Sample records for golden cuttlefish sepia

  1. Isozymes analysis of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianmin; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Rucai; Wang, Shidang; Zhou, Weiwu

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM) show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (P<0.99). The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

  2. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  3. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard to the cuttlefishÕs visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences a case study using

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences ­ a case study Journal of Marine Science, 60: 1149­1158. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of cuttlefish

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Lydia M. Ma The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish--although color blind--actively match various colors of their immediate surroundings, yet

  6. Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

  7. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food.envpol.2004.07.010 #12;2 ABSTRACT The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed

  8. The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra coloration Cephalopod a b s t r a c t Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three

  9. Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203 Hg the juvenile common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis following exposures via seawater and food28 using sensitive radiotracer technique (203 Hg). The cuttlefish readily concentrated 203 Hg when29 exposed via seawater

  10. First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Thomas in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques (110m Ag, 241 Am, 109 Cd, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 54 Mn, 75 Se and 65 Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily

  11. ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF THE FIN MUSCULATURE OF THE CUTTLEFISH SEPIA OFFICINALIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. KIER; KATHLEEN K. SMITH; JALEEL A. MIYAN

    1989-01-01

    Summary The musculature of the fins of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) was studied with electromyography to test predictions of the functional role of the various muscle masses. Previous research had shown the fins to consist of a tightly packed, three-dimensional array of muscle with distinct zones of anaerobic glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibres. In addition, a network of

  12. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the1 common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: radiotracer experiments2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the1 common cuttlefish Sepia of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50 d29 at 17°C). 203 Hg and 210 Pb were accumulated).55 In the English Channel, the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis lives offshore during the56 winter season

  13. Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN GEARY BOAL; REBECCA A. HYLTON; SUSAN A. GONZALEZ; ROGER T. HANLON

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of crowding on cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a benthic cephalopod, the behavior of captive-reared cuttlefish was monitored for a period of 1 month. One group of 6 cuttlefish was housed in a tank 6.1 m in diameter (4.87 m 2 per cuttlefish); another group of 6 was housed in a tank 1.5 m in diameter (0.29 m

  14. Chemical composition and thermal property of cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis) muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amonrat Thanonkaew; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition and thermal property of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) muscle were studied. The head and mantle contained 11.9–14.9% protein, 0.5% fat, 1.2–1.3% ash, and 0.6–1.8% collagen. Lipids from the head and mantle contained phospholipid as the major component (78.6–87.8% of total lipid), with 10.6–19.5% diglyceride. Polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted 50.3–54.9% of fatty acids with a high content of DHA

  15. Isolation and characterisation of collagen from the outer skin waste material of cuttlefish ( Sepia lycidas)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nagai; Eiji Yamashita; Kei Taniguchi; Norio Kanamori; Nobutaka Suzuki

    2001-01-01

    In an investigation into making more effective use of underutilized resources, collagen was prepared from the outer skin of cuttlefish (Sepia lycidas). Initial extraction of the cuttlefish outer skin in acetic acid yielded only 2% of collagen (dry weight basis). On subsequent digestion of the residue with 10% pepsin (w\\/v), a solubilized collagen (PSC) was obtained in a yield of

  16. Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

    2005-01-01

    The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

  17. Respiration of the eggs of the giant cuttlefish Sepia apama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Cronin; R. S. Seymour

    2000-01-01

    On the roofs of subtidal crevices, the giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) of southern Australia lays clutches of lemon-shaped eggs which hatch after 3 to 5?mo. Diffusion of oxygen through the capsule\\u000a and chorion membrane to the perivitelline fluid and embryo was modelled using the equation V?\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?G\\u000a \\u000a O2(P\\u000a \\u000a O2out?P\\u000a \\u000a O2in), where V?\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?rate of oxygen consumption, G\\u000a \\u000a O2?=?oxygen conductance of

  18. Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2014-03-01

    To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration. PMID:23982859

  19. Principal features of the mating system of a large spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hall; R. T. Hanlon

    2002-01-01

    Every winter thousands of cuttlefish (Sepia apama Gray) aggregate to spawn along a restricted area of rocky reef in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia. It is the only known spawning aggregation of cuttlefish in the world and represents an exceptional cuttlefish mating system. Spawning population structure and reproductive behavior were studied quantitatively by underwater visual transects and by focal-animal behavioral

  20. Mechanisms of population structuring in giant australian Cuttlefish Sepia apama.

    PubMed

    Payne, Nicholas L; Snelling, Edward P; Semmens, Jayson M; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2013-01-01

    While a suite of approaches have been developed to describe the scale, rate and spatial structure of exchange among populations, a lack of mechanistic understanding will invariably compromise predictions of population-level responses to ecosystem modification. In this study, we measured the energetics and sustained swimming capacity of giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama and combined these data with information on the life-history strategy, behaviour and circulation patterns experienced by the species to predict scales of connectivity throughout parts of their range. The swimming capacity of adult and juvenile S. apama was poor compared to most other cephalopods, with most individuals incapable of maintaining swimming above 15 cm s(-1). Our estimate of optimal swimming speed (6-7 cm s(-1)) and dispersal potential were consistent with the observed fine-scale population structure of the species. By comparing observed and predicted population connectivity, we identified several mechanisms that are likely to have driven fine-scale population structure in this species, which will assist in the interpretation of future population declines. PMID:23536813

  1. Temperature and pCO2 effect on the bioaccumulation of radionuclides and1 trace elements in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis2

    E-print Network

    in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis2 3 T. Lacoue-Labarthe1,2,3,* , S. Martin2, , F of the common cuttlefish Sepia42 officinalis. The lowered accumulation of essential 60 Co and 54 Mn of an enhanced swelling of the cuttlefish egg under elevated CO2.48 49 Keywords: cephalopod, ocean acidification

  2. Allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcos Pérez-Losada; Ángel Guerra; Andrés Sanjuan

    1999-01-01

    The Atlantic–Mediterranean area has recently been proposed as a new phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance of genetic differentiation patterns observed in several marine species. However, additional taxa need to be studied to establish the phylogeographical relationship between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Eleven samples of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis around the Iberian Peninsula, one from the Canary Islands, and

  3. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia M. Mäthger; Alexandra Barbosa; Simon Miner; Roger T. Hanlon

    2006-01-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to

  4. Molecular and morphological analyses of the cuttlefish Sepia apama indicate a complex population structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Kassahn; S. C. Donnellan; A. J. Fowler; K. C. Hall; M. Adams; P. W. Shaw

    2003-01-01

    The giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama Gray, 1849 annually forms a massive and unique spawning aggregation in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia, which has attracted commercial fishing interests in recent years. However, many basic life-history characteristics of S. apama are unknown, and anecdotal evidence suggests that there is more than one species. The present study assessed the population structure and

  5. A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Je´re´my Enault1 migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones the identification of sex pheromones, 576 59-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library

  6. Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

    Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

  7. Rapid taste aversion learning in adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq; Ludovic Dickel; Marie-Paule Chichery; Véronique Agin; Raymond Chichery

    2004-01-01

    The common cuttlefish is an opportunistic predator with certain prey preferences. The literature suggests that learning plays a role in the predatory behaviour of cuttlefish. However, nothing is known about taste aversion learning in cephalopods. We developed a learning procedure in which the preferred prey of the experimental cuttlefish was made distasteful by a bitter taste (quinine). In the training

  8. Sensory, microbiological, physical and chemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii) stored in ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas; Micaela Mota; Judite Lapa-Guimarães; Jana Pickova; Andreia Lindo; Teresa Silva

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize whole raw cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) during storage in ice through sensory, microbiological, chemical and physical analyses. The recently developed Quality Index Method (QIM) tables for these species were used for sensory analysis. Shelf-life of whole cuttlefish and shortfin squid were estimated as around 10 and 9 days,

  9. Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Dunn

    1999-01-01

    Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

  10. Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ?150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (?) monounsaturated fatty acids, ? n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less ? n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

  11. Distance chemoreception in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G Boal; D. K Golden

    1999-01-01

    Cephalopods are highly visual animals; the importance of chemical perception to these complex mollusks is less well understood. In this experiment, ventilation rate was used to measure the perception of chemical stimuli by cultured juvenile cuttlefish. The test tank had opaque sides and top to visually isolate the cuttlefish. A clear bottom permitted direct observation of funnel movements associated with

  12. Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN GEARY BOAL

    1996-01-01

    Five experiments were performed to determine the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish,Sepia officinalisL. No evidence of discrimination of familiar from unfamiliar individuals was found in either females or males. Despite good evidence for mate guarding, no recognition of individual mates was found. Within sex classes, associations between freely moving animals were not different from random (f–f, f–m

  13. Behavioral aspects of sperm competition in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Sepioidea: Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Hanlon; S. A. Ament; H. Gabr

    1999-01-01

    Sexual selection studies in cephalopods indicate that sperm competition is a central feature of their mating systems, yet\\u000a this has not been studied experimentally in any detail. In 1998 we staged 20 matings of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L., in the laboratory. Males rapidly initiated mating in the “head-to-head” position, with no apparent courtship. Mating\\u000a lasted an average of 10?min

  14. Electron-dense tracer evidence for a blood—brain barrier in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Abbott; M. Bundgaard

    1992-01-01

    Summary Electron-dense tracers were used to study the permeability of the blood—brain interface in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefishSepia officinalis. Gel filtration established that horseradish peroxidase is a suitable tracer forin vivo injection, but microperoxidase is not, being subject to binding by plasma proteins. Perfusion-fixed brain vertical and optic lobes showed no endogenous peroxidatic activity. Horseradish peroxidase was injected intravenously,

  15. Variation of acid phosphatases and cathepsins activities in the cuttlefish1 (Sepia officinalis) eggs: specific activity and effects of Ag, Cd, Cu exposures2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Variation of acid phosphatases and cathepsins activities in the cuttlefish1 (Sepia officinalisP) and cathepsin24 activities throughout the cuttlefish embryo development. The enzyme activity kinetics25 appeared-11Oct2010 #12;3 Introduction40 41 Among cephalopods, Sepioidea (cuttlefishes) lay singly medium size

  16. Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia1 officinalis and responses to the Ag and Cu exposure2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia1 officinalis and responses in the cuttlefish embryo sampled at the end of the26 organogenesis and few hours before hatching. Various modulators demonstrated the28 evidence of a true phenoloxidase activity in the cuttlefish embryo. However, SDS and LPS29

  17. A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

  18. Hemocyte morphology and phagocytic activity in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Goux, Didier; Guillamin, Maryline; Safi, Georges; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Koueta, Noussithé; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the immune system of cephalopods, in spite of their many highly derived characters within the molluscan clade, including a vertebrate-like high-pressure closed circulatory system. Further the economic importance of cephalopod fisheries, potential for aquaculture, and use as ecotoxicology models demand a thorough understanding of their immune system. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of hemocytes in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Cytological stainings, electron microscopy- and flow cytometry-observations highlight a single granulocyte population with various densities of eosinophilic granules and unstained vesicles. These hemocytes contain acid phosphatase-, lysozyme- and proPO system enzymes, and have high activity in bead phagocytosis assays. Interestingly, bead pre-incubation in plasma results in time-dependent aggregation perhaps resulting from hemocyanin-coating, and decrease in phagocytosis. This study provides the basis for understanding hemocyte-mediated immunity in the common cuttlefish, and essential background for future studies on cephalopod immunity. PMID:25066968

  19. Extensive population subdivision of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) around the Iberian Peninsula indicated by microsatellite DNA variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Pérez-Losada; A Guerra; G R Carvalho; A Sanjuan; P W Shaw

    2002-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea junction has been proposed as an important phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance in genetic patterns observed at allozyme, mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers in several marine species. This study presents microsatellite DNA data for a mobile invertebrate species in this area, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, allowing comparison of this relatively new class of DNA

  20. Development of new quality index method (QIM) schemes for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of sensory schemes for freshness grading of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) based on the recent quality index method (QIM). As preliminary work, four storage experiments were performed to choose the relevant sensory parameters for building the schemes. From an initial large set of parameters, some were chosen to be attributes

  1. Maturation, fecundity and seasonality of reproduction of two commercially valuable cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis and S. dollfusi, in the Suez Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howaida R Gabr; Roger T Hanlon; Mahmoud H Hanafy; Salah G El-Etreby

    1998-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (maximum 250mm mantle length, ML) and S. dollfusi (maximum 150mm ML) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea to Japan and Australia. They are the primary fishery in the Suez Canal and the most valuable commercial cephalopods in the northern Indian Ocean. However, their reproductive biology, essential for fishery management, is poorly known.

  2. The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

  3. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-12-15

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 ?Pa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 ?Pa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods. PMID:25394634

  4. Isolation and Identification of a Novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-Related Peptide Inhibiting the Motility of the Mature Oviduct in the Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Henry; Pascal Favrel; Eve Boucaud-Camou

    1997-01-01

    Henry J., P. Favrel and E. Boucaud-Camou. Isolation and identification of a novel APGW-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Peptides 18(10) 1469–1474, 1997.—A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide

  5. Brain vascular volume, electrolytes and blood-brain interface in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, N J; Bundgaard, M; Cserr, H F

    1985-01-01

    Cephalopod molluscs have complex brains and behaviour, yet little is known about the permeability of their blood-brain interface. This paper presents studies on the brain fluid and electrolyte compartments of the cuttlefish Sepia, as a preliminary to characterization of the permeability of the blood-brain interface in this group. Sepia is shown to be a satisfactory experimental animal, and techniques are described for anaesthesia, cannulation, and tissue and fluid analysis. Our ionic analyses of body fluids are in general agreement with those of earlier workers. Analysis of brain tissue suggests that the extracellular space is 17-20 ml 100 g tissue-1 (i.e. 17-20%). Two large molecular weight tracers, 125I-human serum albumin (HSA) and Blue dextran, give consistent values for the brain vascular volume of 3.5-5.5%, slightly higher than in vertebrates. The HSA results further confirm that the Sepia blood-brain interface is relatively tight to proteins. Finally, we have shown that the fluid surrounding the brain, pericerebral fluid (PCF), is in relatively free communication with plasma. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2416911

  6. First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Jeffree, Ross; Bustamante, Paco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a first insight on the incorporation of eight metals in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques ((110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn, (75)Se and (65)Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily with radiolabelled crabs for two weeks; it then started to spawn every three days. Among the eight tracers, only (110m)Ag, (75)Se and (65)Zn were significantly transferred to the eggs. The radiotracer distribution among the egg compartments showed that (75)Se and (65)Zn were accumulated mainly in the vitellus whereas (110m)Ag was found in similar proportion in the vitellus and the eggshell. During the embryonic development, (75)Se and (65)Zn contained in the vitellus were progressively transferred to the embryo, likely to supply its metabolic needs in these essential elements. Although it has no known biological functions, Ag contained in both vitellus and eggshell was also transferred to the embryo. Overall, our results showed that transfer of Ag, Se, and Zn does actually occur from a female cuttlefish to its eggs, at least during the last two weeks before spawning. PMID:18342895

  7. Effects of feeding live or frozen prey on growth, survival and the life cycle of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

    2003-01-01

    The effects of feeding live or frozen grass shrimp (Palaemonetes varians) to the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, were determined in two experiments. During Experiment I, two populations of 30 cuttlefish (aged 90 days old) were fed either\\u000a live or frozen grass shrimp. Cuttlefish fed live shrimp grew larger, matured earlier, had a shorter life cycle (255 days)\\u000a than the ones fed

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the common cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanchao; Guo, Baoying; Li, Jiji; Qi, Pengzhi; Wu, Changwen

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the common cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis was determined first. The genome was 16,208?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)], the gene composition and order of which were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. pharaonis is T: 36.3%, C: 14.7%, A: 40.9% and G: 8.1%, with a hightly A?+?T bias of 77.2%. Two control regions all contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigations of the phylogenetic relationships, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:23725482

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the needle cuttlefish Sepia aculeata (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Baoying; Wang, Wanchao; Qi, Pengzhi; Wu, Changwen; Chen, Yongjiu; Lv, Zhenming

    2014-01-17

    Abstract In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the needle cuttlefish Sepia aculeata. The genome was 16,219?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)]. The composition and order of genes, for the mitogenome found in S. aculeate, were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. aculeata is T 34.0%, C 17.0%, A 40.5% and G 8.5%, with a highly A?+?T bias of 74.5%. Two control regions (CR) both contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:24438256

  10. Effect of body mass, temperature and food deprivation on oxygen consumption rate of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis Grigoriou; Christopher Allan Richardson

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of short and long term changes in Sepia officinalis metabolism are useful, since this species is both economically important for aquaculture and also is an ideal experimental\\u000a laboratory organism. In this study standard and routine oxygen consumption rates of newly hatched and juvenile laboratory\\u000a raised cuttlefish S. officinalis ranging between 0.04 and 18.48 g dry body mass (Dm), were measured

  11. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mäthger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

  12. Microbiological quality of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) fillets stored in dry and wet ice.

    PubMed

    Jeyasekaran, G; Jeya Shakila, R; Sukumar, D

    2012-10-01

    Microbiological quality of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) fillets stored in three different ice conditions was studied. Fillets stored in wet ice at a ratio of 1:1 (package III) were sensorially acceptable for only 18 h, while that stored in dry ice at 1:1 (package I) and combination of dry ice and wet ice at 1:0.2:0.5 (package II) were in acceptable condition up to 24 h without re-icing and thus there was an extension of shelf life by about 33%. Total bacterial load was 7 log?? cfu/g at the end of the storage period. Total psychrophilic population increased from zero to 7 log?? cfu/g while total lactic acid bacteria from zero to 5 log?? cfu/g. H?S producers were detected only at 18 h, with a count of 1 log?? cfu/g. Sulphite-reducing Clostridia increased gradually from zero to 110 most probable number count/g. Fresh cuttlefish fillets carried a bacterial flora of Micrococcus, Planococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, Proteus and Aeromonas. Pseudomonas was dominant in wet ice pack, while Aeromonas was dominant in both the dry ice and combination pack. Immediately after packing, the temperatures recorded in packages I, II and III were 10.5, 1.2 and 3.0?°C, respectively, which drastically decreased in 1 h and then maintained and finally increased gradually. The results indicate that use of combination of dry ice and wet ice is economical and very much useful to seafood industries, as this package considerably reduced the cost of air freight, as well as improved the quality and shelf life of cuttlefish. PMID:22414930

  13. Effects of stimuli shape and polarization in evoking deimatic patterns in the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, under varying turbidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Cartron, Lelia; Shashar, Nadav; Dickel, Ludovic; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Cuttlefish possess the complex ability to identify approaching threats and then to selectively express the appropriate defense. We examined the visual cues used by Sepia officinalis cuttlefish during predator detection and the responses they selected. Using computer-generated stimuli, we set out to quantitate the deimatic responses to artificial looming stimuli of different shapes and contrasts. Defensive behavior gradually intensified as geometrical shapes resembled an image of a fish. Therefore, in addition to an object's size or its sudden increase in size, cuttlefish use form recognition to identify a threat. Cuttlefish demonstrated equal performance in predator detection trough clear water when presented with intensity versus polarization contrasts. However, when the water turbidity increased, the cuttlefish still detected looming fish shapes based on polarization contrast even when intensity information alone did not suffice. These results demonstrate the interplay between intensity and polarization information transmission and processing in the spatial domain. As nectobenthic organisms, cuttlefish probably experience low visibility conditions on a regular basis. The ability to see further into turbid water and to better detect an approaching object would be beneficial for their survival. PMID:23549755

  14. The effects of feeding with shrimp or fish fry on growth and mantle lipid composition of juvenile and adult cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Almansa; Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Noemi Tejera; António Lorenzo; José P. Andrade

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) aged 60-day-old (age-group I) and 120-day-old (age-group II) were fed with live shrimp and live fish fry for 60 days, in order to study the diet influence on growth, mantle lipid composition, and astaxanthin content in the skin. The most noteworthy difference was the higher growth observed in shrimp-fed cuttlefish with respect to

  15. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

    2013-03-01

    Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison with 0.03-0.85kg/h in December-April. Seasonal catch rates indicated a migratory life cycle ofS. pharaonis between offshore and inshore coastal zones. PMID:23894959

  16. Accelerometry estimates field metabolic rate in giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama during breeding.

    PubMed

    Payne, Nicholas L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Seymour, Roger S; Webber, Dale M; Snelling, Edward P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2011-03-01

    1. Estimating the metabolic rate of animals in nature is central to understanding the physiological, behavioural and evolutionary ecology of animals. Doubly labelled water and heart-rate methods are the most commonly used approaches, but both have limitations that preclude their application to some systems. 2. Accelerometry has emerged as a powerful tool for estimating energy expenditure in a range of animals, but is yet to be used to estimate field metabolic rate in aquatic taxa. We combined two-dimensional accelerometry and swim-tunnel respirometry to estimate patterns of energy expenditure in giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama during breeding. 3. Both oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) and swimming speed showed strong positive associations with body acceleration, with coefficients of determination comparable to those using similar accelerometers on terrestrial vertebrates. Despite increased activity during the day, field metabolic rate rarely approached Vo2, and night-time Vo2 was similar to that at rest. 4. These results are consistent with the life-history strategy of this species, which has a poor capacity to exercise anaerobically, and a mating strategy that is visually based. With the logistical difficulties associated with observation in aquatic environments, accelerometry is likely to prove a valuable tool for estimating energy expenditure in aquatic animals. PMID:20880022

  17. Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

    2014-01-01

    The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

  18. Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Dupavillon, Jacqueline L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2009-01-01

    With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different concentrations of desalination brine on the growth, survival and condition of cuttlefish embryos were investigated. The primary egg-laying sites for the cuttlefish were in the vicinity of Stony Point (sites 4 and 3) and the area with the least egg abundance was on the eastern and western areas around Point Lowly (sites 9 and 7) where no eggs were found. The survival of embryos decreased with an increase in salinity, with no embryos surviving to full term in salinities greater than 50 per thousand. Mean weight and mantle length also decreased with increasing salinity. Besides elevated salinity, the brine also had increased concentrations of Ba, Ca, K, Sr and Mg relative to water near Point Lowly. Brine discharge from seawater desalination poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia. PMID:19332355

  19. Use of rotary shadowing electron microscopy to investigate the collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix of cuttle-fish ( Sepia officinalis) and chicken cartilage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Rigo; A. Bairati

    1998-01-01

    Collagen fibrils isolated from sternal cartilage of chick embryo and chondrocranium of cuttle-fish (Sepia officinalis) were examined with the electron microscope after rotary shadowing. The aim was to determine whether collagen fibrils from S. officinalis cartilage contained collagen molecules similar to the type IX collagen of vertebrate cartilage. Cartilage from both sources presented a highly variable appearance and only occasionally

  20. Properties of blend film based on cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin and mungbean protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Sazedul; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Songtipya, Ponusa

    2011-11-01

    Blend films based on cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) ventral skin gelatin (CG) and mungbean protein isolate (MPI) at different blend ratios (CG/MPI=10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 4:6, 2:8 and 0:10, w/w) prepared at pH 11 using 50% glycerol (based on total protein) as plasticizer were characterized. CG films incorporated with MPI at increasing amounts had the decreases in tensile strength (TS) (p<0.05). The increases in elongation at break (EAB) were observed when CG/MPI ratios of 6:4 or 4:6 were used (p<0.05). Decreased water vapor permeability (WVP) was obtained for films having the increasing proportion of MPI (p<0.05). CG/MPI blend films with higher MPI proportion had lower film solubility and L*-values (lightness) but higher b*-values (yellowness) and ?E*-values (total color difference) (p<0.05). Electrophoretic study revealed that disulfide bond was present in MPI and CG/MPI blend films. However, hydrogen bonds between CG and MPI in the film matrix were dominant, as elucidated from FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, thermal stability of CG/MPI blend film was improved as compared to that of films from respective single proteins. Differential scanning calorimetry result suggested solid-state morphology of CG/MPI (6:4) blend film that consisted of amorphous phase of partially miscible CG/MPI mixture and the coexisting two different order phases of individual CG and MPI domains. Thus, the incorporation of MPI into gelatin film could improve the properties of resulting blend film, which were governed by CG/MPI ratio. PMID:21762722

  1. Influence of environmental parameters on the life-history and population dynamics of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stefanie; Valls, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuel; Quetglas, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis constitutes an important fishery resource in the Mediterranean, where it is exploited by both the bottom trawl and small-scale fleet. However, there is currently scarce information on the Mediterranean stocks, since most studies on the population dynamics of this species have been undertaken in the northeast Atlantic. In this work we first analysed different aspects of the cuttlefish life-history from the western Mediterranean such as population structure, reproduction and the trade-offs between somatic condition and reproduction investments. Secondly, we investigated the effects of different environmental parameters (e.g. climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) and moon phase) on these populations, analysing several landing time series spanning the last 45 years. Our results revealed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations exhibit strong seasonal variations owing to a reproductive migration towards coastal waters. The positive relationships between somatic and reproductive condition pointed to an income breeder strategy; this was reinforced by the percentage of empty stomachs, which was lowest just before the reproductive period peak. Despite the putative high sensitivity of cephalopod populations to external abiotic factors, our results showed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations were not affected by most of the environmental parameters investigated. Significant effects were found for SST and a local climatic index, but no or very weak influences were evident for other parameters such as large-scale climatic phenomena (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation) or other locally-related variables (e.g. rainfall, Chla). Our results revealed a shift in the cuttlefish population dynamics in the early 1980s, which could be related to important changes in the local hydroclimatology reported by previous authors.

