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1

Isolation and Characterization of New 24 Microsatellite DNA Markers for Golden Cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta)  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four microsatellite DNA markers were isolated and characterized for golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) from a (GT)13—enriched genomic library. Loci were tested in 48 individuals from Jiaozhou bay of China. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 25 with an average of 10.3. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.896 and from 0.137 to 0.953, with averages of 0.519 and 0.633, respectively. Six loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni’s correction and no significant linkage disequilibrium between loci pairs was detected. These microsatellite markers would be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure to make conservation and management decisions for S. esculenta.

Yuan, Yanjiao; Liu, Shufang; Bai, Cuicui; Liu, Hongbo; Zhuang, Zhimeng

2012-01-01

2

Sperm displacement behavior of the cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm displacement behavior of cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) was observed in a tank. Before ejaculation, male cuttlefish used their arms III to scrape out sperm masses attached to the buccal membranes of females. The removed sperm mass debris was directly visible and countable. Active sperm were present within the removed sperm debris, implying that the aim of this behavior is to

Toshifumi Wada; Takeshi Takegaki; Tohru Mori; Yutaka Natsukari

2005-01-01

3

Respiration of the eggs of the giant cuttlefish Sepia apama  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the roofs of subtidal crevices, the giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) of southern Australia lays clutches of lemon-shaped eggs which hatch after 3 to 5?mo. Diffusion of oxygen through the capsule\\u000a and chorion membrane to the perivitelline fluid and embryo was modelled using the equation V?\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?G\\u000a \\u000a O2(P\\u000a \\u000a O2out?P\\u000a \\u000a O2in), where V?\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?rate of oxygen consumption, G\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?oxygen conductance of

E. R. Cronin; R. S. Seymour

2000-01-01

4

Principal features of the mating system of a large spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every winter thousands of cuttlefish (Sepia apama Gray) aggregate to spawn along a restricted area of rocky reef in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia. It is the only known spawning aggregation of cuttlefish in the world and represents an exceptional cuttlefish mating system. Spawning population structure and reproductive behavior were studied quantitatively by underwater visual transects and by focal-animal behavioral

K. Hall; R. T. Hanlon

2002-01-01

5

Mechanisms of population structuring in giant australian Cuttlefish Sepia apama.  

PubMed

While a suite of approaches have been developed to describe the scale, rate and spatial structure of exchange among populations, a lack of mechanistic understanding will invariably compromise predictions of population-level responses to ecosystem modification. In this study, we measured the energetics and sustained swimming capacity of giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama and combined these data with information on the life-history strategy, behaviour and circulation patterns experienced by the species to predict scales of connectivity throughout parts of their range. The swimming capacity of adult and juvenile S. apama was poor compared to most other cephalopods, with most individuals incapable of maintaining swimming above 15 cm s(-1). Our estimate of optimal swimming speed (6-7 cm s(-1)) and dispersal potential were consistent with the observed fine-scale population structure of the species. By comparing observed and predicted population connectivity, we identified several mechanisms that are likely to have driven fine-scale population structure in this species, which will assist in the interpretation of future population declines. PMID:23536813

Payne, Nicholas L; Snelling, Edward P; Semmens, Jayson M; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

2013-01-01

6

Mechanisms of Population Structuring in Giant Australian Cuttlefish Sepia apama  

PubMed Central

While a suite of approaches have been developed to describe the scale, rate and spatial structure of exchange among populations, a lack of mechanistic understanding will invariably compromise predictions of population-level responses to ecosystem modification. In this study, we measured the energetics and sustained swimming capacity of giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama and combined these data with information on the life-history strategy, behaviour and circulation patterns experienced by the species to predict scales of connectivity throughout parts of their range. The swimming capacity of adult and juvenile S. apama was poor compared to most other cephalopods, with most individuals incapable of maintaining swimming above 15 cm s?1. Our estimate of optimal swimming speed (6–7 cm s?1) and dispersal potential were consistent with the observed fine-scale population structure of the species. By comparing observed and predicted population connectivity, we identified several mechanisms that are likely to have driven fine-scale population structure in this species, which will assist in the interpretation of future population declines.

Payne, Nicholas L.; Snelling, Edward P.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.

2013-01-01

7

Molecular and morphological analyses of the cuttlefish Sepia apama indicate a complex population structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama Gray, 1849 annually forms a massive and unique spawning aggregation in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia, which has attracted commercial fishing interests in recent years. However, many basic life-history characteristics of S. apama are unknown, and anecdotal evidence suggests that there is more than one species. The present study assessed the population structure and

K. S. Kassahn; S. C. Donnellan; A. J. Fowler; K. C. Hall; M. Adams; P. W. Shaw

2003-01-01

8

Effects of early visual experience on the background preference in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis  

PubMed Central

Although cuttlefish are capable of showing diverse camouflage body patterns against a variety of background substrates, whether they show background preference when given a choice of substrates is not well known. In this study, we characterized the background choice of post-embryonic cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) and examined the effects of rearing visual environments on their background preferences. Different rearing backgrounds (enriched, uniformly grey and checkerboard) were used to raise cuttlefish from eggs or hatchlings, and four sets of two-background-choice experiments (differences in contrast, shape, size and side) were conducted at day 1 and weeks 4, 8 and 12 post-hatch. Cuttlefish reared in the enriched environment preferred high-contrast backgrounds at all post-embryonic stages. In comparison, those reared in the impoverished environments (uniformly grey and checkerboard) had either reversed or delayed high-contrast background preference. In addition, cuttlefish raised on the uniformly grey background, exposed to a checkerboard briefly (0.5 or 3 h) at week 4 and tested at week 8 showed increased high-contrast background preference. Interestingly, cuttlefish in the enriched group preferred an object size similar to their body size at day 1 and week 4, but changed this preference to smaller objects at week 12. These results suggest that high-contrast backgrounds may be more adaptive for juvenile cuttlefish, and visually enriched environments are important for the development of these background preference behaviours.

Lee, Yi-Hsin; Yan, Hong Young; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

2012-01-01

9

Respirometry and swimming dynamics of the giant australian cuttlefish, sepia apama (mollusca, cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swimming dynamics of the giant Australian cuttlefish, Sepia apama, were investigated using swimtunnel respirometry. Relationships between jet pressure, fin frequency, swimming speed and oxygen consumption were defined. Laboratory calibration of swimming parameters is necessary to allow estimates of swimming costs in the field.Jet pressure was the best predictor of oxygen consumption with an averaged equation of MO2?=?722 (jet pressure)?+?107?r ?=?0.51.

J. P. Aitken; R. K. ODor

2004-01-01

10

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny.

2014-01-01

11

Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators.

Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

2008-01-01

12

Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered 'objects' and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure-ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

Zylinski, S; Osorio, D; Shohet, A J

2009-02-27

13

Maturation, fecundity and seasonality of reproduction of two commercially valuable cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis and S. dollfusi, in the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (maximum 250mm mantle length, ML) and S. dollfusi (maximum 150mm ML) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea to Japan and Australia. They are the primary fishery in the Suez Canal and the most valuable commercial cephalopods in the northern Indian Ocean. However, their reproductive biology, essential for fishery management, is poorly known.

Howaida R Gabr; Roger T Hanlon; Mahmoud H Hanafy; Salah G El-Etreby

1998-01-01

14

Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant

Jacqueline L. Dupavillon; Bronwyn M. Gillanders

2009-01-01

15

The secret life of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama (Cephalopoda): Behaviour and energetics in nature revealed through radio acoustic positioning and telemetry (RAPT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sepia apama were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored on their native House Reef, Boston Bay, South Australia, with a radio acoustic positioning telemetry (RAPT) system. Cuttlefish were tagged with position-only and intra-mantle jet pressure transmitters. New data analyses were developed to handle problem data that arise with an uneven reef environment. Maximum range for the cuttlefish varied from 90

J. P. Aitken; R. K. O'Dor; G. D. Jackson

2005-01-01

16

Complete mitochondrial genome of the common cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the common cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis was determined first. The genome was 16,208?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)], the gene composition and order of which were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. pharaonis is T: 36.3%, C: 14.7%, A: 40.9% and G: 8.1%, with a hightly A?+?T bias of 77.2%. Two control regions all contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigations of the phylogenetic relationships, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:23725482

Wang, Wanchao; Guo, Baoying; Li, Jiji; Qi, Pengzhi; Wu, Changwen

2014-06-01

17

Chemical composition and tissue energy density of the cuttlefish ( Sepia apama ) and its assimilation efficiency by Diomedea albatrosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cuttlefish Sepia apama Gray (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) is a seasonally abundant food resource exploited annually by moulting albatrosses throughout\\u000a winter and early spring in the coastal waters of New South Wales, Australia. To assess its nutritional value as albatross\\u000a forage, we analysed S. apama for water, lipid protein, ash contents, energy density and amino acid composition. Because albatrosses consistently consume

H. Battam; M. Richardson; A. W. T. Watson; W. A. Buttemer

2010-01-01

18

Effects of stimuli shape and polarization in evoking deimatic patterns in the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, under varying turbidity conditions.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish possess the complex ability to identify approaching threats and then to selectively express the appropriate defense. We examined the visual cues used by Sepia officinalis cuttlefish during predator detection and the responses they selected. Using computer-generated stimuli, we set out to quantitate the deimatic responses to artificial looming stimuli of different shapes and contrasts. Defensive behavior gradually intensified as geometrical shapes resembled an image of a fish. Therefore, in addition to an object's size or its sudden increase in size, cuttlefish use form recognition to identify a threat. Cuttlefish demonstrated equal performance in predator detection trough clear water when presented with intensity versus polarization contrasts. However, when the water turbidity increased, the cuttlefish still detected looming fish shapes based on polarization contrast even when intensity information alone did not suffice. These results demonstrate the interplay between intensity and polarization information transmission and processing in the spatial domain. As nectobenthic organisms, cuttlefish probably experience low visibility conditions on a regular basis. The ability to see further into turbid water and to better detect an approaching object would be beneficial for their survival. PMID:23549755

Cartron, Lelia; Shashar, Nadav; Dickel, Ludovic; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie

2013-06-01

19

Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.  

PubMed

Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison with 0.03-0.85kg/h in December-April. Seasonal catch rates indicated a migratory life cycle ofS. pharaonis between offshore and inshore coastal zones. PMID:23894959

Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

2013-03-01

20

Accelerometry estimates field metabolic rate in giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama during breeding.  

PubMed

1. Estimating the metabolic rate of animals in nature is central to understanding the physiological, behavioural and evolutionary ecology of animals. Doubly labelled water and heart-rate methods are the most commonly used approaches, but both have limitations that preclude their application to some systems. 2. Accelerometry has emerged as a powerful tool for estimating energy expenditure in a range of animals, but is yet to be used to estimate field metabolic rate in aquatic taxa. We combined two-dimensional accelerometry and swim-tunnel respirometry to estimate patterns of energy expenditure in giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama during breeding. 3. Both oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) and swimming speed showed strong positive associations with body acceleration, with coefficients of determination comparable to those using similar accelerometers on terrestrial vertebrates. Despite increased activity during the day, field metabolic rate rarely approached Vo2, and night-time Vo2 was similar to that at rest. 4. These results are consistent with the life-history strategy of this species, which has a poor capacity to exercise anaerobically, and a mating strategy that is visually based. With the logistical difficulties associated with observation in aquatic environments, accelerometry is likely to prove a valuable tool for estimating energy expenditure in aquatic animals. PMID:20880022

Payne, Nicholas L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Seymour, Roger S; Webber, Dale M; Snelling, Edward P; Semmens, Jayson M

2011-03-01

21

Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

2014-01-01

22

Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.  

PubMed

With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different concentrations of desalination brine on the growth, survival and condition of cuttlefish embryos were investigated. The primary egg-laying sites for the cuttlefish were in the vicinity of Stony Point (sites 4 and 3) and the area with the least egg abundance was on the eastern and western areas around Point Lowly (sites 9 and 7) where no eggs were found. The survival of embryos decreased with an increase in salinity, with no embryos surviving to full term in salinities greater than 50 per thousand. Mean weight and mantle length also decreased with increasing salinity. Besides elevated salinity, the brine also had increased concentrations of Ba, Ca, K, Sr and Mg relative to water near Point Lowly. Brine discharge from seawater desalination poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia. PMID:19332355

Dupavillon, Jacqueline L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

2009-01-01

23

Properties of blend film based on cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin and mungbean protein isolate.  

PubMed

Blend films based on cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) ventral skin gelatin (CG) and mungbean protein isolate (MPI) at different blend ratios (CG/MPI=10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 4:6, 2:8 and 0:10, w/w) prepared at pH 11 using 50% glycerol (based on total protein) as plasticizer were characterized. CG films incorporated with MPI at increasing amounts had the decreases in tensile strength (TS) (p<0.05). The increases in elongation at break (EAB) were observed when CG/MPI ratios of 6:4 or 4:6 were used (p<0.05). Decreased water vapor permeability (WVP) was obtained for films having the increasing proportion of MPI (p<0.05). CG/MPI blend films with higher MPI proportion had lower film solubility and L*-values (lightness) but higher b*-values (yellowness) and ?E*-values (total color difference) (p<0.05). Electrophoretic study revealed that disulfide bond was present in MPI and CG/MPI blend films. However, hydrogen bonds between CG and MPI in the film matrix were dominant, as elucidated from FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, thermal stability of CG/MPI blend film was improved as compared to that of films from respective single proteins. Differential scanning calorimetry result suggested solid-state morphology of CG/MPI (6:4) blend film that consisted of amorphous phase of partially miscible CG/MPI mixture and the coexisting two different order phases of individual CG and MPI domains. Thus, the incorporation of MPI into gelatin film could improve the properties of resulting blend film, which were governed by CG/MPI ratio. PMID:21762722

Hoque, Md Sazedul; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Songtipya, Ponusa

2011-11-01

24

Response of female cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda) to mirrors and conspecifics: evidence for signaling in female cuttlefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish have a large repertoire of body patterns that are used for camouflage and interspecific signaling. Intraspecific\\u000a signaling by male cuttlefish has been well documented but studies on signaling by females are lacking. We found that females\\u000a displayed a newly described body pattern termed Splotch toward their mirror image and female conspecifics, but not to males,\\u000a prey or inanimate objects.

M. E. Palmer; M. Richard Calvé; Shelley A. Adamo

2006-01-01

25

Influence of environmental parameters on the life-history and population dynamics of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the western Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis constitutes an important fishery resource in the Mediterranean, where it is exploited by both the bottom trawl and small-scale fleet. However, there is currently scarce information on the Mediterranean stocks, since most studies on the population dynamics of this species have been undertaken in the northeast Atlantic. In this work we first analysed different aspects of the cuttlefish life-history from the western Mediterranean such as population structure, reproduction and the trade-offs between somatic condition and reproduction investments. Secondly, we investigated the effects of different environmental parameters (e.g. climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) and moon phase) on these populations, analysing several landing time series spanning the last 45 years. Our results revealed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations exhibit strong seasonal variations owing to a reproductive migration towards coastal waters. The positive relationships between somatic and reproductive condition pointed to an income breeder strategy; this was reinforced by the percentage of empty stomachs, which was lowest just before the reproductive period peak. Despite the putative high sensitivity of cephalopod populations to external abiotic factors, our results showed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations were not affected by most of the environmental parameters investigated. Significant effects were found for SST and a local climatic index, but no or very weak influences were evident for other parameters such as large-scale climatic phenomena (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation) or other locally-related variables (e.g. rainfall, Chla). Our results revealed a shift in the cuttlefish population dynamics in the early 1980s, which could be related to important changes in the local hydroclimatology reported by previous authors.

Keller, Stefanie; Valls, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuel; Quetglas, Antoni

2014-05-01

26

Use of Amphipods as alternative prey to culture cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) hatchlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of feeding two alternative live prey (exclusively caprellids (Caprella equilibra) or several species of gammarids, mainly Ericthonius brasiliensis, Jassa marmorata and Elasmopus sp.), to cuttlefish hatchlings were compared to feeding mysids (Mesopodopsis slabberi), which are normally used during the first weeks of the life cycle. Weight (g) and growth rates (GR, % BWd?1) were determined. Cuttlefish hatchlings fed

Elena Baeza-Rojano; Sandra García; Diego Garrido; José M. Guerra-García; Pedro Domingues

2010-01-01

27

Evidence for biased use of sperm sources in wild female giant cuttlefish ( Sepia apama )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In species where females store sperm from their mates prior to fertilization, sperm competition is particularly probable. Female Sepia apama are polyandrous and have access to sperm from packages (spermatangia) deposited by males onto their buccal area during mating and to sperm stored in internal sperm-storage organs (receptacles) located below the beak. Here, we describe the structure of the sperm

Marie-José Naud; Paul W. Shaw; Roger T. Hanlon; Jon N. Havenhand

2005-01-01

28

Using the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) mass breeding aggregation to explore the life cycle of dicyemid parasites.  

PubMed

Dicyemid mesozoan parasites, microscopic organisms found with high intensities in the renal appendages of benthic cephalopods, have a complex, partially unknown life cycle. It is uncertain at which host life cycle stage (i.e. eggs, juvenile, adult) new infection by the dispersive infusoriform embryo occurs. As adult cephalopods have a short lifespan and die shortly after reproducing only once, and juveniles are fast-moving, we hypothesize that the eggs are the life cycle stage where new infection occurs. Eggs are abundant and sessile, allowing a huge number of new individuals to be infected with low energy costs, and they also provide dicyemids with the maximum amount of time for survival compared with infection of juvenile and adult stages. In our study we collected giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) eggs at different stages of development and filtered seawater samples from the S. apama mass breeding aggregation area in South Australia, Australia, and tested these samples for the presence of dicyemid DNA. We did not recover dicyemid parasite cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences from any of the samples, suggesting eggs are not the stage where new infection occurs. To resolve this unknown in the dicyemid life cycle, we believe experimental infection is needed. PMID:24338325

Catalano, Sarah R; Whittington, Ian D; Donnellan, Stephen C; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

2013-12-01

29

Chemical composition and tissue energy density of the cuttlefish (Sepia apama) and its assimilation efficiency by Diomedea albatrosses.  

PubMed

The cuttlefish Sepia apama Gray (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) is a seasonally abundant food resource exploited annually by moulting albatrosses throughout winter and early spring in the coastal waters of New South Wales, Australia. To assess its nutritional value as albatross forage, we analysed S. apama for water, lipid protein, ash contents, energy density and amino acid composition. Because albatrosses consistently consume S. apama parts preferentially in the order of head, viscera and mantle, we analysed these sections separately, but did not identify any nutritional basis for this selective feeding behaviour. The gross energy value of S. apama bodies was 20.9 kJ/g dry mass, but their high water content (>83%; cf <70% for fish) results in a relatively low energy density of 3.53 kJ/g. This may contribute to a need to take large meals, which subsequently degrade flight performance. Protein content was typically >75% dry mass, whereas fat content was only about 1%. Albatrosses feed on many species of cephalopods and teleost fish, and we found the amino acid composition of S. apama to be comparable to a range of species within these taxa. We used S. apama exclusively in feeding trials to estimate the energy assimilation efficiency for Diomedea albatrosses. We estimated their nitrogen-corrected apparent energy assimilation efficiency for consuming this prey to be 81.82 ± 0.72% and nitrogen retention as 2.90 ± 0.11 g N kg(-1) d(-1). Although S. apama has a high water content and relatively low energy density, its protein composition is otherwise comparable to other albatross prey species. Consequently, the large size and seasonal abundance of this prey should ensure that albatrosses remain replete and adequately nourished on this forage while undergoing moult. PMID:20640855

Battam, H; Richardson, M; Watson, A W T; Buttemer, W A

2010-11-01

30

Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases  

PubMed Central

Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4?L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P < 0.05) as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and ?-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

2011-01-01

31

Evidence for biased use of sperm sources in wild female giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama).  

PubMed

In species where females store sperm from their mates prior to fertilization, sperm competition is particularly probable. Female Sepia apama are polyandrous and have access to sperm from packages (spermatangia) deposited by males onto their buccal area during mating and to sperm stored in internal sperm-storage organs (receptacles) located below the beak. Here, we describe the structure of the sperm stores in the female's buccal area, use microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the genetic diversity of stored sperm and combine these data with offspring genotypes to determine the storage location of paternal sperm. The number of male genotypes represented in the sperm receptacles was significantly lower than that found among the spermatangia. Estimation of the volumes of sperm contained in the receptacles and the spermatangia were statistically comparable; however, paternal sperm were more likely to have come from spermatangia than from the sperm receptacles. These results confirm a genetic polyandrous mating system in this species and suggest that fertilization pattern with respect to the sperm stores used is not random. PMID:16024363

Naud, Marie-José; Shaw, Paul W; Hanlon, Roger T; Havenhand, Jon N

2005-05-22

32

Evidence for biased use of sperm sources in wild female giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama)  

PubMed Central

In species where females store sperm from their mates prior to fertilization, sperm competition is particularly probable. Female Sepia apama are polyandrous and have access to sperm from packages (spermatangia) deposited by males onto their buccal area during mating and to sperm stored in internal sperm-storage organs (receptacles) located below the beak. Here, we describe the structure of the sperm stores in the female's buccal area, use microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the genetic diversity of stored sperm and combine these data with offspring genotypes to determine the storage location of paternal sperm. The number of male genotypes represented in the sperm receptacles was significantly lower than that found among the spermatangia. Estimation of the volumes of sperm contained in the receptacles and the spermatangia were statistically comparable; however, paternal sperm were more likely to have come from spermatangia than from the sperm receptacles. These results confirm a genetic polyandrous mating system in this species and suggest that fertilization pattern with respect to the sperm stores used is not random.

Naud, Marie-Jose; Shaw, Paul W; Hanlon, Roger T; Havenhand, Jon N

2005-01-01

33

Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).  

PubMed

This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 ?m×12.2 ?m. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 ?m2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 ?m×12.1 ?m. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 ?m×5.5 ?m. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231

Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

2014-03-01

34

Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we are testing the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the hatchlings weight at the end of development implying egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower pH of incubation seawater of eggs, the more the hatchlings accumulated 110m Ag in their tissues. The 109Cd CF decreased with increasing pH and 65Zn CF reached the maximal values pH 7.85, independent of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and the embryo metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the ocean acidification and ocean warming consequences on the metal uptake in marine organisms, stimulating further interest to evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stage of the cuttlefish.

Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Jeffree, R.; Bustamante, P.

2009-05-01

35

To be seen or to hide: visual characteristics of body patterns for camouflage and communication in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama.  

PubMed

It might seem obvious that a camouflaged animal must generally match its background whereas to be conspicuous an organism must differ from the background. However, the image parameters (or statistics) that evaluate the conspicuousness of patterns and textures are seldom well defined, and animal coloration patterns are rarely compared quantitatively with their respective backgrounds. Here we examine this issue in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama. We confine our analysis to the best-known and simplest image statistic, the correlation in intensity between neighboring pixels. Sepia apama can rapidly change their body patterns from assumed conspicuous signaling to assumed camouflage, thus providing an excellent and unique opportunity to investigate how such patterns differ in a single visual habitat. We describe the intensity variance and spatial frequency power spectra of these differing body patterns and compare these patterns with the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The measured image statistics of camouflaged animals closely resemble their backgrounds, while signaling animals differ significantly from their backgrounds. Our findings may provide the basis for a set of general rules for crypsis and signals. Furthermore, our methods may be widely applicable to the quantitative study of animal coloration. PMID:21508613

Zylinski, S; How, M J; Osorio, D; Hanlon, R T; Marshall, N J

2011-05-01

36

Evidence for multiple year classes of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant Australian cuttlefish form a mass spawning aggregation at a single site in northern Spencer Gulf (NSG) in South Australia\\u000a every austral winter. Samples of cuttlefish were collected from this region over three consecutive years. Analysis of regular\\u000a growth increments in the cuttlebones of these individuals, revealed a polymorphism in growth pattern for both sexes. Three\\u000a distinct “bone patterns” were

Karina C. Hall; Anthony J. Fowler; Michael C. Geddes

2007-01-01

37

Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2; pH 8.1 (pCO2, 400 ppm), 7.85 (900 ppm) and 7.6 (1400 ppm) at 16 and 19°C, respectively) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the weight of hatchlings at the end of development implying an egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower the seawater pH, the more 110 mAg was accumulated in the tissues of hatchlings. The 109Cd concentration factor (CF) decreased with decreasing pH and 65Zn CF reached maximal values pH 7.85, independently of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and embryonic metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the consequences of ocean acidification and ocean warming on metal uptake in marine organisms, and our results indicate the need to further evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish.

Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Ross, J.; Bustamante, P.

2009-11-01

38

Behavioural and genetic assessment of reproductive success in a spawning aggregation of the Australian giant cuttlefish, Sepia apama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only known spawning aggregation of cuttlefish occurs in winter in southern Australia. The operational sex ratio in this aggregation is highly skewed towards males (range 11:1 to 4:1). Using SCUBA, we videotaped females as they mated with up to six males\\/h. Females rejected and accepted mates of any status or size. We obtained individual eggs and tissue samples from

Marie-José Naud; Roger T. Hanlon; Karina C. Hall; Paul W. Shaw; Jonathan N. Havenhand

2004-01-01

39

Visual interpolation for contour completion by the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and its use in dynamic camouflage  

PubMed Central

Cuttlefish rapidly change their appearance in order to camouflage on a given background in response to visual parameters, giving us access to their visual perception. Recently, it was shown that isolated edge information is sufficient to elicit a body pattern very similar to that used when a whole object is present. Here, we examined contour completion in cuttlefish by assaying body pattern responses to artificial backgrounds of ‘objects’ formed from fragmented circles, these same fragments rotated on their axis, and with the fragments scattered over the background, as well as positive (full circles) and negative (homogenous background) controls. The animals displayed similar responses to the full and fragmented circles, but used a different body pattern in response to the rotated and scattered fragments. This suggests that they completed the broken circles and recognized them as whole objects, whereas rotated and scattered fragments were instead interpreted as small, individual objects in their own right. We discuss our findings in the context of achieving accurate camouflage in the benthic shallow-water environment.

Zylinski, Sarah; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Shashar, Nadav

2012-01-01

40

Electrophoretic and immunochemical study of collagens from Sepia officinalis cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic and Western blot studies were conducted on collagen fractions extracted from Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish) cartilage using a modified salt precipitation method developed for the isolation of vertebrate collagens. The antibodies used had been raised in rabbit against the following types of collagen: Sepia I-like; fish I; human I; chicken I, II, and IX; rat V; and calf IX and

C Rigo; D. J Hartmann; A Bairati

2002-01-01

41

Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.  

PubMed

Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light. PMID:21075936

Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

2010-12-01

42

Adaptable night camouflage by cuttlefish.  

PubMed

Cephalopods are well known for their diverse, quick-changing camouflage in a wide range of shallow habitats worldwide. However, there is no documentation that cephalopods use their diverse camouflage repertoire at night. We used a remotely operated vehicle equipped with a video camera and a red light to conduct 16 transects on the communal spawning grounds of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama situated on a temperate rock reef in southern Australia. Cuttlefish ceased sexual signaling and reproductive behavior at dusk and then settled to the bottom and quickly adapted their body patterns to produce camouflage that was tailored to different backgrounds. During the day, only 3% of cuttlefish were camouflaged on the spawning ground, but at night 86% (71 of 83 cuttlefish) were camouflaged in variations of three body pattern types: uniform (n=5), mottled (n=33), or disruptive (n=34) coloration. The implication is that nocturnal visual predators provide the selective pressure for rapid, changeable camouflage patterning tuned to different visual backgrounds at night. PMID:17427123

Hanlon, Roger T; Naud, Marie-José; Forsythe, John W; Hall, Karina; Watson, Anya C; McKechnie, Joy

2007-04-01

43

Identifying the structure in cuttlefish visual signals.  

PubMed Central

The common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) communicates and camouflages itself by changing its skin colour and texture. Hanlon and Messenger (1988 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 320, 437-487) classified these visual displays, recognizing 13 distinct body patterns. Although this conclusion is based on extensive observations, a quantitative method for analysing complex patterning has obvious advantages. We formally define a body pattern in terms of the probabilities that various skin features are expressed, and use Bayesian statistical methods to estimate the number of distinct body patterns and their visual characteristics. For the dataset of cuttlefish coloration patterns recorded in our laboratory, this statistical method identifies 12-14 different patterns, a number consistent with the 13 found by Hanlon and Messenger. If used for signalling these would give a channel capacity of 3.4 bits per pattern. Bayesian generative models might be useful for objectively describing the structure in other complex biological signalling systems.

Crook, Anne C; Baddeley, Roland; Osorio, Daniel

2002-01-01

44

Defensive responses of cuttlefish to different teleost predators.  

PubMed

We evaluated cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) responses to three teleost predators: bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), and black seabass (Centropristis striata). We hypothesized that the distinct body shapes, swimming behaviors, and predation tactics exhibited by the three fishes would elicit markedly different antipredator responses by cuttlefish. Over the course of 25 predator-prey behavioral trials, 3 primary and 15 secondary defense behaviors of cuttlefish were shown to predators. In contrast, secondary defenses were not shown during control trials in which predators were absent. With seabass-a benthic, sit-and-pursue predator-cuttlefish used flight and spent more time swimming in the water column than with other predators. With bluefish-an active, pelagic searching predator-cuttlefish remained closely associated with the substrate and relied more on cryptic behaviors. Startle (deimatic) displays were the most frequent secondary defense shown to seabass and bluefish, particularly the Dark eye ring and Deimatic spot displays. We were unable to evaluate secondary defenses by cuttlefish to flounder-a lie-and-wait predator-because flounder did not pursue cuttlefish or make attacks. Nonetheless, cuttlefish used primary defense during flounder trials, alternating between cryptic still and moving behaviors. Overall, our results suggest that cuttlefish may vary their behavior in the presence of different teleost predators: cryptic behaviors may be more important in the presence of active searching predators (e.g., bluefish), while conspicuous movements such as swimming in the water column and startle displays may be more prevalent with relatively sedentary, bottom-associated predators (e.g., seabass). PMID:24445442

Staudinger, Michelle D; Buresch, Kendra C; Mäthger, Lydia M; Fry, Charlie; McAnulty, Sarah; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Hanlon, Roger T

2013-12-01

45

Cuttlefish use visual cues to determine arm postures for camouflage  

PubMed Central

To achieve effective visual camouflage, prey organisms must combine cryptic coloration with the appropriate posture and behaviour to render them difficult to be detected or recognized. Body patterning has been studied in various taxa, yet body postures and their implementation on different backgrounds have seldom been studied experimentally. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), masters of rapid adaptive camouflage, use visual cues from adjacent visual stimuli to control arm postures. Cuttlefish were presented with a square wave stimulus (period = 0.47 cm; black and white stripes) that was angled 0°, 45° or 90° relative to the animals' horizontal body axis. Cuttlefish positioned their arms parallel, obliquely or transversely to their body axis according to the orientation of the stripes. These experimental results corroborate our field observations of cuttlefish camouflage behaviour in which flexible, precise arm posture is often tailored to match nearby objects. By relating the cuttlefishes' visual perception of backgrounds to their versatile postural behaviour, our results highlight yet another of the many flexible and adaptive anti-predator tactics adopted by cephalopods.

Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J.; Mathger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.

2012-01-01

46

Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration of multiple visual cues  

PubMed Central

Prey camouflage is an evolutionary response to predation pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camouflage capabilities and studying them can offer insight into effective camouflage design. Here, we examine whether cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, show substrate or camouflage pattern preferences. In the first two experiments, cuttlefish were presented with a choice between different artificial substrates or between different natural substrates. First, the ability of cuttlefish to show substrate preference on artificial and natural substrates was established. Next, cuttlefish were offered substrates known to evoke three main camouflage body pattern types these animals show: Uniform or Mottle (function by background matching); or Disruptive. In a third experiment, cuttlefish were presented with conflicting visual cues on their left and right sides to assess their camouflage response. Given a choice between substrates they might encounter in nature, we found no strong substrate preference except when cuttlefish could bury themselves. Additionally, cuttlefish responded to conflicting visual cues with mixed body patterns in both the substrate preference and split substrate experiments. These results suggest that differences in energy costs for different camouflage body patterns may be minor and that pattern mixing and symmetry may play important roles in camouflage.

Allen, Justine J.; Mathger, Lydia M.; Barbosa, Alexandra; Buresch, Kendra C.; Sogin, Emilia; Schwartz, Jillian; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T.

2010-01-01

47

Preparing the Perfect Cuttlefish Meal: Complex Prey Handling by Dolphins  

PubMed Central

Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site.

Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

2009-01-01

48

Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.  

PubMed

Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

2009-01-01

49

Electrophoretic and immunochemical study of collagens from Sepia officinalis cartilage.  

PubMed

Electrophoretic and Western blot studies were conducted on collagen fractions extracted from Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish) cartilage using a modified salt precipitation method developed for the isolation of vertebrate collagens. The antibodies used had been raised in rabbit against the following types of collagen: Sepia I-like; fish I; human I; chicken I, II, and IX; rat V; and calf IX and XI. The main finding was that various types of collagen are present in Sepia cartilage, as they are in vertebrate hyaline cartilage. However, the main component of Sepia cartilage is a heterochain collagen similar to vertebrate type I, and this is associated with minor forms similar to type V/XI and type IX. The cephalopod type I-like heterochain collagen can be considered a first step toward the evolutionary development of a collagen analogous to the typical collagen of vertebrate cartilage (type II homochain). The type V/XI collagen present in molluscs, and indeed all phyla from the Porifera upwards, may represent an ancestral collagen molecule conserved relatively unchanged throughout evolution. Type IX-like collagen seems to be essential for the formation of cartilaginous tissue. PMID:12204335

Rigo, C; Hartmann, D J; Bairati, A

2002-08-15

50

Cuttlefish camouflage: context-dependent body pattern use during motion  

PubMed Central

It is virtually impossible to camouflage a moving target against a non-uniform background, but strategies have been proposed to reduce detection and targeting of movement. Best known is the idea that high contrast markings produce ‘motion dazzle’, which impairs judgement of speed and trajectory. The ability of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis to change its visual appearance allows us to compare the animal's choice of patterns during movement to the predictions of models of motion camouflage. We compare cuttlefish body patterns used during movement with those expressed when static on two background types; one of which promotes low-contrast mottle patterns and the other promotes high-contrast disruptive patterns. We find that the body pattern used during motion is context-specific and that high-contrast body pattern components are significantly reduced during movement. Thus, in our experimental conditions, cuttlefish do not use high contrast motion dazzle. It may be that, in addition to being inherently conspicuous during movement, moving high-contrast patterns will attract attention because moving particles in coastal waters tend to be of small size and of low relative contrast.

Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A. J.

2009-01-01

51

Cuttlefish camouflage: context-dependent body pattern use during motion.  

PubMed

It is virtually impossible to camouflage a moving target against a non-uniform background, but strategies have been proposed to reduce detection and targeting of movement. Best known is the idea that high contrast markings produce 'motion dazzle', which impairs judgement of speed and trajectory. The ability of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis to change its visual appearance allows us to compare the animal's choice of patterns during movement to the predictions of models of motion camouflage. We compare cuttlefish body patterns used during movement with those expressed when static on two background types; one of which promotes low-contrast mottle patterns and the other promotes high-contrast disruptive patterns. We find that the body pattern used during motion is context-specific and that high-contrast body pattern components are significantly reduced during movement. Thus, in our experimental conditions, cuttlefish do not use high contrast motion dazzle. It may be that, in addition to being inherently conspicuous during movement, moving high-contrast patterns will attract attention because moving particles in coastal waters tend to be of small size and of low relative contrast. PMID:19692411

Zylinski, S; Osorio, D; Shohet, A J

2009-11-22

52

Fertilization in Sepia officinalis: the first mollusk sperm-attracting peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg mass extract was used to characterize regulatory peptides, involved in the successive steps of egg-laying of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Among these peptides, a C-terminally amidated hexapeptide revealed a sperm-attracting activity. MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) and Edman degradation led to a peptide of m\\/z 596.6 and the following primary sequence: Pro–Ile–Asp–Pro–Gly–Val–CONH2. From concentrations

Céline Zatylny; Laure Marvin; Jean Gagnon; Joël Henry

2002-01-01

53

A Review of Cuttlefish Basket Trap Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

While cuttlefish basket trap fishery is a traditional fishing activity with a long history, there has never been an article which comprehensively assesses this type of fishery. The present review compiles existing knowledge on cuttlefish trap fishery and the findings of interviews conducted with fishermen by the authors. It mainly covers such issues as the history of cuttlefish trap fishery,

Naohiko WATANUKI; Gunzo KAWAMURA

1999-01-01

54

A Calcium-Dependent Nitric Oxide Synthase and NMDA R1 Glutamate Receptor in the Ink Gland of Sepia officinalis:A Hint to a Regulatory Role of Nitric Oxide in Melanogenesis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and biochemical evidence is reported showing that the ink gland of the cuttlefishSepia officinaliscontains a calcium-dependent isoform of nitric oxide synthase as well as an NMDA R1 receptor subunit localized for the most part in the immature inner cells of the epithelial layer of the gland. These results may be taken to implicate a hitherto unrecognized regulatory role

Anna Palumbo; Anna Di Cosmo; Ida Gesualdo; Marco d'ischia

1997-01-01

55

Comparative morphology of changeable skin papillae in octopus and cuttlefish.  

PubMed

A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae. Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. officinalis small dorsal papillae, Octopus vulgaris small dorsal and ventral eye papillae, Macrotritopus defilippi dorsal eye papillae, Abdopus aculeatus major mantle papillae, O. bimaculoides arm, minor mantle, and dorsal eye papillae, and S. apama face ridge papillae. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla's perimeter toward its core and determine shape. A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla's apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. S. apama face ridge papillae are different: the contraction of erector muscles perpendicular to the ridge causes overlying tissues to buckle. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support. These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies. Future research on papilla morphology, biomechanics and neural control in the many unexamined species of octopus and cuttlefish may uncover new principles of actuation in soft, flexible tissue. PMID:24741712

Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Velankar, Sachin S; Hanlon, Roger T

2014-04-01

56

Female impersonation as an alternative reproductive strategy in giant cuttlefish  

PubMed Central

Out of all the animals, cephalopods possess an unrivalled ability to change their shape and body patterns. Our observations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) suggest this ability has allowed them to evolve alternative mating strategies in which males can switch between the appearance of a female and that of a male in order to foil the guarding attempts of larger males. At a mass breeding aggregation in South Australia, we repeatedly observed single small males accompanying mating pairs. While doing so, the small male assumed the body shape and patterns of a female. Such males were never attacked by the larger mate-guarding male. On more than 20 occasions, when the larger male was distracted by another male intruder, these small males, previously indistinguishable from a female, were observed to change body pattern and behaviour to that of a male in mating display. These small males then attempted to mate with the female, often with success. This potential for dynamic sexual mimicry may have played a part in driving the evolution of the remarkable powers of colour and shape transformation which characterize the cephalopods.

Norman, M. D.; Finn, J.; Tregenza, T.

1999-01-01

57

MORPHOMETRICS OF HARD STRUCTURES IN CUTTLEFISH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefishes exhibit several hard structures that have been charac- terised using morphometric analysis. Most of these data come from cuttlebones, al- though statoliths and beaks are also used. It appears that morphometric techniques are mainly used for taxonomic purposes. However, some analyses have emphasised functional morphology and macroevolution. Morphological features (including the inner shell) of cuttlefishes and their availability for

P. NEIGE

2006-01-01

58

SEPIA: A Cooperative Hypermedia Authoring Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report about the design, development, and implementation of the SEPIA cooperative hyper- media authoring environment. It provides results on the following aspects of SEPIA: persistent and shared data storage, hypermedia data model with composites, so- phisticated and comprehensive authoring functionality, support for a new rhetoric and for cooperative work. We start by identifying the challenge of

Norbert A. Streitz; Jörg M. Haake; Jörg Hannemann; Andreas C. Lemke; Wolfgang Schuler; Helge Schtitt; Manfred Thüring

1992-01-01

59

SEPIA: A Cooperative Hypermedia Authoring Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper, we report about the design, development, and implementation,of the SEPIA cooperative hypermedia authoring environment. It provides results on the following aspects of SEPIA: persistent and shared data storage, hypermedia data model with composites, sophisticated and comprehensive authoring functionality, support for a new rhetoric and for cooperative work. We start by identifying the challenge of hypermedia,authoring and

N. A. Streitz; J. M. Haake; J. Hannemann; A. C. Lemke; W. Schuler

1989-01-01

60

Time-dependent effects of cycloheximide on long-term memory in the cuttlefish.  

PubMed

When shown prawns in a glass tube, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their predatory behavior and retain this ability for a long time. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of this long-term memory (LTM) are not yet known. In this study, we analyzed the dependency of LTM on de novo brain protein synthesis. Cycloheximide (CXM), a protein synthesis inhibitor, is injected intravenously immediately, 1 h, 3 h, 4 h or 6 h after the training. Retention is tested 24 h posttraining. The injections of CXM revealed one period of memory sensitivity to pharmacological intervention. CXM administered immediately or 6 h after training has no effect on LTM. Conversely, injections given between 1 and 4 h posttraining resulted in amnesia. Taken together, findings of this study establish for the first time in Sepia officinalis that de novo protein synthesis is an essential and time-dependent event for LTM formation of this form of associative learning. PMID:12759122

Agin, Véronique; Chichery, Raymond; Maubert, Eric; Chichery, Marie Paule

2003-04-01

61

New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

2013-01-01

62

Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis. PMID:18722358

Graindorge, Nicolas; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

2008-10-31

63

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos.

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Lena; Bouteau, Francois

2013-01-01

64

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

2013-11-01

65

Sperm motility and longevity in the giant cuttlefish, Sepia apama (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sperm kinetics and fertilisation literature in marine invertebrates is heavily biased toward free-spawning species. Nonetheless,\\u000a many species (e.g. cephalopods) transfer and\\/or fertilise gametes in confined external spaces or internally, creating very\\u000a different selective pressures on sperm storage, sperm longevity and hence sperm competition. Here we report the results of\\u000a an investigation into the effects of sperm age, water temperature

Marie-José Naud; Jonathan N. Havenhand

2006-01-01

66

Lower hypoxia thresholds of cuttlefish early life stages living in a warm acidified ocean.  

PubMed

The combined effects of future ocean acidification and global warming on the hypoxia thresholds of marine biota are, to date, poorly known. Here, we show that the future warming and acidification scenario led to shorter embryonic periods, lower survival rates and the enhancement of premature hatching in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Routine metabolic rates increased during the embryonic period, but environmental hypercapnia significantly depressed pre-hatchling's energy expenditures rates (independently of temperature). During embryogenesis, there was also a significant rise in the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the perivitelline fluid (PVF), bicarbonate levels, as well as a drop in pH and oxygen partial pressure (pO?). The critical partial pressure (i.e. hypoxic threshold) of the pre-hatchlings was significantly higher than the PVF oxygen partial pressure at the warmer and hypercapnic condition. Thus, the record of oxygen tensions below critical pO? in such climate scenario indicates that the already harsh conditions inside the egg capsules are expected to be magnified in the years to come, especially in populations at the border of their thermal envelope. Such a scenario promotes untimely hatching and smaller post-hatching body sizes, thus challenging the survival and fitness of early life stages. PMID:23926158

Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Repolho, Tiago; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Baptista, Miguel; Lopes, Vanessa M; Dionísio, Gisela; Leal, Miguel Costa; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O

2013-10-01

67

Similarity between the major collagens of cuttlefish cranial cartilage and cornea.  

PubMed

Invertebrates possess unique collagen-containing connective tissue elements, the biochemistry of which is not clearly understood. We previously reported the occurrence of a novel heterotrimeric type V/XI like collagen in the cranial cartilage of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. We report here the purification of the three chains by ion exchange chromatography and the physicochemical characteristics of this collagen. This collagen shared substantial similarity to the collagen purified from the cornea of S. officinalis, with respect to chain composition, cyanogen bromide peptide profile and amino acid composition. The mobility of the C3 chain was retarded in the corneal collagen, which also had an increased glycine content and a smaller ratio of hydroxylysine to lysine, together with a reduction in bound carbohydrates. The cartilage collagen had a higher denaturation temperature than corneal collagen. As observed by transmission electron microscopy of reconstituted fibrils, the heterotrimeric invertebrate collagen formed fibrils of no apparent periodicities as opposed to the regular 64-nm banding pattern of milk shark (Rhizoprionodon acutus) cartilage collagen. This is also the first report on the molecular species of collagen in an invertebrate cornea. Our results strongly support the functioning of minor vertebrate collagens as major collagens in some invertebrates, close similarity of collagens in two tissues with different functions and would hold significance to our understanding of collagen polymorphism and the evolution of the extracellular matrix. PMID:12524045

Sivakumar, Pitchumani; Suguna, Lonchin; Chandrakasan, Gowri

2003-01-01

68

16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Interior details - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

69

15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Elevations - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

70

14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (Original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) First and second floor plans - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

71

Characterization of metal removal by os sepiae of Sepiella maindroni Rochebrune from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

To develop low cost metal adsorbents with less secondary pollution, metal adsorption from the aqueous solutions by the raw os sepiae (ROS) and alkali (NaOH)-pretreated OS (APOS) of the cuttlefish (Sepiella maindroni Rochebrune) was characterized. The capacities of adsorption of ROS and APOS were estimated to be 299.26 mg Cu g(-1) and 299.58 mg Cu g(-1), respectively. Metal adsorption by OS was significantly improved by appropriately increasing initial pH in the solution but hardly affected by temperature change within a wide range of 15-45 degrees C. Cu adsorption of both ROS and APOS was well described neither by Langmuir model nor by Freundlich model. Metal adsorption by OS fell in the order of Fe > Cu approximately = Cd > Zn in the solution with mixed metals, but followed the sequence of Cd > Cu > Fe approximately = Zn in the solutions respectively, with a single metal of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn. The changes in Ca amounts in OS and solutions in adsorption strongly correlated with removal efficiencies of the metals. Obvious shifts of stretching bands of numbers of groups in OS after and before adsorption and the pretreatment occurred. It was concluded: (1) that metal adsorption by OS involves ion exchange, which occurred mainly between Ca rather than K and Na that OS itself contains and metals that were added in the solution, (2) that metal adsorption-promoting effects by NaOH pretreatment likely involve deprotonation of surface groups in OS, exposure of more functional groups, and increase in specific surface areas and (3) that related mechanisms for adsorption also likely include surface complexation, electrostatic adsorption and even micro-deposition. The results also indicated that OS is a very promising absorbent for metal removal from electroplating wastewater. PMID:20347221

Li, You-Zhi; Pan, Hong; Xu, Jian; Fan, Xian-Wei; Song, Xian-Chong; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Jin; Liu, Yang

2010-07-15

72

Sensory evoked potentials in unanesthetized unrestrained cuttlefish: a new preparation for brain physiology in cephalopods.  

PubMed

Up to five microelectrodes inserted through short hypodermic needles in the cranial cartilage of Sepia officinalis recorded potentials while the cuttlefish moved freely in a small enclosure. Compound field potentials and unit spikes were seen during ongoing, spontaneous activity and after sensory stimulation. Ongoing activity resembles that reported for octopus, with maximum power usually below 20 Hz. Amplitude varies greatly but has not been seen to shut off or turn on abruptly and globally as in octopus. Evoked potentials, focally large after flashes of light consist of several waves; the first is largest, positive and peaks at ca. 35 ms (called P35), followed by ca. P75, P95, N110 and smaller waves or oscillations lasting more than 0.5 s. The Upper Following Frequency (highest flashing rate the potentials can follow 1:1), without averaging, is greater than 15 flashes/s (20-22 degrees C); at 20/s the 1:1 following lasts for 1 or 2 s. The Lower Fusion Frequency of averaged responses is less than 30/s. Gentle tapping of the tank wall evokes local, brief, fast potentials. No responses have been found to loud air-borne clicks and tone bursts with principal energy at 300 Hz or to electric fields in the bath at 50-100 microV/cm. In a few loci relatively large slow Omitted Stimulus Potentials have been seen following the end of a train of flashes at more than 5/s; these are by definition event related potentials and a special, central form of OFF response. PMID:2033566

Bullock, T H; Budelmann, B U

1991-01-01

73

Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.  

PubMed

Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ?24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3004-3019, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24549606

Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

2014-09-01

74

Relations between total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in five tissues of Sepia officinalis captured in the south Portuguese coast.  

PubMed

Mercury, methylmercury and selenium were determined in digestive gland, branchial hearts, mantle, kidney and gills of Sepia officinalis from two areas of the south Portuguese coast. To the best of our knowledge these are the first data on Hg, MeHg and Se in branchial hearts, kidney and gills of cuttlefish. Digestive gland, branchial hearts and kidney presented higher levels of Hg and Se than mantle and gills. Methylmercury was significantly higher in digestive gland, branchial hearts and mantle. The enhanced levels of Hg in digestive gland and branchial heart reinforce the elevated storage capacity of these two tissues. The percentage of MeHg varied from 6.1% in gills to 92% in mantle. Linear and positive MeHg-Hg relations were obtained for the five tissues, being the better relation and higher slope observed for mantle, followed by branchial hearts, digestive gland, kidney and gills. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed a surplus of Se in all tissues. Calculations based on the equimolarity of Se:Hg point that 95-99% of Se are not linked to Hg (Se free). The negligible quantity of Se associated with Hg suggests that the mechanism of MeHg demethylation was not triggered in none of the tissues, presumably because the threshold for MeHg toxicity was not achieved. PMID:24582035

Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos; Canário, João; Gaspar, Miguel

2014-08-01

75

Integration of sediment contamination with multi-biomarker responses in a novel potential bioindicator (Sepia officinalis) for risk assessment in impacted estuaries.  

PubMed

For the purpose of biomonitoring, species that combine ecological and commercial importance may provide a link between ecological and human health risk. The common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, holds both characteristics in south-western Europe, albeit remaining unsurveyed in ecotoxicological studies. Cuttlefish collected from an impacted estuary in SW Portugal and a reference location off the coast were analysed for a battery of biomarker responses in the digestive gland and gills. The contrast to reference animals revealed that biomarker responses, especially those related to oxidative stress, were consistent with sediment contamination by PAHs, even in a situation that combines complex toxicant mixtures, moderate levels of contamination and high ecotoxicological diversity. However, environmental parameters related to the differences between shore and estuarine habitats should not be overruled. Also, digestive gland metallothionein retained significant specificity to metals even though previous studies in the area with clams and fish failed to trigger a conclusive response. The highest net differences in biomarker responses were detected in the gills, likely indicating higher sensitivity to environmental stressors. Still, the digestive gland responses were overall the most consistent with sediment contamination and effectively differentiated between estuarine industrial- and rural-impacted sites. The results indicate that S. officinalis may be a candidate to meet the European Union's requirements for efficient biomonitoring programmes, with the additional importance of being cosmopolitan, abundant, commercially valuable and combining the molluscan biology that has been granting bivalves their high value for biomonitoring with foraging behaviour, thus better able to reflect anthropogenic stressors impacting a wider area than sedentary organisms. Nevertheless, further investigations in unpolluted sites are needed to better evaluate the background levels of biomarker responses in the species. PMID:24142132

Rodrigo, A P; Costa, P M; Costa, M H; Caeiro, S

2013-12-01

76

How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning.  

PubMed

Rapid adaptive camouflage is the primary defense of soft-bodied cuttlefish. Previous studies have shown that cuttlefish body patterns are strongly influenced by visual edges in the substrate. The aim of the present study was to examine how cuttlefish body patterning is differentially controlled by various aspects of edges, including contrast polarity, contrast strength, and the presence or absence of "line terminators" introduced into a pattern when continuous edges are fragmented. Spatially high- and low-pass filtered white or black disks, as well as isolated, continuous and fragmented edges varying in contrast, were used to assess activation of cuttlefish skin components. Although disks of both contrast polarities evoked relatively weak disruptive body patterns, black disks activated different skin components than white disks, and high-frequency information alone sufficed to drive the responses to white disks whereas high- and low-frequency information were both required to drive responses to black disks. Strikingly, high-contrast edge fragments evoked substantially stronger body pattern responses than low-contrast edge fragments, whereas the body pattern responses evoked by high-contrast continuous edges were no stronger than those produced by low-contrast edges. This suggests that line terminators vs. continuous edges influence expression of disruptive body pattern components via different mechanisms that are controlled by contrast in different ways. PMID:23499977

Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Siemann, Liese A; Buresch, Kendra C; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

2013-05-01

77

Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish  

PubMed Central

Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization.

Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hebert, Marie

2013-01-01

78

Female impersonation as an alternative reproductive strategy in giant cuttlefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of all the animals, the cephalopods possess an unrivalled ability to change their shape and body patterns. Our observations of giant cuttle¢sh (Sepia apama) suggest this ability has allowed them to evolve alternative mating strategies in which males can switch between the appearance of a female and that of a male in order to foil the guarding attempts of

Mark D. Norman; Julian Finn; Tom Tregenza

1999-01-01

79

Glycogenic effect of an alkali soluble fraction from sepia shell.  

PubMed

The alkali soluble fraction of the sepia shell possesses both anticonvulsant and hypoglycemic effect. The investigation regarding the fate of the blood sugar during the hypoglycemia revealed that the sepia shell extract acts as a glycogenic agent by mobilising the blood sugar towards liver glycogen reserve through the modulation of the enzymes glycogen phosphorylase a and ab in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. The glucose tolerance test (GTT) showed a depression in the GTT curve in experimental mice. The available literature on the biochemistry of the shell reveals that it contains glucosamines and some amino acid residues. The presence of amine group may resemble the sulfonylureas like tolbutamide which also possesses both anticonvulsant and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:7818587

Reddy, T N; Reddy, C P; Srinivas, V; Divan, P V; Reddy, P U

1994-10-01

80

Changeable cuttlefish camouflage is influenced by horizontal and vertical aspects of the visual background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish change their appearance rapidly for camouflage on different backgrounds. Effective camouflage for a benthic organism\\u000a such as cuttlefish must deceive predators viewing from above as well as from the side, thus the choice of camouflage skin\\u000a pattern is expected to account for horizontal and vertical background information. Previous experiments dealt only with the\\u000a former, and here we explore some

Alexandra Barbosa; Leonild Litman; Roger T. Hanlon

2008-01-01

81

Cellular attachment and osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on natural cuttlefish bone  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe an approach that aims to provide fundamental information for the application of natural cuttlefish bone. Before applying cuttlefish bone as a bone defect filling material, we evaluated proliferation, adhesion, and cell viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on cuttlefish bone. Cuttlefish bone was separated into two parts (dorsal shield and lamellar region) and each part was used. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using the MTS assay and live/dead fluorescence staining method. The morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). hMSCs were stimulated with osteogenic medium and osteoblast differentiation was evaluated. The fluorescence images showed that the seeded cells grew well and that cell distribution was in accordance with the surface morphology of the cuttlefish bone. Compared with the dorsal shield, cells penetrated deeper into the three-dimensional inner space of the lamellar part. Furthermore, under osteogenic differentiation conditions, alkaline phosphatase activity increased and the mRNA expression of ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, and collagen type I ?1 was increased in hMSCs cultured on both the dorsal shield and lamellar block. These results indicate the potential of cuttlefish bone as an ideal scaffold for bone regenerative materials. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012.

Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Sung, Hark-Mo; You, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Jun

2012-01-01

82

Cellular attachment and osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on natural cuttlefish bone.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe an approach that aims to provide fundamental information for the application of natural cuttlefish bone. Before applying cuttlefish bone as a bone defect filling material, we evaluated proliferation, adhesion, and cell viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on cuttlefish bone. Cuttlefish bone was separated into two parts (dorsal shield and lamellar region) and each part was used. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using the MTS assay and live/dead fluorescence staining method. The morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). hMSCs were stimulated with osteogenic medium and osteoblast differentiation was evaluated. The fluorescence images showed that the seeded cells grew well and that cell distribution was in accordance with the surface morphology of the cuttlefish bone. Compared with the dorsal shield, cells penetrated deeper into the three-dimensional inner space of the lamellar part. Furthermore, under osteogenic differentiation conditions, alkaline phosphatase activity increased and the mRNA expression of ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, and collagen type I ?1 was increased in hMSCs cultured on both the dorsal shield and lamellar block. These results indicate the potential of cuttlefish bone as an ideal scaffold for bone regenerative materials. PMID:22447716

Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Sung, Hark-Mo; You, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Jun

2012-07-01

83

Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators  

PubMed Central

Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision.

Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J. Kenneth; Allen, Justine J.; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T.

2011-01-01

84

The Golden Ratio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

Hyde, Hartley

2004-01-01

85

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Plasma Levels and Environmental Illumination in the Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: A Role for the Neurosecretory System of the Vena Cava in Cephalopods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A melanotropin-like peptide (?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or ?-MSH) is suggested to be released into the circulatory system of cephalopods via the neurosecretory system of the vena cava or NSV, where neurosecretory vesicles contained within the axons of the NSV-neuropil on the inner surface of the vena cava lie in close contact with the venous circulation. Radioimmunoassay of blood plasma samples taken

Christopher S. Cobb; Juriaan R. Metz; Gert Flik; Roddy Williamson

2002-01-01

86

[Coagulation-flocculation performances for cuttlefish effluents treatment].  

PubMed

Coagulation-flocculation of the colloids particles present in the cuttlefish effluents was investigated using a coagulation step with aluminium sulphate (SA), followed by a flocculation step with starch, SiO2 or MgO and then poly dimethyl ammonium chloride (PDMAC), in order to reduce the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Kinetic aspects, adsorption equilibrium, pH and conductivity were studied in order to determine the optimum coagulation conditions and SA quantities. The addition of organic polymer as a flocculant agent gave a better performance than the use of salt alone with a reduction of 50% of the SA consumption. Polymer molecular weight of PDMAC and charge density of starch have been also investigated. The best result, which is 90% of removal rate in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a turbidity value of 7 NTU was obtained with the combination using 165.5 mg l(-1) of aluminium sulphate, 750 mg l(-1) of MgO and 35 mg l(-1) of PDMAC 400000. PMID:14733389

Ellouze, E; Amar, R B; Boufi, S; Salah, A B

2003-11-01

87

Golden Hadamard Transform Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here is introducing a new transform known as the Golden Hadamard Transform whose kernel contains just the Golden Mean. An analytical comparison is made with the Walsh-Hadamard Transform to use in various applications such as coding, error correction codes etc.

Sos Agaian; Hakob Sarukhanyan; Jaakko Astola

88

The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, "students learn about ratios, including the 'Golden Ratio', a ratio of length to width that can be found in art, architecture, and nature. Students examine different ratios to determine whether the Golden Ratio can be found in the human body." (from NCTM's Illuminations) This is lesson 3 in a 7-lesson unit called "Measuring Up"

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-02-18

89

The Golden Section.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work through proofs are…

Runion, Garth E.

90

Time-dependent effects of cycloheximide on long-term memory in the cuttlefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

When shown prawns in a glass tube, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their predatory behavior and retain this ability for a long time. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of this long-term memory (LTM) are not yet known. In this study, we analyzed the dependency of LTM on de novo brain protein synthesis. Cycloheximide (CXM), a protein synthesis inhibitor, is injected

Véronique Agin; Raymond Chichery; Eric Maubert; Marie-Paule Chichery

2003-01-01

91

The English Channel stock of Sepia officinalis: Modelling variability in abundance and impact of the fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The English Channel cuttlefish fishery provides one of the highest cephalopod yields in the north-east Atlantic, with catches by many interacting fishing gears. The aim of this study is to show that population modelling can be developed for this stock and that model estimates are useful to address practical issues such as diagnostics of fishing pressure and interactions between fishing

J. Royer; G. J. Pierce; E. Foucher; J. P. Robin

2006-01-01

92

Changes in cholinergic enzyme activities in the cuttlefish brain during memory formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cephalopods are promising invertebrate models to investigate the neurobiology of learning and memory due to their advanced behavioral abilities. In the present study, acetylcholine synthesis and catabolism were studied in various central nervous system (CNS) regions of cuttlefish subjected to associative learning procedures with different retention delays, with the aim of characterizing the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmission in learning and

Cécile Bellanger; François Dauphin; Marie-Paule Chichery; Raymond Chichery

2003-01-01

93

Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopic Study of Size-Controlled Ink Particles Isolated from Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paramagnetic properties of size-controlled ink particles isolated from the ink sacs of Sepia officinalis were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Both the size-controlled ink particles and synthetic melanins seemingly yielded similar ESR spectra consisting of a singlet with a slightly asymmetrical signal. However, the progressive microwave power saturation revealed a clear difference between their paramagnetic behaviors. In

Toshihiko Matsuura; Shingo Watanabe; Sei-ichi Akutagawa; Yuhei Shimoyama; Takanori Kobayashi; Yoshihiro Taya; Takashi Ueno

2010-01-01

94

Study of the radio-protective effect of cuttlefish ink on hemopoietic injury.  

PubMed

Irradiation leads to immunosuppression, hemopoiesis injury as well as sub-health of human being. The protective and therapeutic effects of cuttlefish ink on hemopoiesis in 60Co gamma radiated model mice were investigated. One hundred and twenty female ICR mice aged 6 weeks (20-24g) were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the model group, and the low, medium, high dosage groups. The mice in different groups were orally administered normal solution (N.S.) or cuttlefish ink of different dosage daily for 40 days. Hemopoiesis impaired model was induced by 60Co gamma irradiating with lethal dose of 8.0 Gy. The number of bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNC), colony-forming unit in spleen (CFU-S), colony-forming unit of granulocyte and monocyte (CFU-GM), peripheral blood pictures and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum have been measured. Compared with model group, the decrease of BMNC, CFU-S, CFU-GM, peripheral leukocytes and SOD activity in serum in 60Co gamma irradiated mice of cuttlefish ink feeding groups were resisted significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Moreover, the restoration of those indices was promoted significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The cuttlefish ink showed no significant effect on peripheral erythrocytes, thrombocytes and hemoglobin. The results showed that cuttlefish ink had significant effects on granulopoiesis. The mechanism underlining these effects may be that the increase of antioxidant level in mice, the improvement of bone marrow haematopoietic microenvironment and the inducement of cellular factors promoted the proliferation and differentiation of CFU-S and CFU-GM and thus enhance the defensive system of organism. PMID:17392111

Lei, Min; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Pang, Long; Wang, Yi; Xu, Wei; Xue, Changhu

2007-01-01

95

The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a "basic introduction to one of the most amazing discoveries in mathematics: the Golden Ratio." Created by David L. Narain, this site offers a particularly engaging way to bring together math and the natural sciences in the classroom. Seven straightforward activities have students construct a golden rectangle and spiral, and also explore the Golden Ratio in nature and in other contexts. The site also includes a quiz; answers are not provided, though. The activities are designed for 9th and 10th graders, but would also be appropriate for middle school students.

Narain, David L.

2001-01-01

96

A new collagen from the extracellular matrix of Sepia officinalis cartilage.  

PubMed

Guanidinium chloride treatment of Sepia officinalis cartilage solubilized a component that contained hydroxyproline. Electron-microscopy observation of rotary-shadowed preparations of this component revealed it to consist of rod-like units themselves consisting of filaments. Dialysis of an acetic acid solution against ATP afforded polymeric aggregates consisting of a succession of two or three thick sections showing transverse electron-opaque banding, separated by thinner sections without banding. Electrophoresis produced a main band of about 140 kDa sensitive to bacterial collagenase. After reduction with mercaptoethanol, electrophoresis afforded a 40-kDa band. Pepsin digestion resulted in additional electrophoretic bands. These data suggest the presence of a collagen in Sepia cartilage with characteristics unlike those of any known collagen. PMID:12397379

Rigo, Cristina; Bairati, Aurelio

2002-11-01

97

Collagen fibrils of an invertebrate (Sepia officinalis) are heterotypic: immunocytochemical demonstration.  

PubMed

Collagen fibrils from the dermis of Sepia officinalis were processed for immunoelectron microscopy to reveal reactions to antibodies against mammalian types I, III, and V, teleost type I and cephalopod type I-like collagens, by single and double immunogold localization. The fibrils were observed: (a) in suspensions of prepared fibrils, (b) in ultrathin sections of embedded fibril preparations, and (c) in ultrathin sections of dermal tissue. Some samples were subjected to acetic acid or urea dissociation. It was found that collagen fibrils from Sepia dermis are heterotypic in that they are composed of type I-like and type V collagens. Type I-like collagen epitopes were present mainly at the periphery of the fibrils; type V collagen epitopes were present throughout the fibrils. This is the first demonstration that collagen fibrils from an invertebrate are heterotypic, suggesting that heterotypy may be an intrinsic characteristic of the fibrils of fibrillar collagens, independent of evolutionary or taxonomic status. PMID:15193644

Bairati, A; Gioria, M

2004-08-01

98

New insights into the physicochemical effects of ammonia/peroxide bleaching of hair and Sepia melanins.  

PubMed

Chemically unaltered melanosomes from black hair were isolated using a mild enzymatic procedure reported by Novellino et al. involving sequential treatment of a homogenized hair sample with different protease enzymes. Time-dependent fluorescence studies show, under identical conditions, that the rate of bleaching upon NH3/H2O2 treatment of hair melanosomes is twice that of Sepia melanosomes. The structure and morphology of hair melanosomes are compared to Sepia eumelanin using ESEM and TEM imaging studies. Black hair melanosomes are aggregates of rice-shaped ellipsoidal particles (0.8-1.0 microm in length and 0.2-0.6 microm in width) surrounded by an amorphous material suspected to be made of non-proteinacious materials. Sepia eumelanin aggregates are larger (2-5 microm) particles with a "doughnut" shape comprised of 100-150-nm spherical particles. Time-dependent TEM imaging studies of ammonia-treated (pH 10) hair melanosomes showed an initial breakdown of melanosomal aggregates followed by rupture of the melanosomal membrane, releasing melanin nanoparticles and leaving a ghost membrane behind. After prolonged treatment with aqueous NH3, a total loss of characteristic melanosome morphology was observed leading to an amorphous material. By contrast, Sepia melanosomes under identical conditions of ammonia treatment did not show such changes, probably due to different surface properties and aggregation behavior. Sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate at identical pH did not show similar changes to ammonia, suggesting that the changes are not merely due to alkaline pH, but, rather, are specific to ammonia. Co-treatment with ammonia and peroxide induced a faster disintegration of the melanosomes, resulting in a complete dissolution and discoloration of melanin in 30 minutes. The data suggest that ammonia helps to release melanin nanoparticles out of melanosomes, making them more susceptible to oxidative attack by H2O2. PMID:14528391

Prem, Padmaja; Dube, Katherine J; Madison, Stephen A; Bartolone, John

2003-01-01

99

Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant efficacy of chitosan from the internal shell of spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish chitosan was extracted from the cuttlebone of Sepiella inermis by demineralization and deproteinization and produced by deacetylation, and its physical and chemical parameters were also compared with that of commercial chitosan. Ash, moisture, and mineral and metal content of the chitosan was estimated by adopting standard methodologies. The rate of deacetylation was calculated as 79.64% by potentiometric titration. Through viscometry and gel permeation chromatography, the molecular weight of chitosan was found to be significantly lower than that of the commercial chitosan. Optical activity was found to be levorotatory. The structure of the chitosan was elucidated with spectral techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cuttlefish chitosan showed a melting endothermic peak at 117.32 °C. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of chitosan and standard chitosan exhibited the same crystalline peaks. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the fine structure of chitosan was studied. The binding capacity (water and fat) of cuttlefish chitosan was found to be significantly higher than that of the commercial chitosan. The antioxidant efficacy of chitosan was determined through the conjugated diene method, scavenging ability on DPPH radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. This study has brought out the importance of shell as a potential source for obtaining another natural antioxidant. PMID:23768114

Vairamani, Shanmugam; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Raveendran, Sankariah; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Shanmugam, Annaian

2013-01-01

100

Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of b-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond

Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer

2005-01-01

101

William T. Golden - Appreciation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short biography of William T. Golden who died October 7, 2007. Although he never worked as a scientist and didnât receive his masterâs degree in biology until age 70, he was one of the most influential figures in post-World War II American science.

