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Sample records for golden cuttlefish sepia

  1. Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis: Cephalopoda) hunting behavior and associative learning.

    PubMed

    Cole, Patricia D; Adamo, Shelley A

    2005-01-01

    Because most learning studies in cephalopods have been performed on octopods, it remains unclear whether such abilities are specific to octopus, or whether they correlate with having a larger and more centrally organized brain. To investigate associative learning in a different cephalopod, six sexually mature cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) participated in a counterbalanced, within-subjects, appetitive, classical conditioning procedure. Two plastic spheres (conditioned stimuli, CSs), differing in brightness, were presented sequentially. Presentation of the CS+ was followed 5 s later by a live feeder fish (unconditioned stimulus, US). Cuttlefish began to attack the CS+ with the same type of food-acquisition seizures used to capture the feeder fish. After seven blocks of training (42 presentations of each CS) the difference in seizure probability between CS+ and CS- trials more than doubled; and was found to be significantly higher in late versus early blocks. These results indicate that cuttlefish exhibit autoshaping under some conditions. The possible ecological significance of this type of learning is briefly discussed. PMID:15592760

  2. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. PMID:26385328

  3. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

  4. Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Langridge, Keri V

    2005-01-01

    The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the ‘deimatic display’. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

  5. Mechanisms of Population Structuring in Giant Australian Cuttlefish Sepia apama

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Nicholas L.; Snelling, Edward P.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.

    2013-01-01

    While a suite of approaches have been developed to describe the scale, rate and spatial structure of exchange among populations, a lack of mechanistic understanding will invariably compromise predictions of population-level responses to ecosystem modification. In this study, we measured the energetics and sustained swimming capacity of giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama and combined these data with information on the life-history strategy, behaviour and circulation patterns experienced by the species to predict scales of connectivity throughout parts of their range. The swimming capacity of adult and juvenile S. apama was poor compared to most other cephalopods, with most individuals incapable of maintaining swimming above 15 cm s?1. Our estimate of optimal swimming speed (6–7 cm s?1) and dispersal potential were consistent with the observed fine-scale population structure of the species. By comparing observed and predicted population connectivity, we identified several mechanisms that are likely to have driven fine-scale population structure in this species, which will assist in the interpretation of future population declines. PMID:23536813

  6. Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Langridge, Keri V

    2006-04-22

    The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the 'deimatic display'. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

  7. ARTICLE IN PRESS 2 Estimating recent growth in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Wood, James B.

    U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F ARTICLE IN PRESS 1 2 Estimating recent growth in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: 3 are nucleic acid-based indicators for growth and condition 4 the method of choice? 5 Frank starving intervals on RNA/dry weight (DW) ratios and RNA/DNA ratios in 14 cephalopod mantle muscle at two

  8. The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    -guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. TwoThe use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra September 2011 Available online 22 September 2011 Keywords: Visual perception Color change Adaptive

  9. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains. PMID:16376404

  10. Effects of early visual experience on the background preference in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Hsin; Yan, Hong Young; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Although cuttlefish are capable of showing diverse camouflage body patterns against a variety of background substrates, whether they show background preference when given a choice of substrates is not well known. In this study, we characterized the background choice of post-embryonic cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) and examined the effects of rearing visual environments on their background preferences. Different rearing backgrounds (enriched, uniformly grey and checkerboard) were used to raise cuttlefish from eggs or hatchlings, and four sets of two-background-choice experiments (differences in contrast, shape, size and side) were conducted at day 1 and weeks 4, 8 and 12 post-hatch. Cuttlefish reared in the enriched environment preferred high-contrast backgrounds at all post-embryonic stages. In comparison, those reared in the impoverished environments (uniformly grey and checkerboard) had either reversed or delayed high-contrast background preference. In addition, cuttlefish raised on the uniformly grey background, exposed to a checkerboard briefly (0.5 or 3 h) at week 4 and tested at week 8 showed increased high-contrast background preference. Interestingly, cuttlefish in the enriched group preferred an object size similar to their body size at day 1 and week 4, but changed this preference to smaller objects at week 12. These results suggest that high-contrast backgrounds may be more adaptive for juvenile cuttlefish, and visually enriched environments are important for the development of these background preference behaviours. PMID:22791707

  11. Effects of early visual experience on the background preference in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hsin; Yan, Hong Young; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2012-10-23

    Although cuttlefish are capable of showing diverse camouflage body patterns against a variety of background substrates, whether they show background preference when given a choice of substrates is not well known. In this study, we characterized the background choice of post-embryonic cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) and examined the effects of rearing visual environments on their background preferences. Different rearing backgrounds (enriched, uniformly grey and checkerboard) were used to raise cuttlefish from eggs or hatchlings, and four sets of two-background-choice experiments (differences in contrast, shape, size and side) were conducted at day 1 and weeks 4, 8 and 12 post-hatch. Cuttlefish reared in the enriched environment preferred high-contrast backgrounds at all post-embryonic stages. In comparison, those reared in the impoverished environments (uniformly grey and checkerboard) had either reversed or delayed high-contrast background preference. In addition, cuttlefish raised on the uniformly grey background, exposed to a checkerboard briefly (0.5 or 3 h) at week 4 and tested at week 8 showed increased high-contrast background preference. Interestingly, cuttlefish in the enriched group preferred an object size similar to their body size at day 1 and week 4, but changed this preference to smaller objects at week 12. These results suggest that high-contrast backgrounds may be more adaptive for juvenile cuttlefish, and visually enriched environments are important for the development of these background preference behaviours. PMID:22791707

  12. Visual contrast modulates maturation of camouflage body patterning in cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hsin; Yan, Hong Young; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2010-08-01

    Camouflage is the primary defense behavior in cephalopods. It is known that cuttlefish immediately after hatching are capable of showing various body patterns for concealing themselves, however recent studies suggest that maturation of camouflage body patterns is faster for cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) reared in enriched environments than those reared in impoverished environments. Since camouflage patterning in cephalopods is predominately visually driven, this study specifically investigates effects of the rearing background contrast on the maturation of body patterns in cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis). Newly hatched animals were separated into two cohorts, one reared in a uniform-gray background (low-contrast, or L group) and the other raised in a black/white checkerboard background (high-contrast, or H group). At Weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, cuttlefish were placed individually either on uniform or checkerboard substrates to examine their body patterns. Animals from both L and H groups appear to show moderate disruptive patterns on the checkerboard and less disruptive on the uniform background at Week 2. Throughout development, however, cuttlefish from the H group showed stronger disruptive patterns than that of the L group on the checkerboard background at Weeks 10 and 12. In interesting findings, cuttlefish from both L and H groups showed similar strength but different disruptive components on the uniform background in later postembryonic stages. These results suggest that the maturation of camouflage body patterns in S. pharaonis is at least in part affected by visual contrast of their rearing backgrounds, although environmental complexity or social interaction is also likely to be involved in this process. This also implies that early visual experience could exert its effect on the seemingly preprogrammed behaviors such as camouflage body patterning in cephalopods. PMID:20695657

  13. Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akkaynak, Derya; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-03-01

    Cephalopods are renowned for their ability to adaptively camouflage on diverse backgrounds. Sepia officinalis camouflage body patterns have been characterized spectrally in the laboratory but not in the field due to the challenges of dynamic natural light fields and the difficulty of using spectrophotometric instruments underwater. To assess cuttlefish color match in their natural habitats, we studied the spectral properties of S. officinalis and their backgrounds on the Aegean coast of Turkey using point-by-point in situ spectrometry. Fifteen spectrometry datasets were collected from seven cuttlefish; radiance spectra from animal body components and surrounding substrates were measured at depths shallower than 5 m. We quantified luminance and color contrast of cuttlefish components and background substrates in the eyes of hypothetical di- and trichromatic fish predators. Additionally, we converted radiance spectra to sRGB color space to simulate their in situ appearance to a human observer. Within the range of natural colors at our study site, cuttlefish closely matched the substrate spectra in a variety of body patterns. Theoretical calculations showed that this effect might be more pronounced at greater depths. We also showed that a non-biological method ("Spectral Angle Mapper"), commonly used for spectral shape similarity assessment in the field of remote sensing, shows moderate correlation to biological measures of color contrast. This performance is comparable to that of a traditional measure of spectral shape similarity, hue and chroma. This study is among the first to quantify color matching of camouflaged cuttlefish in the wild. PMID:23254307

  14. Perception of visual texture and the expression of disruptive camouflage by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kelman, E J; Baddeley, R J; Shohet, A J; Osorio, D

    2007-06-01

    Juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage themselves by changing their body pattern according to the background. This behaviour can be used to investigate visual perception in these molluscs and may also give insight into camouflage design. Edge detection is an important aspect of vision, and here we compare the body patterns that cuttlefish produced in response to checkerboard backgrounds with responses to backgrounds that have the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the checkerboards, but randomized spatial phase. For humans, phase randomization removes visual edges. To describe the cuttlefish body patterns, we scored the level of expression of 20 separate pattern 'components', and then derived principal components (PCs) from these scores. After varimax rotation, the first component (PC1) corresponded closely to the so-called disruptive body pattern, and the second (PC2) to the mottle pattern. PC1 was predominantly expressed on checkerboards, and PC2 on phase-randomized backgrounds. Thus, cuttlefish probably have edge detectors that control the expression of disruptive pattern. Although the experiments used unnatural backgrounds, it seems probable that cuttlefish display disruptive camouflage when there are edges in the visual background caused by discrete objects such as pebbles. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of disruptive camouflage. PMID:17389219

  15. The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Mäthger, Lydia M; Allen, Justine J; Bennice, Chelsea; Smith, Neal; Schram, Jonathan; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-12-01

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two common tactics are background matching and resembling an object (masquerade) in the immediate area. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three-dimensional (3D) object in the immediate visual field (via the mechanism of masquerade/deceptive resemblance) rather than the 2D benthic substrate surrounding them (via the mechanisms of background matching or disruptive coloration). Cuttlefish were presented with a combination of benthic substrates (natural rocks or artificial checkerboard and grey printouts) and 3D objects (natural rocks or cylinders with artificial checkerboards and grey printouts glued to the outside) with visual features known to elicit each of three camouflage body pattern types (Uniform, Mottle and Disruptive). Animals were tested for a preference to show a body pattern appropriate for the 3D object or the benthic substrate. Cuttlefish responded by masquerading as the 3D object, rather than resembling the benthic substrate, only when presented with a high-contrast object on a substrate of lower contrast. Contrast is, therefore, one important cue in the cuttlefish's preference to resemble 3D objects rather than the benthic substrate. PMID:21964504

  16. Perception of visual texture and the expression of disruptive camouflage by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, E.J; Baddeley, R.J; Shohet, A.J; Osorio, D

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage themselves by changing their body pattern according to the background. This behaviour can be used to investigate visual perception in these molluscs and may also give insight into camouflage design. Edge detection is an important aspect of vision, and here we compare the body patterns that cuttlefish produced in response to checkerboard backgrounds with responses to backgrounds that have the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the checkerboards, but randomized spatial phase. For humans, phase randomization removes visual edges. To describe the cuttlefish body patterns, we scored the level of expression of 20 separate pattern ‘components’, and then derived principal components (PCs) from these scores. After varimax rotation, the first component (PC1) corresponded closely to the so-called disruptive body pattern, and the second (PC2) to the mottle pattern. PC1 was predominantly expressed on checkerboards, and PC2 on phase-randomized backgrounds. Thus, cuttlefish probably have edge detectors that control the expression of disruptive pattern. Although the experiments used unnatural backgrounds, it seems probable that cuttlefish display disruptive camouflage when there are edges in the visual background caused by discrete objects such as pebbles. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of disruptive camouflage. PMID:17389219

  17. A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance identification of irradiated cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Duliu, O G

    2000-05-01

    Gamma-ray irradiated fresh cuttlefish bone display very intense Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectra, which could be attributed to five different centers, including CO2-, previously observed in irradiated carbonates. All centers display a positive correlation with the absorbed dose, described by linear or saturation type dependencies. During 36 h of isothermal annealing at 100 degrees C, three of them decayed with time exponentially, one remained constant, while the EPR spectrum amplitude of the fifth increased. PMID:10836458

  19. Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, S; Osorio, D; Shohet, A J

    2009-02-27

    The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered 'objects' and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure-ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

  20. Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

  1. RAPID COMMUNICATION Sexually Mature Cuttlefish are Attracted

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    of Sepia officinalis. Cuttlefish detected odors from cuttlefish eggs, resulting in an increased ventilation rate. Extracts from female ovaries induced the largest increase in ventilation rate, suggesting from freshly laid eggs, measuring ventilation rate in a bioassay (Boal and Golden 1999). This method

  2. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-12-15

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 ?Pa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 ?Pa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods. PMID:25394634

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the needle cuttlefish Sepia aculeata (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Baoying; Wang, Wanchao; Qi, Pengzhi; Wu, Changwen; Chen, Yongjiu; Lv, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the needle cuttlefish Sepia aculeata. The genome was 16,219?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)]. The composition and order of genes, for the mitogenome found in S. aculeate, were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. aculeata is T 34.0%, C 17.0%, A 40.5% and G 8.5%, with a highly A?+?T bias of 74.5%. Two control regions (CR) both contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:24438256

  4. A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Enault, Jérémy; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bernay, Benoît; Lefranc, Benjamin; Leprince, Jérôme; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Henry, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Background The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. Results To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5?-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SP?, SP?? and SP? were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SP? and SP?? revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SP?-?? with SP? revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SP? led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SP?, SP?? and SP? showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. Conclusions The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the ?3 and ?2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones. PMID:23118854

  5. Trace metal concentrations in post-hatching cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and consequences of dissolved zinc exposure.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Milinkovitch, Thomas; Koueta, Noussithé; Cosson, Richard Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the changes of 13 trace metal and metalloid concentrations (i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) and their subcellular fractionation in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis reared in controlled conditions between hatching and 2 months post-hatching. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations were determined. Our results highlighted contrasting changes of studied metals. Indeed, As and Fe concentrations measured in hatchlings suggested a maternal transfer of these elements in cuttlefish. The non-essential elements Ag and Cd presented the highest accumulation during our study, correlated with the digestive gland maturation. During the 6 first weeks of study, soluble fractions of most of essential trace metals (i.e. Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn) slowly increased consistently with the progressive needs of cuttlefish metabolism during this period. In order to determine for the first time in a cephalopod how metal concentrations and their subcellular distributions are impacted when the animals are trace metal-exposed, we studied previously described parameters in juveniles exposed to dissolved Zn at environmental (i.e. 50 ?g l(-1)) and sublethal (i.e. 200 ?g l(-1)) levels. Moreover, oxidative stress (i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) was assessed in digestive gland and gills after 1 and 2 months exposures. Our results highlighted no or low ability of this stage of life to regulate dissolved Zn accumulation during the studied period, consistently with high sensitivity of this organism. Notably, Zn exposures caused a concentration-dependent Mn depletion in juvenile cuttlefish, and an increase of soluble fraction of Ag, Cd, Cu without accumulation modifications, suggesting substitution of these elements (i.e. Mn, Ag, Cd, Cu) by Zn. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations decreased in individuals most exposed to Zn. Finally, no perturbations in oxidative stress management were detected in gills, whereas modifications of GST, SOD and catalase activity levels were recorded in digestive gland, resulting in an increase of LPO content after a 6-week exposure to low Zn concentration. Altogether, these perturbations are consistent with previously described high sensitivity of juvenile cuttlefish towards Zn. Our results underlined the need to study deeply contamination impact on this animal at this stage of life. PMID:25500620

  6. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mäthger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

  7. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Roberts, Steven B; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-10-23

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max=492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This 'distributed sensing' could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

  8. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  9. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Darcy A A; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  10. Nitric oxide synthase in the nervous system and ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: molecular cloning and expression.

    PubMed

    Scheinker, Vladimir; Fiore, Gabriella; Di Cristo, Carlo; Di Cosmo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco; Enikolopov, Grigori; Palumbo, Anna

    2005-12-16

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling is involved in numerous physiological processes in mollusks, e.g., learning and memory, feeding behavior, neural development, and defence response. We report the first molecular cloning of NOS mRNA from a cephalopod, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (SoNOS). SoNOS was cloned using a strategy that involves hybridization of degenerate PCR primers to highly conserved NOS regions, combined with RACE procedure. Two splicing variants of SoNOS, differing by 18 nucleotides, were found in the nervous system and the ink gland of Sepia. In situ hybridization shows that SoNOS is expressed in the immature and mature cells of the ink gland and in the regions of the nervous system that are related to the ink defence system. PMID:16259953

  11. Influence of environmental parameters on the life-history and population dynamics of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stefanie; Valls, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuel; Quetglas, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis constitutes an important fishery resource in the Mediterranean, where it is exploited by both the bottom trawl and small-scale fleet. However, there is currently scarce information on the Mediterranean stocks, since most studies on the population dynamics of this species have been undertaken in the northeast Atlantic. In this work we first analysed different aspects of the cuttlefish life-history from the western Mediterranean such as population structure, reproduction and the trade-offs between somatic condition and reproduction investments. Secondly, we investigated the effects of different environmental parameters (e.g. climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) and moon phase) on these populations, analysing several landing time series spanning the last 45 years. Our results revealed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations exhibit strong seasonal variations owing to a reproductive migration towards coastal waters. The positive relationships between somatic and reproductive condition pointed to an income breeder strategy; this was reinforced by the percentage of empty stomachs, which was lowest just before the reproductive period peak. Despite the putative high sensitivity of cephalopod populations to external abiotic factors, our results showed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations were not affected by most of the environmental parameters investigated. Significant effects were found for SST and a local climatic index, but no or very weak influences were evident for other parameters such as large-scale climatic phenomena (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation) or other locally-related variables (e.g. rainfall, Chla). Our results revealed a shift in the cuttlefish population dynamics in the early 1980s, which could be related to important changes in the local hydroclimatology reported by previous authors.

  12. Response of female cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda) to mirrors and conspecifics: evidence for signaling in female cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M E; Calvé, M Richard; Adamo, Shelley A

    2006-04-01

    Cuttlefish have a large repertoire of body patterns that are used for camouflage and interspecific signaling. Intraspecific signaling by male cuttlefish has been well documented but studies on signaling by females are lacking. We found that females displayed a newly described body pattern termed Splotch toward their mirror image and female conspecifics, but not to males, prey or inanimate objects. Female cuttlefish may use the Splotch body pattern as an intraspecific signal, possibly to reduce agonistic interactions. The ability of females to produce a consistent body pattern in response to conspecifics and mirrors suggests that they can recognize same-sex conspecifics using visual cues, despite the lack of sexual dimorphism visible to human observers. PMID:16408230

  13. Cryptic and biochemical responses of young cuttlefish Sepia officinalis exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Di Poi, Carole; Bidel, Flavie; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants released in the environment have the potential to generate neural disrupting effects in non-target organisms, yet their putative effects on behaviors have never been studied in cephalopod molluscs. This study assessed the impact of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) on the efficiency of cryptic behaviors (body patterns on uniform, checkerboard and sandy substrates), locomotor activity, and brain chemistry in young cuttlefish exposed to environmental concentrations (1 and 100ngL(-1) of FLX) during the perinatal period. Behavioral responses of cuttlefish were monitored at hatching and two weeks later, and brain monoamine contents were quantified at one month of age. FLX significantly altered the camouflage efficiencies on uniform and sandy backgrounds only at the lowest concentration, but not at 100ngL(-1). Hatchlings exposed to 1ngL(-1) of FLX exhibited a duration exposure-dependent decrease in the uniform camouflage. They also showed a significant increase of the frequency of sand digging behaviors which might make them highly visible to predators in nature. When tested again two weeks later, cuttlefish seemed to have recovered and no more behavioral alterations were observed showing a transitory effect of the antidepressant. FLX did not affect the levels of serotonin, norepinephrine and their metabolites; however, it seemed to influence dopaminergic activity between the two FLX-exposed groups. The results show for the time that environmentally realistic concentrations of a single SSRI significantly impair the cryptic performances of newly hatched cuttlefish, and may ultimately reduce their chance for survival. PMID:24439571

  14. Disruptive coloration elicited on controlled natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Barbosa, Alexandra; Buresch, Kendra C; Kaye, Sarrah; Hanlon, Roger T

    2007-08-01

    Cephalopods are known for their ability to change camouflage body patterns in response to changes in the visual background. Recent research has used artificial substrates such as checkerboards to investigate some specific visual cues that elicit the various camouflaged patterns in cuttlefish. In this study, we took information from experiments on artificial substrates and assembled a natural rock substrate (fixed with glue) with those features that are thought to elicit disruptive coloration in cuttlefish. The central hypothesis is that light rocks of appropriate size, substrate contrast and edge characteristics will elicit disruptive camouflage patterns in cuttlefish. By adding graded light sand in successively greater quantities to this glued rock substrate, we predicted that disruptive camouflage patterns would be replaced by progressively more uniform patterns as the visual features of rock size, contrast and edges were altered by the addition of sand. By grading the degree of disruptiveness in the animals' body patterns, we found that the results support this prediction, and that there is a strong correlation between fine details of the visual background properties and the resultant body pattern shown by the cuttlefish. Specifically, disruptive coloration was elicited (1) when one or a few light rocks of approximately the size of the animal's White square skin component were in the surrounding substrate (dark rocks alone did not elicit disruptive coloration), (2) there was moderate-to-high contrast between the light rocks and their immediate surrounds, and (3) the rock edges were well defined. Taken together, the present study provides direct evidence of several key visual features that evoke disruptive skin coloration on natural backgrounds. PMID:17644680

  15. Chemical composition and tissue energy density of the cuttlefish (Sepia apama) and its assimilation efficiency by Diomedea albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Battam, H; Richardson, M; Watson, A W T; Buttemer, W A

    2010-11-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia apama Gray (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) is a seasonally abundant food resource exploited annually by moulting albatrosses throughout winter and early spring in the coastal waters of New South Wales, Australia. To assess its nutritional value as albatross forage, we analysed S. apama for water, lipid protein, ash contents, energy density and amino acid composition. Because albatrosses consistently consume S. apama parts preferentially in the order of head, viscera and mantle, we analysed these sections separately, but did not identify any nutritional basis for this selective feeding behaviour. The gross energy value of S. apama bodies was 20.9 kJ/g dry mass, but their high water content (>83%; cf <70% for fish) results in a relatively low energy density of 3.53 kJ/g. This may contribute to a need to take large meals, which subsequently degrade flight performance. Protein content was typically >75% dry mass, whereas fat content was only about 1%. Albatrosses feed on many species of cephalopods and teleost fish, and we found the amino acid composition of S. apama to be comparable to a range of species within these taxa. We used S. apama exclusively in feeding trials to estimate the energy assimilation efficiency for Diomedea albatrosses. We estimated their nitrogen-corrected apparent energy assimilation efficiency for consuming this prey to be 81.82 ± 0.72% and nitrogen retention as 2.90 ± 0.11 g N kg(-1) d(-1). Although S. apama has a high water content and relatively low energy density, its protein composition is otherwise comparable to other albatross prey species. Consequently, the large size and seasonal abundance of this prey should ensure that albatrosses remain replete and adequately nourished on this forage while undergoing moult. PMID:20640855

  16. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P.; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin–protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation. PMID:26086668

  17. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin-protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation. PMID:26086668

  18. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checa, Antonio G.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P.; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin-protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation.

  19. To be seen or to hide: visual characteristics of body patterns for camouflage and communication in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, S; How, M J; Osorio, D; Hanlon, R T; Marshall, N J

    2011-05-01

    It might seem obvious that a camouflaged animal must generally match its background whereas to be conspicuous an organism must differ from the background. However, the image parameters (or statistics) that evaluate the conspicuousness of patterns and textures are seldom well defined, and animal coloration patterns are rarely compared quantitatively with their respective backgrounds. Here we examine this issue in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama. We confine our analysis to the best-known and simplest image statistic, the correlation in intensity between neighboring pixels. Sepia apama can rapidly change their body patterns from assumed conspicuous signaling to assumed camouflage, thus providing an excellent and unique opportunity to investigate how such patterns differ in a single visual habitat. We describe the intensity variance and spatial frequency power spectra of these differing body patterns and compare these patterns with the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The measured image statistics of camouflaged animals closely resemble their backgrounds, while signaling animals differ significantly from their backgrounds. Our findings may provide the basis for a set of general rules for crypsis and signals. Furthermore, our methods may be widely applicable to the quantitative study of animal coloration. PMID:21508613

  20. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Jeffree, R.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-05-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we are testing the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the hatchlings weight at the end of development implying egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower pH of incubation seawater of eggs, the more the hatchlings accumulated 110m Ag in their tissues. The 109Cd CF decreased with increasing pH and 65Zn CF reached the maximal values pH 7.85, independent of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and the embryo metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the ocean acidification and ocean warming consequences on the metal uptake in marine organisms, stimulating further interest to evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stage of the cuttlefish.

  1. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Ross, J.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-11-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2; pH 8.1 (pCO2, 400 ppm), 7.85 (900 ppm) and 7.6 (1400 ppm) at 16 and 19°C, respectively) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the weight of hatchlings at the end of development implying an egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower the seawater pH, the more 110 mAg was accumulated in the tissues of hatchlings. The 109Cd concentration factor (CF) decreased with decreasing pH and 65Zn CF reached maximal values pH 7.85, independently of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and embryonic metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the consequences of ocean acidification and ocean warming on metal uptake in marine organisms, and our results indicate the need to further evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish.

  2. Absence of formation of benzo[a]pyrene/DNA adducts in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.G.; Lu, L.J.W.; Salazar, J.J.; Holoubek, V. )

    1994-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) injected intramuscularly into the base of the arms of cuttlefish was released continuously from the injection site and removed from the organism. Only a portion of the compound accumulated in the body. Twenty-four hr after its injection, 75% of B[a]P applied in olive oil was removed from the cuttlefish, and 1.2% was found in the body outside the head, in site of injection. If the carcinogen was dissolved in dimethylformamide, the removal of B[a]P was slower, so that only 18% of the injected B[a]P was removed from the organism and 0.36% accumulated in the body outside the head 24 hr after injection. The high level of B[a]P in gills and hemolymph 4 hr after injection and the kinetics of the decrease of its concentration with time indicate that these two organs could be involved in the excretion of B[a]P from the body. The B[a]P/DNA adducts characteristic for vertebrates could not be demonstrated in gills, skin, brain, hepatopancreas, and lymphocytes of the cuttlefish 24 hr after injection. The dose of the carcinogene injected into the cuttlefish was 2-4 times higher than the dose resulting in the formation of a high level of B[a]P/DNA adducts in vertebrates. A different metabolism of B[a]P in the tissue of cephalopods, compared to vertebrates, could be less favorable to the process leading to malignant transformation and could explain the absence from the literature of reports of tumors in cephalopods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Visual interpolation for contour completion by the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and its use in dynamic camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, Sarah; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Cuttlefish rapidly change their appearance in order to camouflage on a given background in response to visual parameters, giving us access to their visual perception. Recently, it was shown that isolated edge information is sufficient to elicit a body pattern very similar to that used when a whole object is present. Here, we examined contour completion in cuttlefish by assaying body pattern responses to artificial backgrounds of ‘objects’ formed from fragmented circles, these same fragments rotated on their axis, and with the fragments scattered over the background, as well as positive (full circles) and negative (homogenous background) controls. The animals displayed similar responses to the full and fragmented circles, but used a different body pattern in response to the rotated and scattered fragments. This suggests that they completed the broken circles and recognized them as whole objects, whereas rotated and scattered fragments were instead interpreted as small, individual objects in their own right. We discuss our findings in the context of achieving accurate camouflage in the benthic shallow-water environment. PMID:22337697

  4. Visual interpolation for contour completion by the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and its use in dynamic camouflage.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, Sarah; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-06-22

    Cuttlefish rapidly change their appearance in order to camouflage on a given background in response to visual parameters, giving us access to their visual perception. Recently, it was shown that isolated edge information is sufficient to elicit a body pattern very similar to that used when a whole object is present. Here, we examined contour completion in cuttlefish by assaying body pattern responses to artificial backgrounds of 'objects' formed from fragmented circles, these same fragments rotated on their axis, and with the fragments scattered over the background, as well as positive (full circles) and negative (homogenous background) controls. The animals displayed similar responses to the full and fragmented circles, but used a different body pattern in response to the rotated and scattered fragments. This suggests that they completed the broken circles and recognized them as whole objects, whereas rotated and scattered fragments were instead interpreted as small, individual objects in their own right. We discuss our findings in the context of achieving accurate camouflage in the benthic shallow-water environment. PMID:22337697

  5. A first survey on the biochemical composition of egg yolk and lysozyme-like activity of egg envelopment in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Conenna, Irene; Riedl, Verena Maria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Mar?eta, Tihana; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is an important fishery resource in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). During reproduction, fertilised eggs are released by adult females in coastal waters and embryo development can take over two months. During this period, embryos rely on nutrients and other substances, such as immune factors, provided by the female in egg yolk. In cephalopods in general, and specifically in the common cuttlefish, little information is available on yolk biochemical composition and substances included in egg envelopment. In the present study, the main biochemical components of egg yolk and the presence of antimicrobial substances in egg envelopment of S. officinalis were determined for the first time. Statistically significant differences in total egg weight and egg yolk weight were observed among batches from different females. Egg and yolk weights were positively correlated, with yolk representing the 13% (±5%) of the total egg weight. Total proteins were the main biochemical component (46%) of egg yolk, followed by total carbohydrates plus glycogen (39%) and lipids (15%). Statistically significant differences among batches were recorded in egg yolk total protein amounts, lipids, carbohydrates and glycogen, but no correlations were found between egg yolk weight and the biochemical components. The Petri dish and the quantitative spectrophotometric assays revealed the presence of lysozyme-like activity in egg gelatinous envelopment. PMID:25982397

  6. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light. PMID:21075936

  7. Adaptable night camouflage by cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Roger T; Naud, Marie-José; Forsythe, John W; Hall, Karina; Watson, Anya C; McKechnie, Joy

    2007-04-01

    Cephalopods are well known for their diverse, quick-changing camouflage in a wide range of shallow habitats worldwide. However, there is no documentation that cephalopods use their diverse camouflage repertoire at night. We used a remotely operated vehicle equipped with a video camera and a red light to conduct 16 transects on the communal spawning grounds of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama situated on a temperate rock reef in southern Australia. Cuttlefish ceased sexual signaling and reproductive behavior at dusk and then settled to the bottom and quickly adapted their body patterns to produce camouflage that was tailored to different backgrounds. During the day, only 3% of cuttlefish were camouflaged on the spawning ground, but at night 86% (71 of 83 cuttlefish) were camouflaged in variations of three body pattern types: uniform (n=5), mottled (n=33), or disruptive (n=34) coloration. The implication is that nocturnal visual predators provide the selective pressure for rapid, changeable camouflage patterning tuned to different visual backgrounds at night. PMID:17427123

  8. Edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, Daniel; Shohet, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. This behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. There is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the Mottle and the Disruptive body patterns. Broadly speaking, the Mottle is displayed on continuous patterned surfaces whereas the Disruptive is used on discrete objects such as pebbles. Recent evidence from common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, suggests that multiple cues are relevant, including spatial scale, contrast, and depth. We analyze the body pattern responses of juvenile cuttlefish to a range of checkerboard stimuli. Our results suggest that the choice of camouflage pattern is consistent with a simple model of how cuttlefish classify visual textures, according to whether they are Uniform or patterned, and whether the pattern includes visual edges. In particular, cuttlefish appear to detect edges by sensing the relative spatial phases of two spatial frequency components (e.g., fundamental and the third harmonic Fourier component in a square wave). We discuss the relevance of these findings to vision and camouflage in aquatic environments. PMID:20055546

  9. Cuttlefish use polarization sensitivity in predation on silvery fish.

    PubMed

    Shashar, N; Hagan, R; Boal, J G; Hanlon, R T

    2000-01-01

    Cephalopods are sensitive to the linear polarization characteristics of light. To examine if this polarization sensitivity plays a role in the predatory behavior of cuttlefish, we examined the preference of Sepia officinalis when presented with fish whose polarization reflection was greatly reduced versus fish whose polarization reflection was not affected. Cuttlefish preyed preferably on fish with normal polarization reflection over fish that did not reflect linearly polarized light (n = 24, chi 2 = 17.3, P < 0.0001), implying that polarization sensitivity is used during predation. We suggest that polarization vision is used to break the countershading camouflage of light-reflecting silvery fish. PMID:10768043

  10. Defensive responses of cuttlefish to different teleost predators.

    PubMed

    Staudinger, Michelle D; Buresch, Kendra C; Mäthger, Lydia M; Fry, Charlie; McAnulty, Sarah; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) responses to three teleost predators: bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), and black seabass (Centropristis striata). We hypothesized that the distinct body shapes, swimming behaviors, and predation tactics exhibited by the three fishes would elicit markedly different antipredator responses by cuttlefish. Over the course of 25 predator-prey behavioral trials, 3 primary and 15 secondary defense behaviors of cuttlefish were shown to predators. In contrast, secondary defenses were not shown during control trials in which predators were absent. With seabass-a benthic, sit-and-pursue predator-cuttlefish used flight and spent more time swimming in the water column than with other predators. With bluefish-an active, pelagic searching predator-cuttlefish remained closely associated with the substrate and relied more on cryptic behaviors. Startle (deimatic) displays were the most frequent secondary defense shown to seabass and bluefish, particularly the Dark eye ring and Deimatic spot displays. We were unable to evaluate secondary defenses by cuttlefish to flounder-a lie-and-wait predator-because flounder did not pursue cuttlefish or make attacks. Nonetheless, cuttlefish used primary defense during flounder trials, alternating between cryptic still and moving behaviors. Overall, our results suggest that cuttlefish may vary their behavior in the presence of different teleost predators: cryptic behaviors may be more important in the presence of active searching predators (e.g., bluefish), while conspicuous movements such as swimming in the water column and startle displays may be more prevalent with relatively sedentary, bottom-associated predators (e.g., seabass). PMID:24445442

  11. How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning Chuan-Chin Chiao a,b,

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    Sepia officinalis a b s t r a c t Rapid adaptive camouflage is the primary defense of softHow visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning Chuan-Chin Chiao a Cephalopod camouflage is the fastest changing and most versa- tile in the animal kingdom. These visually