  2. Cuttlefish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arad M. (None; )

    2006-09-25

    Cuttlefish have the ability to change their skin coloring and pattern to match their surroundings. The cuttlefish uses this ability to camouflage, or hide, itself against its background and also to communicate with other ocean dwellers.

  3. Evidence for a specific short-term memory in the cuttlefish, Sepia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Véronique Agin; Ludovic Dickel; Raymond Chichery; Marie-Paule Chichery

    1998-01-01

    Cuttlefish quickly learn to inhibit their predatory motor pattern when shown prawns in a glass tube. The available literature suggests that cuttlefish show an excellent retention between 2 and 8 min, a recovery of the predatory responses around 20 min and good retention after 1 h of the training phase. These results have been considered as the product of two

  4. Effects of culture density and live prey on growth and survival of juvenile cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Domingues; R. Poirier; L. Dickel; E. Almansa; A. Sykes; J. P. Andrade

    2003-01-01

    The effects of culture density on growth and survival of juvenile cuttlefish were tested. Groups of 1, 3 and 5 hatchlings were placed in small containers with bottom surface of 80 cm2, obtaining individual densities of 125, 375 and 625 cuttlefish m-2, respectively. Additionally, groups of 5 hatchlings were placed in containers with 2 different bottom areas (80 and 240

  5. Effect of enriched natural diet on survival and growth of juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Koueta; E Boucaud-Camou; B Noel

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile cuttlefish hatched in the laboratory were reared for 30 days with different enriched diets, in spring and in summer. The groups fed an enriched natural diet exhibited a high rate of survival even when seawater quality decreased during the summer. The natural diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) induced faster growth in juvenile cuttlefish; the stimulating effect of

  6. Octopine metabolism in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis : Octopine production by muscle and its role as an aerobic substrate for non-muscular tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth B. Storey; Janet M. Storey

    1979-01-01

    1.The metabolism of the glycolytic end product, octopine, was investigated in vivo in the cuttlefish,Sepia officinalis. Octopine was the major mantle muscle end product produced during hypoxia, exhaustive swimming, or exhaustive swimming followed by hypoxia (muscle octopine rose from 0.2 to 3.7, 8.6, and 13.4 µmol\\/g wet wt. respectively). Octopine concentration was inversely correlated with muscle glycogen and arginine phosphate

  7. The effect of metal ions on lipid oxidation, colour and physicochemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis) subjected to multiple freeze–thaw cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amonrat Thanonkaew; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Eric A. Decker

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different metal ions at various concentrations (0, 5, 25ppm) on lipid oxidation, discolouration and physicochemical properties of muscle protein in cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) subjected to multiple freeze–thaw cycles, were investigated. Lipid oxidation of all treatments increased as the freeze–thaw cycle increased. However, the rate of the TBARS increases varied, depending on concentration, type and valency of the

  8. Dimorphic growth in male and female cuttlefish Sepia orbignyana (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae) from the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Giambattista

    2001-04-01

    The relationships between mantle length and number of cuttlebone chambers (or septa), and between weight and number of cuttlebone chambers were studied in Sepia orbignyana collected in the south-western Adriatic Sea. Weight-at-chamber count and mantle length-at-chamber count were statistically higher in females than in males. As the available literature suggests that the rate of cuttlebone septum formation is the same in both sexes of Sepia species, it follows that in S. orbignyana females have higher growth rates than males.

  9. Changes in composition of digestive gland and mantle muscle of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis during starvation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Castro; J. L. Garrido; C. G. Sotelo

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the biochemical composition of the digestive gland and in the proteins of the mantle muscle of Sepia officinalis L, collected in September 1989 from the Ria de Vigo (northwest Spain), were measured during periods of 2, 4, 10 and >53 d starvation. The digestive gland lost weight faster than the rest of the body throughout the whole period

  10. The Functional Organization of the Brain of the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Boycott

    1961-01-01

    The functional organization of the brain of Sepia has been investigated by electrical stimulation. As a result several new divisions of the brain have been made. The pedal ganglion has been shown to consist of four parts: (1) the anterior chromatophore lobes innervating the skin and muscles of the anterior part of the head and arms; (2) the anterior pedal

  11. Behavioural responses of juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to local water movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spogmai Komak; Jean G. Boal; Ludovic Dickel; Bernd U. Budelmann

    2005-01-01

    Physiological studies have shown that the epidermal head and arm lines in cephalopods are a mechanoreceptive system that is similar to the fish and amphibian lateral lines (Budelmann BU, Bleckmann H. 1988. A lateral line analogue in cephalopods: Water waves generate microphonic potentials in the epidermal head lines of Sepia officinalis and Lolliguncula brevis. J. Comp. Physiol. A 164:1–5.); however,

  12. Cryptic and biochemical responses of young cuttlefish Sepia officinalis exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Di Poi, Carole; Bidel, Flavie; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants released in the environment have the potential to generate neural disrupting effects in non-target organisms, yet their putative effects on behaviors have never been studied in cephalopod molluscs. This study assessed the impact of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) on the efficiency of cryptic behaviors (body patterns on uniform, checkerboard and sandy substrates), locomotor activity, and brain chemistry in young cuttlefish exposed to environmental concentrations (1 and 100ngL(-1) of FLX) during the perinatal period. Behavioral responses of cuttlefish were monitored at hatching and two weeks later, and brain monoamine contents were quantified at one month of age. FLX significantly altered the camouflage efficiencies on uniform and sandy backgrounds only at the lowest concentration, but not at 100ngL(-1). Hatchlings exposed to 1ngL(-1) of FLX exhibited a duration exposure-dependent decrease in the uniform camouflage. They also showed a significant increase of the frequency of sand digging behaviors which might make them highly visible to predators in nature. When tested again two weeks later, cuttlefish seemed to have recovered and no more behavioral alterations were observed showing a transitory effect of the antidepressant. FLX did not affect the levels of serotonin, norepinephrine and their metabolites; however, it seemed to influence dopaminergic activity between the two FLX-exposed groups. The results show for the time that environmentally realistic concentrations of a single SSRI significantly impair the cryptic performances of newly hatched cuttlefish, and may ultimately reduce their chance for survival. PMID:24439571

  13. Food intake and growth in reared early juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Koueta; E. Boucaud-Camou

    1999-01-01

    Experimental rearing of juvenile cuttlefish was carried out in a semi-closed system for 40 days at 19°C. Different quantities of live food were offered to isolated animals. The actual ingestion rate was enhanced by the amount of food offered, this tendency decreasing with age. Frozen food was ingested at the same rate, but was less effective than live food for

  14. Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor1 distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor1 distribution in the common cuttlefish.lepabic@gmx.fr20 21 Abstract22 The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study23 was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory24 and digestive

  15. Influence of temperature, hypercapnia, and development on the relative expression of different hemocyanin isoforms in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Hu, Marian Y A; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lieb, Bernhard; Lucassen, Magnus; Melzner, Frank; Pörtner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

    2012-12-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis expresses several hemocyanin isoforms with potentially different pH optima, indicating their reliance on efficient pH regulation in the blood. Ongoing ocean warming and acidification could influence the oxygen-binding properties of respiratory pigments in ectothermic marine invertebrates. This study examined whether S. officinalis differentially expresses individual hemocyanin isoforms to maintain optimal oxygen transport during development and acclimation to elevated seawater pCO(2) and temperature. Using quantitative PCR, we measured relative mRNA expression levels of three different hemocyanin isoforms in several ontogenetic stages (embryos, hatchlings, juveniles, and adults), under different temperatures and elevated seawater pCO(2). Our results indicate moderately altered hemocyanin expression in all embryonic stages acclimated to higher pCO(2), while hemocyanin expression in hatchlings and juveniles remained unaffected. During the course of development, total hemocyanin expression increased independently of pCO(2) or thermal acclimation status. Expression of isoform 3 is reported for the first time in a cephalopod in this study and was found to be generally low but highest in the embryonic stages (0.2% of total expression). Despite variable hemocyanin expression, hemolymph total protein concentrations remained constant in the experimental groups. Our data provide first evidence that ontogeny has a stronger influence on hemocyanin isoform expression than the environmental conditions chosen, and they suggest that hemocyanin protein abundance in response to thermal acclimation is regulated by post-transcriptional/translational rather than by transcriptional modifications. PMID:22791630

  16. Characterization of Homeobox Genes Reveals Sophisticated Regionalization of the Central Nervous System in the European Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  17. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: radiotracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T; Warnau, M; Metian, M; Oberhänsli, F; Rouleau, C; Bustamante, P

    2009-12-01

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved (203)Hg and (210)Pb were determined during the entire embryonic development of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50d at 17 degrees C). (203)Hg and (210)Pb were accumulated continuously by the eggs all along the development time reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 467+/-43 and 1301+/-126g, respectively. During the first month, most of the (203)Hg and (210)Pb remained associated with the eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From this time onwards, (203)Hg accumulated in the embryo, indicating that it passed through the eggshell, whereas (210)Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a significant source of exposure for the embryo. This study highlighted that the maturing embryo could be subjected to the toxic effects of Hg in the coastal waters where the embryonic development is taking place. PMID:19783030

  18. Using the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) mass breeding aggregation to explore the life cycle of dicyemid parasites.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R; Whittington, Ian D; Donnellan, Stephen C; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2013-12-01

    Dicyemid mesozoan parasites, microscopic organisms found with high intensities in the renal appendages of benthic cephalopods, have a complex, partially unknown life cycle. It is uncertain at which host life cycle stage (i.e. eggs, juvenile, adult) new infection by the dispersive infusoriform embryo occurs. As adult cephalopods have a short lifespan and die shortly after reproducing only once, and juveniles are fast-moving, we hypothesize that the eggs are the life cycle stage where new infection occurs. Eggs are abundant and sessile, allowing a huge number of new individuals to be infected with low energy costs, and they also provide dicyemids with the maximum amount of time for survival compared with infection of juvenile and adult stages. In our study we collected giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) eggs at different stages of development and filtered seawater samples from the S. apama mass breeding aggregation area in South Australia, Australia, and tested these samples for the presence of dicyemid DNA. We did not recover dicyemid parasite cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences from any of the samples, suggesting eggs are not the stage where new infection occurs. To resolve this unknown in the dicyemid life cycle, we believe experimental infection is needed. PMID:24338325

  19. Functional properties of gelatin from cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis) skin as affected by bleaching using hydrogen peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanong Aewsiri; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan

    2009-01-01

    Functional properties of gelatin from dorsal and ventral skin of cuttlefish with and without bleaching by H2O2 at different concentrations (2% and 5% (w\\/v)) for 24 and 48h were studied. Gelatin from skin bleached with 5% H2O2 for 48h showed the highest yield (49.65% and 72.88% for dorsal and ventral skin, respectively). Bleaching not only improved the colour of gelatin

  20. Basic growth relations in experimental rearing of early juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Koueta; E Boucaud-Camou

    2001-01-01

    Basic growth relations were studied in experimental rearing of juvenile cuttlefish during 40 days. Eleven different rations of food were offered in order to establish the maintenance, optimum, and maximum rations during the early life of these animals. The maintenance ration, 2–3.5% of body weight, decreased with age. The optimum rations were, respectively, 16.2%, 14% and 9% during 10, 20

  1. Octopuses ( Octopus bimaculoides ) and cuttlefishes ( Sepia pharaonis , S. officinalis ) can conditionally discriminate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren M. Hvorecny; Jessica L. Grudowski; Carrie J. Blakeslee; Tiffany L. Simmons; Paula R. Roy; Jennifer A. Brooks; Rachel M. Hanner; Marie E. Beigel; Miranda A. Karson; Rachel H. Nichols; Johanna B. Holm; Jean Geary Boal

    2007-01-01

    In complex navigation using landmarks, an animal must discriminate between potential cues and show context (condition) sensitivity.\\u000a Such conditional discrimination is considered a form of complex learning and has been associated primarily with vertebrates.\\u000a We tested the hypothesis that octopuses and cuttlefish are capable of conditional discrimination. Subjects were trained in\\u000a two maze configurations (the conditions) in which they were

  2. The effects of season and sex in the metal levels of mature common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) in Mersin Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Deniz; Ozogul, Yesim

    2011-05-01

    The effects of sex and season on metal levels of the mantle of the common cuttlefish that was caught from Mersin Bay were evaluated. The annual range of mantle length (ML), total length (TL), and weight of common cuttlefish specimens were 110 to 183 mm, 380 to 581 mm, and 150.24 to 477.13 g, respectively. The annual range of metal levels in the mantle tissue of common cuttlefish were: 2.34 to 3.89 ?g Cd g(-1), 0.30 to 0.63 ?g Cr g(-1), 0.15 to 0.54 ?g Pb g(-1), 2.35 to 14.90 ?g Cu g(-1), 23.22 to 51.88 ?g Zn g(-1), and 5.12 to 10.65 ?g Fe g(-1). Cu levels of females were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those found in male throughout all the seasons while Pb levels were lower (P < 0.05) in males than females. Cr levels in the mantle tissue of cuttlefish did not change throughout the seasons. On the contrary, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe levels in the mantle tissue of cuttlefish changed throughout all the seasons. The highest Cd, Zn, and Fe levels were obtained in spring while the highest Cu levels were obtained in autumn. It was also found out that this species was rich in terms of metal levels, particularly, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe. It was found out that the mantle tissue of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, which was caught from Mersin Bay, was contaminated with Cd in all the seasons. PMID:22417374

  3. Depth perception: cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual texture density gradients.

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Mann, Ofri; Sykes, António V; Fiorito, Graziano; Reis, João; Maccusker, Steven; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-11-01

    Studies concerning the perceptual processes of animals are not only interesting, but are fundamental to the understanding of other developments in information processing among non-humans. Carefully used visual illusions have been proven to be an informative tool for understanding visual perception. In this behavioral study, we demonstrate that cuttlefish are responsive to visual cues involving texture gradients. Specifically, 12 out of 14 animals avoided swimming over a solid surface with a gradient picture that to humans resembles an illusionary crevasse, while only 5 out of 14 avoided a non-illusionary texture. Since texture gradients are well-known cues for depth perception in vertebrates, we suggest that these cephalopods were responding to the depth illusion created by the texture density gradient. Density gradients and relative densities are key features in distance perception in vertebrates. Our results suggest that they are fundamental features of vision in general, appearing also in cephalopods. PMID:24942108

  4. Differential bioaccumulation behaviour of Ag and Cd during the early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T; Warnau, M; Oberhänsli, F; Teyssié, J-L; Koueta, N; Bustamante, P

    2008-02-18

    Cuttlefish eggs were exposed to background concentrations of dissolved Ag and Cd, using the radiotracers (110m)Ag and (109)Cd. At different time of the embryonic development (50 days), some eggs were placed in non-contaminating conditions. During the experiment, the uptake and depuration kinetics, and distribution of these metals among the egg compartments (i.e. eggshell, vitellus, peri-vitelline fluid and embryo) were assessed. In parallel, experiments were conducted with sub-lethal concentrations of stable Ag and Cd (2 and 1 microgl(-1), respectively) to compare the metal behaviour at higher concentrations. From the spawning date up to 1 month of development, both metals were taken up efficiently by the eggs, reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 1059+/-75 and 239+/-22 for (110m)Ag and (109)Cd, respectively. From this time onwards, (110m)Ag activity continued to increase in eggs, whereas (109)Cd kinetics displayed a significant decrease. Whatever the developmental stage, Cd was mainly associated with the eggshell all along the exposure experiment. In addition, both stable Cd concentrations and (109)Cd LCR remained low in the embryo all along the embryonic development, indicating that the eggshell acted as an efficient shield against the penetration of this metal. In contrast, (110m)Ag passed through the eggshell from day 30 onwards and was then accumulated in the embryo, which contained more than 40% of the whole egg metal burden at the end of the exposure period. In depuration conditions, it is noteworthy that Ag continued to accumulate in the embryo indicating translocation processes from the eggshell and a high affinity of the metal for the embryo tissues. Overall our results showed that at day 30 of the embryonic development the cuttlefish eggshell becomes permeable to Ag but not to Cd. Exposure to stable metals confirmed the saturation capacities of the eggshell for Cd and the Ag penetration properties. PMID:18243362

  5. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4?L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P < 0.05) as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and ?-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins. PMID:22312455

  6. Variation of heavy metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, V, and Zn) during the life cycle of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Miramand, Pierre; Bustamante, Paco; Bentley, Daniel; Kouéta, Noussithé

    2006-05-15

    The developmental changes in the concentration of 8 essential and non-essential heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Pb, V, Zn) in the tissues (digestive gland, cuttlebone and whole animal) of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis collected in the bay of the river Seine were monitored from the end of the embryogenesis until the adult reproductive stage. Compared to embryos, juveniles after hatching displayed much higher concentrations of Ag, Cu, Fe and Zn, suggesting an efficient incorporation from seawater. Conversely, the amounts of Cd, Pb and V in hatchlings remained constant suggesting that these metals are barely bioavailable for juveniles. Once the juveniles start to feed, the digestive gland appears to play a major role in the storage of all metals. After only one month of benthic life, the digestive gland already contains up to 90% of the total metal body burden, indicating that it plays a major role in the storage and presumed detoxification of the selected metals. Metal concentrations in the digestive gland increase in a logarithmic fashion with age during the entire life of cuttlefish, except for Ag, which decreases as soon as cuttlefish migrate to open sea. This strongly suggests that (1) Ag is excreted from the digestive gland in relation to presumably lower exposure in less contaminated environments compared to coastal waters and (2) the digestive gland of cephalopods could be a very good indicator of Ag contamination in the marine environment. PMID:16336990

  7. Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

    2012-07-01

    The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

  8. Growth and survival of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) of different ages fed crustaceans and fish. Effects of frozen and live prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Anne Sommerfield; Eduardo Almansa; António Lorenzo; José P. Andrade

    2004-01-01

    Three feeding experiments, using live mysid shrimp, grass shrimp or fish fry as prey for 1-, 30- and 60-day-old cuttlefish were conducted to determine the efficiency of each dietary source in relation to cuttlefish size and age. Additionally, a fourth experiment using fish fry and grass shrimp, but previously frozen, was also conducted. The results showed that when 1-day-old cuttlefish

  9. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 ?m×12.2 ?m. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 ?m2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 ?m×12.1 ?m. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 ?m×5.5 ?m. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231

  10. To be seen or to hide: visual characteristics of body patterns for camouflage and communication in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, S; How, M J; Osorio, D; Hanlon, R T; Marshall, N J

    2011-05-01

    It might seem obvious that a camouflaged animal must generally match its background whereas to be conspicuous an organism must differ from the background. However, the image parameters (or statistics) that evaluate the conspicuousness of patterns and textures are seldom well defined, and animal coloration patterns are rarely compared quantitatively with their respective backgrounds. Here we examine this issue in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama. We confine our analysis to the best-known and simplest image statistic, the correlation in intensity between neighboring pixels. Sepia apama can rapidly change their body patterns from assumed conspicuous signaling to assumed camouflage, thus providing an excellent and unique opportunity to investigate how such patterns differ in a single visual habitat. We describe the intensity variance and spatial frequency power spectra of these differing body patterns and compare these patterns with the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The measured image statistics of camouflaged animals closely resemble their backgrounds, while signaling animals differ significantly from their backgrounds. Our findings may provide the basis for a set of general rules for crypsis and signals. Furthermore, our methods may be widely applicable to the quantitative study of animal coloration. PMID:21508613

  11. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Jeffree, R.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-05-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we are testing the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the hatchlings weight at the end of development implying egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower pH of incubation seawater of eggs, the more the hatchlings accumulated 110m Ag in their tissues. The 109Cd CF decreased with increasing pH and 65Zn CF reached the maximal values pH 7.85, independent of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and the embryo metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the ocean acidification and ocean warming consequences on the metal uptake in marine organisms, stimulating further interest to evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stage of the cuttlefish.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genomes of deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola), bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis), and their application to the phylogenetic analysis of Decapodiformes.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yuumi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Akasaki, Tetsuya; Nikaido, Masato; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Segawa, Susumu; Okada, Norihiro

    2013-12-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola; supperfamily Bathyteuthoidea), the bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica; order Sepiolida) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis; order Sepiida). The unique structures of the mt genomes of Bathyteuthis and Semirossia provide new information about the evolution of decapodiform mt genomes. We show that the mt genome of B. abyssicola, like those of other oegopsids studied so far, has two long duplicated regions that include seven genes (COX1-3, ATP6 and ATP8, tRNA(Asn), and either ND2 or ND3) and that one of the duplicated COX3 genes has lost its function. The mt genome of S. patagonica is unlike any other decapodiforms and, like Nautilus, its ATP6 and ATP8 genes are not adjacent to each other. The four giant cuttlefish have identical mt gene order to other cuttlefish determined to date. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods suggest that traditional order Sepioidea (Sepiolida+Sepiida) is paraphyletic and Sepia (cuttlefish) has the sister-relationship with all other decapodiforms. Taking both the phylogenetic analyses and the mt gene order analyses into account, it is likely that the octopus-type mt genome is an ancestral state and that it had maintained from at least the Cephalopoda ancestor to the common ancestor of Oegopsida, Myopsida and Sepiolida. PMID:23811434

  13. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Ross, J.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-11-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2; pH 8.1 (pCO2, 400 ppm), 7.85 (900 ppm) and 7.6 (1400 ppm) at 16 and 19°C, respectively) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the weight of hatchlings at the end of development implying an egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower the seawater pH, the more 110 mAg was accumulated in the tissues of hatchlings. The 109Cd concentration factor (CF) decreased with decreasing pH and 65Zn CF reached maximal values pH 7.85, independently of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and embryonic metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the consequences of ocean acidification and ocean warming on metal uptake in marine organisms, and our results indicate the need to further evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish.

  14. Rearing of Cuttlefishes and Squids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Choe; YASUO OHSHIMA

    1963-01-01

    WE have succeeded (through improving the feed during the earlier stages after hatching) in rearing three species of the cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta Hoyle, Sepia subaculeata Sasaki and Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune) and two species of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana Lesson and Euprymna beryii Sasaki)1. The main points to note in rearing these animals are as follows:

  15. Postembryonic Maturation of the Vertical Lobe Complex and Early Development of Predatory Behavior in the Cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Dickel; Marie-Paule Chichery; Raymond Chichery

    1997-01-01

    In two groups of newly hatched cuttlefish, from eggs incubated at different temperatures, the emergence of predatory pursuit was correlated with the development of some characteristics of the vertical lobe complex (namely, the development of the vertical and superior frontal lobes and the appearance of the vertical–subvertical lobe tracts) and with the state of resorption of the inner yolk sac.

  16. The influence of culture density and enriched environments on the first stage culture of young cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António V. Sykes; Pedro M. Domingues; Maria Loyd; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

    2003-01-01

    The culture of Sepia officinalis hatchlings and juveniles at different densities and enriched environments was investigated. Experiments were conducted to\\u000a determine effects of culture density and the use of a substrate on growth and survival. Experiment I studied the effect of\\u000a three different densities (52, 515 and 1544 hatchlings m?2). Experiment II tested the effects of the enriched environment, using

  17. Absence of formation of benzo[a]pyrene/DNA adducts in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.G.; Lu, L.J.W.; Salazar, J.J.; Holoubek, V. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) injected intramuscularly into the base of the arms of cuttlefish was released continuously from the injection site and removed from the organism. Only a portion of the compound accumulated in the body. Twenty-four hr after its injection, 75% of B[a]P applied in olive oil was removed from the cuttlefish, and 1.2% was found in the body outside the head, in site of injection. If the carcinogen was dissolved in dimethylformamide, the removal of B[a]P was slower, so that only 18% of the injected B[a]P was removed from the organism and 0.36% accumulated in the body outside the head 24 hr after injection. The high level of B[a]P in gills and hemolymph 4 hr after injection and the kinetics of the decrease of its concentration with time indicate that these two organs could be involved in the excretion of B[a]P from the body. The B[a]P/DNA adducts characteristic for vertebrates could not be demonstrated in gills, skin, brain, hepatopancreas, and lymphocytes of the cuttlefish 24 hr after injection. The dose of the carcinogene injected into the cuttlefish was 2-4 times higher than the dose resulting in the formation of a high level of B[a]P/DNA adducts in vertebrates. A different metabolism of B[a]P in the tissue of cephalopods, compared to vertebrates, could be less favorable to the process leading to malignant transformation and could explain the absence from the literature of reports of tumors in cephalopods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Behavioural and genetic assessment of reproductive success in a spawning aggregation of the Australian giant cuttlefish, Sepia apama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-José Naud; Roger T. Hanlon; Karina C. Hall; Paul W. Shaw; Jonathan N. Havenhand

    2004-01-01

    The only known spawning aggregation of cuttlefish occurs in winter in southern Australia. The operational sex ratio in this aggregation is highly skewed towards males (range 11:1 to 4:1). Using SCUBA, we videotaped females as they mated with up to six males\\/h. Females rejected and accepted mates of any status or size. We obtained individual eggs and tissue samples from

  19. Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and responses to the Ag and Cu exposure.