102

Golden Age Spanish Sonnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Alix Ingber, Professor of Spanish at Sweet Briar College, this site hosts 107 Golden Age (Sixteenth Century) Spanish sonnets and English translations. The poems may be browsed by poet or by their first line. Each poet page includes links to related resources, most of which are in Spanish only. Also included are bibliographies and some other related links.

Ingber, Alix.

103

The Golden Ratio Encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel Nyquist-rate analog-to-digital (A\\/D) conversion algorithm which achieves exponential accuracy in the bit-rate despite using imperfe ct components. The proposed algorithm is based on a robust implementation of a beta-encoder with ? = ? = (1 + ? 5)\\/2, the golden ratio. It was previously shown that beta-encoders can be implemented in such a way that

Ingrid Daubechies; C. Sinan Güntürk; Yang Wang; Özgür Yilmaz

2008-01-01

104

Photon absorption in step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) of Sepia melanin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has shown that melanin goes through a step-wise three-photon absorption process when the fluorescence is activated with high laser intensity. We have conducted further research using even higher laser intensity for the activation, and have shown the possibility of observing power dependence other than third-order. This article discusses the possible energy states of Sepia melanin by studying the power dependence curves of the step-wise multi-photon activated fluorescence signal. Three different excitation channels are activated. Possible reasons causing the three channels are discussed.

Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; DiMarzio, Charles

2013-02-01

105

GOLDEN TROUT WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey of the Golden Trout Wilderness, California revealed that four areas in the wilderness have resource potential for tungsten and base and precious metals. One, the Mineral King pendant, has substantiated potential for tungsten deposits; the others are designated as having probable resource potential for tungsten and base and precious metals. Demonstrated tungsten resources exist at the Pine Tree mine, a skarn deposit in the Mineral King pendant. There is no evidence for the existence of large undiscovered deposits within the wilderness. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuel resources.

Dellinger, David, A.; Zilka, Nicholas, T.

1984-01-01

106

Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases  

PubMed Central

Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties.

Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

2014-01-01

107

Misconceptions about the Golden Ratio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typically, the mathematical properties concerning the golden ratio are stated correctly, but much of what is presented with respect to the golden ratio in art, architecture, literature, and aesthetics is false or seriously misleading. Discussed here are some of the most commonly repeated misconceptions promulgated, particularly within mathematics…

Markowsky, George

1992-01-01

108

Are We Golden?: Investigations with the Golden Ratio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an activity in which students investigate the "golden nature" of their bodies through measurement and proportional thinking and make connections between mathematics and their world. (Contains 2 figures.)

Reeder, Stacy L.

2007-01-01

109

Currents Through the Golden Gate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 9 November through 15 December, 1992 a bottom mooring consisting of an upward looking acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) and a conductivity-temperature pressure (CTD) instrument were deployed in the Golden Gate. Tidal constituents were derived ...

E. P. Petzrick

1993-01-01

110

Immunoelectron-microscopic study of G-protein distribution in photoreceptor cells of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that more than one single light-stimulated transduction pathway seems to be present in photoreceptor cells of invertebrates. Accordingly, more than one light-dependent G-protein has been detected in squid photoreceptor cells.Two different antibodies were used to locate the distribution of G-proteins in Sepia photoreceptors. One antiserum (anti-G?-common) has been raised against the peptide CGAGESGKSTIVKQMK. This sequence is found

Ulrich Schraermeyer; Hennig Stieve; Michael Rack

1995-01-01

111

Golden Rice, Golden Crops, Golden Prospects Arroz Dorado, cultivos dorados, perspectivas doradas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Golden Rice is probably the best known second-generation—nutrition quality enhanced—transgenic crop, but several others are following suit. Golden Rice was developed to deal with the problem of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which affects millions of people all over the world, especially small children in deve- loping countries. VAD not only causes blindness and increased morbidity, but a hitherto almost

Jorge E. Mayer

2007-01-01

112

Why is golden rice golden (yellow) instead of red?  

PubMed

The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of beta-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond the transgenic end point and thus that the endogenous pathway must also be acting. By using TaqMan real-time PCR, we show in wild-type rice endosperm the mRNA expression of the relevant carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes encoding phytoene desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotene cis-trans-isomerase, beta-lycopene cyclase, and beta-carotene hydroxylase; only PSY mRNA was virtually absent. We show that the transgenic phenotype is not due to up-regulation of expression of the endogenous rice pathway in response to the transgenes, as was suggested to be the case in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit, where CRTI expression resulted in a similar carotenoid phenomenon. This means that beta-carotene and xanthophyll formation in Golden Rice relies on the activity of constitutively expressed intrinsic rice genes (carotene cis-trans-isomerase, alpha/beta-lycopene cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase). PSY needs to be supplemented and the need for the CrtI transgene in Golden Rice is presumably due to insufficient activity of the phytoene desaturase and/or zeta-carotene desaturase enzyme in endosperm. The effect of CRTI expression was also investigated in leaves of transgenic rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, again, the mRNA levels of intrinsic carotenogenic enzymes remained unaffected; nevertheless, the carotenoid pattern changed, showing a decrease in lutein, while the beta-carotene-derived xanthophylls increased. This shift correlated with CRTI-expression and is most likely governed at the enzyme level by lycopene-cis-trans-isomerism. Possible implications are discussed. PMID:15821145

Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Drake, Rachel; Beyer, Peter

2005-05-01

113

Reprint Series: The Golden Measure. RS-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) the golden section; (2) the geometry of the pentagon and the golden section; (3) meet Mr. Tau; and (4) the golden

Schaaf, William L., Ed.

114

Platinum ratio search versus golden ratio search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this simulation study, we examine the traditional golden ratio search in view of cost minimization and search risk, and propose an alternative search plan with what we call “platinum ratio”. The golden ratio search has been thought the best for unimodal optimization. However, our study shows that the golden ratio search is the best only in the sense of

Xia Pan

2008-01-01

115

Declustering Using Golden Ratio Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new data declustering scheme for range queries. Our schemeis based on Golden Ratio Sequences (GRS), which have found applications in broadcast disks,hashing, packet routing, etc. We show by analysis and simulation that GRS is nearly the bestpossible scheme for 2-dimensional range queries. Specifically, it is the best possible scheme whenthe number of disks (M

Randeep Bhatia; Rakesh K. Sinha; Chung-min Chen

2000-01-01

116

PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: In vitro cell culture studies.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. PMID:25063118

Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

2014-09-01

117

A polycaprolactone/cuttlefish bone-derived hydroxyapatite composite porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish bone (CB) is an attractive natural biomaterial source to obtain hydroxyapatite (HAp). In this study, a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold incorporating CB-derived HAp (CB-HAp) powder was fabricated using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. The presence of CB-HAp in PCL/CB-HAp scaffold was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and porosity analysis showed that the average pore dimension of the fabricated scaffold was approximately 200-300 ?m, with ?85% porosity, and that the compressive modulus increased after addition of CB-HAp powders. In vitro tests such as cell proliferation assay, cytotoxicity analysis, cell attachment observations, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays showed that the PCL/CB-HAp scaffold could improve the proliferation, viability, adherence, and osteoblast differentiation rate of MG-63 cells. When surgically implanted into rabbit calvarial bone defects, consistent with the in vitro results, PCL/CB-HAp scaffold implantation resulted in significantly higher new bone formation than did implantation of PCL alone. These findings suggest that addition of CB-HAp powder to the PCL scaffold can improve cellular response and that the PCL/CB-HAp composite scaffold has great potential for use in bone tissue engineering. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 943-951, 2014. PMID:24259295

Kim, Beom-Su; Yang, Sun-Sik; Lee, Jun

2014-07-01

118

Effects of Chitin and Sepia Ink Hybrid Hemostatic Sponge on the Blood Parameters of Mice  

PubMed Central

Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its bene?cial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the ?eld of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents.

Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

2014-01-01

119

Golden rectangle (grades 6-8)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative can help students visualize the golden rectangle. It shows how a set of golden rectangles is generated by using the golden ratio (the ratio of the longer side to the shorter side of a golden rectangle) to create smaller golden rectangles within an initial rectangle. The size of the initial rectangle can be varied, and the center of the spiral generated by the applet can be seen. Instructions for using this online manipulative are included on the site, as is a link to the NCTM standard for geometry. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mathematics, Utah S.

2003-01-01

120

Emulsifying Property and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Modified with Oxidized Linoleic Acid and Oxidized Tannic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and\\u000a determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total\\u000a phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging\\u000a activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power of gelatin–OTA. Incorporation of OLA into gelatin (OLA-to-free amino group\\u000a molar ratio of

Tanong Aewsiri; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Peter A. Wierenga; Harry Gruppen

121

Evidence of hollow golden cages.  

PubMed

The fullerenes are the first "free-standing" elemental hollow cages identified by spectroscopy experiments and synthesized in the bulk. Here, we report experimental and theoretical evidence of hollow cages consisting of pure metal atoms, Au(n)(-) (n = 16-18); to our knowledge, free-standing metal hollow cages have not been previously detected in the laboratory. These hollow golden cages ("bucky gold") have an average diameter >5.5 A, which can easily accommodate one guest atom inside. PMID:16714382

Bulusu, Satya; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

2006-05-30

122

Evidence of Hollow Golden Cages  

SciTech Connect

The fullerenes are the first “free-standing” elemental hollow cages identified by spectroscopy experiments and synthesized in the bulk. Here we report experimental and theoretical evidence of hollow cages consisting of pure metal atoms, Aun ¯ (n = 16-18), which, to our knowledge, are the first free-standing metal hollow cages detected in the laboratory. These hollow golden cages have an average diameter larger than 6 Å, which can easily hold one foreign atom inside.

Bulusu, Satya; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

2006-05-30

123

GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes. PMID:18692104

Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

2009-03-01

124

12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...1412.3 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No System institution shall make or agree to make any golden...

2013-01-01

125

Traceability: The golden calf (revisited)  

SciTech Connect

The ancient religious symbol of the golden calf has become a present day metaphor for a tangible but specious object that diverts the attention from an intangible, authentic, and crucial entity that it purports to represent. Peter Stein, measurement guru, for several years (1962 et seq.) has noted that calibration traceability has taken on the character of a Golden Calf.'' He has cautioned that with the present day emphasis on formal quality assurance in measurement, calibration traceability as a primary attestation of accuracy can be disproportionately emphasized to the detriment of actual measurement accuracy. This seemingly paradoxical claim is well-founded as illustrated by many examples where the more important issues of measurement qualification, validation, system characterization, and transient correction are recognized as affecting end accuracy much more critically than usual calibration errors. This paper extends Stein's areas of concern and reviews several practical examples where instrument errors of the magnitude typically revealed in standards laboratory calibration are dwarfed by the more generally consequential measurement errors of misapplication and naive reliance on highly accurate laboratory calibration of component instruments. The purpose of the paper is not to denigrate calibration nor its traceability. Rather, it is to caution that experimenters, standards and specifications writers, calibration laboratories, and measurement quality auditors must recognize these two important aspects of quality assurance as merely a partial, and certainly not a predominant, tool for the assurance of accuracy and quality in measurement. 12 refs., 1 figs.

Reed, R.P.

1990-01-01

126

Golden Space-Time Block Coded Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a block coded modulation scheme for a 2 x 2 MIMO system over slow fading channels, where the inner code is the Golden Code. The scheme is based on a set partitioning of the Golden Code using two-sided ideals whose norm is a power of two. In this case, a lower bound for the minimum

L. Luzzi; G. Rekaya-Ben Othman; J.-C. Belfiore; E. Viterbo

2008-01-01

127

GOLDEN RATIO-HAAR WAVELET BASED STEGANOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have presented the golden ratio-Haar wavelet based multimedia steganography. The key features of the proposed method are: 1. New Haar wavelet structure based on the Fibonacci se- quence, and Golden Ratio. 2. Parametric transform dependency, as decryption key, on the security of the sensitive data. One of the important differences between the existing trans- form based

Sos S. Agaian; Okan Caglayan; Juan Pablo Perez; Hakob Sarukhanyan; Jaakko Astola

128

The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

Falbo, Clement

2005-01-01

129

The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)

Cooper, Martin

1982-01-01

130

Identification of the Major ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Protein Concentrate from Cuttlefish Wastewater  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC50 = 76.8 ± 15.2 ?g mL?1) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC50 value of 58.4 ± 4.6 ?g mL?1. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A–D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC50 values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 ?g mL?1, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions.

Rodriguez Amado, Isabel; Vazquez, Jose Antonio; Gonzalez, Pilar; Esteban-Fernandez, Diego; Carrera, Monica; Pineiro, Carmen

2014-01-01

131

Discovering Phi: The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students discover the mathematical constant phi, the golden ratio, through hands-on activities. They measure dimensions of "natural objects"âa star, a nautilus shell and human hand bonesâand calculate ratios of the measured values, which are close to phi. Then students learn a basic definition of a mathematical sequence, specifically the Fibonacci sequence. By taking ratios of successive terms of the sequence, they find numbers close to phi. They solve a squares puzzle that creates an approximate Fibonacci spiral. Finally, the instructor demonstrates the rule of the Fibonacci sequence via a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot equipped with a pen. The robot (already created as part of the companion activity, The Fibonacci Sequence & Robots) draws a Fibonacci spiral that is similar to the nautilus shape.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

132

The golden rule of reviewing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A major bottleneck in the time required to publish a scientific or scholarly paper is the speed with which reviews by peers are returned to journals. Peer review is a reciprocal altruistic system in which each individual may perform every task—editors, reviewers, and authors—at different times. Journals have no way to coerce reviewers to return their critiques faster. To greatly shorten the time to publication, all actors in this altruistic network should abide by the Golden Rule of Reviewing: review for others as you would have others review for you. Say yes to reviewing whenever your duties and schedule allow; provide a thorough, fair, and constructive critique of the work; and do it at your first opportunity regardless of the deadline.

McPeek, Mark A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Shaw, Ruth G.; Moore, Allen J.; Rausher, Mark D.; Strong, Donald R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Barrett, Louise; Rieseberg, Loren; Breed, Michael D.; Sullivan, Jack; Osenberg, Craig W.; Holyoak, Marcel; Elgar, Mark A.

2009-01-01

133

Identification of 180 Million Years Old, Probably Unchanged Melanine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The comparison of the infrared spectra of recent sepia melanine and of the content of the ink sac of fossilized cuttlefish indicates that the 180 million years old substance is unchanged melanine. Both substances behave identically on heating. Other proce...

K. Beyermann D. Hasenmaier

1977-01-01

134

The Mystery of the Golden Cube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help Rex solve the mystery of the golden cube! You will need to decide if it is a rock, mineral, or a fossil. You will also need to examine the cubes shape, hardness, color, streak, density, cleavage, and fracture.

2000-01-01

135

Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.

1994-01-01

136

Decoding the Golden Code: A VLSI Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently proposed Golden code is an optimal space-time block code for 2 times 2 multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The aim of this work is the design of a VLSI decoder for a MIMO system coded with the Golden code. The architecture is based on a rearrangement of the sphere decoding algorithm that achieves maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding performance. Compared to other

Barbara Cerato; Guido Masera; Emanuele Viterbo

2009-01-01

137

Suicide from the Golden Gate Bridge.  

PubMed

The Golden Gate Bridge is the number one suicide site in the world. In this clinical case conference, the authors begin by presenting vignettes to capture the diversity of bridge suicide. They then examine the demographic characteristics of those who commit suicide from the bridge as well as the fatal attraction of the Golden Gate Bridge. Interviews with jump survivors and potential jumpers are presented, and the authors examine the evidence for the efficacy of suicide barriers. PMID:19797444

Blaustein, Mel; Fleming, Anne

2009-10-01

138

The golden ratio in special relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we show that Euclid’s construction of the golden rectangle can be used to derive both the dilation of time intervals and the Lorentz contraction of lengths as predicted by Einstein’s theory of special relativity. In this simple exercise, the Lorentz factor arises as a direct consequence of the Pythagorean theorem, while the golden ratio, ?=1+5\\/2, is found

Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti; Antonio Mejias

2006-01-01

139

Monoamines and the isolated auricle of sepia officinalis: are there &bgr;-like receptors in the heart of a cephalopod?  

PubMed

Pharmacological examinations of isolated auricles from Sepia officinalis were carried out to analyze the putative role of the monoaminergic transmitter/receptor system in the control of auricle function. In conjunction with histofluorescence studies and HPLC analyses, evidence of a double excitatory serotonergic and noradrenergic innervation of the auricles was obtained. Serotonin-induced positive chronotropic and inotropic effects were blocked by mianserin (5-HT1 and 5-HT2) but not by cyproheptadine (5-HT2). It is assumed that the auricular serotonin (5-HT) receptor represents a 5-HT1-like subtype and is not identical to the ventricular 5-HT receptor. Noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine evoked mainly positive chronotropic reactions and less prominent positive inotropic reactions. The potency range (pD2 frequency: noradrenaline 6.65 > adrenaline 5.69 > dopamine 5.34; pD2 amplitude: noradrenaline 6.09 (greater than or equal to) adrenaline 5.91 > dopamine 5.33) indicates out that noradrenaline might be the effective neurotransmitter in vivo. The &agr; -mimetics clonidine ( &agr; 2) and phenylephrine ( &agr; 1) induced positive chronotropic and inotropic effects, while the &bgr;-mimetics albuterol (&bgr;2>&bgr;1) and dobutamine (&bgr;1) revealed only positive inotropic reactions. The &bgr;-agonist isoprenaline mimicked the positive chronotropic effects of noradrenaline and induced the strongest positive inotropic effects of all the agonists tested. Urapidil ( &agr; 1) or phentolamine ( &agr; 1 and &agr; 2) blocked only the positive chronotropic effects of noradrenaline and isoprenaline. The positive inotropic effects of isoprenaline could be blocked by the adenylate cyclase inhibitors MDL-12,330A or SQ-22, 536, which had no effect on the chronotropic effects of isoprenaline. These results suggest that two catecholaminergic receptors are present in the auricles of Sepia officinalis: an &agr; -like adrenoreceptor mediating mainly chronotropic effects, and a &bgr;-like receptor which appears to mediate inotropic effects by activating the cyclic AMP pathway. These results suggest that the auricles exert a regulatory effect on ventricular performance. PMID:10101106

Versen; Gokorsch; Fiedler; Schipp

1999-05-01

140

Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = ? and Q = -1/?, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels is found to be the Golden sequence, and for asymptotic states in the limit n ? ? it appears as the Golden ratio. We call this oscillator the Golden oscillator. Using double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived. Relations of Fibonacci calculus with a q-deformed fermion oscillator and entangled N-qubit states are indicated.

Pashaev, Oktay K.; Nalci, Sengul

2012-01-01

141

Comparative study of physico-mechanical and antioxidant properties of edible gelatin films from the skin of cuttlefish.  

PubMed

Physicochemical properties of edible films based on cuttlefish skin gelatin extracted without (G0) or with different concentrations of pepsins (5 (G5), 10 (G10) and 15 (G15) U/g of skin) were investigated. Edible films prepared with partially hydrolyzed gelatins had lower tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB), but higher water vapour permeability (WVP) and water solubility than the control film. FTIR spectra of obtained gelatin films revealed a significant loss of molecular order of the triple helix. In addition, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis indicated that partially hydrolyzed gelatine films exhibited lower transition temperature and enthalpy compared with those of control film. The properties of the films were related to their microstructure, which was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Films with G0 and G5 had a smooth surface and a more compact structure, while films prepared with G10 and G15 had coarser surface. Thus, the chain length of extracted gelatin directly affected the properties of corresponding films. PMID:23820179

Jridi, Mourad; Souissi, Nabil; Mbarek, Aïcha; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Kammoun, Maher; Nasri, Moncef

2013-10-01

142

Improvement of the compressive strength of a cuttlefish bone-derived porous hydroxyapatite scaffold via polycaprolactone coating.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish bones (CBs) have emerged as attractive biomaterials because of their porous structure and components that can be converted into hydroxyapatite (HAp) via a hydrothermal reaction. However, their brittleness and low strength restrict their application in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, to improve the compressive strength of the scaffold following hydrothermal conversion to a HAp form of CB (CB-HAp), the scaffold was coated using a polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer at various concentrations. In this study, raw CB was successfully converted into HAp via a hydrothermal reaction. We then evaluated their surface properties and composition by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The CB-HAp coated with PCL showed improved compressive performance and retained a microporous structure. The compressive strength was significantly increased upon coating with 5 and 10% PCL, by 2.09- and 3.30-fold, respectively, as compared with uncoated CB-HAp. However, coating with 10% PCL resulted in a reduction in porosity. Furthermore, an in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG-63 cells adhered well, proliferated and were able to be differentiated on the PCL-coated CB-HAp scaffold, which was noncytotoxic. These results suggest that a simple coating method is useful to improve the compressive strength of CB-HAp for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:23661509

Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jun

2013-10-01

143

Inflow and Infiltration in Golden Valley  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The city of Golden Valley (MN) Web site offers the interactive Inflow and Infiltration in Golden Valley activity. This Flash based animation attempts to show homeowners how connecting a sump pump directly to the sewer system, besides being illegal, can cause other unforeseen problems. The characters explain that this could lead to higher water and sewer charges and even basement flooding of neighboring homes. Even though there isn't in-depth information on these subjects, the site does do a good job of explaining and illustrating how an average municipal sewerage system works, how a home sump pump works, and what happens to storm water.

144

76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden Triangle) filed with the Federal...authority to construct and operate two new salt dome storage caverns at its existing storage site located in Jefferson County, Texas....

2011-08-23

145

75 FR 47236 - Golden Parachute and Indemnification Payments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...attract executive talent in a competitive market...with normal business practices. Golden Parachute...1(f)(2)(v) and golden parachute...disability of an IAP; or (v) Any payment made...unsafe or unsound practices or breaches of fiduciary...1(f)(2)(v) and golden...

2010-08-05

146

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2008-01-01

147

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2003-01-01

148

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2006-01-01

149

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2002-01-01

150

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2013-01-01

151

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2005-01-01

152

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2007-01-01

153

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2009-01-01

154

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

2012-01-01

155

7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden to light amber color...predominating yellow or golden color and that not more...Reasonably well coloredâ means that the raisins are...range from yellow or golden or greenish...

1999-01-01

156

Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = phi and Q = -1\\/phi, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels

Oktay K. Pashaev; Sengul Nalci

2012-01-01

157

Turning Points of the Spherical Pendulum and the Golden Ratio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To…

Essen, Hanno; Apazidis, Nicholas

2009-01-01

158

Turning points of the spherical pendulum and the golden ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To put our result

Hanno Essén; Nicholas Apazidis

2009-01-01

159

Beyond the Golden Ratio: A Calculator-Based Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes computation of a continued radical to approximate the golden ratio and presents two well-known geometric interpretations of it. Uses guided-discovery to investigate different repeated radicals to see what values they approximate, the golden-rectangle interpretation of these continued radicals, and the golden-section interpretation. (KHR)

Glidden, Peter L.

2001-01-01

160

The Golden Ratio: A Golden Opportunity to Investigate Multiple Representations of a Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the multiple representations (verbal, algebraic, graphical, and numerical) that can be used to study the golden ratio. Emphasis is placed on using technology (both calculators and computers) to investigate the algebraic, graphical, and numerical representations. (JAF)

Dickey, Edwin M.

1993-01-01

161

The fruit of the golden flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a pioneer in psychologically exploring Eastern religions and philosophies, Jung has been accused of psychologism and fashioning spiritual traditions to confirm his own theories. The author looks at Jung's engagement with the Taoist text, The secret of the golden flower; exploring Jung's writing of a commentary, in the context of his life and interests at the time. In noting

Malcolm Davy-Barnes

2009-01-01

162

Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

2009-01-01

163

The Golden Heads of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The golden heads of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia covering the foothills herald spring in Utah's Wasatch Mountains. Balsamorhiza macrophylla, the cutleat balsamroot (shown here), commonly grows interspersed with B. sagittata (arrowleaf balsamroot) and W. amplexicaulis (mule's ear) on hillsides and in open woods.

Lynn Bohs (University of Utah;Department of Biology ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

164

Tutoring in Wild Golden Lion Tamarins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among most nonhuman primates, juveniles must acquire most of their solid food independently. Information gleaned from adults results from efforts initiated by the juveniles. Donation of food or foraging information by adults to immatures is rare among apes and virtually unknown among monkeys. We report 3 observations in which wild adult golden lion tamarins appear to have directed their immature

Lisa G. Rapaport; Carlos R. Ruiz-Miranda

2002-01-01

165

Construing stigmatized identities: A golden section study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. In order to examine whether persons belonging to stigmatized groups are evaluated more negatively than others, this study employed the golden section hypothesis, which predicts that people organize their evaluations in a ratio of roughly 62% positive to 38% negative. Method. Surveys were administered to 154 participants, with 143 surveys analysed. Participants rated nine different identities (business person, politician,

Jonathan D. Raskin; Melanie T. Harasym; Matthew A. Mercuri; Rebekah M. Widrick

2008-01-01

166

Algebra, the Golden Rectangle, and Paper Sizes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that algebra, geometry, and recent history can be combined in lessons pertaining to an ongoing, relevant controversy related to paper sizes. Early paper sizes, International Standards Organization (ISO) paper sizes, the "golden rectangle," and paper sizes in the United States are discussed. (JN)

Bartlett, Albert A.

1984-01-01

167

[The golden age of rheumatoid arthritis treatment].  

PubMed

Today, we enjoy the golden age of rheumatology. In the 1970s, the paradigm for treating rheumatoid arthritis consisted in a pyramid. In the decade of the 1980s, and shortly after began a revolution in the understanding and treatment of rheumatic diseases. Methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor-blockers came on the scene. PMID:24758843

Mercado, Ulises

2014-01-01

168

Intelligent Golden Week Holiday Tourism Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate how to apply mobile multi-agent theory and technology in the design and implementation of the national golden week holiday tourism forecast system, which runs in an open and dynamic environment. We define different kinds of agents with different functions. The agents cooperate and coordinate with each other to complete the common goal of the system

Du Junping; Zuo Min; Guo Wensheng

2006-01-01

169

The Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This award-winning site explores not only who Fibonacci was, but also the Fibonacci number properties, where they occur in nature, and much, much more. Puzzles with answers, illustrations, diagrams, and graphs are included. The Golden Ratio and Lucas numbers are addressed here as well. This site contains over 200 pages of information.

Knott, Ron

2007-12-12

170

Golden Space-Time Trellis Coded Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a multidimensional trellis coded modulation scheme for a high rate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system over slow fading channels. Set partitioning of the Golden code is designed specifically to increase the minimum determinant. The branches of the outer trellis code are labeled with these partitions and Viterbi algorithm is applied for trellis decoding. In order to

Yi Hong; Emanuele Viterbo; Jean-claude Belfiore

2007-01-01

171

Golden Rice - the Partitioning of Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade significant scientific progress has been made with the Golden Rice project. Significant increases in carotenoid have been achieved. Micronutrient malnutrition has been recognised as a major factor in total world malnutrition. What could be responsible for the continuing slow progress of the project? The answer may be related to the confluence of three influences on world

Adrian C Dubock

172

TOWARD INNOVATION (THE GOLDEN WEST COLLEGE STORY).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A NUMBER OF INNOVATIONS AT GOLDEN WEST COLLEGE ARE DESIGNED TO UPDATE AND IMPROVE JUNIOR COLLEGE EDUCATION. THE USE OF AN AUDIOTUTORIAL APPROACH (PATTERNED AFTER THE OAKLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGE PROJECT) IN LIBERAL ARTS BIOLOGY RESULTED IN A 66-PERCENT DECREASE IN FAILURES AND DROPOUTS, AN INCREASE OF FROM ONE-THIRD TO ONE-HALF IN COURSE CONTENT, AND…

BOYCE, R. DUDLEY

173

Golden Section Relations in Interpersonal Judgment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of the organization of interpersonal judgments, based on the hypothesis that people tend to organize their judgments in Golden Section ratios, was presented. A theory of the process of interpersonal judgment, based on the notion that people judge acquaintances using a Fibonacci-like decision rule, was then developed. A computer simulation…

Benjafield, John; Green, T. R. G.

1978-01-01

174

Dynamic Programming creates The Golden Ratio, too  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times of Greek as the Parthenon at Athens, the Golden Ratio has been keeping to give a profound influence in many various fields. Mathematicians love the number to explain the nature of the universe and of human life. It comes up even with a formula for the human de- cision making process; aesthetics, etc. Also in the typical

Seiichi Iwamoto; Masami Yasuda

175

Generalized golden ratios of ternary alphabets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansions in noninteger bases often appear in number theory and probability theory, and they are closely connected to ergodic theory, measure theory and topology. For two-letter alphabets the golden ratio plays a special role: in smaller bases only trivial expansions are unique, whereas in greater bases there exist nontrivial unique expansions. In this paper we determine the corresponding critical bases

Vilmos Komornik; Anna Chiara Lai; Marco Pedicini

2009-01-01

176

Graphs (networks) with golden spectral ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose two new spectral measures for graphs and networks which characterize the ratios between the width of the “bulk” part of the spectrum and the spectral gap, as well as the ratio between spectral spread and the width of the “bulk” part of the spectrum. Using these definitions we introduce the concept of golden spectral graphs (GSG), which are

Ernesto Estrada; Edificio CACTUS

2007-01-01

177

Multifocal osteoma cutis in a golden retriever  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 10-year-old, spayed female, obese golden retriever, presented for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, was successfully managed with the administration of vincristine and prednisone. However, 6 mo after discontinuing corticosteroid therapy because of suspected iatrogenic hyperglucocorticoidism, the patient was presented with multiple, firm, bilaterally symmetric, dermal masses composed histologically of differentiated cortical bone.

Hall, Jan; Keirstead, Natalie; Lowe, Andrew

2006-01-01

178

The Golden Rule Agreement is Psychometrically Defensible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The agreement between the Educational Testing Service (ETS) and the Golden Rule Insurance Company of Illinois is interpreted as setting the general principles on which items must be selected to be included in a licensure test. These principles put a limit to the difficulty level of any item, and they also limit the size of the difference in…

Gonzalez-Tamayo, Eulogio

179

Golden rice: introgression, breeding, and field evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress has been made on the genetic engineering of rice for improved nutritional content involving micronutrients\\u000a and carotenoid content. Golden Rice, developed by genetic engineering (Agrobacterium and biolistic transformation) was used in rice breeding for the transfer of high-nutritional value to the local rice cultivars.\\u000a Simultaneously, commercial Asian indica rice cultivars were also developed with expression of high-carotenoid levels.

Swapan K. Datta; Karabi Datta; Vilas Parkhi; Mayank Rai; Niranjan Baisakh; Gayatri Sahoo; Sayeda Rehana; Anindya Bandyopadhyay; Editha Abrigo; Norman Oliva; Lina Torrizo

2007-01-01

180

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple texture that predicts the cotangent of the solar neutrino mixing angle to be equal to the golden ratio. This prediction is 1.4sigma below the present best-fit value and final SNO and KamLAND data could discriminate it from tri-bimaximal mixing. The neutrino mass matrix is invariant under a Z2?Z2' symmetry: that geometrically is a reflection along the

Yuji Kajiyama; Martti Raidal; Alessandro Strumia

2007-01-01

181

Directed Percolation and the Golden Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying the theory of Yang-Lee zeros to nonequilibrium critical phenomena,\\u000awe investigate the properties of a directed bond percolation process for a\\u000acomplex percolation parameter p. It is shown that for the Golden Ratio\\u000ap=(1(+\\/-)sqrt(5))\\/2 and for p=2 the survival probability of a cluster can be\\u000acomputed exactly.

Stephan M Dammer; Silvio R Dahmen; Haye Hinrichsenk

2001-01-01

182

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been speculated that the solar neutrino mixing angle is connected to the golden ratio phiv. Two such proposals have been made, cot theta12=phiv and cos theta12=phiv\\/2. We compare these ansätze and discuss a model leading to cos theta12=phiv\\/2 based on the dihedral group D10. This symmetry is a natural candidate because the angle in the expression cos

Adisorn Adulpravitchai; Alexander Blum; Werner Rodejohann

2009-01-01

183

Detail of main entrance, camera facing southeast Golden Gate ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of main entrance, camera facing southeast - Golden Gate International Exposition, Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts & Annex, California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

184

View of northeast side, camera facing southwest Golden Gate ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of northeast side, camera facing southwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts & Annex, California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

185

A golden ring: molecular gold carbido complexes.  

PubMed

Stannylcarbynes [M(?CSnMe3)(CO)2(Tp*)] [M = Mo, W; Tp* = hydrotris(dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)borate], which are readily obtained via the successive treatment of [M(?CBr)(CO)2(Tp*)] with (n)BuLi and ClSnMe3, serve as effective carbyne transmetalation agents for the preparation of heteronuclear molecular gold carbido complexes such as [M(?CAuPPh3)(CO)2(Tp*)] and the tetrameric golden ring complex [W(?CAu)(CO)2(Tp*)]4, which are in turn able to transfer the carbido unit to palladium. PMID:23485021

Borren, Elliot S; Hill, Anthony F; Shang, Rong; Sharma, Manab; Willis, Anthony C

2013-04-01

186

Golden Rice An Intimate Debate Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this intimate debate case, students consider whether to support the development and use of Golden Rice as a means to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in the developing world. Students are exposed to arguments supporting and opposing the use of this genetically modified crop for humanitarian purposes. Since many of the arguments typically raised against genetically modified organisms (GMOs) do not apply to this particular GM crop, students are forced to analyze the facts rather than rely on what they have heard in the media. Developed for an introductory molecular biology undergraduate course, the case could also be used at more senior levels.

Genereux, Annie P.

2009-01-01

187

The golden ratio in facial symmetry.  

PubMed

Symmetry is believed to be a hallmark of appealing faces. However, this does not imply that the most aesthetically pleasing proportions are necessary those that arise from the simple division of the face into thirds or fifths. Based on the etymology of the word symmetry, as well as on specific examples and theories of beauty, we conclude that ?-value, a ratio also known as the golden ratio or the divine proportion, can also characterize symmetrical forms. Therefore, we propose the utilization of this ratio in facial aesthetics. PMID:23441307

Prokopakis, E P; Vlastos, I M; Picavet, V A; Nolst Trenite, G; Thomas, R; Cingi, C; Hellings, P W

2013-03-01

188

Sepia ink oligopeptide induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines via caspase-3 activation and elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.  