  12. Disruptive coloration in cuttlefish: a visual perception mechanism that regulates ontogenetic adjustment of skin patterning.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chubb, Charles; Florio, Christopher; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

    2007-04-01

    Among the changeable camouflage patterns of cuttlefish, disruptive patterning is shown in response to certain features of light objects in the visual background. However, whether animals show disruptive patterns is dependent not only on object size but also on their body size. Here, we tested whether cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are able to match their disruptive body patterning with increasing size of background objects as they grow from hatchling to adult size (0.7 to 19.6 cm mantle length; factor of 28). Specifically, do cuttlefish have a single ;visual sampling rule' that scales accurately during ontogeny? For each of seven size classes of cuttlefish, we created black and white checkerboards whose check sizes corresponded to 4, 12, 40, 120, 400 and 1200% of the area of the cuttlefish's White square, which is a neurophysiologically controlled component of the skin. Disruptive body patterns were evoked when, regardless of animal size, the check size measured either 40 or 120% of the area of the cuttlefish's White square, thus demonstrating a remarkable ontogenetic conformity to a single visual sampling rule. Cuttlefish have no known visual feedback loop with which to adjust their skin patterns. Since the area of a cuttlefish's White square skin component is a function of body size, our results indicate that cuttlefish are solving a visual scaling problem of camouflage presumably without visual confirmation of the size of their own skin component. PMID:17371913

  13. Can cuttlefish learn by observing others?

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Ling; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2013-05-01

    Observational learning is the ability to learn through observing others' behavior. The benefit of observational learning is apparent in that individuals can save time and energy without trial-and-error, thus enhance the chance of survival and reproduction. Cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) have the most sophisticated central nervous system among invertebrates, and it is conceivable that cephalopods can develop some forms of cognition. Although it has been suggested that octopuses have the capacity of observational learning, a previous study indicates that cuttlefish do not improve their predation tactics by observing conspecifics. Given that the danger avoidance is important for animals' survival, we sought to reevaluate whether cuttlefish show some form of observational learning or observational conditioning under threatening conditions. Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) were divided into three groups: the Experiencer group, the Observer group, and the Control group. In the training phase, a toy submarine was remotely controlled to expel the cuttlefish from its initially preferred place to establish the threat-place association in the Experiencer group. In the Observer group, the threat-place association was established by expelling a conspecific demonstrator at the observer's initially preferred place while the observer watched the whole process from behind a transparent divider. In the Control group, the observer watched a conspecific and a static toy submarine without actual threat. In the testing phase, the choice of safe place in the absence of threat was used to probe the learning/conditioning of cuttlefish. In the Experiencer group, we found that animals chose the safe place more often than their initially preferred place after training, an indication of the association learning/conditioning. However, in the Observer group, only a subset of animals showed this threat-place association by observation, while the place preference was unchanged in the Control group. These results indicate that most cuttlefish did not learn by observing others, but individual differences exist, and some cuttlefish may have the potential of observational learning/conditioning within their cognitive capacities. PMID:23100087

  14. Nine novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) muscle protein hydrolysates and antihypertensive effect of the potent active peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; Sila, Assaâd; Guillochon, Didier; Dhulster, Pascal; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to identify novel ACE inhibitory peptides from the muscle of cuttlefish. Proteins were hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were then subjected to various types of chromatography to isolate the active peptides. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated and their molecular masses and amino acid sequences were determined using ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS, respectively. The structures of the most potent peptides were identified as Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro, Ala-Phe-Val-Gly-Tyr-Val-Leu-Pro and Glu-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro. The first peptide displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 5.22?M. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro acts as a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE. Furthermore, antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) also revealed that oral administration of Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro can decrease systolic blood pressure significantly (p<0.01). These results suggest that the Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro would be a beneficial ingredient for nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals acting against hypertension and its related diseases. PMID:25306378

  15. Cuttlefish use visual cues to determine arm postures for camouflage.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-01-01

    To achieve effective visual camouflage, prey organisms must combine cryptic coloration with the appropriate posture and behaviour to render them difficult to be detected or recognized. Body patterning has been studied in various taxa, yet body postures and their implementation on different backgrounds have seldom been studied experimentally. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), masters of rapid adaptive camouflage, use visual cues from adjacent visual stimuli to control arm postures. Cuttlefish were presented with a square wave stimulus (period = 0.47 cm; black and white stripes) that was angled 0°, 45° or 90° relative to the animals' horizontal body axis. Cuttlefish positioned their arms parallel, obliquely or transversely to their body axis according to the orientation of the stripes. These experimental results corroborate our field observations of cuttlefish camouflage behaviour in which flexible, precise arm posture is often tailored to match nearby objects. By relating the cuttlefishes' visual perception of backgrounds to their versatile postural behaviour, our results highlight yet another of the many flexible and adaptive anti-predator tactics adopted by cephalopods. PMID:21561967

  16. Cuttlefish use visual cues to determine arm postures for camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve effective visual camouflage, prey organisms must combine cryptic coloration with the appropriate posture and behaviour to render them difficult to be detected or recognized. Body patterning has been studied in various taxa, yet body postures and their implementation on different backgrounds have seldom been studied experimentally. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), masters of rapid adaptive camouflage, use visual cues from adjacent visual stimuli to control arm postures. Cuttlefish were presented with a square wave stimulus (period = 0.47 cm; black and white stripes) that was angled 0°, 45° or 90° relative to the animals' horizontal body axis. Cuttlefish positioned their arms parallel, obliquely or transversely to their body axis according to the orientation of the stripes. These experimental results corroborate our field observations of cuttlefish camouflage behaviour in which flexible, precise arm posture is often tailored to match nearby objects. By relating the cuttlefishes' visual perception of backgrounds to their versatile postural behaviour, our results highlight yet another of the many flexible and adaptive anti-predator tactics adopted by cephalopods. PMID:21561967

  17. Vertical visual features have a strong influence on cuttlefish camouflage.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, K M; Buresch, K C; Kossodo, M M; Mäthger, L M; Siemann, L A; Hanlon, R T

    2013-04-01

    Cuttlefish and other cephalopods use visual cues from their surroundings to adaptively change their body pattern for camouflage. Numerous previous experiments have demonstrated the influence of two-dimensional (2D) substrates (e.g., sand and gravel habitats) on camouflage, yet many marine habitats have varied three-dimensional (3D) structures among which cuttlefish camouflage from predators, including benthic predators that view cuttlefish horizontally against such 3D backgrounds. We conducted laboratory experiments, using Sepia officinalis, to test the relative influence of horizontal versus vertical visual cues on cuttlefish camouflage: 2D patterns on benthic substrates were tested versus 2D wall patterns and 3D objects with patterns. Specifically, we investigated the influence of (i) quantity and (ii) placement of high-contrast elements on a 3D object or a 2D wall, as well as (iii) the diameter and (iv) number of 3D objects with high-contrast elements on cuttlefish body pattern expression. Additionally, we tested the influence of high-contrast visual stimuli covering the entire 2D benthic substrate versus the entire 2D wall. In all experiments, visual cues presented in the vertical plane evoked the strongest body pattern response in cuttlefish. These experiments support field observations that, in some marine habitats, cuttlefish will respond to vertically oriented background features even when the preponderance of visual information in their field of view seems to be from the 2D surrounding substrate. Such choices highlight the selective decision-making that occurs in cephalopods with their adaptive camouflage capability. PMID:23677976

  18. Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration of multiple visual cues.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Buresch, Kendra C; Sogin, Emilia; Schwartz, Jillian; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-04-01

    Prey camouflage is an evolutionary response to predation pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camouflage capabilities and studying them can offer insight into effective camouflage design. Here, we examine whether cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, show substrate or camouflage pattern preferences. In the first two experiments, cuttlefish were presented with a choice between different artificial substrates or between different natural substrates. First, the ability of cuttlefish to show substrate preference on artificial and natural substrates was established. Next, cuttlefish were offered substrates known to evoke three main camouflage body pattern types these animals show: Uniform or Mottle (function by background matching); or Disruptive. In a third experiment, cuttlefish were presented with conflicting visual cues on their left and right sides to assess their camouflage response. Given a choice between substrates they might encounter in nature, we found no strong substrate preference except when cuttlefish could bury themselves. Additionally, cuttlefish responded to conflicting visual cues with mixed body patterns in both the substrate preference and split substrate experiments. These results suggest that differences in energy costs for different camouflage body patterns may be minor and that pattern mixing and symmetry may play important roles in camouflage. PMID:19955155

  19. Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration of multiple visual cues

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Justine J.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Barbosa, Alexandra; Buresch, Kendra C.; Sogin, Emilia; Schwartz, Jillian; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Prey camouflage is an evolutionary response to predation pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camouflage capabilities and studying them can offer insight into effective camouflage design. Here, we examine whether cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, show substrate or camouflage pattern preferences. In the first two experiments, cuttlefish were presented with a choice between different artificial substrates or between different natural substrates. First, the ability of cuttlefish to show substrate preference on artificial and natural substrates was established. Next, cuttlefish were offered substrates known to evoke three main camouflage body pattern types these animals show: Uniform or Mottle (function by background matching); or Disruptive. In a third experiment, cuttlefish were presented with conflicting visual cues on their left and right sides to assess their camouflage response. Given a choice between substrates they might encounter in nature, we found no strong substrate preference except when cuttlefish could bury themselves. Additionally, cuttlefish responded to conflicting visual cues with mixed body patterns in both the substrate preference and split substrate experiments. These results suggest that differences in energy costs for different camouflage body patterns may be minor and that pattern mixing and symmetry may play important roles in camouflage. PMID:19955155

  20. Preparing the Perfect Cuttlefish Meal: Complex Prey Handling by Dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

  1. Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.

    PubMed

    Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

  2. The scaling effects of substrate texture on camouflage patterning in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Buresch, Kendra; Siemann, Liese; Hanlon, Roger T

    2009-06-01

    Camouflage is the primary defense in cuttlefish. The rich repertoire of their body patterns can be categorized into three types: uniform, mottle, and disruptive. Several recent studies have characterized spatial features of substrates responsible for eliciting these body patterns on natural and artificial backgrounds. In the present study, we address the role of spatial scales of substrate texture in modulating the expression of camouflage body patterns in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Substrate textures were white noise patterns first filtered into various octave-wide spatial frequency bands and then thresholded to generate binary (black/white) images. Substrate textures differed in spatial frequency but were identical in all other respects; this allowed us to examine the effects of spatial scale on body patterning. We found that as the spatial scale of substrate texture increased, cuttlefish body patterns changed from uniform, to mottle, to disruptive, as predicted from the camouflage mechanism of background matching. For substrates with spatial scales larger than skin patterning components, cuttlefish showed reduced disruptive patterning. These results are consistent with the idea that the body pattern deployed by a cuttlefish attempts to match the energy spectrum of the substrate, and underscore recent reports suggesting that substrate spatial scale is a key determinant of body patterning responses in cuttlefish. PMID:19362570

  3. Cuttlefish camouflage: context-dependent body pattern use during motion.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, S; Osorio, D; Shohet, A J

    2009-11-22

    It is virtually impossible to camouflage a moving target against a non-uniform background, but strategies have been proposed to reduce detection and targeting of movement. Best known is the idea that high contrast markings produce 'motion dazzle', which impairs judgement of speed and trajectory. The ability of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis to change its visual appearance allows us to compare the animal's choice of patterns during movement to the predictions of models of motion camouflage. We compare cuttlefish body patterns used during movement with those expressed when static on two background types; one of which promotes low-contrast mottle patterns and the other promotes high-contrast disruptive patterns. We find that the body pattern used during motion is context-specific and that high-contrast body pattern components are significantly reduced during movement. Thus, in our experimental conditions, cuttlefish do not use high contrast motion dazzle. It may be that, in addition to being inherently conspicuous during movement, moving high-contrast patterns will attract attention because moving particles in coastal waters tend to be of small size and of low relative contrast. PMID:19692411

  4. Sex differences in spatial cognition in an invertebrate: the cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Modéran, Julien; Dickel, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported in a wide range of vertebrate species. Several evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences. The one best supported is the range size hypothesis that links spatial ability to range size. Our study aimed to determine whether male cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis; cephalopod mollusc) range over a larger area than females and whether this difference is associated with a cognitive dimorphism in orientation abilities. First, we assessed the distance travelled by sexually immature and mature cuttlefish of both sexes when placed in an open field (test 1). Second, cuttlefish were trained to solve a spatial task in a T-maze, and the spatial strategy preferentially used (right/left turn or visual cues) was determined (test 2). Our results showed that sexually mature males travelled a longer distance in test 1, and were more likely to use visual cues to orient in test 2, compared with the other three groups. This paper demonstrates for the first time a cognitive dimorphism between sexes in an invertebrate. The data conform to the predictions of the range size hypothesis. Comparative studies with other invertebrate species might lead to a better understanding of the evolution of cognitive dimorphism. PMID:18505716

  5. Cuttlefish camouflage: context-dependent body pattern use during motion

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    It is virtually impossible to camouflage a moving target against a non-uniform background, but strategies have been proposed to reduce detection and targeting of movement. Best known is the idea that high contrast markings produce ‘motion dazzle’, which impairs judgement of speed and trajectory. The ability of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis to change its visual appearance allows us to compare the animal's choice of patterns during movement to the predictions of models of motion camouflage. We compare cuttlefish body patterns used during movement with those expressed when static on two background types; one of which promotes low-contrast mottle patterns and the other promotes high-contrast disruptive patterns. We find that the body pattern used during motion is context-specific and that high-contrast body pattern components are significantly reduced during movement. Thus, in our experimental conditions, cuttlefish do not use high contrast motion dazzle. It may be that, in addition to being inherently conspicuous during movement, moving high-contrast patterns will attract attention because moving particles in coastal waters tend to be of small size and of low relative contrast. PMID:19692411

  6. Cuttlefish use visual cues to control three-dimensional skin papillae for camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Hanlon, Roger T

    2009-06-01

    Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are known for their camouflage. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis use chromatophores and light reflectors for color change, and papillae to change three-dimensional physical skin texture. Papillae vary in size, shape and coloration; nine distinct sets of papillae are described here. The objective was to determine whether cuttlefish use visual or tactile cues to control papillae expression. Cuttlefish were placed on natural substrates to evoke the three major camouflage body patterns: Uniform/Stipple, Mottle and Disruptive. Three versions of each substrate were presented: the actual substrate, the actual substrate covered with glass (removes tactile information) and a laminated photograph of the substrate (removes tactile and three-dimensional information because depth-of-field information is unavailable). No differences in Small dorsal papillae or Major lateral mantle papillae expression were observed among the three versions of each substrate. Thus, visual (not tactile) cues drive the expression of papillae in S. officinalis. Two sets of papillae (Major lateral mantle papillae and Major lateral eye papillae) showed irregular responses; their control requires future investigation. Finally, more Small dorsal papillae were shown in Uniform/Stipple and Mottle patterns than in Disruptive patterns, which may provide clues regarding the visual mechanisms of background matching versus disruptive coloration. PMID:19294390

  7. A review of cuttlefish camouflage and object recognition and evidence for depth perception.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Emma J; Osorio, Daniel; Baddeley, Roland J

    2008-06-01

    Cuttlefishes of the genus Sepia produce adaptive camouflage by regulating the expression of visual features such as spots and lines, and textures including stipples and stripes. They produce the appropriate pattern for a given environment by co-ordinated expression of about 40 of these 'chromatic components'. This behaviour has great flexibility, allowing the animals to produce a very large number of patterns, and hence gives unique access to cuttlefish visual perception. We have, for instance, tested their sensitivity to image parameters including spatial frequency, orientation and spatial phase. One can also ask what features in the visual environment elicit a given coloration pattern; here most work has been on the disruptive body pattern, which includes well-defined light and dark features. On 2-D backgrounds, isolated pale objects of a specific size, that have well-defined edges, elicit the disruptive pattern. Here we show that visual depth is also relevant. Naturally, cuttlefish probably use the disruptive pattern amongst discrete objects, such as pebbles. We suggest that they use several visual cues to 'identify' this type of background (including: edges, contrast, size, and real and pictorial depth). To conclude we argue that the visual strategy cuttlefish use to select camouflage is fundamentally similar to human object recognition. PMID:18490391

  8. Cuttlefish responses to visual orientation of substrates, water flow and a model of motion camouflage.

    PubMed

    Shohet, A J; Baddeley, R J; Anderson, J C; Kelman, E J; Osorio, D

    2006-12-01

    Low-level mechanisms in vertebrate vision are sensitive to line orientation. Here we investigate orientation sensitivity in the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, by allowing animals to settle on stripe patterns. When camouflaging themselves cuttlefish are known to be sensitive to image parameters such as contrast and spatial scale, but we find no effect of background orientation on the patterns displayed. It is nonetheless clear that the animals see orientation, because they prefer to rest with the body-axis perpendicular to the stripes. We consider three possible mechanisms to account for this behaviour. Firstly, that the body patterns are themselves oriented, and that the cuttlefish align themselves to aid static camouflage. This is unlikely, as the patterns displayed have no dominant orientation at any spatial scale. A second possibility is that motion camouflage favours alignment of the body orthogonal to background stripes, and we suggest how this alignment can minimise motion signals produced by occlusion. Thirdly we show that cuttlefish prefer to rest with their body-axis parallel to the water flow, and it is possible that they use visual patterns such as sand ripples to determine water flow. PMID:17114404

  9. Cuttlefish camouflage: visual perception of size, contrast and number of white squares on artificial checkerboard substrata initiates disruptive coloration.

    PubMed

    Chiao, C C; Hanlon, R T

    2001-06-01

    We investigated some visual background features that influence young cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, to change their skin patterning from 'general resemblance' of the substratum to disruptive coloration that breaks up their body form. Using computer-generated black/white checkerboard patterns as substrata, we first found that the size of the white squares had to be within a certain narrow range (relative to the size of the cuttlefish 'white square') for the animal to exhibit disruptive skin patterning. Second, given the appropriate size of checker, cuttlefish regulated their disruptive skin patterns according to the contrast between white and black squares. Third, by manipulating the number of white squares on a black background, we found that as few as four white squares among 316 black squares (or 1.25%) produced disruptive patterning, yet increasing the number of white squares to 20, 40 or 80 did not increase the frequency of appearance of the cuttlefish 'white square', but only its clarity of expression. These results demonstrate that the size, contrast and number of white objects in the surrounding substratum influence the production and expression of disruptive skin patterns in young cuttlefish. PMID:11441053

  10. Progress towards elucidating the structure-function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deravi, Leila F.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Bell, George R. R.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-03-01

    The adaptive coloration observed in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis skin is facilitated in part by properties of pigmented chromatophores that have not been previously reported. We found that chromatophore coloration is enabled by a tethering system that distributes layered pigment granules, comprised of fluorescent nanostructures, to optimize color intensity as the chromatophores are actuated. The design features gleaned from these studies provide intriguing insights into the development of artificial photonic systems useful for products ranging from conformable, high-definition color displays to optical fabrics capable of adapting their coloration within an ambient environment.

  11. Comparative morphology of changeable skin papillae in octopus and cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Velankar, Sachin S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-04-01

    A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae. Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. officinalis small dorsal papillae, Octopus vulgaris small dorsal and ventral eye papillae, Macrotritopus defilippi dorsal eye papillae, Abdopus aculeatus major mantle papillae, O. bimaculoides arm, minor mantle, and dorsal eye papillae, and S. apama face ridge papillae. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla's perimeter toward its core and determine shape. A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla's apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. S. apama face ridge papillae are different: the contraction of erector muscles perpendicular to the ridge causes overlying tissues to buckle. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support. These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies. Future research on papilla morphology, biomechanics and neural control in the many unexamined species of octopus and cuttlefish may uncover new principles of actuation in soft, flexible tissue. PMID:24741712

  12. Cuttlefish capsule: An effective shield against contaminants in the wild.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Inês C; Raimundo, Joana; Lopes, Vanessa M; Brandão, Cláudio; Couto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Cabecinhas, Adriana S; Cereja, Rui; Calado, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Rosa, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures in estuaries are responsible for the rise of contaminants in several compartments of these ecosystems. Species that benefit from the nursery services provided by estuaries are exposed to such contaminants (e.g. metals and metalloids). It is therefore relevant to understand if marine invertebrates that use these areas as spawning grounds accumulate contaminants in their tissues throughout embryogenesis. This study aimed to quantify As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Pb, V and Zn concentrations in both capsule and embryos of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) in Sado Estuary (Portugal). Moreover, embryos at their initial, intermediate and final stage of development were collected in sites subjected to different anthropogenic pressures. In general, the capsule accumulated higher element concentration throughout embryogenesis which indicates that the capsule acts as an effective barrier against contaminants uptake by the embryo. Although the capsule becomes thinner throughout embryogenesis, embryo's protection does not seem to be compromised at later development stages. Additionally, the higher concentrations of As, Cu, Se and Zn in the embryo in comparison to the capsule suggests important biological roles during the embryogenesis of this cephalopod mollusc. PMID:25876030

  13. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Christine N; Kajiura, Stephen M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. PMID:26631562

  14. Sepia: a Framework for Natural Language Semantics

    E-print Network

    Marton, Gregory Adam

    2009-05-28

    To help explore linguistic semantics in the context of computational natural language understanding, Sepia provides a realization the central theoretical idea of categorial grammar: linking words and phrases to compositional ...

  15. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    @mail.med.upenn.edu (MGF); Jean.Boal@millersville.edu (JGB) Introduction The Coleoid cephalopods (e.g. octopuses explored in cephalopods. In Octopus vulgaris, putative sleep states were observed that showed compensatory

  16. Cuttlefish skin papilla morphology suggests a muscular hydrostatic function for rapid changeability.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-06-01

    Coleoid cephalopods adaptively change their body patterns (color, contrast, locomotion, posture, and texture) for camouflage and signaling. Benthic octopuses and cuttlefish possess the capability, unique in the animal kingdom, to dramatically and quickly change their skin from smooth and flat to rugose and three-dimensional. The organs responsible for this physical change are the skin papillae, whose biomechanics have not been investigated. In this study, small dorsal papillae from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) were preserved in their retracted or extended state, and examined with a variety of histological techniques including brightfield, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. Analyses revealed that papillae are composed of an extensive network of dermal erector muscles, some of which are arranged in concentric rings while others extend across each papilla's diameter. Like cephalopod arms, tentacles, and suckers, skin papillae appear to function as muscular hydrostats. The collective action of dermal erector muscles provides both movement and structural support in the absence of rigid supporting elements. Specifically, concentric circular dermal erector muscles near the papilla's base contract and push the overlying tissue upward and away from the mantle surface, while horizontally arranged dermal erector muscles pull the papilla's perimeter toward its center and determine its shape. Each papilla has a white tip, which is produced by structural light reflectors (leucophores and iridophores) that lie between the papilla's muscular core and the skin layer that contains the pigmented chromatophores. In extended papillae, the connective tissue layer appeared thinner above the papilla's apex than in surrounding areas. This result suggests that papilla extension might create tension in the overlying connective tissue and chromatophore layers, storing energy for elastic retraction. Numerous, thin subepidermal muscles form a meshwork between the chromatophore layer and the epidermis and putatively provide active papillary retraction. PMID:23378271

  17. Fine structure of melanogenesis in the ink sac of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Schraermeyer, U

    1994-02-01

    The ink sac epithelium of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was investigated by electron microscopy. Melanogenesis in a simplified view seems to follow the general scheme of melanin formation in vertebrates. First, a membrane-bound protein matrix is formed, which is called an early stage melanosome. The early stage melanosomes are more or less irregular in shape with a size up to 1.5 microns and contain membranous, granular, or vesicular material. They seem to originate from Golgi bodies and/or endoplasmic reticulum. Membranes that frequently are present in the early stage melanosomes may originate from fusion of vesicles or from incorporation of Golgi membranes into early stage melanosomes. Free cytoplasmic material or mitochondria probably are also incorporated into the early stage melanosomes or melanosomes. Therefore, the origin of the early stage melanosomes seems to be similar to that of autophagosomes. The early stage melanosomes mature to melanosomes in which several dozen melanin granules are formed. These melanosomes, at last, release the melanin granules together with other cellular material, including early stage melanosomes, into the lumen of the ink gland. This finding confirms the earlier postulated holocrine character of the release. Active tyrosinase was localized in the lumen of the ink sac as already shown by biochemical methods. There was also additional evidence that most of the material of broken down cells inside the lumen of the ink sac seems to be converted into melanin granules. PMID:8072945

  18. 15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Elevations - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  19. 14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (Original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) First and second floor plans - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  20. 16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Interior details - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  1. Lower hypoxia thresholds of cuttlefish early life stages living in a warm acidified ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Repolho, Tiago; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Baptista, Miguel; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Dionísio, Gisela; Leal, Miguel Costa; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of future ocean acidification and global warming on the hypoxia thresholds of marine biota are, to date, poorly known. Here, we show that the future warming and acidification scenario led to shorter embryonic periods, lower survival rates and the enhancement of premature hatching in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Routine metabolic rates increased during the embryonic period, but environmental hypercapnia significantly depressed pre-hatchling's energy expenditures rates (independently of temperature). During embryogenesis, there was also a significant rise in the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the perivitelline fluid (PVF), bicarbonate levels, as well as a drop in pH and oxygen partial pressure (pO2). The critical partial pressure (i.e. hypoxic threshold) of the pre-hatchlings was significantly higher than the PVF oxygen partial pressure at the warmer and hypercapnic condition. Thus, the record of oxygen tensions below critical pO2 in such climate scenario indicates that the already harsh conditions inside the egg capsules are expected to be magnified in the years to come, especially in populations at the border of their thermal envelope. Such a scenario promotes untimely hatching and smaller post-hatching body sizes, thus challenging the survival and fitness of early life stages. PMID:23926158

  2. The structure–function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores

    PubMed Central

    Deravi, Leila F.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Bell, George R. R.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Senft, Stephen L.; Wardill, Trevor J.; Lane, William S.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-01-01

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromatophore organs that allow rapid changes in skin patterning and coloration in response to visual cues. This process of adaptive coloration is enabled by the 500% change in chromatophore surface area during actuation. We report two adaptations that help to explain how colour intensity is maintained in a fully expanded chromatophore when the pigment granules are distributed maximally: (i) pigment layers as thin as three granules that maintain optical effectiveness and (ii) the presence of high-refractive-index proteins—reflectin and crystallin—in granules. The latter discovery, combined with our finding that isolated chromatophore pigment granules fluoresce between 650 and 720 nm, refutes the prevailing hypothesis that cephalopod chromatophores are exclusively pigmentary organs composed solely of ommochromes. Perturbations to granular architecture alter optical properties, illustrating a role for nanostructure in the agile, optical responses of chromatophores. Our results suggest that cephalopod chromatophore pigment granules are more complex than homogeneous clusters of chromogenic pigments. They are luminescent protein nanostructures that facilitate the rapid and sophisticated changes exhibited in dermal pigmentation. PMID:24478280

  3. The structure-function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Deravi, Leila F; Magyar, Andrew P; Sheehy, Sean P; Bell, George R R; Mäthger, Lydia M; Senft, Stephen L; Wardill, Trevor J; Lane, William S; Kuzirian, Alan M; Hanlon, Roger T; Hu, Evelyn L; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-04-01

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromatophore organs that allow rapid changes in skin patterning and coloration in response to visual cues. This process of adaptive coloration is enabled by the 500% change in chromatophore surface area during actuation. We report two adaptations that help to explain how colour intensity is maintained in a fully expanded chromatophore when the pigment granules are distributed maximally: (i) pigment layers as thin as three granules that maintain optical effectiveness and (ii) the presence of high-refractive-index proteins-reflectin and crystallin-in granules. The latter discovery, combined with our finding that isolated chromatophore pigment granules fluoresce between 650 and 720 nm, refutes the prevailing hypothesis that cephalopod chromatophores are exclusively pigmentary organs composed solely of ommochromes. Perturbations to granular architecture alter optical properties, illustrating a role for nanostructure in the agile, optical responses of chromatophores. Our results suggest that cephalopod chromatophore pigment granules are more complex than homogeneous clusters of chromogenic pigments. They are luminescent protein nanostructures that facilitate the rapid and sophisticated changes exhibited in dermal pigmentation. PMID:24478280

  4. Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) of networked systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, David P.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; McDonald, Michael James; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Tarman, Thomas David; Urias, Vincent E.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes recent progress made in developing and utilizing hybrid Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) environments. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models separately to analyze interplay between threats and safeguards. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments. Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools. The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches.

  5. Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1953 architectural drawings by Horowick & Lee, Architects, Jacksonville, Florida) FLOOR PLAN AND SCHEDULES - MacDill Air Force Base, Photography Laboratory, 2617 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  6. Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1953 architectural drawings by Horowick & Lee, Architects, Jacksonville, Florida) EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Photography Laboratory, 2617 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  7. How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Siemann, Liese A; Buresch, Kendra C; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-05-01

    Rapid adaptive camouflage is the primary defense of soft-bodied cuttlefish. Previous studies have shown that cuttlefish body patterns are strongly influenced by visual edges in the substrate. The aim of the present study was to examine how cuttlefish body patterning is differentially controlled by various aspects of edges, including contrast polarity, contrast strength, and the presence or absence of "line terminators" introduced into a pattern when continuous edges are fragmented. Spatially high- and low-pass filtered white or black disks, as well as isolated, continuous and fragmented edges varying in contrast, were used to assess activation of cuttlefish skin components. Although disks of both contrast polarities evoked relatively weak disruptive body patterns, black disks activated different skin components than white disks, and high-frequency information alone sufficed to drive the responses to white disks whereas high- and low-frequency information were both required to drive responses to black disks. Strikingly, high-contrast edge fragments evoked substantially stronger body pattern responses than low-contrast edge fragments, whereas the body pattern responses evoked by high-contrast continuous edges were no stronger than those produced by low-contrast edges. This suggests that line terminators vs. continuous edges influence expression of disruptive body pattern components via different mechanisms that are controlled by contrast in different ways. PMID:23499977

  8. First descriptions of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Australian octopus (Octopodidae) and cuttlefish (Sepiidae), including a new record of Dicyemennea in Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-09-01

    Three new species of dicyemid mesozoans are described for the first time from Australian octopus and cuttlefish species. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is described from Octopus berrima Stranks et Norman (southern keeled octopus) collected from Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia, Australia and represents the first description of a species of Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 from Australian waters. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. and D. furuyi sp. n. are described from Sepia papuensis Hoyle (Papuan cuttlefish) collected from Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is a medium to large species that reaches approximately 4.9 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 23-28 peripheral cells, and a disc-shaped, flower-like calotte in larger individuals. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. is a small species that reaches approximately 1.1 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 30-33 peripheral cells and a relatively small, cap-shaped calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were occasionally observed in nematogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell. Dicyema furuyi sp. n. is a large species that reaches approximately 5.3 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 22-24 peripheral cells and an elongate calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Three secondary nematogens were also observed in the right renal appendages of two host individuals, confirming the occurrence of this form. PMID:24261132

  9. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  10. FaRP cell distribution in the developing CNS suggests the involvement of FaRPs in all parts of the chromatophore control pathway in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Aroua, Salima; Andouche, Aude; Martin, Madeleine; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2011-04-01

    The FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) family includes a wide range of neuropeptides that have a role in many biological functions. In cephalopods, these peptides intervene in the peculiar body patterning system used for communication and camouflage. This system is particularly well developed in the cuttlefish and is functional immediately after hatching (stage 30). In this study, we investigate when and how the neural structures involved in the control of body patterning emerge and combine during Sepia embryogenesis, by studying the expression or the production of FaRPs. We detected FaRP expression and production in the nervous system of embryos from the beginning of organogenesis (stage 16). The wider FaRP expression was observed concomitantly with brain differentiation (around stage 22). Until hatching, FaRP-positive cells were located in specific areas of the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS). Most of these areas were implicated in the control of body patterns, suggesting that FaRPs are involved in all parts of the neural body pattern control system, from the 'receptive areas' via the CNS to the chromatophore effectors. PMID:21397478

  11. Golden Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that architects, musicians and other thoughtful people have, since the time of Pythagoras, been fascinated by various harmonious proportions. One, is the visual harmony attributed to Euclid, called "the golden section". He explores this concept in geometries of one, two and three dimensions. He added, that in…

  12. Evidence of episodic-like memory in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Bertin, Marion; Clayton, Nicola S

    2013-12-01

    The recollection of past experiences allows us to recall what happened during a particular event, and where and when it occurred [1]. Since the first study on episodic-like memory in scrub-jays [2], there has been widespread acceptance of the idea that tests in animals should integrate the 'what', 'where' and 'when' components of a unique event that occurred in the past [3,4]. This is referred to as episodic-like memory rather than episodic memory per se, in acknowledgement of the lack of evidence for, or against, the phenomenological aspects that accompany episodic recollection in humans. So far, evidence for episodic-like memory has only been found in some birds and mammals. We show here that cuttlefish, cephalopod mollusks, keep track of what they have eaten, and where and how long ago they ate, in order to match their foraging behavior with the time of replenishing of different foods. Foraging in cuttlefish fulfils the criteria of 'what', 'where' and 'when' of unique events and thus provides behavioral evidence of episodic-like memory in an invertebrate. PMID:24309275

  13. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J Kenneth; Allen, Justine J; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-05-31

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision. PMID:21576487

  14. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J. Kenneth; Allen, Justine J.; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision. PMID:21576487

  15. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Goux, Didier; Duval, Emilie; Bernay, Benoit; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Corre, Erwan; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection. PMID:26168161

  16. Changeable cuttlefish camouflage is influenced by horizontal and vertical aspects of the visual background.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Litman, Leib; Litman, Leonild; Hanlon, Roger T

    2008-04-01

    Cuttlefish change their appearance rapidly for camouflage on different backgrounds. Effective camouflage for a benthic organism such as cuttlefish must deceive predators viewing from above as well as from the side, thus the choice of camouflage skin pattern is expected to account for horizontal and vertical background information. Previous experiments dealt only with the former, and here we explore some influences of background patterns oriented vertically in the visual background. Two experiments were conducted: (1) to determine whether cuttlefish cue visually on vertical background information; and (2) if a visual cue presented singly (either horizontally or vertically) is less, equally or more influential than a visual cue presented both horizontally and vertically. Combinations of uniform and checkerboard backgrounds (either on the bottom or wall) evoked disruptive coloration in all cases, implying that high-contrast, non-uniform backgrounds are responded to with priority over uniform backgrounds. However, there were differences in the expression of disruptive components if the checkerboard was presented simultaneously on the bottom and wall, or solely on the wall or the bottom. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish respond to visual background stimuli both in the horizontal and vertical plane, a finding that supports field observations of cuttlefish and octopus camouflage. PMID:18188570

  17. A review of visual perception mechanisms that regulate rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-09-01

    We review recent research on the visual mechanisms of rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish. These neurophysiologically complex marine invertebrates can camouflage themselves against almost any background, yet their ability to quickly (0.5-2 s) alter their body patterns on different visual backgrounds poses a vexing challenge: how to pick the correct body pattern amongst their repertoire. The ability of cuttlefish to change appropriately requires a visual system that can rapidly assess complex visual scenes and produce the motor responses-the neurally controlled body patterns-that achieve camouflage. Using specifically designed visual backgrounds and assessing the corresponding body patterns quantitatively, we and others have uncovered several aspects of scene variation that are important in regulating cuttlefish patterning responses. These include spatial scale of background pattern, background intensity, background contrast, object edge properties, object contrast polarity, object depth, and the presence of 3D objects. Moreover, arm postures and skin papillae are also regulated visually for additional aspects of concealment. By integrating these visual cues, cuttlefish are able to rapidly select appropriate body patterns for concealment throughout diverse natural environments. This sensorimotor approach of studying cuttlefish camouflage thus provides unique insights into the mechanisms of visual perception in an invertebrate image-forming eye. PMID:25701389

  18. Cuttlefish camouflage: the effects of substrate contrast and size in evoking uniform, mottle or disruptive body patterns.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Kelly, Jennifer; Chubb, Charles; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

    2008-05-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopod molluscs that achieve dynamic camouflage by rapidly extracting visual information from the background and neurally implementing an appropriate skin (or body) pattern. We investigated how cuttlefish body patterning responses are influenced by contrast and spatial scale by varying the contrast and the size of checkerboard backgrounds. We found that: (1) at high contrast levels, cuttlefish body patterning depended on check size; (2) for low contrast levels, body patterning was independent of "check" size; and (3) on the same check size, cuttlefish fine-tuned the contrast and fine structure of their body patterns, in response to small contrast changes in the background. Furthermore, we developed an objective, automated method of assessing cuttlefish camouflage patterns that quantitatively differentiated the three body patterns of uniform/stipple, mottle and disruptive. This study draws attention to the key roles played by background contrast and particle size in determining an effective camouflage pattern. PMID:18395241

  19. Ernest Bloch's Poems of the Sea, Nirvana, Five Sketches in Sepia - A Stylistic and Pedagogical Study

    E-print Network

    Ho, Wan-Ju

    2014-05-31

    influenced by his different life experiences. Bloch's piano works, Poems of the Sea, Nirvana, and Five Sketches in Sepia were all written in the 1920s when he lived in Cleveland. This paper contains a discussion of the stylistic features of these three works...