    PubMed

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T; Bustamante, P; Hörlin, E; Luna-Acosta, A; Bado-Nilles, A; Thomas-Guyon, H

    2009-09-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) system catalyzing the melanin production is considered as implicated in the innate immune system in invertebrates. The phenoloxidase (PO)-like activity was detected in the cuttlefish embryo sampled at the end of the organogenesis and few hours before hatching. Various modulators of the PO activity were used to assess the triggering of the proPO activating system. The results demonstrated the evidence of a true PO activity in the cuttlefish embryo. However, SDS and LPS granted contrasting effects on the PO-like activity between the developmental stages suggesting a progressive maturation of the proPO system from the embryonic to the juvenile stages. In eggs exposed to dissolved trace metals all along the embryonic development, Ag (1.2 microg L(-1)) inhibited the PO-like activity in the cuttlefish embryo except at hatching time, suggesting the synthesis of a new "juvenile" form of the PO enzyme. In similar conditions as for Ag, Cu (230 microg L(-1)) stimulated and then inhibited the PO-like activity according to a progressive metal accumulation within the egg and suggesting the occurrence of a threshold, above which the toxicity of the essential metal reduced the PO activity. PMID:19616632

  20. Visual interpolation for contour completion by the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and its use in dynamic camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, Sarah; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Cuttlefish rapidly change their appearance in order to camouflage on a given background in response to visual parameters, giving us access to their visual perception. Recently, it was shown that isolated edge information is sufficient to elicit a body pattern very similar to that used when a whole object is present. Here, we examined contour completion in cuttlefish by assaying body pattern responses to artificial backgrounds of ‘objects’ formed from fragmented circles, these same fragments rotated on their axis, and with the fragments scattered over the background, as well as positive (full circles) and negative (homogenous background) controls. The animals displayed similar responses to the full and fragmented circles, but used a different body pattern in response to the rotated and scattered fragments. This suggests that they completed the broken circles and recognized them as whole objects, whereas rotated and scattered fragments were instead interpreted as small, individual objects in their own right. We discuss our findings in the context of achieving accurate camouflage in the benthic shallow-water environment. PMID:22337697

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences – a case study using trawl fishery data in French Atlantic coastal, English Channel, and adjacent waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Wang; Graham J. Pierce; Peter R. Boyle; Vincent Denis; Jean-paul Robin; Jose M. Bellido

    2003-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of cuttlefish abundance and the relationships between cuttlefish abundance and environmental variables in the French Atlantic coast, the English Channel, and adjacent waters were studied using both geographical information system and statistical methods. Cuttlefish have a clear general annual migration pattern, consistently occurring in broadly the same areas in different years. The strength of

  2. Sexually mature cuttlefish are attracted to the eggs of conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Boal, Jean G; Prosser, Krista N; Holm, Johanna B; Simmons, Tiffany L; Haas, Robert E; Nagle, Gregg T

    2010-08-01

    Cuttlefish typically are solitary, but form aggregations to spawn. We tested the hypothesis that bioactive factors in the eggs of conspecifics may facilitate the formation of spawning groups of Sepia officinalis. Cuttlefish detected odors from cuttlefish eggs, resulting in an increased ventilation rate. Extracts from female ovaries induced the largest increase in ventilation rate, suggesting that this organ could be a potential source of the bioactive chemicals. In y-maze assays, sexually mature, but not subadult, cuttlefish, were attracted to odors of cuttlefish eggs. These data suggest that Sepia eggs could be a source of reproductive pheromones. PMID:20593225

  3. The scaling effects of substrate texture on camouflage patterning in cuttlefish Chuan-Chin Chiao a,b,*, Charles Chubb c

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    The scaling effects of substrate texture on camouflage patterning in cuttlefish Chuan-Chin Chiao a pattern Crypsis Sepia officinalis Defense a b s t r a c t Camouflage is the primary defense in cuttlefish in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Substrate textures were white noise pat- terns first filtered into various

  4. Time differences in the emergence of short- and long-term memory during post-embryonic development in the cuttlefish, Sepia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovic Dickel; Marie-Paule Chichery; Raymond Chichery

    1998-01-01

    When shown prawns in a glass tube, cuttlefish quickly learn to inhibit their predatory behaviour. The available literature suggests that cuttlefish show an excellent retention between 2 and 8 min, a recovery of the predatory responses around 20 min, and good retention after 1 h of the training phase. These results have been interpreted as the product of separate short-

  5. Cuttlefish use polarization sensitivity in predation on silvery fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadav Shashar; Roland Hagan; Jean G Boal; Roger T Hanlon

    2000-01-01

    Cephalopods are sensitive to the linear polarization characteristics of light. To examine if this polarization sensitivity plays a role in the predatory behavior of cuttlefish, we examined the preference of Sepia officinalis when presented with fish whose polarization reflection was greatly reduced versus fish whose polarization reflection was not affected. Cuttlefish preyed preferably on fish with normal polarization reflection over

  6. Variation of heavy metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, V, and Zn) during the life cycle of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    contaminated environments compare to coastal waters and (2) the digestive gland of cephalopod could be a very; detoxification; cephalopods; sexual maturity; embryogenesis INTRODUCTION As other cephalopods, the cuttlefish to be shared by many other species of cephalopods, octopodidae, teuthoidae or nautilidae (Rocca, 1969; Nardi et

  7. The effects of temperature in the life cycle of two consecutive generations of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), cultured in the Algarve (South Portugal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

    2002-01-01

    We are presently culturing the 4th generation of thecuttlefish, Sepia officinalis in our laboratory. A firstgeneration (F1) was grown from eggs collected from the wild (Ria Formosa–South Portugal) during the summer, at mean temperatures of 27°C ± 3°. In the present study, a second generation(F2), originated from eggs laid in the laboratory by females from F1 wascultured between the start

  8. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light. PMID:21075936

  9. Adaptable night camouflage by cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Roger T; Naud, Marie-José; Forsythe, John W; Hall, Karina; Watson, Anya C; McKechnie, Joy

    2007-04-01

    Cephalopods are well known for their diverse, quick-changing camouflage in a wide range of shallow habitats worldwide. However, there is no documentation that cephalopods use their diverse camouflage repertoire at night. We used a remotely operated vehicle equipped with a video camera and a red light to conduct 16 transects on the communal spawning grounds of the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama situated on a temperate rock reef in southern Australia. Cuttlefish ceased sexual signaling and reproductive behavior at dusk and then settled to the bottom and quickly adapted their body patterns to produce camouflage that was tailored to different backgrounds. During the day, only 3% of cuttlefish were camouflaged on the spawning ground, but at night 86% (71 of 83 cuttlefish) were camouflaged in variations of three body pattern types: uniform (n=5), mottled (n=33), or disruptive (n=34) coloration. The implication is that nocturnal visual predators provide the selective pressure for rapid, changeable camouflage patterning tuned to different visual backgrounds at night. PMID:17427123

  10. Sensory evoked potentials in unanesthetized unrestrained cuttlefish: a new preparation for brain physiology in cephalopods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore H. Bullock; Bernd U. Budelmann

    1991-01-01

    Up to five microelectrodes inserted through short hypodermic needles in the cranial cartilage of Sepia officinalis recorded potentials while the cuttlefish moved freely in a small enclosure. Compound field potentials and unit spikes were seen during ongoing, spontaneous activity and after sensory stimulation.

  11. Can cuttlefish learn by observing others?

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Ling; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2013-05-01

    Observational learning is the ability to learn through observing others' behavior. The benefit of observational learning is apparent in that individuals can save time and energy without trial-and-error, thus enhance the chance of survival and reproduction. Cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) have the most sophisticated central nervous system among invertebrates, and it is conceivable that cephalopods can develop some forms of cognition. Although it has been suggested that octopuses have the capacity of observational learning, a previous study indicates that cuttlefish do not improve their predation tactics by observing conspecifics. Given that the danger avoidance is important for animals' survival, we sought to reevaluate whether cuttlefish show some form of observational learning or observational conditioning under threatening conditions. Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) were divided into three groups: the Experiencer group, the Observer group, and the Control group. In the training phase, a toy submarine was remotely controlled to expel the cuttlefish from its initially preferred place to establish the threat-place association in the Experiencer group. In the Observer group, the threat-place association was established by expelling a conspecific demonstrator at the observer's initially preferred place while the observer watched the whole process from behind a transparent divider. In the Control group, the observer watched a conspecific and a static toy submarine without actual threat. In the testing phase, the choice of safe place in the absence of threat was used to probe the learning/conditioning of cuttlefish. In the Experiencer group, we found that animals chose the safe place more often than their initially preferred place after training, an indication of the association learning/conditioning. However, in the Observer group, only a subset of animals showed this threat-place association by observation, while the place preference was unchanged in the Control group. These results indicate that most cuttlefish did not learn by observing others, but individual differences exist, and some cuttlefish may have the potential of observational learning/conditioning within their cognitive capacities. PMID:23100087

  12. Nine novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) muscle protein hydrolysates and antihypertensive effect of the potent active peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; Sila, Assaâd; Guillochon, Didier; Dhulster, Pascal; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to identify novel ACE inhibitory peptides from the muscle of cuttlefish. Proteins were hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were then subjected to various types of chromatography to isolate the active peptides. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated and their molecular masses and amino acid sequences were determined using ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS, respectively. The structures of the most potent peptides were identified as Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro, Ala-Phe-Val-Gly-Tyr-Val-Leu-Pro and Glu-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro. The first peptide displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 5.22?M. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro acts as a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE. Furthermore, antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) also revealed that oral administration of Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro can decrease systolic blood pressure significantly (p<0.01). These results suggest that the Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro would be a beneficial ingredient for nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals acting against hypertension and its related diseases. PMID:25306378

  13. Cuttlefish use visual cues to determine arm postures for camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve effective visual camouflage, prey organisms must combine cryptic coloration with the appropriate posture and behaviour to render them difficult to be detected or recognized. Body patterning has been studied in various taxa, yet body postures and their implementation on different backgrounds have seldom been studied experimentally. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), masters of rapid adaptive camouflage, use visual cues from adjacent visual stimuli to control arm postures. Cuttlefish were presented with a square wave stimulus (period = 0.47 cm; black and white stripes) that was angled 0°, 45° or 90° relative to the animals' horizontal body axis. Cuttlefish positioned their arms parallel, obliquely or transversely to their body axis according to the orientation of the stripes. These experimental results corroborate our field observations of cuttlefish camouflage behaviour in which flexible, precise arm posture is often tailored to match nearby objects. By relating the cuttlefishes' visual perception of backgrounds to their versatile postural behaviour, our results highlight yet another of the many flexible and adaptive anti-predator tactics adopted by cephalopods. PMID:21561967

  14. CUTTLEFISH CAMOUFLAGE: VISUAL PERCEPTION OF SIZE, CONTRAST AND NUMBER OF WHITE SQUARES ON ARTIFICIAL CHECKERBOARD SUBSTRATA INITIATES DISRUPTIVE COLORATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; ROGER T. HANLON

    We investigated some visual background features that influence young cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, to change their skin patterning from 'general resemblance' of the substratum to disruptive coloration that breaks up their body form. Using computer-generated black\\/white checkerboard patterns as substrata, we first found that the size of the white squares had to be within a certain narrow range (relative to the

  15. Vertical visual features have a strong influence on cuttlefish camouflage.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, K M; Buresch, K C; Kossodo, M M; Mäthger, L M; Siemann, L A; Hanlon, R T

    2013-04-01

    Cuttlefish and other cephalopods use visual cues from their surroundings to adaptively change their body pattern for camouflage. Numerous previous experiments have demonstrated the influence of two-dimensional (2D) substrates (e.g., sand and gravel habitats) on camouflage, yet many marine habitats have varied three-dimensional (3D) structures among which cuttlefish camouflage from predators, including benthic predators that view cuttlefish horizontally against such 3D backgrounds. We conducted laboratory experiments, using Sepia officinalis, to test the relative influence of horizontal versus vertical visual cues on cuttlefish camouflage: 2D patterns on benthic substrates were tested versus 2D wall patterns and 3D objects with patterns. Specifically, we investigated the influence of (i) quantity and (ii) placement of high-contrast elements on a 3D object or a 2D wall, as well as (iii) the diameter and (iv) number of 3D objects with high-contrast elements on cuttlefish body pattern expression. Additionally, we tested the influence of high-contrast visual stimuli covering the entire 2D benthic substrate versus the entire 2D wall. In all experiments, visual cues presented in the vertical plane evoked the strongest body pattern response in cuttlefish. These experiments support field observations that, in some marine habitats, cuttlefish will respond to vertically oriented background features even when the preponderance of visual information in their field of view seems to be from the 2D surrounding substrate. Such choices highlight the selective decision-making that occurs in cephalopods with their adaptive camouflage capability. PMID:23677976

  16. Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration of multiple visual cues.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Buresch, Kendra C; Sogin, Emilia; Schwartz, Jillian; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-04-01

    Prey camouflage is an evolutionary response to predation pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camouflage capabilities and studying them can offer insight into effective camouflage design. Here, we examine whether cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, show substrate or camouflage pattern preferences. In the first two experiments, cuttlefish were presented with a choice between different artificial substrates or between different natural substrates. First, the ability of cuttlefish to show substrate preference on artificial and natural substrates was established. Next, cuttlefish were offered substrates known to evoke three main camouflage body pattern types these animals show: Uniform or Mottle (function by background matching); or Disruptive. In a third experiment, cuttlefish were presented with conflicting visual cues on their left and right sides to assess their camouflage response. Given a choice between substrates they might encounter in nature, we found no strong substrate preference except when cuttlefish could bury themselves. Additionally, cuttlefish responded to conflicting visual cues with mixed body patterns in both the substrate preference and split substrate experiments. These results suggest that differences in energy costs for different camouflage body patterns may be minor and that pattern mixing and symmetry may play important roles in camouflage. PMID:19955155

  17. Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.

    PubMed

    Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

  18. Preparing the Perfect Cuttlefish Meal: Complex Prey Handling by Dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

  19. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and FTIR characterization of the sepia melanin pigment used in works of art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Silvia A.; Shamir, Jacob

    2008-02-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and FTIR were used for the vibrational characterization of the sepia melanin pigment extracted from the cuttlefish or Sepia officinalis, a material used in works of art from at least the late 18th century. The heterogeneous polymeric nature of the pigment, together with its fluorescent background, makes its identification by normal Raman spectroscopy difficult. In the present study, SERS and FTIR spectra of sepia were obtained. SERS proved to be suitable to characterize this complex material in micro-samples because of its sensitivity, ability to quench fluorescence, and minimal preparation required. For the SERS measurements, different substrates were tested in contact with the sepia pigment. It was found that a sodium borohydride reduced silver colloid gave the best performance, particularly when applied as a drop on top of a solid sepia sample, and subsequently dried. A larger enhancement was observed in the SERS spectrum of the sepia sample extracted in the laboratory, when compared to the more pure commercial sample, consistently with the higher metal binding capacity of less pure sepia melanin reported by other authors. The FTIR and SERS frequencies observed were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature for closely related compounds, such as indole, pyrrole and substituted pyrroles, and were assigned by comparison with them and with other published data for functional groups in organic chemistry.

  20. Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Melzner; Christian Bock; Hans O. Pörtner

    2006-01-01

    Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T\\u000a c) of 7.0 and 26.8°C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine

  1. Subcellular localization and function of melanogenic enzymes in the ink gland of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, A; di Cosmo, A; Gesualdo, I; Hearing, V J

    1997-01-01

    The ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis has traditionally been regarded as a convenient model system for investigating melanogenesis. This gland has been shown to contain a variety of melanogenic enzymes including tyrosinase, a dopachrome-rearranging enzyme and peroxidase. However, whether and to what extent these enzymes co-localize in the melanogenic compartments and interact is an open question. Using polyclonal antibodies that recognize the corresponding Sepia proteins, we have been able to demonstrate that peroxidase has a different subcellular localization pattern from tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme. Whereas peroxidase is located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the matrix of premelanosomes and melanosomes, tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme are present in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport system, at the level of trans-Golgi cisternae, trans-Golgi network and coated vesicles, and in melanosomes on pigmented granules. These results fill a longstanding gap in our knowledge of the melanin-producing system in Sepia and provide the necessary background for dissection at the molecular level of the complex interaction between melanogenic enzymes. Moreover, the peculiar and complex organization of melanin in an invertebrate such as Sepia officinalis is surprising and could provide the basis for understanding the process in more evolved systems such as that of mammals. PMID:9169609

  2. Cuttlefish camouflage: visual perception of size, contrast and number of white squares on artificial checkerboard substrata initiates disruptive coloration.

    PubMed

    Chiao, C C; Hanlon, R T

    2001-06-01

    We investigated some visual background features that influence young cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, to change their skin patterning from 'general resemblance' of the substratum to disruptive coloration that breaks up their body form. Using computer-generated black/white checkerboard patterns as substrata, we first found that the size of the white squares had to be within a certain narrow range (relative to the size of the cuttlefish 'white square') for the animal to exhibit disruptive skin patterning. Second, given the appropriate size of checker, cuttlefish regulated their disruptive skin patterns according to the contrast between white and black squares. Third, by manipulating the number of white squares on a black background, we found that as few as four white squares among 316 black squares (or 1.25%) produced disruptive patterning, yet increasing the number of white squares to 20, 40 or 80 did not increase the frequency of appearance of the cuttlefish 'white square', but only its clarity of expression. These results demonstrate that the size, contrast and number of white objects in the surrounding substratum influence the production and expression of disruptive skin patterns in young cuttlefish. PMID:11441053

  3. Comparative morphology of changeable skin papillae in octopus and cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Velankar, Sachin S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-04-01

    A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae. Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. officinalis small dorsal papillae, Octopus vulgaris small dorsal and ventral eye papillae, Macrotritopus defilippi dorsal eye papillae, Abdopus aculeatus major mantle papillae, O. bimaculoides arm, minor mantle, and dorsal eye papillae, and S. apama face ridge papillae. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla's perimeter toward its core and determine shape. A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla's apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. S. apama face ridge papillae are different: the contraction of erector muscles perpendicular to the ridge causes overlying tissues to buckle. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support. These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies. Future research on papilla morphology, biomechanics and neural control in the many unexamined species of octopus and cuttlefish may uncover new principles of actuation in soft, flexible tissue. PMID:24741712

  4. RAPID COMMUNICATION Sexually Mature Cuttlefish are Attracted

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    . Invertebrate . Mollusk Introduction Many species of decapod cephalopods (cuttlefishes, squids) form large, near for Cephalopods, Galveston, Texas). Sexual maturity was determined behaviorally; sex was confirmed by necropsy

  5. New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.

    PubMed

    Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

  6. Sepia: a Framework for Natural Language Semantics

    E-print Network

    Marton, Gregory Adam

    2009-05-28

    To help explore linguistic semantics in the context of computational natural language understanding, Sepia provides a realization the central theoretical idea of categorial grammar: linking words and phrases to compositional ...

  7. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  8. Reproductive versus somatic tissue growth during the life cycle of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howaida R. Gabr; Roger T. Hanlon; Salah G. El-Etreby; Mahmoud H. Hanafy

    The effect of maturation on relative growth of somatic tissues was investigated by measuring and compar- ing monthly changes in dry weight of somatic tissues and reproductive or- gans. In both sexes, reproductive tis- sues grew in relation to total body mass; at maturity female reproductive tissue was 16% of total dry body mass, whereas male reproductive tissue was 2.6%.

  9. Differential bioaccumulation behaviour of Ag and Cd during the early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). Particularly, discharges of silver (Ag) and cadmium (Cd) are due to the flow of residual contamination from time of the embryonic development (50 days), some eggs were placed in non contaminating conditions properties. Keywords: cadmium, silver, biokinetics, embryo, eggshell, permeability, cephalopod #12

  10. Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development officinalis. Egg swelling increased in response to acidification or warming, leading to an increase in egg acidification; global warming; Ca-45 hal-00855750,version1-30Aug2013 #12;INTRODUCTION Marine calcifying

  11. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    @mail.med.upenn.edu (MGF); Jean.Boal@millersville.edu (JGB) Introduction The Coleoid cephalopods (e.g. octopuses explored in cephalopods. In Octopus vulgaris, putative sleep states were observed that showed compensatory

  12. Nystagmus and related phenomena in Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dijkgraaf; A. H. CONNEY; I. A. MICHAELSON; J. J. BURNS; J. Pharm

    1963-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Intakte Exemplare vonSepia officinalis zeigen nach Drehung um alle drei Hauptachsen Augen- und Kopfbewegungen vom Typus des «Nach-Nystagmus». Diese postrotatorischen Reflexe können nicht optisch ausgelöst sein; sie beweisen vielmehr das Vorhandensein eines echten Rotationssinnes. Es wird angenommen, dass dieser auch hier seinen Sitz in den Statocysten mit ihren hochdifferenzierten Cristae hat.

  13. Five new species of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from two Australian cuttlefish species, with comments on dicyemid fauna composition.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-10-01

    Five new species of dicyemid mesozoans in two genera are described from two Australian cuttlefish species, Sepia apama Gray (giant Australian cuttlefish) and S. novaehollandiae Hoyle (nova cuttlefish): Dicyema coffinense n. sp. from S. apama collected from Coffin Bay, South Australia (SA), Australia; D. koinonum n. sp. from S. apama and S. novaehollandiae collected from Gulf St Vincent (GSV) and Spencer Gulf (SG), SA, Australia; D. multimegalum n. sp. from S. apama collected from Cronulla and North Bondi, New South Wales, Australia; D. vincentense n. sp. from S. novaehollandiae collected from GSV, SA, Australia; and Dicyemennea spencerense n. sp. from S. novaehollandiae and S. apama collected from SG, SA, Australia. Totals of 51 S. apama and 27 S. novaehollandiae individuals were examined, of which all except for four S. apama were infected by at least one dicyemid species. Dicyemid parasites were also observed in host individuals that were held in tanks for 2-3 months prior to examination, including nematogen-exclusive infections, leading to questions about persistence of dicyemids after host death and the mechanism responsible for the switch between a nematogen phase and a rhombogen phase. Variations in host size, calotte shape and collection locality are explored as predictors of differences in observed composition of the parasite fauna. In particular, dicyemid parasite fauna varied with host collection locality. As these parasites are highly host-species specific, their use as biological tags to assess cephalopod population structure using a combined morphological and molecular approach is discussed. This study increases the number of dicyemid species described from Australian cephalopods from five to ten, and from 117 to 122 species described worldwide. PMID:24048746

  14. Cuttlefish skin papilla morphology suggests a muscular hydrostatic function for rapid changeability.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-06-01

    Coleoid cephalopods adaptively change their body patterns (color, contrast, locomotion, posture, and texture) for camouflage and signaling. Benthic octopuses and cuttlefish possess the capability, unique in the animal kingdom, to dramatically and quickly change their skin from smooth and flat to rugose and three-dimensional. The organs responsible for this physical change are the skin papillae, whose biomechanics have not been investigated. In this study, small dorsal papillae from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) were preserved in their retracted or extended state, and examined with a variety of histological techniques including brightfield, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. Analyses revealed that papillae are composed of an extensive network of dermal erector muscles, some of which are arranged in concentric rings while others extend across each papilla's diameter. Like cephalopod arms, tentacles, and suckers, skin papillae appear to function as muscular hydrostats. The collective action of dermal erector muscles provides both movement and structural support in the absence of rigid supporting elements. Specifically, concentric circular dermal erector muscles near the papilla's base contract and push the overlying tissue upward and away from the mantle surface, while horizontally arranged dermal erector muscles pull the papilla's perimeter toward its center and determine its shape. Each papilla has a white tip, which is produced by structural light reflectors (leucophores and iridophores) that lie between the papilla's muscular core and the skin layer that contains the pigmented chromatophores. In extended papillae, the connective tissue layer appeared thinner above the papilla's apex than in surrounding areas. This result suggests that papilla extension might create tension in the overlying connective tissue and chromatophore layers, storing energy for elastic retraction. Numerous, thin subepidermal muscles form a meshwork between the chromatophore layer and the epidermis and putatively provide active papillary retraction. PMID:23378271

  15. The structure–function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores

    PubMed Central

    Deravi, Leila F.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Bell, George R. R.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Senft, Stephen L.; Wardill, Trevor J.; Lane, William S.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-01-01

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromatophore organs that allow rapid changes in skin patterning and coloration in response to visual cues. This process of adaptive coloration is enabled by the 500% change in chromatophore surface area during actuation. We report two adaptations that help to explain how colour intensity is maintained in a fully expanded chromatophore when the pigment granules are distributed maximally: (i) pigment layers as thin as three granules that maintain optical effectiveness and (ii) the presence of high-refractive-index proteins—reflectin and crystallin—in granules. The latter discovery, combined with our finding that isolated chromatophore pigment granules fluoresce between 650 and 720 nm, refutes the prevailing hypothesis that cephalopod chromatophores are exclusively pigmentary organs composed solely of ommochromes. Perturbations to granular architecture alter optical properties, illustrating a role for nanostructure in the agile, optical responses of chromatophores. Our results suggest that cephalopod chromatophore pigment granules are more complex than homogeneous clusters of chromogenic pigments. They are luminescent protein nanostructures that facilitate the rapid and sophisticated changes exhibited in dermal pigmentation. PMID:24478280

