

  4. Pancreatic ductulitis in Syrian golden hamsters bearing homologous transplantable pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Runge, R; Takahashi, M; Pour, P

    1978-10-01

    A highly specific pancreatitis primarily affecting the intralobular and intrainsular ductules has been demonstrated in Syrian golden hamsters bearing homologous, non-syngeneic, transplantable pancreatic adenocarcinomas induced by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP). The ductulitis provides further evidence that induced pancreatic neoplasms originate from ductules. PMID:688204

  5. Table Rock Lake's master plan update continues Plans begin for Greers Ferry Dam's golden anniversary

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    · Table Rock Lake's master plan update continues · Plans begin for Greers Ferry Dam's golden anniversary · Little Rock District's website gets makeover Project Update March 2013 BUILDING STRONG® #12;2 In This Issue: Project Update Little Rock Key Projects Project and issue updates

  6. Modelling the effects of persecution on the population dynamics of golden eagles in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P Whitfield; A. H Fielding; D. R. A Mcleod; P. F Haworth

    2004-01-01

    We used observations of the age structure and breeding productivity of the Scottish population of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos together with the classic theory of population dynamics to derive current `unmanipulated' estimates of life history parameters. We then used regional differences in age structure associated with differences in persecution intensity to derive estimates of prospective `persecution-free' life history parameters. The

  7. Regional conservation priorities for a large predator: golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos) in the Alpine range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Pedrini; Fabrizio Sergio

    2002-01-01

    We compared the density of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and their nest dispersion, productivity and diet in Alpine and pre-Alpine areas. The comparison was made at two spatial scales: (1) at the territory level within two contiguous populations, and (2) at the population level, using published data for 22 populations scattered across four countries (France, Switzerland, Germany and Italy). Availability

  8. The effects of persecution on age of breeding and territory occupation in golden eagles in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P Whitfield; A. H Fielding; D. R. A Mcleod; P. F Haworth

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have documented negative effects of persecution by humans on the population dynamics of large birds of prey. Several areas have seen a reduction in persecution in modern times, but the demography of large raptors still makes these birds vulnerable to such effects. In a GIS analysis, utilising data collected during two national censuses of the golden eagle Aquila

  9. Genetic signatures of population change in the British golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN P. BOURKE; Alain C. Frantz; Christopher P. Lavers; Angus Davison; Deborah A. Dawson; Terry A. Burke

    2010-01-01

    The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) was once widely distributed in the uplands of the British Isles, but is now extinct in Ireland, and largely confined to the highlands and islands of Scotland. As the precise extent and severity of the reduction in population size are unclear, it is important to understand how the population was affected by the decline. We

  10. The effects of forestry on golden eagles on the island of Mull, western Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Philip Whitfield; David R. A. McLeod; Alan H. Fielding; Roger A. Broad; Richard J. Evans; Paul F. Haworth

    2001-01-01

    Summary 1. The afforestation of previously open habitats continues to involve conservation organizations in assessing effects on important species. We investigated the effects of commercial afforestation on golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos on the island of Mull, western Scotland, using long-term data on eagle reproductive success and occupancy on 30 home ranges, largely during 1981-99. 2. We modelled home range parameters

  11. Corroded, Thinned and Polished Bones Created by Golden Eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ): Taphonomic Implications for Archaeological Interpretations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Scott Hockett

    1996-01-01

    In a recent paper, Schmitt and Juell argued that corroded, thinned, and polished bones may be diagnostic of carnivore scatological bone. This paper examines leporid and bird bones recovered from 20 golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) pellets, and concludes that these same taphonomic traces are commonly present on bones regurgitated by this diurnal raptor. As a result, much additional research will

  12. INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTS OF PROLONGED INHALATION OF NICKEL-ENRICHED FLY ASH IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of 102 Male Syrian Golden hamsters were chronically exposed to approx. 70 micrograms/l respirable Nickel Enriched Fly Ash aerosol (high NEFA group), approx. 17 micrograms/l (low NEFA group), or approx. 70 micrograms/l FA 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 month...

  13. Fall 2012 / LAKELINE 33 Golden Algae & the Health of Okla. Lakes

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    . Figure 1. U.S. states reporting golden algae blooms and related fish kills. Blue star indicates location and massive fish kills (Figure 2) ­ represent clearly the more pressing issues with respect to ecosystem harm to zooplankton (the primary food base for fish), suggesting the potential for more subtle, longer

  14. Do Golden-cheeked Warblers Select Nest Locations on the Basis of Patch Vegetation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald C. Dearborn; Laura L. Sanchez

    2001-01-01

    Proper management of endangered species requires an understanding of habitat use at a variety of spatial scales, and information on nesting habitat is especially important in that regard. We ex- amined vegetation features associated with nest patches of the Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia), a federally endangered migrant songbird that breeds only in central Texas. We used a spatially paired design

  15. Factors Affecting Golden-Cheeked Warbler Nest Survival in Urban and Rural Landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate models that evaluated habitat and landscape

  16. PREDICTING PRESENCE-ABSENCE OF THE ENDANGERED GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER (DENDROICA CHRYSOPARIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timery S. DeBoer; David D. Diamond; Mark Eberle

    2006-01-01

    The golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) is a federally endangered, Neo- tropical migrant songbird that breeds exclusively in central Texas. Previous studies have identified habitat characteristics associated with the warbler, but a predictive model incorporating data col- lected over the entire breeding range is lacking. Using logistic regression, we constructed models at 2 scales based on vegetational and topographical data from

  17. Optimizing A Communication System By Neural Circuits: The Magic Number 4 And Golden Ratio

    E-print Network

    Logan, David

    Optimizing A Communication System By Neural Circuits: The Magic Number 4 And Golden Ratio Bo Deng1 and efficient communication system can be constructed using one neural circuit as an encoder Abstract: For a new class of circuit models of neurons we demonstrate here that an arti- ficial but robust

  18. VOCALIZATIONS OF THE GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER T. NAUGLER

    Songs and calls of the Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa) from a number of locations in Eastern North America were examined. Songs were comprised of a variable number of six syllable types. The order of syllable presentation, however, was highly predictable both within and among individuals. Song structure resembled that of the con- generic Firecrest (R. ignicapillus) of Europe. Two common

  19. Male and female golden whistlers respond differently to static and dynamic signals of male intruders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter F. D. van Dongen; Raoul A. Mulder

    2008-01-01

    Bird displays vary widely in their sensitivity to changes in signaler condition. Plumage ornaments are generally static and undergo minimal change. Behavioral ornaments, by contrast, are dynamic and may track signaler condition or motivation more closely. The relative importance of each trait type in signaling individual quality has been examined during female choice, but rarely in territorial defense. Male golden

  20. Postmortem injuries inflicted by domestic golden hamster: morphological aspects and evidence by DNA typing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Ropohl; Richard Scheithauer; Stefan Pollak

    1995-01-01

    A case of postmortem animal scavenging by a domestic golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is presented. A 43-year-old woman, who was not under medical treatment, was found dead in her flat with the lower part of her body naked and her legs straddled. Her face showed extensive lesions of the soft tissues which the medical examiner interpreted as vital scalping injuries.

  1. Harvesting by Peel Color to Reduce Bruising of "Golden Delicious" Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Golden Delicious’ apples harvested at three peel color stages were immediately bruised to a constant depth using an artificial finger attached to an Instron universal material testing instrument. Bruised tissue was sliced sequentially from the fruit surface in a plane perpendicular to the directio...