  20. Modular organization of adaptive colouration in flounder and cuttlefish revealed by independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J C; Baddeley, R J; Osorio, D; Shashar, N; Tyler, C W; Ramachandran, V S; Crook, A C; Hanlon, R T

    2003-05-01

    Flounders and cuttlefish have an impressive ability to change colouration, for camouflage and, in the case of cuttlefish, for communication. We pursue the hypothesis that these diverse patterns are created by combining a small number of distinct pattern modules. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful tool for identifying independent sources of variation in linear mixtures of signals. Two versions of ICA are used, one assuming that sources have independence over time, and the other over space. These reveal the modularity of the skin colouration system, and suggest how the pattern modules are combined in specific behavioural contexts. ICA may therefore be a useful tool for studying animal camouflage and communication. PMID:12790187

  1. Dopamine in the ink defence system of Sepia officinalis: biosynthesis, vesicular compartmentation in mature ink gland cells, nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP-induced depletion and fate in secreted ink.

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Gabriella; Poli, Annarita; Di Cosmo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The biosynthesis, localization and fate of catecholamines in the ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis were investigated by combined biochemical and immunohistocytochemical methodologies. HPLC analysis of crude ink gland extracts indicated the presence of dopa (2.18+/-0.82 nmol/mg of protein) and DA (dopamine, 0.06+/-0.02 nmol/mg of protein), but no detectable noradrenaline or adrenaline. DA was shown to derive from L-tyrosine, according to experiments performed by incubating intact ink glands with [L-14C]tyrosine. The biosynthetic process involves a tyrosine hydroxylase and a dopa decarboxylase pathway and is independent of tyrosinase. The tyrosine hydroxylase activity was detected under conditions of tyrosinase suppression in the cytosolic fraction, but not in the melanosomal fraction, of ink gland extracts, and the presence of the enzyme was confirmed by Western-blot analysis. Dopa and DA were found to be released from the ink glands by processes controlled through the NMDA-nitric oxide-cGMP (where NMDA stands for N -methyl-D-aspartate) signalling pathway, as apparent from incubation experiments performed with [L-14C]tyrosine in the presence of NMDA, diethylamine NONOate (diethylamine diazeniumdiolate), a nitric oxide donor, 8-bromo-cGMP or a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical results coupled with electron microscopy indicated that DA was concentrated in vesicles specifically localized in the mature melanin-producing cells of the ink gland proximal to the lumen and separated from the melanin-containing melanosomes. NMDA receptor stimulation or exposure to an NO donor caused a marked loss of DA immunoreactivity in mature cells, consistent with a release process. In the lumen of the ink gland, where mature exhausted cells pour their contents, DA immunoreactivity was found to be associated with the melanin granules, due apparently to physical adsorption. Overall, these results point to DA as a marker of cell maturation in Sepia ink gland subject to release by the NO/cGMP signalling pathway, and disclose apparently overlooked DA-melanin interactions in secreted ink of possible relevance to the defence mechanism. PMID:14670074

  2. 1996,52.529-537 Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish,

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    , Sepia officina/is L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) JEAN GEARY BOAL Marine Biomedical Institute. University, or the recognition of multiple classes of (reviewed in Halpin 1980). Among molluscs, kin based on degrees is the ability to slugs, which preferentially follow mucus trails discriminate between unique individuals. Degree

  3. Mottle camouflage patterns in cuttlefish: quantitative characterization and visual background stimuli that evoke them.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Buresch, Kendra C; Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-01-15

    Cuttlefish and other cephalopods achieve dynamic background matching with two general classes of body patterns: uniform (or uniformly stippled) patterns and mottle patterns. Both pattern types have been described chiefly by the size scale and contrast of their skin components. Mottle body patterns in cephalopods have been characterized previously as small-to-moderate-scale light and dark skin patches (i.e. mottles) distributed somewhat evenly across the body surface. Here we move beyond this commonly accepted qualitative description by quantitatively measuring the scale and contrast of mottled skin components and relating these statistics to specific visual background stimuli (psychophysics approach) that evoke this type of background-matching pattern. Cuttlefish were tested on artificial and natural substrates to experimentally determine some primary visual background cues that evoke mottle patterns. Randomly distributed small-scale light and dark objects (or with some repetition of small-scale shapes/sizes) on a lighter substrate with moderate contrast are essential visual cues to elicit mottle camouflage patterns in cuttlefish. Lowering the mean luminance of the substrate without changing its spatial properties can modulate the mottle pattern toward disruptive patterns, which are of larger scale, different shape and higher contrast. Backgrounds throughout nature consist of a continuous range of spatial scales; backgrounds with medium-sized light/dark patches of moderate contrast are those in which cuttlefish Mottle patterns appear to be the most frequently observed. PMID:20038652

  4. Study of the radio-protective effect of cuttlefish ink on hemopoietic injury.

    PubMed

    Lei, Min; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Pang, Long; Wang, Yi; Xu, Wei; Xue, Changhu

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation leads to immunosuppression, hemopoiesis injury as well as sub-health of human being. The protective and therapeutic effects of cuttlefish ink on hemopoiesis in 60Co gamma radiated model mice were investigated. One hundred and twenty female ICR mice aged 6 weeks (20-24g) were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the model group, and the low, medium, high dosage groups. The mice in different groups were orally administered normal solution (N.S.) or cuttlefish ink of different dosage daily for 40 days. Hemopoiesis impaired model was induced by 60Co gamma irradiating with lethal dose of 8.0 Gy. The number of bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNC), colony-forming unit in spleen (CFU-S), colony-forming unit of granulocyte and monocyte (CFU-GM), peripheral blood pictures and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum have been measured. Compared with model group, the decrease of BMNC, CFU-S, CFU-GM, peripheral leukocytes and SOD activity in serum in 60Co gamma irradiated mice of cuttlefish ink feeding groups were resisted significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Moreover, the restoration of those indices was promoted significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The cuttlefish ink showed no significant effect on peripheral erythrocytes, thrombocytes and hemoglobin. The results showed that cuttlefish ink had significant effects on granulopoiesis. The mechanism underlining these effects may be that the increase of antioxidant level in mice, the improvement of bone marrow haematopoietic microenvironment and the inducement of cellular factors promoted the proliferation and differentiation of CFU-S and CFU-GM and thus enhance the defensive system of organism. PMID:17392111

  5. From Trap to Nursery. Mitigating the Impact of an Artisanal Fishery on Cuttlefish Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Melli, Valentina; Riginella, Emilio; Nalon, Marco; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexploitation and the impact of several types of human activities have caused declines of marine resources. The direct and active involvement of fishermen in the management of marine resources is effective not only for resource conservation, but also for changing fishermen’s attitudes. In this study, we proposed and tested the efficacy and suitability of a measure for mitigating the impact of a trap fishery on cuttlefish eggs in the North Adriatic Sea. This measure directly involves fishermen in promoting the conservation of the early, and more vulnerable, stages of the cuttlefish life cycle. Methodology/Principal findings Through surveys on fishing boats and interviews with fishermen, we found that traps placed in coastal areas during the cuttlefish breeding season have a high impact on cuttlefish eggs, with over 3 million eggs likely being destroyed by 3750 traps of 15 fishermen in less than 3 miles of coast. The use of removable ropes attached inside traps as an additional substrate for egg deposition allowed the recovery of 23.7% of the eggs deposited on the traps on average, without affecting the catch rate of adults. Experiments examining hatching success in the field highlighted the need for a careful choice of hatching sites to maximise the efficacy of the mitigation measure. Conclusions/Significance The proposed mitigation measure reduced the impact of fishing on cuttlefish eggs, with no significant effect on the commercial catch. Fishermen showed a positive attitude towards the application of this measure, which is inexpensive and easy to employ. The direct involvement of fishermen in the management of this resource and the maintenance of traditional fishing methods are a novel aspect of the proposed measure and represent the basis for its success. PMID:24587390

  6. Nitric oxide mediates the glutamate-dependent pathway for neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis chromatophore organs.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2010-07-30

    Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

  7. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs

    PubMed Central

    Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

  8. Analysis of tissue condition based on interaction between inorganic and organic matter in cuttlefish bone.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    The absorption properties of an inner layer of cuttlefish bone were measured using a transmission terahertz time-domain spectrometer in a band from approximately 0.1 to 4 THz. For oriented samples, an absorption peak related to the behavior of calcium carbonate appeared at approximately 2 THz. The peak magnitude and frequency depended on the direction of the incident terahertz electric field, indicating that calcium carbonate crystals constituting the inner layer were oriented in a certain direction. The absorbance of a sample heated to 350 °C for 0 to 2 h to remove organic matter tended to decrease with heating time in the oriented direction, while the peak frequency shifted to higher frequencies. Furthermore, we showed that the peak frequency depended on the interaction area within the unheated sample and we thus obtained a two-dimensional image reflecting crystal regularity inside the cuttlefish bone from the spectral data at each position. PMID:23860837

  9. Golden Wings & Anchors 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ESL-KT-13-12-38 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Investor Confidence Project www.EEperformance.org For More Information: Matt Golden Senior Energy Finance Consultant Environmental Defense Fund...

  10. 26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh semi-matte paper, aerial oblique of central Terre Haute with negative inscribed letters (prints on positive as white) along the bottom margin, "(02105-631K-118) (3-10-37. 10:30A) (R-1000) (State Normal College, Terre Haute, Ind.)" This view taken looking east shows the gas building in the near foreground right. On the reverse in red pencil, "Campus Scenes 10" and in black pencil, "1937". Source: Indiana State University Archives. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  11. Optical and paramagnetic properties of size-controlled ink particles isolated from Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Toshihiko; Hino, Midori; Akutagawa, Sei-ichi; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Takanori; Taya, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    The optical and paramagnetic properties of size-controlled ink particles isolated from ink sacs of Sepia officinalis were investigated. Topographic images of atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the average heights of the large and small ink particles were 156 nm and 5.3 nm respectively. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectral features of aqueous solutions of ink particles were dependent on particle size. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra suggested that the ink particles are highly pure for paramagnetic species and are of reliable quality. These size-controlled ink particles are suitable for a basic study of melanin-related materials. PMID:19966470

  12. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  13. Doped golden fullerene cages.

    PubMed

    Baletto, Francesca; Ferrando, Riccardo

    2015-11-14

    A first-principles investigation of the effect of the doping of golden cages of 32 atoms is proposed. It is shown that Ag and Cu doping affects the geometrical stability of the icosahedral fullerene Au32 cage, where Ag-doping leads to a new, low symmetric, and prolate motif while Cu-doping leads to a lump, incomplete decahedral shape. Most significantly, the HOMO-LUMO gap depends strongly on the cluster geometry while its dependence on the cluster chemical composition seems to be weaker. PMID:25920946

  14. NMR studies of melanins: characterization of a soluble melanin free acid from Sepia ink.

    PubMed

    Aime, S; Fasano, M; Terreno, E; Groombridge, C J

    1991-12-01

    This paper deals with the nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of a soluble derivative (melanin free acid) of Sepia melanin obtained by a peroxidative treatment of the parent (insoluble) species. High resolution 13C and 15N solid state NMR spectroscopies allow the assessment of the chemical changes occurring in the macromolecule upon solubilization. 1H and 13C NMR solution spectra are discussed in light of the results obtained from the solid state spectra. Furthermore, the coordination properties of melanin have been investigated through 27Al NMR spectroscopy and proton relaxation enhancement studies of the paramagnetic gadolinium complex of melanin free acid. Through these experiments it has been possible to evaluate the molecular reorientational time tau R (and from it an estimated molecular weight close to 20 KDa) and the strength of the metal-macromolecule interaction. PMID:1668558

  15. The Toll/NF-?B pathway in cuttlefish symbiotic accessory nidamental gland.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-11-01

    The female genital apparatus of decapod cephalopods contains a symbiotic accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that harbors bacterial symbionts. Although the ANG bacterial consortium is now well described, the impact of symbiosis on Sepia officinalis innate immunity pathways remains unknown. In silico analysis of the de novo transcriptome of ANG highlighted for the first time the existence of the NF-?B pathway in S. officinalis. Several signaling components were identified, i.e. five Toll-like receptors, eight signaling cascade features, and the immune response target gene iNOS, previously described as being involved in the initiation of bacterial symbiosis in a cephalopod gland. This work provides a first key for studying bacterial symbiosis and its impact on innate immunity in S. officinalis ANG. PMID:26143243

  16. Characteristics of the tertiary egg membrane of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Xiamin; Song, Weiwei; Xu, Yongjian

    2010-11-01

    We separated tertiary egg membrane (TGM) from 2- and 25-day-old eggs of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune, and revealed its ultrastructure, physical (solubility, barrier property) and biochemical (histology, histochemistry, nutritional components, bacteriostasis) characteristics. The results show that TGM could not be dissolved with natural seawater, alcohol, ether or hydrochloric acid (HCl), but it could be dissolved with 2-chloroethanol, diethylamine, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The black TGM was more effective in blocking off mud particulates, microorganisms ( Chlorella vulgaris, Vibrio alginolyticus) and lighter than the white TGM. The elasticity of black and white TGMs was 1.8 N and 1.5 N, respectively. There were some ink particulates and rod-shaped bacteria in the black TGM. The nutritional components were different between black and white TGMs: Lipid content was lower and protein content was higher in the black TGM. TGM could also inhibit the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus.

  17. Fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite scaffolds hydrothermally grown from aragonitic cuttlefish bones.

    PubMed

    Kannan, S; Rocha, J H G; Agathopoulos, S; Ferreira, J M F

    2007-03-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds with different levels of fluorine substitution (46% and 85%) on the OH sites were produced via hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bones at 200 degrees C and calcination at temperatures up to 1200 degrees C. The increasing level of F substitution reduces the kinetics and probably the yield of the reaction. The incorporation of F in the lattice of hydroxypatite caused a lowering of the unit cell volume due to reduction of the length of the a-axis. The crystallites formed were close in size to bone-like apatite and were orientated along the a-axis rather than the c-axis. There was evidence of AB-type carbonated apatite. PMID:17127113

  18. Electron microscopic studies of various cells in the alveolar wall of mice with special reference to spheroid alveolar epithelial cells after intravenous injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin) solution.

    PubMed

    Suwa, K

    1977-02-01

    The effect of an intravenous injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin) solution on adult mouse spheroid alveolar epithelial cells was observed by the electron microscope. Sepia-melanin particles were seen in all alveolar wall cells examined that seems to suggest the entrance of sepia-melanin particles into the spheroid alveolar epithlial cells from the alveolar blood capillary. In cases of large penetrations of sepia-melanin particles into spheroid alveolar epithelial cells, a greater increase was found in the intramitochondrial granules. In addition, the so-called inclusion body believed to be formed by the degeneration of mitochondria had very high electron density and its quantity was abundant. On the contrary, in cases where the quantity of sepia-melanin entrance into the spheroid alveolar epithelial cell was small, neither an increase of intramitochondrial granules, an increase of the electron density nor an increase in the quantity of specific inclusion body was found. PMID:193360

  19. Interactive effects of size, contrast, intensity and configuration of background objects in evoking disruptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2007-07-01

    Disruptive body coloration is a primary camouflage tactic of cuttlefish. Because rapid changeable coloration of cephalopods is guided visually, we can present different visual backgrounds (e.g., computer-generated, two-dimensional prints) and video record the animal's response by describing and grading its body pattern. We showed previously that strength of cuttlefish disruptive patterning depends on the size, contrast, and density of discrete light elements on a homogeneous dark background. Here we report five experiments on the interactions of these and other features. Results show that Weber contrast of light background elements is--in combination with element size--a powerful determinant of disruptive response strength. Furthermore, the strength of disruptive patterning decreases with increasing mean substrate intensity (with other factors held constant). Interestingly, when element size, Weber contrast and mean substrate intensity are kept constant, strength of disruptive patterning depends on the configuration of clusters of small light elements. This study highlights the interactions of multiple features of natural microhabitats that directly influence which camouflage pattern a cuttlefish will choose. PMID:17592739

  20. Effects of Chitin and Sepia Ink Hybrid Hemostatic Sponge on the Blood Parameters of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its bene?cial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the ?eld of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  1. Isolation, purification, and characterization of avian antimicrobial glycopeptide from the posterior salivary gland of Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Saravanan, R; Ebenezar, K Kumar; Sivamalai, T

    2015-02-01

    A proteinaceous glycopeptide was isolated from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of Sepia pharaonis by gel (Sephadex G-100) filtration chromatography and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the collected fractions, fraction 12 showed a retention time (RT) of 31 min. The total protein and neutral sugar contents of the purified glycopeptide were recorded as 68.14 and 2.95 mg, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified glycopeptide was found to be ~50 kDa. The infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of peptide and secondary structure in the purified glycopeptide. The antibacterial activity of the purified glycopeptide against avian bacterial strains was also determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the purified glycopeptide revealed the likely compounds for the antibacterial activity such as 22, 23-dibromostigmasterol acetate, 3-methyl 2-(2-oxypropyl) furan, and 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-5A-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-cyclohexene. These three compounds found in the purified glycopeptide could be responsible for the antibacterial activity against the avian pathogens. The results of this study suggest that the purified glycopeptide from the PSG of S. pharaonis could be an antibacterial agent against avian bacterial pathogens. PMID:25410800

  2. Insight into the binding of divalent cations to Sepia eumelanin from IR absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lian; Simon, John D

    2006-01-01

    IR absorption spectroscopy is used to examine the binding of the divalent cations Mg(II), Ca(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II) to melanin granules isolated from the ink sacs of Sepia officinalis. The functional groups of the melanin granules interacting with the bound metal ions are deduced by examining the effect of metal concentration on transition frequencies associated with the COOH, NH and OH moieties of the pigment. The coordinating groups vary with metal ion and with concentration. For the experimental conditions used (initial solution pH of 4, ionic strength of 100 mM and a melanin concentration of 1 mg mL(-1)) Mg(II), Ca(II) and Zn(II) bind to carboxylate groups and Cu(II) binds predominantly to phenolic (catechol) groups However, at a concentration of 10 mM Cu(II) also shows evidence of binding to carboxylate and amine groups, reflecting a secondary binding site that becomes populated as the catechol sites are depleted. PMID:16696594

  3. Effects of chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge on the blood parameters of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-04-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its bene?cial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the ?eld of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  4. Intake of essential and non-essential elements from consumption of octopus, cuttlefish and squid.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Garofalo, R; Giungato, D; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2010-01-01

    Total concentrations of essential (Cu, Zn, Se and Cr) and non-essential (Hg, Cd, Pb and As) trace elements were measured in the flesh and hepatopancreas of Octopodidae (Eledone moschata, Eledone cirrhosa, Octopus salutii), Sepiidae (Sepia elegans, Sepia orbignyana) and Loliginidae (Illex coindeti, Loligo vulgaris) from the Mediterranean Sea. As expected, the hepatopancreas showed higher metal concentrations than flesh; the only exceptions were Hg and As, which were equally distributed in the two tissues. Regarding the edible portion, the highest toxic metal concentrations were in Octopodidae (Hg: 0.44, Cd: 0.49, Pb: 0.10 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Sepiidae (Hg: 0.27, Cd: 0.50, Pb: 0.12 µg g(-1) wet weight), while Loliginidae tended to accumulate less metal, especially Hg (Hg: 0.11, Cd: 0.30, Pb: 0.05 µg g(-1) wet weight). The other elements showed a heterogeneous distribution among the different cephalopod families. Loliginidae showed the highest Se concentrations (1.18 µg g(-1) wet weight), Octopodidae of Cu (37.37 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Zn (42.00 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Sepiidae of As (61.43 µg g(-1) wet weight), while Cr was uniformly distributed among the various families (0.38-0.43 µg g(-1) wet weight). In these seafoods, the concentrations of essential and non-essential elements were within the prescribed limits set by various authorities, except for Cu and As. Health risks posed by toxic elements to humans via dietary intake of these mollusks were assessed on the basis on Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), while the estimated intakes of essential elements were compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (RDIs). A 70-g serving of these mollusks was shown to provide a large contribution to Cd intake (0.89 µg kg(-1) body weight), corresponding to 35.6% of PTWI. Concerning the essential elements, the consumption of these mollusks made an important contribution to daily dietary intake of Se, Cu and Zn. PMID:24785311

  5. Anticipating a New Golden Age

    E-print Network

    Wilczek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The standard model of fundamental interactions is remarkably successful, but it leaves an unfinished agenda. Several major questions seem ripe for exploration in the near future. I anticipate that the coming decade will be a Golden Age of discovery in fundamental physics.

  6. Anticipating a New Golden Age

    E-print Network

    Frank Wilczek

    2007-10-02

    The standard model of fundamental interactions is remarkably successful, but it leaves an unfinished agenda. Several major questions seem ripe for exploration in the near future. I anticipate that the coming decade will be a Golden Age of discovery in fundamental physics.

  7. Tactical Decisions for Changeable Cuttlefish Camouflage: Visual Cues for Choosing Masquerade Are Relevant from a Greater Distance than Visual Cues Used for Background Matching.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Cramer, Corinne; McAnulty, Sarah; Davison, William; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    Cuttlefish use multiple camouflage tactics to evade their predators. Two common tactics are background matching (resembling the background to hinder detection) and masquerade (resembling an uninteresting or inanimate object to impede detection or recognition). We investigated how the distance and orientation of visual stimuli affected the choice of these two camouflage tactics. In the current experiments, cuttlefish were presented with three visual cues: 2D horizontal floor, 2D vertical wall, and 3D object. Each was placed at several distances: directly beneath (in a circle whose diameter was one body length (BL); at zero BL [(0BL); i.e., directly beside, but not beneath the cuttlefish]; at 1BL; and at 2BL. Cuttlefish continued to respond to 3D visual cues from a greater distance than to a horizontal or vertical stimulus. It appears that background matching is chosen when visual cues are relevant only in the immediate benthic surroundings. However, for masquerade, objects located multiple body lengths away remained relevant for choice of camouflage. PMID:26504156

  8. 78 FR 62319 - Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Golden Pass LNG Export Project and Golden Pass Export... operation of the Golden Pass Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project and Golden Pass Export Pipeline Project, collectively called the Golden Pass LNG Export Project (Project) in Texas and Louisiana. The Project has...

  9. Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    stream_source_info A golden opportunity.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9043 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name A golden opportunity.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2O... | pg. 20 cientists at three Texas universities investigating golden algae, its explosive growth, and its deadly toxins have dis- covered an apparent competition between golden algae and blue green algae in certain Texas lakes. Understanding...

  10. 76 FR 60357 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY...SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships...these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we have determined that...

  11. 77 FR 22185 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0036] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas AGENCY...interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing the townships...these two townships are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

  12. Candy LightsTM `Golden Lights'

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    20 Candy LightsTM `Golden Lights' `Mandarin Lights' `Northern Hi-Lights' Tri LightsTM #12;21 Lilac flowering. 3­4' Candy LightsTM 2001 Light pink Pale yellow streaks, very fragrant. 5­6' Golden Lights 1986

  13. LOCOMOTION OF GOLDEN LION TAMARINS (Leontopithecus rosalia)

    E-print Network

    Rosenberger, Alfred H.

    LOCOMOTION OF GOLDEN LION TAMARINS (Leontopithecus rosalia) The Effects of Foraging Adaptations INTRODUCTION Our study of the locomotor behavior of golden lion tamarins (Leon~oplrh~rir~ rosalia were made with captive Goeldi's monkeys, Culiimrco goeldii, housed in the same c~~closureswit ti the L

  14. The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martin

    1982-01-01

    The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)

  15. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting…

  16. A Golden Eagle Perches in a Tree

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A golden eagle perches in a tree at the William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon. USGS researchers are conducting research that will help support the FWS’s and energy industry efforts to reduce impacts to golden eagles from wind energy operations, including, of course, collision with...

  17. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful...

  18. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful...

  19. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful...

  20. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... Passport will be issued free of charge upon the presentation of identification or information which...

  1. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... Passport will be issued free of charge upon the presentation of identification or information which...

  2. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... Passport will be issued free of charge upon the presentation of identification or information which...

  3. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... Passport will be issued free of charge upon the presentation of identification or information which...

  4. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... Passport will be issued free of charge upon the presentation of identification or information which...

  5. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful...

  6. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful...

  7. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree to make or may make a golden parachute...

  8. Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  9. The Golden Section as Optical Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, Jonas; Brodsky, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The golden section, ? = (1 + ?5)/2 = 1.618… and its companion ? = 1/? = ? -1 = 0.618…, are irrational numbers which for centuries were believed to confer aesthetic appeal. In line with the presence of golden sectioning in natural growth patterns, recent EEG recordings show an absence of coherence between brain frequencies related by the golden ratio, suggesting the potential relevance of the golden section to brain dynamics. Using Mondrian-type patterns comprising a number of paired sections in a range of five section-section areal ratios (including golden-sectioned pairs), participants were asked to indicate as rapidly and accurately as possible the polarity (light or dark) of the smallest section in the patterns. They were also asked to independently assess the aesthetic appeal of the patterns. No preference was found for golden-sectioned patterns, while reaction times (RTs) tended to decrease overall with increasing ratio independently of each pattern’s fractal dimensionality. (Fractal dimensionality was unrelated to ratio and measured in terms of the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting dimension). The ease of detecting the smallest section also decreased with increasing ratio, although RTs were found to be substantially slower for golden-sectioned patterns under 8-paired sectioned conditions. This was confirmed by a significant linear relationship between RT and ratio (p <.001) only when the golden-sectioned RTs were excluded [the relationship was non-significant for the full complement of ratios (p = .217)]. Image analysis revealed an absence of spatial frequencies between 4 and 8 cycles-per-degree that was exclusive to the 8-paired (golden)-sectioned patterns. The significance of this was demonstrated in a subsequent experiment by addition of uniformly distributed random noise to the patterns. This provided a uniform spatial-frequency profile for all patterns, which did not influence the decrease in RT with increasing ratio but abolished the elevated RTs to golden-sectioned patterns. This suggests that optical limitation in the form of reduced inter-neural synchronization during spatial-frequency coding may be the foundation for the perceptual effects of golden sectioning. PMID:26154761

  10. Neuropeptidome of the Cephalopod Sepia officinalis: Identification, Tissue Mapping, and Expression Pattern of Neuropeptides and Neurohormones during Egg Laying.

    PubMed

    Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Cornet, Valérie; Leduc, Alexandre; Zanuttini, Bruno; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Garderes, Johan; Kraut, Alexandra; Couté, Yohan; Henry, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Cephalopods exhibit a wide variety of behaviors such as prey capture, communication, camouflage, and reproduction thanks to a complex central nervous system (CNS) divided into several functional lobes that express a wide range of neuropeptides involved in the modulation of behaviors and physiological mechanisms associated with the main stages of their life cycle. This work focuses on the neuropeptidome expressed during egg-laying through de novo construction of the CNS transcriptome using an RNAseq approach (Illumina sequencing). Then, we completed the in silico analysis of the transcriptome by characterizing and tissue-mapping neuropeptides by mass spectrometry. To identify neuropeptides involved in the egg-laying process, we determined (1) the neuropeptide contents of the neurohemal area, hemolymph (blood), and nerve endings in mature females and (2) the expression levels of these peptides. Among the 38 neuropeptide families identified from 55 transcripts, 30 were described for the first time in Sepia officinalis, 5 were described for the first time in the animal kingdom, and 14 were strongly overexpressed in egg-laying females as compared with mature males. Mass spectrometry screening of hemolymph and nerve ending contents allowed us to clarify the status of many neuropeptides, that is, to determine whether they were neuromodulators or neurohormones. PMID:26632866

  11. The politics of Golden Rice.

    PubMed

    Dubock, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project. PMID:25437240

  12. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless...

  13. 75 FR 68398 - Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Golden Triangle Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...Railroad Company Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC (GTRA...1) Acquire from Golden Triangle Railroad Company (Old GTRA...and milepost 0.0 (Triangle Jct., Miss.), including the side track at Bell Avenue in Lowndes...

  14. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4 Section 359.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.4 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) An insured depository institution...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The...

  17. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The...

  18. Turning Points of the Spherical Pendulum and the Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essen, Hanno; Apazidis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To…

  19. Is the "golden age" of the "golden hour" in sepsis over?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S

    2015-01-01

    The so-called "golden hour" of trauma resuscitation has been applied to a number of disease conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. For example, the "golden hour" as applied to the treatment of critically children and adults with severe sepsis and septic shock is based upon early recognition, early administration of antibiotics, and early reversal of the shock state. However, several clinical studies published over the last decade have called into question this time-honored approach and suggest that overly aggressive fluid resuscitation may cause more harm than good. Perhaps we are finally leaving the "Golden Age" of the "golden hour" and entering a new age in which we are able to use a more personalized approach to fluid management for patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. PMID:26712155

  20. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  1. Oh, Those Golden Teaching Days of Yore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Offers quotes from articles about English teaching in the United States published in professional journals from 1847 to 1955. Suggests there never was a "golden age" of English teaching. Shows discussion and controversy about teaching writing, about what literature should be allowed in the schools, whether teaching grammar is worthwhile, and…

  2. Quetzalcoatl and the Golden Age of Mesoamerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Heil, Celia

    1978-01-01

    Quetzalcoatl was both man and god, myth and true history, and was worshipped through centuries in temples in the great sacred cities of Teotihuacan, Tollan, and Chichen Itza. The White god, ruler of the Toltec golden age, who sailed toward the east promising to return, remains a mystery. (Author/NQ)

  3. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  4. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madry, Milena M.; Kraemer, Thomas; Kupper, Jacqueline; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Jenny, Hannes; Jenni, Lukas; Jenny, David

    2015-03-01

    Fragments from lead ammunition pose a poisoning risk for predators like golden eagles that scavenge on non-retrieved carcasses or offal left behind by hunters. Three golden eagles were found in the Swiss Alps with an acute lead poisoning. To investigate whether the few cases of lead-poisoned golden eagles are exceptional events or whether a substantial proportion of the Alpine golden eagle population is affected by lead at sublethal levels, we measured body burdens in golden eagles from Switzerland in comparison to eagle owls from the same area and to their respective prey. These two raptor species differ in their food as eagle owls feed on live-caught prey. Lead levels in soft tissues were significantly higher in golden eagles (median 1.14 ?g g-1 dry weight in liver, 0.99 ?g g-1 in kidney) than in eagle owls (0.14 and 0.23 ?g g-1). Bones of golden eagles contained 10 times more lead (median of 12.45 ?g g-1 dry weight) than owl bones (1.28 ?g g-1), which represent substantially higher levels than previously reported for golden eagles. Bones of prey of both golden eagles and eagle owls had low lead concentrations. In order to investigate whether the sublethal lead of golden eagles originates from ammunition or from generic environmental contamination, we examined lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope signatures of golden eagle bones were very similar to those of ammunition, but differed from the signatures of bones of their prey, eagle owls and soil. Isotope signatures did not change with increasing bone lead concentration in golden eagles or any other group examined. These findings indicate that in the Alps, most golden eagles take up lead from spent ammunition in carcasses or their offal in sublethal quantities throughout their life and a few in lethal quantities leading to acute lead poisoning.