  16. The structure-function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Deravi, Leila F; Magyar, Andrew P; Sheehy, Sean P; Bell, George R R; Mäthger, Lydia M; Senft, Stephen L; Wardill, Trevor J; Lane, William S; Kuzirian, Alan M; Hanlon, Roger T; Hu, Evelyn L; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-04-01

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromatophore organs that allow rapid changes in skin patterning and coloration in response to visual cues. This process of adaptive coloration is enabled by the 500% change in chromatophore surface area during actuation. We report two adaptations that help to explain how colour intensity is maintained in a fully expanded chromatophore when the pigment granules are distributed maximally: (i) pigment layers as thin as three granules that maintain optical effectiveness and (ii) the presence of high-refractive-index proteins-reflectin and crystallin-in granules. The latter discovery, combined with our finding that isolated chromatophore pigment granules fluoresce between 650 and 720 nm, refutes the prevailing hypothesis that cephalopod chromatophores are exclusively pigmentary organs composed solely of ommochromes. Perturbations to granular architecture alter optical properties, illustrating a role for nanostructure in the agile, optical responses of chromatophores. Our results suggest that cephalopod chromatophore pigment granules are more complex than homogeneous clusters of chromogenic pigments. They are luminescent protein nanostructures that facilitate the rapid and sophisticated changes exhibited in dermal pigmentation. PMID:24478280

  17. Lower hypoxia thresholds of cuttlefish early life stages living in a warm acidified ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Repolho, Tiago; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Baptista, Miguel; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Dionísio, Gisela; Leal, Miguel Costa; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of future ocean acidification and global warming on the hypoxia thresholds of marine biota are, to date, poorly known. Here, we show that the future warming and acidification scenario led to shorter embryonic periods, lower survival rates and the enhancement of premature hatching in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Routine metabolic rates increased during the embryonic period, but environmental hypercapnia significantly depressed pre-hatchling's energy expenditures rates (independently of temperature). During embryogenesis, there was also a significant rise in the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the perivitelline fluid (PVF), bicarbonate levels, as well as a drop in pH and oxygen partial pressure (pO2). The critical partial pressure (i.e. hypoxic threshold) of the pre-hatchlings was significantly higher than the PVF oxygen partial pressure at the warmer and hypercapnic condition. Thus, the record of oxygen tensions below critical pO2 in such climate scenario indicates that the already harsh conditions inside the egg capsules are expected to be magnified in the years to come, especially in populations at the border of their thermal envelope. Such a scenario promotes untimely hatching and smaller post-hatching body sizes, thus challenging the survival and fitness of early life stages. PMID:23926158

  18. How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning Chuan-Chin Chiao a,b,

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning Chuan-Chin Chiao a-bodied cuttlefish. Previous studies have shown that cuttlefish body patterns are strongly influenced by visual edges in the substrate. The aim of the pres- ent study was to examine how cuttlefish body patterning is differentially

  19. Scaffolds for bone restoration from cuttlefish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. G. Rocha; A. F. Lemos; S. Agathopoulos; P. Valério; S. Kannan; F. N. Oktar; J. M. F. Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Scaffolds of pure hydroxyapatite suitable for either direct clinical use or tissue-engineering applications were successfully produced via hydrothermal transformation of aragonite, obtained from fresh cuttlefish bones, at 200°C followed by sintering. Beyond low production cost, worldwide availability and natural–biological origin of raw materials, the produced scaffolds have ideal pore size and interconnectivity features suitable for supporting biological activities, such as

  20. Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camou- flage capabilities and studying them can offer insight whether cuttlefish show any preference to settle on a particular substrate type. In cephalopods, colour. 2009) and many cephalopod species, particularly shallow-water octopus and cuttlefish, are able

  1. Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) of networked systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, David P.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; McDonald, Michael James; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Tarman, Thomas David; Urias, Vincent E.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes recent progress made in developing and utilizing hybrid Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) environments. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models separately to analyze interplay between threats and safeguards. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments. Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools. The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches.

  2. Acid-base regulatory ability of the cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) in response to environmental hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, F; Langenbuch, M; Bock, C; Claireaux, G; Pörtner, H O

    2010-03-01

    Acidification of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions is a currently developing scenario that warrants a broadening of research foci in the study of acid-base physiology. Recent studies working with environmentally relevant CO(2) levels, indicate that some echinoderms and molluscs reduce metabolic rates, soft tissue growth and calcification during hypercapnic exposure. In contrast to all prior invertebrate species studied so far, growth trials with the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis found no indication of reduced growth or calcification performance during long-term exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2). It is hypothesized that the differing sensitivities to elevated seawater pCO(2) could be explained by taxa specific differences in acid-base regulatory capacity. In this study, we examined the acid-base regulatory ability of S. officinalis in vivo, using a specially modified cannulation technique as well as (31)P NMR spectroscopy. During acute exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2), S. officinalis rapidly increased its blood [HCO(3)(-)] to 10.4 mM through active ion-transport processes, and partially compensated the hypercapnia induced respiratory acidosis. A minor decrease in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and stable intracellular phosphagen levels indicated efficient pH(i) regulation. We conclude that S. officinalis is not only an efficient acid-base regulator, but is also able to do so without disturbing metabolic equilibria in characteristic tissues or compromising aerobic capacities. The cuttlefish did not exhibit acute intolerance to hypercapnia that has been hypothesized for more active cephalopod species (squid). Even though blood pH (pHe) remained 0.18 pH units below control values, arterial O(2) saturation was not compromised in S. officinalis because of the comparatively lower pH sensitivity of oxygen binding to its blood pigment. This raises questions concerning the potentially broad range of sensitivity to changes in acid-base status amongst invertebrates, as well as to the underlying mechanistic origins. Further studies are needed to better characterize the connection between acid-base status and animal fitness in various marine species. PMID:19838713

  3. Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ?24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. PMID:24549606

  4. Characterization of metal removal by os sepiae of Sepiella maindroni Rochebrune from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Pan, Hong; Xu, Jian; Fan, Xian-Wei; Song, Xian-Chong; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Jin; Liu, Yang

    2010-07-15

    To develop low cost metal adsorbents with less secondary pollution, metal adsorption from the aqueous solutions by the raw os sepiae (ROS) and alkali (NaOH)-pretreated OS (APOS) of the cuttlefish (Sepiella maindroni Rochebrune) was characterized. The capacities of adsorption of ROS and APOS were estimated to be 299.26 mg Cu g(-1) and 299.58 mg Cu g(-1), respectively. Metal adsorption by OS was significantly improved by appropriately increasing initial pH in the solution but hardly affected by temperature change within a wide range of 15-45 degrees C. Cu adsorption of both ROS and APOS was well described neither by Langmuir model nor by Freundlich model. Metal adsorption by OS fell in the order of Fe > Cu approximately = Cd > Zn in the solution with mixed metals, but followed the sequence of Cd > Cu > Fe approximately = Zn in the solutions respectively, with a single metal of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn. The changes in Ca amounts in OS and solutions in adsorption strongly correlated with removal efficiencies of the metals. Obvious shifts of stretching bands of numbers of groups in OS after and before adsorption and the pretreatment occurred. It was concluded: (1) that metal adsorption by OS involves ion exchange, which occurred mainly between Ca rather than K and Na that OS itself contains and metals that were added in the solution, (2) that metal adsorption-promoting effects by NaOH pretreatment likely involve deprotonation of surface groups in OS, exposure of more functional groups, and increase in specific surface areas and (3) that related mechanisms for adsorption also likely include surface complexation, electrostatic adsorption and even micro-deposition. The results also indicated that OS is a very promising absorbent for metal removal from electroplating wastewater. PMID:20347221

  5. Relations between total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in five tissues of Sepia officinalis captured in the south Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos; Canário, João; Gaspar, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Mercury, methylmercury and selenium were determined in digestive gland, branchial hearts, mantle, kidney and gills of Sepia officinalis from two areas of the south Portuguese coast. To the best of our knowledge these are the first data on Hg, MeHg and Se in branchial hearts, kidney and gills of cuttlefish. Digestive gland, branchial hearts and kidney presented higher levels of Hg and Se than mantle and gills. Methylmercury was significantly higher in digestive gland, branchial hearts and mantle. The enhanced levels of Hg in digestive gland and branchial heart reinforce the elevated storage capacity of these two tissues. The percentage of MeHg varied from 6.1% in gills to 92% in mantle. Linear and positive MeHg-Hg relations were obtained for the five tissues, being the better relation and higher slope observed for mantle, followed by branchial hearts, digestive gland, kidney and gills. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed a surplus of Se in all tissues. Calculations based on the equimolarity of Se:Hg point that 95-99% of Se are not linked to Hg (Se free). The negligible quantity of Se associated with Hg suggests that the mechanism of MeHg demethylation was not triggered in none of the tissues, presumably because the threshold for MeHg toxicity was not achieved. PMID:24582035

  6. A new species of Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 (Phylum Dicyemida) from Sepia latimanus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Decapodidae) off Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Hidetaka

    2006-11-01

    A new species of dicyemid mesozoan is described from a cuttlefish Sepia latimanus Quoy and Gaimard collected off Nago, Naha and Onnason, Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Dicyemennea ryukyuense n. sp. is a large species that reaches about 5 mm in length. The vermiform stage is characterised by 23 peripheral cells, a conical calotte and an axial cell that extends to the base of the propolar cells. The infusoriform embryo consists of 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell and the refringent bodies are solid. In the type of reproductive strategy, rhombogens of D. ryukyuense form a small number of infusorigens and produce a relatively large number of gametes per infusorigen. In the family Dicyemidae, Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 is the largest group after Dicyema von Kölliker, 1849. Other dicyemid species, including those belonging to Dicyema, were not detected. Dicyemids have never previously been detected in cephalopods living on corals and rocks off the Ryukyu Islands, even though they are benthonic in habitat. This is the first report of a dicyemid mesozoan from S. latimanus and also from off the Ryukyu Islands. S. latimanus inhabits coral reefs, often swimming over the coral but usually lying on the sandy bottom. Dicyemids cannot possibly infect cephalopods which live exclusively over coral and rock. PMID:16955340

  7. Introduction Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) can produce a variety of

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    2133 Introduction Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish, octopus) can produce a variety of body patterns to the behavior of these animals (Young, 1971). Indeed, Octopus vulgaris can quickly learn to visually

  8. Statolith chemistry of two life history stages of cuttlefish: Effects of temperature and seawater trace element concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Wilkinson, Leanne M.; Munro, Andrew R.; de Vries, Melita C.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry of the giant Australian cuttlefish, Sepia apama, was compared between encapsulated embryos and recently hatched juveniles under controlled laboratory conditions. Seawater Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca were positively related to statolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca in embryos and hatchlings for all temperatures. For statoliths of embryos the effect of spiking increased at 14 °C compared to 20 °C but for hatchlings increased Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in statoliths were found at 20 °C compared to 14 °C. The results imply that the influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry was driven by elemental discrimination as described by partition coefficients but was reversed between life history stages. Differences in respiration and haemocyanin between the two life history stages may influence elemental uptake and discrimination. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that differences in element uptake in statoliths can occur among life history stages of S. apama and must be considered when reconstructing environmental histories of S. apama and other statolith bearing organisms.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on nat- ural

  10. 1996,52.529-537 Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish,

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    . .fllim. B.-htlV, 1996,52.529-537 @ Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish, Sepiaofficinalis L. No evidenceof Insli- Cuttlefish are neither solitary, .as arc octo- lute, 301 UnivcrsilY Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555

  11. Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro R. Costa; Rui Rosa; Alexandra Duarte-Silva; Vanda Brotas; Maria Antónia M. Sampayo

    2005-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in

  12. Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1953 architectural drawings by Horowick & Lee, Architects, Jacksonville, Florida) EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Photography Laboratory, 2617 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  13. Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1953 architectural drawings by Horowick & Lee, Architects, Jacksonville, Florida) FLOOR PLAN AND SCHEDULES - MacDill Air Force Base, Photography Laboratory, 2617 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  14. First descriptions of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Australian octopus (Octopodidae) and cuttlefish (Sepiidae), including a new record of Dicyemennea in Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-09-01

    Three new species of dicyemid mesozoans are described for the first time from Australian octopus and cuttlefish species. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is described from Octopus berrima Stranks et Norman (southern keeled octopus) collected from Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia, Australia and represents the first description of a species of Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 from Australian waters. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. and D. furuyi sp. n. are described from Sepia papuensis Hoyle (Papuan cuttlefish) collected from Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is a medium to large species that reaches approximately 4.9 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 23-28 peripheral cells, and a disc-shaped, flower-like calotte in larger individuals. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. is a small species that reaches approximately 1.1 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 30-33 peripheral cells and a relatively small, cap-shaped calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were occasionally observed in nematogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell. Dicyema furuyi sp. n. is a large species that reaches approximately 5.3 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 22-24 peripheral cells and an elongate calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Three secondary nematogens were also observed in the right renal appendages of two host individuals, confirming the occurrence of this form. PMID:24261132

  15. Female impersonation as an alternative reproductive strategy in giant cuttlefish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Norman; Julian Finn; Tom Tregenza

    1999-01-01

    Out of all the animals, the cephalopods possess an unrivalled ability to change their shape and body patterns. Our observations of giant cuttle¢sh (Sepia apama) suggest this ability has allowed them to evolve alternative mating strategies in which males can switch between the appearance of a female and that of a male in order to foil the guarding attempts of

  16. On the architecture and function of cuttlefish bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Birchall; N. L. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The internal shell of the cuttlefish, which acts as a rigid buoyancy tank, is structured to combine high compressive strength — since it must withstand the external hydrostatic pressure — with minimum weighT. The micro-architecture of cuttlebone has been examined by electron microscopy and the relevance of the structure to the mechanical duties required of the shellin vivo are briefly

  17. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  18. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-02-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  19. BLOOD GAS TRANSPORT IN THE CEPHALOPOD, SEPIA OFFICINALIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KJELL JOHANSEN; OLE BRIX; GUNNAR LYKKEBOE

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood gas transport was studied in unrestrained free-swimming cuttle- fish, Sepia officinalis, following cannulations of an efferent branchial (arterial) vessel and the vena cava cephalica with indwelling catheters. In well-aerated water the arterial pOi averaged about ioo-oo mmHg and was fully saturated with O2. Mixed venous pOi varied between 17 and 40 mmHg, typically corresponding to blood O2 utilizations

  20. The Golden Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Illuminations National Council of Mathematics

    2009-02-18

    In this lesson, "students learn about ratios, including the 'Golden Ratio', a ratio of length to width that can be found in art, architecture, and nature. Students examine different ratios to determine whether the Golden Ratio can be found in the human body." (from NCTM's Illuminations) This is lesson 3 in a 7-lesson unit called "Measuring Up"

  1. The Golden Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work through proofs are…

  2. Cuttlefish camouflage: The effects of substrate contrast and size in evoking uniform, mottle or disruptive body patterns

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    Cuttlefish camouflage: The effects of substrate contrast and size in evoking uniform, mottle, Taiwan Received 25 September 2007; received in revised form 19 February 2008 Abstract Cuttlefish the background and neurally implementing an appropriate skin (or body) pattern. We investigated how cuttlefish

  3. J.N. Havenhand: PUBLICATIONS (in reverse chronological order)

    E-print Network

    Gamfeldt, Lars

    .N. Havenhand (2006) Sperm motility and longevity in the giant cuttlefish, Sepia apama (Mollusca: Cephalopoda cuttlefish (Sepia apama). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 272: 1047-1051. van Camp L of mating success in a natural spawning aggregation of the giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in southern

  4. Mating success of wild type and sepia mutants Drosophila melanogaster in different choice.

    PubMed

    Stani?, Snezana; Pavkovi?-Lucic, Sofija

    2005-01-01

    Mating behaviour of red-eyed (wt) and brown-eyed (sepia) Drosophila melanogaster was studied under light conditions. Mating success was directly observed in mating vials and techniques usually applied in the studies of sexual selection ("female choice" and "multiple choice"). The comparison of sexual activity of mutant and wild types clearly indicates that they are not equally successful in matings. Sepia eye colour mutation decreases sexual activity of Drosophila melanogaster males, influences the preference ability of females and decreases the number of progeny from homogamic mating of the se x se type, as well as from heterogamic copulations in which sepia females take part. Non-random mating of wild type males and sepia females (in "multiple-choice" situation), with genetically and phenotypically different individuals, could be another mechanism for conservation of genetic polymorphism in natural populations. PMID:16440285

  5. Philippine Golden Links

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Designed by Kenneth Y. Ilio, Philippine Golden Links (also known as Tanikalang Ginto) has been online since 1994. The site contains numerous links, divided into thematic areas in an attempt to provide a broad range of online resources dealing with the Philippines. Two nice features on the site are the Golden Links of the Day and the Noteworthy Discovery of the Day. The Golden Links of the Day profile important links dealing with the Philippines, while the Noteworthy Discovery profiles new material on the Web. While the site does feature some commercial advertisements, there are some important resources covered here, and in particular, the sections dealing with travel and tourism throughout the area are thorough and authoritative.

  6. Delayed and asynchronous ganglionic maturation during cephalopod neurogenesis as evidenced by Sof-elav1 expression in embryos of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Canali, Ester; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2013-05-01

    Among the Lophotrochozoa, centralization of the nervous system reaches an exceptional level of complexity in cephalopods, where the typical molluscan ganglia become highly developed and fuse into hierarchized lobes. It is known that ganglionic primordia initially emerge early and simultaneously during cephalopod embryogenesis but no data exist on the process of neuron differentiation in this group. We searched for members of the elav/hu family in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, since they are one of the first genetic markers of postmitotic neural cells. Two paralogs were identified and the expression of the most neural-specific gene, Sof-elav1, was characterized during embryogenesis. Sof-elav1 is expressed in all ganglia at one time of development, which provides the first genetic map of neurogenesis in a cephalopod. Our results unexpectedly revealed that Sof-elav1 expression is not similar and not coordinated in all the prospective ganglia. Both palliovisceral ganglia show extensive Sof-elav1 expression soon after emergence, showing that most of their cells differentiate into neurons at an early stage. On the contrary, other ganglia, and especially both cerebral ganglia that contribute to the main parts of the brain learning centers, show a late extensive Sof-elav1 expression. These delayed expressions in ganglia suggest that most ganglionic cells retain their proliferative capacities and postpone differentiation. In other molluscs, where a larval nervous system predates the development of the definitive adult nervous system, cerebral ganglia are among the first to mature. Thus, such a difference may constitute a cue in understanding the peculiar brain evolution in cephalopods. PMID:23047428

  7. William T. Golden - Appreciation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A short biography of William T. Golden who died October 7, 2007. Although he never worked as a scientist and didn’t receive his master’s degree in biology until age 70, he was one of the most influential figures in post-World War II American science.

  8. The Golden Section Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjafield, J.; Adams-Webber, J.

    1976-01-01

    The golden section is a proportion the aesthetic properties of which have been extolled since antiquity. The data from five experiments in which subjects made dichotomous judgements of acquaintances on bipolar dimensions (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant) were reported. (Editor)

  9. Golden Age Spanish Sonnets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingber, Alix.

    Created and maintained by Alix Ingber, Professor of Spanish at Sweet Briar College, this site hosts 107 Golden Age (Sixteenth Century) Spanish sonnets and English translations. The poems may be browsed by poet or by their first line. Each poet page includes links to related resources, most of which are in Spanish only. Also included are bibliographies and some other related links.

  10. Calcium carbonate crystallization on xiphoid of the cuttlefish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoli, F.; Dalas, E.

    2000-08-01

    A mollusc shell, the xiphoid from cuttlefish was found to be a substrate favouring the deposition of aragonite crystals from stable supersaturated solutions at pH 8.50 and 25°C. The crystallization was studied at constant solution composition, thus making it possible for a relatively large amount of the overgrowths to be formed and to be identified exclusively as aragonite crystals. The apparent order found from kinetics data was n=4.1±0.4, thus suggesting a polynuclear mechanism. A surface energy of 24±3 mJ m -2 was calculated for the growing phase and a four-ion cluster forming the critical nucleus, according to the classical nucleation theory.

  11. Uptake, transfer and distribution of silver and cobalt in tissues of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at different stages of its life cycle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    role this organ plays in metal storage and detoxification processes in these cephalopods. KEY WORDS: Metal; Radiotracer; Bioaccumulation; Digestive gland; Cephalopods hal-00186607,version1-9Nov2007 #12;3 INTRODUCTION Interest in the bioaccumulation of trace elements in cephalopods stems mainly from their high

  12. Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Accumulation; Biokinetics; Cephalopods; Radionuclides; Retention39 hal-00186647,version1-10Nov2007 #12 with cephalopods have shown that these carnivorous species do54 bioaccumulate radionuclides in their tissues

  13. Subcellular distribution of Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the digestive gland of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : cephalopod; metal; trace element; detoxification; metallothionein; chromatography hal-00473915,version1-16Apr2010 #12;3 INTRODUCTION Exclusively marine organisms, cephalopods are active predators found from polar in cephalopods. Concerning metals, cephalopods concentrate several trace elements such as Ag, Cd, Cu or Zn

  14. The use of Artemia sp. or mysids as food source for hatchlings of the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.); effects on growth and survival throughout the life cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

    2001-01-01

    Twoexperiments were conducted to determine the effects ofArtemia sp. or mysids on growth and survival ofS. officinalis hatchlings, and their effect throughout thelife cycle. For experiment I, for the first 20 days, one group was fed adultArtemia sp. and the other was fed mysid shrimp(Paramysis nouvelli). Eggs laid by females in both groupswere counted and weighed, and hatchlings were weighed,

  15. Modeling golden section in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanling Zeng; Guozhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Plants are complex structures, changing their shapes in response to environmental factors such as sunlight, water and neighboring plants. However, some mathematical rules can be found in their growth patterns, one of which is the golden section. The golden section can be observed in branching systems, phyllotaxis, flowers and seeds, and often the spiral arrangement of plant organs. In this

  16. Ernest Bloch's Poems of the Sea, Nirvana, Five Sketches in Sepia - A Stylistic and Pedagogical Study

    E-print Network

    Ho, Wan-Ju

    2014-05-31

    influenced by his different life experiences. Bloch's piano works, Poems of the Sea, Nirvana, and Five Sketches in Sepia were all written in the 1920s when he lived in Cleveland. This paper contains a discussion of the stylistic features of these three works...