  2. James T.. Golden Hatfield Marine Science Center. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    E-print Network

    James T.. Golden Hatfield Marine Science Center. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Building 3"-Potential effects of parental stock size and environ- mental factors on year-class strength (YCS) of petrale sole larval stages are most abundant. A regression model based on indices of offshore Ekman transport from

  3. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, Carol L.; Adams, Layne G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare( Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lugopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  4. A Highly Immersive Approach to Teaching Reverse Engineering Golden G. Richard III

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    A Highly Immersive Approach to Teaching Reverse Engineering Golden G. Richard III Department short training courses in reverse engineering are frequently offered at meetings like Blackhat and through training organizations such as SANS, there are virtually no reverse engineering courses offered

  5. Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Christine Archer; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the environmental education program of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association in Brazil by comparing results of a 2001 survey with baseline data from 1986. Responses of 666 residents and results from 4 focus groups revealed an increase in public support for the tamarin and its habitat and an increase in general environmental…

  6. Golden Material 3D: An Interactive Decimal Numerical System for Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valkiria Venancio; Jorge Ferreira Franco; Ana Grasielle; Dionisio Correa; Marcelo Knörich Zuffo; Roseli de Deus Lopes

    Several studies highligtht difficulties in the teaching of the Mathematics, particularly, the numeral position system. It is common the teachers to adopt concrete materials to aid the teaching of this content. The Golden Material is one of the resources used in the learning of numbers. Nowadays, due to the decreasing cost of computers, Virtual Reality Environments are more accessible. This

  7. Ultrastructural features of the pineal gland in normal and light deprived golden hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne W. Clabough

    1971-01-01

    Although current physiological findings imply that the mammalian pineal organ liberates an antigonadal agent, microscopic examinations of this organ have afforded little information regarding the possible storage and release of such a substance. Since it is known that light deprivation for six weeks results in pineal-induced atrophy of certain reproductive organs in adult golden hamsters, one might expect that any

  8. Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata ) in Lao PDR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils O. L. Carlsson; Jean O. Lacoursière

    2005-01-01

    The effect of naturally found densities of the exotic and herbivorous golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on three dominant aquatic plants – duckweed (Lemna minor), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) – was assessed in a wetland survey and quantified in a field experiment in Laos in southeast Asia. Snail grazing reduced plant biomass, but plant species

  9. Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of ?0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: ?4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we noted slightly declining trends in southern BCRs and slightly increasing trends in northern BCRs. However, we estimated the average rate of golden eagle population change across all 12 BCRs for the period 1968–2010 as +0.40% per year (95% CI?=??0.27% to 1.00%), suggesting a stable population. We also estimated the average rate of population change for the period 1990–2010 was +0.5% per year (95% CI?=??0.33% to 1.3%). Our annual estimates of population size for the most recent decade range from 31,370 (95% CI: 25,450–39,310) in 2004 to 33,460 (95% CI: 27,380–41,710) in 2007. Our results clarify that golden eagles are not declining widely in the western United States. © 2013 The Wildlife Society.

  10. The golden hour: improving the stabilization of the very low birth-weight infant.

    PubMed

    Castrodale, Val; Rinehart, Shannon

    2014-02-01

    A term borrowed from emergency and cardiovascular medicine, the phrase "Golden Hour" refers to the first hour of an infant's life following delivery. The impact of implementation of a Golden Hour Protocol in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for infants delivered at less than 28 weeks gestation was examined, with a focus on admission temperature, admission glucose, and time to the initiation of an intravenous glucose and amino acid administration. As part of a quality initiative project, data were collected before and after the implementation of the Golden Hour Protocol for infants born at less than 28 weeks gestational age from May 2008 through December 2011. Desired outcomes were admission axillary temperature within a range of 36.5°C to 37.4°C, admission glucose more than 50 mg/dL, and the initiation of a glucose and amino acid infusion within 1 hour of birth. Key components of the Golden Hour included the use of a protocolized script, which clearly defined the roles of the delivery room personnel, placing the infant in a polyethylene bag to prevent heat loss, the application of the isolette skin temperature probe within 10 minutes of age, and insertion of umbilical catheters before moving the infant from the resuscitation area to the NICU. Data were collected on 225 infants born less than 28 weeks gestation: 106 in the preprotocol group and 119 in the postprotocol group. Differences between the 2 groups were not statistically significant for birth weight and gestational age. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of infants with an admission temperature in-range (36.5°C-37.4°C) between the preprotocol and postprotocol infants (28.3% vs 49.6%; P = .002). There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of admission glucose greater than 50 mg/dL between the pre- and postprotocol groups (55.7% vs 72%; P = .012). There was a highly statistically significant difference in the number of post-Golden Hour Protocol infants who received an intravenous administration of glucose and amino acids within 1 hour of life compared with the preprotocol group (61.3% vs 7%; P = 0.001). Our results suggest that the implementation of the Golden Hour Protocol can significantly improve the stabilization of infants delivered less than 28 weeks gestation. PMID:24472882

  11. The effects of chemical thinning on the alternate bearing of "Golden Delicious" apples in southwestern N. Leon, Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Yanez Reyes, Jesus Noel

    1984-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL THINNING ON THE ALTERNATE BEARING OF 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS' APPLES IN SOUTHWESTERN N. LEON, MEXICO A Thesis BY JESUS NOEL YANEZ REYES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... as to style and content by: J. B. Storey ( airman of Comm ' tee) P. W. Mor /n (Member D. Cawthon (Member) G. Ves t (Hfad of Department) May 1984 ABSTRACT The Effects of Chemical Thinning on the Alternate Bearing of 'Golden Delicious' Apples...

  12. COMPARATIVE ECOLOGY OF THE GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER AND BLUE-WINGED WARBLER ON RECLAIMED MINES IN SOUTHEASTERN KENTUCKY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Patton

    2007-01-01

    The golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) inhabits lower elevations on reclaimed surface mines in Kentucky, an indication of recent range expansion in this imperiled species. In 2004 and 2005, I compared breeding habitat between the golden-winged warbler and blue-winged warbler (V. pinus) in eastern Kentucky at landscape, territory, and nest site scales. Distance to forest edge averaged 38 m for the

  13. On the mass spectrum of the elementary particles of the standard model using El Naschie’s golden field theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Marek-Crnjac

    2003-01-01

    In this note we will give an expression of masses of the elementary particles of the standard model in terms of the golden mean. This is the value ?=(5?1)\\/2, which corresponds to the Hausdorff dimension of a single random Cantor set. El Naschie’s transfinite field theory which we will call the golden field theory is based on this fact and

  14. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the  -carotene content in Golden Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Al-Babili; Tran Thi; Cuc Hoa; Patrick Schaub

    2006-01-01

    To increase the b-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimiza- tion of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden

  15. How far away in an hour? Daily movements of juvenile golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ) tracked with satellite telemetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro Soutullo; Vicente Urios; Miguel Ferrer

    2006-01-01

    We tracked the daily movements of three juvenile golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) using satellite telemetry. Straight distances covered in an hour and throughout a day were calculated. Daily movements of\\u000a golden eagles are mostly characterized by short-distance excursions, with 64% of the distances covered in an hour shorter\\u000a than 1 km and 95% shorter than 9 km. Both the longest movements and

  16. Modelling habitat use and distribution of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in a low-density area of the Iberian Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Tapia; Jesús Domínguez; Luis Rodríguez

    We analyse the current situation of the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the region of Galicia in NW Spain. At present, the entire Galician population (five pairs) is located within an area\\u000a of about 2000 km2 in the province of Ourense. To identify high-priority areas for golden eagle conservation, we derived predictive\\u000a models of habitat suitability using logistic regression and a

  17. Modelling habitat use and distribution of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in a low-density area of the Iberian Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Tapia; Jesús Domínguez; Luis Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the current situation of the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the region of Galicia in NW Spain. At present, the entire Galician population (five pairs) is located within an area\\u000a of about 2000 km2 in the province of Ourense. To identify high-priority areas for golden eagle conservation, we derived predictive models of\\u000a habitat suitability using logistic regression and a