  5. The Golden Years of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    The 1960s were the Golden Years of Radio Astronomy. During this decade a new generation of young scientists discovered quasars, pulsars, the cosmic microwave background, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio source variability, superluminal motion, radio recombination lines, the rotation of Mercury and Venus, the Venus Greenhouse effect, Jupiter's radiation belts, and opened up the high redshift Universe. On the technical side, the 1960s saw the completion of the NRAO 140-ft and 300-ft radio telescopes, the Haystack, Arecibo and Parkes antennas, the Owens Valley Interferometer, the first practical demonstrations of aperture synthesis, VLBI, and CLEAN, the Cambridge 1-mile radio telescope, the most precise tests of GR light bending, and the introduction of the 4th test of GR. Following sessions at the recent IAU 29th General Assembly on the "Golden Years of Radio Astronomy," we will discuss the circumstances surrounding these transformational discoveries which changed the course of modern astronomy.

  6. Sepia ink oligopeptide induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines via caspase-3 activation and elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fangfang; Yang, Zuisu; Yu, Di; Wang, Jiabin; Li, Rong; Ding, Guofang

    2012-10-01

    Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO) is a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink. To test the hypothesis that SIO inhibits prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis, the effects of SIO on the proliferation of three human prostate cancer cell lines were examined using a CCK-8 assay. SIO significantly inhibited the proliferation of DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry studies showed that exposing DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells to 5, 10, or 15 mg/mL SIO for 24 h increased the percentage of the early-stage apoptotic cells from 11.84% to 38.26% (DU-145), 22.76% to 39.96% (PC-3) and 5.05% to 16.11% (LNCaP), respectively. In addition, typical morphologic changes were observed in the cells with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. SIO treatment induced strong S and G?/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in DU-145 and LNCaP. In contrast, SIO treatment induced strong Sub G? and G?/G? phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in PC-3. SIO exposure for 24 h decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the apoptogenic protein Bax. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2expression ratio was increased. Concurrently, the expression of caspase-3 was upregulated. These data support our hypothesis that SIO has anticarcinogenic properties. PMID:23170075

  7. Sepia Ink Oligopeptide Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines via Caspase-3 Activation and Elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fangfang; Yang, Zuisu; Yu, Di; Wang, Jiabin; Li, Rong; Ding, Guofang

    2012-01-01

    Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO) is a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink. To test the hypothesis that SIO inhibits prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis, the effects of SIO on the proliferation of three human prostate cancer cell lines were examined using a CCK-8 assay. SIO significantly inhibited the proliferation of DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry studies showed that exposing DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells to 5, 10, or 15 mg/mL SIO for 24 h increased the percentage of the early-stage apoptotic cells from 11.84% to 38.26% (DU-145), 22.76% to 39.96% (PC-3) and 5.05% to 16.11% (LNCaP), respectively. In addition, typical morphologic changes were observed in the cells with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. SIO treatment induced strong S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in DU-145 and LNCaP. In contrast, SIO treatment induced strong Sub G1 and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in PC-3. SIO exposure for 24 h decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the apoptogenic protein Bax. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2expression ratio was increased. Concurrently, the expression of caspase-3 was upregulated. These data support our hypothesis that SIO has anticarcinogenic properties. PMID:23170075

  8. Battling Golden Algae: Results suggest preventative lake management approaches 

    E-print Network

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info Battling Golden Algae.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10626 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Battling Golden Algae.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 14 tx H2...O Winter 2011 Story by Danielle Supercinski Battling golden algae Results suggest preventative lake management approaches Golden algae blooms, or the explosive growth of algae, are known to be toxic, but recent ?ndings from three university...

  9. Battling golden algae: Results suggest preventative lake managment approaches 

    E-print Network

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info Battling Golden Algae.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10626 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Battling Golden Algae.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 14 tx H2...O Winter 2011 Story by Danielle Supercinski Battling golden algae Results suggest preventative lake management approaches Golden algae blooms, or the explosive growth of algae, are known to be toxic, but recent ?ndings from three university...

  10. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

  11. Old Sepia Photos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The author has always been fascinated by old photographs. As she looks at them, she wonders about the people. Who were they? What were their lives like? Where was this photo taken? A moment in time is frozen forever, for all to see. Inspired by old photographs, the author describes how her fifth-grade classes made their own "photographs" by…

  12. Productivity of golden eagles wearing backpack radiotransmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzluff, J.M.; Vekasy, M.S.; Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    1997-01-01

    We examined the association between the presence of backpack radiotransmitters and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)reproduction (percentage of occupied territories producing young, and number of nestlings produced) over three years. The association between radio-tagging and nesting success and the number of nestlings produced varied significantly among years. A negative association with tagging was observed in one of three years, which coincided with low prey (jackrabbit) populations and a cold spring. However, small sample size and breeding by subadults may confound this result.

  13. ON THE GOLDEN RATIO, STRONG LAW, AND FIRST PASSAGE PROBLEM

    E-print Network

    Volodin, Andrei

    with a brief discussion concerning the Golden Ratio. The Golden Ratio = 1+ 5 2 (=1.61803398875...) can biology, astronomy, physics, architecture, fractal geometry, psychology, and financial math- ematics history. The setting of the current paper is as follows. Let {Xn, n 1} be a sequence of square integrable

  14. 26 CFR 1.280G-1 - Golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Golden parachute payments. 1.280G-1 Section 1.280G-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280G-1 Golden parachute payments. The following questions and answers relate to...

  15. Golden Ratio in a Coupled-Oscillator Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Goff, John Eric

    2007-01-01

    The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

  16. American Medicine's Golden Age: What Happened to It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, John C.

    1982-01-01

    Defining medicine's golden age as freedom from adverse comment in mass and highbrow media, discusses: (1) the evolution of the medical image; (2) factors responsible for ending the golden age; (3) criticisms related to physicians' sacerdotal, technical, and social roles; and (4) the erosion of physicians' professional status. (SK)

  17. International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?

    E-print Network

    International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du and Sergey Paltsev Report No. 271;1 International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where

  18. The Golden Age of Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannelli, Franco; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we want to discuss the status of Astroparticle Physics, which is now in its golden age. Astroparticle physics - the new branch of physics born roughly at the end of the 1980-ies - takes into account results obtained from the observations of cosmic sources via photonic experiments and particle experiments, and try to detect their global behaviour in order to understand the physical processes giving rise to them. All this for a better knowledge of the physics governing the whole Universe. Because of a limited length of the paper we will discuss only a selection of arguments, which are biased by our knowledge, as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Few Remarkable Notes; 3. Background in the Universe; 4. A Round-the-Universe Cruise; 5. Prospects Conclusions

  19. A golden approach to ion channel inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Thompson, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: 'Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?' We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio. PMID:23972927

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San Francisco, California Original: Ante 1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park - San Francisco, California Original: c1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM NORTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  2. Golden nematode Globodera rostochiensis Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Golden nematode Globodera rostochiensis Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets. Michigan risk maps for exotic plant pests. Systematic position Nematoda > Tylenchida > Heteroderidae: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Venezuela. Oceania

  3. 78 FR 62319 - Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ...opportunity; please refer to the Environmental Review Process flow chart Appendix 1.\\1...100,000 total horsepower to provide bi-directional flow capability to the existing Golden Pass Pipeline in...

  4. The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    John, T Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), developed in the USA by Jonas Salk in the early 1950s, was field tested in 1954, and found to be safe and effective. The year 2004 marks the golden jubilee of this breakthrough. From 1955 IPV was used extensively in the US and polio incidence declined by more than 95 per cent. However, in 1962, when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) became available, the national policy was shifted to its exclusive use, for reasons other than science and economics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) also adopted the policy of the exclusive use of OPV in developing countries. Thus IPV fell into disrepute in much of the world, while Northern European countries continued to use it. New research led to improving its potency, reducing its manufacturing costs and combining it with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine to simplify its administration and reduce programmatic costs. All countries that chose to persist with IPV eliminated poliovirus circulation without OPV-induced polio or the risk of live vaccine viruses reverting to wild-like nature. IPV is highly immunogenic, confers mucosal immunity and exerts herd protective effect, all qualities of a good vaccine. It can be used in harmony with the extendend programme on immunization (EPI) schedule of infant immunisation with DTP, thus reducing programmatic costs. During the last ten years IPV has once again regained its popularity and some 25 industrialised countries use it exclusively. The demand is increasing from other countries and the supply has not caught up, leaving market forces to dictate the sale price of IPV. Anticipating such a turn of events India had launched its own IPV manufacturing programme in 1987, but the project was closed in 1992. Today it is not clear if we can complete the job of global polio eradication without IPV, on account of the genetic instability of OPV and the consequent tendency of vaccine viruses to revert to wild-like properties. The option to use IPV is complicated since it is not yet licensed in India, we do not manufacture it and imported vaccine would be prohibitively costly. However, in this golden jubilee year we have much to celebrate as the global eradication of wild polioviruses is within sight. Had we strictly followed the principles of science and health economics, perhaps we could have achieved success earlier and cheaper, with the absence of vaccine-induced polio as the bonus. PMID:14997988

  5. Light and harmonicity: the golden section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftopoulos, Dionysios G.

    2015-09-01

    Adhering to Werner Heisenberg's and to the school of Copenhagen's physical philosophy we introduce the localized observer as an absolutely necessary element of a consistent physical description of nature. Thus we have synthesized the theory of the harmonicity of the field of light, which attempts to present a new approach to the events in the human perceptible space. It is an axiomatic theory based on the selection of the projective space as the geometrical space of choice, while its first fundamental hypothesis is none other than special relativity theory's second hypothesis, properly modified. The result is that all our observations and measurements of physical entities always refer not to their present state but rather to a previous one, a conclusion evocative of the "shadows" paradigm in Plato's cave allegory. In the kinematics of a material point this previous state we call "conjugate position", which has been called the "retarded position" by Richard Feynman. We prove that the relation of the present position with its conjugate is ruled by a harmonic tetrad. Thus the relation of the elements of the geometrical (noetic) and the perceptible space is harmonic. In this work we show a consequence of this harmonic relation: the golden section.

  6. Golden probe of the top Yukuwa coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    We perform a preliminary study of the ability of the Higgs decay to four leptons to shed light on the top quark Yukawa couplings. In particular we examine whether the h ?4 ? "golden channel" is sensitive to the C P properties of the top quark couplings to the Higgs boson. We show that kinematic distributions are sensitive to interference of the next-to-leading order electroweak corrections with the tree level Z Z contribution. This translates into a sensitivity to the top quark Yukawa couplings such that meaningful constraints on their C P properties can begin to be obtained once ˜300 fb-1 of data has been collected at ˜14 TeV , with significant improvements at higher luminosity or with a higher energy hadron collider. This makes the h ?4 ? channel a useful probe of the top quark Yukawa couplings that is qualitatively different from already established searches in h ?V ? two body decays, t t h , and g g ?h . We also briefly discuss other potential possibilities for probing the top Yukawa C P properties in h ?2 ?? and ?+?-?h Z ,h ? .

  7. Golden Probe of the Top Yukuwa

    E-print Network

    Yi Chen; Daniel Stolarski; Roberto Vega-Morales

    2015-05-18

    We perform a preliminary study of the ability of the Higgs decay to four leptons to shed light on the top quark Yukawa couplings. In particular we examine whether the $h\\to 4\\ell$ `golden channel' is sensitive to the $CP$ properties of the top quark couplings to the Higgs boson. We show that kinematic distributions are sensitive to interference of the next-to-leading order electroweak corrections with the tree level $ZZ$ contribution. This translates into a sensitivity to the top quark Yukawa couplings such that meaningful constraints on their $CP$ properties can begin to be obtained once $\\sim 300$ fb$^{-1}$ of data has been collected at $\\sim 14$ TeV, with significant improvements at higher luminosity or with a higher energy hadron collider. This makes the $h\\to4\\ell$ channel a useful probe of the top quark Yukawa couplings that is qualitatively different from already established searches in $h\\to V\\gamma$ two body decays, $tth$, and $gg\\to h$. We also briefly discuss other potential possibilities for probing the top Yukawa $CP$ properties in $h\\to2\\ell\\gamma$ and $\\ell^+\\ell^-\\to h Z, h\\gamma$.

  8. The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

  9. Electron microscope study on the relationship between macrophages of the alevolar space and spheroid alveolar epithelial cells on mice after injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin) solution into the trachea.

    PubMed

    Suwa, K

    1977-02-01

    The relationship between alveolar macrophages and spheroid alveolar epithelial cells was studied with the electron microscope after injection of squid-ink solution into the trachea of the mouse. At 20 hours after injection of squid-ink solution slight degeneration was evident in alveolar macrophages with sepia-melanin particles being phagocytized with partial digestion by lysosmes. Furthermore, hardly any changes were seen in mitochondria and inclusion bodies of the spheroid alveolar epithelial cells. In contrast, at one week after injection of squid-ink solution, almost all alveolar macrophages were degenerated with destruction of the ectoplasm in which the ingested sepia-melanin particles were digested by lysosomes into fine particles, and the mitochondria of spheroid alveolar epithelial cells were degenerated and the inclusion bodies were hardly formed. At three weeks after injection of squid-ink solution, alveolar macrophages as well as speroid alveolar epithelial cells showed almost complete recovery of functional structure. As the phagocyte in the alveolar space, neutrophile leucocytes were also observed in addition to the so-called alveolar macrophage. PMID:140589

  10. 78 FR 51802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Silla: Korea's Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom,'' imported from abroad for...

  11. Golden Fish: An Intelligent Stream Cipher Fuse Memory Modules QiongHai Dai1

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Golden Fish: An Intelligent Stream Cipher Fuse Memory Modules Lan Luo12 QiongHai Dai1 ZhiGuang Qin2 such design style at SHA3. Keywords: An intelligent golden Fish, LFSR & Block Cipher Modes as Stream Cipher

  12. A golden opportunity: Researchers making progress in understanding toxic algae 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    this competition could lead them closer to controlling this harmful algae, the researchers said. ?Our biggest finding so far,? said Dr. Daniel Roelke of Texas AgriLife Research and one of the investigators, ?is that there appears to be a chemical warfare... between golden algae and blue green algae. Only when golden algae wins this chemical warfare is it able to bloom.? Roelke, along with Dr. Bryan Brooks of Baylor University and Dr. James Grover of the University of Texas at Arlington, have studied...

  13. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India than in other parts of the world, although further sampling from Africa, the Middle East and south-east Asia is needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:26414163

  14. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India than in other parts of the world, although further sampling from Africa, the Middle East and south-east Asia is needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:26414163

  15. Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Social Subjugation during Puberty in Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Social Subjugation during Puberty in Golden Hamsters Department, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 In golden hamsters subjugation) during puberty. Male golden hamsters were weaned at postna- tal day 25 (P25), exposed daily

  16. 78 FR 27856 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0079] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston...interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston...these two counties are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation...

  17. 78 FR 1713 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0079] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston...SUMMARY: We are amending the golden nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston...these two counties are free of golden nematode, and we have determined that...

  18. Evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys 761 J. Biosci. 33(5), December 2008

    E-print Network

    Karanth, K Praveen

    Evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys 761 J. Biosci. 33(5), December 2008 1. Introduction 1 branch lengths than those of Primate numts and reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys of capped and golden leaf monkeys through ancient hybridization between Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus

  19. Golden catfish microsatellite analysis reveals a distinct Iinbred stock of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden-colored fish have been reported for rainbow trout, tilapia, several species of carps and Clarias catfish. The current golden catfish stock was created through mixing fish with predominant gold/yellow pigment and spots to normal sized and colored catfish. The golden catfish possess a distinct...

  20. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise governing the movement of live golden nematodes in interstate or foreign commerce are contained in...

  1. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise governing the movement of live golden nematodes in interstate or foreign commerce are contained in...

  2. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife...concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may, upon receipt...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource development or...

  3. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife...concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may, upon receipt...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource development or...

  4. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife...concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may, upon receipt...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource development or...

  5. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife...concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may, upon receipt...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource development or...

  6. Golden Gate Park, Chalet Recreation Field, Bounded by John F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Golden Gate Park, Chalet Recreation Field, Bounded by John F. Kennedy Drive to the north and east, former Richmond-Sunset Sewage Treatment Plant to the south, and the Old Railroad Trail to the west, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l...amended by Pub. L. 93-303. Signature Street Town, City, State Issuing Officer (6) The Passport must...

  8. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l...amended by Pub. L. 93-303. Signature Street Town, City, State Issuing Officer (6) The Passport must...

  9. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l...amended by Pub. L. 93-303. Signature Street Town, City, State Issuing Officer (6) The Passport must...

  10. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l...amended by Pub. L. 93-303. Signature Street Town, City, State Issuing Officer (6) The Passport must...

  11. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l...amended by Pub. L. 93-303. Signature Street Town, City, State Issuing Officer (6) The Passport must...

  12. 78 FR 28452 - Golden Parachute and Indemnification Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    .... 78, No. 93 / Tuesday, May 14, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1231 RIN 2590-AA08 Golden Parachute and Indemnification Payments AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Housing Finance Agency...

  13. Knemidocoptic mange in wild golden eagles, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Mete, Asl?; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A; Smallwood, Kenneth S; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-10-01

    During 2012-2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  14. U.S. Combat Deaths Declined Under 'Golden Hour Policy'

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154908.html U.S. Combat Deaths Declined Under 'Golden Hour Policy': Study Under 2009 ... HealthDay News) -- Faster helicopter transport times helped reduce deaths among U.S. soldiers who suffered serious combat injuries ...

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) of male golden hamsters (Mesocricitus auratus) was measured repeatedly by placing the animals in a temperature gradient for 80 min. A total of 180 observations were made during the last 20 min of treatment in the gradient. The mean preferred Ta ...

  16. A New Golden Age of Natural Products Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ben

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to William C. Campbell, Satoshi Omura, and Youyou Tu for the discovery of avermectins and artemisinin, respectively, therapies that revolutionized the treatment of devastating parasite diseases. With the recent technological advances, a New Golden Age of natural products drug discovery is dawning. PMID:26638061

  17. Land of giants The Legacy of the Mastodon: The Golden

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    . In fact, it belonged to a ground sloth, later named Megalonyx. Jefferson, who did not think that speciesLand of giants The Legacy of the Mastodon: The Golden Age of Fossils in America by Keith Thomson, Thomson argues, contributed to the evolving image of the United States as a land of giants, figuratively

  18. A Link Between Black Holes and the Golden Ratio

    E-print Network

    J. A. Nieto

    2011-06-02

    We consider a variational formalism to describe black holes solution in higher dimensions. Our procedure clarifies the arbitrariness of the radius parameter and, in particular, the meaning of the event horizon of a black hole. Moreover, our formalism enables us to find a surprising link between black holes and the golden ratio.

  19. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis. PMID:26471765

  20. Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT

    E-print Network

    Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT may be substituted for part of the required Portland cement. Substitution of mineral admixtures shall Cement shall not exceed the percentages shown in the following table: MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SUBSTITUTION

  1. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis. PMID:26471765

  2. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis.

  3. 27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has sunk beyond the desert horizon, and darkness followed, under a dim light casting my lonesome heart.'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  4. HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education in subject areas…

  5. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  6. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  7. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  8. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  9. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  10. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  11. Bald and Golden Eagles of the SRP. (Annual report, 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.J.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kennamer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Both Bald and Golden Eagles have a prior history of occurrence on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Sightings of Bald Eagles have been uncommon but persistent, while Golden Eagle sightings have been rare. A one-year survey was conducted to assess the use of the SRP by these two species. Thirty-six Bald Eagles were seen during the study period. No Golden Eagles were observed. Over 90% of the Bald Eagle sightings were on Par Pond; three out of four of these birds were adults. Thirteen percent of the sightings were of paired birds, and the remainder were of solitary individuals. Bald Eagles were observed during every month of the survey. The majority were seen between November and May. Sightings were evenly divided between morning and afternoon hours. Two marked Bald Eagles were observed. Since the conclusion of this study, twenty-two Bald Eagles have been reported. Six were new locality records for the SRP. Four of these sightings were on L-Lake. Bald Eagle use of the SRP is higher than was previously thought; Golden Eagle use remains rare.

  12. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A.; Smallwood, Kenneth S.; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  13. GOLDEN RICE: DEVELOPMENTS IN ITS BIOTECHNOLOGY, SAFETY, AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice is a transgenic product that was developed to enable the synthesis of beta-carotene in rice grains. Beta-carotene is a yellow-orange carotenoid that can serve as a precursor for vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a significant nutritional concern, especially in developing countri...

  14. Golden West College FACTS: Fall Enrollment Trends through 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden West Coll., Huntington Beach, CA. Research Office.

    This report presents the fall enrollment trends through 1999 at California's Golden West College (GWC). This report contains charts and graphs of the following enrollment trend topics: (1) fall 1998 student enrollment snapshot, which includes counts and percentages by gender, time of day, age, educational goal, entrance level, high school…

  15. Swimming performance and metabolism of cultured golden shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  16. A golden-silk spider spins its web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of Kennedy Space Center, a female Golden-Silk Spider repairs its web. The female can be identified by its brownish-green abdomen with a white spotted irregular pattern. The golden-silk spider repairs the webbing each day, replacing half but never the whole web at one time. Its web may measure two to three feet across. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a 92,000-acre refuge that is a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  17. Autoradiography in fetal golden hamsters treated with tritiated diethylnitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik-Schueller, H.M.; Hague, B.F. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Tritiated diethylnitrosamine was administered to female Syrian golden hamsters on each of the last 4 days (days 12-15) of pregnancy. The distribution of bound radioactivity was monitored by light microscopic autoradiography of fetal tracheas and livers, the placentas, and the maternal livers. In the trachea, the fetal target organ, bound radioactivity was restricted to the respiratory epithelium, where diethylnitrosamine-induced tracheal tumors arise. Mucous cells and nonciliated stem cells were identified as the principal sites of binding; other cell types within the tracheal epithelium contained only small amounts of bound radioactivity. The level of binding observed in the fetal trachea increased steadily from day 12 to day 15, which correlated well with the levels of differentiation of this tissue during this period. This observation also agrees with the previously reported observation that tumor incidence increases from 40 to 95% in Syrian golden hamsters between days 12 and 15.

  18. CO chemisorption on the surfaces of the golden cages

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, R; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai S

    2009-12-18

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study of CO chemisorption on the golden cages. We find that the Au17- cage is highly robust and retains its cage structure in Au17-CO-. On the other hand, the Au16 - cage is transformed to a structure similar to Au17- upon the adsorption of CO. Au18 - is known to consist of two nearly degenerate structures, i.e., a cage and a pyramidal isomer, which coexist in the cluster beam. However, upon CO chemisorption only the cage isomer is observed while the pyramidal isomer no longer exists due to its less favorable interaction with CO, compared to the cage isomer. We find that inclusion of the spin-orbit effects is critical in yielding simulated spectra in quantitative agreement with the experimental data and providing unequivocal structural information and molecular insights into the chemical interactions between CO and the golden cages.

  19. Golden Eagle predation on experimental Sandhill and Whooping Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Clegg, K.R.; Lewis, J.C.; Spaulding, E.

    1999-01-01

    There are very few published records of Golden Eagles preying upon cranes, especially in North America. During our experiments to lead cranes on migration behind motorized craft in the western United States, we experienced 15 attacks (four fatal) and believe many more attacks would have occurred (and more would have been fatal) without human intervention. We recognize eagle predation as an important risk to cranes especially during migration.

  20. Nick Sagan Reflects on Voyager 1 and the Golden Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    When scientists confirmed on 12 September that NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft had entered interstellar space (Eos, 94(39), 339, doi:10.1002/2013EO390003), the probe was acknowledged as the first human-made object to travel into that realm. The probe and its twin, Voyager 2, each carry a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk, known as the Golden Record.

  1. Golden Beam Data for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Clasie, Benjamin; Depauw, Nicolas; Fransen, Maurice; Gomà, Carles; Panahandeh, Hamid Reza; Seco, Joao; Flanz, Jacob B; Kooy, Hanne M

    2012-01-01

    Proton, as well as other ion, beams applied by electro-magnetic deflection in pencil-beam scanning (PBS) are minimally perturbed and thus can be quantified a-priori by their fundamental interactions in medium. This a-priori quantification permits an optimal reduction of characterizing measurements on a particular PBS delivery system. The combination of a-priori quantification and measurements will then suffice to fully describe the physical interactions necessary for treatment planning purposes. We consider, for proton beams, these interactions and derive a “Golden” beam data set. The Golden beam data set quantifies the pristine Bragg peak depth dose distribution in terms of primary, multiple Coulomb scatter, and secondary, nuclear scatter, components. The set reduces the required measurements on a PBS delivery system to the measurement of energy spread and initial phase space as a function of energy. The depth doses are described in absolute units of Gy(RBE).mm2.Gp?1, where Gp equals 109 (giga) protons, thus providing a direct mapping from treatment planning parameters to integrated beam current. We used this Golden beam data on our PBS delivery systems and demonstrate that it yields absolute dosimetry well within clinical tolerance. PMID:22330090

  2. Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodeur, Serge; DeCarie, R.; Bird, D.M.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles(Aquila chrysaetosc anadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles(five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three of which completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and migrated to known wintering areas in the eastern United States. They used different routes but each followed the same general path during fall and spring migrations which lasted between 26 and 40 days,and 25 and 51 days, respectively. Eagles wintered from 93 to 135 days in areas located 1,650 to 3,000 km south of their breeding territory. In spring 1993, satellite telemetry located the eagles in their former breeding territory in late March, mid-April and early May. This study confirms previous suggestion that some breeding Golden Eagles wintering in eastern United States come from northern Quebec and describes the first successful tracking of the complete yearly migration cycle of a bird of prey.

  3. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects golden mussels by preventing them from filtering food and oxygen from water, and in this way killing them. The attachment density decreased with increased sediment deposition. Golden mussel density decreased by about 70-90% when the sedimentation rate increased by 3-6 times. Therefore, spraying with fine sediment or creating hyper-concentration of sediment water to treat golden mussels before they enter tunnels is recommended as an effective strategy for controlling golden mussel invasion and high-density bio-fouling. Key words: golden mussel invasion; bio-fouling; sediment settling; habitat; controlling strategy

  4. ILLUSTRATIONS. GOLDEN TROUT OF TilE SOUTHERN HIGH SIERRAS: Facing page.

    E-print Network

    crossing of trail over Volcano Creek........... 11 XV. Kern River trout, Salmo gilbert! 18 XVI. Golden trout of Soda Creek, saimo white!.......................................................... 20 XVII. Map

  5. Topographic map of Golden Gate Estates, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurado, Antonio

    1981-01-01

    Construction of canals related to land development in the Golden Gate Estates area of Collier County, Fla., has altered the natural drainage pattern of the watershed. The area of approximately 300 square miles was topographically mapped with a contour interval of 0.5 foot to assist in determining the effects of canal construction on the surface-water and ground-water resources in the watershed. The topographic map was prepared at a scale of 1:48,000 using aerial photography and ground-control points. (USGS)

  6. Golden Bars of Consensus and the Truth Quark

    E-print Network

    Frank D. Tony Smith; jr

    2002-05-14

    Scientists are imprisoned by Golden Bars of Consensus, says Burton Richter (hep-ex/0001012). A case in point is the mass of the Truth Quark. The consensus analysis of the experimental data indicates that the mass of the Truth Quark is about 170 GeV. On the other hand, an alternative analysis of the same data indicates that the mass of the Truth Quark is about 130 GeV. If the design of future experiments, including trigger, event selection, data analysis procedures, error analysis, etc., takes into account only the consensus value, and if the consensus value happens to be incorrect, then results of future experiments might be compromised.

  7. Spirituality in the salesperson: the impact of the golden rule and personal faith on workplace job attitudes 

    E-print Network

    Smith, James Garry

    2007-09-17

    Do salespeople who follow the Golden Rule or let their faith influence their behavior serve their customers better or like their jobs and employers more than other salespeople? The Golden Rule is a quote from Christ found ...

  8. 76 FR 13600 - Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand #3 and #4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...Idaho, Golden Hand 3 and 4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations AGENCY...The Golden Hand No. 3 and No. 4 Lode Mining Claims Proposed Plan of Operations. The project included mining operations on the lode claims along...

  9. 76 FR 53424 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Larose to Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...Statement for the Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project, Post-Authorization...SEIS) for the Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project, Post-Authorization...before development of the post-Katrina Hurricane and Storm Damage Risk Reduction...

  10. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...would be exported from the existing Golden Pass LNG Terminal (Golden Pass Terminal), a facility located in Sabine Pass, Texas...in Houston, Texas. GPP is owned by QTL U.S. Terminal LLC (an affiliate of Qatar Petroleum...

  11. 78 FR 77194 - Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ...AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order of...accurate information concerning the securities of Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  12. There Was No Golden Age of Sport for African American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Earl

    2000-01-01

    Disagrees with Harry Edwards' belief about a golden age in sports for African Americans, asserting that the golden age never existed for them. Suggests that Edwards' research does not thoroughly examine the new African American athlete and ignores the issue that the unfulfilled promise of riches and glory requires a larger socioeconomic and…

  13. Vasopressin/Serotonin Interactions in the Anterior Hypothalamus Control Aggressive Behavior in Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    in Golden Hamsters Craig F. Ferris,1 Richard H. Melloni Jr,1 Gary Koppel,2 Kenneth W. Perry,2 Ray W. Fuller) in the control of offensive aggres- sion in Syrian golden hamsters. First, specific V1A and 5-HT1B binding sites/intruder paradigm, resident hamsters treated with fluoxetine, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, have

  14. Quantitative Determinations of Vitamin A Value of Golden Rice Given as Single or Multiple Meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine vitamin A value of Golden Rice, we grew Golden Rice in heavy water (25 atom %) and produced intrinsically labeled rice to be fed to subjects. Due to our dietary practices (50 to 200 g per meal, uncooked dry weight) and the sensitivity of trace analysis using mass spectrometry, the rice...

  15. Zoo Biology 13:333-344 (1994) Locomotion of Free-Ranging Golden Lion

    E-print Network

    Rosenberger, Alfred H.

    1994-01-01

    Zoo Biology 13:333-344 (1994) Locomotion of Free-Ranging Golden Lion Tamarins behavior and substrate use of cage-reared golden lion tamarins (Le- ontopithecus rosalia), newly released words: New World monkeys, Platyrrhini, Callitrichinae, stereotypy, video, rein- troduction INTRODUCTION

  16. 76 FR 3652 - Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation... Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: Pursuant to...) is releasing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Draft...

  17. 76 FR 22917 - Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National... comment period for Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: The National Park Service has prepared a Draft Dog Management Plan...

  18. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance plan payments. 303.244 Section 303.244 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.244 Golden parachute and severance plan payments. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 18(k) of the FDI...

  19. 76 FR 56220 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan for Golden Gate National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Management Plan (GMP) for Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Muir Woods National Monument. The Draft EIS/GMP evaluates four alternatives for managing Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Muir Woods, and upon approval the GMP would serve as a blueprint to guide management of these units of...

  20. CORTISOL RESPONSES OF GOLDEN SHINER (NOTEMIGONUS CRYSOLEUCAS) FED DIETS DIFFERING IN LIPID CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the plasma cortisol response in golden shiners under crowding stress, and to determine whether dietary lipid composition affects the cortisol response. In experiment 1, triplicate groups of golden shiners were fed diets with 4 or 13% menhaden fish oil, ...

  1. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  2. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  3. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  4. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  5. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  6. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content

    E-print Network

    Noble, William Stafford

    Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content Jacqueline, Susan Y Wright1, Edward Hinchliffe2, Jessica L Adams3, Aron L Silverstone3 & Rachel Drake1 `Golden Rice' is a variety of rice engineered to produce b- carotene (pro-vitamin A) to help combat vitamin A deficiency1

  7. Shearing the Golden Fleece: Chilling the Discussion of Science in the Public Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhard, Wallace B.

    This paper briefly describes the history of the Golden Fleece Award given monthly by Senator William Proxmire for "the biggest waste of taxpayers' money" in the form of grants for research. It particularly focuses on the case brought by Dr. R. R. Hutchinson who was the recipient of the Golden Fleece Award for his research on the aggressive…

  8. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...Sector of Golden Tilefish for the 2011 Fishing Year AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...tilefish in the South Atlantic for the 2011 fishing year through this temporary final rule...reduces the length of the 2011 recreational fishing season for golden tilefish based on...

  9. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE...resource development or recovery operation when...the area nesting population of golden...resource development or recovery operation is available...the area nesting population of golden eagles...resource development or recovery operation;...

  10. Golden Plover Wetland Research Award 2014 2013 R E G U L A T I O N S

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    Golden Plover Wetland Research Award 2014 2013 R E G U L A T I O N S BACKGROUND The Award level at any University in New Zealand. The Golden Plover is one of many migratory birds who make will be known as the Golden Plover Wetland Research Award. 2. The Award will have a value of up to $1,000. 3

  11. 78 FR 9451 - Academy Express, L.L.C.-Acquisition of Property-Golden Ring Travel & Transportation, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Academy Express, L.L.C.--Acquisition of Property--Golden Ring Travel..., filed an application for authority under 49 U.S.C. 14303 to acquire the property of Golden Ring Travel... proposed acquisition would greatly benefit Golden Ring's patrons. According to Academy, passengers would...

  12. Golden triangle for folding rates of globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Garbuzynskiy, Sergiy O; Ivankov, Dmitry N; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Finkelstein, Alexei V

    2013-01-01

    The ability of protein chains to spontaneously form their spatial structures is a long-standing puzzle in molecular biology. Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference (11 orders of magnitude) is akin to the difference between the life span of a mosquito and the age of the universe. Here, we show that physical theory with biological constraints outlines a "golden triangle" limiting the possible range of folding rates for single-domain globular proteins of various size and stability, and that the experimentally measured folding rates fall within this narrow triangle built without any adjustable parameters, filling it almost completely. In addition, the golden triangle predicts the maximal size of protein domains that fold under solely thermodynamic (rather than kinetic) control. It also predicts the maximal allowed size of the "foldable" protein domains, and the size of domains found in known protein structures is in a good agreement with this limit. PMID:23251035

  13. Extracting Effective Higgs Couplings in the Golden Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2014-04-08

    Kinematic distributions in Higgs decays to four charged leptons, the so called ‘golden channel, are a powerful probe of the tensor structure of its couplings to neutral electroweak gauge bosons. In this study we construct the first part of a comprehensive analysis framework designed to maximize the information contained in this channel in order to perform direct extraction of the various possible Higgs couplings. We first complete an earlier analytic calculation of the leading order fully differential cross sections for the golden channel signal and background to include the 4e and 4? final states with interference between identical final states. We also examine the relative fractions of the different possible combinations of scalar-tensor couplings by integrating the fully differential cross section over all kinematic variables as well as show various doubly differential spectra for both the signal and background. From these analytic expressions we then construct a ‘generator level’ analysis framework based on the maximum likelihood method. Then, we demonstrate the ability of our framework to perform multi-parameter extractions of all the possible effective couplings of a spin-0 scalar to pairs of neutral electroweak gauge bosons including any correlations. Furthermore, this framework provides a powerful method for study of these couplings and can be readily adapted to include the relevant detector and systematic effects which we demonstrate in an accompanying study to follow.