  17. Growth and calcification in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under elevated seawater pCO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena A. Gutowska; Hans O. Pörtner; Frank Melzner

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acidification and associated changes in seawater carbonate chemistry negatively influence calcification processes and depress metabolism in many calcifying marine invertebrates. We present data on the cephalopod mollusc Sepia officinalis, an invertebrate that is capable of not only maintaining calcification, but also growth rates and metabolism when exposed to elevated par- tial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2). During a 6

  18. EFFECTS OF INCREASED pCO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON TRACE ELEMENT1 (Ag, Cd and Zn) BIOACCUMULATION IN THE EGGS OF THE COMMON2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IN THE EGGS OF THE COMMON2 CUTTLEFISH, SEPIA OFFICINALIS3 4 Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas1,2, , Martin, Sophie2 of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing38 permeability of the eggshell during of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish.53 54 55 Keywords: metal; uptake; tissue

  19. Do cuttlefish (Cephalopoda) signal their intentions to conspecifics during agonistic encounters?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHELLEY A. ADAMO; R. T. HANLON

    1996-01-01

    Abstract. Male cuttlefish adopt a specific body pattern during agonistic behaviour called the Intense Zebra Display. Some components of the Display were variable, especially the chromatic component termed ‘dark face’, which could vary in the degree of darkness. Facial darkness was measured using a video analysis system. Males that eventually withdrew from conspecifics without fighting maintained a lighter face during

  20. The "Prawn-in-the-Tube" Procedure in the Cuttlefish: Habituation or Passive Avoidance Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickel, Ludovic; Chichery, Marie-Paule; Agin, Veronique; Chichery, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether or not habituation contributes to the regulation of the inhibition of predatory behavior observed during the "prawn-in-the-tube" training procedure. When presented with prawns that are visible behind glass but untouchable, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their capture attempts. The first three experiments…

  1. Surveying Noctural Cuttlefish Camouflage Behaviour using an AUV Stefan B. Williams, Oscar Pizarro, Martin How, Duncan Mercer,

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    - fied. Cephalopods (squid, octopus, cuttlefish) have the most diverse and quick-changing camouflage in cephalopods, and possibly in all animals [Hanlon, 2007]. Recent laboratory experiments by the Marshall

  2. From Trap to Nursery. Mitigating the Impact of an Artisanal Fishery on Cuttlefish Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Melli, Valentina; Riginella, Emilio; Nalon, Marco; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexploitation and the impact of several types of human activities have caused declines of marine resources. The direct and active involvement of fishermen in the management of marine resources is effective not only for resource conservation, but also for changing fishermen’s attitudes. In this study, we proposed and tested the efficacy and suitability of a measure for mitigating the impact of a trap fishery on cuttlefish eggs in the North Adriatic Sea. This measure directly involves fishermen in promoting the conservation of the early, and more vulnerable, stages of the cuttlefish life cycle. Methodology/Principal findings Through surveys on fishing boats and interviews with fishermen, we found that traps placed in coastal areas during the cuttlefish breeding season have a high impact on cuttlefish eggs, with over 3 million eggs likely being destroyed by 3750 traps of 15 fishermen in less than 3 miles of coast. The use of removable ropes attached inside traps as an additional substrate for egg deposition allowed the recovery of 23.7% of the eggs deposited on the traps on average, without affecting the catch rate of adults. Experiments examining hatching success in the field highlighted the need for a careful choice of hatching sites to maximise the efficacy of the mitigation measure. Conclusions/Significance The proposed mitigation measure reduced the impact of fishing on cuttlefish eggs, with no significant effect on the commercial catch. Fishermen showed a positive attitude towards the application of this measure, which is inexpensive and easy to employ. The direct involvement of fishermen in the management of this resource and the maintenance of traditional fishing methods are a novel aspect of the proposed measure and represent the basis for its success. PMID:24587390

  3. New insights into the physicochemical effects of ammonia/peroxide bleaching of hair and Sepia melanins.

    PubMed

    Prem, Padmaja; Dube, Katherine J; Madison, Stephen A; Bartolone, John

    2003-01-01

    Chemically unaltered melanosomes from black hair were isolated using a mild enzymatic procedure reported by Novellino et al. involving sequential treatment of a homogenized hair sample with different protease enzymes. Time-dependent fluorescence studies show, under identical conditions, that the rate of bleaching upon NH3/H2O2 treatment of hair melanosomes is twice that of Sepia melanosomes. The structure and morphology of hair melanosomes are compared to Sepia eumelanin using ESEM and TEM imaging studies. Black hair melanosomes are aggregates of rice-shaped ellipsoidal particles (0.8-1.0 microm in length and 0.2-0.6 microm in width) surrounded by an amorphous material suspected to be made of non-proteinacious materials. Sepia eumelanin aggregates are larger (2-5 microm) particles with a "doughnut" shape comprised of 100-150-nm spherical particles. Time-dependent TEM imaging studies of ammonia-treated (pH 10) hair melanosomes showed an initial breakdown of melanosomal aggregates followed by rupture of the melanosomal membrane, releasing melanin nanoparticles and leaving a ghost membrane behind. After prolonged treatment with aqueous NH3, a total loss of characteristic melanosome morphology was observed leading to an amorphous material. By contrast, Sepia melanosomes under identical conditions of ammonia treatment did not show such changes, probably due to different surface properties and aggregation behavior. Sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate at identical pH did not show similar changes to ammonia, suggesting that the changes are not merely due to alkaline pH, but, rather, are specific to ammonia. Co-treatment with ammonia and peroxide induced a faster disintegration of the melanosomes, resulting in a complete dissolution and discoloration of melanin in 30 minutes. The data suggest that ammonia helps to release melanin nanoparticles out of melanosomes, making them more susceptible to oxidative attack by H2O2. PMID:14528391

  4. Nitric oxide mediates the glutamate-dependent pathway for neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis chromatophore organs.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2010-07-30

    Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

  5. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs

    PubMed Central

    Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

  6. THE GOLDEN EAGLE and its economic status

    E-print Network

    THE GOLDEN EAGLE and its economic status Marine Biological Laboratory JAN 2 5 ..55 WOODS HOLE, MASS. CIRCULAR 27 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR #12;#12;THE GOLDEN EAGLE The golden eagle and its prey 13 Rabbits and rodents 13 Big game 15 Pronghorn antelope 15 Deer 18 Bighorn

  7. Reprint Series: The Golden Measure. RS-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) the golden section; (2) the geometry of the pentagon and the golden section; (3) meet Mr. Tau; and (4) the golden

  8. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    are the demersal long-fin squid Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris, and the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Pierce et to southern Europe (Shaw, 1994). Landings of cuttlefish into the UK ranged from 1600 to 4900 tons during 1997

  9. Geographic, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in cadmium and mercury concentrations in squid (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) from UK waters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , and the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Pierce et al., 1994a,b, 1998; Dunn, 1999; ICES, 2006). Annual landings of long in the UK is exported to southern Europe (Shaw, 1994). Landings of cuttlefish into the UK ranged from 1600

  10. Spirals and the Golden Section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Sharp

    2002-01-01

    .  The author examines different types of spirals and their relationships to the Golden Section in order to provide the necessary\\u000a background so that logic rather than intuition can be followed, correct value judgments be made, and new ideas can be developed.

  11. [Case of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis diagnosed by the provocation test with cuttlefish after the pretreatment with 1.5 g of aspirin].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuko; Inomata, Naoko; Okawa, Tomoko; Maeda, Nobuko; Kirino, Mio; Shiomi, Kazuo; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2010-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman had an episode of urticaria at the age of 17 while exercising after eating fried cuttlefish. For years thereafter, she experienced several episodes of urticaria after eating seafood. At the age of 29, she ate grilled seafood, including cuttlefish for supper after taking loxoprofen for lumbago. One hour later, she developed generalized urticaria accompanied by nausea, abdominal pain, swelling of the lips, and dyspnea while walking; she was taken to a hospital. She was then referred to us for further examination of the etiology of her anaphylactic reactions. The level of specific IgE measured using Immuno CAP was negative for all kinds of foods, including cuttlefish. However, a skin prick test was positive for raw and cooked cuttlefish. Provocation tests were performed on admission by combining the intake of cuttlefish and aspirin under the suspicion of cuttlefish allergy enhanced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise. As a result, she developed no symptoms except for slight itching of the oral mucosa after eating 20 g or 100 g of cuttlefish with or without concomitant administration of 0.5 g of aspirin. Finally, generalized urticaria appeared after challenge with cuttlefish and 1.5 g of aspirin. She was diagnosed with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) caused by cuttlefish. She has not developed urticaria since she started to avoid eating cuttlefish. Our results indicated that in provocation tests for the diagnosis of FDEIA, allergic reactions could not only be induced by food intake but could also be enhanced by aspirin in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:21212730

  12. Photon absorption in step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) of Sepia melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; DiMarzio, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has shown that melanin goes through a step-wise three-photon absorption process when the fluorescence is activated with high laser intensity. We have conducted further research using even higher laser intensity for the activation, and have shown the possibility of observing power dependence other than third-order. This article discusses the possible energy states of Sepia melanin by studying the power dependence curves of the step-wise multi-photon activated fluorescence signal. Three different excitation channels are activated. Possible reasons causing the three channels are discussed.

  13. Golden section: Preferred figural orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Schiffman; RUTGERS UNTVERSTTY

    1966-01-01

    A hypothesis that the shape of the binocular visual field determines the supposed preference for rectangles possessing dimensions\\u000a similar to those of the golden section was tested by havltlg Ss draw pleasing rectangles. The results iudicated that rectangles\\u000a were oriented in correspondence with the shape of the visual field but there was, generally, a failure to obtain ratios approximating\\u000a the

  14. Golden optimal path in discrete-time dynamic optimization processes

    E-print Network

    Yasuda, Masami

    is called Golden if any state moves to the next state repeating the same Golden section in each transition divisions are the Golden section. Definition 2.1 A sequence x : {0, 1, . . .} R1 is called GoldenGolden optimal path in discrete-time dynamic optimization processes Seiichi IWAMOTO and Masami

  15. The Golden Section in Architectural Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Frings

    2002-01-01

    .  The never-ending—but always young—discussion about the Golden Section in architecture never lacks a hint at Luca Pacioli and\\u000a architectural theory. But what it always lacks is a thorough study of the Golden Section in architectural theory. This paper\\u000a aims to present this analysis. Marcus Frings traces the Golden Section from the mathematical and rather theoretical character\\u000a of Pacioli’s concept, the

  16. 76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-531-000] Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden Triangle) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  17. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations...Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins,...

  18. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations...Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins,...

  19. 12 CFR 750.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 750.4 Section 750.4 Banks and...AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction described in section 208 of the...

  20. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2 Section 359.2 Banks and Banking...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.2 Golden parachute payments...

  1. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking...SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.3 Golden parachute payments...

  2. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking...SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.3 Golden parachute payments...

  3. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5 Section 71.5 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. ...the purpose of this section, shall be defined... (c) The annual Golden Eagle Passport...

  4. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2 Section 359.2 Banks and Banking...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.2 Golden parachute payments...

  5. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations...Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins,...

  6. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2 Section 359.2 Banks and Banking...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.2 Golden parachute payments...

  7. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2 Section 359.2 Banks and Banking...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.2 Golden parachute payments...

  8. 12 CFR 750.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 750.4 Section 750.4 Banks and...AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction described in section 208 of the...

  9. 12 CFR 750.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 750.4 Section 750.4 Banks and...AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction described in section 208 of the...

  10. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5 Section 71.5 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. ...the purpose of this section, shall be defined... (c) The annual Golden Eagle Passport...

  11. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5 Section 71.5 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. ...the purpose of this section, shall be defined... (c) The annual Golden Eagle Passport...

  12. 12 CFR 750.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 750.2 Section 750.2 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 750.2 Golden parachute payments...

  13. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2 Section 359.2 Banks and Banking...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.2 Golden parachute payments...

  14. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking...SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.3 Golden parachute payments...

  15. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5 Section 71.5 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. ...the purpose of this section, shall be defined... (c) The annual Golden Eagle Passport...

  16. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations...Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins,...

  17. 12 CFR 750.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 750.2 Section 750.2 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 750.2 Golden parachute payments...

  18. 12 CFR 750.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 750.2 Section 750.2 Banks and Banking...REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 750.2 Golden parachute payments...

  19. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking...SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.3 Golden parachute payments...

  20. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5 Section 71.5 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. ...the purpose of this section, shall be defined... (c) The annual Golden Eagle Passport...

  1. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking...SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.3 Golden parachute payments...

  2. 75 FR 68398 - Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Golden Triangle Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35428] Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Golden Triangle Railroad Company Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC (GTRA), a noncarrier, has filed a verified...

  3. Golden Quantum Oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci Calculus

    E-print Network

    Pashaev, Oktay K

    2011-01-01

    The Binet-Fibonacci formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number (and q-operator) with Golden ratio bases $q=\\phi$ and $Q=-1/\\phi$. Quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given just by Fibonacci numbers. Ratio of successive energy levels is found as the Golden sequence and for asymptotic states it appears as the Golden ratio. This why we called this oscillator as the Golden oscillator. By double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived.

  4. Golden Quantum Oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci Calculus

    E-print Network

    Oktay K. Pashaev; Sengul Nalci

    2011-07-21

    The Binet-Fibonacci formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number (and q-operator) with Golden ratio bases $q=\\phi$ and $Q=-1/\\phi$. Quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given just by Fibonacci numbers. Ratio of successive energy levels is found as the Golden sequence and for asymptotic states it appears as the Golden ratio. This why we called this oscillator as the Golden oscillator. By double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived.

  5. NATURAL POX INFECTION IN A GOLDEN EAGLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH E. MOFFATT

    A naturally occurring case of pox infection was identified in a Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Prince George area of British Columbia. Gross and microscopic findings are described. This is apparently the first record of pox infection in the Golden Eagle.

  6. A Golden Eagle Perches in a Tree

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A golden eagle perches in a tree at the William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon. USGS researchers are conducting research that will help support the FWS’s and energy industry efforts to reduce impacts to golden eagles from wind energy operations, including, of course, collision with...

  7. The aesthetic attractivity of the golden section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans Boselie

    1984-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the presence of a golden section does not in and of itself add to the aesthetic attractivity of a pattern. Only as far as the realization of a golden section entails equivalences between parts of a pattern, will the aesthetic appeal of a pattern be enhanced. An experiment is reported in which this hypothesis is tested

  8. Golden Alga (Prymnesium parvum) An Emerging Threat

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    of salinity Minimum for blooms (0.5-1 psu, 2000 S/cm) · Water takes golden coloration during blooms, foam, TPWD flagella haptonema #12;4 Golden Alga Picture credits: TPWD #12;5 Shoreline Foam Picture credits East: fish ponds China: saline lakes United States: saline reservoirs and streams (> 0.5-1 psu

  9. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis. PMID:22548232

  10. Characterization and potential use of cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared by different microbial proteases.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef; Souissi, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3-78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1-9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  11. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Milovac, Dajana; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Marica; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, poly(?-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200°C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24268280

  12. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240?min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5?mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  13. Discovering Phi: The Golden Ratio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Students discover the mathematical constant phi, the golden ratio, through hands-on activities. They measure dimensions of "natural objects"—a star, a nautilus shell and human hand bones—and calculate ratios of the measured values, which are close to phi. Then students learn a basic definition of a mathematical sequence, specifically the Fibonacci sequence. By taking ratios of successive terms of the sequence, they find numbers close to phi. They solve a squares puzzle that creates an approximate Fibonacci spiral. Finally, the instructor demonstrates the rule of the Fibonacci sequence via a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot equipped with a pen. The robot (already created as part of the companion activity, The Fibonacci Sequence & Robots) draws a Fibonacci spiral that is similar to the nautilus shape.

  14. The golden rule of reviewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPeek, Mark A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Shaw, Ruth G.; Moore, Allen J.; Rausher, Mark D.; Strong, Donald R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Barrett, Louise; Rieseberg, Loren; Breed, Michael D.; Sullivan, Jack; Osenberg, Craig W.; Holyoak, Marcel; Elgar, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A major bottleneck in the time required to publish a scientific or scholarly paper is the speed with which reviews by peers are returned to journals. Peer review is a reciprocal altruistic system in which each individual may perform every task—editors, reviewers, and authors—at different times. Journals have no way to coerce reviewers to return their critiques faster. To greatly shorten the time to publication, all actors in this altruistic network should abide by the Golden Rule of Reviewing: review for others as you would have others review for you. Say yes to reviewing whenever your duties and schedule allow; provide a thorough, fair, and constructive critique of the work; and do it at your first opportunity regardless of the deadline.

  15. Golden Rice - Evaluating the Pros and Cons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    This activity engages students in evaluating the evidence and arguments related to Golden Rice and other possible strategies for preventing vitamin A deficiency. Students use this information to develop evidence-based conclusions about Golden Rice and the prevention of vitamin A deficiency. Students also develop questions that could provide important additional information for evaluating the arguments in favor of and opposed to Golden Rice and related policy proposals. In addition, students analyze how two reasonably accurate articles can present totally opposing points of view on this complex policy issue.

  16. Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  17. The Mystery of the Golden Cube

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Help Rex solve the mystery of the golden cube! You will need to decide if it is a rock, mineral, or a fossil. You will also need to examine the cubes shape, hardness, color, streak, density, cleavage, and fracture.

  18. The golden ratio in special relativity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti; Antonio Mejias

    2006-01-01

    In this note we show that Euclid’s construction of the golden rectangle can be used to derive both the dilation of time intervals and the Lorentz contraction of lengths as predicted by Einstein’s theory of special relativity. In this simple exercise, the Lorentz factor arises as a direct consequence of the Pythagorean theorem, while the golden ratio, ?=1+5\\/2, is found

  19. Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashaev, Oktay K.; Nalci, Sengul

    2012-01-01

    The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = ? and Q = -1/?, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels is found to be the Golden sequence, and for asymptotic states in the limit n ? ? it appears as the Golden ratio. We call this oscillator the Golden oscillator. Using double Golden bosons, the Golden angular momentum and its representation in terms of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden ratio are derived. Relations of Fibonacci calculus with a q-deformed fermion oscillator and entangled N-qubit states are indicated.

  20. The politics of Golden Rice.

    PubMed

    Dubock, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project. PMID:25437240

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanchao; Guo, Baoying; Li, Jiji; Wang, Hailing; Qi, Pengzhi; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis. The genome was 16,191?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)]. The composition and order of genes, for the mitogenome found in S. inermis were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. inermis is T 35.6%, C 16.4%, A 40.0% and G 8.0%, with a highly A?+?T bias of 75.6%. Two control regions contain both termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Thus, mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:24006867

  2. Characteristics of the tertiary egg membrane of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Xiamin; Song, Weiwei; Xu, Yongjian

    2010-11-01

    We separated tertiary egg membrane (TGM) from 2- and 25-day-old eggs of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune, and revealed its ultrastructure, physical (solubility, barrier property) and biochemical (histology, histochemistry, nutritional components, bacteriostasis) characteristics. The results show that TGM could not be dissolved with natural seawater, alcohol, ether or hydrochloric acid (HCl), but it could be dissolved with 2-chloroethanol, diethylamine, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The black TGM was more effective in blocking off mud particulates, microorganisms ( Chlorella vulgaris, Vibrio alginolyticus) and lighter than the white TGM. The elasticity of black and white TGMs was 1.8 N and 1.5 N, respectively. There were some ink particulates and rod-shaped bacteria in the black TGM. The nutritional components were different between black and white TGMs: Lipid content was lower and protein content was higher in the black TGM. TGM could also inhibit the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus.

  3. Characterization of mannosylerythritol lipids containing hexadecatetraenoic acid produced from cuttlefish oil by Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kawamura, Daisuke; Morita, Naoki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are promising biosurfactants produced by Ustilaginomycetes, and their physicochemical and biochemical properties differ depending on the chemical structure of their hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic moieties. To further develop MEL derivatives and expand their potential applications, we focused our attention on the use of cuttlefish oil, which contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid, C??:?, and eicosapentaenoic acid, C??:?, as the sole carbon source. Among the microorganisms capable of producing MEL, only nine strains were able to produce them from cuttlefish oil. On gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, we observed that Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96 was particularly suitable for the production of MEL-A, a MEL containing hexadecatetraenoic acid (C??:?) (23.6% of the total unsaturated fatty acids and 7.7% of the total fatty acids). The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of the new MEL-A were 5.7×10?? M and 29.5 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A produced from soybean oil were 2.7×10?? M and 27.7 mN/m, respectively. With polarized optical and confocal laser scanning microscopies, the self-assembling properties of MEL-A were found to be different from those of conventional MEL. Furthermore, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the anti-oxidative activity of MEL-A was found to be 2.1-fold higher than that of MEL-A produced from soybean oil. Thus, the newly identified MEL-A is attractive as a new functional material with excellent surface-active and antioxidative properties. PMID:23648407

  4. Contrasting accumulation biokinetics and distribution of 241 Am, Co, Cs, Mn and Zn during the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the whole development time of the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Thomas Lacoue.10.008 #12;2 Abstract: Cuttlefish eggs were exposed to 241 Am, Co, Cs, Mn and Zn for different periods the cuttlefish egg development. Keywords: Metals; Radionuclide; Bioaccumulation; Embryo; Eggshell; Permeability

  5. Current Biology 21, 17731782, November 8, 2011 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2011.09.011 Alternative Sites of Synaptic Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Hochner, Binyamin

    , in two phylogenet- ically close cephalopod mollusks, Octopus vulgaris and the cuttlefish Sepia and the cuttlefish the VL is characterized by the same simple fan-out fan-in connectivity architecture, composed in the cuttlefish plasticity is found at the fan-in cholin- ergic synaptic layer. Conclusions: Does this dramatic

  6. officinalis) Abstract ITo

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    --""."-- - -t- -- I ' REPORTS I Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Se as to avoid oilier cuttlefish. Those in die small tank hovered more and sat on die bottom less, showed more-cultured cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) have been the that are sufficiently large to permit a s~udy of this kind; we

  7. PHYSIOLOGY 237 Reference: Biol. Bull. 197: 237-238. (October 1999)

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    -term Health of Cultured Cuttlefish Janice S. Hanley, Nadav Shashar', Roxanna Smolowitz, William Mebane). The common European cuttlefish, Sepia ojkinalis Linnaeus, 1758, is being cultured in captivity to provide-scale mariculture. This species adapts quite well to captivity, and several generations of cuttlefish have been

  8. 3. Herzog, E. H., M. K. Powers, and R. B. Barlow. 1996. Vis. Neu-Fish, R. H. Douglas, R. H., and M. B. A. Djamgoz eds. Chapman rosci. 13: 31-41. and Hall, Ltd. London, England.

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Roger T.

    of cuttlefish, Sepia ofJicinalis (5), and possibly octopus (6) is partially linearly polarized (termed here"). In cuttlefish, the polarized patterns have been suggested to be produced by dermal reflecting cells such as those found in the "Pink iridophore arm stripes" (7). Cuttlefish are diurnal animals that interact

  9. UNCORRECTED Anim Cogn (2006)

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Alves · Raymond Chichery · Jean Geary Boal · Ludovic Dickel 44 45 Orientation in the cuttlefish Sepia with vertebrates. A new spatial learning procedure56 using a T-maze was designed. In this maze, the cuttlefish57 cuttlefish showed59 an untrained side-turning preference (preference for turn-60 ing right or left) in the T

  10. BIOACCUMULATION ET TRANSPORT DE DEUX RADIONUCLEIDES ARTIFICIELS (241 CS) AU TRAVERS DE LA PAROI DES OEUFS DE SEICHES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RADIONUCLIDES (241 AM AND 134 CS) IN CUTTLEFISH EGGSHELL P. BUSTAMANTE1* , J-L. TEYSSIÉ2 , S.W. FOWLER2 , M of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Experiments were designed to determine the processes controlling of cuttlefish. Mots clés: RADIONUCLEIDES; BIOCINETIQUES; BIOACCUMULATION; CEPHALOPODES RÉSUMÉ- Des

  11. rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org Cite this article: Deravi LF et al. 2014

    E-print Network

    ­function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores. J. R. Soc. Interface 11://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org. The structure­function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores Leila F, USA Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromato- phore organs

  12. Feel, smell and see in an egg: emergence of perception and learning in an immature invertebrate, the cuttlefish embryo.

    PubMed

    Romagny, Sébastien; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Guibé, Mathieu; Bellanger, Cécile; Dickel, Ludovic

    2012-12-01

    It is now well established that prenatal sensory experience affects development itself and has long-term consequences in terms of postnatal behavior. This study focused on the functionality of the sensory system in cuttlefish in ovo. Embryos of stage 23, 25 and 30 received a tactile, chemical or visual stimulus. An increase of mantle contraction rhythm was taken to indicate a behavioral response to the stimulus. We clearly demonstrated that tactile and chemical systems are functional from stage 23, whereas the visual system is functional only from stage 25. At stage 25 and 30, embryos were also exposed to a repeated light stimulus. Stage 30 embryos were capable of habituation, showing a progressive decrease in contractions across stimulations. This process was not due to fatigue as we observed response recovery after a dishabituation tactile stimulus. This study is the first to show that cuttlefish embryos behaviorally respond to stimuli of different modalities and that the visual system is the last to become functional during embryonic development, as in vertebrate embryos. It also provides new evidence that the memory system develops in ovo in cuttlefish. PMID:23136152

  13. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless...

  14. 12 CFR 741.224 - Golden parachute and indemnification payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute and indemnification payments. 741.224 Section 741.224 Banks and Banking NATIONAL...State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.224 Golden parachute and indemnification...

  15. 12 CFR 741.224 - Golden parachute and indemnification payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute and indemnification payments. 741.224 Section 741.224 Banks and Banking NATIONAL...State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.224 Golden parachute and indemnification...

  16. 12 CFR 741.224 - Golden parachute and indemnification payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute and indemnification payments. 741.224 Section 741.224 Banks and Banking NATIONAL...State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.224 Golden parachute and indemnification...

  17. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Avian Antimicrobial Glycopeptide from the Posterior Salivary Gland of Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Saravanan, R; Ebenezar, K Kumar; Sivamalai, T

    2015-02-01

    A proteinaceous glycopeptide was isolated from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of Sepia pharaonis by gel (Sephadex G-100) filtration chromatography and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the collected fractions, fraction 12 showed a retention time (RT) of 31 min. The total protein and neutral sugar contents of the purified glycopeptide were recorded as 68.14 and 2.95 mg, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified glycopeptide was found to be ~50 kDa. The infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of peptide and secondary structure in the purified glycopeptide. The antibacterial activity of the purified glycopeptide against avian bacterial strains was also determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the purified glycopeptide revealed the likely compounds for the antibacterial activity such as 22, 23-dibromostigmasterol acetate, 3-methyl 2-(2-oxypropyl) furan, and 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-5A-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-cyclohexene. These three compounds found in the purified glycopeptide could be responsible for the antibacterial activity against the avian pathogens. The results of this study suggest that the purified glycopeptide from the PSG of S. pharaonis could be an antibacterial agent against avian bacterial pathogens. PMID:25410800

  18. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. PMID:24530330

  19. Effects of chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge on the blood parameters of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-04-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its bene?cial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the ?eld of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  20. Effects of Chitin and Sepia Ink Hybrid Hemostatic Sponge on the Blood Parameters of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its bene?cial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the ?eld of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  1. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant property of chitosan from cuttlebone Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885).