  18. Chapter 8: Experimental determination of the response of Golden-cheeked Warblers (Setophaga chrysoparia) to road construction noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa A. Lackey; Michael L. Morrison; Zachary G. Loman; Bret A. Collier; R. Neal Wilkins

    2012-01-01

    Noise pollution can mask or distort bird songs, which can inhibit mating success, predator detection, and parental response to begging calls. We examined the impact of road construction noise on territory selection, reproductive success, and behavior of the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). To examine habituation and territory placement, we (1) used construction-noise playback to individual Golden-cheeked Warblers and

  19. Gilding the Lily: A Variant of the Nelder-Mead Algorithm Based on Golden-Section Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Nazareth; Paul Tseng

    2002-01-01

    We propose a variant of the Nelder-Mead algorithm derived from a reinterpretation of univariate golden-section direct search. In the univariate case, convergence of the variant can be analyzed analogously to golden-section search. In the multivariate case, we modify the variant by replacing strict descent with fortified descent and maintaining the interior angles of the simplex bounded away from zero. Convergence

  20. Business Ethics and the Decision to Adopt Golden Parachute Contracts: Empirical Evidence of Concern for All Stakeholders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn D. Evans; Frank Hefner

    2009-01-01

    Golden parachutes are often viewed as a form of excessive compensation because they provide senior management with substantial\\u000a payouts following an acquisition while other stakeholders are subjected to layoffs, disrupted business relationships and other\\u000a negative externalities. Using a sample of S&P 500 firms, an economic and ethical justification for this type of contract is\\u000a given. Golden parachutes ensure effective corporate

  1. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  2. [Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region. PMID:21874583

  3. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    ?irovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  4. Allelic diversity at the DLA-88 locus in Golden Retriever and Boxer breeds is limited

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Peter; Buntzman, Adam S.; Vincent, Benjamin G.; Grover, Elise N.; Gojanovich, Gregory S.; Collins, Edward J.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Hess, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    In the dog, previous analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes suggest a single polymorphic locus, Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA)-88. While 51 alleles have been reported, estimates of prevalence have not been made. We hypothesized that, within a breed, DLA-88 diversity would be restricted, and one or more dominant alleles could be identified. Accordingly, we determined allele usage in 47 Golden Retrievers and 39 Boxers. In each population, 10 alleles were found; 4 were shared. Seven novel alleles were identified. DLA-88*05101 and *50801 predominated in Golden Retrievers, while most Boxers carried *03401. In these breeds DLA-88 polymorphisms are limited and largely non-overlapping. The finding of highly prevalent alleles fulfills an important prerequisite for studying canine CD8+ T-cell responses. PMID:22571293

  5. Golden single-walled carbon nanotubes prepared using double layer polysaccharides bridge for photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingjie; Xia, Wenjian; Liu, Li; Niu, Lvye; Lu, Qinghua

    2014-04-01

    Golden single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by growing gold nanoparticles onto the bilayer polysaccharide functionalized SWNTs. The layer-by-layer self-assembly of sodium alginate and chitosan on SWNTs provided an ideal surface with high density of active metal-binding groups such as amino and carboxylic acid groups, and then an approach of seed growth was adopted to facilitate the formation of gold nanoparticles coated SWNTs. The resulting golden SWNT hybrids have good water dispersibility and biocompatibility and tend to enter cancer cells. Interestingly, they have an enhanced NIR absorption and effectively transfer NIR laser into heat. The material can quickly cause localized hyperthermia, resulting in rapid cell death, and therefore appears to act as a highly effective photothermal converter for cancer ablation. PMID:24606763

  6. Cohabitation impaired physiology, fitness and sex-related chemosignals in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Rao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Da-Wei; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhao, Chenghua

    2008-03-18

    This study investigated the impact of long-term paternal presence (cohabitation) on several physiological parameters such as body weight, adrenal weight, cortisol of parents, and the survival of pups compared with brief daily encounters (isolation) of male-female pairs in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). We showed that females were affected more by cohabitation as evidenced by increased body and adrenal weights, elevated cortisol concentrations, and heavier uteri and spleens as compared with cohabiting male and isolated females. Furthermore, we found that tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids of the flank glands were sexually dimorphic, for which they were putative female pheromones. These two compounds were suppressed in females and elevated in males by cohabitation, suggesting that cohabitation impaired sex chemosignals. Overall, we concluded that housing females and males together had deleterious effects on adults and the survival of their pups in the golden hamster. PMID:18313701

  7. Radioactivity concentrations in sediment and mussel of Bosphorus and Golden Horn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Önder K?l?ç; Yavuz Çotuk

    In the present study, mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lamarck, 1819) and sediment samples were collected from the Bosphorus strait and the Golden Horn estuary in 2008 and 2009.\\u000a Activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 232Th and 238U were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with HPGe detector. Sediment samples were separated into 63 ?m\\u000a particle fractions. Analysis of radionuclides was carried out on

  8. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Jr. Brewster; D. W. Brickey; S. L. Ross; J. E. Shines

    1997-01-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground

  9. Proposed Standard-Weight (Ws) Equations for Kokanee, Golden Trout and Bull Trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew H. Hyatt; Wayne A. Hubert

    2000-01-01

    We developed standard-weight (Ws) equations for kokanee (lacustrine Oncorhynchus nerka), golden trout (O. aguabonita), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) using the regression-line-percentile technique. The Ws equation for kokanee of 120–550 mm TL is log10 Ws = ?5.062 + 3.033 log10 TL, when Ws is in grams and TL is total length in millimeters; the English-unit equivalent is log10 Ws =

  10. Perturbation expansion and Nth order Fermi golden rule of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gang

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we consider generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations with external potentials. We find the expressions for the fourth and the sixth order Fermi golden rules (FGRs), conjectured in Gang and Sigal [Rev. Math. Phys. 17, 1143-1207 (2005); Geom. Funct. Anal. 16, No. 7, 1377-1390 (2006)]. The FGR is a key condition in a study of the asymptotic dynamics of trapped solitons.

  11. Analysis of Malathion and its Breakdown Products in Aquaria Containing Golden Shiners (N. CHRYSOLEUCAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Stebbins; T. Roy; T. R. Doane

    1989-01-01

    The 1-ethylmonocarboxylic acid of Malathion (MCA) was identified as a metabolite of Malathion in the gut of golden shiners (N. Chrysoleucas) (7.11 × 10±0.66 × 10 ng\\/g tissue). As noted in the literature the rate of hydrolysis of Malathion above pH 7 is first order with respect to Malathion and pH dependent. In addition, the rate of hydrolysis of Malathion

  12. Pancreatic secretory profiles of protein, digestive, and lysosomal enzymes in Syrian golden hamster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rinderknecht; R. Maset; K. Collias; C. Carmack

    1983-01-01

    Profiles of pancreatic secretory proteins (zymogens, lysosomal enzymes) were studied in Syrian golden hamsters after sequential stimulation of the pancreas with secretin and cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK). The flow rate of pancreatic juice after secretin (0.2 CU\\/100 g) was approximately 2.7 µl\\/min\\/100 g animal (about 55% of that in human subjects). The half-life of the secretin effect was about 60 min. The

  13. ALLOZYMES AND GENETIC SIMILARITY OF BLUE-WINGED AND GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANK B. GILL

    I studied variation in plumage color and allozymes in Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) from Minnesota and in Blue-winged Warblers (V. pinus) from Missouri and from eastern Pennsylvania. Color character scores were less than 2 in Missouri pinus and greater than 26 in Minnesota chrysoptera. The level of genetic divergence (D = 0.001) is comparable to that of conspecific populations of