  14. Extracting Effective Higgs Couplings in the Golden Channel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Yi; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2014-04-08

    Kinematic distributions in Higgs decays to four charged leptons, the so called ‘golden channel, are a powerful probe of the tensor structure of its couplings to neutral electroweak gauge bosons. In this study we construct the first part of a comprehensive analysis framework designed to maximize the information contained in this channel in order to perform direct extraction of the various possible Higgs couplings. We first complete an earlier analytic calculation of the leading order fully differential cross sections for the golden channel signal and background to include the 4e and 4? final states with interference between identical final states.more »We also examine the relative fractions of the different possible combinations of scalar-tensor couplings by integrating the fully differential cross section over all kinematic variables as well as show various doubly differential spectra for both the signal and background. From these analytic expressions we then construct a ‘generator level’ analysis framework based on the maximum likelihood method. Then, we demonstrate the ability of our framework to perform multi-parameter extractions of all the possible effective couplings of a spin-0 scalar to pairs of neutral electroweak gauge bosons including any correlations. Furthermore, this framework provides a powerful method for study of these couplings and can be readily adapted to include the relevant detector and systematic effects which we demonstrate in an accompanying study to follow.« less

  15. Imposex in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Ming-Yie; Lee, Ching-Chang; Liu, Li-Lian

    2006-12-01

    The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) was introduced into Taiwan intentionally in the early 1980s and has become a recurring pest that seriously threatens aquatic crops. In this study, a field description of imposex with a developed penis sheath and penis in female golden apple snails from crop/domestic wastewater drainage sites and a six-order river is presented for the first time. Based on the five field collections and the aquarium group, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) of P. canaliculata in imposex development was categorized into four stages, i.e., stage 0: without male genital system; stage 1: with rudimentary penis; stage 2: with rudimentary penis and penis sheath; and stage 3: the rudimentary penis developing into penis pouch and penis. The VDS indices varied between 1.07 and 2.82 and were lowest in the aquarium group and Yuanlin2. Regarding the severity of imposex, the aquarium group was less pronounced, as illustrated by the length of penis sheath and penis length, than the field collections (p<0.05). In respect of the penis length, males of the most imposex-affected site were up to 15% shorter than that of the aquarium group. Negative correlations between male penis length and female imposex characters (i.e., penis length and penis sheath length) were also observed. PMID:17023028

  16. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655

  17. Golden eagle records from the Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey: information for wind energy management and planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakle, Wade; Haggerty, Patti; Fuller, Mark; Phillips, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Data Series report is to provide the occasions, locations, and counts when golden eagles were recorded during the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Surveys. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are protected by Federal statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) (16 USC 668-668c) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 USC 703-12). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) manages golden eagles with the goal of maintaining stable or increasing breeding populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009). Development for the generation of electricity from wind turbines is occurring in much of the range of the golden eagle in the western United States. Development could threaten population stability because golden eagles might be disturbed by construction and operation of facilities and they are vulnerable to mortality from collisions with wind turbines (Smallwood and Thelander, 2008). Therefore, the Service has proposed a process by which wind energy developers can collect information that could lead to Eagle Conservation Plans (ECP), mitigation, and permitting that allow for golden eagle management in areas of wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The Service recommends that ECP be developed in stages, and the first stage is to learn if golden eagles occur at the landscape level where potential wind facilities might be located. Information about where eagles occur can be obtained from technical literature, agency files, and other sources of information including on-line biological databases. The broad North American distribution of golden eagles is known, but there is a paucity of readily available information about intermediate geographic scales and site-specific scales, especially during the winter season (Kochert and others, 2002).

  18. An unusual lipomatous brain mass in a Golden Retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Scott, Steven J; Elliot, Kirsty; Philibert, Helene; Summers, Brian A; Godson, Dale; Singh, Baljit; Simko, Elemir

    2015-11-01

    A 9-year-old Golden Retriever dog was presented to the Veterinary Medical Center with a 3-week history of grand mal seizures and was subsequently euthanized. At autopsy, a discrete, firm, expansile mass was found in the right pyriform lobe, which compressed the ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Histologically, the mass was composed of well-differentiated adipose tissue supported by fibrous and mucinous stroma. Adipocytes exhibited strong immunoreactivity for vimentin and were negative for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, and synaptophysin. These findings are most compatible with an intracranial lipomatous hamartoma, which is an extraparenchymal lesion that has been identified in several species. The current report describes an intracerebral lipomatous hamartoma in a veterinary species. PMID:26450836

  19. A golden-silk spider spins its web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of Kennedy Space Center, a female Golden-Silk Spider repairs its web. During the day spider hands head downward from the underside of the web near the center. Its web may measure two to three feet across and it repairs the webbing each day, replacing half but never the whole web at one time. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a 92,000-acre refuge that is a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  20. Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework). PMID:23146157

  1. Golden Vision: 50 years of the University of Kansas East Asian Collection

    E-print Network

    Doll, Vickie

    2007-10-01

    stream_size 1760 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Doll_Golden Vision.pdf.txt stream_source_info Doll_Golden Vision.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Vickie Fu Doll Chinese... and Korean Studies Librarian International Area Studies University of Kansas Libraries vdoll@ku.edu · http://guides.lib.ku.edu/profile/vdoll Doll, V. (2007). Golden Vision: 50 Years of the University of Kansas East Asian Collection. In Over a Hundred...

  2. Interactive effects of prey and weather on golden eagle reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McDonald, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The reproduction of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos was studied in southwestern Idaho for 23 years, and the relationship between eagle reproduction and jackrabbit Lepus californicus abundance, weather factors, and their interactions, was modelled using general linear models. Backward elimination procedures were used to arrive at parsimonious models. 2. The number of golden eagle pairs occupying nesting territories each year showed a significant decline through time that was unrelated to either annual rabbit abundance or winter severity. However, eagle hatching dates were significantly related to both winter severity and jackrabbit abundance. Eagles hatched earlier when jackrabbits were abundant, and they hatched later after severe winters. 3. Jackrabbit abundance influenced the proportion of pairs that laid eggs, the proportion of pairs that were successful, mean brood size at fledging, and the number of young fledged per pair. Weather interacted with prey to influence eagle reproductive rates. 4. Both jackrabbit abundance and winter severity were important in predicting the percentage of eagle pairs that laid eggs. Percentage laying was related positively to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to winter severity. 5. The variables most useful in predicting percentage of laying pairs successful were rabbit abundance and the number of extremely hot days during brood-rearing. The number of hot days and rabbit abundance were also significant in a model predicting eagle brood size at fledging. Both success and brood size were positively related to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to the frequency of hot days in spring. 6. Eagle reproduction was limited by rabbit abundance during approximately twothirds of the years studied. Weather influenced how severely eagle reproduction declined in those years. 7. This study demonstrates that prey and weather can interact to limit a large raptor population's productivity. Smaller raptors could be affected more strongly, especially in colder or wetter climates.

  3. Thinking about feathers: Adaptations of Golden Eagle rectrices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The striking black and white plumage of the juvenile Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) provides an excellent opportunity to examine the possible selective forces influencing the strategic placement of dark pigment in birds. The conflict between opposing selective pressures (first, toward large white patches, which may allay aggression in adults, and second, toward dark plumage to promote camouflage and limit solar and abrasive wear) provides the stage whereon are revealed a score of pigmentation traits of potential adaptive value. The general pigmentation trend is for zones that are more exposed to the sun to be darker than elsewhere. More specifically: (1) for rectrices and remiges, outer webs are darker than inner; (2) for those few feathers (e.g., central rectrices, some scapulars, and some tertials), where both inner and outer webs are heavily and nearly equally solar exposed, pigmentation is supplied similarly on both webs; (3) outermost primaries and rectrices are darkest of all and are structurally similar; (4) for central rectrices, subject to high levels of abrasion with substrate, the tip is paler (resultant flexibility may limit breakage); and (5) pigment is heavier along or on the rachis than on the webs. Many of the traits listed above for the Golden Eagle are also found in other families of birds. Traits of the tail common to many species were a terminal pale tip, a subterminal dark band, rachis darker than vane, and outer webs darker than inner for both remiges and rectrices. The most widespread traits likely have adaptive value. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  4. The Impact of a Forest Pathogen on the Endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Laura Roe

    2012-07-16

    Oak wilt is a fatal disease of oaks caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum. Loss or degradation of habitat due to the disease may negatively affect the federally endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). To assess the impact...

  5. Individual variation in endocrine systems: moving beyond the `tyranny of the Golden Mean'

    E-print Network

    Review Individual variation in endocrine systems: moving beyond the `tyranny of the Golden Mean and functional significance of phenotypic variation, plasticity and flexibility in endocrine systems, and argue interest to evolutionary biologists (cf. behavioural endocrinology). Keywords: endocrine systems; inter

  6. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF DIETARY EXPOSURE TO AMOSITE AND CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays of amosite, short range (SR), intermediate range (IR) or intermediate range chrysotile asbestos in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Syrian golden hamsters. Amosite and both forms o...

  7. AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER DURING SUBCHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF CLORGYLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic administration of clorgyline, a type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, leads to a decrease in peritoneal (i.e., core) temperature of golden hamsters. o better understand the mechanisms of clorgyline's thermoregulatory effects, autonomic and behavioral thermoregulatory effect...

  8. 76 FR 79708 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... management in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) and Muir Woods National Monument. The original... public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Dated: November 3, 2011. John...

  9. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2003), September 22 - October 3, 2003, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.

    2004-07-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  10. 78 FR 3827 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0079] Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY Correction In rule document 2013-206 appearing on...

  11. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2001), September 24 - October 5, 2001, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2003-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  12. was the golden child," says Justin Trotter, thinking back to his teenage years liv-

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    "I was the golden child," says Justin Trotter, thinking back to his teenage years liv- ing near in almost any other nation. Courts and legislatures are lifting restrictions on same-sex marriage in state

  13. Guilty but insane: psychology, law and selfhood in golden age crime fiction 

    E-print Network

    Walton, Samantha

    2013-07-04

    Writers of golden age crime fiction (1920 to 1945), and in particular female writers, have been seen by many critics as socially and politically detached. Their texts have been read as morality tales, theoretically rich ...

  14. Waterfront developments in the Middle East case study : the Golden Horn Project, Istanbul, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Alamuddin, Hana S. (Hana Slieman)

    1987-01-01

    This thesis examines waterfront developments in the Middle East . It concentrates on the Golden Horn project in Istanbul as it raises a number of issues that are central to any such development in that region. In order for ...

  15. Supporting Usability in Product Line Architectures Pia Stoll Len Bass Elspeth Golden, Bonnie E. John

    E-print Network

    Supporting Usability in Product Line Architectures Pia Stoll Len Bass Elspeth Golden, Bonnie E University Pittsburgh, PA, USA pia.stoll@se.abb.com ljb@sei.cmu.edu egolden@cmu.edu, bej@cs.cmu.edu Abstract

  16. 78 FR 1713 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... regulated for golden nematode. This action is necessary to relieve restrictions on certain areas that are no... Immediate action is warranted to relieve restrictions that are no longer necessary on the specified areas...

  17. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2002), September 23 - October 4, 2002, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2003-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  18. “You Can’t Always Get What You Want” – Linearity as the Golden Ratio of Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Aalt; Hanekamp, Jaap C.

    2014-01-01

    Referring to the Golden Ratio (i.e. expressed in the Fibonacci sequence) in nature and art, we conclude that toxicology knows its own Golden Ration, namely linearity. The latter seems imposed on pharmaco-toxicological processes that in fact show far more complexity than simple linearity could hope to elucidate. Understanding physiological and pharmaco-toxicological processes as primarily linear is challenged in this contribution based on very straightforward principles and examples. PMID:25552963

  19. "You Can't Always Get What You Want" - Linearity as the Golden Ratio of Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bast, Aalt; Hanekamp, Jaap C

    2014-12-01

    Referring to the Golden Ratio (i.e. expressed in the Fibonacci sequence) in nature and art, we conclude that toxicology knows its own Golden Ration, namely linearity. The latter seems imposed on pharmaco-toxicological processes that in fact show far more complexity than simple linearity could hope to elucidate. Understanding physiological and pharmaco-toxicological processes as primarily linear is challenged in this contribution based on very straightforward principles and examples. PMID:25552963

  20. Molecular architecture of silk fibroin of Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama

    PubMed Central

    Gupta K, Adarsh; Mita, Kazuei; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2015-01-01

    The golden silk spun by Indian golden silkmoth Antheraea assama, is regarded for its shimmering golden luster, tenacity and value as biomaterial. This report describes the gene coding for golden silk H-fibroin (AaFhc), its expression, full-length sequence and structurally important motifs discerning the underlying genetic and biochemical factors responsible for its much sought-after properties. The coding region, with biased isocodons, encodes highly repetitious crystalline core, flanked by a pair of 5? and 3? non-repetitious ends. AaFhc mRNA expression is strictly territorial, confined to the posterior silk gland, encoding a protein of size 230?kDa, which makes homodimers making the elementary structural units of the fibrous core of the golden silk. Characteristic polyalanine repeats that make tight ?-sheet crystals alternate with non-polyalanine repeats that make less orderly antiparallel ?-sheets, ?-turns and partial ?-helices. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved N-terminal amorphous motif and the comparative analysis of the crystalline region with other saturniid H-fibroins reveal that AaFhc has longer, numerous and relatively uniform repeat motifs with lower serine content that assume tighter ?-crystals and denser packing, which are speculated to be responsible for its acclaimed properties of higher tensile strength and higher refractive index responsible for golden luster. PMID:26235912

  1. Molecular architecture of silk fibroin of Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsh K; Mita, Kazuei; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2015-01-01

    The golden silk spun by Indian golden silkmoth Antheraea assama, is regarded for its shimmering golden luster, tenacity and value as biomaterial. This report describes the gene coding for golden silk H-fibroin (AaFhc), its expression, full-length sequence and structurally important motifs discerning the underlying genetic and biochemical factors responsible for its much sought-after properties. The coding region, with biased isocodons, encodes highly repetitious crystalline core, flanked by a pair of 5' and 3' non-repetitious ends. AaFhc mRNA expression is strictly territorial, confined to the posterior silk gland, encoding a protein of size 230?kDa, which makes homodimers making the elementary structural units of the fibrous core of the golden silk. Characteristic polyalanine repeats that make tight ?-sheet crystals alternate with non-polyalanine repeats that make less orderly antiparallel ?-sheets, ?-turns and partial ?-helices. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved N-terminal amorphous motif and the comparative analysis of the crystalline region with other saturniid H-fibroins reveal that AaFhc has longer, numerous and relatively uniform repeat motifs with lower serine content that assume tighter ?-crystals and denser packing, which are speculated to be responsible for its acclaimed properties of higher tensile strength and higher refractive index responsible for golden luster. PMID:26235912

  2. National Wind Technology Center sitewide, Golden, CO: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the nation`s primary solar and renewable energy research laboratory, proposes to expand its wind technology research and development program activities at its National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Golden, Colorado. NWTC is an existing wind energy research facility operated by NREL for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Proposed activities include the construction and reuse of buildings and facilities, installation of up to 20 wind turbine test sites, improvements in infrastructure, and subsequent research activities, technology testing, and site operations. In addition to wind turbine test activities, NWTC may be used to support other NREL program activities and small-scale demonstration projects. This document assesses potential consequences to resources within the physical, biological, and human environment, including potential impacts to: air quality, geology and soils, water resources, biological resources, cultural and historic resources, socioeconomic resources, land use, visual resources, noise environment, hazardous materials and waste management, and health and safety conditions. Comment letters were received from several agencies in response to the scoping and predecisional draft reviews. The comments have been incorporated as appropriate into the document with full text of the letters contained in the Appendices. Additionally, information from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site on going sitewide assessment of potential environmental impacts has been reviewed and discussed by representatives of both parties and incorporated into the document as appropriate.

  3. Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2012-02-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:22128030

  4. RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION IN UNSEDATED DOGS WITH GOLDEN RETRIEVER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    DeVanna, Justin C.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Bogan, Daniel J.; Bogan, Janet R.; Dow, Jennifer L.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a well-established model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The value of this model would be greatly enhanced with practical tools to monitor progression of respiratory dysfunction during treatment trials. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal breathing spirometry, and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) were performed to determine if quantifiable abnormalities could be identified in unsedated, untrained, GRMD dogs. Results from 11 dogs with a mild phenotype of GRMD and 11 age-matched carriers were compared. Arterial blood gas analysis was successfully performed in all dogs, spirometry in 21 of 22 (95%) dogs, and RIP in 18 of 20 (90%) dogs. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration were higher in GRMD dogs. Tidal breathing peak expiratory flows were markedly higher in GRMD dogs. Abnormal abdominal motion was present in 7 of 10 (70%) GRMD dogs. Each technique provided objective, quantifiable measures that will be useful for monitoring respiratory function in GRMD dogs during clinical trials while avoiding the influence of sedation on results. Increased expiratory flows and the pattern of abdominal breathing are novel findings, not reported in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and might be a consequence of hyperinflation. PMID:24295812

  5. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  6. LMS Committee Meeting Report for 2014-2015 (by Richard Golden) Participants: Karl Ho, Gene, Yuli (Math), Katrina (Elearning), Richard Golden (chair), Darren Crone

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    (Math), Katrina (Elearning), Richard Golden (chair), Darren Crone (Elearning) Initial Comment: It is crucial that Darren Crone (Director of Elearning) attend all meetings of the LMS Committee ELEARNING SYSTEM OPERATIONS The committee discussed the status of the ELEARNING system from an operational

  7. Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.; Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6–11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4–5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3–4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal. PMID:25020045

  8. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification. PMID:26234211

  9. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  10. Evaluation of amitrole (aminotriazole) for potential carcinogenicity in orally dosed rats, mice, and golden hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, D.; Weber, H.; Mohr, U.; Boehme, K.

    1983-06-30

    Amitrole was evaluated for carcinogenic potential in lifespan studies on Wistar rats, NMRI mice, and golden hamsters. At the start of the studies the animals were 6 weeks old. Amitrole was administered, mixed with pulverized chow, at dietary concentrations of 0, 1, 10, and 100 micrograms/g (ppm). Each treated group and control group consisted of 75 male and 75 female rats and mice and of 76 male and 76 female golden hamsters. Additional animals were used to evaluate the functional state of the thyroid. Somewhat lower body weights, slightly reduced survival times, and transient effects on thyroid function were observed in golden hamsters at 100 ppm. In mice, a slight increase in pituitary gland hyperemias was seen at 100 ppm; also an effect on thyroid function usually occurred at the same concentration. In rats, a very large number of cystic dilatations of follicles in the thyroid at 100 ppm and a dose-unrelated increase in hemorrhages and hyperemias in the pituitary gland were indicative of an effect of amitrole on these organs. The strongest effect of amitrole on thyroid function, as compared to golden hamsters and mice, was seen in rats at 100 ppm. At this concentration a highly increased number of thyroid and pituitary gland tumors was observed in rats. In golden hamsters and mice, no tumor induction was seen.

  11. Landscapes for energy and wildlife: conservation prioritization for golden eagles across large spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  12. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development. PMID:26262876

  13. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined. PMID:25035582

  14. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jason D; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development. PMID:26262876

  15. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America.

    PubMed

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit. PMID:25686747

  16. Reproductive and parental behavior in Taveta golden weavers (Ploceus castaneiceps).

    PubMed

    Valuska, Annie J; Leighty, Katherine A; Plassé, Chelle; Schutz, Paul; Nichols, Val; Sky, Christy; Breeding, Shawnlei

    2015-01-01

    Taveta golden weavers are popular in zoos, but little has been published on their reproduction, social behavior, or other aspects of their management. At Disney's Animal Kingdom® , we have had great success with our breeding program and house a large flock in our mixed-species walk-through Africa aviary and smaller groups in the off-exhibit Avian Research Center. We conducted observations on both groups in order to document behavioral differences between the groups living under differing management conditions. Data on which individuals were inside, on or near focal nests were collected using a 30-s scan samples. Scan data were analyzed using a two-factor ANOVA, with aviary location and nest contents as the factors. We found that, in both aviary locations, females spent more time inside and on the nests than males did. As expected, females spent more time inside the nests containing eggs and more time on the nests containing chicks, likely due to incubation and chick-feeding demands, respectively. Interestingly, we found that females spent significantly more time inside their nests and males spent more time near their nests in the Africa aviary than in ARC. Despite Africa aviary's higher nest attendance, a higher proportion of nests fledged chicks in ARC (72% vs. 41%). These data are consistent with findings in wild sociable weavers [Spottiswoode, 2007. Oecologia 154: 589-600]. Future work with zoo-housed populations of weavers could help shed light on this phenomenon, which is not yet well understood. A better understanding of the consequences of different group sizes and housing conditions could have important implications for how Taveta weavers are managed. PMID:25728345

  17. Multitargeting by turmeric, the golden spice: From kitchen to clinic.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subash C; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Ji Hye; Prasad, Sahdeo; Li, Shiyou; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2013-09-01

    Although much has been published about curcumin, which is obtained from turmeric, comparatively little is known about turmeric itself. Turmeric, a golden spice obtained from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, has been used to give color and taste to food preparations since ancient times. Traditionally, this spice has been used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of such ailments as gynecological problems, gastric problems, hepatic disorders, infectious diseases, and blood disorders. Modern science has provided the scientific basis for the use of turmeric against such disorders. Various chemical constituents have been isolated from this spice, including polyphenols, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenoids, sterols, and alkaloids. Curcumin, which constitutes 2-5% of turmeric, is perhaps the most-studied component. Although some of the activities of turmeric can be mimicked by curcumin, other activities are curcumin-independent. Cell-based studies have demonstrated the potential of turmeric as an antimicrobial, insecticidal, larvicidal, antimutagenic, radioprotector, and anticancer agent. Numerous animal studies have shown the potential of this spice against proinflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, depression, diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. At the molecular level, this spice has been shown to modulate numerous cell-signaling pathways. In clinical trials, turmeric has shown efficacy against numerous human ailments including lupus nephritis, cancer, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, acne, and fibrosis. Thus, a spice originally common in the kitchen is now exhibiting activities in the clinic. In this review, we discuss the chemical constituents of turmeric, its biological activities, its molecular targets, and its potential in the clinic. PMID:22887802

  18. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

  19. Natural parasitic infection of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Keawjam, R S; Poonswad, P; Upatham, E S; Banpavichit, S

    1993-03-01

    Golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata, were collected once a month during a year to search for their natural parasites. The collections were made at two localities having different ecological environments. Of 576 collected snails from a canal, 176 individuals (30.6%) were infected by three groups of metacercariae. These parasites were amphistome, distome and echinostome metacercariae, which had prevalences of 23.5, 19.5 and 0.5%, respectively. The incidence of infection was highest (68.4% in October) when the snail population was composed of the old, juvenile and young Pomacea. Amphistome metacercariae were found most frequently and echinostome metacercariae the least frequently; both parasites were localized in the foot muscle of the snails and had a Shannon index of zero. The range of amphistomes was 1 to 115 with the mean +/- SD of 1 +/- 2 and 95% CL of 1, 2. Distome metacercariae were found primarily in the heart (range: 1-13), and also in the foot muscle (range: 1-5) and kidney (range: 1-14), with a Shannon index of 0.4. The means +/- SD (with 95% CL) were 3 +/- 4 (95% CL = 1, 5), 3 +/- 4 (95% CL = 2, 4) and 2 +/- 1 (95% CL = 1, 2) for the foot muscle, heart and kidney, respectively. The snails from a pond, another locality, had a low proportion of infected individuals. Of 605 snails, only 24 individuals (4.0%) were infected, with the prevalence of amphistomes, distomes and echinostomes being 0.8, 1.8 and 2.1%, respectively. The incidence of infection for each month was zero or less than 10%, except in May when it was 30.2%. PMID:8362292

  20. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187 ...Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. (a)...

  1. The Golden-Thompson inequality: Historical aspects and random matrix applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Peter J. Thompson, Colin J.

    2014-02-15

    The Golden-Thompson inequality, Tr?(e{sup A+B}) ? Tr?(e{sup A}e{sup B}) for A, B Hermitian matrices, appeared in independent works by Golden and Thompson published in 1965. Both of these were motivated by considerations in statistical mechanics. In recent years the Golden-Thompson inequality has found applications to random matrix theory. In this article, we detail some historical aspects relating to Thompson's work, giving in particular a hitherto unpublished proof due to Dyson, and correspondence with Pólya. We show too how the 2 × 2 case relates to hyperbolic geometry, and how the original inequality holds true with the trace operation replaced by any unitarily invariant norm. In relation to the random matrix applications, we review its use in the derivation of concentration type lemmas for sums of random matrices due to Ahlswede-Winter, and Oliveira, generalizing various classical results.

  2. Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Moon, Hyung-Mo; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2009-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise as contrast agents for photoacoustic and photothermal imaging of tumours and infections because they offer high resolution and allow deep tissue imaging. However, in vivo applications have been limited by the relatively low absorption displayed by nanotubes at near-infrared wavelengths and concerns over toxicity. Here, we show that gold-plated carbon nanotubes-termed golden carbon nanotubes-can be used as photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents with enhanced near-infrared contrast (~102-fold) for targeting lymphatic vessels in mice using extremely low laser fluence levels of a few mJ cm-2. Antibody-conjugated golden carbon nanotubes were used to map the lymphatic endothelial receptor, and preliminary in vitro viability tests show golden carbon nanotubes have minimal toxicity. This new nanomaterial could be an effective alternative to existing nanoparticles and fluorescent labels for non-invasive targeted imaging of molecular structures in vivo.

  3. The Golden-Thompson inequality --- historical aspects and random matrix applications

    E-print Network

    Peter J. Forrester; Colin J. Thompson

    2014-08-09

    The Golden-Thompson inequality, ${\\rm Tr} \\, (e^{A + B}) \\le {\\rm Tr} \\, (e^A e^B)$ for $A,B$ Hermitian matrices, appeared in independent works by Golden and Thompson published in 1965. Both of these were motivated by considerations in statistical mechanics. In recent years the Golden-Thompson inequality has found applications to random matrix theory. In this survey article we detail some historical aspects relating to Thompson's work, giving in particular an hitherto unpublished proof due to Dyson, and correspondence with P\\'olya. We show too how the $2 \\times 2$ case relates to hyperbolic geometry, and how the original inequality holds true with the trace operation replaced by any unitarily invariant norm. In relation to the random matrix applications, we review its use in the derivation of concentration type lemmas for sums of random matrices due to Ahlswede-Winter, and Oliveira, generalizing various classical results.

  4. Differences Between Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Preference for the Sole Diet That

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Differences Between Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicusMaster University D. DiBattista (2002) reported that hamsters but not rats showed reduced preferences for the sole. The authors found that like golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), rats exhibited reduced preferences

  5. Contributions of Endothermy to Huddling Behavior in Infant Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Syrian Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    E-print Network

    ) and Syrian Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Greta Sokoloff Indiana University Bloomington Mark S. Blumberg University of Iowa Infant Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) do not exhibit endogenous temperatures by huddling. Therefore, the ineffective huddling of infant hamsters may be due to the absence

  6. 76 FR 53424 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Larose to Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Statement for the Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project, Post-Authorization Change Study, in... impact statement (SEIS) for the Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project, Post-Authorization... completion of project features, designed and constructed before development of the post-Katrina Hurricane...

  7. Content-Based Image Retrieval for Digital Forensics Yixin Chen, Vassil Roussev, Golden G. Richard III, Yun Gao

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Content-Based Image Retrieval for Digital Forensics Yixin Chen, Vassil Roussev, Golden G. Richard, vassil, golden, ygao}@cs.uno.edu ABSTRACT Digital forensic investigators are often faced with the task, such as a web hosting service. Current forensic tools are woefully inadequate in facilitating this process

  8. 78 FR 19068 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GOLDEN BOY II; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GOLDEN BOY II... of the vessel GOLDEN BOY II is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Limited charter of passengers...

  9. Analysis of Best Hydraulic Fracturing Practices in the Golden Trend Fields of Oklahoma Shahab D. Mohaghegh, West Virginia University

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Analysis of Best Hydraulic Fracturing Practices in the Golden Trend Fields of Oklahoma Shahab D of optimized hydraulic fracturing procedure. Detail stimulation data from more than 230 wells in the Golden of hydraulic fractures. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the clastic and carbonate formations

  10. 78 FR 77194 - Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading... accurate information concerning the securities of Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc. because it has...

  11. 76 FR 13600 - Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand #3 and #4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Forest Service Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand 3 and 4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations... withdrawing the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for The Golden Hand No. 3 and No. 4 Lode Mining Claims Proposed Plan of Operations. The project included mining operations on the lode claims along...

  12. Interspecific competition and torpor in golden spiny mice: two sides of the energy-acquisition coin.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-09-01

    We studied the occurrence of torpor in golden spiny mice in a hot rocky desert near the Dead Sea. In this rodent assemblage, a congener, the nocturnal common spiny mouse, competitively excluded the golden spiny mouse from the nocturnal part of the diel cycle and forced it into diurnal activity; this temporal partitioning allows the two species to partition their prey populations, particularly in summer when the diet of the two species is comprised mainly of arthropods, and largely overlap. We studied the effect of the presence of the common spiny mice at two resource levels (natural food availability and food added ad libitum) on populations of golden spiny mice in four large outdoor enclosures: two with common spiny mice removed and two enclosures with populations of both species. We hypothesized that with interspecific competition and/or reduced resources, golden spiny mice will increase their use of torpor. As we expected, supplemented food reduced the total time spent torpid. In summer, when the different activity periods of the two species results in prey species partitioning, removal of the congener did not affect torpor in the golden spiny mouse. However, in winter, when insect populations are low and the two species of mice overlap in a largely vegetarian diet, removal of the common spiny mouse reduced torpor in golden spiny mice, whether food was supplemented or not. This result suggests that torpor, a mechanism that allows small mammals to sustain periods of low availability of resources or high energetic requirements, may also help them to tolerate periods of enhanced interspecific competition. This may be a significant short-term mechanism that reduces competition and hence increases fitness, in particular of individuals of the subordinate species whose accessibility to resources may be limited. PMID:21719432

  13. Golden vision: 50 years of East Asian collections at the University of Kansas

    E-print Network

    Doll, Vickie

    2007-10-19

    stream_size 23189 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name DOLL-Golden Vision_50 yrs. KU EA Collection (Berkeley_2007).pdf.txt stream_source_info DOLL-Golden Vision_50 yrs. KU EA Collection (Berkeley_2007).pdf.txt Content...-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Goden Vision: 50 Years of the University of Kansas E. Asian Collection Oct. 19, 2007 University of California, Berkeley Vickie Doll Oct. 19, 2007 1...

  14. Caribou antlers as nest materials for golden eagles in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Bunn, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    There are few published records of antlers in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nests. This note reports extensive use of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) antlers in three golden eagle nests in the Cape Kruzenstern region of northwestern Alaska. The importance of antlers to this population of eagles can be explained at least in part by (1) the lack of suitable woody vegetation on the open tundra, (2) the similarity of antlers to sticks, and (3) the abundance of antlers, especially cow caribou antlers, in the region.

  15. Golden-cheeked warbler males participate in nest-site selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graber, A.E.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Nest-site selection behaviors have rarely been described for songbirds. Furthermore, male involvement in nest-site selection is generally assumed to be minimal among most species, especially those predominantly exhibiting female nest building. This assumption has held true for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia), a breeding resident of central Texas. We observed Golden-cheeked Warbler males and females searching for nest sites together on three separate occasions, 2001-2003. Although rare, such observations add to our knowledge of the life history of songbirds.

  16. Conceptual Sound System Design for Clifford Odets' "GOLDEN BOY"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yen Chun

    There are two different aspects in the process of sound design, "Arts" and "Science". In my opinion, the sound design should engage both aspects strongly and in interaction with each other. I started the process of designing the sound for GOLDEN BOY by building the city soundscape of New York City in 1937. The scenic design for this piece is designed in the round, putting the audience all around the stage; this gave me a great opportunity to use surround and specialization techniques to transform the space into a different sonic world. My specialization design is composed of two subsystems -- one is the four (4) speakers center cluster diffusing towards the four (4) sections of audience, and the other is the four (4) speakers on the four (4) corners of the theatre. The outside ring provides rich sound source localization and the inside ring provides more support for control of the specialization details. In my design four (4) lavalier microphones are hung under the center iron cage from the four (4) corners of the stage. Each microphone is ten (10) feet above the stage. The signal for each microphone is sent to the two (2) center speakers in the cluster diagonally opposite the microphone. With the appropriate level adjustment of the microphones, the audience will not notice the amplification of the voices; however, through my specialization system, the presence and location of the voices of all actors are preserved for all audiences clearly. With such vocal reinforcements provided by the microphones, I no longer need to worry about overwhelming the dialogue on stage by the underscoring. A successful sound system design should not only provide a functional system, but also take the responsibility of bringing actors' voices to the audience and engaging the audience with the world that we create on stage. By designing a system which reinforces the actors' voices while at the same time providing control over localization of movement of sound effects, I was able not only to make the text present and clear for the audiences, but also to support the storyline strongly through my composed music, environmental soundscapes, and underscoring.