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-03-01

    Chitin was extracted from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis and chitosan was prepared through deacetylation. The chitosan was characterized for its structural, physical and thermal (CHN, DDA, FT-IR, NMR, XRD, Viscometric analysis, SEM and DSC) properties. Further, the chitosan exhibited the antioxidant activity of 50.68-74.36% at 1-10 mg ml(-1) and it also showed the reducing power of 0.28% at 1 mg ml(-1). At 10 mg ml(-1), the chitosan exhibited the scavenging ability of 46.17%, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, 23.38-73.70% on superoxide radicals at 0.05-1.6 mg ml(-1) and 18.34% to 62.39% (0.1-3.2 mg ml(-1)) on hydroxyl radicals; whereas at 1-10 mg ml(-1) the chelating ability on ferrous ions was calculated as 49.74-73.59%. Based on the potential antioxidant activity, scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating abilities on ferrous ions, the chitosan from the cuttlebone of S. kobiensis may not only be used as a potent natural antioxidant but also as a possible food quality enhancer ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24333227

  2. [Effects of temperature on the embryonic development and larval growth of Sepia lycidas].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia-Min; Peng, Rui-Bing; Luo, Jiang; Tang, Feng

    2013-05-01

    A single-factor experiment was conducted to study the effects of different temperature (15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, and 33 degrees C) on the embryonic development and larval growth of Sepia lycidas, aimed to search for the optimum temperature for the development and growth of S. lycidas. The results showed that temperature had significant effects on the embryonic development and larval growth of S. lycidas (P < 0.05). The suitable temperature for hatching ranged from 21 degrees C to 30 degrees C, and the optimum temperature was 24 degrees C. At the optimum temperature, the hatching rate was (93.3 +/- 2.9)%, incubation period was (24.33 +/- 0.58) d, hatching period was (6.00 +/- 1.00) d, completely absorked rate of yolk sac was (96.4 +/- 3.1)%, and newly hatched larvae mass was (0.258 +/- 0.007) g. The effective accumulated temperature model was N = 284.42/(T-12.57). The suitable temperature for the larval survival and growth ranged from 21 degrees C to 30 degrees C, and the optimum temperature was from 24 degrees C to 27 degrees C. At the optimum temperature, the survival rate ranged from 70.0% to 73.3%, and the specific growth rate was from 2.4% to 3.8%. PMID:24015570

  3. Evidence of early nervous differentiation and early catecholaminergic sensory system during Sepia officinalis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baratte, S; Bonnaud, L

    2009-12-01

    Within Mollusca, cephalopods exhibit a particularly complex nervous system. The adult brain is formed from the fusion of several "typical" molluscan ganglia but it remains poorly understood how these ganglia emerge, migrate, and differentiate during embryogenesis. We studied the development of both central and peripheral nervous system by antibodies raised against alpha-tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in Sepia officinalis embryos to visualize neurites and catecholamine-containing neurons, respectively. In early embryos, when organs start delineating, some ganglia already exhibited a significant fiber network. TH-like immunoreactivity was detected in these fibers and in some primary sensory neurons in the embryo periphery. These data attest to the occurrence of an early embryonic sensory nervous system, likely effective, transient in part, and in relation to the perception of external cues. Concerning the peripheral nervous network, the stellate ganglia emerged as a plexus of numerous converging axons from TH-like immunoreactive sensory cells, first at the mantle edge, and then in the whole mantle surface. Later, TH-immunopositive motor fibers, originating from the stellate ganglia, penetrated the circular muscles of the mantle. These patterns reveal the setup of a mantle midline with likely attractive and repulsive properties. Our findings seem to challenge the widespread, still accepted, view of a late differentiation of cephalopod ganglia, and provides significant data for further investigations about axonal guidance during cephalopod development. PMID:19795495

  4. Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis. PMID:19683074

  5. Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Knott, Ron.

    In 1202, the mathematician Fibonacci investigated the problem of how fast rabbits could breed under ideal circumstances. This problem and many more are detailed at the Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section Website, made available by Dr. Ron Knott of the University of Surrey (UK). A new addition to the site is a link to a reference page of over 100 formulas and equations demonstrating the properties of Fibonacci, Phi, and Lucus numbers series. The site's many links are categorized in the following sections: Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sections in Nature; The Intriguing Mathematical World of Fibonacci and Phi; The Puzzling World of Fibonacci Numbers; The Golden String; Fibonacci: the Man and His Times; and More Applications of Fibonacci Numbers and Phi. This site, through its extensive listings of links, contains a plethora of mathematical theories, equations, and proofs based on Fibonacci numbers.

  6. Whooping crane preyed upon by golden eagle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Stiles, H.E.; Drewien, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is the largest predatory bird in North America and is well known for its predatory abilities. Attacks have been reported on mammals such as whitetail jackrabbits (Lepus townsendi) (McGahan 1967, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 31: 496), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) (Bruhns 1970, Can. Field-Natur. 84: 301), Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (Kelleher and O'Malia 1971, Auk 88: 186), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) (Carnie 1954, Condor 56: 3). This communication describes an attack on an immature Whooping Crane (Grus americana) by a Golden Eagle and the subsequent necropsy findings.

  7. Inflow and Infiltration in Golden Valley

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The city of Golden Valley (MN) Web site offers the interactive Inflow and Infiltration in Golden Valley activity. This Flash based animation attempts to show homeowners how connecting a sump pump directly to the sewer system, besides being illegal, can cause other unforeseen problems. The characters explain that this could lead to higher water and sewer charges and even basement flooding of neighboring homes. Even though there isn't in-depth information on these subjects, the site does do a good job of explaining and illustrating how an average municipal sewerage system works, how a home sump pump works, and what happens to storm water.

  8. Golden Eagle Indifference to Heli-Skiing and Military Helicopters

    E-print Network

    Golden Eagle Indifference to Heli-Skiing and Military Helicopters in Northern Utah TERYL G. GRUBB,1 29634, USA #12;#12;Management and Conservation Article Golden Eagle Indifference to Heli individual golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in 22 nesting territories, through passive observation

  9. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and...INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction as described in section 5.61 of the...

  10. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Landing golden crab intact. 622.247 Section 622.247 Wildlife and Fisheries...MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic...Region § 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The...

  11. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4 Section 359.4 Banks and...OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction as described in section 13 of the Act...

  12. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6 Section 71.6 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. ...a)(2) of this section not having in his possession...qualification for a Golden Age Passport may...

  13. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and...INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction as described in section 5.61 of the...

  14. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4 Section 359.4 Banks and...OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction as described in section 13 of the Act...

  15. TRADURRE IN ITALIANO IL TESTO SEGUENTE: The Golden Section

    E-print Network

    Robbiano, Lorenzo

    TRADURRE IN ITALIANO IL TESTO SEGUENTE: The Golden Section The diagram below shows two lines, AC can be regarded as one line called AB. The ratio of the line AC to CB is the Golden Section the equation: x = ( 5 - 1)/2 = 0.61803398875.... The reciprocal of the Golden Section is 1

  16. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6 Section 71.6 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. ...a)(2) of this section not having in his possession...qualification for a Golden Age Passport may...

  17. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4 Section 359.4 Banks and...OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction as described in section 13 of the Act...

  18. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6 Section 71.6 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. ...a)(2) of this section not having in his possession...qualification for a Golden Age Passport may...

  19. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and...INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction as described in section 5.61 of the...

  20. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4 Section 359.4 Banks and...OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction as described in section 13 of the Act...

  1. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6 Section 71.6 Parks, Forests...RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. ...a)(2) of this section not having in his possession...qualification for a Golden Age Passport may...

  2. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and...INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION...to pay the promised golden parachute and the...transaction as described in section 5.61 of the...

  3. 76 FR 73994 - Golden Parachute and Indemnification Payments; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ...FICU) from making golden parachute and indemnification...to the definition of golden parachute payment pertaining...to plans offered under section 457 of the Internal Revenue...participation, vesting, etc. Section 457(f) plans are sometimes referred to as ``golden handcuffs''...

  4. Intake of essential and non-essential elements from consumption of octopus, cuttlefish and squid.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Garofalo, R; Giungato, D; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2010-01-01

    Total concentrations of essential (Cu, Zn, Se and Cr) and non-essential (Hg, Cd, Pb and As) trace elements were measured in the flesh and hepatopancreas of Octopodidae (Eledone moschata, Eledone cirrhosa, Octopus salutii), Sepiidae (Sepia elegans, Sepia orbignyana) and Loliginidae (Illex coindeti, Loligo vulgaris) from the Mediterranean Sea. As expected, the hepatopancreas showed higher metal concentrations than flesh; the only exceptions were Hg and As, which were equally distributed in the two tissues. Regarding the edible portion, the highest toxic metal concentrations were in Octopodidae (Hg: 0.44, Cd: 0.49, Pb: 0.10 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Sepiidae (Hg: 0.27, Cd: 0.50, Pb: 0.12 µg g(-1) wet weight), while Loliginidae tended to accumulate less metal, especially Hg (Hg: 0.11, Cd: 0.30, Pb: 0.05 µg g(-1) wet weight). The other elements showed a heterogeneous distribution among the different cephalopod families. Loliginidae showed the highest Se concentrations (1.18 µg g(-1) wet weight), Octopodidae of Cu (37.37 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Zn (42.00 µg g(-1) wet weight) and Sepiidae of As (61.43 µg g(-1) wet weight), while Cr was uniformly distributed among the various families (0.38-0.43 µg g(-1) wet weight). In these seafoods, the concentrations of essential and non-essential elements were within the prescribed limits set by various authorities, except for Cu and As. Health risks posed by toxic elements to humans via dietary intake of these mollusks were assessed on the basis on Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), while the estimated intakes of essential elements were compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (RDIs). A 70-g serving of these mollusks was shown to provide a large contribution to Cd intake (0.89 µg kg(-1) body weight), corresponding to 35.6% of PTWI. Concerning the essential elements, the consumption of these mollusks made an important contribution to daily dietary intake of Se, Cu and Zn. PMID:24785311

  5. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in tissues of two cephalopods, Eledone cirrhosa and Sepia officinalis , from the French coast of the English Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Miramand; D. Bentley

    1992-01-01

    The concentrations of 11 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were measured in the tissues (digestive gland, branchial hearts, gills, digestive tract, kidney, genital tract, muscle, skin, shell) of the two cephalopods Eledone cirrhosa (d'Orb.) and Sepia officinalis (L.) collected from the French coast of the English Channel in October 1987. The

  6. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  7. Quetzalcoatl and the Golden Age of Mesoamerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Heil, Celia

    1978-01-01

    Quetzalcoatl was both man and god, myth and true history, and was worshipped through centuries in temples in the great sacred cities of Teotihuacan, Tollan, and Chichen Itza. The White god, ruler of the Toltec golden age, who sailed toward the east promising to return, remains a mystery. (Author/NQ)

  8. The Golden Heads of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lynn Bohs (University of Utah; Department of Biology ADR; POSTAL)

    2004-03-09

    The golden heads of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia covering the foothills herald spring in Utah's Wasatch Mountains. Balsamorhiza macrophylla, the cutleat balsamroot (shown here), commonly grows interspersed with B. sagittata (arrowleaf balsamroot) and W. amplexicaulis (mule's ear) on hillsides and in open woods.

  9. Golden-Thompson's Inequality for Deformed Exponentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Deformed logarithms and their inverse functions, the deformed exponentials, are important tools in the theory of non-additive entropies and non-extensive statistical mechanics. We formulate and prove counterparts of Golden-Thompson's trace inequality for q -exponentials with parameter q in the interval [1,3].

  10. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. NEW GOLDEN EAGLE RECORDS FROM BAJA CALIFORNIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JORGE LLINAS-GUTIRREZ; JORGE CANCINO

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) has been little studied in Mexico so that this species' population status in the southern extreme of its range is unknown. We present new records of the species for the mid and southern portion of Baja California. We describe the recovery of an eagle banded in Oregon and found dead in the Vizcaino Desert, approximately

  12. Profile of Susan S. Golden Sujata Gupta

    E-print Network

    Bechtel, William

    . If photosynthesis is not running, it's dark." An Unlikely Path to the Academy The roots of Golden's career in plant the genes that un- derpin photosynthesis. However, her focus changed in 1986 with the discovery-celled, and thus they are much easier to manipulate in a laboratory than plants. With her expertise

  13. Golden Section Relations in Interpersonal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjafield, John; Green, T. R. G.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the organization of interpersonal judgments, based on the hypothesis that people tend to organize their judgments in Golden Section ratios, was presented. A theory of the process of interpersonal judgment, based on the notion that people judge acquaintances using a Fibonacci-like decision rule, was then developed. A computer simulation…

  14. Introducing the Golden Section to Computer Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia López; Manuel Núñez; Ismael Rodríguez; Fernando Rubio

    2002-01-01

    The golden section appears in nature showing that this magical number represents the right answer for finding the optimal solution to many covering problems. We claim that it can also be quite profitable using this number in the context of computer science. This assertion is contrasted by showing how to solve two quite different (classes of) computer science problems on

  15. Construing stigmatized identities: A golden section study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Raskin; Melanie T. Harasym; Matthew A. Mercuri; Rebekah M. Widrick

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. In order to examine whether persons belonging to stigmatized groups are evaluated more negatively than others, this study employed the golden section hypothesis, which predicts that people organize their evaluations in a ratio of roughly 62% positive to 38% negative. Method. Surveys were administered to 154 participants, with 143 surveys analysed. Participants rated nine different identities (business person, politician,

  16. GOLDEN RICE GETS A BOOST FROM MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the nutritional quality of our plant-based food supply is a topic of active, interdisciplinary research. Previous efforts have led to the development of Golden Rice, a proof-of-concept transgenic line that was engineered with two carotenoid enzymes to produce beta-carotene (a pro-vitamin ...

  17. Golden Section Search Example. This is an illustration of how the Golden Section search algorithm performs on the function f(x) = x 2

    E-print Network

    Sharpley, Robert

    Math 524 Golden Section Search Example. This is an illustration of how the Golden Section search Search will reduce it by an amount 1 2 + ffl. For the same amount of work, the Golden Section method can

  18. A polycaprolactone/cuttlefish bone-derived hydroxyapatite composite porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Yang, Sun-Sik; Lee, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Cuttlefish bone (CB) is an attractive natural biomaterial source to obtain hydroxyapatite (HAp). In this study, a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold incorporating CB-derived HAp (CB-HAp) powder was fabricated using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. The presence of CB-HAp in PCL/CB-HAp scaffold was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and porosity analysis showed that the average pore dimension of the fabricated scaffold was approximately 200-300 ?m, with ?85% porosity, and that the compressive modulus increased after addition of CB-HAp powders. In vitro tests such as cell proliferation assay, cytotoxicity analysis, cell attachment observations, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays showed that the PCL/CB-HAp scaffold could improve the proliferation, viability, adherence, and osteoblast differentiation rate of MG-63 cells. When surgically implanted into rabbit calvarial bone defects, consistent with the in vitro results, PCL/CB-HAp scaffold implantation resulted in significantly higher new bone formation than did implantation of PCL alone. These findings suggest that addition of CB-HAp powder to the PCL scaffold can improve cellular response and that the PCL/CB-HAp composite scaffold has great potential for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24259295

  19. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: in vitro cell culture studies.

    PubMed

    Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. PMID:25063118

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis and thermal evolution of carbonate-fluorhydroxyapatite scaffold from cuttlefish bones.

    PubMed

    Tkal?ec, Emilija; Popovi?, Jasminka; Orli?, Sebastijan; Milardovi?, Stjepan; Ivankovi?, Hrvoje

    2014-09-01

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of carbonated fluor/hydroxyapatite synthesized hydrothermally from aragonitic cuttlefish bones were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The product of synthesis has been characterized as carbonated fluor/hydroxyapatite with carbonate incorporated inside channel (A-type) and substituted for the PO4(3-) group (B-type). The vibration band at 874 cm(-1) assigned to bending (?2) mode undoubtedly confirmed carbonate substituted for PO4(3-) group, while the band at 880 cm(-1) was attributed to A-type carbonate substitution. The additional sharp and intense band at 865 cm(-1) considered as "non-apatitic" carbonate substitution is not assigned with certainty so far. Evolution of CO2 from tetrahedral (PO4(3-)) sites with the increase in heat-treatment temperature is evident by the changes in tetrahedral bond lengths and angles, as obtained by the Rietveld structure refinement. Also, changes in the isotropic temperature parameters for the 2a site point to A-type carbonate incorporation as well. PMID:25063156

  1. Microsatellite DNA variation reveals high gene flow and panmictic populations in the Adriatic shared stocks of the European squid and cuttlefish (Cephalopoda)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Garoia; I Guarniero; A Ramšak; N Ungaro; M Landi; C Piccinetti; P Mannini; F Tinti

    2004-01-01

    In the semienclosed Adriatic Sea, the shared stocks of the cephalopods Loligo vulgaris and Sepia officinalis represent important marine fisheries resources exploited by all coastal countries. The improving of knowledge on the demographic features of these shared stocks is internationally relevant for adopting responsible management and conservation of these marine resources. Analyses of microsatellite variation in geographical samples collected from

  2. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madry, Milena M.; Kraemer, Thomas; Kupper, Jacqueline; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Jenny, Hannes; Jenni, Lukas; Jenny, David

    2015-03-01

    Fragments from lead ammunition pose a poisoning risk for predators like golden eagles that scavenge on non-retrieved carcasses or offal left behind by hunters. Three golden eagles were found in the Swiss Alps with an acute lead poisoning. To investigate whether the few cases of lead-poisoned golden eagles are exceptional events or whether a substantial proportion of the Alpine golden eagle population is affected by lead at sublethal levels, we measured body burdens in golden eagles from Switzerland in comparison to eagle owls from the same area and to their respective prey. These two raptor species differ in their food as eagle owls feed on live-caught prey. Lead levels in soft tissues were significantly higher in golden eagles (median 1.14 ?g g?1 dry weight in liver, 0.99 ?g g?1 in kidney) than in eagle owls (0.14 and 0.23 ?g g?1). Bones of golden eagles contained 10 times more lead (median of 12.45 ?g g?1 dry weight) than owl bones (1.28 ?g g?1), which represent substantially higher levels than previously reported for golden eagles. Bones of prey of both golden eagles and eagle owls had low lead concentrations. In order to investigate whether the sublethal lead of golden eagles originates from ammunition or from generic environmental contamination, we examined lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope signatures of golden eagle bones were very similar to those of ammunition, but differed from the signatures of bones of their prey, eagle owls and soil. Isotope signatures did not change with increasing bone lead concentration in golden eagles or any other group examined. These findings indicate that in the Alps, most golden eagles take up lead from spent ammunition in carcasses or their offal in sublethal quantities throughout their life and a few in lethal quantities leading to acute lead poisoning.

  3. The sisters of the golden section.

    PubMed

    Navon, David

    2011-01-01

    The golden proportion is widely believed to be extraordinarily prevalent in nature and the arts, which is often ascribed to it being the limit of the ratio between any two successive elements in the Fibonacci sequence. It is suggested here that the golden ratio may not be as exceptional as generally believed. Mathematically, some interesting properties are common to all members of a family of sequences, denoted ARS, characterised as solutions to the classic rabbit reproduction problem varying on some parameter, j, including the Fibonacci sequence as a prototypical member--ARS2. Furthermore, for j > 1, any limit of the ratio between successive elements in ARS(j), shares the same formal properties with all other such limits. Three actual interpretations and three further geometric applications of ARS3, all intimately analogous to corresponding ARS2 ones, are presented for the sake of illustration. Empirically, it is suggested here that, owing to the communality of interesting mathematical properties between ARS sequences, as well as between corresponding limits, nature might appear to have made use of some other limits, aside of its variegated use of the limit of ARS2--the golden ratio. Initial empirical clues are provided. Finally, the issue whether there really is special import to golden proportions in nature and the arts is revisited in view of some empirical comparisons of appearances related to Fibonacci numbers and ARS3 numbers, particular its limit (-1.466) and the inverse of that limit (-0.682). It is argued that the claim that Fibonacci-related numbers are especially distinguished seems to warrant a more qualified approach than it has often met. PMID:21936299

  4. Pleuritis and peritonitis in a golden eagle.

    PubMed

    Gullett, P A; Littrell, E E

    1984-07-01

    A female Golden Eagle died despite intensive treatment after being struck by a vehicle. Necropsy revealed poor body condition, with no fat stores. The proventriculus and ventriculus contained a pellet of fur and bone fragments, at the center of which was the leg of a Red-Tailed Hawk. A talon on the leg had punctured the ventriculus, resulting in fatal pleuritis and peritonitis. PMID:6749123

  5. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...land to enhance golden eagle nesting and foraging habitat, relocating in suitable...Whether suitable golden eagle nesting and foraging habitat unaffected by the resource...land to enhance golden eagle nesting and foraging habitat, relocating in...

  6. 77 FR 25162 - Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...Docket No. EL12-59-000] Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern...Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Complainant or Golden Spread) filed a formal complaint against...

  7. 78 FR 46332 - Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ...Commission [Docket No. EL13-78-000] Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern...Take notice that on July 19, 2013, Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Golden Spread or Complainant) filed a formal complaint...

  8. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource...

  9. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource...

  10. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource...

  11. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource...

  12. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301.85-9 Agriculture...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes....

  13. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301.85-9 Agriculture...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes....

  14. 76 FR 36979 - Golden Parachute and Indemnification Payments-Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...Revise the definition of ``Golden Parachute Payment'' in...Definitions. * * * * * (e) Golden parachute payment * * * (2) Exceptions. The term golden parachute payment does not...compensation plan under section 457(b) of the...

  15. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301.85-9 Agriculture...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations...85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes....

  16. Golden Rice An Intimate Debate Case

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Annie Prud?homme Genereux

    2009-01-01

    In this intimate debate case, students consider whether to support the development and use of Golden Rice as a means to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in the developing world. Students are exposed to arguments supporting and opposing the use of this genetically modified crop for humanitarian purposes. Since many of the arguments typically raised against genetically modified organisms (GMOs) do not apply to this particular GM crop, students are forced to analyze the facts rather than rely on what they have heard in the media. Developed for an introductory molecular biology undergraduate course, the case could also be used at more senior levels.

  17. Productivity of golden eagles wearing backpack radiotransmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzluff, J.M.; Vekasy, M.S.; Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    1997-01-01

    We examined the association between the presence of backpack radiotransmitters and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)reproduction (percentage of occupied territories producing young, and number of nestlings produced) over three years. The association between radio-tagging and nesting success and the number of nestlings produced varied significantly among years. A negative association with tagging was observed in one of three years, which coincided with low prey (jackrabbit) populations and a cold spring. However, small sample size and breeding by subadults may confound this result.

  18. Golden Section and the Art of Painting

    E-print Network

    Olariu, A

    1999-01-01

    A statistical study on 565 works of art of different great painters was done and it was calculated the ratio of the 2 sides of a paintings. Assuming that all the painters under discussion enter in a statistics with equal weights it is shown that the average value obtained for the ratio of the sides is 1.34. This value, determined experimentally is significantly different from the value of the Golden Section F=1.618, which is a theoretical ratio, obtained from an abstract, mathematical theory, which supposedly ought to impress on a painting a supreme harmony.

  19. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Cultured Golden Shiners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel V. Beecham; Philip R. Pearson; Susan B. LaBarre; C. Douglas Minchew

    2009-01-01

    Swimming performance and metabolism of golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas were examined by use of swim tunnel respirometry. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequency (TBF) at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate (SMR), and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) were determined for golden shiners that were tested in 10 groups of 5 individuals each. Oxygen consumption

  20. Golden Ratio in a Coupled-Oscillator Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Goff, John Eric

    2007-01-01

    The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

  1. Abortion, the Golden Rule, and the Indeterminacy of Potential Persons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Meyers

    2005-01-01

    R.M. Hare and Harry Gensler have each argued that abortion is usually morally wrong because it violates a certain version of the golden rule. The appeal to the golden rule is intended to avoid difficult metaphysical issues such as whether or not a fetus is a person and the moral status of potential persons, any answers to which are likely

  2. Spectral Imaging Through the Atmosphere Steven Adler-Golden

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    Spectral Imaging Through the Atmosphere Steven Adler-Golden Leader, Passive Sensing Group Spectral, Inc. His experience at both technical and management levels includes atmospheric aeronomy, infrared of atmospheric correction and data analysis algorithms for spectral imagery. Dr. Adler-Golden received his B

  3. COMPLETE MIGRATION CYCLE OF GOLDEN EAGLES BREEDING IN NORTHERN QUEBEC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Brodeur; David M. Bird; Mark Fuller

    Abstract. Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles (five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three ofwhich completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and

  4. GOLDEN EAGLE PREDATION ON PRONGHORNS IN WYOMING'S GREAT DIVIDE BASIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. DEBLINGER; A. WILLIAM ALLDREDGE

    From 1980-85, while studying pronghorn antelope in Wyoming's Great Divide Basin, we recorded seven inci- dents of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) attacking prong- horns (Antilocapra americana). Most reported observa- uons of golden eagle predation on pronghorns involve newborn fawns during spring and summer (Beale and Smith 1973, Barrett 1978, Beale 1978, Bodie 1978, Von Gunten 1978, Autenrieth 1980), but a

  5. A Golden Section approach to optimization of automotive friction materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Lu

    2003-01-01

    A Golden Section approach combined with relational grade analysis is proposed as an experimental design tool helpful in the development of new automotive friction materials. Golden Section was used to design the volume fraction of the components systematically. The changes in friction performance (friction coefficient and wear) measured using Friction Assessment and Screening Test (FAST) can be correlated with component

  6. A fuzzy linguistic interpretation of the golden section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thananchai Leephakpreeda

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy linguistic interpretation of the golden section is presented. Conventionally, in geometrical approach, the golden section partitions a search interval into a major subsegment and a minor subsegment in such a way that the ratio of the whole to the major equals the ratio of the major to the minor. In fuzzy linguistic interpretation, two natural

  7. A "Projective" Test of the Golden Section Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris; Adams-Webber, Jack

    1987-01-01

    In a projective test of the golden section hypothesis, 24 high school students rated themselves and 10 comic strip characters on basis of 12 bipolar constructs. Overall proportion of cartoon figures which subjects assigned to positive poles of constructs was very close to golden section. (Author/NB)

  8. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  9. Development of polymorphic expressed sequence tag-single sequence repeat markers in the common Chinese cuttlefish, Sepiella maindroni.