  14. COURTSHIP OF BLUE-WINGED WARBLERS, GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLERS, AND THEIR HYBRIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MILLICENT S. FICKEN; ROBERT W. FICKEN

    OMPARATIVE studies of courtship of hybridizing avian species in nature have rarely been attempted with the exception of the Anatidae (e.g., Johnsgard, 1960). A rare opportunity to study birds whose courtship pattern is different than waterfowl is presented by Blue-winged Warblers (Vermivora pinus) and Golden-winged Warblers (V. chrysoptera) , which commonly hybridize in their extensive area of sympatry. There is

  15. Yellow-bellied marmot and golden-mantled ground squirrel responses to heterospecific alarm calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WALTER McKEE SHRINER

    1998-01-01

    When two species have predators in common, animals might be able to obtain important information about predation risk from the alarm calls produced by the other species. The behavioural responses of adult yellow-bellied marmots,Marmota flaviventris, and golden-mantled ground squirrels,Spermophilus lateralis, to conspecific and heterospecific alarm calls were studied to determine whether interspecific call recognition occurs in sympatric species that rarely

  16. The origins of US total factor productivity growth in the golden age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander J. Field

    2007-01-01

    A consideration of TFP growth in the United States during the golden age (1948–1973) raises two related questions: on the\\u000a one hand why was it so strong and on the other hand, why were TFP growth rates lower than they were during the Depression\\u000a years (1929–1941)? A continuing downward trend in TFP growth within manufacturing, and its declining share after

  17. Technical Note for 8D Likelihood Effective Higgs Couplings Extraction Framework in the Golden Channel

    E-print Network

    Yi Chen; Emanuele DiMarco; Joe Lykken; Maria Spiropulu; Roberto Vega-Morales; Si Xie

    2014-10-17

    In this technical note we present technical details on various aspects of the framework introduced in arXiv:1401.2077 aimed at extracting effective Higgs couplings in the $h\\to 4\\ell$ `golden channel'. Since it is the primary feature of the framework, we focus in particular on the convolution integral which takes us from `truth' level to `detector' level and the numerical and analytic techniques used to obtain it. We also briefly discuss other aspects of the framework.

  18. Peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a subadult golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).

    PubMed

    Wernick, Morena Bernadette; Dennler, Matthias; Beckmann, Kathrin; Schybli, Martina; Albini, Sarah; Hoop, Richard K; Steffen, Frank; Kircher, Patrick; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2014-03-01

    A 5-year-old, female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) was admitted with tetraplegia that progressed to a nonambulatory, spastic tetraparesis after a few days of treatment. Clinical and radiologic examinations, including radiography, computed tomography scan, and myelography, were indicative of neoplasia involving a spinal nerve root. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging and necropsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of a peripheral nerve sheath neoplasia, not, to our knowledge, previously reported in a raptor. PMID:24881155

  19. Metastatic cholangiocellular carcinoma and renal adenocarcinoma in a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Mikaelian; Robert Patenaude; Christiane Girard; Daniel Martineau

    1998-01-01

    A 33?year?old captive male golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) was presented for necropsy with a history of emaciation and depression. The liver was severely distorted by numerous, coalescent, poorly demarcated, white firm nodules. Upon microscopic examination, these masses were found to be infiltrative and were composed of anastomosing tubular structures lined by signet?ring cells piling up in a disorderly fashion. Ultrastructurally,

  20. Nocturnal Predation of Females on Nests: An Important Source of Mortality for Golden-cheeked Warblers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Mike M. Stake; Frank R. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    We monitored 124 female Golden- cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia )a t 133 nests with video cameras from 1997-2002 and 2005- 2006 at two study areas in central Texas, USA. Six adult females were depredated by snakes in 781 cam- era-monitored intervals when females were on the nest at night and exposed to possible nocturnal predation. Daily nest survival was 0.971

  1. Atherosclerosis associated with vasculopathic lesions in a golden retriever with hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Boynosky, Nicole A.; Stokking, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male golden retriever dog presented for lameness secondary to ulcerations of multiple digital paw pads was diagnosed with vasculitis and hypercholesterolemia. Despite treatment, ischemic necrosis progressed to include all distal extremities and the dog eventually expired due to myocardial infarction secondary to severe atherosclerosis. The rapid demise and the dermatologic lesions may have been secondary to cholesterol embolism syndrome which has never before been reported in a dog. PMID:24790237

  2. Winter habitat and distribution of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Rappole; David I. King; Peter Leimgruber

    2000-01-01

    The golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) is an endangered Neotropical migrant that breeds in oak (ßMercMÄ)\\/juniper {Juniperus) habitat of the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Recently work has been done on the factors affecting breeding populations of this species, but little is known about winter habitat use or distribution. We used extensive field surveys in Honduras and Guatemala to obtain locational

  3. Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 4. Verbesina encelioides, Golden Crownbeard (Magnoliopsida: Asteraceae) 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen R. Feenstra; David R. Clements

    2008-01-01

    Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray, golden crownbeard, is a sunflower-like herbaceous annual plant ranging in height from 0.3 to 1.7 m with showy yellow flowers. It is native to the southwestern United States, the Mexican Plateau, and other parts of tropical America. Its in- vasive characteristics include high seed production (as many as 300-350 seeds

  4. Methylhydrazine Tumorigenesis in Syrian Golden Hamsters and the Morphology of Malignant Histiocytomas1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bela Toth; Hidesuke Shimizu

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY A 0.01% solution of methylhydrazine was administered daily in the drinking water of 6-week-old randomly bred Syrian golden hamsters for the remainder of their lifetime. The treatment gave rise to malignant histiocytomas of liver and tumors of the cecum. Thirty-two % of the females and 54% of the males developed malignant histiocytomas whereas among the controls no such lesions

  5. RESPONSES OF 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS' APPLES TO 1-MCP APPLIED IN AIR AND WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Golden Delciuous' [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]apple fruit were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 0.42, 4.2 or 42 mmol m**-3 in air at 20 deg C or 0.03, 0.3 or 3 mmol m**-3 in 20 deg C water. Fruit were held in air at 20 deg C for 25 days after treatment or stored at ...

  6. Assessment of Facial Golden Proportions among North Maharashtri-an Population

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, L N; Jadhav, Kalpana S; Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Nagmode, Pradnya S; Ali, Fareedi Mukram

    2013-01-01

    Background: Divine Proportion in Orthodontics and Prosthodontics has always been intriguing. This was applied to the North Maharashtrian population to evaluate the relationship between facial esthetics and the golden proportions. Materials & Methods: Facial proportions were assessed by examining photographs of sum total of 300 subjects of North Maharashtrian population. Young adults with a skeletal and dental Class 1 occlusion, competent lips, and balanced facial proportion were selected. Photographic prints were taken and manually parameters were plotted and analysis was done. Results: The measurements of anterior facial height showed proportionality with the total facial height. The values showed shorter lower anterior facial height and deviation of facial width parameters from the divine proportion indicating small mouth, nose, and narrow-set eyes with respect to the inter-temporal width. Conclusion: There is soft-tissue facial balance of North Maharashtrian population in comparison with the golden proportion. However, certain parameters show some deviation from the divine proportion.. How to cite this article: Sunilkumar L N, Jadhav K S, Nazirkar G, Singh S, Nagmode P S, Ali F M. Assessment of Facial Golden Proportions among North Maharashtrian Population. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):48-54. PMID:24155602