PubMed

Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO) is a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink. To test the hypothesis that SIO inhibits prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis, the effects of SIO on the proliferation of three human prostate cancer cell lines were examined using a CCK-8 assay. SIO significantly inhibited the proliferation of DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry studies showed that exposing DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells to 5, 10, or 15 mg/mL SIO for 24 h increased the percentage of the early-stage apoptotic cells from 11.84% to 38.26% (DU-145), 22.76% to 39.96% (PC-3) and 5.05% to 16.11% (LNCaP), respectively. In addition, typical morphologic changes were observed in the cells with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. SIO treatment induced strong S and G?/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in DU-145 and LNCaP. In contrast, SIO treatment induced strong Sub G? and G?/G? phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in PC-3. SIO exposure for 24 h decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the apoptogenic protein Bax. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2expression ratio was increased. Concurrently, the expression of caspase-3 was upregulated. These data support our hypothesis that SIO has anticarcinogenic properties. PMID:23170075

Huang, Fangfang; Yang, Zuisu; Yu, Di; Wang, Jiabin; Li, Rong; Ding, Guofang

2012-10-01

189

Sepia Ink Oligopeptide Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines via Caspase-3 Activation and Elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio  

PubMed Central

Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO) is a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink. To test the hypothesis that SIO inhibits prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis, the effects of SIO on the proliferation of three human prostate cancer cell lines were examined using a CCK-8 assay. SIO significantly inhibited the proliferation of DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry studies showed that exposing DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells to 5, 10, or 15 mg/mL SIO for 24 h increased the percentage of the early-stage apoptotic cells from 11.84% to 38.26% (DU-145), 22.76% to 39.96% (PC-3) and 5.05% to 16.11% (LNCaP), respectively. In addition, typical morphologic changes were observed in the cells with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. SIO treatment induced strong S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in DU-145 and LNCaP. In contrast, SIO treatment induced strong Sub G1 and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in PC-3. SIO exposure for 24 h decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the apoptogenic protein Bax. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2expression ratio was increased. Concurrently, the expression of caspase-3 was upregulated. These data support our hypothesis that SIO has anticarcinogenic properties.

Huang, Fangfang; Yang, Zuisu; Yu, Di; Wang, Jiabin; Li, Rong; Ding, Guofang

2012-01-01

190

American Medicine's Golden Age: What Happened to It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining medicine's golden age as freedom from adverse comment in mass and highbrow media, discusses: (1) the evolution of the medical image; (2) factors responsible for ending the golden age; (3) criticisms related to physicians' sacerdotal, technical, and social roles; and (4) the erosion of physicians' professional status. (SK)

Burnham, John C.

1982-01-01

191

Book Review: Stars (Copyright 1985, Golden Press; New York)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stars is a part of the Golden Guides collection produced by Golden Press. It is a small 160 page paperback guide to the constellations, the sun, the moon, planets, and other celestial bodies. The book is convenient to carry along wherever you go, making it an easy to access reference material.

Marigza, R. N., Jr.

2009-06-01

192

Easy facial analysis using the facial golden mask.  

PubMed

For over 2000 years, many artists and scientists have tried to understand or quantify the form of the perfect, ideal, or most beautiful face both in art and in vivo (life). A mathematical relationship has been consistently and repeatedly reported to be present in beautiful things. This particular relationship is the golden ratio. It is a mathematical ratio of 1.618:1 that seems to appear recurrently in beautiful things in nature as well as in other things that are seen as beautiful. Dr. Marquardt made the facial golden mask that contains and includes all of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometric golden elements formed from the golden ratio. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the golden facial mask. In 40 cases, the authors applied the facial golden mask to preoperative and postoperative photographs and scored each photograph on a 1 to 5 scale from the perspective of their personal aesthetic views. The score was lower when the facial deformity was severe, whereas it was higher when the face was attractive. Compared with the average scores of facial mask applied photographs and nonapplied photographs using a nonparametric test, statistical significance was not reached (P > 0.05). This implies that the facial golden mask may be used as an analytical tool. The facial golden mask is easy to apply, inexpensive, and relatively objective. Therefore, the authors introduce it as a useful facial analysis. PMID:17538332

Kim, Yong-Ha

2007-05-01

193

Golden Ratio, the Phi, and Its Geometrical Substantiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden ratio is often denoted by the Greek letter, usually in lower case, Phi (?) which is an irrational mathematical constant, approximately 1.6180339887. Because of its unique and interesting properties, many mathematicians as well as renaissance artists and architects studied, documented and employed golden section proportions in remarkable works of sculpture, painting and architecture. Robot sizing especially for the Humanoid

Amir A. Shafie; Sharif M. Raihan; M. K. Hasan; Tanveer Ahsan; M. S. Alam

2011-01-01

194

Golden ratio in a coupled-oscillator problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

Crystal M Moorman; John Eric Goff

2007-01-01

195

A Golden Pair of Identities in the Theory of Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find an interesting relationship between the golden ratio, the Moebius function, the Euler totient function and the natural logarithm - central players in the theory of numbers. A number of identities involving the golden ratio and its reciprocal are proved, including an expression for the base of the natural logarithm. The theorem and corollaries highlight a connection between the

Robert P. Schneider

2011-01-01

196

Golden Ratio in a Coupled-Oscillator Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

Moorman, Crystal M.; Goff, John Eric

2007-01-01

197

The Golden ratio, ionic and atomic radii and bond lengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work arose from the author's finding that the ratio of the radius of hydrogen, estimated recently (C.H. Suresh, N. Koga, J. Phys. Chem. A, 105, 5940 (2001)) by density functional methods, to the ground state Bohr radius is the Golden ratio, which operates in a variety of natural phenomena. It is found that the Golden ratio indeed plays a

Raji Heyrovska

2005-01-01

198

SPA Resistant Scalar Multiplication using Golden Ratio Addition Chain Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an efficient and secure (SPA resistant) elliptic curve scalar mul- tiplication algorithm over odd prime fields. For this purpose, we propose an explicit algorithm for short addition-subtraction chain method which uti- lizes a golden ratio. We term it as golden ratio ad- dition chain method or GRAC method in short. Our proposed scalar multiplication algorithm

Raveen R. Goundar; Ken-ichi Shiota; Masahiko Toyonaga

2008-01-01

199

26 CFR 1.280G-1 - Golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Items Not Deductible § 1.280G-1 Golden parachute payments. The following...and answers relate to the treatment of golden parachute payments under section...payment is the amount that bears the same ratio to the base amount as the present...

2009-04-01

200

26 CFR 1.280G-1 - Golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Items Not Deductible § 1.280G-1 Golden parachute payments. The following...and answers relate to the treatment of golden parachute payments under section...payment is the amount that bears the same ratio to the base amount as the present...

2010-04-01

201

Golden Ratio Controlled Chaos in Supersymmetric Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct supersymmetric Lagrangians for the recently constructed off-shell worldline N = 3 supermultiplet YI/(iD_I{X}) for I = 1, 2, 3, where YI and X are standard, Salam-Strathdee superfields: YI fermionic and X bosonic. Already the Lagrangian bilinear in component fields exhibits a total of thirteen free parameters, seven of which specify Zeeman-like coupling to external (magnetic) fluxes. All but special subsets of this parameter space describe aperiodic oscillatory response, some of which are controlled by the "golden ratio," ??1.61803. We also show that all of these Lagrangians admit an N = 3 ?4 supersymmetry extension, while a subset admits two inequivalent such extensions.

Hübsch, Tristan; Katona, Gregory A.

2013-12-01

202

A golden approach to ion channel inhibition?  

PubMed Central

Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: ‘Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?’ We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio.

Jarvis, Gavin E.; Thompson, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

203

Delivering golden rice to developing countries.  

PubMed

Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties. PMID:17955992

Mayer, Jorge E

2007-01-01

204

Dark matter in the MSSM golden region  

SciTech Connect

Dark matter is examined within the 'golden region' of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. This region satisfies experimental constraints, including a lower bound on the Higgs mass of 114 GeV, and minimizes fine-tuning of the Z boson mass. Here we impose additional constraints (particularly due to experimental bounds on b{yields}s{gamma}). Then we find the properties of the dark matter in this region. Neutralinos with a relic density that provides the amount of dark matter required by cosmological data are shown to consist of a predominant gaugino (rather than Higgsino) fraction. In addition, the U(1){sub Y} gaugino mass parameter must satisfy M{sub 1} < or approx. 300 GeV.

Kasahara, Junya; Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Suite 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States); Freese, Katherine [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2009-02-15

205

A golden approach to ion channel inhibition.  

PubMed

Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: 'Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?' We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio. PMID:23972927

Jarvis, Gavin E; Thompson, Andrew J

2013-09-01

206

Old Sepia Photos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has always been fascinated by old photographs. As she looks at them, she wonders about the people. Who were they? What were their lives like? Where was this photo taken? A moment in time is frozen forever, for all to see. Inspired by old photographs, the author describes how her fifth-grade classes made their own "photographs" by…

Cunningham, Kathy

2010-01-01

207

The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis.  

PubMed

Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), developed in the USA by Jonas Salk in the early 1950s, was field tested in 1954, and found to be safe and effective. The year 2004 marks the golden jubilee of this breakthrough. From 1955 IPV was used extensively in the US and polio incidence declined by more than 95 per cent. However, in 1962, when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) became available, the national policy was shifted to its exclusive use, for reasons other than science and economics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) also adopted the policy of the exclusive use of OPV in developing countries. Thus IPV fell into disrepute in much of the world, while Northern European countries continued to use it. New research led to improving its potency, reducing its manufacturing costs and combining it with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine to simplify its administration and reduce programmatic costs. All countries that chose to persist with IPV eliminated poliovirus circulation without OPV-induced polio or the risk of live vaccine viruses reverting to wild-like nature. IPV is highly immunogenic, confers mucosal immunity and exerts herd protective effect, all qualities of a good vaccine. It can be used in harmony with the extendend programme on immunization (EPI) schedule of infant immunisation with DTP, thus reducing programmatic costs. During the last ten years IPV has once again regained its popularity and some 25 industrialised countries use it exclusively. The demand is increasing from other countries and the supply has not caught up, leaving market forces to dictate the sale price of IPV. Anticipating such a turn of events India had launched its own IPV manufacturing programme in 1987, but the project was closed in 1992. Today it is not clear if we can complete the job of global polio eradication without IPV, on account of the genetic instability of OPV and the consequent tendency of vaccine viruses to revert to wild-like properties. The option to use IPV is complicated since it is not yet licensed in India, we do not manufacture it and imported vaccine would be prohibitively costly. However, in this golden jubilee year we have much to celebrate as the global eradication of wild polioviruses is within sight. Had we strictly followed the principles of science and health economics, perhaps we could have achieved success earlier and cheaper, with the absence of vaccine-induced polio as the bonus. PMID:14997988

John, T Jacob

2004-01-01

208

Golden-Cheeked Warbler ('Dendroica chrysoparia') Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) (GCW or warbler) breeds only in the mixed evergreen-deciduous woodlands of central Texas and winters in the highland pineoak woodlands of southern Mexico and northern Central America. Human activities hav...

1992-01-01

209

12. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Park Museum, San ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Park Museum, San Francisco, California, 1850's) EXTERIOR, DETAIL OF FACADE OF MISSION SHOWING ARCHED WINDOWS, ENTRANCE AND BELFRY - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

210

13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, California, 1850's) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF CONVENTO BEFORE RESTORATION, 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

211

Golden Indica and Japonica Rice Lines Amenable to Deregulation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial \\

Tran Thi; Cuc Hoa; Salim Al-Babili; Patrick Schaub; Ingo Potrykus; Peter Beyer

2003-01-01

212

Solid-state physics: Golden ratio seen in a magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden ratio - an exact 'magic' number often claimed to be observed when taking ratios of distances in ancient and modern architecture, sculpture and painting - has been spotted in a magnetic compound.

Ian Affleck

2010-01-01

213

Interior view of hangar space, camera facing southeast Golden ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of hangar space, camera facing southeast - Golden Gate International Exposition, Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts & Annex, California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

214

Interior view of main lobby, camera facing northwest Golden ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of main lobby, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts & Annex, California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

215

Interior view of hangar space, camera facing southwest Golden ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of hangar space, camera facing southwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts & Annex, California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

216

Golden Ratio Sequences for Low-Discrepancy Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most classical constructions of low-discrepancy point sets are based on generalizations of the one-dimensional binary van der Corput sequence, whose implementation requires nontrivial bit-operations. As an alternative, we introduce the quasi-regular golden ratio sequences, which are based on the fractional part of successive integer multiples of the golden ratio. By leveraging results from number theory, we show that point sets,

Colas Schretter; Leif Kobbelt; Paul-Olivier Dehaye

2012-01-01

217

The golden age of multifrequency astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In occasion of the Silver Jubilee of the Frascati Workshop about Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources we want to discuss some aspects of the Multifrequency Astrophysics. Multifrequency Astrophysics can be considered as a `new field' of astrophysics born just around the end of 1970-ies - beginning of 1980-ies to which we strongly contributed not only with our own measurements and studies of physical processes spread along the whole electromagnetic spectrum, but mostly with the organization of the Frascati Workshop Series. In this paper we discuss the methodology used in astrophysics for collecting data coming from multifrequency observations of cosmic sources - obtained in different ways - and the relative models developed through theoretical study of physical processes governing their behaviour. Several examples about X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, T Tauri stars, relativistic jets from different classes of sources, gamma-ray bursts, and few words about Standard Big Bang Cosmology and experimental proofs fitting the theory will be discussed. We will briefly discuss also the prospects of the multifrequency astrophysics which is now in its golden age without any pretension of completness.

Giovannelli, Franco; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

218

Prevention of Golden Eagle electrocution. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Eagle electrocutions on distribution lines were documented in six western states by examination of carcasses found below the lines. Golden eagles represented 82.5% of the 416 carcasses found during the study. Fifty-one of the eagles were fresh enough to determine age and time and cause of death. Of these, 80.6% died of electrocution during the winter months, and only 5.8% of these were adult birds. More eagles were electrocuted in areas of cottontail rabbit habitat than in other areas: 36% of the poles in cottontail rabbit habitat had carcasses under them during the time of the study, 21.9% of the poles with mixed cottontail-jack rabbit habitat had eagle carcasses, and 14% of the poles in jack rabbit-only habitat had eagle carcasses (significant at P = 0.001). Poles placed on topographic salients had more eagle mortalities than poles at low points (P = 0.001). None of the carcasses found had gunshot wounds. Measures found to lower incidence of eagle electrocution inlcude routing lines around preferred prey habitat, locating power poles in topographically low areas, and insulating conductors on corner and transformer poles.

Benson, P.C.

1982-10-01

219

The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

1978-01-01

220

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), a breeding pair and their male offspring, by histology and immunohistochemistry. The distribution and severity of lesions differed among the animals, but the small intestine and the pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes were especially affected. Protozoal organisms consistent with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, often clustered, were seen in all lesions and were specifically immunostained with a T. gondii polyclonal antibody. The infection was probably acquired orally. Several breeding groups of golden lion tamarins have succumbed to toxoplasmosis both in North American and European zoos, so this disease should be considered an important problem in this endangered species. Toxoplasma gondii can cause latent infections in New World primates and therefore could potentially induce abortions or congenital infections in wild golden lion tamarins born from latently infected reintroduced females. PMID:9638627

Juan-Sallés, C; Prats, N; Marco, A J; Ramos-Vara, J A; Borrás, D; Fernández, J

1998-03-01

221

Golden Grove dolomite, Barbados: Origin from modified seawater  

SciTech Connect

Dolomite is known from Pleistocene carbonates in the southeastern part of Barbados. Most dolomite was found in a roadcut called Golden Grove. This occurrence is of interest because (1) some textures are rare; (2) the [delta][sup 13]C values of many dolomite samples are unusually low; (3) these dolomites have been interpreted to be diagenetic products of a coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zone with as little as 5% seawater; and (4) these dolomites have been used for modeling of extensive dolomitization in coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zones elsewhere (Humphrey and Quinn 1989). The authors investigated dolomite samples from Golden Grove, calcite samples from Golden Grove and elsewhere on Barbados, and groundwater samples from several locations on the island (first results have been reported in Machel and Burton 1991). The major objective of their study is to establish the geochemical and/or hydrological conditions of dolomitization.

Machel, H.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology); Burton, E.A. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1994-10-03

222

76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of Renaissance Bronzes'' Summary: Notice...Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects...in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age of Renaissance Bronzes,'' imported...

2011-09-13

223

Golden Rice – five years on the road – five years to go?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provitamin A accumulates in the grain of Golden Rice as a result of genetic transformation. In developing countries, where vitamin A deficiency prevails, grain from Golden Rice is expected to provide this important micronutrient sustainably through agriculture. Since its original production, the prototype Golden Rice has undergone intense research to increase the provitamin A content, to establish the scientific basis

Salim Al-Babili; Peter Beyer

2005-01-01

224

Golden West College FACTS: Fall Enrollment Trends through 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the fall enrollment trends through 1999 at California's Golden West College (GWC). This report contains charts and graphs of the following enrollment trend topics: (1) fall 1998 student enrollment snapshot, which includes counts and percentages by gender, time of day, age, educational goal, entrance level, high school…

Golden West Coll., Huntington Beach, CA. Research Office.

225

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

226

HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education in subject areas…

Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

227

Reprint of photograph (original print located in the Golden Gate ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Reprint of photograph (original print located in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area Park Archives and Record Collection, San Francisco, California), U.S. Army, photographer unknown, circa 1937. - Presidio of San Francisco, Ammunition Storage, Old Mason Street at Crissy Field, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

228

Highlighting High Performance: The Solar Energy Research Facility, Golden, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Energy Research Facility in Golden, Colorado, uses a stair-step configuration to allow daylight and heat into the office areas, while the laboratories in the back of the building are in a more controlled en...

P. Torcellini K. Epstein

2001-01-01

229

Placental retention in a golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

A 4-yr-old female golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) had placental retention after delivery of a stillborn fetus. Conservative therapy with oxytocin and dinoprost tromethamine did not result in placental expulsion and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Placental retention is a rare condition in humans and has not been well documented in non-human primates. PMID:17312734

Bronson, Ellen; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos; Murray, Suzan

2005-12-01

230

Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…

Ding, Suining

2008-01-01

231

Assessment of the GoldenEye-50 Operator Control Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The GoldenEye-50, developed by Aurora Flight Sciences, was selected by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency as one of multiple candidates to provide the basic platform for the Organic Air Vehicle II program for expected integration into the U.S. ...

C. N. Jacobson C. A. Burns

2005-01-01

232

Gas diffusion in ‘Golden’ papaya fruit at different maturity stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the gas diffusion of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.) was evaluated as a function of different maturity stages, by using a photoacoustic spectrometer. The maturity stages were characterized by the anatomical changes, membrane integrity, pulp firmness, and skin color. Microstructural analysis was performed by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the

Talita Pereira; Paulo Sergio Gomes de Almeida; Inga Gonçalves de Azevedo; Maura da Cunha; Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marcelo Gomes da Silva; Helion Vargas

2009-01-01

233

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) of male golden hamsters (Mesocricitus auratus) was measured repeatedly by placing the animals in a temperature gradient for 80 min. A total of 180 observations were made during the last 20 min of treatment in the gradient. The mean preferred Ta ...

234

Harvard M.B.A.: A Golden Passport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite increasing competition from Stanford University in California and a number of other graduate business schools, an M.B.A. degree from Harvard is still regarded as the great golden passport to life in the upper class. Discusses the salary and business advantages in having a Harvard M.B.A. and the attitudes of three graduates on what the…

Knight, Michael

1978-01-01

235

The cultural-historical basis of the ‘Golden Key’ program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Golden Key’ programme is a preschool education programme that is constructed on the basis of Vygotskij's cultural-historical theory. One of the most important aspects of this theory is not just the unity of intellect and affect, but the fact that the relationship between these two changes during the course of development. In infants, affect drives action, whereas by the

Genady G. Kravtsov; Elena E. Kravtsova

2011-01-01

236

Golden Parachutes: CEOs and the Exercise of Social Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses an agency theory framework and data on 89 Fortune 500 firms to assess whether granting golden parachutes to chief executive officers is determined by an economically rational process or by the CEO's social influence. Results suggest that each influence has merit, depending on the firm's ownership structure. Includes 45 references. (MLH)

Wade, James; And Others

1990-01-01

237

Potential health benefits of Golden Rice: a Philippine case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden Rice has been genetically modified to produce beta-carotene in the endosperm of grain. It could improve the vitamin A status of deficient food consumers, especially women and children in developing countries. This paper analyses potential impacts in a Philippine context. Since the technology is still at the stage of R&D, benefits are simulated with a scen- ario approach. Health

Roukayatou Zimmermann; Matin Qaim

2004-01-01

238

PROJECTING THE BENEFITS OF GOLDEN RICE IN THE PHILIPPINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden Rice has been genetically engineered to produce beta-carotene in the endosperm of the grain. It could improve the vitamin A status of deficient food consumers, especially women and children in the developing world. This paper analyses the potential impacts in a Philippine context. Since the technology is still at the stage of R&D, benefits are simulated within a scenario

Roukayatou Zimmermann; Matin Qaim

2002-01-01

239

Potential health benefits of Golden Rice: a Philippine case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden Rice has been genetically modified to produce beta-carotene in the endosperm of grain. It could improve the vitamin A status of deficient food consumers, especially women and children in developing countries. This paper analyses potential impacts in a Philippine context. Since the technology is still at the stage of R&D, benefits are simulated with a scenario approach. Health effects

Roukayatou Zimmermann; Matin Qaim

2004-01-01

240

The Cultural-Historical Basis of the "Golden Key" Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Golden Key" programme is a preschool education programme that is constructed on the basis of Vygotskij's cultural-historical theory. One of the most important aspects of this theory is not just the unity of intellect and affect, but the fact that the relationship between these two changes during the course of development. In infants, affect…

Kravtsov, Genady G.; Kravtsova, Elena E.

2011-01-01

241

The Effects of Seismic Disturbances on the Golden Gate Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the effects of seismic disturbances on the Golden Gate Bridge. It is a supplement to the studies made during the design phase of the bridge. The results that are obtained in this study are based on the tangent-stiffness properties o...

F. Baron M. Arikan R. E. Hamati

1976-01-01

242

ON THE GOLDEN RATIO, STRONG LAW, AND FIRST PASSAGE PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a sequence of correlated square integrable random variables {Xn,n 1}, conditions are provided for the strong law of large numbers limn!1 Sn ESn n = 0 almost surely to hold where Sn = Pn i=1 Xi,n 1. The hypotheses stipulate that two series converge, the terms of which involve, respectively, both the Golden Ratio ' = 1+ p 5

Tien-Chung Hu; Andrew Rosalsky; Andrei I. Volodin

243

Golden ratio scheduling for flow control with low buffer requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of flow control that requires very few buffers to be allocated at each node to virtual circuits (or sessions) that have to transverse many links is described. Transmissions are scheduled using the golden ratio policy of A. Itai and Z. Rosberg (1984). It is shown that the buffer requirements of a session grow at most logarithmically with the

Shivendra S. Panwar; Thomas K. Philips; Mon-Song Chen

1992-01-01

244

Functional equations for circle homeomorphisms with golden ratio rotation number  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of a scaling limit for mappings of the circle to itself with golden ratio rotation number leads to a pair of functional equations with at least a formal resemblance to the functional equation using the accumulation of period-doubling bifurcations. We discuss the general theory of these functional equations, assuming that solutions exist.

Oscar E. Lanford

1984-01-01

245

Multidimensional Declustering Schemes Using Golden Ratio and Kronecker Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new declustering scheme for allocating uniform multidimensional data among parallel disks. The scheme, aimed at reducing disk access time for range queries, is based on Golden Ratio Sequences for two dimensions and Kronecker Sequences for higher dimensions. Using exhaustive simulation, we show that, in two dimensions, the worst-case (additive) deviation of the scheme from the optimal response

Chung-min Chen; Randeep Bhatia; Rakesh K. Sinha

2003-01-01

246

36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...therein and that I am duly entitled to be issued free of charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l -6a (Supp., 1974), as amended by Pub. L. 93-303....

2013-07-01

247

Structural Transition of Gold Nanoclusters: From the Golden Cage to the Golden Pyramid  

SciTech Connect

How nanoclusters transform from one structural type to another as a function of size is a critical issue in cluster science. Here we report a study of the structural transition from the golden cage Au16- to the pyramidal Au20-. We obtained distinct experimental evidence that the cage-to-pyramid crossover occurs at Au18- , for which the cage and pyramidal isomers are nearly degenerate and coexist experimentally. The two isomers are observed and identified by their different interactions with O2 and Ar. The cage isomer is observed to be more reactive with O2 and can be preferentially "titrated" from the cluster beam, whereas the pyramidal isomer has slightly stronger interactions with Ar and is favored in the Au18Arx- van der Waals complexes. The current study allows the detailed structural evolution and growth routes from the hollow cage to the compact pyramid to be understood and provides information about the structure-function relationship of the Au18- cluster.

Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, R.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai S.

2009-05-01

248

[Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture with golden needles].  

PubMed

Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually. PMID:24195225

Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang

2013-08-01

249

CO chemisorption on the surfaces of the golden cages  

SciTech Connect

We report a joint experimental and theoretical study of CO chemisorption on the golden cages. We find that the Au17? cage is highly robust and retains its cage structure in Au17-CO?. On the other hand, the Au16 ? cage is transformed to a structure similar to Au17 ? upon the adsorption of CO. Au18 ? is known to consist of two nearly degenerate structures, i.e., a cage and a pyramidal isomer, which coexist in the cluster beam. However, upon CO chemisorption only the cage isomer is observed while the pyramidal isomer no longer exists due to its less favorable interaction with CO, compared to the cage isomer. We find that inclusion of the spin-orbit effects is critical in yielding simulated spectra in quantitative agreement with the experimental data and providing unequivocal structural information and molecular insights into the chemical interactions between CO and the golden cages.

Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, R.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai S.

2009-12-21

250

San Francisco Public Library: Golden Gate International Exposition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Opened on February 18, 1939 the Golden Gate International Exposition was designed to celebrate the completion of the Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. The theme of this exposition was "Pageant of the Pacific,â and offered a gauzy Pacific Rim influence to the art, architecture, and landscape design at the fairgrounds while blending in modernism and technological innovations. Originally running through October of 1939, it was brought back for a second round from May 25 - September 29, 1940. This digital collection from the San Francisco Public Library brings together 130 plus photos that document the built environment of this grand exposition, including shots of the Danish Pavilion, sculptors working on the various monuments around the fairgrounds, and some rather elaborate molds of the Bay Bridge.

251

Autoradiography in fetal golden hamsters treated with tritiated diethylnitrosamine  

SciTech Connect

Tritiated diethylnitrosamine was administered to female Syrian golden hamsters on each of the last 4 days (days 12-15) of pregnancy. The distribution of bound radioactivity was monitored by light microscopic autoradiography of fetal tracheas and livers, the placentas, and the maternal livers. In the trachea, the fetal target organ, bound radioactivity was restricted to the respiratory epithelium, where diethylnitrosamine-induced tracheal tumors arise. Mucous cells and nonciliated stem cells were identified as the principal sites of binding; other cell types within the tracheal epithelium contained only small amounts of bound radioactivity. The level of binding observed in the fetal trachea increased steadily from day 12 to day 15, which correlated well with the levels of differentiation of this tissue during this period. This observation also agrees with the previously reported observation that tumor incidence increases from 40 to 95% in Syrian golden hamsters between days 12 and 15.

Reznik-Schueller, H.M.; Hague, B.F. Jr.

1981-04-01

252

Kinematics of gait in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to quantify the two-dimensional kinematics of pathologic gait during over-ground walking at a self-selected speed at the stifle (knee) and hock (ankle) joints in six Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dogs and six carrier littermates (controls). We found that GRMD dogs walked significantly slower than controls (p<0.01). At the stifle joint, both groups displayed

Anthony P. Marsh; Joel D. Eggebeen; Joe N. Kornegay; Chad D. Markert; Martin K. Childers

2010-01-01

253

Perception, Action, and Experience: Unraveling the Golden Braid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of our human mental life looks to involve a seamless unfolding of perception, action and experience: a golden braid in which each element twines intimately with the rest. We see the very world we act in and we act in the world we see. But more than this, visual experience presents us with the world in a way apt for the control and fine…

Clark, Andy

2009-01-01

254

Serological Studies on Tomato Golden Mosaic Virus, a Geminivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Particles of tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), purified by an improved procedure, were used to prepare an antiserum which in gel double-diffusion tests with homologous virus gave a single precipitin line and had a titre of 1\\/256. TGMV was shown to be serologically related to another geminivirus, cassava latent virus, and distantly related to a leafhopper-transmitted geminivirus, beet curly

V. E. Stein; R. H. A. Coutts; K. W. Buck

1983-01-01

255

Adventitious shoot regeneration from ovaries of Hosta ‘Golden Scepter’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability ofHosta Golden Scepter (GS) ovary explants to generate adventitious shootsin vitro. Ovaries were transversely cut into halves and transferred to petri dishes containingHosta initiation medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 2.5 ?M and N6-benzyladenine (BA) at 10 ?M. GS produced adventitious shoots from the ovary base via organogenesis. The

D. J. Williams; K. H. Al-Juboory; R. M. Skirvin

1998-01-01

256

FOOD HABITS OF NESTING GOLDEN EAGLES IN NORTHEAST CALI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1976 and 1981, 1,156 prey items representing 37 species were collected from Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nests in the western Great Basin. The 4 most fre- quently encountered prey species were the black-tailed iackrabbit, mountain cottontail, yellow-bellied marmot, and Chukar. These species accounted for 90% of all prey items; the remains of livestock comprised less than 1%. Lagomorphs comprised

Peter H. Bloom; Stephen J. Hawks

257

Potential Impacts of Golden Rice on Public Health in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects millions of people world-wide, causing serious health problems. Golden Rice (GR), which has been genetically engineered to produce beta-carotene, is being proposed as a remedy. While this new technology has aroused controversial debates, its nutritional impact and cost-effectiveness remain unclear. We determine the current burden of VAD in India from a public health perspective,and simulate

Alexander J. Stein; H. P. S. Sachdev; Matin Qaim

2006-01-01

258

The Erd?s-Vershik problem for the golden ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of the Erd?s measure and the invariant Erd?s measure for the golden ratio and all values of the Bernoulli parameter\\u000a are studied. It is proved that a shift on the two-sided Fibonacci compact set with invariant Erd?s measure is isomorphic to\\u000a the integral automorphism for a Bernoulli shift with countable alphabet. An effective algorithm for calculating the entropy\\u000a of

Z. I. Bezhaeva; V. I. Oseledets

2010-01-01

259

Late autumn trophic flexibility of the golden jackal Canis aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the golden jackal Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758) were compared using scat analysis in Hungary (temperate\\u000a climate agricultural area), Greece (Mediterranean marshland), and Israel (Mediterranean agricultural area). Samples (84, 70\\u000a and 64 scats, respectively) were collected during late autumn, a period with capital importance to the long term survival\\u000a of young jackals, during which they become independent.

József Lanszki; Giorgos Giannatos; Amit Dolev; Gilad Bino; Miklós Heltai

2010-01-01

260

Cancer of the Pancreas Induced in the Syrian Golden Hamster  

PubMed Central

A high incidence of pancreatic neoplasms was induced in Syrian golden hamsters following subcutaneous applications of diisopropanolnitrosamine (DIPN) once weekly for life. The tumor latency was as short as 15 weeks. In clinical and morphologic aspects the induced pancreatic tumors closely resembled those of humans. ImagesFig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12

Pour, Parviz; Kruger, F. W.; Althoff, J.; Cardesa, A.; Mohr, U.

1974-01-01

261

Mitochondrial genome structure and evolution in the living fossil vampire squid, Vampyroteuthis infernalis, and extant cephalopods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the “living fossil” cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Vampyromorpha) and the cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Sepiida) were determined. The V. infernalis mt genome structure is identical to the incirrate octopod Octopus vulgaris mt genome structure, and is therefore more similar to that of the polyplacophoran Katharina tunicata, than to that of the other “living fossil”

Shin-ichi Yokobori; Dhugal J. Lindsay; Mari Yoshida; Kotaro Tsuchiya; Akihiko Yamagishi; Tadashi Maruyama; Tairo Oshima

2007-01-01

262

Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles(Aquila chrysaetosc anadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles(five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three of which completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and migrated to known wintering areas in the eastern United States. They used different routes but each followed the same general path during fall and spring migrations which lasted between 26 and 40 days,and 25 and 51 days, respectively. Eagles wintered from 93 to 135 days in areas located 1,650 to 3,000 km south of their breeding territory. In spring 1993, satellite telemetry located the eagles in their former breeding territory in late March, mid-April and early May. This study confirms previous suggestion that some breeding Golden Eagles wintering in eastern United States come from northern Quebec and describes the first successful tracking of the complete yearly migration cycle of a bird of prey.

Brodeur, Serge; DeCarie, R.; Bird, D. M.; Fuller, Mark R.