    PubMed

    Li, R H; Lu, S K; Zhang, C L; Song, W W; Mu, C K; Wang, C L

    2014-01-01

    The common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella maindroni) is one of the popular edible cephalopod consumed across Asia. To facilitate the population genetic investigation of this species, we developed fourteen polymorphic microsatellite makers from expressed sequence tags of S. maindroni. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from 6 to 10 with an average of 7.9 alleles per locus. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were from 0.615 to 0.962 and 0.685 to 0.888, respectively. Four loci were found deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.638 to 0.833. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be helpful for the population genetic, genetic linkage map, and other genetic studies of S. maindroni. PMID:25117305

  10. Identification of the major ACE-inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate from cuttlefish wastewater.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC?? = 76.8 ± 15.2 ?g mL?¹) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC?? value of 58.4 ± 4.6 ?g mL?¹. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A-D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC?? values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 ?g mL?¹, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. PMID:24619242

  11. Identification of the Major ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Protein Concentrate from Cuttlefish Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Amado, Isabel; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC50 = 76.8 ± 15.2 ?g mL?1) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC50 value of 58.4 ± 4.6 ?g mL?1. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A–D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC50 values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 ?g mL?1, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. PMID:24619242

  12. WORKING PAPER N 2008 -48 On the Golden Rule of capital accumulation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the model. Section 3 derives the Golden Rule of capital of the Golden Rule, named the Lifetime Golden Rule. Section 5 concludes. 2 The model Let us consider an OLGWORKING PAPER N° 2008 - 48 On the Golden Rule of capital accumulation under endogenous longevity

  13. A golden approach to ion channel inhibition?

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Gavin E.; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: ‘Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?’ We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio. PMID:23972927

  14. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San Francisco, California Original: Ante 1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  15. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park - San Francisco, California Original: c1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM NORTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  16. Review: The Golden Shore: California's Love Affair with the Sea

    E-print Network

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2013-01-01

    Golden Shore succeeds as a history book about California andbook, you will know enough to be knowledgeable about the state’s general history.both as a book about the shore as well as the history of The

  17. 13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, California, 1850's) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF CONVENTO BEFORE RESTORATION, 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  18. 12. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Park Museum, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Park Museum, San Francisco, California, 1850's) EXTERIOR, DETAIL OF FACADE OF MISSION SHOWING ARCHED WINDOWS, ENTRANCE AND BELFRY - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  19. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Golden Eagle (colored gold) and a family group (colored midnight blue) enclosed within a circle (colored white with a midnight blue border) framed by a rounded triangle (colored gold with a midnight blue border) which was...

  20. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Golden Eagle (colored gold) and a family group (colored midnight blue) enclosed within a circle (colored white with a midnight blue border) framed by a rounded triangle (colored gold with a midnight blue border) which was...

  1. Effect of Molasses on Golden Apple Snail Silage Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kittipong Rattanaporn; Soykaew Ieng-ubol; Watcharee Songsi-oon

    The production of golden apple snail silage was carried out by fermenting the minced golden apple snail with locally screened lactic acid bacteria; L1\\/2, at ambient temperature using molasses as the carbon source for bacterial growth. The pH value rapidly decreased to 5.0 after 3 days of fermentation, allowing an increase of free amino acid that was released from protein

  2. Age-related stigma and the golden section hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebekah M. Widrick; Jonathan D. Raskin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The present study used the golden section hypothesis, which predicts that people organize information in a ratio of 61.8% positive to 38.2% negative, to examine age-related identities. It was predicted that people would rate identities of the aging population in accordance with a reverse golden section hypothesis. That is, people would assign negative ratings 61.8% of the time and

  3. Identification and characteristics of the structural gene for the Drosophila eye colour mutant sepia, encoding PDA synthase, a member of the omega class glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaekwang; Suh, Hyunsuk; Kim, Songhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Ahn, Chiyoung; Yim, Jeongbin

    2006-09-15

    The eye colour mutant sepia (se1) is defective in PDA {6-acetyl-2-amino-3,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrimido[4,5-b]-[1,4]diazepin-4-one or pyrimidodiazepine} synthase involved in the conversion of 6-PTP (2-amino-4-oxo-6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine; also known as 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin) into PDA, a key intermediate in drosopterin biosynthesis. However, the identity of the gene encoding this enzyme, as well as its molecular properties, have not yet been established. Here, we identify and characterize the gene encoding PDA synthase and show that it is the structural gene for sepia. Based on previously reported information [Wiederrecht, Paton and Brown (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 2195-2200; Wiederrecht and Brown (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14121-14127; Andres (1945) Drosoph. Inf. Serv. 19, 45; Ingham, Pinchin, Howard and Ish-Horowicz (1985) Genetics 111, 463-486; Howard, Ingham and Rushlow (1988) Genes Dev. 2, 1037-1046], we isolated five candidate genes predicted to encode GSTs (glutathione S-transferases) from the presumed sepia locus (region 66D5 on chromosome 3L). All cloned and expressed candidates exhibited relatively high thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities and low activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, characteristic of Omega class GSTs, whereas only CG6781 catalysed the synthesis of PDA in vitro. The molecular mass of recombinant CG6781 was estimated to be 28 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 56 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that it is a homodimer under native conditions. Sequencing of the genomic region spanning CG6781 revealed that the se1 allele has a frameshift mutation from 'AAGAA' to 'GTG' at nt 190-194, and that this generates a premature stop codon. Expression of the CG6781 open reading frame in an se1 background rescued the eye colour defect as well as PDA synthase activity and drosopterins content. The extent of rescue was dependent on the dosage of transgenic CG6781. In conclusion, we have discovered a new catalytic activity for an Omega class GST and that CG6781 is the structural gene for sepia which encodes PDA synthase. PMID:16712527

  4. The golden age of multifrequency astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, Franco; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    In occasion of the Silver Jubilee of the Frascati Workshop about Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources we want to discuss some aspects of the Multifrequency Astrophysics. Multifrequency Astrophysics can be considered as a `new field' of astrophysics born just around the end of 1970-ies - beginning of 1980-ies to which we strongly contributed not only with our own measurements and studies of physical processes spread along the whole electromagnetic spectrum, but mostly with the organization of the Frascati Workshop Series. In this paper we discuss the methodology used in astrophysics for collecting data coming from multifrequency observations of cosmic sources - obtained in different ways - and the relative models developed through theoretical study of physical processes governing their behaviour. Several examples about X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, T Tauri stars, relativistic jets from different classes of sources, gamma-ray bursts, and few words about Standard Big Bang Cosmology and experimental proofs fitting the theory will be discussed. We will briefly discuss also the prospects of the multifrequency astrophysics which is now in its golden age without any pretension of completness.

  5. Prevention of Golden Eagle electrocution. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.C.

    1982-10-01

    Eagle electrocutions on distribution lines were documented in six western states by examination of carcasses found below the lines. Golden eagles represented 82.5% of the 416 carcasses found during the study. Fifty-one of the eagles were fresh enough to determine age and time and cause of death. Of these, 80.6% died of electrocution during the winter months, and only 5.8% of these were adult birds. More eagles were electrocuted in areas of cottontail rabbit habitat than in other areas: 36% of the poles in cottontail rabbit habitat had carcasses under them during the time of the study, 21.9% of the poles with mixed cottontail-jack rabbit habitat had eagle carcasses, and 14% of the poles in jack rabbit-only habitat had eagle carcasses (significant at P = 0.001). Poles placed on topographic salients had more eagle mortalities than poles at low points (P = 0.001). None of the carcasses found had gunshot wounds. Measures found to lower incidence of eagle electrocution inlcude routing lines around preferred prey habitat, locating power poles in topographically low areas, and insulating conductors on corner and transformer poles.

  6. Enhanced likelihood of a golden wedding anniversary.

    PubMed

    Kranczer, S

    1997-01-01

    Today's newly married couples can more than ever expect to celebrate their silver and even golden wedding anniversaries. In comparison with their counterparts at the turn of the century, the chances of joint survival for 50 years for the typical bride and groom in 1995 were 3 1/4 times higher, despite increasing divorce rates and due in large part to increasing longevity. Currently, the median age at marriage for brides and grooms is at record high levels for both. In 1995 the median age at first marriage for a bride was 24.5 years and was 26.9 years for the groom--at the beginning of the century first marriage vows were spoken at age 21.9 and 25.9 years, respectively. The probability of surviving to have a silver wedding anniversary is extremely high. Of all newly married couples who remain married, nearly 900 out of every 1,000 can anticipate celebrating a 25th wedding anniversary together. PMID:9253788

  7. The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

  8. A second golden age of aeroacoustics?

    PubMed

    Lele, Sanjiva K; Nichols, Joseph W

    2014-08-13

    In 1992, Sir James Lighthill foresaw the dawn of a second golden age in aeroacoustics enabled by computer simulations (Hardin JC, Hussaini MY (eds) 1993 Computational aeroacoustics, New York, NY: Springer (doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-8342-0)). This review traces the progress in large-scale computations to resolve the noise-source processes and the methods devised to predict the far-field radiated sound using this information. Keeping focus on aviation-related noise sources a brief account of the progress in simulations of jet noise, fan noise and airframe noise is given highlighting the key technical issues and challenges. The complex geometry of nozzle elements and airframe components as well as the high Reynolds number of target applications require careful assessment of the discretization algorithms on unstructured grids and modelling compromises. High-fidelity simulations with 200-500 million points are not uncommon today and are used to improve scientific understanding of the noise generation process in specific situations. We attempt to discern where the future might take us, especially if exascale computing becomes a reality in 10 years. A pressing question in this context concerns the role of modelling in the coming era. While the sheer scale of the data generated by large-scale simulations will require new methods for data analysis and data visualization, it is our view that suitable theoretical formulations and reduced models will be even more important in future. PMID:25024417

  9. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor...EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of...

  10. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor...EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of...

  11. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor...EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of...

  12. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor...EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of...

  13. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor...EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of...

  14. 76 FR 54762 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...Docket No. CP11-531-000] Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To...Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Golden Triangle Storage Expansion Project and Request...the environmental impacts of the Golden Triangle Storage Expansion Project (GTS...

  15. Geographic Variability in Mitochondrial Introgression Among HybrGeographic Variability in Mitochondrial Introgression Among Hybridizingidizing Populations of GoldenPopulations of Golden--winged and Bluewinged and Blue--winged Warblerswinged Warblers

    E-print Network

    .J. Lovette, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera. ABSTRACTABSTRACT The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) has declined throughout the northeastern U

  16. Is California still the Golden State?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2011-07-01

    The Rise of the Third Coast: The Gulf's Region's Ascendancy in U.S.http://blogs.forbes.com/joelkotkin/2011/06/23/the-rise-of-the-third-coast-the-gulf-regions-ascendancy-in-u-s/California homicides decline to lowest rate in 45 yearshttp://losangelescrimereport.com/california-homicides-decline-to-lowest-rate-in-45-yearsHuntington-USC Institute on California and the Westhttp://dornsife.usc.edu/icwPublic Policy Institute of Californiahttp://www.ppic.org/main/home.aspOnline Archive of Californiahttp://www.oac.cdlib.org/California is known as the Golden State for a host of reasons. Native Americans who lived in the state found a bounty of fish, pleasant climates, and a rather hospitable way of life. Europeans arriving from Spain, Britain, and Russia found much to enjoy here as well in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the middle of the 19th century, the proverbial and literal "gold in them hills" brought prospectors from all corners of the globe who dreamed of making a vast fortune. The 20th century saw a feverish period of land speculation, the explosive growth of Southern California, and glittering dreamscapes promoted by real estate developers and movie moguls alike. Today, things are much different, as the state continues to attract fewer new residents every year, and taxes continue to be quite onerous for middle-income families. During the 2000s, the state did continue to grow by about 10% in terms of population, but this was meager compared with growth rates of 53% in the 1950s. Speaking on this recent transformation, Professor Dowell Myers noted, "If things go really bad in the Midwest, Southern California could be a beacon of hope. But in general, immigration has slowed down now and is not likely to turn upward." The director of the Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West, William Deverell, offered another perspective recently, "The hold California has on people has been every bit as much psychological as actual-but people are leaving. It can be very, very difficult here."The first link will take visitors to an excellent piece on the current state of California from CNN's series "Defining America". It contains first-hand experiences from current residents, along with comments from public policy experts and others. The second link leads visitors to a bit of commentary from Joel Kotkin on the rise of the Gulf Region in and around Texas and Louisiana, and its potential effect on California's future prospects. Moving on, the third link will take interested parties to a bit more positive piece from the Washington Examiner which discusses the continued decline in California's homicide rate. The fourth link leads to the homepage of the Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West. Here visitors can learn about their work on examining and analyzing the state of California and its relationship with nearby states and regions. The fifth link will whisk users away to the homepage of the Public Policy Institute of California. Here visitors will find podcasts, working papers and other items that discuss housing, public finance, social policy, and water issues in the Golden State. Finally, the last link leads to the very comprehensive Online Archive of California, which contains links to hundreds of digital collections that document the state's history and culture.

  17. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. PMID:23797042

  18. Elevated seawater PCO? differentially affects branchial acid-base transporters over the course of development in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Tseng, Yung-Che; Stumpp, Meike; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Kiko, Rainer; Lucassen, Magnus; Melzner, Frank

    2011-05-01

    The specific transporters involved in maintenance of blood pH homeostasis in cephalopod molluscs have not been identified to date. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical methods, we demonstrate that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (soNKA), a V-type H(+)-ATPase (soV-HA), and Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (soNBC) are colocalized in NKA-rich cells in the gills of Sepia officinalis. mRNA expression patterns of these transporters and selected metabolic genes were examined in response to moderately elevated seawater Pco(2) (0.16 and 0.35 kPa) over a time course of 6 wk in different ontogenetic stages. The applied CO(2) concentrations are relevant for ocean acidification scenarios projected for the coming decades. We determined strong expression changes in late-stage embryos and hatchlings, with one to three log2-fold reductions in soNKA, soNBCe, socCAII, and COX. In contrast, no hypercapnia-induced changes in mRNA expression were observed in juveniles during both short- and long-term exposure. However, a transiently increased ion regulatory demand was evident during the initial acclimation reaction to elevated seawater Pco(2). Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and protein concentration were increased by ~15% during short (2-11 days) but not long-term (42-days) exposure. Our findings support the hypothesis that the energy budget of adult cephalopods is not significantly compromised during long-term exposure to moderate environmental hypercapnia. However, the downregulation of ion regulatory and metabolic genes in late-stage embryos, taken together with a significant reduction in somatic growth, indicates that cephalopod early life stages are challenged by elevated seawater Pco(2). PMID:21307359

  19. Improvement of the compressive strength of a cuttlefish bone-derived porous hydroxyapatite scaffold via polycaprolactone coating.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Cuttlefish bones (CBs) have emerged as attractive biomaterials because of their porous structure and components that can be converted into hydroxyapatite (HAp) via a hydrothermal reaction. However, their brittleness and low strength restrict their application in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, to improve the compressive strength of the scaffold following hydrothermal conversion to a HAp form of CB (CB-HAp), the scaffold was coated using a polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer at various concentrations. In this study, raw CB was successfully converted into HAp via a hydrothermal reaction. We then evaluated their surface properties and composition by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The CB-HAp coated with PCL showed improved compressive performance and retained a microporous structure. The compressive strength was significantly increased upon coating with 5 and 10% PCL, by 2.09- and 3.30-fold, respectively, as compared with uncoated CB-HAp. However, coating with 10% PCL resulted in a reduction in porosity. Furthermore, an in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG-63 cells adhered well, proliferated and were able to be differentiated on the PCL-coated CB-HAp scaffold, which was noncytotoxic. These results suggest that a simple coating method is useful to improve the compressive strength of CB-HAp for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:23661509

  20. Ranking Fiscal Policy Rules: the Golden Rule of Public Finance vs. the Stability and Growth Pact

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Ranking Fiscal Policy Rules: the Golden Rule of Public Finance vs. the Stability and Growth Pact of the application of a "golden rule of public finance" to the European Union (EU). Blanchard and Giavazzi (2003

  1. 78 FR 51802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Silla: Korea's Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...Determinations: ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...exhibition ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  2. 76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ...Exhibition Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of Renaissance Bronzes'' Summary: Notice is hereby given of the following...included in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age of Renaissance Bronzes,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  3. Golden Grove dolomite, Barbados: Origin from modified seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Machel, H.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology); Burton, E.A. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1994-10-03

    Dolomite is known from Pleistocene carbonates in the southeastern part of Barbados. Most dolomite was found in a roadcut called Golden Grove. This occurrence is of interest because (1) some textures are rare; (2) the [delta][sup 13]C values of many dolomite samples are unusually low; (3) these dolomites have been interpreted to be diagenetic products of a coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zone with as little as 5% seawater; and (4) these dolomites have been used for modeling of extensive dolomitization in coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zones elsewhere (Humphrey and Quinn 1989). The authors investigated dolomite samples from Golden Grove, calcite samples from Golden Grove and elsewhere on Barbados, and groundwater samples from several locations on the island (first results have been reported in Machel and Burton 1991). The major objective of their study is to establish the geochemical and/or hydrological conditions of dolomitization.

  4. A golden gate modular cloning toolbox for plants.

    PubMed

    Engler, Carola; Youles, Mark; Gruetzner, Ramona; Ehnert, Tim-Martin; Werner, Stefan; Jones, Jonathan D G; Patron, Nicola J; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2014-11-21

    Plant Synthetic Biology requires robust and efficient methods for assembling multigene constructs. Golden Gate cloning provides a precision module-based cloning technique for facile assembly of multiple genes in one construct. We present here a versatile resource for plant biologists comprising a set of cloning vectors and 96 standardized parts to enable Golden Gate construction of multigene constructs for plant transformation. Parts include promoters, untranslated sequences, reporters, antigenic tags, localization signals, selectable markers, and terminators. The comparative performance of parts in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana is discussed. PMID:24933124

  5. The Golden Mean and the Physics of Aesthetics

    E-print Network

    Kak, S

    2004-01-01

    The golden mean, Phi, has been applied in diverse situations in art, architecture and music, and although some have claimed that it represents a basic aesthetic proportion, others have argued that it is only one of a large number of such ratios. We review its early history, especially its relationship to the Mount Meru of Pingala. We examine the succession divisions of 3, 7, and 22 in Indian music and suggest that it was derived from a multiplicative sequence arising from a variant of Mount Meru. We also speculate on the neurophysiological basis behind the sense that the golden mean is a pleasant proportion.

  6. Golden catfish microsatellite analysis reveals a distinct Iinbred stock of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden-colored fish have been reported for rainbow trout, tilapia, several species of carps and Clarias catfish. The current golden catfish stock was created through mixing fish with predominant gold/yellow pigment and spots to normal sized and colored catfish. The golden catfish possess a distinct...

  7. Experimental Crystallization of a High-K Arc Basalt: the Golden Pumice, Stromboli Volcano (Italy)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental Crystallization of a High-K Arc Basalt: the Golden Pumice, Stromboli Volcano (Italy ABSTRACT The near-liquidus crystallization of a high-K basalt (PST-9 golden pumice, 49·4 wt % SiO2, 1·85 wt pre- eruptive parameters refer to the storage region of golden pumice melts, which is located

  8. Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: How exotic species turn native predators into prey

    E-print Network

    Courchamp, Franck

    Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: How exotic species turn native predators abundant food, enabled golden eagles to colonize the California Channel Islands. Eagles preyed heavily involving an exotic species, the feral pig (Sus scrofa), an apex predator, the golden eagle (Aquila

  9. j. Field Ornithol., 55(1):54-66 AGE AND SEX SIZE VARIATION IN GOLDEN EAGLES

    E-print Network

    Bortolotti, Gary R.

    j. Field Ornithol., 55(1):54-66 AGE AND SEX SIZE VARIATION IN GOLDEN EAGLES BY GARY R. BORTOLOTTI(seereviewbyNewton 1979), quantificationof the sizedifferencesbetweenthe sexesis lackingfor manyraptors.The GoldenEagle(Haliaeetusleucocephalus;Bortolotti 1984a). My purposeistoquantifythesizevariabilityin North AmericanGolden Eagles(A. chrysaetoscanadensis

  10. Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Social Subjugation during Puberty in Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Behavioral and Neurobiological Consequences of Social Subjugation during Puberty in Golden Hamsters Department, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 In golden hamsters subjugation) during puberty. Male golden hamsters were weaned at postna- tal day 25 (P25), exposed daily

  11. 75 FR 8327 - Golden Pass Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...Commission [CP10-59-000] Golden Pass Pipeline LLC; Notice...that on October 29, 2009, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC (GPPL...notice request pursuant to Sections 157.205, 157.208 and 157...and deliver natural gas to Golden Triangle Storage,...

  12. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance...payments. 303.244 Section 303.244 Banks...Filings § 303.244 Golden parachute and severance...Scope. Pursuant to section 18(k) of...in the case of golden parachute payments...procedures in this section apply to all...

  13. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance...payments. 303.244 Section 303.244 Banks...Filings § 303.244 Golden parachute and severance...Scope. Pursuant to section 18(k) of...in the case of golden parachute payments...procedures in this section apply to all...

  14. Do People Prefer Irrational Ratios? A New Look at the Golden Section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Maier; Christoph Sonnenberg; Florian Spindler

    2009-01-01

    The Golden Section is proposed to be the preferred ratio in many domains. Starting with Fechner, there were sev- eral empirical studies concerning the preference of the Golden Section with inconclusive results. Our main concern is that the Golden Section can neither perceived no produced exactly since it is an irrational number. Therefore, we propose to give a closer look

  15. Highly Undersampled 3D Golden Ratio Radial Imaging with Iterative Reconstruction , H. Eggers2

    E-print Network

    Lübeck, Universität zu

    .5 ms, TR = 7.1 ms, flip angle = 10°, matrix size 1283 , applying 2D golden section sampling. 32766Highly Undersampled 3D Golden Ratio Radial Imaging with Iterative Reconstruction M. Doneva1 , H of CS for 3D dynamic imaging using highly undersampled 3D radial acquisition with golden ratio profile

  16. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance...payments. 303.244 Section 303.244 Banks...Filings § 303.244 Golden parachute and severance...Scope. Pursuant to section 18(k) of...in the case of golden parachute payments...procedures in this section apply to all...

  17. Mtodo de Fibonacci Como no mtodo da "Golden Section" o procedimento de procura de Fibonacci faz

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Método de Fibonacci Como no método da "Golden Section" o procedimento de procura de Fibonacci faz iterações subsequentes. O método difere da "Golden section" na medida em que a redução do intervalo de acontece com os métodos da procura dicotómica e de "Golden section", o método de Fibonacci requer que o

  18. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance...payments. 303.244 Section 303.244 Banks...Filings § 303.244 Golden parachute and severance...Scope. Pursuant to section 18(k) of...in the case of golden parachute payments...procedures in this section apply to all...

  19. Defining the crack pattern of RC beams through the golden section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Fantilli; B. Chiaia; C. Cennamo

    2011-01-01

    Both in architecture and arts, the golden section has been exclusively taken into consideration for its geometrical properties. Specifically, among all the proportions, the golden section can inspire beauty. Indeed, it has driven the construction of buildings for centuries. Nevertheless, as discussed for the first time in the present paper, static equilibrium of structures calls the golden section into play.

  20. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section...Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring...and otherwise governing the movement of live golden nematodes in interstate or...