  7. Complex periodic orbits, renormalization, and scaling for quasiperiodic golden-mean transition to chaos.

    PubMed

    Ivankov, N Y; Kuznetsov, S P

    2001-04-01

    At the critical point of the golden-mean quasiperiodic transition to chaos we show the presence of an infinite sequence of unstable orbits in complex domain with periods given by the Fibonacci numbers. The Floquet eigenvalues (multipliers) are found to converge fast to a universal complex constant. We explain this result on the basis of the renormalization group approach and suggest using it for accurate estimates of the location of the golden-mean critical points in parameter space for a class of nonlinear dissipative systems defined analytically. As an example, we obtain data for the golden-mean critical point in the two-dimensional dissipative invertible map of Zaslavsky. We give a set of graphical illustrations for the scaling properties and emphasize that demonstration of self-similarity on two-dimensional diagrams of Arnold tongues requires the use of a properly chosen curvilinear coordinate system. We discuss a procedure of construction of the appropriate local coordinate system in the parameter plane and present the corresponding data for the circle map and Zaslavsky map. PMID:11308933

  8. Deep mitochondrial divergence in Baja California populations of an aquilopelagic elasmobranch: the golden cownose ray.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the realized effect of dispersal in the genetic makeup of a species has significant evolutionary, ecological, and economical consequences. Here, we investigate the genetic diversity and population differentiation in the aquilopelagic golden cownose ray Rhinoptera steindachneri from the Gulf of California (GC) and the Pacific coast of Baja California (PCBC) using the mitochondrial NADH2 gene. Low levels of genetic diversity were found with only 4 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism haplotypes among 76 specimens. Pacific coast organisms were fixed for a unique haplotype not shared with rays from the gulf; 92% of GC rays possessed a single NADH2 haplotype not found in the Pacific. This produced significant differentiation between the GC and the PCBC (?(CT) = 0.972, P < 0.001). A pronounced phylogeographic pattern was found in which GC haplotypes were reciprocally monophyletic relative to a very divergent Pacific lineage (d = 10%). Our results indicate that despite high dispersal potential, GC and PCBC golden cownose ray populations are characterized by highly divergent mitochondrial lineages. Although more evidence is needed to corroborate the genetic isolation and systematic status of PCBC and GC golden cownose rays, our results suggest a possible cryptic species in the region. PMID:21414964

  9. Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide Golden-cheeked Warbler habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duarte, Adam; Jensen, Jennifer; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Habitat availability ultimately limits the distribution and abundance of wildlife species. Consequently, it is paramount to identify where wildlife habitat is and understand how it changes over time in order to implement large scale wildlife conservation plans. Yet, no work has quantified the degree of change in range-wide breeding habitat for the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), despite the species being listed as endangered by the U.S. federal government. Thus, using available geographic information system (GIS) data and Landsat satellite imagery we quantified range-wide warbler breeding habitat change from 1999-2001 to 2010-2011. We detected a 29% reduction in total warbler breeding habitat and found that warbler breeding habitat was removed and became more fragmented at uneven rates across the warbler’s breeding range during this time period. This information will assist researchers and managers in prioritizing breeding habitat conservation efforts for the species and provide a foundation for more realistic carrying capacity scenarios when modeling golden-cheeked warbler populations over time. Additionally, this study highlights the need for future work centered on quantifying golden-cheeked warbler movement rates and distances in order to assess the degree of connectivity between increasingly fragmented habitat patches.

  10. Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory quality of stirred 'dwarf' golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) yoghurts.

    PubMed

    Ann Bartoo, Shelly; Badrie, Neela

    2005-09-01

    The dwarf golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) is an exotic fruit which is mainly consumed in its fresh form but could be processed. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of adding golden apple nectar on the physicochemical and sensory quality of stirred yoghurts from cow's milk. Yoghurts with 15% and 20% golden apple nectar were more (P>0.01) liked than the control (0% nectar) yoghurt in all sensory attributes. The appearance and body attribute differed (P<0.01) between yoghurts with 15% and 20% nectar. The overall sensory quality of these yoghurts was rated very good to excellent. There were significant (P>0.05) changes, in pH, lactic acid, consistency, colour, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds on storage at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. By week 4 of storage, yoghurts developed a buttery smell and were less dark and yellow. A 226 g yoghurt serving provided an excellent source of phosphorus and was good in protein. PMID:16361184

  11. Medical care of children during the golden age of Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Modanlou, Houchang D

    2015-04-01

    During the Sassanid Empire in Persia (226-652 AD), there was a renaissance of humanistic sciences, including medicine, in the city of Gondi-Shapur. When the Islamic center of power moved to Baghdad in about 750 AD, physicians of Gondi-Shapur, including the dean of the medical school (a Nestorian Christian), gradually moved to Baghdad constructing hospitals and medical schools. Aided by the Persian and Nestorian Christians, the Islamic civilization ushered in what is considered to be the Golden Age of Islam from the 8th to 13th century AD. During this period, there were remarkable achievements in humanistic sciences including medicine by many physicians/authors whose medical textbooks were used for centuries in burgeoning medical schools in Europe. The medical texts written during the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine contain sections and chapters about the clinical conditions, diseases and medical care of children. It was during this era that the first treatise was written on the diseases of children and their care. This essay will describe, in brief, the writings about the conditions and diseases of children and their medical care, by three prominent Persian physicians of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine: 1) Abubakr Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Razi, Rhazes (865-925 AD); 2) Ali ibn-al-Abbas al-Majusi or Haly Abbas (949-994 AD); and 3)  Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina or Avicenna (980-1037 AD). PMID:25841951

  12. Status and distribution of golden langurs (Trachypithecus geei) in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Biswas, J; Das, J; Bujarbarua, P

    2001-09-01

    The distribution of golden langurs (Trachypithecus geei) is limited to a small area of western Assam in northeast India and Bhutan between the rivers Manas in the east, Sankosh in the west, and Brahmaputra in the south. It is one of the most seriously endangered primate species of India. A comparative analysis based on satellite images taken in 1988 and 1998 showed a 50% loss of original golden langur habitat. Data on population dynamics collected using line transect and total count methods are presented here. An average group size of 8.2 (range 4.0-22.0) individuals was recorded. A total of 1,064 individuals were counted living in 130 groups. The sex ratio was 1.9-2.5 adult females for each adult male. A low percentage of juveniles and infants suggests that the population is unstable. Most of the groups had only one adult male. Small group sizes, isolated distribution, proportionately few infants and juveniles, and degrading habitat are all causes of concern. Demographic trends indicate a decline in the golden langur population. PMID:11536313

  13. Bacteria associated with golden pompano ( Trachinotus blochii ) broodstock from commercial hatchery in Malaysia with emphasis on their antibiotic and heavy metal resistances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Wei Lee; Musa Najiah; Wee Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper was the first report on pathogenic bacteria isolated from golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) with the antibiogram, as well as the heavy metal resistance pattern. Golden pompano becomes popular among Malaysian fish\\u000a farmers due to its high value and demand from local and oversea markets. However, the baseline information on antibiogram\\u000a of pathogenic bacteria associated with golden pompano is

  14. Physical and chemical characteristics of golden-yellow and purple-red varieties of tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    PubMed

    Vasco, Catalina; Avila, Jenny; Ruales, Jenny; Svanberg, Ulf; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    2009-01-01

    Golden-yellow and purple-red tamarillos (Solanum betaceum Cav.) cultivated in Ecuador were studied for their physical properties, proximate composition, pH, degrees Brix, acidity, sugars, organic acids, minerals, vitamin C and beta-carotene content in the edible part. Results were compared with those for Spanish fruits. The golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits were larger (107 and 188 g) than the respective Spanish fruits (43 and 63 g), softer but generally similar in chemical composition except for fat (0.72 and 0.6%) and malic acid (0.32 and 0.53%) contents in the golden-yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian fruits. Tamarillo fruits are a good source of potassium (approximately 400 mg/100 g fresh weight). Total phenolics in the golden-yellow and purple-red varieties were 125 and 187 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The golden-yellow variety had weaker anti-DPPH radical activity than the purple-red variety. Flavonols were only found in the peel of both varieties, while hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found in peel and pulp. PMID:19657848