1996-01-01

263

The impact of concomitant infections by Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths on the health of wild golden and golden-headed lion tamarins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year longitudinal epidemiological study was carried out to evaluate the effect of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and three intestinal helminth species on the health of golden and golden-headed lion tamarins. We evaluated health using analysis of blood counts, serum proteins, electrophoretograms, electrocardiograms and a health ranking based on physiological parameters. Among the helminths, Trichostrongylidae was demonstrated as the most

Rafael V. Monteiro; James M. Dietz; Ana Maria Jansen

2010-01-01

264

Lead poisoning and heavy metal exposure of golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ) from the European Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead poisoning and organ levels of the non-essential heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury of seven free-ranging golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) from the European Alps, and of one 23-year-old captive golden eagle are reported. All birds were found dead or moribund\\u000a during the years 2000 and 2001 in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. One golden eagle from Switzerland with extraordinarily\\u000a high

Norbert Kenntner; Yvon Crettenand; Hans-Joachim Fünfstück; Martin Janovsky; Frieda Tataruch

2007-01-01

265

Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects golden mussels by preventing them from filtering food and oxygen from water, and in this way killing them. The attachment density decreased with increased sediment deposition. Golden mussel density decreased by about 70-90% when the sedimentation rate increased by 3-6 times. Therefore, spraying with fine sediment or creating hyper-concentration of sediment water to treat golden mussels before they enter tunnels is recommended as an effective strategy for controlling golden mussel invasion and high-density bio-fouling. Key words: golden mussel invasion; bio-fouling; sediment settling; habitat; controlling strategy

Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

2013-04-01

266

Topographic map of Golden Gate Estates, Collier County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction of canals related to land development in the Golden Gate Estates area of Collier County, Fla., has altered the natural drainage pattern of the watershed. The area of approximately 300 square miles was topographically mapped with a contour interval of 0.5 foot to assist in determining the effects of canal construction on the surface-water and ground-water resources in the watershed. The topographic map was prepared at a scale of 1:48,000 using aerial photography and ground-control points. (USGS)

Jurado, Antonio

1981-01-01

267

Imposex in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) was introduced into Taiwan intentionally in the early 1980s and has become a recurring pest that seriously threatens aquatic crops. In this study, a field description of imposex with a developed penis sheath and penis in female golden apple snails from crop/domestic wastewater drainage sites and a six-order river is presented for the first time. Based on the five field collections and the aquarium group, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) of P. canaliculata in imposex development was categorized into four stages, i.e., stage 0: without male genital system; stage 1: with rudimentary penis; stage 2: with rudimentary penis and penis sheath; and stage 3: the rudimentary penis developing into penis pouch and penis. The VDS indices varied between 1.07 and 2.82 and were lowest in the aquarium group and Yuanlin2. Regarding the severity of imposex, the aquarium group was less pronounced, as illustrated by the length of penis sheath and penis length, than the field collections (p<0.05). In respect of the penis length, males of the most imposex-affected site were up to 15% shorter than that of the aquarium group. Negative correlations between male penis length and female imposex characters (i.e., penis length and penis sheath length) were also observed. PMID:17023028

Liu, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Ming-Yie; Lee, Ching-Chang; Liu, Li-Lian

2006-12-01

268

Extracting effective Higgs couplings in the golden channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinematic distributions in Higgs decays to four charged leptons, the so called `golden channel, are a powerful probe of the tensor structure of its couplings to neutral electroweak gauge bosons. In this study we construct the first part of a comprehensive analysis framework designed to maximize the information contained in this channel in order to perform direct extraction of the various possible Higgs couplings. To that end we first complete an earlier analytic calculation of the leading order fully differential cross sections for the golden channel signal and background to include the 4 e and 4 ? final states with interference between identical final states. We also examine the relative fractions of the different possible combinations of scalar-tensor couplings by integrating the fully differential cross section over all kinematic variables as well as show various doubly differential spectra for both the signal and background. From these analytic expressions we then construct a `generator level' analysis framework based on the maximum likelihood method. We demonstrate the ability of our framework to perform multi-parameter extractions of all the possible effective couplings of a spin-0 scalar to pairs of neutral electroweak gauge bosons including any correlations. This framework provides a powerful method for study of these couplings and can be readily adapted to include the relevant detector and systematic effects which we demonstrate in an accompanying study to follow.

Chen, Yi; Vega-Morales, Roberto

2014-04-01

269

Golden triangle for folding rates of globular proteins.  

PubMed

The ability of protein chains to spontaneously form their spatial structures is a long-standing puzzle in molecular biology. Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference (11 orders of magnitude) is akin to the difference between the life span of a mosquito and the age of the universe. Here, we show that physical theory with biological constraints outlines a "golden triangle" limiting the possible range of folding rates for single-domain globular proteins of various size and stability, and that the experimentally measured folding rates fall within this narrow triangle built without any adjustable parameters, filling it almost completely. In addition, the golden triangle predicts the maximal size of protein domains that fold under solely thermodynamic (rather than kinetic) control. It also predicts the maximal allowed size of the "foldable" protein domains, and the size of domains found in known protein structures is in a good agreement with this limit. PMID:23251035

Garbuzynskiy, Sergiy O; Ivankov, Dmitry N; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Finkelstein, Alexei V

2013-01-01

270

Adsorption properties of chalcogen atoms on a golden buckyball Au16? from first principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using first-principles density functional theory, we investigate the adsorption properties of chalcogen elements (oxygen and sulfur) on an anionic golden nanocage Au16? and its effects on the structural and electronic properties of the golden cage. In particular, we find that when a sulfur atom is encapsulated inside Au16?, its bonding character with Au atoms appears ionic due to electron transfer

Seoung-Hun Kang; Gunn Kim; Young-Kyun Kwon

2011-01-01

271

Medea, Jason, and their illusions of the Golden Fleece: a Jungian contribution to transference dreaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense projections of love and power regularly occur in the transference relationship. They often objectify archetypal aspects that a client might be struggling to understand. The tale of the Golden Fleece, which stands as a symbol for an inappropriately overvalued attachment, reveals that Jason and Medea were too captivated by their own desires, which they projected onto the Golden Fleece.

Robert Tyminski

2011-01-01

272

Relation Between Food Preference and Food-Elicited Vocalizations in Golden Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of 2 studies on food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). First, we investigated the preferences of 10 golden lion tamarins for 6 foods. Tamarins prefer mealworms and raisins significantly more than apple, egg, carrot, or marmoset diet. Food preference rank was significantly and positively correlated with the rank of latency to choose a particular

Joseph J. Benz; Daniel W. Leger; Jeffrey A. French

1992-01-01

273

Two strategies for coping with food shortage in desert golden spiny mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desert rodents face periods of food shortage and use different strategies for coping with it, including changes in activity level. Golden spiny mice (Acomys russatus) inhabit rock crevasses and do not dig burrows nor store food. When kept under 50% food restriction most, but not all, golden spiny mice defend their body mass by physiological means. We tested the hypothesis

Roee Gutman; Dotan Yosha; Itzhak Choshniak; Noga Kronfeld-Schor

2007-01-01

274

On the Performance of Golden Codes in Rayleigh Fading Channels with Doppler Spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden code has recently been proposed as a 2 x 2 space time block code that achieves the optimal diversity - multiplexing gain tradeoff for a multiple antenna system. In this paper we review the decoding methodology for the Golden code, followed by performance comparisons with the Alamouti code and V-BLAST in Rayleigh fading environments with Doppler spread. Simulation

Lance Linton; Phillip Conder; Michael Faulkner

275

Comparing Open-Ended Choice Experiments and Experimental Auctions: An Application to Golden Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use two experimental valuation methods to estimate consumer demand for genetically modified golden rice. The first is an open-ended choice experiment (OECE) where participants name the quantities of golden rice and conventional rice demanded at each of several price combinations, one of which will be randomly chosen as binding. This allows us to estimate market demand by aggregating demand

Jay R. Corrigan; Dinah Pura T. Depositario; Rodolfo M. Nayga; Ximing Wu; Tiffany P. Laude

2006-01-01

276

Comparing Open-Ended Choice Experiments and Experimental Auctions: An Application to Golden Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use two experimental valuation methods to estimate consumer demand for genetically modified golden rice. The first is an open-ended choice experiment (OECE) where participants name the quantities of golden rice and conventional rice demanded at each of several price combinations, one of which will be randomly chosen as binding. This allows us to estimate market demand by aggregating demand

Jay R. Corrigan; Dinah Pura T. Depositario; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.; Ximing Wu; Tiffany P. Laude

2009-01-01

277

Temperature effects on bruise darkness of ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and ‘Jonathan’ apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bruise darkness of apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and’ Jonathan') was examined in relation to fruit temperature (0, 10, and 20°C) at time of injury, and following 4?day storage at 0, 10, or 20°C. The temperature of ‘Golden Delicious’ at bruising had no effect on bruise darkness but for the other cultivars, colder fruit temperatures

G. E. Thomson; D. F. Cotter; P. A. Daly

1996-01-01

278

Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host\\u000a and\\/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition\\/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and\\u000a place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins\\u000a parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi

Rafael V. Monteiro; James M. Dietz; Becky Raboy; Benjamin Beck; Kristel D. Vleeschower; Andrew Baker; Andréia Martins; Ana Maria Jansen

2007-01-01

279

Potential gene products of bean golden mosaic virus have higher sequence homologies to those of tomato golden mosaic virus than to those of cassava latent virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the DNAs of bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) and cassava latent virus (CLV) revealed a fairly close relationship between BGMV DNA1, TGMV DNA1, and CLV DNA1 and a comparatively distant relationship between BGMV DNA2, TGMV DNA2, and CLV DNA2. The 200-base region common to the two DNAs of each

M. Ikegami; T. Morinaga; K. Miura

1988-01-01

280

76 FR 13600 - Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand #3 and #4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Idaho, Golden Hand 3 and 4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations AGENCY...The Golden Hand No. 3 and No. 4 Lode Mining Claims Proposed Plan of Operations. The project included mining operations on the lode claims along...

2011-03-14

281

78 FR 77194 - Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order...and accurate information concerning the securities of Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc. because it has not filed any...

2013-12-20

282

Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content.  

PubMed

"Golden Rice" is a variety of rice engineered to produce beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) to help combat vitamin A deficiency, and it has been predicted that its contribution to alleviating vitamin A deficiency would be substantially improved through even higher beta-carotene content. We hypothesized that the daffodil gene encoding phytoene synthase (psy), one of the two genes used to develop Golden Rice, was the limiting step in beta-carotene accumulation. Through systematic testing of other plant psys, we identified a psy from maize that substantially increased carotenoid accumulation in a model plant system. We went on to develop "Golden Rice 2" introducing this psy in combination with the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (crtI) used to generate the original Golden Rice. We observed an increase in total carotenoids of up to 23-fold (maximum 37 microg/g) compared to the original Golden Rice and a preferential accumulation of beta-carotene. PMID:15793573

Paine, Jacqueline A; Shipton, Catherine A; Chaggar, Sunandha; Howells, Rhian M; Kennedy, Mike J; Vernon, Gareth; Wright, Susan Y; Hinchliffe, Edward; Adams, Jessica L; Silverstone, Aron L; Drake, Rachel

2005-04-01

283

Golden Rice--five years on the road--five years to go?  

PubMed

Provitamin A accumulates in the grain of Golden Rice as a result of genetic transformation. In developing countries, where vitamin A deficiency prevails, grain from Golden Rice is expected to provide this important micronutrient sustainably through agriculture. Since its original production, the prototype Golden Rice has undergone intense research to increase the provitamin A content, to establish the scientific basis for its carotenoid complement, and to better comply with regulatory requirements. Today, the current focus is on how to get Golden Rice effectively into the hands of farmers, which is a novel avenue for public sector research, carried out with the aid of international research consortia. Additional new research is underway to further increase the nutritional value of Golden Rice. PMID:16297656

Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter

2005-12-01

284

Cumulative Diminuations with Fibonacci Approach, Golden Section and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, physical quantities of a nonequilibrium system in the stages of its orientation towards equilibrium has been formulated by a simple cumulative diminuation mechanism and Fibonacci recursion approximation. Fibonacci p-numbers are obtained in power law forms and generalized diminuation sections are related to diminuation percents. The consequences of the fractal structure of space and the memory effects are concretely established by a simple mechanism. Thus, the reality why nature prefers power laws rather than exponentials ones is explained. It has been introduced that, Fibonacci p-numbers are elements of a Generalized Cantor set. The fractal dimensions of the Generalized Cantor sets have been obtained by different methods. The generalized golden section which was used by M.S. El Naschie in his works on high energy physics is evaluated in this frame.

Büyükk?l?ç, F.; Demirhan, D.

2008-03-01

285

Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach  

PubMed Central

Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework).

2012-01-01

286

Shifting foundations and metrics for golden-cheeked warbler recovery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) as a case study, this paper discusses what lessons can be learned from the process of the emergency listing and subsequent development of the recovery plan. Are the metrics for recovery in the current warbler plan appropriate, including population size and distribution (recovery units), migration corridors, and wintering habitat? In other words, what happened, what can we learn, and what should happen (in general) in the future for development of such plans? We discuss the number of recovery units required for species persistence and estimate the number of male warblers in protected areas across the breeding range of the species, using newly published density estimates. We also discuss future monitoring strategies to estimate warbler population trends and dispersal rates.

Hatfield, Jeff S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Duarte, Adam

2012-01-01

287

The Golden Age for Studying Hot QCD Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty years ago, the study of hot QCD matter took off with the beginning of fixed target heavy ion experiments at the Brookhaven AGS and CERN SPS. Almost ten years ago, the center of mass energy of these collisions was increased by an order of magnitude with the completion of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven. This jump in energy, the dedicated nature of the facility, and the investment in experiments has allowed for both a broad characterization and detailed probing of the hot QCD matter created. In the coming decade, critical detector and accelerator upgrades at RHIC, the coming online of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and other worldwide efforts will bring these studies into what can be termed a Golden Age. In this talk, we will review what has been learned, and suggest what may be revealed by future efforts.

Nagle, James

2008-10-01

288

Two 'Golden Ratio' indices in fragment-based drug discovery.  

PubMed

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is complementary to high-throughput screening. The approach has two key stages: identifying the starting fragment hit to be developed and generating the lead compound from the starting fragment hit. Here, we provide an overview of FBDD and introduce two indices originally developed at Astellas Pharma. The first is related to the size ratio of fragment hits to drug leads; this is useful for fragment-library design and the fragment-to-lead process. The second is related to maximum ligand efficiency; this is useful for fragment hit prioritization and the fragment-to-lead process. Both indices are based on the 'Golden Ratio'. PMID:19028598

Orita, Masaya; Ohno, Kazuki; Niimi, Tatsuya

2009-03-01

289

Interactive effects of prey and weather on golden eagle reproduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reproduction of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos was studied in southwestern Idaho for 23 years, and the relationship between eagle reproduction and jackrabbit Lepus californicus abundance, weather factors, and their interactions, was modelled using general linear models. Backward elimination procedures were used to arrive at parsimonious models. 2. The number of golden eagle pairs occupying nesting territories each year showed a significant decline through time that was unrelated to either annual rabbit abundance or winter severity. However, eagle hatching dates were significantly related to both winter severity and jackrabbit abundance. Eagles hatched earlier when jackrabbits were abundant, and they hatched later after severe winters. 3. Jackrabbit abundance influenced the proportion of pairs that laid eggs, the proportion of pairs that were successful, mean brood size at fledging, and the number of young fledged per pair. Weather interacted with prey to influence eagle reproductive rates. 4. Both jackrabbit abundance and winter severity were important in predicting the percentage of eagle pairs that laid eggs. Percentage laying was related positively to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to winter severity. 5. The variables most useful in predicting percentage of laying pairs successful were rabbit abundance and the number of extremely hot days during brood-rearing. The number of hot days and rabbit abundance were also significant in a model predicting eagle brood size at fledging. Both success and brood size were positively related to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to the frequency of hot days in spring. 6. Eagle reproduction was limited by rabbit abundance during approximately twothirds of the years studied. Weather influenced how severely eagle reproduction declined in those years. 7. This study demonstrates that prey and weather can interact to limit a large raptor population's productivity. Smaller raptors could be affected more strongly, especially in colder or wetter climates.

Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McDonald, T. L.

1997-01-01

290

Thinking about feathers: Adaptations of Golden Eagle rectrices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The striking black and white plumage of the juvenile Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) provides an excellent opportunity to examine the possible selective forces influencing the strategic placement of dark pigment in birds. The conflict between opposing selective pressures (first, toward large white patches, which may allay aggression in adults, and second, toward dark plumage to promote camouflage and limit solar and abrasive wear) provides the stage whereon are revealed a score of pigmentation traits of potential adaptive value. The general pigmentation trend is for zones that are more exposed to the sun to be darker than elsewhere. More specifically: (1) for rectrices and remiges, outer webs are darker than inner; (2) for those few feathers (e.g., central rectrices, some scapulars, and some tertials), where both inner and outer webs are heavily and nearly equally solar exposed, pigmentation is supplied similarly on both webs; (3) outermost primaries and rectrices are darkest of all and are structurally similar; (4) for central rectrices, subject to high levels of abrasion with substrate, the tip is paler (resultant flexibility may limit breakage); and (5) pigment is heavier along or on the rachis than on the webs. Many of the traits listed above for the Golden Eagle are also found in other families of birds. Traits of the tail common to many species were a terminal pale tip, a subterminal dark band, rachis darker than vane, and outer webs darker than inner for both remiges and rectrices. The most widespread traits likely have adaptive value. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Ellis, D. H.; Lish, J. W.

2006-01-01

291

Evaluation of maxillary anterior teeth and their relation to the golden proportion in malaysian population  

PubMed Central

Background The maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving pleasing dental aesthetics. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of them, including the golden proportion between their perceived widths, and the width-to-height ratio, referred to as the golden standard. The purpose of this study was conducted to evaluate whether consistent relationships exist between tooth width and height of the clinical crown dimensions; and to investigate the occurrence of the golden proportion of the maxillary anterior teeth. Methods Dental casts of the maxillary arches were made in this cross-sectional study from MAHSA University College students who met the inclusion criteria. The 49 participants represented the Malaysian population main ethnics. The dimensions of the anterior teeth and the perceived width of anterior teeth viewed from front were measured using a digital caliper. Results Comparison of the perceived width ratio of lateral to central incisor and canine to lateral incisor with the golden proportion of 0.618 revealed there were a significant statistical difference (p?golden standard of 80%. There was no significant difference in the comparison among ethnic groups for the golden proportion and the golden standard. Conclusions The golden proportion was not found to exist between the perceived widths of maxillary anterior teeth. No golden standard were detected for the width-to-height proportions of maxillary incisors. Specific population characteristics and perception of beauty must be considered. However, ethnicity has no association with the proportions of maxillary anterior teeth.

2013-01-01

292

The impact of concomitant infections by Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths on the health of wild golden and golden-headed lion tamarins.  

PubMed

A 4-year longitudinal epidemiological study was carried out to evaluate the effect of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and three intestinal helminth species on the health of golden and golden-headed lion tamarins. We evaluated health using analysis of blood counts, serum proteins, electrophoretograms, electrocardiograms and a health ranking based on physiological parameters. Among the helminths, Trichostrongylidae was demonstrated as the most pathogenic, followed by Prosthenorchis sp.; concomitant infection by Spiruridae may exacerbate the negative effects of the other two helminths. T. cruzi infection was not highly detrimental to the health of the study animals and was correlated with increased resilience to helminths. Tamarins younger than 1-year of age or older than 4-years had lower health condition. Golden-headed lion tamarins were in lower health condition because of higher parasitic prevalence. Our data suggest that when parasite community pathogenicity and prevalence are high, natural selection will allow survival only of lion tamarins in the best health condition. PMID:20149919

Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Jansen, Ana Maria

2010-08-01

293

Results of NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC1999), October 4-10, 1999, Golden, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

2000-09-01

294

Housing Element Study. Citizen's Participation for the Golden Triangle Planning and Development District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the housing situation of the seven counties in the Golden Triangle Planning and Development District. Problems in the area of housing are identified and then a statement of obstacles, which are preventing the housing problems from being...

1972-01-01

295

The Golden Jubilee Year or From Jazz to Janus (1920-1970)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summary of various activities of NCTM since its formation in 1920. Included are plans for the Golden Jubilee Year, increasing services and international activities of NCTM, and a forward glimpse of goals to be accomplished. (RP)

Schult, Veryl

1970-01-01

296

75 FR 8327 - Golden Pass Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...October 29, 2009, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC (GPPL), filed in...new interconnect between its system and the GTS system to provide GPPL with a bidirectional...facilities and the 16-inch pipeline connecting the tap and the meter. GPPL...

2010-02-24

297

What Makes a Fairy Tale Good: The Queer Kindness of "The Golden Bird."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a literary analysis of "The Golden Bird," a Grimm Brothers fairy tale, to show how an investigation of the literary qualities of fairy tales can reveal what the artistry of such tales consists of. (GT)

Nodelman, Perry M.

1977-01-01

298

AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER DURING SUBCHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF CLORGYLINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Chronic administration of clorgyline, a type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, leads to a decrease in peritoneal (i.e., core) temperature of golden hamsters. o better understand the mechanisms of clorgyline's thermoregulatory effects, autonomic and behavioral thermoregulatory effect...

299

60 FR 42551 - Golden Field Office; Federal Assistance Award to Florida Solar Energy Center  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Golden Field Office; Federal Assistance Award to Florida Solar Energy Center AGENCY: Department of Energy...intention to award a grant to Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to conduct...

1995-08-16

300

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF DIETARY EXPOSURE TO AMOSITE AND CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioassays of amosite, short range (SR), intermediate range (IR) or intermediate range chrysotile asbestos in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Syrian golden hamsters. Amosite and both forms o...

301

Obtaining a New Representation for the Golden Ratio by Solving a Biquadratic Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we show how different ways to solve biquadratic equations can lead us to different representations of its solutions. A particular equation which has the golden ratio and its reciprocal as solutions is shown as example.

Leonardo Mondaini

2002-01-01

302

From the Golden Rectangle and Fibonacci to Pedagogy and Problem Posing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with an analysis of the golden rectangle, the author shows how a series of problems for student investigation arise from queries concerning changes in conditions and analogous situations. (SD)

Brown, Stephen I.

1976-01-01

303

'Ten Golden Rules' for Designing Software in Medical Education: Results from a Formative Evaluation of DIALOG.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of an evaluation of Distance Interactive Learning in Obstetrics and Gynecology (DIALOG) which is an electronic program for continuing education. Presents 10 golden rules for designing software for medical practitioners. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)

Jha, Vikram; Duffy, Sean

2002-01-01

304

Ectoparasitic acari found on golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) from Brazil.  

PubMed

Anesthetized golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia), a highly endangered species, were examined for ectoparasites by brushing the fur and swabbing the ears. Ectoparasites recovered from the fur included four species of immature ticks (Amblyomma spp.), three species of chiggers (Euschoengastia sp., Microtrombicula brennani and Speleocola tamarina), and one species of follicular mite (Rhyncoptes anastosi). Ectoparasites do not seem to be of particular significance to the health of the golden lion tamarin; this may in part result from grooming. PMID:2503627

Wilson, N; Dietz, J M; Whitaker, J O

1989-07-01

305

Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Genetically engineered ''Golden Rice'' contains up to 35 lg b-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice b-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming popula- tions that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically

Guangwen Tang; Jian Qin; Gregory G Dolnikowski; Robert M Russell; Michael A Grusak

2009-01-01

306

Characterizations of Cholinesterases in Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata).  

PubMed

Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

2014-07-01

307

Saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi isolated from golden hamster.  

PubMed

Healthy hair samples from golden hamsters were examined for the presence of dermatophytes and non-dermatophytes using baiting technique and direct inoculation. Thirty-four species and 2 varieties attributed to 17 genera were recovered. Paecilomyces variotii (isolated from 84.4% of the examined hair) and Aspergillus niger (81.3%) were the more frequent isolates on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide. Our results have clearly demonstrated that the hair of hamster was free from true dermatophytes. Using the dilution plate method many fungal species were isolated from cage material (7 genera and 10 species + 1 variety); from faeces (10 genera and 17 species); from standard chow (3 genera and 6 species) of hamster. P. variotii which was the most frequent fungus in the preceding 3 substrates was completely absent in the presence of cycloheximide in SDA. The present study has demonstrated for the first time the isolation of Trichophyton rubrum from hamster faeces. Also, several saprophytic and cycloheximide resistant fungi were isolated. In the air of hamster cage Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Alternaria alternata and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis were the most dominant species on SDA with or without cycloheximide. Using the agar diffusion method, Aloe sap, onion oil, garlic bulb extract and aqueous leaf extracts of Andropogon citratus, Euphorbia sp. and Ruta graveolens were tested for their antifungal activity on 10 fungal species. It was observed that onion oil exhibited a high inhibitory effect against most of the tested fungi. PMID:9768288

Bagy, M M; el-Shanawany, A A; Abdel-Mallek, A Y

1998-01-01

308

Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters.  

PubMed

The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:22128030

Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

2012-02-01

309

Progressive parenting behavior in wild golden lion tamarins  

PubMed Central

Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food independently once they are weaned. Adults of some callitrichid species produce a specialized vocalization that encourages immature group members to take proffered food from the caller. Here, I report that wild adult golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) not only used this food-offering call to encourage young, mobile offspring to approach and take captured prey from them, but as the young began to spend significant time foraging for themselves and to acquire prey by independent means, the frequency of these vocalizations in the context of food transfer declined. Adults then began to use food-offering calls in a novel context: to direct juveniles to foraging sites that contained hidden prey that the adults had found but not captured. During the period of these most frequent adult-directed prey captures, the independent prey-capture success rates of juveniles improved. Thus, adults modified their provisioning behavior in a progressive developmentally sensitive manner that may have facilitated learning how to find food. I hypothesize that as a result of these demonstrations by adults, juveniles either may be encouraged to continue foraging despite low return rates or to learn the properties of productive prey-foraging substrates in a complex environment.

2011-01-01

310

Progressive parenting behavior in wild golden lion tamarins.  

PubMed

Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food independently once they are weaned. Adults of some callitrichid species produce a specialized vocalization that encourages immature group members to take proffered food from the caller. Here, I report that wild adult golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) not only used this food-offering call to encourage young, mobile offspring to approach and take captured prey from them, but as the young began to spend significant time foraging for themselves and to acquire prey by independent means, the frequency of these vocalizations in the context of food transfer declined. Adults then began to use food-offering calls in a novel context: to direct juveniles to foraging sites that contained hidden prey that the adults had found but not captured. During the period of these most frequent adult-directed prey captures, the independent prey-capture success rates of juveniles improved. Thus, adults modified their provisioning behavior in a progressive developmentally sensitive manner that may have facilitated learning how to find food. I hypothesize that as a result of these demonstrations by adults, juveniles either may be encouraged to continue foraging despite low return rates or to learn the properties of productive prey-foraging substrates in a complex environment. PMID:22479136

Rapaport, Lisa G

2011-07-01

311

Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.  

PubMed

As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development. PMID:12970483

Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

2003-09-01

312

Cloned tomato golden mosaic virus back in tomatoes.  

PubMed

Clones of tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), a key model for geminivirus research, have been transmitted back to their original host tomato for the first time. In contrast to the high pathogenicity in other solanaceous species, TGMV induced only very mild symptoms: a few chlorotic spots on the leaf lamina for the common variant (formerly strain cs), and limited vein yellowing for the yellow vein variant (yv). Symptoms disappeared over time, though viral DNA remained detectable in newly developed leaves. Both TGMV variants invaded phloem and, occasionally, also mesophyll parenchyma cells in tomato. Complete direct sequencing of rolling circle amplification products of the viral progeny in tomato plants revealed the consensus of the DNA populations for the two genome components (DNA-A, DNA-B) of both TGMV variants. The DNA-A components showed 98.5% and 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with the independently cloned TGMV molecule sequenced initially in 1984, confirming the classification of csTGMV and yvTGMV as variants. The results are discussed with reference to the history of the Brazilian "mosaico dourado" disease in tomato, and the odyssey of TGMV passaging through Nicotiana benthamiana plants and bacteria of numerous laboratories worldwide. PMID:22677771

Wyant, Patricia Soares; Kober, Sigrid; Schwierzok, Alexandra; Kocher, Conny; Schäfer, Benjamin; Jeske, Holger; Wege, Christina

2012-08-01

313

Age-related thoracic radiographic changes in golden and labrador retriever muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Golden retriever and Labrador retriever muscular dystrophy are inherited progressive degenerative myopathies that are used as models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in man. Thoracic lesions were reported to be the most consistent radiographic finding in golden retriever dogs in a study where radiographs were performed at a single-time point. Muscular dystrophy worsens clinically over time and longitudinal studies in dogs are lacking. Thus our goal was to describe the thoracic abnormalities of golden retriever and Labrador retriever dogs, to determine the timing of first expression and their evolution with time. To this purpose, we retrospectively reviewed 390 monthly radiographic studies of 38 golden retrievers and six Labrador retrievers with muscular dystrophy. The same thoracic lesions were found in both golden and Labrador retrievers. They included, in decreasing frequency, flattened and/or scalloped diaphragmatic shape (43/44), pulmonary hyperinflation (34/44), hiatal hernia (34/44), cranial pectus excavatum (23/44), bronchopneumonia (22/44), and megaesophagus (14/44). The last three lesions were not reported in a previous radiographic study in golden retriever dogs. In all but two dogs the thoracic changes were detected between 4 and 10 months and were persistent or worsened over time. Clinically, muscular dystrophy should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with a combination of these thoracic radiographic findings. PMID:22702494

Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Labruyère, Julien J; Thibaud, Jean Laurent; Barthélémy, Inès; Leperlier, Dimitri; Saunders, Jimmy H; Blot, Stéphane

2012-01-01

314

Ductuli efferentes of the male Golden Syrian hamster reproductive tract.  

PubMed

Efferent ductules are responsible for the transportation of spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis and their epithelium is responsible for the reabsorption of over 90% of the luminal fluid. The purpose of this research was to characterize the gross morphology and histology of efferent ductules in the male Golden Syrian hamster. The efferent ductules emerge from rete testis with a unique polarity at the apex or cephalic pole of the testis. The number of efferent ductules varied from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.0 and blind ending ducts were observed in approximately 56% of the males. The ductules merged into a single common duct prior to entering the caput epididymidis. The proximal efferent ductule lumen was wider than the distal (conus and common ducts), consistent with reabsorption of most of the luminal fluid, as was morphology of the ductal epithelium. Non-ciliated cells in the proximal region had prominent endocytic apparatuses, showing both coated pits and apical tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Large basolateral, intercellular spaces were also present in the epithelium of the proximal region. Distal non-ciliated cells had an abundance of large endosomes and lysosomal granules. Localisation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3; SLC9A3) and aquaporins 1 and 9 (AQP1, AQP9) along the microvillus border was also consistent with ion transport and fluid reabsorption by this epithelium. In comparison, the caput epididymidis epithelium expressed only AQP9 immunostaining. Another unusual feature of the hamster efferent ductules was the presence of glycogen aggregates in the basal cytoplasm of small groups of epithelial cells, but only in the proximal ducts near the rete testis. Androgen (AR), estrogen (ESR1 and ESR2) and vitamin D receptors (VDR) were also abundant in epithelial nuclei of proximal and distal efferent ductules. In comparison, caput epididymidis showed very little immunostaining for ESR1. PMID:24677666

Ford, J; Carnes, K; Hess, R A

2014-07-01

315

Cage Clusters of Gold and Tin: Golden Buckyballs and Stannaspherene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) yields direct electronic structure information for size-selected clusters. Combining PES with theoretical calculations has become an effective approach to obtain structural information for small and medium-sized clusters. We present recent discoveries of two classes of cage clusters in gold and tin. Negatively charged gold clusters (Aun^-) have been shown to exhibit a remarkable structural diversity from 2D structures for n = 4-12 and the pyramidal structure for n = 20. Using PES and DFT calculations, we have found that gold clusters with n = 16-18 possess unprecedented hollow cage structures. We have been able to successfully dope a variety of transition-metal atoms into the empty spaces in the golden cages, confirming their structural robustness, as well as demonstrating chemical tuning of their electronic, magnetic, and catalytic properties. Unlike carbon, the heavier congeners of the group 14 elements are not known to form hollow cage structures similar to the fullerenes. In PES studies of tin clusters, we noted that the spectrum of Sn12^- is distinctly different from that of its neighbors or its Si/Ge counterpart. This observation led to our discovery of a highly symmetric and stable icosahedral Sn12^2- cage, for which we coined a name ``stannaspherene'' to describe its high symmetry and spherical pi bonding. We have also shown that all transition metals including the f-block elements can be doped inside Sn12^2- to form a whole class of endohedral stannaspherenes, which may be used as potential building blocks for new cluster-assembled materials. In a preliminary experiment to synthesize stannaspherene in the bulk, a new cluster, Pd2@Sn18^4-, was crystallized and characterized, suggesting all stannaspherene and endohedral stannasphernes may be fabricated in the bulk under suitable conditions.

Wang, Lai-Sheng

2008-03-01

316

Census and distribution of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

During 1990-1992, a survey of the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, was carried out throughout its known distribution area. Forest remnants were identified by visual interpretation of Landsat-TM satellite images. Localities occupied by L. rosalia were first identified by interviews with local people. All forests more than 20 ha in size, and for which two or more interviews suggested the presence of the species, were surveyed using "play-back" recordings of lion tamarin long calls. The total wild population of L. rosalia, including that of the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, was estimated to be 562 individuals in 109 groups. The lion tamarins were generally found in four major areas of forest (six or more groups per forest, not including Poço das Antas), with a further 12 groups isolated in small forest patches. Currently the species' distribution is restricted to just four municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro: Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, and Araruama. Although they are typically confined to lowland forest of <300 m altitude, L. rosalia was recorded at an altitude of 550 m in one locality. Average group size varied from 3.6 to 5.7 individuals, and densities from 0.39 groups/km(2) to 2.35 groups/km(2) (2.17 individuals/ km(2) to 8.53 individuals/km(2)). Six of the isolated groups found during the survey were successfully translocated to a forest of 2400 ha. There is now also a significant population of reintroduced lion tamarins. Overall, however, the possibilities for further expansion of the wild population are severely limited. PMID:12526037

Kierulff, M Cecília M; Rylands, Anthony B

2003-01-01

317

Perception, action, and experience: unraveling the golden braid.  

PubMed

Much of our human mental life looks to involve a seamless unfolding of perception, action and experience: a golden braid in which each element twines intimately with the rest. We see the very world we act in and we act in the world we see. But more than this, visual experience presents us with the world in a way apt for the control and fine guidance of action. Or so it seems. Milner and Goodale's [Milner, D., Goodale, M. (1995). The visual brain in action. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Milner, A., Goodale, M. (2006). Epilogue: Twelve years on. In Milner, A., Goodale, M. (Ed.), The visual brain in action (2nd ed., pp. 207-252). Oxford: Oxford University Press] influential work on the dual visual systems hypothesis casts doubt on certain versions of this intuitive vision. It does so by prising apart the twining strands of conscious visual perception and the fine control of visuomotor action. Such a bold proposal is of major interest both to cognitive science and philosophy. In what follows I first clarify the major claims that the bold proposal involves, then examine three sets of worries and objections. The first set concern some important matters of detail. The second set concern a certain kind of conceptual or philosophical worry to the effect that the perception/action model unfairly equates visual experience itself with what are in fact certain elements within visual experience. The third set concern the very idea of conscious experience as a well-defined conceptual or experimental target. I conclude that the boldest versions of the Dual Visual Systems (2VS) story underestimate the variety and richness of visual experience, but that the general picture of visual uptake as a fragmented, multi-stream, multipurpose adaptation is correct, and still revealing after all these years. PMID:19026670

Clark, Andy

2009-05-01

318

Rehabilitation studies and recovery of a once lifeless estuary: the Golden Horn.  