  17. Golden-Angle Radial Sparse Parallel MRI: Combination of Compressed Sensing, Parallel Imaging, and Golden-Angle Radial Sampling for Fast and Flexible Dynamic Volumetric MRI

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Grimm, Robert; Block, Kai Tobias; Chandarana, Hersh; Kim, Sungheon; Xu, Jian; Axel, Leon; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Otazo, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a fast and flexible free-breathing dynamic volumetric MRI technique, iterative Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel MRI (iGRASP), that combines compressed sensing, parallel imaging, and golden-angle radial sampling. Methods Radial k-space data are acquired continuously using the golden-angle scheme and sorted into time series by grouping an arbitrary number of consecutive spokes into temporal frames. An iterative reconstruction procedure is then performed on the undersampled time series where joint multicoil sparsity is enforced by applying a total-variation constraint along the temporal dimension. Required coil-sensitivity profiles are obtained from the time-averaged data. Results iGRASP achieved higher acceleration capability than either parallel imaging or coil-by-coil compressed sensing alone. It enabled dynamic volumetric imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution for various clinical applications, including free-breathing dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging in the abdomen of both adult and pediatric patients, and in the breast and neck of adult patients. Conclusion The high performance and flexibility provided by iGRASP can improve clinical studies that require robustness to motion and simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:24142845

  18. Golden Rice Can Provide Vitamin A Effectively as Assessed Using Isotope Reference Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR) is enriched with beta-carotene (beta-C) genetically. To determine its vitamin A value, intrinsically labeled GR was obtained by growing plants in a nutrient solution containing 23% D2O. The GR beta-C was enriched with deuterium with the highest abundance isotopomer peak at M+9. Hea...

  19. 78 FR 69367 - Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit #2 Restart

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Rural Utilities Service Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit 2 Restart AGENCY... operation of Healy Unit 2, a power generation facility at the Healy Power Plant (Healy Plant) in Healy... Power Plant. Details regarding RUS' regulatory authority, rationale for the decision, and...

  20. The Value of Patch-Choice Copying in Fruit Flies Shane Golden, Reuven Dukas*

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    The Value of Patch-Choice Copying in Fruit Flies Shane Golden, Reuven Dukas* Animal Behaviour Group-choice copying in fruit flies. In a titration experiment, we quantified how much nutritional value females were from developing with older larvae. Because patch-choice copying in fruit flies is a robust phenomenon

  1. Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters J hamsters undergoes a transition from play fighting to adult aggression. Repeated exposure to social stress investigated the effects of stress hormones on the matur- ation of agonistic behaviour. Male hamsters were

  2. INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTS OF PROLONGED INHALATION OF NICKEL-ENRICHED FLY ASH IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of 102 Male Syrian Golden hamsters were chronically exposed to approx. 70 micrograms/l respirable Nickel Enriched Fly Ash aerosol (high NEFA group), approx. 17 micrograms/l (low NEFA group), or approx. 70 micrograms/l FA 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 month...

  3. Thermoregulatory Behavior in Infant Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Syrian Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    E-print Network

    Thermoregulatory Behavior in Infant Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and Syrian Golden Hamsters (Rattus norvegicus) and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to thermal stimulation were assessed in 4. In general, hamsters exhibited more rapid and robust responses to thermal stimulation than rats. A framework

  4. ANALYSIS IN BLOOD OF GOLDEN HAMSTER BY NAA FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

    2009-06-03

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  5. Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Repeated Stress during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Hamsters J. C. Wommack,* A. Salinas,* R. H. Melloni Jr, and Y. Delville* *Psychology Department, the consequences of stress are often severe and long lasting. Repeated subjugation in adult male golden hamsters-pubertal changes in stress hormones may explain why juvenile hamsters are more resilient to social stress than

  6. A NEURAL NETWORK UNDERLYING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN EMOTION AND AGGRESSION IN MALE GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    HAMSTERS J. T. DAVID, M. C. CERVANTES, K. A. TROSKY, J. A. SALINAS AND Y. DELVILLE* Psychology Department a common neural network. Male golden hamsters were first screened for offensive aggression. Then. Similar protocols have been used to test behaviors associated with frustration. At first, all hamsters

  7. 78 FR 55093 - Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate....C. 4332(2)(C), the National Park Service (NPS) is releasing a Supplemental Environmental Impact... unacceptable and can not be mitigated; a monitoring-based management strategy measuring compliance in...

  8. Royal and Golden Zest Peaches The Zest peach series is being released by

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Royal and Golden Zest Peaches The Zest peach series is being released by Texas A&M University to provide firm, attractive, yellow-fleshed, high quality peaches for the medium chill zone. These new peach cultivars would supply a series of peaches over 5 weeks from mid May until late July in the medium chill

  9. Golden rice: Development, Nutritional Assessment, and Potential for Alleviating Vitamin A Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR) is a transgenic product engineered to produce beta-carotene in the rice endosperm. It has been developed as a means to combat vitamin A malnutrition, which exists throughout much of the developing world (especially in rice eating populations) and can lead to blindness, increased sus...

  10. 77 FR 55967 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for Texas Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... and Animal Taxa that are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (62 FR... through 2004 (64 FR 57533, October 25, 1999; 66 FR 54808, October 30, 2001; 67 FR 40657, June 13, 2002; and 69 FR 24876, May 4, 2004). A petition to list Texas golden gladecress and the Neches River...

  11. Genetic diversity of a newly established population of golden eagles on the Channel Islands, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Coonan, Timothy J.; Latta, Brian C.; Sage, George K.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene flow can have profound effects on the genetic diversity of a founding population depending on the number and relationship among colonizers and the duration of the colonization event. Here we used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess genetic diversity in golden eagles of the recently colonized Channel Islands, California. Genetic diversity in the Channel Island population was low, similar to signatures observed for other recent colonizing island populations. Differences in levels of genetic diversity and structure observed between mainland California and the islands suggests that few individuals were involved in the initial founding event, and may have comprised a family group. The spatial genetic structure observed between Channel Island and mainland California golden eagle populations across marker types, and genetic signature of population decline observed for the Channel Island population, suggest a single or relatively quick colonization event. Polarity in gene flow estimates based on mtDNA confirm an initial colonization of the Channel Islands by mainland golden eagles, but estimates from microsatellite data suggest that golden eagles on the islands were dispersing more recently to the mainland, possibly after reaching the carrying capacity of the island system. These results illustrate the strength of founding events on the genetic diversity of a population, and confirm that changes to genetic diversity can occur within just a few generations.

  12. 75 FR 66589 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...We are proposing amendments to our rules to implement the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act relating to shareholder approval of executive compensation and ``golden parachute'' compensation arrangements. Section 951 of the Dodd-Frank Act amends the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by adding Section 14A, which requires companies to conduct a separate......

  13. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401

    E-print Network

    the effectiveness of potential energy-saving and comfort-optimization strategies. After using baseline vehicle therNational Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency

  14. Memory Recall and Participation Levels in the Elderly: A Study of Golden Age Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Pamela R.; Whittemore, Margaret P.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve women (mean age 90) in a nursing home listened to Golden Age radio programs and answered trivia questions. Reactions to musical programs showed they encouraged reminiscence; trivia stimulated recall of historical and life events. In contrast, comedy programs evoked little response. (SK)

  15. The Bright Side of Hardness So saying she donned her beautiful, glittering golden{Ambrosial

    E-print Network

    Goldreich, Oded

    Chapter 7 The Bright Side of Hardness So saying she donned her beautiful, glittering golden it means that we cannot do things we wish to do. But these bad news have a positive side, because hard problem can be \\put to work" to our bene t, most notably in cryptography. It seems that utilizing hard

  16. A Short History of the Fibonacci and Golden Numbers with Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a brief history of Fibonacci's life and career. It includes Fibonacci's major mathematical discoveries to establish that he was undoubtedly one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the Medieval Period. Special attention is given to the Fibonacci numbers, the golden number and the Lucas numbers and their fundamental…

  17. Bluepipe: A Scalable Architecture for On-the-Spot Digital Forensics Golden G. Richard III

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Bluepipe: A Scalable Architecture for On-the-Spot Digital Forensics Yun Gao Golden G. Richard III}@cs.uno.edu Abstract Traditional digital forensics methods are based on the in-depth examination of computer systems motivate the need for on-the-spot digital forensics tools that supplement lab meth- ods and discuss

  18. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  19. BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET (ZIMMERIUS CHRYSOPS) IN VENEZUELA

    E-print Network

    Martin, Thomas E.

    BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET (ZIMMERIUS CHRYSOPS) IN VENEZUELA WILLIAM GOULDING1 Park, Venezuela during the 2002 to 2008 breeding seasons. The enclosed nest was similar to descriptions, it is broadly distributed with a range that extends from Peru, north through the Andes to Colombia and Venezuela

  20. An Interview with Larry Golden: Long-Time Marriage and Family Counselor and Counselor Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Yu, Fangzhou

    2010-01-01

    Larry Golden started the marriage and family therapy program at Our Lady of the Lake University and was founding chair of the Department of Counseling at the University of Texas at San Antonio. He has contributed substantially to the literature in marriage and family counseling. This interview secured his unique perspective on developments in the…

  1. A review of "Dutch Culture in the Golden Age" by J. L. Price 

    E-print Network

    Cruz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    of historian as voyeur (in the sense of observer) rather than judge. J. L. Price. Dutch Culture in the Golden Age. London: Reaktion Press, 2011. 286 pp. + 32 illus. $39.95. Review by ?? ? ? ", ????? ? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? ? ??. In 1974, J.L. Price published...

  2. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  3. Patterns of urinary oestrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    Patterns of urinary oestrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) J (Leontopithecus rosalia) over a period of 3 or more months, and urinary oestrogen con- centrations were determined was the predominant urinary oestrogen excreted by female lion tamarins. Enzyme hydrolysis with Helix pomatia \\g

  4. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. 622.17 Section 622.17 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.17...

  5. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... mitigate overages of the ACL if they occur. On December 30, 2010, NMFS issued a final rule (75 FR 82280) to... sector. This action is necessary to reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic golden tilefish resource...-Stevens Act implemented new requirements that ACLs and AMs be established to end overfishing and...

  6. Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: How exotic species turn native predators into prey

    E-print Network

    Courchamp, Franck

    Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: How exotic species turn native predators of an island food web, including the near extinction of an endemic carnivore. Introduced pigs, by providing with community-level conse- quences are less well documented (4, 5). Select plant species provide the best

  7. 78 FR 55093 - Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...PWR-PWRO-12232: PPWONRADE2- PMP00EI05.YP0000] Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental...Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Plan/SEIS), Golden...Recreation Area (GGNRA), California. Current dog management in the park is based on a...

  8. 76 FR 22917 - Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...NPS-PWR-PWRO--0315-696; 8145-8B90-SZM] Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact...for Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...National Park Service has prepared a Draft Dog Management Plan and Environmental...

  9. 76 FR 3652 - Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...National Park Service [8145-8B90-SZM] Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Draft Plan/EIS),...

  10. CORTISOL RESPONSE OF GOLDEN SHINERS NOTEMIGONUS CRYSOLEUCAS FED DIETS DIFFERING IN LIPID CONTENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) is the predominant fish species raised for bait for recreational fishing in the US. Baitfish are marketed as live products, and they undergo frequent handling during production and transport to distribution points. Nutritional enhancement of stress resista...

  11. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, Carol L.; Adams, Layne G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare( Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lugopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  12. July 1984 No.8 Newsletter of the Indian Academy of Sciences Golden Jubilee

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shiv K.

    distinguished scientists from abroad, who will be giving lectures in the various symposia. Prof. S Chandrasekhar: Chowdaiah Memorial Hall Inaugural Function Presidential address Golden Jubilee Lecture by S Chandrasekhar Hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystals- S Chandrasekhar Excursions into multiphase reactions- MM Sharma

  13. Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Christine Archer; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the environmental education program of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association in Brazil by comparing results of a 2001 survey with baseline data from 1986. Responses of 666 residents and results from 4 focus groups revealed an increase in public support for the tamarin and its habitat and an increase in general environmental…

  14. First identification of Trichinella sp. in golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Blaga, R; Gherman, C; Seucom, D; Cozma, V; Boireau, P

    2008-04-01

    Larvae of Trichinella sp. were identified in a golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Romania by both trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. The larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction biotyping method. This is the first report of Trichinella sp. in a jackal in Romania. PMID:18436679

  15. Evolution of metal pollution in the golden horn (Turkey) sediments between 1912 and 1987.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, G; Tuncel, G; Balkas, T I

    2001-05-01

    The Golden Horn is a heavily polluted water body in a large metropolitan area with a population of approximately 10 million. A 3-m long undisturbed core sample was collected in the Golden Horn, from research vessel RV Knorr, during the third leg of the joint Turkish--American Black Sea expedition in 1989. The core was sliced and dated using the 210Pb isotope technique. The bottom of the core corresponds to the year 1912. Each slice was analysed for major, minor and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). The masses of the measured elements can account for approximately half of the sediment mass. The lithophilic elements Li, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Ba, Al, La, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni account for more than 90% of the elemental mass and do not show any change in their concentrations between 1912 and 1987. Although anthropogenic elements Mo, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ag, and Cd account for a minute fraction of the elemental mass, their concentrations increase along the core, signifying human influence on chemical composition of the Golden Horn Sediments. Lead was enriched at the bottom of the core suggesting pollution of Golden Horn sediments by this element even at the beginning of the century, but observed concentrations of the remaining anthropogenic elements, at the bottom of the core, can be explained by sedimentary material. Concentrations of pollution-derived elements do not change significantly between 1912 and 1950, but their concentrations increase sharply in the second half of the century. A factor analysis applied to the data set has shown that the inorganic fraction of the Golden Horn sediments includes crustal, marine and two anthropogenic components. One of the anthropogenic components is attributed to the discharges from an iron and steel plant. The second anthropogenic component, which accounted for a larger fraction of system variance, is due to discharges from industries, particularly metalwork plants. PMID:11436815

  16. Golden Sections of Interatomic Distances as Exact Ionic Radii and Additivity of Atomic and Ionic Radii in Chemical Bonds

    E-print Network

    Raji Heyrovska

    2009-02-06

    The Golden ratio which appears in the geometry of a variety of creations in Nature is found to arise right in the Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom due to the opposite charges of the electron and proton. The bond length of the hydrogen molecule is the diagonal of a square on the Bohr radius and hence also has two Golden sections, which form the cationic and anionic radii of hydrogen. It is shown here that these radii account for the bond lengths of many hydrides when added to the atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii of many other atoms.

  17. Oral Probiotic Microcapsule Formulation Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Bio F1B Golden Syrian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Bhathena, Jasmine; Martoni, Christopher; Kulamarva, Arun; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Paul, Arghya; Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Prakash, Satya

    2013-03-12

    The beneficial effect of a microencapsulated feruloyl esterase producing Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11976 formulation for use in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was investigated. For which Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a...

  18. Curriculum development of a wildlife habitat gardening Golden Ray Series [sm] for the Junior Master Gardener [sm] Program 

    E-print Network

    Meche, Michelle S

    2001-01-01

    Development of the Backyard Buddies Golden Ray Series curriculum for the Junior Master Gardener Program is a labor-intensive and ongoing project requiring consideration of numerous factors relating not only to the habitat gardening subject matter...

  19. 76 FR 31920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... interactions are not as common in this region. Deforestation events have increased in golden-winged warbler... by increasing deforestation and migrating individuals are impacted by the increasing number...

  20. Floods, Worms, and Cattle Plague: Nature-induced Disaster at the Closing of the Dutch Golden Age, 1672-1764

    E-print Network

    Sundberg, Adam David

    2015-05-31

    The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic was waning by the end of the seventeenth century. The dramatic economic growth and cultural efflorescence that had defined this era was stagnant. The catastrophic "disaster year" of ...

  1. Sepia : semantic parsing for named entities

    E-print Network

    Marton, Gregory A. (Gregory Adam), 1977-

    2004-01-01

    People's names, dates, locations, organizations, and various numeric expressions, collectively called Named Entities, are used to convey specific meanings to humans in the same way that identifiers and constants convey ...

  2. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  3. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. PMID:25064267

  4. Icosahedral (A5) Family Symmetry and the Golden Ratio Prediction for Solar Neutrino Mixing

    E-print Network

    Everett, Lisa L

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of using icosahedral symmetry as a family symmetry group in the lepton sector. The rotational icosahedral group, which is isomorphic to A5, the alternating group of five elements, provides a natural context in which to explore (among other possibilities) the intriguing hypothesis that the solar neutrino mixing angle is governed by the golden ratio. We present a basic toolbox for model-building using icosahedral symmetry, including explicit representation matrices and tensor product rules. As a simple application, we construct a minimal model at tree level in which the solar angle is related to the golden ratio, the atmospheric angle is maximal, and the reactor angle vanishes to leading order. The approach provides a rich setting in which to investigate the flavor puzzle of the Standard Model.

  5. Origin of the black-golden transition in Sm1-xYxS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Keiichiro; Saito, Mai; Kaneko, Masaki; Ito, Takahiro; Hajiri, Tetsuya; Matsunami, Masaharu; Kimura, Shin-ichi; Deguchi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S.; Sato, Noriaki K.

    2015-03-01

    We report angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements on Sm1-xYxS. At the smallest doping concentration x = 0.03, the system changes from a semiconducting to metallic conductivity, whereas it is at a critical concentration xc ? 0.19 that there occurs the volume collapse accompanied by a color change from black to golden. It appears that the band gap between 4f and 5d bands vanishes at xc. From these results, we suggest that the black-to-golden transition of Sm1-xYxS has the same mechanism as the pressure-induced valence transition of SmS, but the semiconductor-to-metal transition has a different origin for Sm1-xYxS and SmS.

  6. Genomics into Healthcare: The 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Fortina, Paolo; AlKhaja, Najib; Al Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Nair, Pratibha; Innocenti, Federico; Patrinos, George P.; Kricka, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The joint 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium, “Genomics into Healthcare” was coorganized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in collaboration with the Golden Helix Foundation (http://www.goldenhelix.org) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 17 to 19 November, 2013. The meeting was attended by over 900 participants, doctors and biomedical students from over 50 countries and was organized into a series of nine themed sessions that covered cancer genomics and epigenetics, genomic and epigenetic studies, genomics of blood and metabolic disorders, cytogenetic diagnosis and molecular profiling, next-generation sequencing, consanguinity and hereditary diseases, clinical genomics, clinical applications of pharmacogenomics, and genomics in public health. PMID:24526565

  7. Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.

    PubMed

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

    2013-10-18

    Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

  8. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    ?irovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  9. [Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region. PMID:21874583

  10. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirovi?, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce genotoxicity but not mutagenicity in golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei.

    PubMed

    Girardello, Francine; Custódio Leite, Camila; Vianna Villela, Izabel; da Silva Machado, Miriana; Luiz Mendes Juchem, André; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Neves Fernandes, Andreia; Salvador, Mirian; Antonio Pêgas Henriques, João

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) in consumer products is the cause of its appearance in wastewater and effluents, reaching the aquatic environment. The evaluation of the biological impact of TiO2-NP and the need to understand its ecotoxicological impact to the aquatic ecosystem are of major concern. Bivalve mollusks may represent a target group for nanoparticle toxicity. Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel), a freshwater bivalve organism that has been employed in biomonitoring environmental conditions. Comet assay, micronucleus test and oxidative damage to lipids and proteins were performed after the golden mussel was exposed to TiO2-NP (1, 5, 10 and 50?gmL(-1)). The results demonstrate that TiO2-NP can damage the DNA of haemocytes after 2h of exposure and the genotoxic activity significantly increased after 4h exposure to TiO2-NP, at all the TiO2-NP concentrations. TiO2-NP was ineffective in causing mutagenicity in the haemolymph cells of golden mussel. The increase in the lipid peroxidation levels and carbonyl proteins after the exposure to TiO2-NP indicates the induction of oxidative stress at 2h exposure with similar results to all TiO2-NP concentrations, but these effects did not occur at 4h exposure. These results demonstrated that, although TiO2-NP is not mutagenic to golden mussel, it does induce DNA damage and oxidative stress in these organisms. PMID:26675368

  12. Perturbation expansion and Nth order Fermi golden rule of the nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Gang

    2007-05-15

    In this paper we consider generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equations with external potentials. We find the expressions for the fourth and the sixth order Fermi golden rules (FGRs), conjectured in Gang and Sigal [Rev. Math. Phys. 17, 1143-1207 (2005); Geom. Funct. Anal. 16, No. 7, 1377-1390 (2006)]. The FGR is a key condition in a study of the asymptotic dynamics of trapped solitons.

  13. Improved Coagulation and Blood Conservation in the Golden Hours After Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Scott R.; Carlile, Dee; Bissinger, Randall C.; Burrell, M.; Winkler, Thomas; Shely, William W.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The Hemobag (HB) technique allows the open-heart team to safely concentrate the residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit contents and return a high volume of concentrated clotting factors and blood cells back to the patient as autotransfusion. Hematocrit, platelet count, fibrinogen concentration ([Fib]), prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) were compared between two prospective convenience groups of cardiac surgical patients whose residual circuit blood was processed by the HB (n = 10) or by the Cell Saver (CS; n = 10) at two times after CPB: (a) after acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) infusion and protamine administration and (b) after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), ?1 hour after CPB and HB content infusion. Minimal cell processing was also used in the HB patients to conserve blood. “Golden hours” is defined as the first few hours after CPB and protamine sulfate administration and extend into the ICU, when maintaining hemostasis is vital during cardiac surgery and is the most susceptible period for blood product administration and the opportunity to improve patient outcome. Except for PTT, all parameters changed significantly from the ANH infusion and protamine administration to ?1 hour after HB blood infusion and arrival in the ICU. Fibrinogen (p = .048) and hematocrit (p = .046) were significantly higher in the HB group compared with the CS group at the end of the golden hour despite infusion of significantly more allogeneic blood products (p = .070) and more washed red blood cells (RBCs; p = .001) in the CS group. All but one of the HB patients did not receive any allogeneic blood products during the golden hours. Use of the HB technique for salvaging blood is associated with significant increases in the patient’s protein and cellular concentrations and lowered coagulation times in the important, first few golden hours after CPB, and except for one patient, without the addition of expensive and precarious allogeneic blood products. PMID:17672193

  14. Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Whittingham, M J

    2005-04-01

    Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of their adult tipulid prey, to assess the potential for climate change to disrupt breeding performance. Golden plover first-laying dates were negatively correlated with both March and April temperature, the mean laying date of first clutches was additionally negatively correlated with March rainfall. The timing of final laying dates were negatively correlated with April temperature only. The timing of tipulid emergence was negatively correlated with May temperature. In combination with historical climatic data, these models suggest a 9-day advancement of golden plover first-laying dates occurred during the 1990s, although this remains within the range of natural variation for the twentieth century. The magnitudes of predicted changes in mean and final laying dates, and the timing of tipulid emergence, were smaller. Climate predictions for 2070-2099 suggest potential advances in first-laying dates by 25 days, whilst the timings of mean and final laying dates are predicted to change by 18 days and 13 days, and tipulid emergence by 12 days. Given the importance of adult tipulids to young golden plover chicks, these changes may result in a mismatch between the timing of first-laying dates and tipulid emergence, so reducing the success of early breeding attempts. Modelling suggests that these changes could reduce breeding success in a South Pennines population by about 11%. PMID:15685442

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Laura; Crook, David; Saunders, Thor; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    We describe the complete mitochondrial genome of the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii. It was assembled from approximately 1.4 million reads produced by Ion Torrent next generation sequencing. The complete genome was 16,596?bp in length consisting of 13 protein-coding regions, 22 tRNA, 12S and 16S rRNA as well as two non-coding regions. The A+T base content (52.8%) is similar to other teleosts. PMID:24845443

  16. 75 FR 27432 - Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing temporary security zones on the navigable waters of the San Francisco Bay in support of Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise. These temporary security zones are necessary to provide for the safety of the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Project participants, U.S. Coast Guard, local law enforcement, their crews, and the public during the statewide port security full......

  17. [Morphological and functional modifications of the acoustic system in golden hamsters with acoustic generalized epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Sanz, F; Gil-Carcedo, L M; Gómez, P

    1994-01-01

    We studied the role of the neuronal circuit consisting of the superior olive-cochlear hair cells-auditory nerve complex in the pathophysiology of reflex audiogenic generalized epilepsy in the epileptic golden hamster. A direct role of the auditory function can be assumed from the genetic lesions found in these animals' acoustic system. These animals are a model of the anatomopathologic substrate of a type of hereditary neurosensorial hypoacusia. PMID:8204296

  18. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... follows: (i) Northern zone—the South Atlantic EEZ north of 28° N. lat. (ii) Middle zone—the South Atlantic... this section. A vessel with a permit to fish for golden crab in the northern zone or the middle zone... by 24°07? N. lat., on the east by 81°22? W. long., and on the west by 81°56? W. long. No vessel...

  19. RESPONSES OF 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS' APPLES TO 1-MCP APPLIED IN AIR AND WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Golden Delciuous' [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]apple fruit were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 0.42, 4.2 or 42 mmol m**-3 in air at 20 deg C or 0.03, 0.3 or 3 mmol m**-3 in 20 deg C water. Fruit were held in air at 20 deg C for 25 days after treatment or stored at ...

  20. Effects of Tree Species Composition and Foraging Effort on the Productivity of Golden-Cheeked Warblers 

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Mike E.

    2012-07-16

    events (Wunderground.com). These inter-annual differences in temperature and precipitation patterns could be important in that they could be playing a significant role in driving inter-annual differences in arthropod and foraging patterns, which... in turn could be driving inter-annual differences in avian productivity. Figure 1. Mean monthly and mean annual temperature during the golden-cheeked warbler breeding season for the Killeen/Fort Hood area in central Texas during 2009 and 2010...

  1. Complex periodic orbits, renormalization, and scaling for quasiperiodic golden-mean transition to chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivankov, Nikolai Yu.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2001-04-01

    At the critical point of the golden-mean quasiperiodic transition to chaos we show the presence of an infinite sequence of unstable orbits in complex domain with periods given by the Fibonacci numbers. The Floquet eigenvalues (multipliers) are found to converge fast to a universal complex constant. We explain this result on the basis of the renormalization group approach and suggest using it for accurate estimates of the location of the golden-mean critical points in parameter space for a class of nonlinear dissipative systems defined analytically. As an example, we obtain data for the golden-mean critical point in the two-dimensional dissipative invertible map of Zaslavsky. We give a set of graphical illustrations for the scaling properties and emphasize that demonstration of self-similarity on two-dimensional diagrams of Arnold tongues requires the use of a properly chosen curvilinear coordinate system. We discuss a procedure of construction of the appropriate local coordinate system in the parameter plane and present the corresponding data for the circle map and Zaslavsky map.

  2. Complex periodic orbits, renormalization, and scaling for quasiperiodic golden-mean transition to chaos.

    PubMed

    Ivankov, N Y; Kuznetsov, S P

    2001-04-01

    At the critical point of the golden-mean quasiperiodic transition to chaos we show the presence of an infinite sequence of unstable orbits in complex domain with periods given by the Fibonacci numbers. The Floquet eigenvalues (multipliers) are found to converge fast to a universal complex constant. We explain this result on the basis of the renormalization group approach and suggest using it for accurate estimates of the location of the golden-mean critical points in parameter space for a class of nonlinear dissipative systems defined analytically. As an example, we obtain data for the golden-mean critical point in the two-dimensional dissipative invertible map of Zaslavsky. We give a set of graphical illustrations for the scaling properties and emphasize that demonstration of self-similarity on two-dimensional diagrams of Arnold tongues requires the use of a properly chosen curvilinear coordinate system. We discuss a procedure of construction of the appropriate local coordinate system in the parameter plane and present the corresponding data for the circle map and Zaslavsky map. PMID:11308933

  3. Thioredoxin of golden pompano involved in the immune response to Photobacterium damselae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Zhang, Nan; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhang, Dianchang

    2015-08-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is one of the key systems responsible for keeping the intracellular environment in a highly reduced state. In this study, a full-length TRX cDNA sequence (ToTRX) from golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus was identified after pyrosequencing of golden pompano cDNA library. ToTRX cDNA is comprised of 786 bp, and contained a 324 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 107 amino acid polypeptide, a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 116 bp, and a long 3'- UTR of 346 bp. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that ToTRX contained the highly conserved redox active disulphide/dithiol site (CGPC) of the thioredoxin active family, and phylogenetic tree showed that ToTRX had a closer evolution relationship with TRX from Oplegnathus fasciatus and Anoplopoma fimbria. ToTRX mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissues with the higher expression levels in the stomach, gill and fin tissues. The expression of ToTRX mRNA was significantly up-regulated in liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of golden pompano injected with Photobacterium damselae. The recombinant ToTRX protein (rToTRX) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then purified and refolded. The insulin disulfides assay was performed to investigate the enzymatic oxidoreductase activity of rToTRX, and the results demonstrated that rToTRX exhibited a high reducing activity in presence of DTT, while no activity was observed in the regroup without DTT and blank control group. Over all, the study provided the useful information to help further understand the functional mechanism of TRX in marine fish immunity. PMID:26052015

  4. Vomeronasal organ lesion disrupts social odor recognition, behaviors and fitness in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Jinhua; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhang, Jianxu

    2014-06-01

    Most studies support the viewpoint that the vomeronasal organ has a profound effect on conspecific odor recognition, scent marking and mating behavior in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in social odor recognition, social interaction and fitness is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a series of behavioral and physiological tests to examine the referred points in golden hamster. We found that male hamsters with vomeronasal organ lesion showed no preference between a predator odor (the anal gland secretion of the Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) and putative female pheromone components (myristic acid and palmitic acid), but were still able to discriminate between these 2 kinds of odors. In behavioral tests of anxiety, we found that vomeronasal organ removal causes female hamsters to spend much less time in center grids and to cross fewer center grids and males to make fewer crossings between light and dark boxes than sham-operated controls. This indicates that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion induced anxious responses in females. In aggressive behavioral tests, we found that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion decreased agonistic behavior in female hamsters but not in males. The pup growth and litter size show no differences between the 2 groups. All together, our data suggested that vomeronasal organ ablation disrupted the olfactory recognition of social chemosignals in males, and induced anxiety-like and aggressive behavior changes in females. However, a vomeronasal organ lesion did not affect the reproductive capacity and fitness of hamsters. Our studies may have important implications concerning the role of the vomeronasal organ in golden hamsters and also in rodents. PMID:24952966

  5. Denovo assembly and characterization of tissue-specific transcriptome in the endangered golden mahseer, Tor putitora

    PubMed Central

    Barat, Ashoktaru; Kumar, Rohit; Goel, Chirag; Singh, Atul Kumar; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari

    2015-01-01

    The golden mahseer (Tor putitora) graces most of the Himalayan Rivers of India and neighboring South Asian countries. Despite its several importance as a research model, as food, and in sport fishing, knowledge on transcriptome database is nil. Therefore, it was targeted to develop reference transcriptome databases of the species using next-generation sequencing. In the present study, 100,540,130 high-quality paired-end reads were obtained from six cDNA libraries of spleen, liver, gill, kidney, muscle, and brain with 28.4 GB data using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Tissue-specific transcriptomes as well as complete transcriptome assembly were analyzed for concise representation of the study. In brief, the de novo assembly of individual tissue resulted in an average of 31,829 (18,512–46,348) contigs per sample, while combined transcriptome comprised 77,907 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) assembled from reads of six tissues. Approximately 75,407 (96.8%) unigenes could be annotated according to their homology matches in the nr, SwisseProt, GO, or KEGG databases. Comparative analysis showed that 84% of the unigenes have significant similarity to zebra fish RefSeq proteins. Tissue-specific-dominated genes were also identified to hypothesize their localization and expression in individual tissue. In addition, 2485 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected from 77,907 transcripts in the combined transcriptome of the golden mahseer. This study has generated organ-specific transcriptome profiles, which will be helpful to understand the local adaptation, genome evolution, and also future functional studies on immune system of the golden mahseer. PMID:26702399

  6. CPV Cell Characterization Following One-Year Exposure in Golden, Colorado: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-08-01

    A CPV module containing 30 III-V multijunction cells was operated on?sun for one year in Golden, Colorado. Each cell was characterized prior to and following exposure. A module power degradation of 10% was observed and found to be a result as an overall decrease in cell short circuit current and the presence of at least one shunted cell. A positive correlation between initial shunt current and an increase in shunt current following exposure was also found. Cell exfoliation was also observed and found to be coincident with the presence of water and/or charring of the cell package due to an off-sun event.

  7. Lead contamination of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos within the range of the California condor Gymnogyps californianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloom, P.H.; Scott, J.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Smith, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 66 golden eagles from June 1985 to January 1986 and analyzed for their lead content. Thirty-nine percent had blood lead levels greater than 0.2 ppm, indicating exposure to environmental lead. Within the exposed group, 3 had blood levels exceeding 0.6 ppm and one exceeded 1.0 ppm. These data suggest that lead, probably in the form of shot, bullets, or bullet fragments, poses a hazard to scavenging birds within the range of the California condor.

  8. Golden mean renormalization for a generalized Harper equation: The Ketoja-Satija orchid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestel, B. D.; Osbaldestin, A. H.

    2004-12-01

    We provide a rigorous analysis of the fluctuations of localized eigenstates in a generalized Harper equation with golden mean flux and with next-nearest-neighbor interactions. For next-nearest-neighbor interaction above a critical threshold, these self-similar fluctuations are characterized by orbits of a renormalization operator on a universal strange attractor, whose projection was dubbed the "orchid" by Ketoja and Satija [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2762 (1995)]. We show that the attractor is given essentially by an embedding of a subshift of finite type, and give a description of its periodic orbits.

  9. The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, J B

    1995-07-01

    The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.