  15. Development block of golden hamster ICSI embryos is associated with decreased expression of HDAC1, HSPA1A and MYC.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Kong, Delong; Liu, Limei; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Xueming; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the mechanism for embryo development block in vitro and to improve the development rate of golden hamster embryos in vitro. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique was used to produce golden hamster ICSI embryos. The changes in the histone acetylation and the expression of histone deacetylase and related genes were analyzed by immunocytochemical staining and real-time PCR both in golden hamster in vivo embryos and in ICSI embryos. Aged oocytes significantly increased the oocyte spontaneous activation rate. In vitro cultured ICSI embryos suffered from severe development block in M199TE medium. Expression of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) was significantly decreased in the nuclei of the arrested ICSI 2-cell embryos, and its nuclear and cytoplasmic expression pattern was also markedly altered. The acetylation level of H4K5, however, was not significantly changed between golden hamster in vivo embryos and ICSI embryos. HSPA1A and MYC, the marker genes for zygotic genome activation (ZGA), were transcriptionally decreased in arrested ICSI 2-cell embryos. Transcription of HDAC1 was also downregulated in these embryos, whereas the mRNA expression of the proapoptotic gene, BAX, was not changed. These results indicate that the golden hamster ICSI embryo development block during ZGA is associated with decreased nuclear expression and altered expression of HDAC1. HSPA1A, MYC, and HDAC1 mRNA levels, which decrease, resulting in ZGA failure. PMID:24890342

  16. Thioredoxin of golden pompano involved in the immune response to Photobacterium damselae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Zhang, Nan; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhang, Dianchang

    2015-08-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is one of the key systems responsible for keeping the intracellular environment in a highly reduced state. In this study, a full-length TRX cDNA sequence (ToTRX) from golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus was identified after pyrosequencing of golden pompano cDNA library. ToTRX cDNA is comprised of 786 bp, and contained a 324 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 107 amino acid polypeptide, a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 116 bp, and a long 3'- UTR of 346 bp. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that ToTRX contained the highly conserved redox active disulphide/dithiol site (CGPC) of the thioredoxin active family, and phylogenetic tree showed that ToTRX had a closer evolution relationship with TRX from Oplegnathus fasciatus and Anoplopoma fimbria. ToTRX mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissues with the higher expression levels in the stomach, gill and fin tissues. The expression of ToTRX mRNA was significantly up-regulated in liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of golden pompano injected with Photobacterium damselae. The recombinant ToTRX protein (rToTRX) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then purified and refolded. The insulin disulfides assay was performed to investigate the enzymatic oxidoreductase activity of rToTRX, and the results demonstrated that rToTRX exhibited a high reducing activity in presence of DTT, while no activity was observed in the regroup without DTT and blank control group. Over all, the study provided the useful information to help further understand the functional mechanism of TRX in marine fish immunity. PMID:26052015

  17. Low-energy behavior of the generalized Golden chain at an integrable point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakashvili, Paata; Ardonne, Eddy

    2011-03-01

    Recently, properties of collective states of interacting non-Abelian anyons have attracted a considerable attention. In particular, it has been shown to that the generalization of the Golden chain, a chain of interacting Fibonacci anyons, has a rich phase diagram with various critical and gapped phases. In additions, several integrable points have also been studied. We identify a new integrable point in the parameter space of the model and diagonalize the Hamiltonian exactly using the Bethe Ansatz method. To describe the corresponding low-energy conformal field theory, we perform the finite-size analysis to calculate the central charge and critical exponents.

  18. Subspecies-informative SNP assays for evaluating introgression between native golden trout and introduced rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Molly R; Clipperton, Neil W; May, Bernie

    2009-01-01

    We characterize 20 single nucleotide polymorphism assays for evaluating hybridization between native golden trout subspecies (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita and O. m. whitei) and introduced rainbow trout strains. These assays utilize the 5'-nuclease reaction, facilitating high-throughput genotyping of many individuals and making them useful in quantifying and monitoring introgression and potentially applicable to studies of other O. mykiss groups. Minor allele frequency differentials (?q) among native and introduced rainbow groups ranged from 0 to 1, with an average differential of 0.75 for both subspecies aguabonita and whitei relative to the hatchery rainbow trout strain. PMID:21564644

  19. TMP153, a novel ACAT inhibitor, lowers plasma cholesterol through its hepatic action in Golden hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Sugiyama; Hiroyuki Odaka; Shigekazu Itokawa; Eiichiro Ishikawa; Yoshiaki Tomari; Hitoshi Ikeda

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of the hypocholesterolemic action of N-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dimethyl-3-quinolyl]-N?-(2, 4-difluorophenyl) urea (TMP-153), a potent acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, was studied in Golden hamsters. TMP-153 (0.5–1.5 mg\\/kg) dose-dependently reduced plasma total- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol without affecting high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. TMP-153 markedly reduced the cholesterol influx into the plasma upon intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339. The compound also decreased cholesterol

  20. Lithofacies and depositional dynamics of golden Oolite (Bathonian), Kachchh Mainland, Gujarat (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Diwakar; Tiwari, R. N.

    2006-04-01

    The Golden Oolite Member of the Patcham Formation consisting of 84 m thick alternate sequence of limestones and mudstone are well exposed in the Jhura Dome, Kachchh Mainland, Gujarat. Petrographic study of limestones reveals four types of microfacies: oolitic fossiliferous grainstone (A 1); fossiliferous intraclastic grainstone (A 2); sandy fossiliferous grainstone (A 3); and pebbly fossiliferous grainstone (A 4). The microfacies normally form microfacies assemblages with calcareous mudstone (B 1) and are stacked vertically in ascending order as A 1-A 3, A 1-B 1, A 4-B 1 and A 2-B 1. The assemblage (A 1-A 3) is characterised by interbedding of moderately to thickly bedded, hard and compact, golden coloured oolitic fossiliferous grainstone and sandy fossiliferous grainstone exhibiting small scale low angle planar cross beddings. It contains well preserved bioclast. Assemlage (A 1-B 1) is distinguished by rhythmic alternations of earthy, concretionary calcareous mudstone and moderately to very thickly bedded golden coloured oolitic fossiliferous grainstone showing ripple bedding, abundant bioclast and reworked intraclasts, whereas assemblage (A 4-B 1) exhibits rhythmic alternations of bioturbated, earthy, concretionary calcareous mudstone and moderately to thickly bedded pebbly fossiliferous grainstone. Assemblage (A 2-B 1) is characterised by earthy,bioturbated,calcareous mudstone containing thin uneven beds of fossiliferous intraclastic grainstone having micritic intraclast and microfossils. The study of lithofacies suggests two main depositional processes for the formation of golden oolite: (1) The high energy physical sedimentation from current flows during transgression characterized by irregular to sharp nature of basal contact of each cycle, abundance of well preserved bioclasts and reworked intraclasts and large scale ripple bedding; (2) Settling of fines from suspension during fair-weather period as distinguished by homogenous fine grained interbeds of mudstone in the sequence. The transition of facies from A 1-A 3 to A 2-B 1 marks deepening upward event during Bathonian period from shallow inner shelf to calcareous mud dominated outer shelf. The energy condition was very high during deposition of the lower and middle part (A 1-A 3 and A 1-B 1 assemblage) whereas low to very low as revealed by abundance of bioturbated calcareous mudstone (B 1) with episodic interruption of moderate to high energy storm event depositing A 4 (pebbly fossiliferous grainstone) microfacies during the upper part (A 4-B 1 and A 2-B 1 assemblage) of the sequence.