PubMed

Within this study fluctuations in biodiversity of the Golden Horn from past to present are evaluated. Limited studies and observations dating back to 60 years ago pointed out the importance of the Golden Horn as a fishery. Unfortunately, in accordance with increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn in the 1960s, pollution stress became a demanding factor for this unique environment, affecting biodiversity adversely. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, at the relatively cleaner outer estuary. Following intensification of "still ongoing" rehabilitation studies in 1998, a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has began, in regard to improvements in water quality. Surveys conducted in 2002 using SCUBA, documented the level of diversification of life at the Golden Horn. Extended till Haliç Bridge, all appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms and particularly filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Detection of seahorses at the inner-middle parts of the estuary, in addition to numerous fish, invertebrate and macroalgae species, clearly depicted the level of recovery and change in the ecosystem. All results support the existence of a dynamic biological life at the Golden Horn, improving considerably with rehabilitation studies. Achieving the diversity of the 1940s is not possible, since the Black and Marmara seas, highly influencing water quality in the Golden Horn are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far beyond their rich diversity in the 1940s. However, it is obvious that ecosystems should recover when mankind gave a chance to them. Recovery of the recently lifeless Golden Horn in such a short period of time is a very good example. PMID:16114614

Yüksek, A; Oku?, E; Yilmaz, N

2005-01-01

319

Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers  

PubMed Central

Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6–11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4–5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3–4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal.

Hart, Benjamin L.; Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.

2014-01-01

320

A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined. PMID:25035582

Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

2014-09-01

321

Functional organization in the visual cortex of the golden hamster.  

PubMed

The visual cortex of the golden hamster was studied by means of multi-unit and single unit recording, which revealed three separate retinotopic maps of the visual field in the posterior cortex. V1, corresponding to cyto-architectonic area 17, has the contralateral temporal field represented medially, the central visual field (extending about 10 deg ipsilateral) represented laterally and the lower field anteriorly. The borders of the map, especially for the upper field, seem to be more restricted than the whole visual field available to the contralateral hemiretina: V1 probably does not represent the extreme periphery of the field. A large fraction of V1 has binocular input, for up to about 50 deg lateral to the vertical midline. There is a retinotopic reversal near the representation of the vertical midline where V1 meets V2 (corresponding to the more lateral "area 18a"). There is another retinotopic reversal at the extremity of the contralateral field representation, where V1 meets Vm (the medial visual area, corresponding to "area 18"). V2 and Vm each contain a reduced mirror image version of the map in V1. Almost all isolated single units in V1 have receptive fields that can be classified as radially symmetrical (60%) or asymmetrical (35%). Symmetrical fields have ON (13%), OFF (4%), ON-OFF (30%) or "SILENT" (12%) central areas when plotted with flashing spots. There are minor but not striking differences between these groups in their field sizes, velocity preferences and so on. They almost invariably prefer moving to stationary stimuli but are not selective for orientation or direction of movement. Asymmetrical fields are of four types, three of which (type 1, 11%; type 2, 17%; and type 3, 2%) are orientation selective and resemble simple, complex and hypercomplex cells in the cat cortex. Some of these have direction as well as orientation preference. Axial movement detectors (5%) have a selectivity for one axis of motion, and thus prefer one orientation of edge, but respond equally well to movement of a spot. Vertical and horizontal orientation preferences, especially the latter, are much the most common. There is some evidence of clustering of cells according to receptive field type and, possibly, preferred orientation. Asymmetrical cells are, relatively somewhat rarer in the deeper cortical layers. Within the binocular segment, fully 89% of cells are binocularly driven and the receptive fields are similar in the two eyes. Receptive fields tend to increase in size away from the area centralis representation and, in a complementary fashion, the magnification factor decreases from up to 0.1 mm/deg at the area centralis representation to about 0.02 mm/deg for the peripheral field. PMID:939818

Tiao, Y C; Blakemore, C

1976-08-15

322

Proportions of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Relative to Each Other and to Golden Standard in Tabriz Dental Faculty Students  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden pro-portion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. The aim of this study was to eval-uate the occurrence of golden standard values and golden proportion in the anterior teeth. Materials and methods Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. The visible widths and lengths of maxillary right and left incisors were calculated and the ratios were compared with golden standard. Data was analyzed using SPSS 14 software. Results Review of the results of the means showed statistically significant differences between the width ratio of right lateral teeth to the central teeth width with golden proportion (P<0.001). Likewise, the difference was significant for the left side, too (P<0.001). Test results of mean differences showed that the mean difference between proportion of right laterals to centrals with golden proportion was significant (P<0.001). The difference was significant for the left side, too (P<0.001). As a result, there is no golden proportion among maxillary incisors. The review of results of mean differences for single samples showed that the mean differences between the proportion of width-to-length of left and right central teeth was statistically significant by golden standard (P<0.001). Therefore, considering the width-to-length proportion of maxillary central teeth, no golden standard exists. Conclusion In the evaluation of the width-to-width and width-to-length proportions of maxillary incisors no golden proportions and standards were detected, respectively.

Parnia, Fereydoun; Hafezeqoran, Ali; Mahboub, Farhang; Moslehifard, Elnaz; Koodaryan, Rodabeh; Moteyagheni, Rosa; Saleh Saber, Fariba

2010-01-01

323

Dispersion modelling during particulate matter episode events in Golden, British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CALPUFF modeling system was used to investigate two episodes of high particulate matter (PM) during December 2005 and February 2006. During this time, Golden was a British Columbia Ministry of Environment (BC MOE) intensive observation site for air quality research specific to PM. Observations from 4 meteorological stations were used to characterize the winds and dispersion parameters within CALMET. Emission rates were determined from the existing Golden Emissions Inventory and receptor modelling commissioned by the BC MOE. Statistical comparison of model predicted and observed PM concentrations show that model performance compares well to similar CALPUFF studies at two of the air quality monitoring stations in Golden. The source apportionment of the CALPUFF results identified the major contributors to degraded air quality levels during the two episodes under investigation as space heating, road dust and, intermittently, Louisiana Pacific operations.

Abel, Tyler

324

Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes have shown promise as contrast agents for photoacoustic and photothermal imaging of tumours and infections because they offer high resolution and allow deep tissue imaging. However, in vivo applications have been limited by the relatively low absorption displayed by nanotubes at near-infrared wavelengths and concerns over toxicity. Here, we show that gold-plated carbon nanotubes-termed golden carbon nanotubes-can be used as photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents with enhanced near-infrared contrast (~102-fold) for targeting lymphatic vessels in mice using extremely low laser fluence levels of a few mJ cm-2. Antibody-conjugated golden carbon nanotubes were used to map the lymphatic endothelial receptor, and preliminary in vitro viability tests show golden carbon nanotubes have minimal toxicity. This new nanomaterial could be an effective alternative to existing nanoparticles and fluorescent labels for non-invasive targeted imaging of molecular structures in vivo.

Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Moon, Hyung-Mo; Zharov, Vladimir P.

2009-11-01

325

Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents  

PubMed Central

Carbon nanotubes have shown promise as contrast agents for photoacoustic and photothermal imaging of tumours and infections because they offer high resolution and allow deep tissue imaging. However, in vivo applications have been limited by the relatively low absorption displayed by nanotubes at near-infrared wavelengths and concerns over toxicity. Here, we show that gold-plated carbon nanotubes—termed golden carbon nanotubes—can be used as photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents with enhanced near-infrared contrast (~102-fold) for targeting lymphatic vessels in mice using extremely low laser fluence levels of a few mJ cm?2. Antibody-conjugated golden carbon nanotubes were used to map the lymphatic endothelial receptor, and preliminary in vitro viability tests show golden carbon nanotubes have minimal toxicity. This new nanomaterial could be an effective alternative to existing nanoparticles and fluorescent labels for non-invasive targeted imaging of molecular structures in vivo.

Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Moon, Hyung-Mo; Zharov, Vladimir P.

2012-01-01

326

Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes have shown promise as contrast agents for photoacoustic and photothermal imaging of tumours and infections because they offer high resolution and allow deep tissue imaging. However, in vivo applications have been limited by the relatively low absorption displayed by nanotubes at near-infrared wavelengths and concerns over toxicity. Here, we show that gold-plated carbon nanotubes-termed golden carbon nanotubes-can be used as photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents with enhanced near-infrared contrast ( approximately 10(2)-fold) for targeting lymphatic vessels in mice using extremely low laser fluence levels of a few mJ cm(-2). Antibody-conjugated golden carbon nanotubes were used to map the lymphatic endothelial receptor, and preliminary in vitro viability tests show golden carbon nanotubes have minimal toxicity. This new nanomaterial could be an effective alternative to existing nanoparticles and fluorescent labels for non-invasive targeted imaging of molecular structures in vivo. PMID:19809462

Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Shashkov, Evgeny V; Moon, Hyung-Mo; Zharov, Vladimir P

2009-10-01

327

The chemical oceanographic consequences of environmental restoration projects in the Golden Horn estuary (Marmara Sea, Turkey).  

PubMed

The input of industrial and domestic waste to the horizontal circulation in the Golden Horn Estuary of Marmara Sea has resulted in one of the most polluted estuaries in the past. Consequently, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in both the surface and bottom waters decreased toward to the estuary head during 1998-2005. In contrast, the total suspended solids content of the surface water decreased toward to the estuary mouth. However, construction of the operational collector system surrounding the estuary during the process of rehabilitation projects, combined with the opening of the middle pontoons of the Valide Sultan Bridge, resulted in gradually improved water quality of the estuary with a concomitant decrease in pollution. However, phytoplankton blooms and eutrophication persist especially in the innermost part of the Golden Horn in 2005. The region from the estuary mouth up to Camialti has a dynamic structure, and sufficient circulation seemingly occurs in this part of the Golden Horn. PMID:19353286

Balkis, N; Müftüo?lu, E; Aksu, A; Sur, H I; Apak, R

2010-05-01

328

Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality.  

PubMed

Long-term biological data supported by physicochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the biodiversity of the Golden Horn Estuary from the past to the present. Limited observations dating back to 60 years ago indicated the existence of a diverse community in this small estuary. Unfortunately, in parallel with the increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn, pollution stress increased since the 1960s. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, in the relatively cleaner lower estuary. Following the intensification of rehabilitation studies in 1998 and particularly after the opening of the floating bridge at the mid estuary; a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has begun with the improving water quality. Nutrient concentrations decreased markedly; while water clarity significantly increased. Fecal coliform values decreased 10(3) fold. Phytoplankton composition changed and dense blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankters frequently occurred. Hydrogen sulfide almost completely disappeared even during the warmest periods of the year and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased. All results clearly depicted that the Golden Horn ecosystem shifted to eutrophic conditions from an anoxic environment. SCUBA dives in 2002, documented the level of diversification of life in the Golden Horn. All appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms until the Halic Bridge and filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Achieving the diversity of 1940s is not possible since the Black and Marmara seas, influencing water quality of the Golden Horn, are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far less diverse than their rich diversity in 1940s. However, the Golden Horn is a good example that even the most polluted ecosystems can recover when appropriate measures are taken. PMID:16814327

Yüksek, Ahsen; Oku?, Erdo?an; Yilmaz, I Noyan; Aslan-Yilmaz, Asli; Ta?, Seyfettin

2006-10-01

329

Caribou antlers as nest materials for golden eagles in northwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There are few published records of antlers in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nests. This note reports extensive use of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) antlers in three golden eagle nests in the Cape Kruzenstern region of northwestern Alaska. The importance of antlers to this population of eagles can be explained at least in part by (1) the lack of suitable woody vegetation on the open tundra, (2) the similarity of antlers to sticks, and (3) the abundance of antlers, especially cow caribou antlers, in the region.

Ellis, D.H.; Bunn, R.L.

1998-01-01

330

Golden-cheeked warbler males participate in nest-site selection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nest-site selection behaviors have rarely been described for songbirds. Furthermore, male involvement in nest-site selection is generally assumed to be minimal among most species, especially those predominantly exhibiting female nest building. This assumption has held true for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia), a breeding resident of central Texas. We observed Golden-cheeked Warbler males and females searching for nest sites together on three separate occasions, 2001-2003. Although rare, such observations add to our knowledge of the life history of songbirds.

Graber, A. E.; Davis, C. A.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.

2006-01-01

331

Effects of social status, age, and season on androgen and cortisol levels in wild male golden lion tamarins ( Leontopithecus rosalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines factors affecting androgen and cortisol levels in wild, male golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Golden lion tamarins are a cooperatively breeding species in which groups often contain two potentially breeding males. Brothers frequently emigrate together and develop a clear dominance hierarchy, but interactions between them are primarily affiliative. Duos in which the males are not related are

Karen L. Bales; Jeffrey A. French; Jennifer McWilliams; Reagan A. Lake; James M. Dietz

2006-01-01

332

The golden code: a 2×2 full-rate space-time code with nonvanishing determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Golden code for a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system is presented. This is a full-rate 2×2 linear dispersion algebraic space-time code with unprecedented performance based on the Golden number 1+?5\\/2.

Jean-Claude Belfiore; Ghaya Rekaya; Emanuele Viterbo

2005-01-01

333

The golden code: a 2 x 2 full-rate space-time code with non-vanishing determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the Golden code for a 2×2 MIMO system. This is a full-rate 2×2 linear dispersion algebraic space-time code with unprecedented performance based on the Golden number 1+ ? 5 2 .

Jean-Claude Belfiore; Ghaya Rekaya; Emanuele Viterbo

2004-01-01

334

Golden Space-Time Block Coded Modulation L. Luzzi G. Rekaya-Ben Othman J.-C. Belfiore E. Viterbo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a block coded modulation scheme for a 2× 2 MIMO system over slow fading channels, where the inner code is the Golden Code. The scheme is based on a set partitioning of the Golden Code using two-sided ideals whose norm is a power of two. In this case, a lower bound for the minimum determinant

Jean-Claude Belfiore

335

Evaluation of different species of fish for biological control of golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of rice–fish farming was employed to evaluate five species of fish for biological control of golden apple snail in rice. Aquaria trials were initially used to observe the predation potential of the individual fish species, followed by replicated field trials. In the aquaria studies all the fish species preyed upon the hatchlings of the golden apple snail, but

Teo Su Sin

2006-01-01

336

A Tale of Two Bridges: Comparative Suicide Incidence on the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated differential suicide patterns on the Golden Gate and Oakland Bay bridges in San Francisco, using official records from 1937 to 1979. Although the bridges are very similar, there are substantially more suicides on the Golden Gate Bridge, suggesting the influence of psychological/symbolic factors. (JAC)

Seiden, Richard H.; Spence, Mary

1984-01-01

337

The golden rule of public finance and the composition of government expenditures: a growth and welfare analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs an endogenous growth model to study the growth and welfare effects of the golden rule of public finance. Two versions are compared, whereby government deficits are restricted for the use of public investments. It is shown that the growth effect of the golden rule depends on what kind of expenditure is adjusted to meet debt obligations. A

Max Groneck

2011-01-01

338

33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland...165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland...fenders and pilings of the Golden Gate Bridge and the San...

2010-07-01

339

33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland...165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland...fenders and pilings of the Golden Gate Bridge and the San...

2009-07-01

340

Genetic variation in aggression-related traits in Golden Retriever dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, heritabilities of several measures of aggression were estimated in a group of 325 Golden Retrievers, using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method. The studied measures were obtained either through owner opinions or by using the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (CBARQ). The aim of the study was to determine which of the aggression measures showed sufficient genetic

Anna-Elisa Liinamo; Linda van den Berg; Peter A. J. Leegwater; Matthijs B. H. Schilder; Johan A. M. van Arendonk; Bernard A. van Oost

2007-01-01

341

Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata ) in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of naturally found densities of the exotic and herbivorous golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on three dominant aquatic plants – duckweed (Lemna minor), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) – was assessed in a wetland survey and quantified in a field experiment in Laos in southeast Asia. Snail grazing reduced plant biomass, but plant species

Nils O. L. Carlsson; Jean O. Lacoursière

2005-01-01

342

Memory Recall and Participation Levels in the Elderly: A Study of Golden Age Radio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve women (mean age 90) in a nursing home listened to Golden Age radio programs and answered trivia questions. Reactions to musical programs showed they encouraged reminiscence; trivia stimulated recall of historical and life events. In contrast, comedy programs evoked little response. (SK)

Durham, Pamela R.; Whittemore, Margaret P.

1993-01-01

343

Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies of perifollicular mesenchyme in the thyroid gland of the golden hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations were performed on thyroid glands of normal and acutely TSH-stimulated golden hamsters weighing 60–80 g. A fully expanded mesenchyme was only observed after perfusion of the gland with a fixative. Morphometric analysis of semithin sections revealed an area density of about 50% for parenchyma, 14% for intraepithelial capillaries, 20% for perifollicular vessels and about 5% for extravascular mesenchyme.

H. Lietz; W. Böcker

1974-01-01

344

A mini fish tailed lion The intelligent fishbone based on golden fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

For observing 3 years' birthday of an intelligent stream cipher, which is named as Golden Fish, we design a remembrance of fishbone named Fish tailed lion based on it. The Fish tailed lion is a mini intelligent stream cipher, which includes one stream cipher and one block cipher and two HASHs. It's just a fishbone because we only care about

Lan Luo; Zehui Qu; Yalan Ye; Qiong-hai Dai

2012-01-01

345

The geology and mineralisation at the Golden Pride gold deposit, Nzega Greenstone Belt, Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Golden Pride gold deposit (˜3 Moz) is located in the central part of the Nzega Greenstone Belt at the southern margin of the Lake Victoria Goldfields in Tanzania. It represents an inferred Late Archaean, orogenic gold deposit and is hosted in intensely deformed meta-sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of the approximately E-W striking Golden Pride Shear Zone. The hanging-wall sequence also includes felsic (quartz porphyritic) to mafic (lamprophyric) intrusions, as well as banded iron formations. Hydrothermal alteration phases associated with mineralisation are dominated by sericite and chlorite. Two main ore types can be distinguished, chlorite and silica ore, both occupying dilational sites and structural intersections in the hanging wall of the main shear zone. Sulphide minerals in both ore types include pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, pyrite and accessory sphalerite, galena, sulphosalts and Ni-Co-Bi sulphides. Gold and tellurides are late in the paragenetic sequence and associated with a secondary phase of pyrrhotite deposition. Sulphur isotope compositions range from -6 to 7 per mil and are interpreted to reflect contributions from two distinct sources to the mineralising fluids in the Golden Pride gold deposit. A redox change, potentially induced by the intrusion of mafic melts, together with structural elements in the hanging wall of the Golden Pride Shear Zone, are interpreted to be the main controls on gold mineralisation in this deposit.

Vos, I. M. A.; Bierlein, F. P.; Standing, J. S.; Davidson, G.

2009-10-01

346

MEMORY RECALL AND PARTICIPATION LEVELS IN THE ELDERLY: A STUDY OF GOLDEN AGE RADIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutionalized elderly people often appear to live in the past, or in their long?term memories. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of playing tapes of Golden Age radio shows, both musical and comedy, on the residents of a nursing home. In particular, the researchers were interested in memory recall, reactions to the memories, and the effects

Pamela R. Durham; Margaret P. Whittemore

1993-01-01

347

Ontogeny of provisioning in two populations of wild golden lion tamarins ( Leontopithecus rosalia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provisioning weaned young is an important part of the cooperative rearing system of marmosets and tamarins (family: Callitrichidae). Juvenile callitrichids receive a substantial proportion of their diet from all adult group members, whereas juveniles of most other primate species only receive food from the mother infrequently via scrounging. We conducted a longitudinal study of provisioning to 21 young wild golden

Lisa G. Rapaport; Carlos R. Ruiz-Miranda

2006-01-01

348

Microsatellite variation within and among recently fragmented populations of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four variable microsatellite loci were used toexamine the genetic diversity and differentiation of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) in four populations recently isolated by habitat fragmentation. Using Rst estimates of genetic differentiation, a considerable genetic divergence was detected among these populations, with an averagedifferentiation of 31%. Significant differences in allele number among these populations were found. However, the heterozygosity among

A. D. Grativol; J. D. Ballou; R. C. Fleischer

2001-01-01

349

Costs and benefits of territorial defense in wild golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs and benefits of territorial defense were examined in a group of five wild golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia, at Poco d'Antas Biological reserve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I examined the effects of both interference and exploitative competition between groups of tamarins by comparing their use of space, time budgets and foraging success in different contexts of intergroup interactions

Carlos A. Peres

1989-01-01

350

Provisioning in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia): benefits to omnivorous young  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provisioning may act to cushion weaned young from dietary insufficiency and errors during the period in which they are mastering complex foraging techniques or learning to identify appropriate dietary items. That is, young mammals who receive food from others may gain nutritional and\\/or informational benefits. I conducted a longitudinal study of 13 wild golden lion tamarins 11--56 weeks of age

Lisa G. Rapaport

2006-01-01

351

Provisioning in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia): benefits to omnivorous young  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provisioning may act to cushion weaned young from dietary insufficiency and errors during the period in which they are mastering complex foraging techniques or learning to identify appropriate dietary items. That is, young mammals who receive food from others may gain nutritional and\\/or informational benefits. I conducted a longitudinal study of 13 wild golden lion tamarins 11-56 weeks of age

Lisa G. Rapaport

2005-01-01

352

Locomotion of free-ranging golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) at the National Zoological Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotor behavior and substrate use of cage-reared golden lion tamarins (Le- ontopithecus rosalia), newly released and free-ranging on the grounds of the National Zoological Park, were studied to determine if locomotion changed fol- lowing exposure to naturalistic conditions. The animals employed a predomi- nantly quadrupedal locomotor profile, incorporating leaping and vertical climbing to a lesser degree. There was no clear

Brian J. Stafford; Alfred L. Rosenberger; Benjamin B. Beck

1994-01-01

353

Ectoparasitic Acari Found on Golden Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anesthetized golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia), a highly en- dangered species, were examined for ectopar- asites by brushing the fur and swabbing the ears. Ectoparasites recovered from the fur included four species of immature ticks (Amblyomma spp.), three species of chiggers (Euschoengastia sp., MicrotromLn'cula brennani and Speleocola taniarina), and one species of follicular mite (Rhyncoptes anastosi). Ectoparasites do not

Nixon Wilson; James M. Dietz

1989-01-01

354

Mating Patterns in the Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia): Continuous Receptivity and Concealed Estrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociosexual behavior was monitored on a daily basis for 3 months in 5 pairs of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Urine samples were collected daily from each female and urinary estrogen cycles were determined by radioimmunoassay. Mounts and copulations were observed during all phases of the estrogen cycle. Peaks or regular cycles in sexual behavior were not documented. There were

Judy A. Stribley; Jeffrey A. French; Betty J. Inglett

1987-01-01

355

The role of scent marking in the social communication of wild golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of scent marking in the social communication of mammals is widely variable. One reason for this variation is that the function of scent marking may vary with different ecological and social conditions. The purpose of this study was to test four nonexclusive hypotheses explaining the role of scent-marking frequency in different ecological and social contexts for wild golden

Kimran E. Miller; Katalin Laszlo; James M. Dietz

2003-01-01

356

Patterns of Social Preference Across Different Social Contexts in Golden Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of mutual and circumstantial factors in maintaining exclusive social relationships in a New World primate. Four breeding pairs of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) were allowed to interact with their mate or an unfamiliar, opposite-sex adult in each of 4 different social contexts: in view of the mate, out of the mate's view, with only

Betty J. Inglett; Jeffrey A. French; Theresa M. Dethlefs

1990-01-01

357

Signaling of Reproductive Status in Captive Female Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In species in which paternal care has an important impact on the offspring's fitness, concealment of reproductive status has been proposed as a strategy employed by females to prevent males from practicing desertion and polygamy, which would then lead to monogamous or polyandrous mating systems or both. We investigated whether the female's reproductive status is being concealed in golden-headed lion

K. De Vleeschouwer; M. Heistermann; L. Van Elsacker; R. F. Verheyen

2000-01-01

358

Play Behavior in Juvenile Golden Lion Tamarins (Callitrichidae: Primates): Organization in Relation to Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Playis a complex behavior that is widespread among vertebrates. Despite the potential benefits for the development of social, cognitive and motor skills, play behavior has costs: energyexpenditure, and the risks of injuryand predation. As the fitness benefits of playare presumablyto be gained as adults, we expect young animals to minimize its immediate costs. Here, we describe playbehavior in golden lion

Claudia R. de Oliveira; Carlos R. Ruiz-Miranda; Devra G. Kleiman; Benjamin B. Beck

2003-01-01

359

Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the environmental education program of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association in Brazil by comparing results of a 2001 survey with baseline data from 1986. Responses of 666 residents and results from 4 focus groups revealed an increase in public support for the tamarin and its habitat and an increase in general environmental knowledge. The evaluation identified gaps

Christine Archer Engels; Susan K. Jacobson

2007-01-01

360

Magnetometric Evaluation of Cadmium Oxide--Induced Toxicity to Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages of Syrian Golden Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since alveolar macrophages play an important role in the clearance of inhaled dust from airways, these cells have been used as a target for various toxic chemicals. Alveolar macrophages obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage of Syrian golden hamsters were concurrently exposed in vitro to Fe 3 O 4 , as an indicator for magnetometry, and various concentrations of cadmium oxide (CdO)

Masato Niitsuya; Mitsuyasu Watanabe; Mitsushi Okada; Hisako Shinji; Toshihiko Satoh; Yoshiharu Aizawa; Young-Chae Cho; Makato Kotani

2003-01-01

361

Invertebrate Species Available as Food for the Golden-Cheeked Warbler in Its Nesting Habitat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors sampled arthropods biweekly from ashe juniper, Texas oak, live oak, and cedar elm throughout the activity period of the golden-cheeked warbler (GCWA) in central Texas (March 1 - July 31). A database of arthropod species collected by date, site...

R. A. Wharton E. G. Riley M. A. Quinn J. B. Woolley J. S. Schaffner H. R. Burke

1996-01-01

362

Ultrastructural features of the pineal gland in normal and light deprived golden hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although current physiological findings imply that the mammalian pineal organ liberates an antigonadal agent, microscopic examinations of this organ have afforded little information regarding the possible storage and release of such a substance. Since it is known that light deprivation for six weeks results in pineal-induced atrophy of certain reproductive organs in adult golden hamsters, one might expect that any

Jeanne W. Clabough

1971-01-01

363

Neem crude extract as Biomolluscicide for sustainable control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden apple snail, (Pomacea canaliculata) was reported could cause severe damage on food crop especially paddy, which is a staple food for more than 60% of the world population. The farmers mostly rely on chemical and synthetic molluscicides to overcome this problem which improper use of pesticide could give negative impact on environmental. Therefore, there is a need to determine

Rosdiyani Massaguni

2011-01-01

364

Analysis in Blood of Golden Hamster by Naa for Clinical Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

2009-06-01

365

The Golden Jubilee Year or From Jazz to Janus (1920-1970)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summary of various activities of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) since its formation in 1920. Included are plans for the Golden Jubilee Year, increasing services and international activities of NCTM, and a forward glimpse of goals to be accomplished. (RP)

Schult, Veryl

1970-01-01

366

Localized photonic bandedge modes and orbital angular momenta of light in a golden-angle spiral  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a numerical study on photonic bandgap and bandedge modes in the golden-angle spiral array of air cylinders in dielectric media. Despite the lack of long-range translational and rotational order, there is a large PBG for the TE polarized light. Due to spatial inhomogeneity in the air hole spacing, the bandedge modes are spatially localized by Bragg scattering from

Seng Fatt Liew; Heeso Noh; Jacob Trevino; Luca Dal Negro; Hui Cao

2011-01-01

367

Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to evaluate the ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit classification based on one or more physical or physiological attributes is important to improve quality during storage and marketing. Our objectives were to evaluate changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Golden) at different ripeness stages and during the ripening to determine if this non-destructive technique might assist the evaluation of fruit ripeness. Maximal (Fm),

Ilana Urbano Bron; Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro; Marisa Azzolini; Angelo Pedro Jacomino; Eduardo Caruso Machado

2004-01-01

368

Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb\\/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection

Ana María Fernández Presas; Lilia Robert; José Agustín Jiménez; Kaethe Willms

2005-01-01

369

Implementation and Initial Validation of the Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA) at Golden West College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During spring 1992, the Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA) test was piloted with a sample of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes at Golden West College (GWC) in Huntington Beach, California. The CELSA, which utilizes a cloze format including parts of conversations and short dialogues, combines items from beginning,…

Isonio, Steven

370

INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTS OF PROLONGED INHALATION OF NICKEL-ENRICHED FLY ASH IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Groups of 102 Male Syrian Golden hamsters were chronically exposed to approx. 70 micrograms/l respirable Nickel Enriched Fly Ash aerosol (high NEFA group), approx. 17 micrograms/l (low NEFA group), or approx. 70 micrograms/l FA 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 month...

371

Quest for the Golden Rule: An Effective Social Skills Promotion and Bullying Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyday many students face bullying situations that they are ill equipped to manage. E-learning has recently emerged as a potentially effective tool in teaching children social skills, in addition to academic subject matter. Quest for the Golden Rule is one of the first bullying prevention e-learning programs available, designed by the…

Rubin-Vaughan, Alice; Pepler, Debra; Brown, Steven; Craig, Wendy

2011-01-01

372

Extending the golden hour of hemorrhagic shock tolerance with oxygen plus hypothermia in awake rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study of volume-controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS) in awake rats, without fluid resuscitation, either breathing of 100% oxygen or moderate hypothermia while breathing air, increased survival time. We hypothesized that combining oxygen and hypothermia can maximally extend the ‘golden hour’ of HS from which resuscitation can be successful in terms of survival rate. Rats were prepared under light

Yuval Leonov; Peter Safar; Fritz Sterz; S. William Stezoski

2002-01-01

373

Do Green and Golden Bell Frogs Litoria aurea occupy habitats with fungicidal properties?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green and Golden Bell frog Litoria aurea is in major decline in Australia, where its distribution is now confined mainly to the east coast of New South Wales (NSW). Infection by the newly emerged amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been identified as one of the main threats affecting L aurea. Surprisingly, some of the sites in NSW sustaining

Caragh G Threlfall; Dianne F Jolley; Nick Evershed; Ross L Goldingay; William A Buttemer

2008-01-01

374

Survey of the Golden-Cheeked Warbler on Fort Hood in Support of NEPA Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research on the golden-cheeked warbler (GCW) was conducted on Fort Hood, Texas, during April and June 2006. Subject matter experts on Fort Hood were consulted and helped determine which areas of the installation contained suitable GCW habitat but wer...

B. MacAllister M. Baranski R. Peak T. Hayden

2007-01-01

375

Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Repeated Stress during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult animals, the consequences of stress are often severe and long lasting. Repeated subjugation in adult male golden hamsters inhibits aggression and increases submissive and avoidant behaviours. By contrast, subjugation during puberty enhances offensive aggression. The goals of this study were to characterize behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of naõ¨ve and repeatedly subjugated juveniles to social defeat and to assess

J. C. Wommack; A. Salinas; R. H. Melloni Jr; Y. Delville

2004-01-01

376

Modification of the visual background increases the conspicuousness of golden-collared manakin displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective visual communication requires signals that are easy to detect, transmit, receive, and discriminate. Animals can increase the probability that their visual signals would be detected by evolving signals that contrast with their visual background. Animals can further enhance this contrast by behaviorally modifying the existing visual background. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) clear leaf litter from the ground to

J. Albert C. Uy; John A. Endler

2004-01-01

377

Pectin esterase activity and pectin methyl esterification in heated golden delicious apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectin methylesterase activity and the degree of methyl esterification of cell wall pectins were measured in Golden Delicious apples after a 4 day heat treatment at 38° and after subsequent storage at 0° of heated and unheated apples. Enzyme activity increased similarly during storage in both heated and unheated apples, although heated fruit softened much less than unheated. During storage,

Joshua D. Klein; Jacob Hanzon; Peter L. Irwin; Noah Ben Shalom; Susan Luria

1995-01-01

378

Highlighting High Performance: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Visitors Center, Golden, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Visitors Center, also known as the Dan Schaefer Federal Building, is a high-performance building located in Golden, Colorado. The 6,400-square-foot building incorporates passive solar heating, energy-efficient ligh...

S. Burgert

2001-01-01

379

76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the 2010 recreational annual catch limit (ACL) overage, and as a result closes the recreational...and to correct or mitigate overages of the ACL if they occur. On December 30, 2010...are reached or exceeded. The recreational ACL for golden tilefish, implemented...