  10. First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country. PMID:24985073

  11. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    PubMed

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-01

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

  12. Aqui y Alla (Here and There) Information-Based Learning Corridors between Tennessee and Puerto Rico: The Five Golden Rules in Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Bharat; Allard, Suzie; Qayyum, M. Asim; Barclay-McLaughlin, Gina

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes five information-based Golden Rules in intercultural education that represent a holistic approach to creating learning corridors across geographically dispersed academic communities. The Golden Rules are generated through qualitative analysis, grounded theory application, reflective practice, and critical research to…

  13. ESA Centennial Paper The golden age of bio-logging: how animal-borne sensors are advancing the frontiers of ecology

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    the physiological performance, energetics, foraging, migration, habitat selection, and sociality of wild animalsESA Centennial Paper The golden age of bio-logging: how animal-borne sensors are advancing. 1741­1753 Ó 2015 by the Ecological Society of America The golden age of bio-logging: how animal

  14. Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Cikanek, Shawna; Savage, Anna E; Mattheus, Nichole; Santiago, Celina N; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N; Belden, Lisa K; Gratwicke, Brian

    2015-04-22

    Symbiotic microbes can dramatically impact host health and fitness, and recent research in a diversity of systems suggests that different symbiont community structures may result in distinct outcomes for the host. In amphibians, some symbiotic skin bacteria produce metabolites that inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a cutaneous fungal pathogen that has caused many amphibian population declines and extinctions. Treatment with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) prevents Bd infection in some amphibian species and creates optimism for conservation of species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Bd. In a laboratory experiment, we used Bd-inhibitory bacteria from Bd-tolerant Panamanian amphibians in a probiotic development trial with Panamanian golden frogs, Atelopus zeteki, a species currently surviving only in captive assurance colonies. Approximately 30% of infected golden frogs survived Bd exposure by either clearing infection or maintaining low Bd loads, but this was not associated with probiotic treatment. Survival was instead related to initial composition of the skin bacterial community and metabolites present on the skin. These results suggest a strong link between the structure of these symbiotic microbial communities and amphibian host health in the face of Bd exposure and also suggest a new approach for developing amphibian probiotics. PMID:25788591

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL EJACULATES AND SPERM CRYOPRESERVATION IN A GOLDEN EAGLE (AQUILA CHRYSAETUS).

    PubMed

    Villaverde-Morcillo, Silvia; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Castaño, Cristina; Rodríguez, Eduar; Gonzalez, Fernando; Esteso, Milagros; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the sperm characteristics and response to cooling and freezing of naturally ejaculated semen from a captive, adult golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetus) trained to allow sperm recovery via cooperative copulation. A basic spermiogram was prepared, and sperm motility and morphometric variables recorded using a computer-aided system. For sperm storage, the effects of a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based extender were evaluated at 5°C. The same extender was also used in freezing procedures in which glycerol (11%) and dimethylacetamide (6%) were compared as cryoprotectants. The extender preserved sperm viability over storage periods of up to 6 days. Although sperm motility and percentage live sperm values were poorer for frozen-thawed (5.8-14.6% and 44-42%, respectively) than for fresh samples (46.7 and 74.6%, respectively), no differences were seen between the effects of the two cryoprotectants. These results could be of use when attempting to store the sperm of golden eagles and other raptors. PMID:26056889

  16. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study: establishing an observational cohort study with translational relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Michael K.; Page, Rodney L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Olson, Patricia N.; Haworth, J. David; Searfoss, Erin E.; Brown, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study (GRLS) is the first prospective longitudinal study attempted in veterinary medicine to identify the major dietary, genetic and environmental risk factors for cancer and other important diseases in dogs. The GRLS is an observational study that will follow a cohort of 3000 purebred Golden Retrievers throughout their lives via annual online questionnaires from the dog owner and annual physical examinations and collection of biological samples by the primary care veterinarian. The field of comparative medicine investigating naturally occurring disorders in pets is specifically relevant to the many diseases that have a genetic basis for disease in both animals and humans, including cancer, blindness, metabolic and behavioural disorders and some neurodegenerative disorders. The opportunity for the GRLS to provide high-quality data for translational comparative medical initiatives in several disease categories is great. In particular, the opportunity to develop a lifetime dataset of lifestyle and activity, environmental exposure and diet history combined with simultaneous annual biological sample sets and detailed health outcomes will provide disease incidence data for this cohort of geographically dispersed dogs and associations with a wide variety of potential risk factors. The GRLS will provide a lifetime historical context, repeated biological sample sets and outcomes necessary to interrogate complex associations between genes and environmental influences and cancer. PMID:26056371

  17. Predators as prey at a Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos eyrie in Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Tsengeg, P.; Whitlock, P.; Ellis, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Although golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) have for decades been known to occasionally take large or dangerous quarry, the capturing of such was generally believed to be rare and/or the act of starved birds. This report provides details of an exceptional diet at a golden eagle eyrie in eastern Mongolia with unquantified notes on the occurrence of foxes at other eyries in Mongolia. Most of the prey we recorded were unusual, including 1 raven (Corvus corax), 3 demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), 1 upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), 3 owls, 27 foxes, and 11 Mongolian gazelles. Some numerical comparisons are of interest. Our value for gazelle calves (10 minimum count, 1997) represents 13% of 78 prey items and at least one adult was also present. Our total of only 15 hares (Lepus tolai) and 4 marmots (Marmota sibirica) compared to 27 foxes suggests not so much a preference for foxes, but rather that populations of more normal prey were probably depressed at this site. Unusual prey represented 65% of the diet at this eyrie.

  18. Running-wheel activity and body composition in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Gattermann, Rolf; Weinandy, René; Fritzsche, Peter

    2004-09-15

    Running wheels are frequently used in behavioural and physiological experiments. The function of wheel-running activity in laboratory animals is controversial. In the present long-term study, the influence of this activity was evaluated in male golden hamsters over a period of 52 weeks. Four months after the start of the experiment, hamsters with access to running wheels were significantly heavier than those without these wheels. In addition, food consumption nearly doubled. The absolute values of fat-free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and crude fat mass (CFM) increased. However, in contrast to these absolute differences, the relative values were never different and general body composition was therefore unaffected by running-wheel activity. Different organ masses were established for absolute values of kidneys, testes and epididymis; possible effects on reproduction are discussed. The present data indicating improved physical condition leads to the assumption that a running wheel is a useful enrichment, enhancing animal welfare in the golden hamster. PMID:15276820

  19. Proposed standard-weight (W(s)) equations for kokanee, golden trout and bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyatt, M.H.; Hubert, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    We developed standard-weight (W(s)) equations for kokanee (lacustrine Oncorhynchus nerka), golden trout (O. aguabonita), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) using the regression-line-percentile technique. The W(s) equation for kokanee of 120-550 mm TL is log10 W(s) = -5.062 + 3.033 log10 TL, when W(s) is in grams and TL is total length in millimeters; the English-unit equivalent is log10 W(s) = -3.458 + 3.033 log10 TL, when W(s) is in pounds and TL is total length in inches. The W(s) equation for golden trout of 120-530 mm TL is log10 W(s) = -5.088 + 3.041 log10 TL, with the English-unit equivalent being log10 W(s) = -3.473 + 3.041 log10 TL. The W(s) equation for bull trout of 120-850 mm TL is log10 W(s) = -5.327 + 3.115 log10 TL, with the English-unit equivalent being log10 W(s) = -3.608 + 3.115 log10 TL.

  20. Phenotyping of aggressive behavior in golden retriever dogs with a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, L; Schilder, M B H; de Vries, H; Leegwater, P A J; van Oost, B A

    2006-11-01

    Reliable and valid phenotyping is crucial for our study of genetic factors underlying aggression in Golden Retriever dogs. A mail questionnaire based on the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (CBARQ; Hsu and Serpell, 2003, JAVMA 223(9):1293-1300) was used to assess behavioral phenotypes. Owners of 228 Golden Retrievers completed the questionnaire. These dogs had been referred to our clinic for aggression problems several years earlier or they were related to aggressive dogs. In this paper, three sets of results are presented, which indicate that behavior scores from the CBARQ can be applied to genetic studies. First, factor analysis demonstrated that CBARQ items can be grouped into 10 behavioral traits, including three types of aggression: stranger-directed aggression, owner-directed aggression, and dog-directed aggression. The results were remarkably similar to those reported by Hsu and Serpell. The aggression scores showed considerable variation in our dog families, which is a prerequisite for genetic studies. Second, retrospective questions enabled us to study changes in the aggressive behavior of the dogs in the course of time. After an average time interval of 4.3 years, over 50% of the dogs had become less aggressive. Third, we analyzed data obtained with an aggression test of 83 dogs. Two out of the three CBARQ aggression factors were also found in the aggression test data. PMID:16799833

  1. GoldenBraid: An Iterative Cloning System for Standardized Assembly of Reusable Genetic Modules

    PubMed Central

    Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Falconi, Erica Elvira; Zandalinas, Sara I.; Juárez, Paloma; Fernández-del-Carmen, Asun; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic Biology requires efficient and versatile DNA assembly systems to facilitate the building of new genetic modules/pathways from basic DNA parts in a standardized way. Here we present GoldenBraid (GB), a standardized assembly system based on type IIS restriction enzymes that allows the indefinite growth of reusable gene modules made of standardized DNA pieces. The GB system consists of a set of four destination plasmids (pDGBs) designed to incorporate multipartite assemblies made of standard DNA parts and to combine them binarily to build increasingly complex multigene constructs. The relative position of type IIS restriction sites inside pDGB vectors introduces a double loop (“braid”) topology in the cloning strategy that allows the indefinite growth of composite parts through the succession of iterative assembling steps, while the overall simplicity of the system is maintained. We propose the use of GoldenBraid as an assembly standard for Plant Synthetic Biology. For this purpose we have GB-adapted a set of binary plasmids for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Fast GB-engineering of several multigene T-DNAs, including two alternative modules made of five reusable devices each, and comprising a total of 19 basic parts are also described. PMID:21750718

  2. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    PubMed

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition. PMID:26552261

  3. Functional Integral Representations and Golden-Thompson Inequalities in Boson-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Asao

    2013-09-01

    For a general class of boson-fermion Hamiltonians H acting in the tensor product Hilbert space L2(?n) ? ?(?r) of L2(?n) and the fermion Fock space ?(?r) over ?r(n, r ? ?), we establish, in terms of an n-dimensional conditional oscillator measure, a functional integral representation for the trace Tr(F ? zNfe-tH)(F ? L?(?n), z ? ??{0}, t > 0), where Nf is the fermion number operator on ?(?r). We prove a Golden-Thompson type inequality for |Tr(F ? zNfe-tH)|. Also we discuss applications to a model in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and present an improved version of the Golden-Thompson inequality in supersymmetric quantum mechanics given by Klimek and Lesniewski ([Lett. Math. Phys.21 (1991) 237-244]). An upper bound for the number of the supersymmetric states is given as well as a sufficient condition for the spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. Moreover, we derive a functional integral representation for the analytical index of a Dirac type operator on ?n (Witten index) associated with the supersymmetric quantum mechanical model.

  4. Element distribution and morphology of spotted golden goatfish fish scales as affected by demineralisation.

    PubMed

    Chuaychan, Sira; Benjakul, Soottawat; Nuthong, Pornpot

    2016-04-15

    Scales of spotted golden goatfish were subjected to non-collagenous protein removal followed by demineralisation with hydrochloric acid at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1M) for various times (30, 60 and 90min). The morphology and element composition/distribution of scales from spotted golden goatfish as influenced by demineralisation conditions were determined. The appropriate demineralisation was pertained using 0.75M hydrochloric acid for 30min, in which the ash content was 0.62% (dry weight basis). The scales having non-collagenous protein removal with, and without, subsequent demineralisation were analysed for element content using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Images of different scales were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Based on the images, an external layer rich in inorganic elements was removed. Most of Ca and P were eliminated with the coincidental increases in organic substances (C, N and O) after demineralisation. Demineralisation therefore mainly removed the external layer of scales, which facilitated the further extraction of collagen or gelatin. PMID:26617021

  5. Delayed effect of pinealectomy on hibernation of the golden-mantled ground squirrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, C. L.; Harlow, H. J.; Phillips, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Pinealectomy or radical sham pinealectomy were performed on adult golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus (=Citellus) lateralis, approximately 1 month prior to the date of normal winter emergence. The first hibernatory period and subsequent active season were not different in either of the operated groups from intact animals. However, although the initiation of the second hibernatory period was not affected in the pinealectomized animals, this group failed to show the progressive increase in the length of heterothermic bouts that is characteristic of normal hibernation. Also, terminal arousal occurred approximately 6 weeks earlier in the second year after pinealectomy. Male squirrels showed a corresponding time compression in their annual gonadal cycle, as was assessed by testicular state. These results suggest that the pineal gland of the golden-mantled ground squirrel is involved in the expression of the annual hibernatory cycle. In the absence of the pineal gland the adult of this species is unable to sustain the normal depth and duration of hibernation in the second over-wintering period following pinealectomy. We have carried out additional experiments with young, laboratory-born S. lateralis and with field-caught, adult S. richardsonii. The results of these studies also are described in this paper.

  6. Preparation of briquettes from the Golden Horn bottom sediments by hydro-thermal agglomeration process.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, iffet Yakar

    2004-04-01

    The Golden Horn (GH) sediments, which consist mainly of clay, organic substances and heavy metals, are formed with the contribution of industrial and domestic wastes released in the Golden Horn Estuary. On account of their mineralogical and chemical composition, these sediments may be regarded as a suitable raw material for briquette production. In this study, the utilization of GH dredged bottom sediments was investigated for preparation of briquettes. Dried GH sediments were mixed with lime and sand in different percentages, moulded at various squeezing pressures and hardened under several steam pressure values by autoclaving. The briquettes produced through these different process conditions were tested for compressive strength according to the Turkish standards (TS705). It was found that variations in compressive strength were dependent on the amount of lime (Ca(OH)2) and sand (SiO2) added. Results show that the compressive strength increased with increasing lime and decreasing sand in the mixtures prepared for briquettes. It is concluded that briquettes with a compressive strength value of 294 kgf cm(-2) can be produced. This allows the GH sediments to be taken into account as a raw material in brick production, as far as compressive strength requirements are concerned. This possibility may represent an important way either for reducing environmental pollution or for recycling waste materials in industrial applications. PMID:15206521

  7. Aesthetic judgment of triangular shape: compactness and not the golden ratio determines perceived attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Friedenberg, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Many studies over a period of more than a century have investigated the influence of the golden ratio on perceived geometric beauty. Surprisingly, very few of these studies used triangular shapes. In Experiment 1, we presented right triangles that differed in regard to their elongation determined by increasing the length of one side relative to another. Attractiveness ratings did not peak at the golden ratio, but there was a very strong influence of axis ratio overall. Participant ratings were a negative decreasing function of ratio. Triangles that pointed upward were judged as significantly more attractive than those that pointed down. We interpret these results according to a compactness hypothesis: triangles that are more compact are less likely to move or break and are thus considered more pleasing. Orientation also affects aesthetics. Upward-pointing triangles with a base parallel to the ground, regardless of their compactness, are also considered more perceptually stable and attractive. These findings were replicated across stimulus type in a second experiment with isosceles triangles and across testing procedure in a third experiment using a paired comparison technique. PMID:23145277

  8. Thermoregulatory behaviour affects prevalence of chytrid fungal infection in a wild population of Panamanian golden frogs

    PubMed Central

    Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.

    2010-01-01

    Predicting how climate change will affect disease dynamics requires an understanding of how the environment affects host–pathogen interactions. For amphibians, global declines and extinctions have been linked to a pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Using a combination of body temperature measurements and disease assays conducted before and after the arrival of B. dendrobatidis, this study tested the hypothesis that body temperature affects the prevalence of infection in a wild population of Panamanian golden frogs (Atelopus zeteki). The timing of first detection of the fungus was consistent with that of a wave of epidemic infections spreading south and eastward through Central America. During the epidemic, many golden frogs modified their thermoregulatory behaviour, raising body temperatures above their normal set point. Odds of infection decreased with increasing body temperature, demonstrating that even slight environmental or behavioural changes have the potential to affect an individual's vulnerability to infection. The thermal dependency of the relationship between B. dendrobatidis and its amphibian hosts demonstrates how the progression of an epidemic can be influenced by complex interactions between host and pathogen phenotypes and the environments in which they are found. PMID:19864287

  9. Pilot Inventory of Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semenoff-Irving, Marcia; Howell, Judd A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3-4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse-the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

  10. Pilot Inventory of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California, 1990-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Semenoff-Irving, M.; Howell, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey Golden Gate Field Station conducted a baseline inventory of terrestrial vertebrates within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, California between 1990 and 1997. We established 456 permanent study plots in 6 major park habitats, including grassland, coastal scrub, riparian woodland, coastal wetland, broad-leaved evergreen forest, and needle-leaved evergreen forest. We tested multiple inventory methods, including live traps, track plate stations, and artificial cover boards, across all years and habitats. In most years, sampling occurred in 3?4 primary sampling sessions between July and September. In 1994, additional sampling occurred in February and May in conjunction with an assessment of Hantavirus exposure in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Overall, we detected 32 mammal, 14 reptile, and 6 amphibian species during 25,222 trap-nights of effort. The deer mouse?the most abundant species detected--accounted for 67% of total captures. We detected the Federal Endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris) at one coastal wetland plot in 1992. This project represents the first phase in the development of a comprehensive terrestrial vertebrate inventory and monitoring program for GGNRA. This report summarizes data on relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, distribution across habitat types, and trap success for terrestrial vertebrates detected during this 7-year effort. It includes comprehensive descriptions of the inventory methods and sampling strategies employed during this survey and is intended to help guide the park in the implementation of future longterm ecological monitoring programs.

  11. Effects of fire on golden eagle territory occupancy and reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen; Marzluff, J.M.; Carpenter, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    We examined effects of fire on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproductive success in southwestern Idaho because wildfires since 1980 have resulted in large-scale losses of shrub habitat in the Snake River Plain. Success (percentage of pairs that raised young) at burned territories declined after major fires (P = 0.004). Pairs in burned areas that could expand into adjacent vacant territories were as successful as pairs in unburned territories and more successful than pairs in burned territories that could not expand. Success at extensively burned territories was lowest 4-6 years after burning but increased 4-5 years later. The incidence and extent of fires did not help predict territories that would have low occupancy and success rates in postburn years. The presence of a vacant neighboring territory and the amount of agriculture and proportion of shrubs within 3 km of the nesting centroid best predicted probability of territory occupancy. Nesting success during preburn years best predicted the probability of a territory being successful in postburn years. Burned territories with high success rates during preburn years continued to have high success rates during postburn years, and those with low success in preburn years continued to be less successful after burning. In areas where much shrub habitat has been lost to fire, management for golden eagles should include active fire suppression and rehabilitation of burned areas.

  12. The Golden Ratio as a proposed solution of the Ultimatum Game: An explanation by continued fractions

    E-print Network

    Schuster, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Ultimatum Game is a famous sequential, two-player game intensely studied in Game Theory. A proposer can offer a certain fraction of some amount of a valuable good, for example, money. A responder can either accept, in which case the money is shared accordingly, or reject the offer, in which case the two players receive nothing. While most authors suggest that the fairest split of 50 % vs. 50 % would be the equilibrium solution, recently R. Suleiman (An aspirations-homeostasis theory of interactive decisions (2014)) suggested the Golden Ratio, 0.618, to be the solution and argued that such a partitioning would be considered fair by both sides. He provided a justification in terms of an approach termed aspirations-homeostasis theory. The main idea is that responders tend to accept the minor fraction of the Golden Ratio because they feel that this fraction equals, in comparison to the larger fraction obtained by the proposer, the ratio of the larger fraction and the whole amount. Here we give an alternative ...

  13. Molluscicidal saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chi; Liao, Sin-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-08-13

    Extracts of soapnut, Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Sapindaceae) showed molluscicidal effects against the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck. (Ampullariidae) with LC(50) values of 85, 22, and 17 ppm after treating 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of S. mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (1), along with six known hederagenin saponins, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (3), hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (4), hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (5), hederagenin 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (6), and hederagenin 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (7). The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail. PMID:12903945

  14. End of the Golden Age for X-ray Astronomy: Technical and Fiscal Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Golden Ages don't last much more than 50 years (viz. Athens 4th century BCE, Renaissance Italy, Dutch Golden Age) - that's why they're golden. X-ray astronomy is now 50 years old. Should we expect it to continue to flourish? Or is this the end of our Golden Age? Technologically there is tremendous promise. New optics and detectors are set to deliver great improvements along all axes: collecting area, angular and spectral resolution, field of view, polarimetry. To be optimal along a given axis, missions should not try to combine all these improvements in a single mission. Hence specialized missions of modest size (similar to NASA's Explorer class) should be pursued world-wide. Multiple missions also support a wide, varied, and creative community, not only of observers but also of instrument builders, operations staff and data/archive developers. All are necessary for a healthy field. We should encourage our agencies to adopt vigorous modest-mission programs, and to encourage open access to promote intellectual creativity. But some axes are almost certainly out of reach for Explorer-class missions. Most likely equaling or bettering Chandra angular resolution with larger area will require an Observatory-class, flagship, mission. While the technology is promising, the world-wide prospects for such a mission are grim. This is not merely the result of current economic woes, although they have brought the crisis to a head. Each generation of mission has to be an order of magnitude better than its predecessor in order to win funding. But to achieve this costs go up by a factor of a few each time. The progression: rockets - UHURU - Einstein - Chandra illustrates this clearly. The same exponentiation is evident in UV/visible astronomy and, perhaps, in Mars exploration. We have now hit the "funding wall" where each flagship mission costs so much that they pop into politicians notice. JWST is now a budget line item in the US, a precarious position previously held by the cancelled Superconducting SuperCollider. The only way to get our missions back "under the radar" is to make them cheaper. And the only way I can see to achieve that is to make the overall cost of access to space cheaper. This is technologically feasible, but is sociologically not going to be delivered by government agencies, to judge by their track record. If we are ever to have a renewed Golden Age of "Greater Observatories" spanning the electromagnetic spectrum, our hopes must rest on the profitable commercial exploitation of space resources. As platinum group metals are a good bet for the resource that will first make fortunes from space, perhaps it will be a "Platinum Age". Why will this work? When you have to make a profit, you watch the costs. That should do it - "Greed is the counterweight to caution". reference: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7402/full/486181a.html

  15. Golden Handcuffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Teacher pensions consume a substantial portion of school budgets. If relatively generous pensions help attract effective teachers, the expense might be justified. But new evidence suggests that current pension systems, by concentrating benefits on teachers who spend their entire careers in a single state and penalizing mobile teachers, may…

  16. Golden Retrievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Provides a basic definition of metadata, including the usefulness of metatags for online information retrieval and documentation. Defines the elements of the Dublin Core, the next level of metadata. Discusses how librarians can take advantage of metadata. Describes the Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) Project whose goal is to use metadata to…

  17. Golden dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico was both shaken and stirred this year, but not by an earthquake or a tropical storm. The world's largest curved radio telescope—which is operated by Cornell University and the National Science Foundation—makes a stellar appearance in the climax of Goldeneye, the latest film in the James Bond series. At 300 m in diameter, 8 hectares (20 acres) in area, and 51 m in depth from lip to trough, the giant radio astronomy dish looms large in the film as a satellite antenna that will be used to cause an electromagnetic pulse over London.During shooting of the film, actors raced along the antenna's 129 m-long, 545-metric ton bridge, which is suspended by 12 cables hanging from reinforced concrete towers.

  18. Molding of Three-Dimensional Microstructures of Gels Min D. Tang, Andrew P. Golden, and Joe Tien*

    E-print Network

    Tien, Joe

    Molding of Three-Dimensional Microstructures of Gels Min D. Tang, Andrew P. Golden, and Joe Tien for microfabrication of gels: the use of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps to mold, release, and stack gels into 3D structures, and the use of surface modification to promote the release or adhesion of molded gels

  19. 78 FR 36566 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Golden Sedge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the technical agency draft recovery plan for the endangered golden sedge, a species endemic to the coastal plain in North Carolina. The draft recovery plan includes specific recovery objectives and criteria to be met in order to downlist this species to threatened or delist it under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended......

  20. Simultaneous Multi-slice Airway Compliance Measurement using Sparse Golden-angle Radial CAIPIRINHA , Michael C.K. Khoo1

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    airway (UA) collapse during sleep. UA compliance, defined as the ratio of UA cross-sectional area collapse pattern. Here we present a method for simultaneous multi-slice compliance measurement based on sparse golden-angle radial CAIPIRINHA3 , with acceleration factor up to 33.3. METHODS: I. Data

  1. Reinforcement and the Organization of Behavior in Golden Hamsters: Pavlovian Conditioning with Food and Shock Unconditioned Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    1978-01-01

    There has been considerable interest lately in cases where instrumental conditionability appears to depend on the reinforcer used. Here the effects of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs)on golden hamster behaviors was observed. The intent was to see whether previously reported differences among the behaviors produced by food reinforcement and…

  2. Expression and characterization of Syrian golden hamster p16, a homologue of human tumor suppressor p16INK4A

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Ming-Daw

    Expression and characterization of Syrian golden hamster p16, a homologue of human tumor suppressor hamsters have been demonstrated to share many morphologic and biological similarities with human pancreatic of this study was to investigate the fundamental biochemistry of hamster P16 protein. Using both in vivo

  3. Metabolomic profiling and sensorial quality of 'Golden Delicious', 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' apples grown using organic and integrated production systems.

    PubMed

    Vanzo, Andreja; Jenko, Mojca; Vrhovsek, Urska; Stopar, Matej

    2013-07-01

    Apple quality was investigated in the scab-resistant 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' cultivars and the scab-susceptible 'Golden Delicious' cultivar. Trees subjected to the same crop load were cultivated using either an organic (ORG) or an integrated production (IP) system. Physicochemical properties, phenolic content, and sensorial quality of fruit from both systems were compared. There were no significant differences in fruit mass, starch, and total soluble solid content (the latter was higher in ORG 'Liberty') between ORG and IP fruit, whereas significantly higher flesh firmness was found in ORG fruit (except no difference in 'Golden Delicious'). Significantly higher total phenolic content in ORG fruit was found in 'Golden Delicious', whereas differences in other cultivars were not significant. Targeted metabolomic profiling of multiple classes of phenolics confirmed the impact of the production system on the 'Golden Delicious' phenolic profile as higher levels of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, neo- and chlorogenic acids, phloridzin, procyanidin B2+B4, -3-O-glucoside and -3-O-galactoside of quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and rutin being found in ORG fruit. The results obtained suggested that scab resistance influenced the phenolic biosynthesis in relation to the agricultural system. Sensorial evaluation indicated significantly better flavor (except for 'Topaz') and better appearance of IP fruit. PMID:23745580

  4. CONSUMER EVALUATION AND QUALITY MEASUREMENT OF FRESH-CUT SLICES OF 'FUJI', 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS', 'GOLDRUSH', AND 'GRANNY SMITH' APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the eating quality of a new apple cultivar, 'GoldRush', with 'Golden Delicious' (one of its parents), 'Fuji', and 'Granny Smith' (the latter two often used for fresh-cut apple slices). We also compared a commercial with an in-house preservative treatment, NatureSeal for Apples and PQSL,...

  5. Cloning and sequencing of myosin heavy chain isoform cDNAs in golden-mantled ground squirrels: effects of hibernation

    E-print Network

    Rourke, Bryan

    squirrels: effects of hibernation on mRNA expression Bryan C. Rourke,1 Anqi Qin,2 Fadia Haddad,2 Kenneth M of hibernation on mRNA expression. J Appl Physiol 97: 1985­1991, 2004. First published August 6, 2004; doi:10.1152/ japplphysiol.00695.2004.--The golden-mantled ground squirrel is a small rodent hibernator that demonstrates

  6. Myosin Isoform Expression and MAFbx mRNA Levels in Hibernating Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis)

    E-print Network

    Rourke, Bryan

    582 Myosin Isoform Expression and MAFbx mRNA Levels in Hibernating Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrels/20/04 ABSTRACT Hibernating mammals present many unexplored opportunities for the study of muscle biology. The hindlimb muscles of a small rodent hibernator (Spermophilus lateralis) atrophy slightly during months

  7. From Golden Age Mexican Cinema to Transnational Border Feminism: The Community of Spectators in "Loving Pedro Infante"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    The novel "Loving Pedro Infante" by Chicana writer Denise Chavez provides an insightful transcultural feminist critique of Golden Age Mexican cinema culture through a careful examination of gender roles. In the novel, the reception of Pedro Infante's films by spectators bridges generations and national spaces and leads to the formation of a…

  8. Isolation, purification, and characterization of a polygalacturonase produced in Penicillium solitum-decayed 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was extracted and purified from decayed Golden Delicious apple fruit inoculated with Penicillium solitum. Gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the enzyme. Both methods revealed a single peak corresponding to PG activity and analysis of cation ...

  9. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Mexico and the Mid- Continent producing regions, which GPP states have long been significant U.S. natural...) U.S. producers currently have access to abundant domestic natural gas that can be developed cost... Petroleum International Limited), and Golden Pass LNG Terminal Investments LLC. GPP is affiliated...

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles from Washington and Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Spears, Brian Lee; Isanhart, John

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the exposure and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the 2 species of eagles inhabiting North America. The authors analyzed the livers of 33 bald eagles and 7 golden eagles collected throughout Washington and Idaho, USA, for 51 PBDE congeners. Total PBDEs ranged from 2.4 ng/g to 9920 ng/g wet weight. Bald eagles and eagles associated with large urban areas had the highest PBDE concentrations; golden eagles and eagles from more sparsely populated areas had the lowest concentrations. Congener patterns in the present study (brominated diphenyl ether [BDE]-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154 dominating concentrations) were similar to those reported for other bird species, especially raptors. However, the authors also found elevated contributions of BDE-209 in golden eagles and BDE-77 in both species. Patterns in bald eagle samples reflected those in fillets of fish collected from the same general locations throughout Washington, suggesting local exposure to runoff-based contamination, whereas patterns in golden eagle samples suggest a difference in food chain uptake facilitated by atmospheric transport and deposition of BDE-209 and its degradation products into the terrestrial system. Data from the present study represent some of the first reported on burdens of PBDEs in juvenile and adult eagles from North America. The high PBDE liver concentrations associated with large metropolitan areas and accumulation of deca-BDE congeners are a cause for concern. PMID:25367115

  11. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  12. Increase in epidermal planar cell density accompanies decreased russeting of “Golden Delicious” apples treated with gibberellin A4+7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted in a “Golden Delicious” (Malus Xdomestica Borkh.) orchard having a high historical incidence of physiological fruit russeting, to examine the effect of gibberellin A4+7 (GA4+7) on apple epidermal cell size. Beginning at petal fall, four sequential applications of GA4+7...

  13. 78 FR 36566 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Golden Sedge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...Technical Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Golden Sedge AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...SUMMARY: We, the Fish and Wildlife Service...technical agency draft recovery plan for the endangered...review the draft recovery plan, you may...Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  14. High rates of pregnancy loss by subordinates leads to high reproductive skew in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)

    PubMed Central

    Henry, MaLinda D.; Hankerson, Sarah J.; Siani, Jennifer M.; French, Jeffrey A.; Dietz, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Across taxa, cooperative breeding has been associated with high reproductive skew. Cooperatively breeding golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) were long thought to have a monogynous mating system in which reproduction was limited to a single dominant female. Subordinates with few reproductive opportunities delayed dispersal and remained in the natal group to provide alloparental care to siblings, thus allowing dominant reproductive females to meet the energetic needs associated with high rates of reproduction and successful infant rearing. The goal of this study was to re-assess monogyny in wild golden lion tamarin groups based upon pregnancy diagnoses that used non-invasive enzyme immunoassay for progesterone and cortisol, combined with weekly data on individual weight gain, bi-annual physical examinations noting pregnancy and lactation status and daily behavioral observations. We established quantitative and qualitative criteria to detect and determine the timing of pregnancies that did not result in the birth of infants. Pregnancy polygyny occurred in 83% of golden lion tamarin groups studied. The loss of 64% of subordinate pregnancies compared to only 15% by dominant females limited reproductive success mainly to dominant females, thus maintaining high reproductive skew in female golden lion tamarins. Pregnancy loss by subordinate adults did not appear to result from dominant interference in subordinate hormonal mechanisms, but more likely resulted from subordinate abandonment of newborn infants to mitigate dominant aggression. PMID:23454002

  15. Lessons in Suicide Prevention from the Golden Gate Bridge: Means Restriction, Public Health, and the School Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Youth suicide is a global public health problem and some lessons for more effectively preventing it can be found in a perhaps unlikely source: the Golden Gate Bridge. Issues discussed include means restriction and method substitution, the stigma associated with suicide and the consequences of it, myths and misconceptions regarding suicide, and…

  16. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  17. Oral rabies vaccination of red foxes and golden jackals in Israel: preliminary bait evaluation.

    PubMed

    Linhart, S B; King, R; Zamir, S; Naveh, U; Davidson, M; Perl, S

    1997-12-01

    Field trials were conducted in late April to early May of 1995 and 1996 in central Israel to assess the potential for controlling rabies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) by using vaccine-laden baits. Of the bait types which were field tested, polymer fish meal baits were selected as the most suitable for both species. Fish meal baits containing tetracycline hydrochloride, an oral biomarker, were distributed by four-wheel-drive vehicle at a density of approximately 30 baits/km2 in two test areas of 35 km2. Of the animals which were trapped and euthanized seven to ten days after treatment, 65% of foxes and 56% of jackals gave positive results when tested for the biomarker. These results indicate the potential effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination of these species in Israel and possibly elsewhere in the Middle East, where rabies is a problem in wild canids. PMID:9567312

  18. Inhalation studies with benzo(a)pyrene in Syrian golden hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Thyssen, J.; Althoff, J.; Kimmerie, G.; Mohr, U.

    1981-03-01

    Groups of Syrian golden hamsters were exposed by inhalation to benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in concentrations of 2.2, 9.5, and 45.6 mg/m/sup 3/ air. Although 45.6 mg BP/m/sup 3/ air was carcinogenic and toxic, 2.2 mg BP/m/sup 3/ air led to no neoplastic response. The highest tumor incidence was seen in the group exposed to 9.5 mg BP/m/sup 3/ air. Average survival times were similar in the controls (not exposed to BP) and in the 2 groups given 2.2 and 9.5 mg BP/m/sup 3/ air. Exposure-related neoplasms were found in the nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, and forestomach. Bronchogenic tumors did not develop.