  1. Lead contamination of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos within the range of the California condor Gymnogyps californianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloom, P.H.; Scott, J.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Smith, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 66 golden eagles from June 1985 to January 1986 and analyzed for their lead content. Thirty-nine percent had blood lead levels greater than 0.2 ppm, indicating exposure to environmental lead. Within the exposed group, 3 had blood levels exceeding 0.6 ppm and one exceeded 1.0 ppm. These data suggest that lead, probably in the form of shot, bullets, or bullet fragments, poses a hazard to scavenging birds within the range of the California condor.

  2. Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles.

  3. Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: Evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  4. Search for the Golden Moon Bear: Using Reader’s Theater to Teach Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Brooks

    2009-11-01

    Reader’s theater is an activity in which students, while reading directly from scripts, are able to tell a story in its most entertaining form. Typically, teachers create or purchase premade scripts of stories, and students focus on reading those scripts in a fluent and expressive manner. However, in the lesson presented here, students turn the book, Search for the Golden Bear Moon: Science and Adventure in the Asian Tropics by Sy Montgomery into a reader’s theater script themselves. This article describes how students act out this genetics-based story to strengthen their language skills and reinforce science concepts in the process.

  5. Fecal steroid monitoring for assessing gonadal and adrenal activity in the golden eagle and peregrine falcon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Airica M. Staley; Juan M. Blanco; Alfred M. Dufty Jr; David E. Wildt; Steven L. Monfort

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of noninvasive monitoring of endocrine function via fecal steroid immunoassays in the golden eagle\\u000a and peregrine falcon. High-pressure liquid chromatography analyses of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) revealed that\\u000a minor percentages of immunoreactive fGCM co-eluted with [3H]corticosterone in both sexes of the eagle (2.5–2.7%) and falcon (7.5–11.9%). In contrast, most fecal estrogen metabolites\\u000a in eagle and falcon

  6. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    PubMed

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-01

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

  7. Spawning habitat, behavior, and morphology as isolating mechanisms of the golden redhorse, Moxostoma erythrurum , and the black redhorse, M. duquesnei , two syntopic fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Kwak; Thomas M. Skelly

    1992-01-01

    Golden redhorse, Moxostoma erythrurum, and black redhorse, M. duquesnei, were observed spawning during the springs of 1984 through 1987 in Stony Creek, Illinois, at water temperatures ranging from 15–21°C. Both species spawned simultaneously within the same stream reach in 1987. Male golden redhorse aggressively defended territories on shoals and were joined by females from an adjacent pool. Black redhorse also

  8. Delayed effect of pinealectomy on hibernation of the golden-mantled ground squirrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, C. L.; Harlow, H. J.; Phillips, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Pinealectomy or radical sham pinealectomy were performed on adult golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus (=Citellus) lateralis, approximately 1 month prior to the date of normal winter emergence. The first hibernatory period and subsequent active season were not different in either of the operated groups from intact animals. However, although the initiation of the second hibernatory period was not affected in the pinealectomized animals, this group failed to show the progressive increase in the length of heterothermic bouts that is characteristic of normal hibernation. Also, terminal arousal occurred approximately 6 weeks earlier in the second year after pinealectomy. Male squirrels showed a corresponding time compression in their annual gonadal cycle, as was assessed by testicular state. These results suggest that the pineal gland of the golden-mantled ground squirrel is involved in the expression of the annual hibernatory cycle. In the absence of the pineal gland the adult of this species is unable to sustain the normal depth and duration of hibernation in the second over-wintering period following pinealectomy. We have carried out additional experiments with young, laboratory-born S. lateralis and with field-caught, adult S. richardsonii. The results of these studies also are described in this paper.

  9. Final Mass and Spin of Merged Black Holes and the Golden Black Hole

    E-print Network

    James Healy; Pablo Laguna; Richard A. Matzner; Deirdre M. Shoemaker

    2010-03-12

    We present results on the mass and spin of the final black hole from mergers of equal mass, spinning black holes. The study extends over a broad range of initial orbital configurations, from direct plunges to quasi-circular inspirals to more energetic orbits (generalizations of Newtonian elliptical orbits). It provides a comprehensive search of those configurations that maximize the final spin of the remnant black hole. We estimate that the final spin can reach a maximum spin $a/M_h \\approx 0.99\\pm 0.01$ for extremal black hole mergers. In addition, we find that, as one increases the orbital angular momentum from small values, the mergers produce black holes with mass and spin parameters $\\lbrace M_h/M, a/M_h \\rbrace$ ~spiraling around the values $\\lbrace \\hat M_h/M, \\hat a/M_h \\rbrace$ of a {\\it golden} black hole. Specifically, $(M_h-\\hat M_h)/M \\propto e^{\\pm B\\,\\phi}\\cos{\\phi}$ and $(a-\\hat a)/M_h \\propto e^{\\pm C\\,\\phi}\\sin{\\phi}$, with $\\phi$ a monotonically growing function of the initial orbital angular momentum. We find that the values of the parameters for the \\emph{golden} black hole are those of the final black hole obtained from the merger of a binary with the corresponding spinning black holes in a quasi-circular inspiral.

  10. Aesthetic judgment of triangular shape: compactness and not the golden ratio determines perceived attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Friedenberg, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Many studies over a period of more than a century have investigated the influence of the golden ratio on perceived geometric beauty. Surprisingly, very few of these studies used triangular shapes. In Experiment 1, we presented right triangles that differed in regard to their elongation determined by increasing the length of one side relative to another. Attractiveness ratings did not peak at the golden ratio, but there was a very strong influence of axis ratio overall. Participant ratings were a negative decreasing function of ratio. Triangles that pointed upward were judged as significantly more attractive than those that pointed down. We interpret these results according to a compactness hypothesis: triangles that are more compact are less likely to move or break and are thus considered more pleasing. Orientation also affects aesthetics. Upward-pointing triangles with a base parallel to the ground, regardless of their compactness, are also considered more perceptually stable and attractive. These findings were replicated across stimulus type in a second experiment with isosceles triangles and across testing procedure in a third experiment using a paired comparison technique. PMID:23145277

  11. GoldenBraid: An Iterative Cloning System for Standardized Assembly of Reusable Genetic Modules

    PubMed Central

    Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Falconi, Erica Elvira; Zandalinas, Sara I.; Juárez, Paloma; Fernández-del-Carmen, Asun; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Biology requires efficient and versatile DNA assembly systems to facilitate the building of new genetic modules/pathways from basic DNA parts in a standardized way. Here we present GoldenBraid (GB), a standardized assembly system based on type IIS restriction enzymes that allows the indefinite growth of reusable gene modules made of standardized DNA pieces. The GB system consists of a set of four destination plasmids (pDGBs) designed to incorporate multipartite assemblies made of standard DNA parts and to combine them binarily to build increasingly complex multigene constructs. The relative position of type IIS restriction sites inside pDGB vectors introduces a double loop (“braid”) topology in the cloning strategy that allows the indefinite growth of composite parts through the succession of iterative assembling steps, while the overall simplicity of the system is maintained. We propose the use of GoldenBraid as an assembly standard for Plant Synthetic Biology. For this purpose we have GB-adapted a set of binary plasmids for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Fast GB-engineering of several multigene T-DNAs, including two alternative modules made of five reusable devices each, and comprising a total of 19 basic parts are also described. PMID:21750718