2011-10-04

380

Exploration of the Biopolitics of GMOs: Using Golden Rice as an Analytical Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several disputes exist around Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). This article uses the concept of biopolitics to refer to all the GMO-related political issues and the mechanisms that are used to handle them. As a world famous genetically modified crop developed for the welfare of humanity by public institutions, Golden Rice has on one hand won glories, whereas on the other

Yin-liang LIU

2006-01-01

381

Effects of Information on Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Golden Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of information on consumer bidding behavior using a uniform-price auction with four units supply for golden rice. Our findings show that mean willingness to pay (WTP) bids are highest under positive information, followed by no information, negative information, and unexpectedly lowest with two-sided information. Participants might have put more weight on the negative when faced with

Dinah Pura T. Depositario; Ximing Wu; Tiffany P. Laude

2009-01-01

382

Golden Rice and the Looming GMO Trade Debate: Implication for the Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified crop varieties, currently most widespread in the maize and soybean sectors, sought to increase farmer profitability by improving agronomic traits. The next generation of biotech research is focusing also on breeding for attributes desired by consumers. Although not yet commercially available, a new variety of rice, known as ‘Golden Rice’, has been genetically engineered

Chantal Pohl Nielsen; Kym Anderson

2003-01-01

383

Current Status of the Golden Apple Snail in the Ifugao Rice Terraces, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden apple snail (GAS) was introduced in the Philippines between 1982 and 1984 to supplement sources of food protein of low-income Filipino farmers. However, in 1986, it began to damage heavily rice farms in northwestern Luzon. Its rapid multiplication and wide distribution threaten rice production and food security in the country.This study led by scientists and researchers of the

R. C. Joshi; M. S. Delacruz; E. C. Martin; J. C. Cabigat; R. G. Bahatan; A. D. Bahatan; E. H. Abayao; Joe Choy-Awon; N. P. Chilagan; A. B. Cayong

2001-01-01

384

The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Asian rice farming systems: Present impact and future threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mesogastropoda: Pilidae), has recently been introduced to several Asian countries where it has unexpectedly developed into a pest of rice. Reasons for the introduction as well as the economic and ecological impact of the snail are described. Most farmers have resorted to chemical control, with implications for human health and the environment.

Matthias Halwart

1994-01-01

385

Golden Rice and the Looming GMO Trade Debate: Implications for the Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first generation of genetically modified crop varieties, currently most widespread in the maize and soybean sectors, sought to increase farmer profitability by improving agronomic traits. The next generation of biotech research is focusing also on breeding for attributes desired by consumers. Although not yet commercially available, a new variety of rice, known as ‘Golden Rice’, has been genetically engineered

Kym Anderson; Chantal Pohl Nielsen

2004-01-01

386

Environmental impact of the golden snail (Pomacea sp.) on rice farming systems in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary report of the workshop held at the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, on 9-10 November 1989. It discusses the effects wrought by the golden snail since its introduction to the Philippines, particularly on rice farming systems. Ways to control the snail are presented.

B. Acosta; R. S. V. Pullin

387

Two Car Collision, Southern Approach to Golden Gate Bridge San Francisco, California, July 11, 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1970 Porsche Targa (911-T) southbound off the Golden Gate Bridge at 12:30 a.m., July 11, 1970, accelerated to over 100 miles per hour. On a left curve of 1470-foot radius the driver apparently lost control, causing a left swerve and counterclockwise spi...

1971-01-01

388

Multiple-Support Response Spectrum Analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The newly developed Multiple-Support Response Spectrum (MSRS) method is reviewed and applied to analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge. The MSRS method properly accounts for the effects of wave passage and incoherence of the support motions, the effect of loc...

A. Der Kiureghian D. Liu Y. Nakamura

1993-01-01

389

Bridging Poetic and Cold War Divides in Lyn Hejinian's Oxota and Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyn Hejinian's Oxota: A Short Russian Novel (1991) and Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate (1986) are works from two very different poetic camps? Language poetry and New Formalism?that both draw on Russia's national poet Alexander Pushkin's novel in verse Eugene Onegin (1833) for inspiration and so offer a unique opportunity for reconsidering poetic and Cold War divides in U.S. poetry.

Jacob Edmond

390

Suicides from the Golden Gate Bridge: have they changed over time?  

PubMed

224 suicides from the Golden Gate Bridge in 1999-2009 were younger than other suicides handled by the Marin County Coroner but did not differ by sex or race. Those witnessed did not differ from those not witnessed. Compared to suicides from the bridge in the 1970s, recent suicides were older, more often male, and more often nonwhite. PMID:21117474

Yeh, Cynthia; Lester, David

2010-10-01

391

A Jubilant Connection: General Jubal Early's Troops and the Golden Ratio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The golden ratio, one of the most beautiful numbers in all of mathematics, arises in some surprising places. At first glance, we might expect that a General checking his troops' progress would be nothing more than a basic distance-rate-time problem. However, further exploration reveals a multi-faceted problem, one in which the ratio of rates…

Bolte, Linda A.; Noon, Tim R., Jr.

2012-01-01

392

Greedy and lazy representations of numbers in the negative golden ratio base  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider positional numeration systems with real base (both positive and negative) and study the extremal representations in these systems, called here the greedy and lazy representations. We focus on the base $\\\\beta = - \\\\phi$, where $\\\\phi= \\\\frac{1+\\\\sqrt{5}}{2}$ is the golden mean. We show, that the algorithm introduced by Ito and Sadahiro in 2009 produces neither minimal nor maximal

Tomás Hejda; Zuzana Masáková; Edita Pelantová

2011-01-01

393

Efficient high-order methods based on golden ratio for nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive new iterative methods with order of convergence four or higher, for solving nonlinear systems, by composing iteratively golden ratio methods with a modified Newton’s method. We use different efficiency indices in order to compare the new methods with other ones and present several numerical tests which confirm the theoretical results.

Alicia Cordero; José L. Hueso; Eulalia Martínez; Juan R. Torregrosa

2011-01-01

394

An Optimal Radial Profile Order Based on the Golden Ratio for Time-Resolved MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the motion kinetics or the contrast variability are often hard to predict, hampering an appropriate choice of the image update rate or the temporal resolution. A constant azimuthal profile spacing (111.246deg), based on the Golden Ratio, is investigated as optimal for image reconstruction from an arbitrary number of profiles in radial MRI. The

Stefanie Winkelmann; Tobias Schaeffter; Thomas Koehler; Holger Eggers; Olaf Doessel

2007-01-01

395

Computation of a face attractiveness index based on neoclassical canons, symmetry, and golden ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of attractiveness of faces has long been a topic of research. Literature has identified many different factors that can be related to attractiveness. In this research we analyze the role of symmetry, neoclassical canons, and golden ratio in the determination of attractiveness of a face. We focus on the geometry of a face and use actual faces for our

Kendra Schmid; David Marx; Ashok Samal

2008-01-01

396

Higher Education and Development: A Selection of Papers Presented to the Golden Jubilee Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected papers on higher education and development that were presented to the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the Association of Indian Universities are presented. Topics include development and underdevelopment, recent trends in development strategy, and India in the 1980's and 1990's. Contents include the following: "Development and…

Association of Indian Universities, New Delhi (India).

397

An Interview with Larry Golden: Long-Time Marriage and Family Counselor and Counselor Educator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Larry Golden started the marriage and family therapy program at Our Lady of the Lake University and was founding chair of the Department of Counseling at the University of Texas at San Antonio. He has contributed substantially to the literature in marriage and family counseling. This interview secured his unique perspective on developments in the…

Juhnke, Gerald A.; Yu, Fangzhou

2010-01-01

398

Adsorption properties of chalcogen atoms on a golden buckyball Au16- from first principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using first-principles density functional theory, we investigate the adsorption properties of chalcogen elements (oxygen and sulfur) on an anionic golden nanocage Au16- and its effects on the structural and electronic properties of the golden cage. In particular, we find that when a sulfur atom is encapsulated inside Au16-, its bonding character with Au atoms appears ionic due to electron transfer from sulfur to the gold nanocage. In contrast, the exohedrally adsorbed S atom tends to have strong orbital hybridization with the golden nanocage. For an oxygen adsorption case, electrons from the golden cage tend to be shared with the adsorbed O atom exhibiting strong orbital hybridization, regardless of its adsorption sites. To investigate the transition behaviors between the most stable exohedral and endohedral adsorption configurations, we calculate the activation and reaction energies in the transition. The oxygen atom experiences a lower energy barrier than the sulfur atom due to its smaller atomic radius. Finally, we explore the vibrational properties of S- or O-adsorbed Au16- buckyballs by calculating their infrared spectra.

Kang, Seoung-Hun; Kim, Gunn; Kwon, Young-Kyun

2011-12-01

399

Some Endrin Relationships in Resistant and Susceptible Populations of Golden Shiners, Notemigonus Crysoleucas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1000 ppb endrin solution killed 50 susceptible golden shiners in 75 min but only 40 of 50 resistant shiners in 40 hr. Endrin residues in whole bodies of resistant shiners killed in endrin were as much as 82 times those of susceptible shiners. The endrin concentrations in the blood of living resistant shiners were as much as 64 times

J. Larry Ludke; Denzel E. Ferguson; W. David Burke

1968-01-01

400

Goblet cell hyperplasia induced by Strongyloides venezuelensis-infection in Syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goblet cell response was examined in the jejunum of the Syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, following infection with an intestinal helminth, Strongyloides venezuelensis. After subcutaneous inoculation with 3000 infective larvae (L3), the number of adult worms in the small intestine remained stable up to day 20 and then decreased. Before infection, the number of goblet cells in the jejunum

B.-B. Shi; N. Ishikawa; H. Itoh; A. I. Khan; K. Tsuchiya; Y. Horii; Y. Nawa

1995-01-01

401

Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of ?0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: ?4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we noted slightly declining trends in southern BCRs and slightly increasing trends in northern BCRs. However, we estimated the average rate of golden eagle population change across all 12 BCRs for the period 1968–2010 as +0.40% per year (95% CI?=??0.27% to 1.00%), suggesting a stable population. We also estimated the average rate of population change for the period 1990–2010 was +0.5% per year (95% CI?=??0.33% to 1.3%). Our annual estimates of population size for the most recent decade range from 31,370 (95% CI: 25,450–39,310) in 2004 to 33,460 (95% CI: 27,380–41,710) in 2007. Our results clarify that golden eagles are not declining widely in the western United States. © 2013 The Wildlife Society.

Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert

2013-01-01

402

Golden eagle records from the Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey—Information for wind energy management and planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this Data Series report is to provide the occasions, locations, and counts when golden eagles were recorded during the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Surveys. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are protected by Federal statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) (16 USC 668-668c) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 USC 703-12). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) manages golden eagles with the goal of maintaining stable or increasing breeding populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009). Development for the generation of electricity from wind turbines is occurring in much of the range of the golden eagle in the western United States. Development could threaten population stability because golden eagles might be disturbed by construction and operation of facilities and they are vulnerable to mortality from collisions with wind turbines (Smallwood and Thelander, 2008). Therefore, the Service has proposed a process by which wind energy developers can collect information that could lead to Eagle Conservation Plans (ECP), mitigation, and permitting that allow for golden eagle management in areas of wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The Service recommends that ECP be developed in stages, and the first stage is to learn if golden eagles occur at the landscape level where potential wind facilities might be located. Information about where eagles occur can be obtained from technical literature, agency files, and other sources of information including on-line biological databases. The broad North American distribution of golden eagles is known, but there is a paucity of readily available information about intermediate geographic scales and site-specific scales, especially during the winter season (Kochert and others, 2002).

Eakle, Wade; Haggerty, Patti; Fuller, Mark; Phillips, Sue

2013-01-01

403

The golden hour: improving the stabilization of the very low birth-weight infant.  

PubMed

A term borrowed from emergency and cardiovascular medicine, the phrase "Golden Hour" refers to the first hour of an infant's life following delivery. The impact of implementation of a Golden Hour Protocol in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for infants delivered at less than 28 weeks gestation was examined, with a focus on admission temperature, admission glucose, and time to the initiation of an intravenous glucose and amino acid administration. As part of a quality initiative project, data were collected before and after the implementation of the Golden Hour Protocol for infants born at less than 28 weeks gestational age from May 2008 through December 2011. Desired outcomes were admission axillary temperature within a range of 36.5°C to 37.4°C, admission glucose more than 50 mg/dL, and the initiation of a glucose and amino acid infusion within 1 hour of birth. Key components of the Golden Hour included the use of a protocolized script, which clearly defined the roles of the delivery room personnel, placing the infant in a polyethylene bag to prevent heat loss, the application of the isolette skin temperature probe within 10 minutes of age, and insertion of umbilical catheters before moving the infant from the resuscitation area to the NICU. Data were collected on 225 infants born less than 28 weeks gestation: 106 in the preprotocol group and 119 in the postprotocol group. Differences between the 2 groups were not statistically significant for birth weight and gestational age. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of infants with an admission temperature in-range (36.5°C-37.4°C) between the preprotocol and postprotocol infants (28.3% vs 49.6%; P = .002). There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of admission glucose greater than 50 mg/dL between the pre- and postprotocol groups (55.7% vs 72%; P = .012). There was a highly statistically significant difference in the number of post-Golden Hour Protocol infants who received an intravenous administration of glucose and amino acids within 1 hour of life compared with the preprotocol group (61.3% vs 7%; P = 0.001). Our results suggest that the implementation of the Golden Hour Protocol can significantly improve the stabilization of infants delivered less than 28 weeks gestation. PMID:24472882

Castrodale, Val; Rinehart, Shannon

2014-02-01

404

76 FR 98 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 5 to the Golden Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast Region, in collaboration with the South Atlantic Fishery Management...marketability of golden crab. NMFS, in collaboration with the Council, will develop an...c), Scoping Process, NMFS, in collaboration with the Council, has identified...

2011-01-03

405

78 FR 9451 - Academy Express, L.L.C.-Acquisition of Property-Golden Ring Travel & Transportation, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. MCF 21049] Academy Express, L.L.C.--Acquisition of Property--Golden Ring Travel...SUMMARY: On January 10, 2013, Academy Express, L.L.C. (Academy), a motor carrier of...

2013-02-08

406

Lifetime Carcinogenesis Studies of Chrysotile Asbestos (CAS No. 12001-29-5) in Syrian Golden Hamsters (Feed Studies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carcinogenesis studies of short range (SR), intermediate range (IR) or intermediate range chrysotile asbestos in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Syrian golden hamst...

1990-01-01

407

California Freshwater Shrimp ('Syncaris pacifica') Surveys Within Point Reyes National Seashore and Golden Gate National Recreation Area, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the study are as follows: (1) Determine the distribution of California freshwater shrimp within streams of Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Point Reyes National Seashore; (2) Evaluate the effectiveness of three survey methods for...

D. Fong

1999-01-01

408

Allelic diversity at the DLA-88 locus in Golden Retriever and Boxer breeds is limited  

PubMed Central

In the dog, previous analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes suggest a single polymorphic locus, Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA)-88. While 51 alleles have been reported, estimates of prevalence have not been made. We hypothesized that, within a breed, DLA-88 diversity would be restricted, and one or more dominant alleles could be identified. Accordingly, we determined allele usage in 47 Golden Retrievers and 39 Boxers. In each population, 10 alleles were found; 4 were shared. Seven novel alleles were identified. DLA-88*05101 and *50801 predominated in Golden Retrievers, while most Boxers carried *03401. In these breeds DLA-88 polymorphisms are limited and largely non-overlapping. The finding of highly prevalent alleles fulfills an important prerequisite for studying canine CD8+ T-cell responses.

Ross, Peter; Buntzman, Adam S.; Vincent, Benjamin G.; Grover, Elise N.; Gojanovich, Gregory S.; Collins, Edward J.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Hess, Paul R.

2012-01-01

409

Genomics into Healthcare: the 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium.  

PubMed

The joint 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium, "Genomics into Healthcare" was coorganized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in collaboration with the Golden Helix Foundation (http://www.goldenhelix.org) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 17 to 19 November, 2013. The meeting was attended by over 900 participants, doctors and biomedical students from over 50 countries and was organized into a series of nine themed sessions that covered cancer genomics and epigenetics, genomic and epigenetic studies, genomics of blood and metabolic disorders, cytogenetic diagnosis and molecular profiling, next-generation sequencing, consanguinity and hereditary diseases, clinical genomics, clinical applications of pharmacogenomics, and genomics in public health. PMID:24526565

Fortina, Paolo; Al Khaja, Najib; Al Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Nair, Pratibha; Innocenti, Federico; Patrinos, George P; Kricka, Larry J

2014-05-01

410

Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.  

PubMed

Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

2013-10-18

411

Relation between food preference and food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

We report the results of 2 studies on food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). First, we investigated the preferences of 10 golden lion tamarins for 6 foods. Tamarins prefer mealworms and raisins significantly more than apple, egg, carrot, or marmoset diet. Food preference rank was significantly and positively correlated with the rank of latency to choose a particular food. Second, we investigated the relation between food preference and 15 vocal parameters measured from the calls emitted by 5 tamarins to a subset of the foods. Only 1 parameter was significantly correlated with food preference across animals. Within-subjects multivariate analysis of variance showed that the vocalizations to foods are significantly different. Our results support an hypothesis that food-elicited vocalizations vary in ways that correspond to the caller's preference but not in a manner that labels food type. PMID:1600721

Benz, J J; Leger, D W; French, J A

1992-06-01

412

Mating patterns in the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia): continuous receptivity and concealed estrus.  

PubMed

Sociosexual behavior was monitored on a daily basis for 3 months in 5 pairs of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Urine samples were collected daily from each female and urinary estrogen cycles were determined by radioimmunoassay. Mounts and copulations were observed during all phases of the estrogen cycle. Peaks or regular cycles in sexual behavior were not documented. There were no significant changes in affiliative behavior by females or males that were associated with changes in urinary estrogen values. A negative relationship between pair bond duration and frequency of sexual interactions was observed: newly established pairs exhibited 2-6 times more frequent sexual behavior than a long-established pair. The lack of a conspicuous sexual signal in female golden lion tamarins may be related to a pattern of continuous sexual receptivity. Both reproductive patterns, concealed estrus and continuous receptivity, are explicable in relation to either monogamous or polyandrous mating systems. PMID:3143650

Stribley, J A; French, J A; Inglett, B J

1987-01-01

413

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia  

PubMed Central

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

Cirovic, Dusko; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovic, Snezana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezic, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

414

Rock Magnetic and Paleointensity Study of Eastern California's ~83 Ma Golden Bear and Coso Dikes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraordinary intermediate-composition (Kspar +/- quartz andesite porphyry) dikes are coincident with the end of Sierra Nevada magmatism and crop out on both the east and the west sides of Owens Valley, but offset dextrally by >60 km. If this offset represents ancient (possibly Cretaceous) strike-slip partitioning of Pacific-North America plate boundary strain, then at least one of the south- and east-sited Coso dikes might be expected to be paleomagnetically "identical" to its presumed paleo-contiguous, north- and west-sited Golden Bear partner. Accompanying a directional study by Pluhar and colleagues at CSU-Fresno, we are characterizing magnetic mineralogy, fabric, and thermal lability of Coso dikes and the Golden Bear dike. We are also applying the pTRM difference multi-specimen paleointensity technique to these samples, testing for across-Owens Valley correlation.

Feldman, M.; Raub, T. D.

2009-12-01

415

Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.  

PubMed

The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

2014-01-01

416

Golden single-walled carbon nanotubes prepared using double layer polysaccharides bridge for photothermal therapy.  

PubMed

Golden single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by growing gold nanoparticles onto the bilayer polysaccharide functionalized SWNTs. The layer-by-layer self-assembly of sodium alginate and chitosan on SWNTs provided an ideal surface with high density of active metal-binding groups such as amino and carboxylic acid groups, and then an approach of seed growth was adopted to facilitate the formation of gold nanoparticles coated SWNTs. The resulting golden SWNT hybrids have good water dispersibility and biocompatibility and tend to enter cancer cells. Interestingly, they have an enhanced NIR absorption and effectively transfer NIR laser into heat. The material can quickly cause localized hyperthermia, resulting in rapid cell death, and therefore appears to act as a highly effective photothermal converter for cancer ablation. PMID:24606763

Meng, Lingjie; Xia, Wenjian; Liu, Li; Niu, Lvye; Lu, Qinghua

2014-04-01

417

Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).  

PubMed

The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342

Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria

2007-11-01

418

Perturbation expansion and Nth order Fermi golden rule of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations with external potentials. We find the expressions for the fourth and the sixth order Fermi golden rules (FGRs), conjectured in Gang and Sigal [Rev. Math. Phys. 17, 1143-1207 (2005); Geom. Funct. Anal. 16, No. 7, 1377-1390 (2006)]. The FGR is a key condition in a study of the asymptotic dynamics of trapped solitons.

Zhou, Gang

2007-05-01

419

Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, 1819) in Sabah, Malaysia - Current Situation and Management Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the control operation of the golden apple snail in Sabah implemented by the Department of Agriculture following the outbreak of the pest in the 1990s. The snail was sighted in Keningau in 1992. Two years later it mushroomed to most of the rice-growing districts with a total infested area of about 5,000 ha. The control operation employed

Su Sin

420

Marker-assisted characterization of durum wheat Langdon–Golden Ball disomic substitution lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The durum wheat cultivar ‘Golden Ball’ (GB) is a source of resistance to wheat sawfly due to its superior solid stem. In the\\u000a late 1980s, Dr. Leonard Joppa developed a complete set of 14 ‘Langdon’ (LDN)–GB disomic substitution (DS) lines by using GB\\u000a as the chromosome donor and LDN as the recipient. However, these substitution lines have not been previously

Steven S. Xu; C. G. Chu; S. Chao; D. L. Klindworth; J. D. Faris; E. M. Elias

2010-01-01

421

Polyamine Levels in Testes and Seminal Vesicles From Adult Golden Hamsters During Gonadal Regression-Recrudescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of golden hamsters to short days re- sults in early regression of the reproductive organs and subsequent spontaneous recrudescence characterized by active cellular regen- eration and differentiation. Thus, adult male hamsters were subject- ed to short photoperiod (SP, 6L:18D) for 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 22 weeks or maintained under long photoperiod (LP, 14L:1OD) for 22 weeks,

MONICA B. FRUNGIERI; SILVIA I. GONZALEZCALVAR; RICARDO S. CALANDRA

422

Influence of Cluster Exposure and Winemaking Processes on Monoterpenes and Quality of Golden Muscat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of cluster exposure and winemaking treatments on free- and potential-volatile terpenes (FVT. P VT), total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), phenols pH, color and potassium were studied. Canopies of Golden Muscat grape vines were manipulated by shoot positioning and basal leaf removal at fruit set to create shaded and exposed cluster conditions. Winemaking treatments included: control, 4-hr skin

L. E. Macaulay; J. R. Morris

423

Perturbation expansion and Nth order Fermi golden rule of the nonlinear Schroedinger equations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we consider generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equations with external potentials. We find the expressions for the fourth and the sixth order Fermi golden rules (FGRs), conjectured in Gang and Sigal [Rev. Math. Phys. 17, 1143-1207 (2005); Geom. Funct. Anal. 16, No. 7, 1377-1390 (2006)]. The FGR is a key condition in a study of the asymptotic dynamics of trapped solitons.

Zhou Gang [Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2E4 (Canada)

2007-05-15

424

Energy Metabolism and Thermoregulation in the Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy metabolism and body temperature were examined in Leontopithecus ros?li?, the golden lion tamarin. Total standard metabolic rate (SMR), defined as the metabolic rate of resting, fasted animals within thermoneutrality and during the inactive (nighttime) phase, averaged 381.5 ± 65.2 ml O2·h–1 (mass-specific metabolic rate 0.520 ± 0.089 ml O2·g–1 h–1). This value ranges from 73 to 89% of the

S. D. Thompson; M. L. Power; C. E. Rutledge; D. G. Kleiman

1994-01-01

425

Spontaneous tool use in captive, free-ranging golden lion tamarins ( Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of tool use were observed in eight captive, free-ranging golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia). All eight individuals used twigs and\\/or radio collar antennae to pry bark from trees and probe crevices, presumably for\\u000a invertebrates. Three individuals used tools for grooming. In two animals, antennae were used as grooming tools while the third\\u000a individual used a stick while

Tara S. Stoinski; Benjamin B. Beck

2001-01-01

426

Maternal Differences in Infant Carriage in Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant-carrying behaviour was observed in two families of captive golden-headed lion tamarins. Although the young were raised in almost identical social situations, we found a reversed involvement of mother-father pairs in the amount of time they carried their offspring. In one case, the parental division of carrying behaviour was consistent with the standard description for callitrichids in that the adult

Linda Van Elsacker; Walter de Meurichy; Rudolf Frans Verheyern; Vera Walraven

1992-01-01

427

Patterns of urinary oestrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Daily urine samples were collected from 5 female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) over a period of 3 or more months, and urinary oestrogen con- centrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Four females exhibited regular patterns of oestrogen excretion, with a peak-to-peak periodicity of 19\\\\m=.\\\\6\\\\m=+-\\\\ 1\\\\m=.\\\\4 days. Levels of oestrogen excretion tended to vary between, but not within, individual females.

J. A. French; J. A. Stribley

1985-01-01

428

Urinary chorionic gonadotropin levels in pregnant golden lion tamarins. Preliminary observations.  

PubMed

We have established the interval over which urinary chorionic gonadotropin can be detected by a radioimmunoassay during pregnancy in the golden lion tamarin. Preliminary findings indicate the potential value of this radioimmunoassay system for (1) diagnosis of pregnancy at about four weeks after fertilization; (2) estimation of the expected time of delivery; and (3) identification of individual monkeys having an apparent high risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:110938

Kleiman, D G; Gracey, D W; Hodgen, G D

1978-01-01

429

Surgical removal of the pregastric pouch does not affect voluntary ethanol consumption in golden hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden hamsters underwent either surgical removal of the pregastric pouch (PGX) or sham surgery. Following recovery from surgery, hamsters were given free access to 15% (v\\/v) ethanol solution for 40 days, and then to 30% ethanol solution for a further 32 days. PGX and sham-operated hamsters ingested similar amounts of absolute ethanol throughout the study, with intake exceeding 15 g\\/kg\\/day

David DiBattista

1995-01-01

430

Ethylene action blockade and cold storage affect ripening of ‘Golden’ papaya fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethylene action blockade and cold storage on the ripening of ‘Golden’\\u000a papaya fruit. Papayas harvested at maturity stage 1 (up to 15% yellow skin) were evaluated. Half of the fruits, whether treated\\u000a or not treated with 100 nL L?1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), were stored at 23°C, while the other half were

Ilana Urbano Bron; Angelo Pedro Jacomino

2009-01-01

431

High Urinary Isoflavone Excretion Phenotype Decreases Plasma Cholesterol in Golden Syrian Hamsters Fed Soy Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent absorption of isoflavones varies greatly among individuals but is relatively stable within an individual. We hypothesized that high urinary isoflavone excreters would show less plasma non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) than low isoflavone excreters after soy protein feeding. Fifty Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat\\/casein diet (n ¼ 10) or a high-fat\\/soy protein diet (n ¼ 40) for 4 wk.

Zhong Ye; Mathieu Renouf; Sun-Ok Lee; Cathy C. Hauck; Patricia A. Murphy; Suzanne Hendrich

432

Atherosclerosis associated with vasculopathic lesions in a golden retriever with hypercholesterolemia.  

PubMed

A 2-year-old neutered male golden retriever dog presented for lameness secondary to ulcerations of multiple digital paw pads was diagnosed with vasculitis and hypercholesterolemia. Despite treatment, ischemic necrosis progressed to include all distal extremities and the dog eventually expired due to myocardial infarction secondary to severe atherosclerosis. The rapid demise and the dermatologic lesions may have been secondary to cholesterol embolism syndrome which has never before been reported in a dog. PMID:24790237

Boynosky, Nicole A; Stokking, Laura

2014-05-01

433

Level of Opisthorchis infestation and carcinogen dose-dependence of cholangiocarcinoma induction in Syrian golden hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relationship between different levels of liver fluke,Opisthorchis viverrini infestation and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) dosage in the induction of cholangiocarcinomas was investigated in Syrian golden\\u000a hamsters. Two hundred and eighty male, weanling animals were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 served as untreated controls;\\u000a group 2 receivedO. viverrini metacercariae only at levels of 100, 50, 25 or 12 per animal; group

Witaya Thamavit; Rungtiva Kongkanuntn; Danai Tiwawech; Malcolm Anthony Moore

1987-01-01

434

Codes over M2(F2) and applications to Golden space-time coded modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study code constructions over the finite ring M2(F2), the ring of 2times2 matrices with coefficients in the finite field F2. We show how they can be related to classical codes over F4. We provide as application the design of outer codes for 2 times 2 space-time coded modulation, when the inner code is the so-called Golden

F. Oggier; P. Sole; J.-C. Belfiore

2009-01-01

435

Golden rice: what role could it play in alleviation of vitamin A deficiency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden rice (GR) is a new rice variety that has been genetically modified to contain beta-carotene, a source of vA. This modification was undertaken as a strategy to address VAD, which is widespread in less developed countries of Asia. Children’s food intake data from a poor rural region of the Philippines are used to simulate the potential impact of GR

D. Dawe; R. Robertson; L. Unnevehr

2002-01-01

436

Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae).  

PubMed

Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of their adult tipulid prey, to assess the potential for climate change to disrupt breeding performance. Golden plover first-laying dates were negatively correlated with both March and April temperature, the mean laying date of first clutches was additionally negatively correlated with March rainfall. The timing of final laying dates were negatively correlated with April temperature only. The timing of tipulid emergence was negatively correlated with May temperature. In combination with historical climatic data, these models suggest a 9-day advancement of golden plover first-laying dates occurred during the 1990s, although this remains within the range of natural variation for the twentieth century. The magnitudes of predicted changes in mean and final laying dates, and the timing of tipulid emergence, were smaller. Climate predictions for 2070-2099 suggest potential advances in first-laying dates by 25 days, whilst the timings of mean and final laying dates are predicted to change by 18 days and 13 days, and tipulid emergence by 12 days. Given the importance of adult tipulids to young golden plover chicks, these changes may result in a mismatch between the timing of first-laying dates and tipulid emergence, so reducing the success of early breeding attempts. Modelling suggests that these changes could reduce breeding success in a South Pennines population by about 11%. PMID:15685442

Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Whittingham, M J

2005-04-01

437

Object tracking using the Gabor wavelet transform and the golden section algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an object tracking method for object-based video processing which uses a two-dimensional (2-D) Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and a 2-D golden section algo- rithm. An object in the current frame is modeled by local features from a number of the selected feature points, and the global place- ment of these feature points. The feature points are stochastically

Chao He; Yuan F. Zheng; Stanley C. Ahalt

2002-01-01

438

Icosahedral (A5) family symmetry and the golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the possibility of using icosahedral symmetry as a family symmetry group in the lepton sector. The rotational icosahedral group, which is isomorphic to A5, the alternating group of five elements, provides a natural context in which to explore (among other possibilities) the intriguing hypothesis that the solar neutrino mixing angle is governed by the golden ratio, varphi=(1+5)\\/2. We

Lisa L. Everett; Alexander J. Stuart

2009-01-01

439

Golden ratio scheduling for low delay flow control in computer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a scheme for flow control based on the golden ratio policy of A. Itai and Z. Rosberg (1984) that requires very few buffers and guarantees low end-to-end delays. Messages are formed into equal length packets and then transmitted in accordance with a cyclic schedule. The scheme is very well suited to an asynchronous time-division multiplexing (ATM) environment as it

S. S. Panwar; T. K. Philips; M. S. Chen

1988-01-01

440

Golden ratio and bond-valence parameters of hydrogen bonds of hydrated borates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative understanding of microscopic characteristics of hydrogen bonds in various compounds is quite important for the deep study of structure-property relationships of functional crystals. The present work skillfully applies the well-known Golden ratio in the quantitative analysis of bond lengths of O–H?O hydrogen bonds. On the basis of the bond valence sum model, the bond-valence parameters d0 of the

Daqiu Yu; Dongfeng Xue; Henryk Ratajczak

2006-01-01

441

Golden ratio versus pi as random sequence sources for Monte Carlo integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algebraic irrational number golden ratio ?=(1+5)\\/2 = one of the two roots of the algebraic equation x2?x?1=0 and the transcendental number ?=2sin?1(1) = the ratio of the circumference and the diameter of any circle both have infinite number of digits with no apparent pattern. We discuss here the relative merits of these numbers as possible random sequence sources. The quality of these sequences

Syamal K. Sen; Ravi P. Agarwal; Gholam Ali Shaykhian

2008-01-01

442

Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of

J. W. Pearce-Higgins; D. W. Yalden; M. J. Whittingham

2005-01-01

443

Associations Between Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins and the Bird Community in the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the presence of birds accompanying and foraging in proximity to golden-headed lion tamarins at Una Biological\\u000a Reserve, Bahia, Brazil. We followed 3 groups of golden-headed lion tamarins over 3 yr. We noted all birds ?5 m of a lion tamarin\\u000a during 20-min observation periods. We found 11 different bird species in the presence of the lion tamarins. We most

Sarah J. Hankerson; James M. Dietz; Becky E. Raboy

2006-01-01

444

Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the  -carotene content in Golden Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the b-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimiza- tion of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden

Salim Al-Babili; Tran Thi; Cuc Hoa; Patrick Schaub

2006-01-01

445

Problems with the Management of the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: an Important Exotic Pest of Rice in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) is native to South America. It was introduced to farmers in the Philippines in the 1980s from Argentina via Taiwan,\\u000a and to other countries in Asia, to increase farmers' income and enrich the protein in their diet, and also as an aquarium\\u000a pet. Golden apple snail is expanding its distribution in Asia, threatening

R. C. Joshi

446

Assessment of Facial Golden Proportions among North Maharashtri-an Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Divine Proportion in Orthodontics and Prosthodontics has always been intriguing. This was applied to the North Maharashtrian population to evaluate the relationship between facial esthetics and the golden proportions. Materials & Methods: Facial proportions were assessed by examining photographs of sum total of 300 subjects of North Maharashtrian population. Young adults with a skeletal and dental Class 1 occlusion, competent lips, and balanced facial proportion were selected. Photographic prints were taken and manually parameters were plotted and analysis was done. Results: The measurements of anterior facial height showed proportionality with the total facial height. The values showed shorter lower anterior facial height and deviation of facial width parameters from the divine proportion indicating small mouth, nose, and narrow-set eyes with respect to the inter-temporal width. Conclusion: There is soft-tissue facial balance of North Maharashtrian population in comparison with the golden proportion. However, certain parameters show some deviation from the divine proportion.. How to cite this article: Sunilkumar L N, Jadhav K S, Nazirkar G, Singh S, Nagmode P S, Ali F M. Assessment of Facial Golden Proportions among North Maharashtrian Population. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):48-54.

Sunilkumar, L N; Jadhav, Kalpana S; Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Nagmode, Pradnya S; Ali, Fareedi Mukram

2013-01-01

447

Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory quality of stirred 'dwarf' golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) yoghurts.  