  19. Efficient design and assembly of custom TALENs using the Golden Gate platform.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Tomas; Starker, Colby G; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    An important breakthrough in the field of genome engineering was the discovery of the modular Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE) DNA binding domain and the development of TALE nucleases (TALENs). TALENs enable researchers to make DNA double-strand breaks in target loci to create gene knockouts or introduce specific DNA sequence modifications. Precise genome engineering is increasingly being used to study gene function, develop disease models or create new traits in crop species. Underlying the boom in genome engineering is the striking simplicity and low cost of engineering new specificities of TALENs and other sequence-specific nucleases. In this chapter, we describe a rapid, inexpensive, and user-friendly protocol for custom TALEN construction based on one of the most popular TALEN assembly platforms, the Golden Gate cloning method. Using this protocol, ready-to-use TALENs with specificity for targets 13-32 bp long are constructed within 5 days. PMID:25408404

  20. The distribution of lymphatic stomata in the diaphragm of the golden hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuo, Y; Shinohara, H; Matsuda, T

    1990-01-01

    Golden hamster diaphragms were observed with both light and electron microscopes to examine the distribution of lymphatic stomata and their morphological features. Lymphatic stomata were present on the inferior surface but absent on the superior surface. This observation was also supported by the results of India ink injection into the peritoneal and pleural cavities. On the inferior surface of the diaphragm, lymphatic stomata tended to form radial rows running from the centre to the periphery; i.e. they were found throughout the muscular and tendinous portions, although the density of their distribution was higher in the latter. Lymphatics and lymphatic lacunae in the tendinous portion were generally smaller than those in the muscular portion. Lymphatic flow into the lymphatics of the tendinous portion seems to be slow, suggesting that lymphatic stomata in the portion may be a functionally inactive reserve. Images 1 2 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs. 8 and 9 PMID:2200766

  1. Spontaneous light emission by atomic hydrogen: Fermi's golden rule without cheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debierre, V.; Durt, T.; Nicolet, A.; Zolla, F.

    2015-10-01

    Focusing on the 2 p- 1 s transition in atomic hydrogen, we investigate through first order perturbation theory the time evolution of the survival probability of an electron initially taken to be in the excited (2 p) state. We examine both the results yielded by the standard dipole approximation for the coupling between the atom and the electromagnetic field - for which we propose a cutoff-independent regularisation - and those yielded by the exact coupling function. In both cases, Fermi's golden rule is shown to be an excellent approximation for the system at hand: we found its maximal deviation from the exact behaviour of the system to be of order 10-8 /10-7. Our treatment also yields a rigorous prescription for the choice of the optimal cutoff frequency in the dipole approximation. With our cutoff, the predictions of the dipole approximation are almost indistinguishable at all times from the exact dynamics of the system.

  2. Interactions between a group of Golden Eagles and a herd of North American elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Matt P.; Kochert, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Raptors are generally considered solitary predators (Schoener 1969), but occasionally they interact socially (Brown and Amadon 1968). Certain raptor species (e.g., Swallow-tailed Kites [Elanoides forficatus] and Swainson's Hawks [Buteo swainsoni]) concentrate in aggregations in response to localized, abundant food sources (Ellis et al. 1993). Many raptor species engage in group hunting (Ellis et al. 1993), and social foraging is a routine strategy for some species (e.g., Harris's Hawks [Parabuteo unicinctus]; Bednarz 1988, Ellis et al. 1993]. Raptors generally engage in group hunting to pursue elusive or large prey (Ellis et al. 1993). Occasionally individuals of conspecific raptors engage in play as a group sometimes involving chases of prey species (Palmer 1988). In this letter, we report interactions between a large group of Golden Eagles and a herd of adult and juvenile Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) in late autumn.

  3. Hormones and the neuromuscular control of courtship in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus)

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Barney A.; Barske, Julia; Day, Lainy; Fusani, Leonida; Fuxjager, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals engage in spectacular courtship displays, likely recruiting specialized neural, hormonal and muscular systems to facilitate these performances. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform physically elaborate courtship displays that include novel forms of visual and acoustic signaling. We study the behavioral neuroendocrinology of this male’s courtship, combining field behavioral observations with anatomical, biochemical and molecular laboratory-based studies. Seasonally, male courtship is activated by testosterone with little correspondence between testosterone levels and display intensity. Females prefer males whose displays are exceptionally frequent, fast and accurate. The activation of androgen receptors (AR) is crucial for optimal display performance, with AR expressed at elevated levels in several neuromuscular tissues. Apparently, courtship enlists an elaborate androgen-dependent network that includes spinal motoneurons, skeletal muscles and somatosensory systems. This work highlights the value of studying non-traditional species to illuminate physiological adaptations and, hopefully, stimulates future research on other species with complex behaviors. PMID:23624091

  4. Persistence of methylated bases in ribonucleic acid of syrian golden hamster liver after administration of dimethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed Central

    Margison, G P; Margison, J M; Montesano, R

    1979-01-01

    1. Syrian golden hamster liver ribosomal RNA was isolated up to 96 h after administration of [14C]dimethylnitrosamine at 25 mg/kg or 2.5 mg/kg body weight. 2. The chemical alkyation products, 7-methylguanine, 3-methylcytosine, O6-methylguanosine and 1-methyladenosine, were measured after acidic or enzymic hydrolysis of the RNA to bases or mononucleosides followed by ion-exchange chromatography. 3. Between 7 and 96 h, the relative amounts of alkylation products did not change with time even though the absolute amounts fell by approx. 80% and 51% after the high and low doses respectively. 4. The results suggest that base specific excision repair does not exist for RNA alkylation products in this experimental system. PMID:444213

  5. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  6. Detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus Associated with Yellow Mosaic Disease of Jute (Corchorus capsularis).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raju; Palit, Paramita; Paul, Sujay; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Roy, Anirban

    2012-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease, caused by a whitefly transmitted New World Begomovirus, named Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV), is emerging as a serious biotic constraint for jute fibre production in Asia. For rapid and sensitive diagnosis of the Begomovirus associated with this disease, a non-radiolabelled diagnostic probe, developed against the DNA A component of the east Indian isolate of CoGMV, detected the presence of the virus in infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies following Southern hybridization and nucleic acid spot hybridization tests. Presence of the virus was also confirmed when polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using virus-specific primers on DNA templates isolated from infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies. PMID:23730007

  7. Tropical cloud forest climate variability and the demise of the Monteverde golden toad

    PubMed Central

    Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Evans, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread amphibian extinctions in the mountains of the American tropics have been blamed on the interaction of anthropogenic climate change and a lethal pathogen. However, limited meteorological records make it difficult to conclude whether current climate conditions at these sites are actually exceptional in the context of natural variability. We use stable oxygen isotope measurements from trees without annual rings to reconstruct a century of hydroclimatology in the Monteverde Cloud Forest of Costa Rica. High-resolution measurements reveal coherent isotope cycles that provide annual chronological control and paleoclimate information. Climate variability is dominated by interannual variance in dry season moisture associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation events. There is no evidence of a trend associated with global warming. Rather, the extinction of the Monteverde golden toad (Bufo periglenes) appears to have coincided with an exceptionally dry interval caused by the 1986–1987 El Niño event. PMID:20194772

  8. The Potential Regressive Role of Syzygium aromaticum on the Reproduction of Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Donchan; Roh, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Won; Lee, Jong Seok

    2014-03-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used as traditional medicine for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Asian countries. Recently, there are some reports about the effects of the clove on reproductive activities in mammals. Therefore, its effect on testicular function was examined in male golden hamsters whose reproductive activity is inhibited by photoperiod such as winter climate. The male animals were given by daily oral administrations (56 consecutive days) in three doses (4 mg, 20 mg, and 100 mg/kg BW) of the alcoholic extract of the clove. Generally lower dose (4 mg) of the extract continued to keep the reproductive activities of testes. The both middle and high doses (20 mg and 100 mg) of the extract completely inhibited the testicular activity in some animals. Taken together, these results suggest a possible biphasic action of alcoholic extract of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on testicular function. PMID:25949172

  9. The Potential Regressive Role of Syzygium aromaticum on the Reproduction of Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donchan; Roh, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Won; Lee, Jong Seok

    2014-01-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used as traditional medicine for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Asian countries. Recently, there are some reports about the effects of the clove on reproductive activities in mammals. Therefore, its effect on testicular function was examined in male golden hamsters whose reproductive activity is inhibited by photoperiod such as winter climate. The male animals were given by daily oral administrations (56 consecutive days) in three doses (4 mg, 20 mg, and 100 mg/kg BW) of the alcoholic extract of the clove. Generally lower dose (4 mg) of the extract continued to keep the reproductive activities of testes. The both middle and high doses (20 mg and 100 mg) of the extract completely inhibited the testicular activity in some animals. Taken together, these results suggest a possible biphasic action of alcoholic extract of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on testicular function. PMID:25949172

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lian; Xu, Haigen; Li, Hong; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hui; Liu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata. PMID:22016640

  11. Isolation and characterization of sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lian; Xu, Haigen; Li, Hong; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hui; Liu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of "100 of the world's worst invasive alien species". The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310-0.966 and 0.523-0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata. PMID:22016640

  12. Social network structure in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not correlated with kinship.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Nina N; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Chaine, Alexis S; Lyon, Bruce E

    2015-10-01

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory, and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. In a previous study, we discovered striking social complexity and stability in a wintering population of migratory golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) - individuals repeatedly form close associations with the same social partners, including across multiple winters. Here, we test the possibility that kinship might be involved in these close and stable social affiliations. We examine the relationship between kinship and social structure for two of the consecutive wintering seasons from the previous study. We found no evidence that social structure was influenced by kinship. Relatedness between most pairs of individuals was at most that of first cousins (and mostly far lower). Genetic networks based on relatedness do not correspond to the social networks, and Mantel tests revealed no relationship between kinship and pairwise interaction frequency. Kinship also failed to predict social structure in more fine-grained analyses, including analyses of each sex separately (in the event that sex-biased migration might limit kin selection to one sex), and separate analyses for each social community. The complex winter societies of golden-crowned sparrows appear to be based on cooperative benefits unrelated to kin selection. PMID:26334186

  13. An Analysis of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Dimensions for the Existence of Golden Proportion: Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Nalla; Satwalekar, Parth; Srinivas, Siva; Reddy, Chandra Sekhar; Reddy, G Ramaswamy; Reddy, B Anantha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appearance of the face is a great concern to everyone, as it is a significant part of self-image. The study analyzed the clinical crown dimensions of the maxillary anterior teeth with respect to their apparent mesiodistal widths, width-to-height ratio to determine whether golden proportion existed among the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 dentulous subjects were chosen for the study (120 males and 120 females) age ranging between 18 and 28 years. Full face and anterior teeth images of the subjects were made on specially designed device resembling a face-bow, mounted onto the wall under a standard light source. The width and height of the maxillary central incisors were measured on the stone casts using a digital caliper. Results: The mean perceived maxillary lateral incisor to central incisor width ratio was 0.67 in males and 0.703 in females. The mean perceived maxillary canine to lateral incisor width ratio was 0.744 in males and 0.714 in females. The mean width-to-height ratio of the maxillary central incisor was 79.49% in males and 79.197% in females. Conclusion: The golden proportion was not found between perceived mesiodistal widths of maxillary central and lateral incisors and nor between perceived mesiodistal widths of maxillary lateral incisors and canines. In the majority of subjects, the width-to-height ratio of maxillary central incisor was within 75-80%. There are no statistically significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth proportions between males and females. The results may serve as guidelines for treatment planning in restorative dentistry and periodontal surgery. PMID:26435610

  14. Neutering dogs: effects on joint disorders and cancers in golden retrievers.

    PubMed

    Torres de la Riva, Gretel; Hart, Benjamin L; Farver, Thomas B; Oberbauer, Anita M; Messam, Locksley L McV; Willits, Neil; Hart, Lynette A

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to European countries, the overwhelming majority of dogs in the U.S. are neutered (including spaying), usually done before one year of age. Given the importance of gonadal hormones in growth and development, this cultural contrast invites an analysis of the multiple organ systems that may be adversely affected by neutering. Using a single breed-specific dataset, the objective was to examine the variables of gender and age at the time of neutering versus leaving dogs gonadally intact, on all diseases occurring with sufficient frequency for statistical analyses. Given its popularity and vulnerability to various cancers and joint disorders, the Golden Retriever was chosen for this study. Veterinary hospital records of 759 client-owned, intact and neutered female and male dogs, 1-8 years old, were examined for diagnoses of hip dysplasia (HD), cranial cruciate ligament tear (CCL), lymphosarcoma (LSA), hemangiosarcoma (HSA), and mast cell tumor (MCT). Patients were classified as intact, or neutered early (<12 mo) or late (?12 mo). Statistical analyses involved survival analyses and incidence rate comparisons. Outcomes at the 5 percent level of significance are reported. Of early-neutered males, 10 percent were diagnosed with HD, double the occurrence in intact males. There were no cases of CCL diagnosed in intact males or females, but in early-neutered males and females the occurrences were 5 percent and 8 percent, respectively. Almost 10 percent of early-neutered males were diagnosed with LSA, 3 times more than intact males. The percentage of HSA cases in late-neutered females (about 8 percent) was 4 times more than intact and early-neutered females. There were no cases of MCT in intact females, but the occurrence was nearly 6 percent in late-neutered females. The results have health implications for Golden Retriever companion and service dogs, and for oncologists using dogs as models of cancers that occur in humans. PMID:23418479

  15. Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Naira N.; Bradley, James E.; Otter, Ken A.

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009–2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ?150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration. PMID:24671199

  16. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Naira N; Bradley, James E; Otter, Ken A

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ?150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration. PMID:24671199

  17. Taxonomic consequences of cryptic speciation in the Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis complex in mainland southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leo; Nyári, Árpád S; Andersen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The Golden Whistler (Aves: Passeriformes: Pachycephalidae) Pachycephala pectoralis sensu lato has long played a key role in the development of the theory of allopatric speciation (Mayr 1932a, b; Mayr 1942; Galbraith 1956). The P. pectoralis species complex formerly comprised 60-70 nominal subspecies and so had a distribution spanning the Indo-Pacific (Boles 2007). More recent taxonomic treatments consider the complex as multiple species-level taxa largely circumscribed by geography (Dickinson and Christidis 2014; Gill and Donsker 2014). In Australia, the endemic species P. pectoralis sensu stricto is sympatric with the closely related Mangrove Golden Whistler P. melanura. However, as the latter's English name suggests, P. melanura is closely tied to mangroves in Australia, southeast New Guinea, and islets in the Bismarck Archipelago. Diagnostic plumage traits separating the two species are subtle: males of P. melanura have more extensively black tails and a greyer upper surface to the remiges, and females are usually yellower ventrally. All Pachycephala species, especially those in the P. pectoralis-melanura species complex, have recently become the focus of DNA sequence-based studies (Jønsson et al. 2008, 2014; Andersen et al. 2014). Data from most populations have now been analysed phylogenetically to better understand relationships and thus the history of evolution and speciation processes within and between both species. This has also been used in studies of the group's historical biogeography to provide information as to the age of taxa and their spread across oceanic archipelagos and continents (Jønsson et al. 2014). Here we discuss the taxonomic implications of a result that has emerged consistently and independently in these studies, concerning the systematics of the southern Australian populations in south-eastern and south-western Australia, both of which have been ascribed to P. p. fuliginosa since Galbraith (1956), and we show that the name P. occidentalis Ramsay, 1878 is available for the western population and should be used for it.  PMID:25543741

  18. TThhee EEsssseennttiiaall JJoouurrnnaall ffoorr AAmmaatteeuurr AAssttrroonnoommeerrss AArroouunndd tthhee WWoorrlldd!! Summer 2011 Star Party Calendar * Shorts From Down Under * Astro Trivia * Deep Sky Treasures * Golden

    E-print Network

    Blaber, Michael

    tthhee WWoorrlldd!! Summer 2011 Star Party Calendar * Shorts From Down Under * Astro Trivia * Deep Sky Project * Building A Home Observatory * Sky Sketching * Cleaning Optics *Short Subjects *Star People Treasures * Golden State Star Party * Periodic Error * Laser Collimation * MSRAL * Stationary Eyepiece

  19. Processing gravity gradiometer data using an equivalent source technique Gravity and Magnetics Research Consortium, Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO

    E-print Network

    Processing gravity gradiometer data using an equivalent source technique Yaoguo Li Gravity and Magnetics Research Consortium, Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO Summary The inherent relationship among the different components of gravity gradiometer data requires

  20. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media EPA Demonstration Project at Golden Hills Community Services District in Tehachapi, CA Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Golden Hills Community Services District (GHCSD) located in Tehachapi, CA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate (1) the effecti...

  1. Estimating updraft velocity components over large spatial scales: contrasting migration strategies of golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Gil; Brandes, David; Mandel, James T; Bildstein, Keith L; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Katzner, Todd; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior A

    2012-02-01

    Soaring birds migrate in massive numbers worldwide. These migrations are complex and dynamic phenomena, strongly influenced by meteorological conditions that produce thermal and orographic uplift as the birds traverse the landscape. Herein we report on how methods were developed to estimate the strength of thermal and orographic uplift using publicly available digital weather and topography datasets at continental scale. We apply these methods to contrast flight strategies of two morphologically similar but behaviourally different species: golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, and turkey vulture, Cathartes aura, during autumn migration across eastern North America tracked using GPS tags. We show that turkey vultures nearly exclusively used thermal lift, whereas golden eagles primarily use orographic lift during migration. It has not been shown previously that migration tracks are affected by species-specific specialisation to a particular uplift mode. The methods introduced herein to estimate uplift components and test for differences in weather use can be applied to study movement of any soaring species. PMID:22077120

  2. The golden ratio and Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram: novel research view on relationship of Chinese medicine and modern biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-xue; Huang, Yun-kun; Sun, Ying

    2014-02-01

    Associating geometric arrangements of 9 Loshu numbers modulo 5, investigating property of golden rectangles and characteristics of Fibonacci sequence modulo 10 as well as the two subsequences of its modular sequence by modulo 5, the Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram is created based on strict logical deduction in this paper, which can disclose inherent relationship among Taiji sign, Loshu and Fibonacci sequence modulo 10 perfectly and unite such key ideas of holism, symmetry, holographic thought and yin-yang balance pursuit from Chinese medicine as a whole. Based on further analysis and reasoning, the authors discover that taking the golden ratio and Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram as a link, there is profound and universal association existing between researches of Chinese medicine and modern biology. PMID:24352682

  3. From golden hills to sycamore trees: pastoral homelands and ethnic identity in Irish immigrant fiction, 1860-75.

    PubMed

    Corporaal, Marguérite

    2010-01-01

    The prose fiction that remembers the trials of starvation and eviction of the Great Famine (1845-50) often juxtaposes representations of blasted, infertile land with images of a green, idyllic Erin. Through a discussion of Mary Anne Sadlier's Bessy Conway (1861), Elizabeth Hely Walshe's Golden Hills: A Tale of the Irish Famine (1865) and John McElgun's Annie Reilly (1873), this article reveals that immigrant writers of the Famine generation often negotiate depictions of Famine-stricken wasteland with evocations of a pastoral homeland. In the case of the two Catholic novels, Bessy Conway and Annie Reilly, the pastoral becomes a point of ethnic identification through which the immigrants can recollect and reconstruct a sense of Irishness in exile. By contrast, Golden Hills, which focuses on the Anglo-Irish ascendancy, does not lament the mass exodus of afflicted Irish: the novel rather envisions emigration as a way to regenerate Ireland as locus amoenus. PMID:20726133

  4. The amino acid sequence of Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) and golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) egg-white lysozymes.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Kuramoto, M; Torikata, T

    1990-09-01

    The amino acids of Lady Amherst's pheasant and golden pheasant egg-white lysozymes have been sequenced. The carboxymethylated lysozymes were digested with trypsin followed by sequencing of the tryptic peptides. Lady Amherst's pheasant lysozyme proved to consist of 129 amino acid residues, and a relative molecular mass of 14,423 Da was calculated. This lysozyme had 6 amino acids substitutions when compared with hen egg-white lysozyme: Phe3 to Tyr, His15 to Leu, Gln41 to His, Asn77 to His, Gln 121 to Asn, and a newly found substitution of Ile124 to Thr. The amino acid sequence of golden pheasant lysozyme was identical to that of Lady Amherst's phesant lysozyme. The phylogenetic tree constructured by the comparison of amino acid sequences of phasianoid birds lysozymes revealed a minimum genetic distance between these pheasants and the turkey-peafowl group. PMID:1368578

  5. Use of the Illumina GoldenGate assay for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping in cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shiaoman; Lawley, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Highly parallel genotyping assays, such as the GoldenGate assay developed by Illumina, capable of interrogating up to 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously, have greatly facilitated genome-wide studies, particularly for crops with large and complex genome structures. In this report, we provide detailed information and guidelines regarding genomic DNA preparation, SNP assay design, SNP assay protocols, and genotype calling using Illumina's GenomeStudio software. PMID:25373766

  6. The Golden mean, scale free extension of Real number system, fuzzy sets and $1/f$ spectrum in Physics and Biology

    E-print Network

    Dhurjati prasad Datta

    2010-01-11

    We show that the generic $1/f$ spectrum problem acquires a natural explanation in a class of scale free solutions to the ordinary differential equations. We prove the existence and uniqueness of this class of solutions and show how this leads to a nonstandard, fuzzy extension of the ordinary framework of calculus, and hence, that of the classical dynamics and quantum mechanics. The exceptional role of the golden mean irrational number is also explained.

  7. Immunologic role of nitric oxide in acute rejection of golden hamster to rat liver xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Tong-Jin; Yuan, Tong-Ye; Li, You-Lin

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the immunologic role and expression significances of nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and its isoenzyme in acute rejection to liver xenografts from golden hamster in rat. METHODS: Liver transplantations were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6-9):isografts (group I); xenografts (group II); xenografts plus cyclosporine treatment (group III), xenografts plus cyclophosphamide treatment combined with splenectomy (group IV), and xenografts using cyclophosphamide in combination with splenectomy (group IV) and xenografts using splenectomy in addition to cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine treatments (group V). The levels of ALT, TNF-?, and nitric oxide production (NOx) in serum of reciprents were examined, and expressions of type II (iNOS) and type III (cNOS) nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inducible NOS (iNOS) and constitutive NOS (cNOS) were observed by NADPH diaphorase histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The level of serum ALT, activity of serum TNF-? and systemic levels of NO metabolite in groups II and IV were higher than those of groups I and V (serum ALT, 2416 ± 475, 2540 ± 82.5) nkat•L?¹-1 vs (556.8 ± 43.5, 677.30 ± 38.2) nkat•L?¹-1, P < 0.01; (serum TNF-?, 353.5 ± 16.1, 444.6 ± 28.1) ng•L-1, vs 38.5 ± 5.2, 52.0 ± 5.7) ng•L-1, P < 0.01; (serum NOx 514.6 ± 18.1, 336.0 ± 43.0) nmol•g?¹, vs 26.1 ± 5.7, 27.7 ± 6.0) nmol•g?¹, P < 0.01. Cyclosporine in group III can repress the cellular immune response and the synthesis of nitric oxide and the expression of NO synthase, but not prolong the liver xenograft survival. The over-expression of NOS, iNOS and cNOS in liver xenograft rejection in groups II and IV were detected by NADPH diaphorase histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSION: The degrees of acute rejection can be effectively repressed in golden hamster to rat liver xenografts with splenectomy and cyclosporine. Nitric oxide metabolites, and nitric oxide synthase and its isoenzymes, above all inducible NOS (iNOS) can be used as potential diagnostic markers for acute rejection in liver transplantation. The cellular localization of nitric oxide varies according to the immunologic status of liver xenografts, thus thinking that hepatocyte derived nitric oxide may be protective in the hyporesponsive state, but hepatic injury is likely triggered by centrilobular iNOS expression in the superresponsive state. PMID:12174390

  8. When do young birds disperse? Tests from studies of golden eagles in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dispersal comprises three broad stages - departure from the natal or breeding locations, subsequent travel, and settlement. These stages are difficult to measure, and vary considerably between sexes, age classes, individuals and geographically. We used tracking data from 24 golden eagles, fitted with long-lived GPS satellite transmitters as nestlings, which we followed during their first year. We estimated the timing of emigration from natal sites using ten previously published methods. We propose and evaluate two new methods. The first of these uses published ranging distances of parents as a measure of the natal home range, with the requirement that juveniles must exceed it for a minimum of 10 days (a literature-based measure of the maximum time that a juvenile can survive without food from its parents). The second method uses the biggest difference in the proportion of locations inside and outside of the natal home range smoothed over a 30 day period to assign the point of emigration. We used the latter as the standard against which we compared the ten published methods. Results The start of golden eagle dispersal occurred from 39 until 250 days after fledging (based on method 12). Previously published methods provided very different estimates of the point of emigration with a general tendency for most to apparently assign it prematurely. By contrast the two methods we proposed provided very similar estimates for the point of emigration that under visual examination appeared to fit the definition of emigration much better. Conclusions We have used simple methods to decide when an individual has dispersed - they are rigorous and repeatable. Despite one method requiring much more information, both methods provided robust estimates for when individuals emigrated at the start of natal dispersal. Considerable individual variation in recorded behaviour appears to account for the difficulty capturing the point of emigration and these results demonstrate the potential pitfalls associated with species exhibiting complex dispersal behaviour. We anticipate that coupled with the rapidly increasing availability of tracking data, our new methods will, for at least some species, provide a far simpler and more biologically representative approach to determine the timing of emigration. PMID:24192328

  9. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

  10. Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.

    PubMed Central

    Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

    2002-01-01

    Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year. PMID:12061951

  11. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  12. A Small Surrogate for the Golden Angle in Time-Resolved Radial MRI Based on Generalized Fibonacci Sequences.

    PubMed

    Wundrak, Stefan; Paul, Jan; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Rasche, Volker

    2015-06-01

    In golden angle radial magnetic resonance imaging a constant azimuthal radial profile spacing of 111.246...(°) guarantees a nearly uniform azimuthal profile distribution in k-space for an arbitrary number of radial profiles. Even though this profile order is advantageous for various real-time imaging methods, in combination with balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences the large azimuthal angle increment may lead to strong image artifacts, due to the varying eddy currents introduced by the rapidly switching gradient scheme. Based on a generalized Fibonacci sequence, a new sequence of smaller irrational angles is introduced ( 49.750...(°), 32.039...(°), 27.198...(°), 23.628...(°), ... ). The subsequent profile orders guarantee the same sampling efficiency as the golden angle if at least a minimum number of radial profiles is used for reconstruction. The suggested angular increments are applied for dynamic imaging of the heart and the temporomandibular joint. It is shown that for balanced SSFP sequences, trajectories using the smaller golden angle surrogates strongly reduce the image artifacts, while the free retrospective choice of the reconstruction window width is maintained. PMID:25532172

  13. Timing, Frequency and Environmental Conditions Associated with Mainstem–Tributary Movement by a Lowland River Fish, Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua)

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Wayne M.; Dawson, David R.; O’Mahony, Damien J.; Moloney, Paul D.; Crook, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tributary and mainstem connections represent important links for the movement of fish and other biota throughout river networks. We investigated the timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with movements by adult golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) between the mainstem of the mid-Murray River and a tributary, the Goulburn River, in south-eastern Australia, using acoustic telemetry over four years (2007–2011). Fish were tagged and released in autumn 2007–2009 in the mid-Murray (n?=?42) and lower Goulburn (n?=?37) rivers within 3–6 km of the mid-Murray-lower Goulburn junction. 38% of tagged fish undertook mainstem–tributary movements, characterised mostly by temporary occupation followed by return of fish to the original capture river. Approximately 10% of tagged fish exhibited longer-term shifts between the mainstem and tributary. Movement of fish from the tributary into the mainstem occurred primarily during the spawning season and in some years coincided with the presence of golden perch eggs/larvae in drift samples in the mainstem. Many of the tributary-to-mainstem movements occurred during or soon after changes in flow. The movements of fish from the mainstem into the tributary were irregular and did not appear to be associated with spawning. The findings show that golden perch moved freely across the mainstem–tributary interface. This demonstrates the need to consider the spatial, behavioural and demographic interdependencies of aquatic fauna across geographic management units such as rivers. PMID:24788137

  14. Focusing on the Golden Ball Metaheuristic: An Extended Study on a Wider Set of Problems

    PubMed Central

    Osaba, E.; Diaz, F.; Carballedo, R.; Onieva, E.; Perallos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of new metaheuristics for solving optimization problems is a topic of interest in the scientific community. In the literature, a large number of techniques of this kind can be found. Anyway, there are many recently proposed techniques, such as the artificial bee colony and imperialist competitive algorithm. This paper is focused on one recently published technique, the one called Golden Ball (GB). The GB is a multiple-population metaheuristic based on soccer concepts. Although it was designed to solve combinatorial optimization problems, until now, it has only been tested with two simple routing problems: the traveling salesman problem and the capacitated vehicle routing problem. In this paper, the GB is applied to four different combinatorial optimization problems. Two of them are routing problems, which are more complex than the previously used ones: the asymmetric traveling salesman problem and the vehicle routing problem with backhauls. Additionally, one constraint satisfaction problem (the n-queen problem) and one combinatorial design problem (the one-dimensional bin packing problem) have also been used. The outcomes obtained by GB are compared with the ones got by two different genetic algorithms and two distributed genetic algorithms. Additionally, two statistical tests are conducted to compare these results. PMID:25165742

  15. Masculinization of female golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus using an aromatase inhibitor treatment during sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Toru; Nakamura, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaru

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate the involvement of endogenous estrogen (estradiol-17beta; E2) and the decisive factor (somatic or germinal element) in the ovarian differentiation of tropical marine teleosts, the effect of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) fadrozole on gonadal sex differentiation in the golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus (Bloch) was examined for different dosages and periods of treatment. Fadrozole interrupted ovarian cavity formation at a dose of 500 microg g(-1) diet, while there was little effect at 10 or 100 microg g(-1). The gonads from both the 30-day and 90-day administration (500 microg g(-1) diet) groups were significantly biased toward testes (P=0.002 and <0.0001, respectively), which suggests strongly that E2 is involved in early ovarian differentiation and that its suppression is an indispensable condition for testicular differentiation in S. guttatus. The results from the two different AI treatment periods imply that the initial feminization of somatic gonadal elements determines subsequent ovarian differentiation, including oogenesis: a conclusion supported by the considerable time lag between ovarian cavity formation and subsequent oogenesis during normal ovarian differentiation in S. guttatus. PMID:16807123

  16. Masculinization of female golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus using an aromatase inhibitor treatment during sex differentiation.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Komatsu T; Nakamura S; Nakamura M

    2006-08-01

    To elucidate the involvement of endogenous estrogen (estradiol-17beta; E2) and the decisive factor (somatic or germinal element) in the ovarian differentiation of tropical marine teleosts, the effect of the aromatase inhibitor (AI) fadrozole on gonadal sex differentiation in the golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus (Bloch) was examined for different dosages and periods of treatment. Fadrozole interrupted ovarian cavity formation at a dose of 500 microg g(-1) diet, while there was little effect at 10 or 100 microg g(-1). The gonads from both the 30-day and 90-day administration (500 microg g(-1) diet) groups were significantly biased toward testes (P=0.002 and <0.0001, respectively), which suggests strongly that E2 is involved in early ovarian differentiation and that its suppression is an indispensable condition for testicular differentiation in S. guttatus. The results from the two different AI treatment periods imply that the initial feminization of somatic gonadal elements determines subsequent ovarian differentiation, including oogenesis: a conclusion supported by the considerable time lag between ovarian cavity formation and subsequent oogenesis during normal ovarian differentiation in S. guttatus.

  17. Ibn al-Nafis, the pulmonary circulation, and the Islamic Golden Age

    PubMed Central

    West, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288) was an Arab physician who made several important contributions to the early knowledge of the pulmonary circulation. He was the first person to challenge the long-held contention of the Galen School that blood could pass through the cardiac interventricular septum, and in keeping with this he believed that all the blood that reached the left ventricle passed through the lung. He also stated that there must be small communications or pores (manafidh in Arabic) between the pulmonary artery and vein, a prediction that preceded by 400 years the discovery of the pulmonary capillaries by Marcello Malpighi. Ibn al-Nafis and another eminent physiologist of the period, Avicenna (ca. 980–1037), belong to the long period between the enormously influential school of Galen in the 2nd century, and the European scientific Renaissance in the 16th century. This is an epoch often given little attention by physiologists but is known to some historians as the Islamic Golden Age. Its importance is briefly discussed here. PMID:18845773

  18. Ibn al-Nafis, the pulmonary circulation, and the Islamic Golden Age.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2008-12-01

    Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288) was an Arab physician who made several important contributions to the early knowledge of the pulmonary circulation. He was the first person to challenge the long-held contention of the Galen School that blood could pass through the cardiac interventricular septum, and in keeping with this he believed that all the blood that reached the left ventricle passed through the lung. He also stated that there must be small communications or pores (manafidh in Arabic) between the pulmonary artery and vein, a prediction that preceded by 400 years the discovery of the pulmonary capillaries by Marcello Malpighi. Ibn al-Nafis and another eminent physiologist of the period, Avicenna (ca. 980-1037), belong to the long period between the enormously influential school of Galen in the 2nd century, and the European scientific Renaissance in the 16th century. This is an epoch often given little attention by physiologists but is known to some historians as the Islamic Golden Age. Its importance is briefly discussed here. PMID:18845773

  19. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  20. Mate guarding and territorial aggression vary with breeding synchrony in golden whistlers ( Pachycephala pectoralis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Wouter F. D.

    2008-06-01

    Male paternity assurance behaviour during the female fertile period has been widely documented amongst birds. In contrast, how sex-specific behavioural strategies vary with local breeding synchrony levels remains largely unknown. This is important because, in many species, intra-population patterns of extra-pair fertilisation rates, and hence cuckoldry risk, are known to vary with the number of simultaneously fertile females. Each sex may therefore differ in how they behave towards male conspecifics during different degrees of breeding synchrony. Here I provide evidence of such sex-specific differences in the golden whistler ( Pachycephala pectoralis), a species in which within-pair paternity assurance is negatively associated with breeding synchrony. Via simulated territorial intrusions using decoy males, I show that males, but not females, increase levels of aggression to male intruders during periods of low synchrony, possibly because cuckoldry risk is greatest during this period. In addition, males appear to invest more effort into mate guarding after, but not before, territorial intrusions during this period. These inter-sexual differences may reflect conflicts in interest between the sexes, with females consistently showing interest in males during the fertile period regardless of synchrony levels and males investing more resources into expelling intruders when the risk of paternity loss is greatest. This study thus provides evidence that males may be able to detect variation in breeding synchrony and cuckoldry risk and adjust their paternity assurance behaviour accordingly.