  12. GoldenBraid: an iterative cloning system for standardized assembly of reusable genetic modules.

    PubMed

    Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Falconi, Erica Elvira; Zandalinas, Sara I; Juárez, Paloma; Fernández-del-Carmen, Asun; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Biology requires efficient and versatile DNA assembly systems to facilitate the building of new genetic modules/pathways from basic DNA parts in a standardized way. Here we present GoldenBraid (GB), a standardized assembly system based on type IIS restriction enzymes that allows the indefinite growth of reusable gene modules made of standardized DNA pieces. The GB system consists of a set of four destination plasmids (pDGBs) designed to incorporate multipartite assemblies made of standard DNA parts and to combine them binarily to build increasingly complex multigene constructs. The relative position of type IIS restriction sites inside pDGB vectors introduces a double loop ("braid") topology in the cloning strategy that allows the indefinite growth of composite parts through the succession of iterative assembling steps, while the overall simplicity of the system is maintained. We propose the use of GoldenBraid as an assembly standard for Plant Synthetic Biology. For this purpose we have GB-adapted a set of binary plasmids for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Fast GB-engineering of several multigene T-DNAs, including two alternative modules made of five reusable devices each, and comprising a total of 19 basic parts are also described. PMID:21750718

  13. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    PubMed Central

    Poorbaghi, Seyedeh Leila; Javdani, Moosa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised. PMID:25653750

  14. Predators as prey at a Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos eyrie in Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Tsengeg, P.; Whitlock, P.; Ellis, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Although golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) have for decades been known to occasionally take large or dangerous quarry, the capturing of such was generally believed to be rare and/or the act of starved birds. This report provides details of an exceptional diet at a golden eagle eyrie in eastern Mongolia with unquantified notes on the occurrence of foxes at other eyries in Mongolia. Most of the prey we recorded were unusual, including 1 raven (Corvus corax), 3 demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), 1 upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), 3 owls, 27 foxes, and 11 Mongolian gazelles. Some numerical comparisons are of interest. Our value for gazelle calves (10 minimum count, 1997) represents 13% of 78 prey items and at least one adult was also present. Our total of only 15 hares (Lepus tolai) and 4 marmots (Marmota sibirica) compared to 27 foxes suggests not so much a preference for foxes, but rather that populations of more normal prey were probably depressed at this site. Unusual prey represented 65% of the diet at this eyrie.

  15. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).

    PubMed

    Poorbaghi, Seyedeh Leila; Javdani, Moosa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised. PMID:25653750

  16. The Effects of Cynomorium songaricum on the Reproductive Activity in Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Soo; Oh, Hyun Ah; Kwon, Ji Young; Jeong, Min Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kang, Dong Won; Choi, Donchan

    2013-01-01

    Cynomorium songaricum (CS) has been used in traditional Korean medicine in treating male impotence and sexual dysfunction. We investigated the effects of aqueous CS extract on the reproductive activity of golden hamsters whose spermatogenetic capacity is active in summer and inactive in winter. The animals were divided into 5 groups: long photoperiod (LP) control, short photoperiod (SP) control, and SP animals treated with low, middle, or high concentrations of CS. The animals were orally ingested with low (0.5 g/kg), middle (1.0 g/kg), or high (2.5 g/kg) concentrations of the aqueous extracts for 8 weeks on the daily basis. The control animals received the vehicle. As results, the LP control animals showed active testicular function but SP control animals displayed remarkably reduced testicular weights. The outcomes of the reproductive activity from low and middle concentrations of CS treatments were identical and marked as low dose. The consequences were a partial blocking of regressing activity by SP. On the other hand, the animals treated with high dose of CS extract showed remarkable significance in comparison to the SP control, indicative of a complete blocking effect of the CS on the regressing testes by SP. There were a dose-dependent effects of the CS on the sexual function. These results suggest that the CS extract promotes the male fertility by strengthening the spermatogenesis in the golden hamsters. PMID:25949119

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL EJACULATES AND SPERM CRYOPRESERVATION IN A GOLDEN EAGLE (AQUILA CHRYSAETUS).

    PubMed

    Villaverde-Morcillo, Silvia; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Castaño, Cristina; Rodríguez, Eduar; Gonzalez, Fernando; Esteso, Milagros; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the sperm characteristics and response to cooling and freezing of naturally ejaculated semen from a captive, adult golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetus) trained to allow sperm recovery via cooperative copulation. A basic spermiogram was prepared, and sperm motility and morphometric variables recorded using a computer-aided system. For sperm storage, the effects of a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based extender were evaluated at 5°C. The same extender was also used in freezing procedures in which glycerol (11%) and dimethylacetamide (6%) were compared as cryoprotectants. The extender preserved sperm viability over storage periods of up to 6 days. Although sperm motility and percentage live sperm values were poorer for frozen-thawed (5.8-14.6% and 44-42%, respectively) than for fresh samples (46.7 and 74.6%, respectively), no differences were seen between the effects of the two cryoprotectants. These results could be of use when attempting to store the sperm of golden eagles and other raptors. PMID:26056889

  18. Parameter optimization of gravity density inversion based on correlation searching and the golden section algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lu-Ping; Liu, Zhan; Shou, Hao; Zhang, Yu-Hua

    2012-06-01

    For density inversion of gravity anomaly data, once the inversion method is determined, the main factors affecting the inversion result are the inversion parameters and subdivision scheme. A set of reasonable inversion parameters and subdivision scheme can, not only improve the inversion process efficiency, but also ensure inversion result accuracy. The gravity inversion method based on correlation searching and the golden section algorithm is an effective potential field inversion method. It can be used to invert 2D and 3D physical properties with potential data observed on flat or rough surfaces. In this paper, we introduce in detail the density inversion principles based on correlation searching and the golden section algorithm. Considering that the gold section algorithm is not globally optimized, we present a heuristic method to ensure the inversion result is globally optimized. With a series of model tests, we systematically compare and analyze the inversion result efficiency and accuracy with different parameters. Based on the model test results, we conclude the selection principles for each inversion parameter with which the inversion accuracy can be obviously improved.

  19. Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of a Suicide Barrier on the Golden Gate Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Atkins Whitmer, Dayna; Woods, David Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Golden Gate Bridge (GGB) is a well-known “suicide magnet” and the site of approximately 30 suicides per year. Recently, a suicide barrier was approved to prevent further suicides. Aims: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of the proposed suicide barrier, we compared the proposed costs of the barrier over a 20-year period ($51.6 million) to estimated reductions in mortality. Method: We reviewed San Francisco and Golden Gate Bridge suicides over a 70-year period (1936–2006). We assumed that all suicides prevented by the barrier would attempt suicide with alternative methods and estimated the mortality reduction based on the difference in lethality between GGB jumps and other suicide methods. Cost/benefit analyses utilized estimates of value of statistical life (VSL) used in highway projects. Results: GGB suicides occur at a rate of approximately 30 per year, with a lethality of 98%. Jumping from other structures has an average lethality of 47%. Assuming that unsuccessful suicides eventually committed suicide at previously reported (12–13%) rates, approximately 286 lives would be saved over a 20-year period at an average cost/life of approximately $180,419 i.e., roughly 6% of US Department of Transportation minimal VSL estimate ($3.2 million). Conclusions: Cost-benefit analysis suggests that a suicide barrier on the GGB would result in a highly cost-effective reduction in suicide mortality in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23261913

  20. The Golden Ratio as a proposed solution of the Ultimatum Game: An explanation by continued fractions

    E-print Network

    Schuster, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Ultimatum Game is a famous sequential, two-player game intensely studied in Game Theory. A proposer can offer a certain fraction of some amount of a valuable good, for example, money. A responder can either accept, in which case the money is shared accordingly, or reject the offer, in which case the two players receive nothing. While most authors suggest that the fairest split of 50 % vs. 50 % would be the equilibrium solution, recently R. Suleiman (An aspirations-homeostasis theory of interactive decisions (2014)) suggested the Golden Ratio, 0.618, to be the solution and argued that such a partitioning would be considered fair by both sides. He provided a justification in terms of an approach termed aspirations-homeostasis theory. The main idea is that responders tend to accept the minor fraction of the Golden Ratio because they feel that this fraction equals, in comparison to the larger fraction obtained by the proposer, the ratio of the larger fraction and the whole amount. Here we give an alternative ...