PubMed

The dwarf golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) is an exotic fruit which is mainly consumed in its fresh form but could be processed. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of adding golden apple nectar on the physicochemical and sensory quality of stirred yoghurts from cow's milk. Yoghurts with 15% and 20% golden apple nectar were more (P>0.01) liked than the control (0% nectar) yoghurt in all sensory attributes. The appearance and body attribute differed (P<0.01) between yoghurts with 15% and 20% nectar. The overall sensory quality of these yoghurts was rated very good to excellent. There were significant (P>0.05) changes, in pH, lactic acid, consistency, colour, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds on storage at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. By week 4 of storage, yoghurts developed a buttery smell and were less dark and yellow. A 226 g yoghurt serving provided an excellent source of phosphorus and was good in protein. PMID:16361184

Ann Bartoo, Shelly; Badrie, Neela

2005-09-01

448

Novel function of lipids as a pheromone from the Harderian gland of golden hamster  

PubMed Central

Sexual diversity of ADG in Harderian gland of golden hamster was demonstrated on TLC. Female ADG contained iso- and anteiso-branched acyl and alkyl components, but male ADG contained only straight chain ones, which suggested the hormonal control of the expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in the catabolism of BCAA. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were not expressed in the absence of testosterone, and then isovaleryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA accumulated, and acted as primers for the synthesis of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The incorporation of [U-14C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC. The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant. Considering the lifestyle of golden hamster in nature, we propose a hypothesis that the lipids from the Harderian gland of golden hamster serve as a pheromone to declare their territory and to seek the mate with good congeniality.

Seyama, Yousuke; Uchijima, Yasunobu

2007-01-01

449

The Clinical and Morphologic Features of Nonepidermolytic Ichthyosis in the Golden Retriever  

PubMed Central

A scaling disorder specific to Golden Retriever dogs has been recognized by both dermatologists and pathologists, but to date has not been well characterized. At the University of Pennsylvania’s Laboratory of Toxicology and Pathology, 46 cases of ichthyosis were diagnosed histologically in Golden Retriever dogs from January 2004 to January 2007. A total of 22 dogs had skin lesions documented at younger than 1 year of age; 3 dogs between 1 and 2 years of age; 13 dogs developed lesions at older than 2 years; and the time of onset was unknown for 8 dogs. A total of 25 dogs were female, and 21 were male. All dogs had strikingly similar histopathologic changes that consisted of mild to moderate laminar orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with an absence of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation. Ultrastructural analysis using a ruthenium tetroxide fixation method was performed on punch biopsy samples from 5 dogs and compared with 2 control dogs (1 clinically and histologically normal sibling of an affected dog and 1 Cairn Terrier). All affected dogs had retained and convoluted membranes with crystalline structures in the stratum corneum. Scattered keratinocytes in the granular cell layer had prominent, clear, membrane-bound, cytoplasmic vacuoles. Pedigree analysis of 14 dogs was compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance, but incomplete dominance could not be ruled out. This unique hyperkeratotic/scaling disorder in Golden Retrievers has distinctive clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural features, which are consistent with a primary cornification defect.

Mauldin, E. A.; Credille, K. M.; Dunstan, R. W.; Casal, M. L.

2012-01-01

450

Golden GATEway Cloning - A Combinatorial Approach to Generate Fusion and Recombination Constructs  

PubMed Central

The design and generation of DNA constructs is among the necessary but generally tedious tasks for molecular biologists and, typically, the cloning strategy is restricted by available restriction sites. However, increasingly sophisticated experiments require increasingly complex DNA constructs, with an intricacy that exceeds what is achievable using standard cloning procedures. Many transgenes such as inducible gene cassettes or recombination elements consist of multiple components that often require precise in-frame fusions. Here, we present an efficient protocol that facilitates the generation of these complex constructs. The golden GATEway cloning approach presented here combines two established cloning methods, namely golden Gate cloning and Multisite GatewayTM cloning. This allows efficient and seamless assembly as well as reuse of predefined DNA elements. The golden Gate cloning procedure follows clear and simple design rules and allows the assembly of multiple fragments with different sizes into one open reading frame. The final product can be directly integrated into the widely used Multisite GatewayTM cloning system, granting more flexibility when using a transgene in the context of multiple species. This adaptable and streamlined cloning procedure overcomes restrictions of “classical construct generation” and allows focusing on construct design.

Wittbrodt, Joachim

2013-01-01

451

Dubin-Johnson-like syndrome in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia).  

PubMed

On routine blood screens, persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinemia was discovered in two groups of closely related adult female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia, n = 8). Bromosulfophthalein (BSP) retention tests were performed on four hyperbilirubinemic and three control tamarins. BSP excretion was delayed in hyperbilirubinemic tamarins as compared with controls. Grossly, liver of affected tamarins was dark brown to black, with a prominent reticulated pattern. Histologic examination revealed abundant intrahepatic pigment, primarily in a centrilobular and midzonal distribution. Most of the pigment did not react with Perls' Prussian blue method for iron, Hall's method for bilirubin, or the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology acid-fast method for lipofuscin but was positive with Fontana and lipofuscin-ferric ferricyanide reduction techniques. Liver from control golden lion tamarins had intrahepatocellular Perls' iron-positive pigment diffusely throughout the lobule with a small amount of Fontana method-positive pigment. Ultrastructurally, hepatocytes from a hyperbilirubinemic tamarin contained pleomorphic electron-dense structures within lysosomes. Transport studies demonstrated secretion of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled glycocholic acid, a fluorescent bile acid analog, into bile canaliculi and no secretion of carboxydichlorofluorescein diacetate, a non-bile acid organic anion, by liver from a hyperbilirubinemic tamarin. In contrast, control liver secreted carboxydichlorofluorescein diacetate readily into bile canaliculi. The clinicopathologic presentation of this syndrome in golden lion tamarins is similar to that described for Dubin-Johnson syndrome of human beings. PMID:8116141

Schulman, F Y; Montali, R J; Bush, M; Citino, S B; Tell, L A; Ballou, J D; Hutson, T L; St Pierre, M; Dufour, J F; Gatmaitan, Z

1993-11-01

452

Abandoning the Golden Rule: the problem with "putting ourselves in the patient's place".  

PubMed

A large body of evidence documents the difficulties health care professionals have in predicting their patient's beliefs or wishes. These difficulties extend from the predictions of very specific patient wishes (such as for life-sustaining therapies) to more global assessments of patients' lives as a whole (for instance, their quality of life). Although many explanations have been offered for this phenomenon, we discuss one that has not received as much attention: the conscious or unconscious adoption of what we refer to as Golden Rule thinking. This refers to our attempts to understand another person's situation by imagining what we would believe or want under similar circumstances, in other words, "putting ourselves in the patient's place." Although Golden Rule thinking would seem to be a promising strategy, studies show that it actually results in inaccurate predictions of patients' wishes or beliefs. These mispredictions, in turn, have significant clinical and ethical implications. We review possible reasons why Golden Rule thinking may be of limited utility in understanding our patients' situations and suggest alternate strategies to maximize our understanding of our patient's lives. PMID:17082171

Kothari, Sunil; Kirschner, Kristi L

2006-01-01

453

Golden GATEway cloning--a combinatorial approach to generate fusion and recombination constructs.  

PubMed

The design and generation of DNA constructs is among the necessary but generally tedious tasks for molecular biologists and, typically, the cloning strategy is restricted by available restriction sites. However, increasingly sophisticated experiments require increasingly complex DNA constructs, with an intricacy that exceeds what is achievable using standard cloning procedures. Many transgenes such as inducible gene cassettes or recombination elements consist of multiple components that often require precise in-frame fusions. Here, we present an efficient protocol that facilitates the generation of these complex constructs. The golden GATEway cloning approach presented here combines two established cloning methods, namely golden Gate cloning and Multisite Gateway(TM) cloning. This allows efficient and seamless assembly as well as reuse of predefined DNA elements. The golden Gate cloning procedure follows clear and simple design rules and allows the assembly of multiple fragments with different sizes into one open reading frame. The final product can be directly integrated into the widely used Multisite Gateway(TM) cloning system, granting more flexibility when using a transgene in the context of multiple species. This adaptable and streamlined cloning procedure overcomes restrictions of "classical construct generation" and allows focusing on construct design. PMID:24116091

Kirchmaier, Stephan; Lust, Katharina; Wittbrodt, Joachim

2013-01-01

454

Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide Golden-cheeked Warbler habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat availability ultimately limits the distribution and abundance of wildlife species. Consequently, it is paramount to identify where wildlife habitat is and understand how it changes over time in order to implement large scale wildlife conservation plans. Yet, no work has quantified the degree of change in range-wide breeding habitat for the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), despite the species being listed as endangered by the U.S. federal government. Thus, using available geographic information system (GIS) data and Landsat satellite imagery we quantified range-wide warbler breeding habitat change from 1999-2001 to 2010-2011. We detected a 29% reduction in total warbler breeding habitat and found that warbler breeding habitat was removed and became more fragmented at uneven rates across the warbler’s breeding range during this time period. This information will assist researchers and managers in prioritizing breeding habitat conservation efforts for the species and provide a foundation for more realistic carrying capacity scenarios when modeling golden-cheeked warbler populations over time. Additionally, this study highlights the need for future work centered on quantifying golden-cheeked warbler movement rates and distances in order to assess the degree of connectivity between increasingly fragmented habitat patches.

Duarte, Adam; Jensen, Jennifer; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd

2013-01-01

455

Ontogenetic development of digestive functionality in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Ontogenetic development of the digestive system in golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus, Linnaeus 1758) larvae was histologically and enzymatically studied from hatch to 32 day post-hatch (DPH). The development of digestive system in golden pompano can be divided into three phases: phase I starting from hatching and ending at the onset of exogenous feeding; phase II starting from first feeding (3 DPH) and finishing at the formation of gastric glands; and phase III starting from the appearance of gastric glands on 15 DPH and continuing onward. The specific activities of trypsin, amylase, and lipase increased sharply from the onset of first feeding to 5-7 DPH, followed by irregular fluctuations. Toward the end of this study, the specific activities of trypsin and amylase showed a declining trend, while the lipase activity remained at similar levels as it was at 5 DPH. The specific activity of pepsin was first detected on 15 DPH and increased with fish age. The dynamics of digestive enzymes corresponded to the structural development of the digestive system. The enzyme activities tend to be stable after the formation of the gastric glands in fish stomach on 15 DPH. The composition of digestive enzymes in larval pompano indicates that fish are able to digest protein, lipid and carbohydrate at early developmental stages. Weaning of larval pompano is recommended from 15 DPH onward. Results of the present study lead to a better understanding of the ontogeny of golden pompano during the larval stage and provide a guide to feeding and weaning of this economically important fish in hatcheries. PMID:24448718

Ma, Zhenhua; Guo, Huayang; Zheng, Panlong; Wang, Long; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G; Zhang, Dianchang

2014-08-01

456

Purification Effects of Golden Pothos and Peace Lily for Indoor Air-Pollutants and its Application to a Real Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant has the capability to remediate the earth environment. Especially, it has high purification capability for air-pollution. In this paper, the capabilities of golden pothos and peace lily were examined. The subjects were planted in a plant pot. In the experiment, these subjects were installed in an experimental chamber of 300 liters respectively and the purification characteristics were monitored by a tin oxide gas sensor. The responding characteristic of the sensor, which means a plant purification capability, keeps the first order system which is used in the automatic control. Therefore, the time constant is employed to evaluate the plant capability. The capabilities of golden pothos and peace lily for formaldehyde, toluene and xylene were nearly constant even if the concentrations were changed. The capability of golden pothos for formaldehyde was 1.5 times higher than the one of peace lily. The capability of peace lily for toluene was 1.2 times as high as the one of golden pothos. The capabilities of golden pothos and peace lily for xylene were almost equal. It was also understood that the purification capability became lower as the molecular weight of the pollutant was larger. Plants were also set in a real environment. Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) and odors were measured to examine purification effect of plants. As for the results, removal rate for TVOC was 74% and the one for odor was 68%. It was confirmed that plants also had high purification capability in the real environment.

Sawada, Ayako; Yoshida, Taketoshi; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Oyabu, Takashi; Takenaka, Kozaburo

457

Lead contamination of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos within the range of the California condor Gymnogyps californianus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blood samples were taken from 66 golden eagles from June 1985 to January 1986 and analyzed for their lead content. Thirty-nine percent had blood lead levels greater than 0.2 ppm, indicating exposure to environmental lead. Within the exposed group, 3 had blood levels exceeding 0.6 ppm and one exceeded 1.0 ppm. These data suggest that lead, probably in the form of shot, bullets, or bullet fragments, poses a hazard to scavenging birds within the range of the California condor.

Bloom, P.H.; Scott, J.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Smith, M.R.

1989-01-01

458

The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program  

SciTech Connect

The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.

Eckert, J B

1995-07-01

459

Lithofacies and depositional dynamics of golden Oolite (Bathonian), Kachchh Mainland, Gujarat (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Golden Oolite Member of the Patcham Formation consisting of 84 m thick alternate sequence of limestones and mudstone are well exposed in the Jhura Dome, Kachchh Mainland, Gujarat. Petrographic study of limestones reveals four types of microfacies: oolitic fossiliferous grainstone (A 1); fossiliferous intraclastic grainstone (A 2); sandy fossiliferous grainstone (A 3); and pebbly fossiliferous grainstone (A 4). The microfacies normally form microfacies assemblages with calcareous mudstone (B 1) and are stacked vertically in ascending order as A 1-A 3, A 1-B 1, A 4-B 1 and A 2-B 1. The assemblage (A 1-A 3) is characterised by interbedding of moderately to thickly bedded, hard and compact, golden coloured oolitic fossiliferous grainstone and sandy fossiliferous grainstone exhibiting small scale low angle planar cross beddings. It contains well preserved bioclast. Assemlage (A 1-B 1) is distinguished by rhythmic alternations of earthy, concretionary calcareous mudstone and moderately to very thickly bedded golden coloured oolitic fossiliferous grainstone showing ripple bedding, abundant bioclast and reworked intraclasts, whereas assemblage (A 4-B 1) exhibits rhythmic alternations of bioturbated, earthy, concretionary calcareous mudstone and moderately to thickly bedded pebbly fossiliferous grainstone. Assemblage (A 2-B 1) is characterised by earthy,bioturbated,calcareous mudstone containing thin uneven beds of fossiliferous intraclastic grainstone having micritic intraclast and microfossils. The study of lithofacies suggests two main depositional processes for the formation of golden oolite: (1) The high energy physical sedimentation from current flows during transgression characterized by irregular to sharp nature of basal contact of each cycle, abundance of well preserved bioclasts and reworked intraclasts and large scale ripple bedding; (2) Settling of fines from suspension during fair-weather period as distinguished by homogenous fine grained interbeds of mudstone in the sequence. The transition of facies from A 1-A 3 to A 2-B 1 marks deepening upward event during Bathonian period from shallow inner shelf to calcareous mud dominated outer shelf. The energy condition was very high during deposition of the lower and middle part (A 1-A 3 and A 1-B 1 assemblage) whereas low to very low as revealed by abundance of bioturbated calcareous mudstone (B 1) with episodic interruption of moderate to high energy storm event depositing A 4 (pebbly fossiliferous grainstone) microfacies during the upper part (A 4-B 1 and A 2-B 1 assemblage) of the sequence.

Mishra, Diwakar; Tiwari, R. N.

2006-04-01

460

First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country.

2014-01-01

461

Hematologic values of captive golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia): variations with sex, age, and health status.  

PubMed

Blood samples obtained from 104 captive golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), collected over a 7-year period, were analyzed for hematologic values. Variations associated with sex, age, and health status were identified. Females had higher total plasma protein values, while males had higher numbers of basophils, hematocrits, and hemoglobin concentrations. Adult tamarins had higher erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, more neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils, and higher hematocrits and hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, erythrocyte indices, and total plasma protein. Decreased numbers of monocytes and eosinophils and increased numbers of leukocytes, neutrophils, bands, and basophils also were observed with abnormal status. PMID:6808243

Bush, M; Custer, R S; Whitla, J C; Smith, E E

1982-06-01

462

Low-energy behavior of the generalized Golden chain at an integrable point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, properties of collective states of interacting non-Abelian anyons have attracted a considerable attention. In particular, it has been shown to that the generalization of the Golden chain, a chain of interacting Fibonacci anyons, has a rich phase diagram with various critical and gapped phases. In additions, several integrable points have also been studied. We identify a new integrable point in the parameter space of the model and diagonalize the Hamiltonian exactly using the Bethe Ansatz method. To describe the corresponding low-energy conformal field theory, we perform the finite-size analysis to calculate the central charge and critical exponents.

Kakashvili, Paata; Ardonne, Eddy

2011-03-01

463

A robust family of Golden Gate Agrobacterium vectors for plant synthetic biology  

PubMed Central

Tools that allow for rapid, accurate and inexpensive assembly of multi-component combinatorial libraries of DNA for transformation into plants will accelerate the progress of synthetic biology research. Recent innovations in molecular cloning methods has vastly expanded the repertoire with which plant biologists can engineer a transgene. Here we describe a new set of binary vectors for use in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation that utilizes the Golden-Gate Cloning approach. Our optimized protocol facilitates the rapid and inexpensive generation of multi-component transgenes for later introduction into plants.

Emami, Shahram; Yee, Muh-ching; Dinneny, Jose R.

2013-01-01

464

Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).  

PubMed

Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

2008-07-01

465

Towards a better understanding of the use of probiotics for preventing chytridiomycosis in Panamanian golden frogs.  

PubMed

Populations of native Panamanian golden frogs (Atelopus zeteki) have collapsed due to a recent chytridiomycosis epidemic. Reintroduction efforts from captive assurance colonies are unlikely to be successful without the development of methods to control chytridiomycosis in the wild. In an effort to develop a protective treatment regimen, we treated golden frogs with Janthinobacterium lividum, a skin bacterium that has been used to experimentally prevent chytridiomycosis in North American amphibians. Although J. lividum appeared to colonize A. zeteki skin temporarily, it did not prevent or delay mortality in A. zeteki exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causative agent of chytridiomycosis. After introduction of J. lividum, average bacterial cell counts reached a peak of 1.7 × 10(6) cells per frog ~2 weeks after treatment but declined steadily after that. When J. lividum numbers declined to ~2.8 × 10(5) cells per frog, B. dendrobatidis infection intensity increased to greater than 13,000 zoospore equivalents per frog. At this point, frogs began to die of chytridiomycosis. Future research will concentrate on isolating and testing antifungal bacterial species from Panama that may be more compatible with Atelopus skin. PMID:22328095

Becker, Matthew H; Harris, Reid N; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Schwantes, Christian R; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Brucker, Robert M; Domangue, Rickie J; Gratwicke, Brian

2011-12-01

466

Effects of fire on golden eagle territory occupancy and reproductive success  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined effects of fire on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproductive success in southwestern Idaho because wildfires since 1980 have resulted in large-scale losses of shrub habitat in the Snake River Plain. Success (percentage of pairs that raised young) at burned territories declined after major fires (P = 0.004). Pairs in burned areas that could expand into adjacent vacant territories were as successful as pairs in unburned territories and more successful than pairs in burned territories that could not expand. Success at extensively burned territories was lowest 4-6 years after burning but increased 4-5 years later. The incidence and extent of fires did not help predict territories that would have low occupancy and success rates in postburn years. The presence of a vacant neighboring territory and the amount of agriculture and proportion of shrubs within 3 km of the nesting centroid best predicted probability of territory occupancy. Nesting success during preburn years best predicted the probability of a territory being successful in postburn years. Burned territories with high success rates during preburn years continued to have high success rates during postburn years, and those with low success in preburn years continued to be less successful after burning. In areas where much shrub habitat has been lost to fire, management for golden eagles should include active fire suppression and rehabilitation of burned areas.

Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen; Marzluff, J. M.; Carpenter, L. B.

1999-01-01

467

Food transfers in wild and reintroduced golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia.  

PubMed

We collected data from wild and reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) to describe the behavior of donor and recipient during food transfers, evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding on food transfer behavior, and examine various hypotheses concerning the function of food transfers in primates. Behavioral observations were conducted on 12 groups of tamarins with young (N = 30) between the ages of 1 week and 1 year old. Results show that food transfers involve various behaviors, from steals by recipients to offers by donors; transfers mostly derive from adults and are directed at immature weaned young (between 3 and 9 months old); and that most items transferred were prey or fruits that require skill to process. Eleven percent of food transfers were preceded by an adult vocalization specific to that context, whereas 86% were preceded by conspicuous infant vocalizations and begging behavior. The most common vocalizations were loud and atonal (rasps) and broad banded frequency modulated (trills). Infants born to reintroduced parents vocalized less, whereas reintroduced adults vocalized more before transferring food than their wild counterparts. Reintroduced adults and young received more food transfers (4.4 per hr) than did wild-born adults and young (2.2 per hr). Our findings suggest that food transfer in golden lion tamarins is best understood as provisioning of young that have not fully developed foraging skills to ensure they get the necessary resources for growth and survival. PMID:10402039

Ruiz-Miranda, C R; Kleiman, D G; Dietz, J M; Moraes, E; Grativol, A D; Baker, A J; Beck, B B

1999-01-01

468

Foraging ecology and use of space in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

In this paper we describe the use of space and feeding ecology of seven groups of golden lion tamarins observed for a total of 2,164 hr in Poço das Antas Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Relative to habitat availability in the home ranges of these groups, lion tamarins spent more time than expected in relatively undisturbed swamp forests and less time than expected in more degraded hillside and pasture habitats. Home range area was correlated with group biomass but not group size. Golden lion tamarins fed primarily on fruits and small animal prey, but relied heavily on floral nectar during seasonal periods of relatively low fruit availability. Compared to other New World monkeys, lion tamarins used larger home range areas and exhibited longer daily path lengths than would be predicted by group biomass alone. We suggest that this pattern of foraging and use of space may be explained by the relatively greater availability of cryptic prey and their microhabitats in forests that are flooded and/or have closed canopies than in forests that are in earlier stages of succession where prey may be more susceptible to desiccation during the dry season. PMID:9093693

Dietz, J M; Peres, C A; Pinder, L

1997-01-01

469

DNA damage and repair in haemolymph cells of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) exposed to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The development of methodologies for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems is of particular relevance in view of the serious problem of aquatic environmental pollution. The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) was chosen to be tested as a biomonitor organism based on its population data and distribution. L. fortunei individuals were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, and in vivo to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), with the aim of standardizing comet assay and micronucleus test methodologies and evaluating the potential of this organism as a biomonitor. Haemolymph cells immobilized in agarose on slides exposed to UV radiation showed a dose-response relationship with maximum damage at 4.2J/m(2). For the chemical tests, individuals were exposed for 2h for the comet assay and 24 and 48h for the micronucleus test. A dose-response relationship was observed for both chemicals. 3x10(-5)M CuSO(4) induced high genotoxicity, also producing some toxicity after 48h of exposure. PCP induced maximum damage in both assays at 150mug/L. Individuals exposed to PCP showed 100% repair 2h after the exposure period, as assessed by the comet assay. Exposure to an environmental sample over 7 days confirmed the mussel sensitivity to water contaminants, detected both by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The results allow us to suggest the golden mussel as a potential biomonitor organism. PMID:16697250

Villela, Izabel Vianna; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

2006-06-16

470

Pilot Inventory of Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3-4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse-the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

Semenoff-Irving, Marcia; Howell, Judd A.

2005-01-01

471

Pilot Inventory of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3?4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse?the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

Semenoff-Irving, M.; Howell, J.A.

2005-01-01

472

GoldenBraid: An Iterative Cloning System for Standardized Assembly of Reusable Genetic Modules  

PubMed Central

Synthetic Biology requires efficient and versatile DNA assembly systems to facilitate the building of new genetic modules/pathways from basic DNA parts in a standardized way. Here we present GoldenBraid (GB), a standardized assembly system based on type IIS restriction enzymes that allows the indefinite growth of reusable gene modules made of standardized DNA pieces. The GB system consists of a set of four destination plasmids (pDGBs) designed to incorporate multipartite assemblies made of standard DNA parts and to combine them binarily to build increasingly complex multigene constructs. The relative position of type IIS restriction sites inside pDGB vectors introduces a double loop (“braid”) topology in the cloning strategy that allows the indefinite growth of composite parts through the succession of iterative assembling steps, while the overall simplicity of the system is maintained. We propose the use of GoldenBraid as an assembly standard for Plant Synthetic Biology. For this purpose we have GB-adapted a set of binary plasmids for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Fast GB-engineering of several multigene T-DNAs, including two alternative modules made of five reusable devices each, and comprising a total of 19 basic parts are also described.

Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Falconi, Erica Elvira; Zandalinas, Sara I.; Juarez, Paloma; Fernandez-del-Carmen, Asun; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

2011-01-01

473

Functional Integral Representations and Golden-Thompson Inequalities in Boson-Fermion Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a general class of boson-fermion Hamiltonians H acting in the tensor product Hilbert space L2(?n) ? ?(?r) of L2(?n) and the fermion Fock space ?(?r) over ?r(n, r ? ?), we establish, in terms of an n-dimensional conditional oscillator measure, a functional integral representation for the trace Tr(F ? zNfe-tH)(F ? L?(?n), z ? ??{0}, t > 0), where Nf is the fermion number operator on ?(?r). We prove a Golden-Thompson type inequality for |Tr(F ? zNfe-tH)|. Also we discuss applications to a model in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and present an improved version of the Golden-Thompson inequality in supersymmetric quantum mechanics given by Klimek and Lesniewski ([Lett. Math. Phys.21 (1991) 237-244]). An upper bound for the number of the supersymmetric states is given as well as a sufficient condition for the spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. Moreover, we derive a functional integral representation for the analytical index of a Dirac type operator on ?n (Witten index) associated with the supersymmetric quantum mechanical model.

Arai, Asao

2013-09-01

474

Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in polyploid wheat with the Illumina GoldenGate assay.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are indispensable in such applications as association mapping and construction of high-density genetic maps. These applications usually require genotyping of thousands of SNPs in a large number of individuals. Although a number of SNP genotyping assays are available, most of them are designed for SNP genotyping in diploid individuals. Here, we demonstrate that the Illumina GoldenGate assay could be used for SNP genotyping of homozygous tetraploid and hexaploid wheat lines. Genotyping reactions could be carried out directly on genomic DNA without the necessity of preliminary PCR amplification. A total of 53 tetraploid and 38 hexaploid homozygous wheat lines were genotyped at 96 SNP loci. The genotyping error rate estimated after removal of low-quality data was 0 and 1% for tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, respectively. Developed SNP genotyping assays were shown to be useful for genotyping wheat cultivars. This study demonstrated that the GoldenGate assay is a very efficient tool for high-throughput genotyping of polyploid wheat, opening new possibilities for the analysis of genetic variation in wheat and dissection of genetic basis of complex traits using association mapping approach. PMID:19449174

Akhunov, Eduard; Nicolet, Charles; Dvorak, Jan

2009-08-01

475

Aesthetic judgment of triangular shape: compactness and not the golden ratio determines perceived attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Many studies over a period of more than a century have investigated the influence of the golden ratio on perceived geometric beauty. Surprisingly, very few of these studies used triangular shapes. In Experiment 1, we presented right triangles that differed in regard to their elongation determined by increasing the length of one side relative to another. Attractiveness ratings did not peak at the golden ratio, but there was a very strong influence of axis ratio overall. Participant ratings were a negative decreasing function of ratio. Triangles that pointed upward were judged as significantly more attractive than those that pointed down. We interpret these results according to a compactness hypothesis: triangles that are more compact are less likely to move or break and are thus considered more pleasing. Orientation also affects aesthetics. Upward-pointing triangles with a base parallel to the ground, regardless of their compactness, are also considered more perceptually stable and attractive. These findings were replicated across stimulus type in a second experiment with isosceles triangles and across testing procedure in a third experiment using a paired comparison technique.

Friedenberg, Jay

2012-01-01

476

The influence of weather on Golden Eagle migration in northwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyzed the influence of 17 weather factors on migrating Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) near the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A. Local weather measurements were recorded at automated stations on the flanks of two peaks within the migration path. During a total of 506 hr of observation, the yearly number of Golden Eagles in autumn counts (1994-96) averaged 1973; spring counts (1995 and 1996) averaged 605 eagles. Mean passage rates (eagles/hr) were 16.5 in autumn and 8.2 in spring. Maximum rates were 137 in autumn and 67 in spring. Using generalized linear modeling, we tested for the effects of weather factors on the number of eagles counted. In the autumn model, the number of eagles increased with increasing air temperature, rising barometric pressure, decreasing relative humidity, and interactions among those factors. In the spring model, the number of eagles increased with increasing wind speed, barometric pressure, and the interaction between these factors. Our data suggest that a complex interaction among weather factors influenced the number of eagles passing on a given day. We hypothesize that in complex landscapes with high topographic relief, such as Glacier National Park, numerous weather factors produce different daily combinations to which migrating eagles respond opportunistically. ?? 2001 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Yates, R. E.; Mcclelland, B. R.; Mcclelland, P. T.; Key, C. H.; Bennetts, R. E.

2001-01-01

477

Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo, plasma acetaldehyde in daidzin-treated hamsters was measured after the administration of a test dose of ethanol. Daidzin treatment (150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 6 days) significantly suppresses (> 70%) hamster ethanol intake but does not affect overall acetaldehyde metabolism. In contrast, after administration of the same ethanol dose, plasma acetaldehyde concentration in disulfiram-treated hamsters reaches 0.9 mM, 70 times higher than that of the control. In vitro, daidzin suppresses hamster liver mitochondria-catalyzed acetaldehyde oxidation very potently with an IC50 value of 0.4 microM, which is substantially lower than the daidzin concentration (70 microM) found in the liver mitochondria of daidzin-treated hamsters. These results indicate that (i) the action of daidzin differs from that proposed for the classic, broad-acting ALDH inhibitors (e.g., disulfiram), and (ii) the daidzin-sensitive mitochondrial ALDH is not the one and only enzyme that is essential for acetaldehyde metabolism in golden hamsters.

Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

1995-01-01

478

End of the Golden Age for X-ray Astronomy: Technical and Fiscal Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Golden Ages don't last much more than 50 years (viz. Athens 4th century BCE, Renaissance Italy, Dutch Golden Age) - that's why they're golden. X-ray astronomy is now 50 years old. Should we expect it to continue to flourish? Or is this the end of our Golden Age? Technologically there is tremendous promise. New optics and detectors are set to deliver great improvements along all axes: collecting area, angular and spectral resolution, field of view, polarimetry. To be optimal along a given axis, missions should not try to combine all these improvements in a single mission. Hence specialized missions of modest size (similar to NASA's Explorer class) should be pursued world-wide. Multiple missions also support a wide, varied, and creative community, not only of observers but also of instrument builders, operations staff and data/archive developers. All are necessary for a healthy field. We should encourage our agencies to adopt vigorous modest-mission programs, and to encourage open access to promote intellectual creativity. But some axes are almost certainly out of reach for Explorer-class missions. Most likely equaling or bettering Chandra angular resolution with larger area will require an Observatory-class, flagship, mission. While the technology is promising, the world-wide prospects for such a mission are grim. This is not merely the result of current economic woes, although they have brought the crisis to a head. Each generation of mission has to be an order of magnitude better than its predecessor in order to win funding. But to achieve this costs go up by a factor of a few each time. The progression: rockets - UHURU - Einstein - Chandra illustrates this clearly. The same exponentiation is evident in UV/visible astronomy and, perhaps, in Mars exploration. We have now hit the "funding wall" where each flagship mission costs so much that they pop into politicians notice. JWST is now a budget line item in the US, a precarious position previously held by the cancelled Superconducting SuperCollider. The only way to get our missions back "under the radar" is to make them cheaper. And the only way I can see to achieve that is to make the overall cost of access to space cheaper. This is technologically feasible, but is sociologically not going to be delivered by government agencies, to judge by their track record. If we are ever to have a renewed Golden Age of "Greater Observatories" spanning the electromagnetic spectrum, our hopes must rest on the profitable commercial exploitation of space resources. As platinum group metals are a good bet for the resource that will first make fortunes from space, perhaps it will be a "Platinum Age". Why will this work? When you have to make a profit, you watch the costs. That should do it - "Greed is the counterweight to caution". reference: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7402/full/486181a.html

Elvis, Martin

2012-09-01

479

Nesting Ecology of Golden Eagles and Other Raptors in Southeastern Montana and Northern Wyoming. Distribution and Abundance of Golden Eagles and Other Raptors in Campbell and Converse Counties, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on the distribution and abundance of 19 species of raptors are presented in the combined reports. Studies on the Sheridan-Decker area and on the Eagle Research Area emphasized long-term reproductive performance of golden eagles, while the much larger...

R. L. Phillips A. H. Wheeler J. M. Lockhart T. P. McEneaney N. C. Forrester

1990-01-01

480

Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.  

PubMed

Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field conditions, confirming that this virus is a causal agent of Wissadula yellow mosaic disease in W. amplissima. PMID:19768650

Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

2009-12-01

481

Progressive muscular dystrophy in a golden retriever dog: light microscope and ultrastructural features at 4 and 8 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical and morphological features of a congenital myopathy in a young male golden retriever dog were studied. Muscle biopsies at 4 and 8 months of age were examined with light and electron microscopy. Clinical features included early onset of generalized muscle weakness with selective muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, splaying of the limbs, stiff gait, and marked elevation of serum

B. A. Valentine; B. J. Cooper; J. F. Cummings; A. deLahunta

1986-01-01

482

Inhibition of egg hatching with apple wax solvent as a novel method for controlling golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is an important pest of rice in Asia. Among chemicals screened for ability to inhibit hatching of snail eggs, morpholine which is a solvent of apple wax was very effective in suppressing hatching of snail eggs. At a concentration of 60%, or higher, morpholine completely suppressed egg hatching in the laboratory and outdoor conditions. Scanning

Der-Chung Wu; Jih-Zu Yu; Bing-Huei Chen; Chien-Yih Lin; Wen-Hsiung Ko

2005-01-01

483

Lethal and non-lethal effects of multiple indigenous predators on the invasive golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. We investigated the individual and combined effects of two predators (the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, and the wetland crab, Esanthelphusa nimoafi) indigenous to wetlands in Laos, on the behaviour and survival of the invasive South American golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). The snail is considered a pest, consuming large amounts of rice an