  1. Golden twin spot Chrysodeixis chalcites Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets

    E-print Network

    Golden twin spot Chrysodeixis chalcites Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. Golden twin spot is an exotic spots that are similar in size (hence the common name golden twin spot); wings fold over the body

  2. Fall 2012 / LAKELINE 33 Golden Algae & the Health of Okla. Lakes

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    the ecology and toxicology of golden algae in Lake Texoma, an impoundment of the Red and Washita RiversFall 2012 / LAKELINE 33 Golden Algae & the Health of Okla. Lakes David Hambright HABs Introduction T he golden alga Prymnesium parvum is a toxigenic marine haptophyte that now occurs in and is prevalent

  3. Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…

  4. WINTERING OF LESSER GOLDEN-PLOVERS IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENNIS R. PAULSON; DAVID S. LEE

    Although said to winter entirely in southern South America, Lesser Golden- Plovers (Pluvialis dominica dominica) have been recorded in eastern North America in small numbers throughout the winter. A literature search indicates that records are regular through December, most of them probably of late fall migrants, and again increase in late February, probably of early spring migrants. There are at

  5. Golden West College FACTS: Fall Enrollment Trends through 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden West Coll., Huntington Beach, CA. Research Office.

    This report presents the fall enrollment trends through 1999 at California's Golden West College (GWC). This report contains charts and graphs of the following enrollment trend topics: (1) fall 1998 student enrollment snapshot, which includes counts and percentages by gender, time of day, age, educational goal, entrance level, high school…

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) of male golden hamsters (Mesocricitus auratus) was measured repeatedly by placing the animals in a temperature gradient for 80 min. A total of 180 observations were made during the last 20 min of treatment in the gradient. The mean preferred Ta ...

  7. 27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has sunk beyond the desert horizon, and darkness followed, under a dim light casting my lonesome heart.'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  8. Golden Gate Park, Chalet Recreation Field, Bounded by John F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Golden Gate Park, Chalet Recreation Field, Bounded by John F. Kennedy Drive to the north and east, former Richmond-Sunset Sewage Treatment Plant to the south, and the Old Railroad Trail to the west, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Bald and Golden Eagles of the SRP. (Annual report, 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.J.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kennamer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Both Bald and Golden Eagles have a prior history of occurrence on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Sightings of Bald Eagles have been uncommon but persistent, while Golden Eagle sightings have been rare. A one-year survey was conducted to assess the use of the SRP by these two species. Thirty-six Bald Eagles were seen during the study period. No Golden Eagles were observed. Over 90% of the Bald Eagle sightings were on Par Pond; three out of four of these birds were adults. Thirteen percent of the sightings were of paired birds, and the remainder were of solitary individuals. Bald Eagles were observed during every month of the survey. The majority were seen between November and May. Sightings were evenly divided between morning and afternoon hours. Two marked Bald Eagles were observed. Since the conclusion of this study, twenty-two Bald Eagles have been reported. Six were new locality records for the SRP. Four of these sightings were on L-Lake. Bald Eagle use of the SRP is higher than was previously thought; Golden Eagle use remains rare.

  10. Reintroduction of the golden eagle into the Republic of Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorcan O’Toole; Alan H. Fielding; Paul F. Haworth

    2002-01-01

    The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) became extinct in the Republic of Ireland in about 1912. Historical evidence suggests that, in the early nineteenth century, the population exceeded 50 pairs. It is thought that the extinction was a consequence of persecution and habitat change. Because there seems little chance of natural recolonisation a re-introduction programme has been developed. It is intended

  11. Knemidocoptic mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Mete, Asl?; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A; Smallwood, Kenneth S; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-10-01

    During 2012-2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  12. GOLDEN RICE: DEVELOPMENTS IN ITS BIOTECHNOLOGY, SAFETY, AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice is a transgenic product that was developed to enable the synthesis of beta-carotene in rice grains. Beta-carotene is a yellow-orange carotenoid that can serve as a precursor for vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a significant nutritional concern, especially in developing countri...

  13. Golden Parachutes, Shark Repellents, and Hostile Tender Offers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R Knoeber

    1986-01-01

    A common view of golden parachutes and shark repellents is that they are designed by management to insulate itself from the discipline imposed by the market for corporate control and so are harmful to shareholders. This paper offers an alternative view that these devicesare beneficial to shareholders because they allow better contracting between manager and shareholders. Evidence on the incidence

  14. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

  15. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...therein and that I am duly entitled to be issued free of charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l -6a (Supp., 1974), as amended by Pub. L. 93-303....

  16. Implications of the Presidents' Study for Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalla, Angelo

    Since 1968, an increasing number of California community colleges have participated in the Presidents' Study, a study of Weekly Student Contact Hours (WSCH) and Full-Time Equivalent Faculty (FTE) to determine faculty work loads, cost factors, and trends. In 1973, 41 Northern and 26 Southern California community colleges reported. Golden West…

  17. TOURISM IN GOLDEN BAY Economic Impacts & Resource Use Issues

    E-print Network

    -made environment. A major challenge facing the region is how to fine tune tourism product development and marketing in maximising the performance of tourism as a means of achieving sustainable community development in Golden Bay' that can assist community, industry and government stakeholders in planning and developing future tourism

  18. HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education in subject areas…

  19. Multivariate extensions of the Golden-Thompson inequality

    E-print Network

    Frank Hansen

    2014-07-02

    We study concave trace functions of several operator variables and formulate and prove multivariate generalisations of the Golden-Thompson inequality. The obtained results imply that certain functionals in quantum statistical mechanics have bounds of the same form as they appear in classical physics.

  20. Dispersal of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Grant; M. J. McGrady

    1999-01-01

    Two nestling Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos were radio?tracked from fledging until the birds were unable to be located. In addition two other free flying young birds ? one juvenile and one sub?adult ? were opportunistically caught, radio?tagged and tracked. After fledging one nestling stayed in the home range for six months and then left, while the other stayed for four

  1. THE STATUS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE (AQUILA CHRYSAETOS) IN POLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRZYSZTOF WAC; TADEUSZ MIZERA

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is a very rare breeding species in Poland and it is included in the Polish Red Data Book. At the end of twentieth century, only 30-35 pairs were nesting in the country. It has had protected species status for several decades and its nests have also been protected since 1984. All types of human disturbance

  2. Generalized golden sections, repeated bisections and aesthetic pleasure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Lipovetsky; Freerk A. Lootsma

    2000-01-01

    We generalize the golden section in the sense that we partition a given line segment into a finite sequence of diminishing subsegments, in such a way that the ratio of any pair of adjacent subsegments equals the ratio of the whole and the first subsegment. When the number of subsegments increases, the partitioning approximates the subdivision of the line segment

  3. Cumulative growth with fibonacci approach, golden section and physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Büyükkiliç; D. Demirhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a physical quantity belonging to a physical system in its stages of orientation towards growth has been formulated using Fibonacci recurrence approximation. Fibonacci p-numbers emerging in this process have been expressed as a power law for the first time as far as we are aware. The golden sections ?p are related to the growth percent rates ?p.

  4. Geology Fieldnotes: Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Park Service (NPS) website discusses the geology of Golden Gate National Recreation Area in California. Access to this area as well as the many valleys, forests, and water features are discussed. There are park maps and photos, as well as links to visitor information and additional resources.

  5. Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT

    E-print Network

    Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROJECT · First in Alabama in more than 25 years! · IM-I059 (342) Etowah County ­ I-59 Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation with Unbonded Concrete Overlay ­ Length: 10.9 miles ­ Thickness: 11.0 to 13.5 inches ­ Volume: 300

  6. A Mutation of the Circadian System in Golden Hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin R. Ralph; Michael Menaker

    1988-01-01

    A mutation has been found that dramatically shortens the period of the circadian locomotor rhythm of golden hamsters. The pattern of inheritance of this mutation suggests that it occurred at a single, autosomal locus (tau). Wild-type animals have rhythms with free-running periods averaging about 24 hours; animals heterozygous for the mutation have periods of about 22 hours, whereas homozygous animals

  7. A Link Between Black Holes and the Golden Ratio

    E-print Network

    J. A. Nieto

    2011-06-02

    We consider a variational formalism to describe black holes solution in higher dimensions. Our procedure clarifies the arbitrariness of the radius parameter and, in particular, the meaning of the event horizon of a black hole. Moreover, our formalism enables us to find a surprising link between black holes and the golden ratio.

  8. Title: Distribution and Habitat Selection/Space Use of Migratory and Resident Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Areas with

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Title: Distribution and Habitat Selection/Space Use of Migratory and Resident Golden Eagles (Aquila is the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Golden eagles are long-lived birds that mature late (approximately 4 be severely impacted by increases in adult mortality. High rates of mortality for golden eagles have been

  9. Sepia ink oligopeptide induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines via caspase-3 activation and elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fangfang; Yang, Zuisu; Yu, Di; Wang, Jiabin; Li, Rong; Ding, Guofang

    2012-10-01

    Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO) is a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink. To test the hypothesis that SIO inhibits prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis, the effects of SIO on the proliferation of three human prostate cancer cell lines were examined using a CCK-8 assay. SIO significantly inhibited the proliferation of DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry studies showed that exposing DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells to 5, 10, or 15 mg/mL SIO for 24 h increased the percentage of the early-stage apoptotic cells from 11.84% to 38.26% (DU-145), 22.76% to 39.96% (PC-3) and 5.05% to 16.11% (LNCaP), respectively. In addition, typical morphologic changes were observed in the cells with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. SIO treatment induced strong S and G?/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in DU-145 and LNCaP. In contrast, SIO treatment induced strong Sub G? and G?/G? phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in PC-3. SIO exposure for 24 h decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the apoptogenic protein Bax. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2expression ratio was increased. Concurrently, the expression of caspase-3 was upregulated. These data support our hypothesis that SIO has anticarcinogenic properties. PMID:23170075

  10. Sepia Ink Oligopeptide Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines via Caspase-3 Activation and Elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fangfang; Yang, Zuisu; Yu, Di; Wang, Jiabin; Li, Rong; Ding, Guofang

    2012-01-01

    Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO) is a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink. To test the hypothesis that SIO inhibits prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis, the effects of SIO on the proliferation of three human prostate cancer cell lines were examined using a CCK-8 assay. SIO significantly inhibited the proliferation of DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry studies showed that exposing DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells to 5, 10, or 15 mg/mL SIO for 24 h increased the percentage of the early-stage apoptotic cells from 11.84% to 38.26% (DU-145), 22.76% to 39.96% (PC-3) and 5.05% to 16.11% (LNCaP), respectively. In addition, typical morphologic changes were observed in the cells with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. SIO treatment induced strong S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in DU-145 and LNCaP. In contrast, SIO treatment induced strong Sub G1 and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in PC-3. SIO exposure for 24 h decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the apoptogenic protein Bax. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2expression ratio was increased. Concurrently, the expression of caspase-3 was upregulated. These data support our hypothesis that SIO has anticarcinogenic properties. PMID:23170075

  11. Structural Transition of Gold Nanoclusters: From the Golden Cage to the Golden Pyramid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, R.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai S.

    2009-05-01

    How nanoclusters transform from one structural type to another as a function of size is a critical issue in cluster science. Here we report a study of the structural transition from the golden cage Au16- to the pyramidal Au20-. We obtained distinct experimental evidence that the cage-to-pyramid crossover occurs at Au18- , for which the cage and pyramidal isomers are nearly degenerate and coexist experimentally. The two isomers are observed and identified by their different interactions with O2 and Ar. The cage isomer is observed to be more reactive with O2 and can be preferentially "titrated" from the cluster beam, whereas the pyramidal isomer has slightly stronger interactions with Ar and is favored in the Au18Arx- van der Waals complexes. The current study allows the detailed structural evolution and growth routes from the hollow cage to the compact pyramid to be understood and provides information about the structure-function relationship of the Au18- cluster.

  12. Habitat Selection and Movement Patterns of California Golden Trout in Degraded and Recovering Stream Sections in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN R. MATTHEWS

    1996-01-01

    I used radio transmitters to determine habitat selection and movement patterns of California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in two areas defined by their different levels of habitat recovery in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California. Study areas were differ- entiated by the amount of streamside vegetation (low or high coverage of beaked sedge Carex rostrata). Lower amounts of streamside vegetation

  13. Habitat Selection and Movement Patterns of California Golden Trout in Degraded and Recovering Stream Sections in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen R. Matthews

    1996-01-01

    I used radio transmitters to determine habitat selection and movement patterns of California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in two areas defined by their different levels of habitat recovery in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California. Study areas were differentiated by the amount of streamside vegetation (low or high coverage of beaked sedge Carex rostrata). Lower amounts of streamside vegetation were

  14. A golden-silk spider spins its web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of Kennedy Space Center, a female Golden-Silk Spider repairs its web. The female can be identified by its brownish-green abdomen with a white spotted irregular pattern. The golden-silk spider repairs the webbing each day, replacing half but never the whole web at one time. Its web may measure two to three feet across. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a 92,000-acre refuge that is a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  15. Helminth fauna of a Japanese golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos japonica.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sudo, Akiko; Uchida, Tadayoshi; Kakogawa, Masayoshi; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-12-01

    A Japanese golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos japonica, was found dead in Nagano Prefecture PB 399-8200, Japan, and subjected to necropsy. The necropsy revealed that the entire length of the intestine was filled with several masses of intestinal parasites. The recovered helminths were identified as one digenean trematode species, Neodiplostomum reflexum; two species of nematodes, Synhimantus sp. and larvae of Porrocaecum sp.; and a single species of Acanthocephala, Centrorhynchus sp. Digenea and acanthocephalans were found in massive numbers, obliterating the intestinal lumen, which suggests that the bird died as a result of the parasitic intestinal obstruction. The same type of helminths as those observed in this case was previously recorded in crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela perplexus) in Japan, but the present study emphasizes the presence of the four species in the Japanese golden eagle as a new host record. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of N. reflexum in Japan. PMID:23272374

  16. Autoradiography in fetal golden hamsters treated with tritiated diethylnitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik-Schueller, H.M.; Hague, B.F. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Tritiated diethylnitrosamine was administered to female Syrian golden hamsters on each of the last 4 days (days 12-15) of pregnancy. The distribution of bound radioactivity was monitored by light microscopic autoradiography of fetal tracheas and livers, the placentas, and the maternal livers. In the trachea, the fetal target organ, bound radioactivity was restricted to the respiratory epithelium, where diethylnitrosamine-induced tracheal tumors arise. Mucous cells and nonciliated stem cells were identified as the principal sites of binding; other cell types within the tracheal epithelium contained only small amounts of bound radioactivity. The level of binding observed in the fetal trachea increased steadily from day 12 to day 15, which correlated well with the levels of differentiation of this tissue during this period. This observation also agrees with the previously reported observation that tumor incidence increases from 40 to 95% in Syrian golden hamsters between days 12 and 15.

  17. A new place for death with dignity: the golden room.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Lynn; Drick, Carole Ann

    2011-12-01

    In this article, the authors consider how professional nurses can strive to advance death and dying to the next level in our evolution of compassionate end-of-life practices. The authors focus on describing the development of a place for dying that allows for a peaceful, profound experience that honors and respects human dignity and elevates the human family. Actual places called the Golden Room or Golden Room Centers are proposed to accommodate dying persons and their loved ones at end of life as they make the transition from physical life. The authors detail and propose a return to the sacredness of death and dying through access to a place for the physical transition. PMID:21357182

  18. Late autumn trophic flexibility of the golden jackal Canis aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    József Lanszki; Giorgos Giannatos; Amit Dolev; Gilad Bino; Miklós Heltai

    2010-01-01

    The feeding habits of the golden jackal Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758) were compared using scat analysis in Hungary (temperate\\u000a climate agricultural area), Greece (Mediterranean marshland), and Israel (Mediterranean agricultural area). Samples (84, 70\\u000a and 64 scats, respectively) were collected during late autumn, a period with capital importance to the long term survival\\u000a of young jackals, during which they become independent.

  19. Perception, Action, and Experience: Unraveling the Golden Braid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Much of our human mental life looks to involve a seamless unfolding of perception, action and experience: a golden braid in which each element twines intimately with the rest. We see the very world we act in and we act in the world we see. But more than this, visual experience presents us with the world in a way apt for the control and fine…

  20. Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos breeding success and afforestation in Argyll

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Watson

    1992-01-01

    Breeding success (fledged young\\/pair) was recorded for 15 pairs of Golden Eagles in Argyll over 10 years 1980–89. The amount of young plantation forestry in the potential hunting ranges of the 15 pairs of eagles was measured. There was no significant relationship between the amount of forestry in each range in 1980 and mean breeding success over the period 1980–89.

  1. Golden Eagle predation on experimental Sandhill and Whooping Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Clegg, K.R.; Lewis, J.C.; Spaulding, E.

    1999-01-01

    There are very few published records of Golden Eagles preying upon cranes, especially in North America. During our experiments to lead cranes on migration behind motorized craft in the western United States, we experienced 15 attacks (four fatal) and believe many more attacks would have occurred (and more would have been fatal) without human intervention. We recognize eagle predation as an important risk to cranes especially during migration.

  2. Nick Sagan Reflects on Voyager 1 and the Golden Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    When scientists confirmed on 12 September that NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft had entered interstellar space (Eos, 94(39), 339, doi:10.1002/2013EO390003), the probe was acknowledged as the first human-made object to travel into that realm. The probe and its twin, Voyager 2, each carry a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk, known as the Golden Record.

  3. FOOD HABITS OF NESTING GOLDEN EAGLES IN NORTHEAST CALI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Bloom; Stephen J. Hawks

    Between 1976 and 1981, 1,156 prey items representing 37 species were collected from Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nests in the western Great Basin. The 4 most fre- quently encountered prey species were the black-tailed iackrabbit, mountain cottontail, yellow-bellied marmot, and Chukar. These species accounted for 90% of all prey items; the remains of livestock comprised less than 1%. Lagomorphs comprised

  4. Metastable States When the Fermi Golden Rule Constant Vanishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornean, Horia D.; Jensen, Arne; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    Resonances appearing by perturbation of embedded non-degenerate eigenvalues are studied in the case when the Fermi Golden Rule constant vanishes. Under appropriate smoothness properties for the resolvent of the unperturbed Hamiltonian, it is proved that the first order Rayleigh-Schrödinger expansion exists. The corresponding metastable states are constructed using this truncated expansion. We show that their exponential decay law has both the decay rate and the error term of order ? 4, where ? is the perturbation strength.

  5. N-Dimension Golden Section Search: Its Variants and Limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Ching Chang

    2009-01-01

    One-dimension (1-D) golden section search (GSS) is widely used in many fields. This algorithm is very suitable for searching without derivative for the extrema of objective functions with unimodal. Two-dimension (2-D) GSS was also implemented and used for object tracking. In this paper, a structured n-dimension GSS and its variants are proposed. It has been shown that 1-D GSS is

  6. Multicriteria optimization with a multiobjective golden section line search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. G. Vieira; Ricardo H. C. Takahashi; Rodney R. Saldanha

    This work presents an algorithm for multiobjective optimization that is structured as: (i) a descent direction is calculated,\\u000a within the cone of descent and feasible directions, and (ii) a multiobjective line search is conducted over such direction,\\u000a with a new multiobjective golden section segment partitioning scheme that directly finds line-constrained efficient points\\u000a that dominate the current one. This multiobjective line

  7. Little Red Riding Hood Meets - A Golden Retriever?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson plan students will learn about how dogs evolved from wolves, and the similarities and differences between dogs and wolves. They will conduct some basic research on wolves and two dog breeds and fill in a chart to show what they have learned. Students will conclude by rewriting Little Red Riding Hood as if the main character had encountered a Maltese or a Golden Retriever instead of a wolf.

  8. Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodeur, Serge; DeCarie, R.; Bird, D.M.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles(Aquila chrysaetosc anadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles(five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three of which completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and migrated to known wintering areas in the eastern United States. They used different routes but each followed the same general path during fall and spring migrations which lasted between 26 and 40 days,and 25 and 51 days, respectively. Eagles wintered from 93 to 135 days in areas located 1,650 to 3,000 km south of their breeding territory. In spring 1993, satellite telemetry located the eagles in their former breeding territory in late March, mid-April and early May. This study confirms previous suggestion that some breeding Golden Eagles wintering in eastern United States come from northern Quebec and describes the first successful tracking of the complete yearly migration cycle of a bird of prey.

  9. Golden Beam Data for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Clasie, Benjamin; Depauw, Nicolas; Fransen, Maurice; Gomà, Carles; Panahandeh, Hamid Reza; Seco, Joao; Flanz, Jacob B; Kooy, Hanne M

    2012-01-01

    Proton, as well as other ion, beams applied by electro-magnetic deflection in pencil-beam scanning (PBS) are minimally perturbed and thus can be quantified a-priori by their fundamental interactions in medium. This a-priori quantification permits an optimal reduction of characterizing measurements on a particular PBS delivery system. The combination of a-priori quantification and measurements will then suffice to fully describe the physical interactions necessary for treatment planning purposes. We consider, for proton beams, these interactions and derive a “Golden” beam data set. The Golden beam data set quantifies the pristine Bragg peak depth dose distribution in terms of primary, multiple Coulomb scatter, and secondary, nuclear scatter, components. The set reduces the required measurements on a PBS delivery system to the measurement of energy spread and initial phase space as a function of energy. The depth doses are described in absolute units of Gy(RBE).mm2.Gp?1, where Gp equals 109 (giga) protons, thus providing a direct mapping from treatment planning parameters to integrated beam current. We used this Golden beam data on our PBS delivery systems and demonstrate that it yields absolute dosimetry well within clinical tolerance. PMID:22330090

  10. Lead poisoning and heavy metal exposure of golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ) from the European Alps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Kenntner; Yvon Crettenand; Hans-Joachim Fünfstück; Martin Janovsky; Frieda Tataruch

    2007-01-01

    Lead poisoning and organ levels of the non-essential heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury of seven free-ranging golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) from the European Alps, and of one 23-year-old captive golden eagle are reported. All birds were found dead or moribund\\u000a during the years 2000 and 2001 in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. One golden eagle from Switzerland with extraordinarily\\u000a high

  11. The Use of the Golden Section in the Great Mosque at Kairouan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenza Boussora; Said Mazouz

    2004-01-01

    .  The geometrical analysis conducted reveals very clearly a consistent application of the golden section. The geometric technique\\u000a of construction of the golden section seems to have determined the major decisions of the spatial organisation. The golden\\u000a section appears repeatedly in some part of the building measurements. It is found in the overall proportion of the plan and\\u000a in the dimensioning

  12. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects golden mussels by preventing them from filtering food and oxygen from water, and in this way killing them. The attachment density decreased with increased sediment deposition. Golden mussel density decreased by about 70-90% when the sedimentation rate increased by 3-6 times. Therefore, spraying with fine sediment or creating hyper-concentration of sediment water to treat golden mussels before they enter tunnels is recommended as an effective strategy for controlling golden mussel invasion and high-density bio-fouling. Key words: golden mussel invasion; bio-fouling; sediment settling; habitat; controlling strategy

  13. Old Sepia Photos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The author has always been fascinated by old photographs. As she looks at them, she wonders about the people. Who were they? What were their lives like? Where was this photo taken? A moment in time is frozen forever, for all to see. Inspired by old photographs, the author describes how her fifth-grade classes made their own "photographs" by…

  14. Golden Bars of Consensus and the Truth Quark

    E-print Network

    Frank D. Tony Smith; jr

    2002-05-14

    Scientists are imprisoned by Golden Bars of Consensus, says Burton Richter (hep-ex/0001012). A case in point is the mass of the Truth Quark. The consensus analysis of the experimental data indicates that the mass of the Truth Quark is about 170 GeV. On the other hand, an alternative analysis of the same data indicates that the mass of the Truth Quark is about 130 GeV. If the design of future experiments, including trigger, event selection, data analysis procedures, error analysis, etc., takes into account only the consensus value, and if the consensus value happens to be incorrect, then results of future experiments might be compromised.

  15. Modified evisceration technique in a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).

    PubMed

    Dees, D Dustin; Knollinger, Amy M; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2011-09-01

    Two different modified techniques have been described for enucleation in raptors, including the transaural approach and the globe-collapsing procedure. This case report describes an alternative, modified evisceration procedure in a mature female Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The advantages of this procedure are decreased anesthetic time, ease of procedure, decreased risk of excessive traction of the optic nerve, decreased intraoperative orbital trauma, and preservation of the natural symmetry of the head. The major disadvantage of this procedure is that it does not allow complete histologic examination of the globe. Patients with intraocular infection or neoplasia, or significant orbital disease may be poor candidates for this technique. PMID:21929613

  16. Detection of Golden apples' climacteric peak by laser biospeckle measurements.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Rana; Nader, Christelle Abou; Afif, Charbel; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Brun, Guy; Le Jeune, Bernard; Abboud, Marie

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, we report a study in which a laser biospeckle technique is used to detect the climacteric peak indicating the optimal ripeness of fruits. We monitor two batches of harvested Golden apples going through the ripening phase in low- and room-temperature environments, determine speckle parameters, and measure the emitted ethylene concentration using gas chromatography as reference method. Speckle results are then correlated to the emitted ethylene concentration by a principal component analysis. From a practical point of view, this approach allows us to validate biospeckle as a noninvasive and alternative method to respiration rate and ethylene production for climacteric peak detection as a ripening index. PMID:25608070

  17. Highlighting High Performance: The Solar Energy Research Facility, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, P.; Epstein, K.

    2001-06-26

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Energy Research Facility in Golden, Colorado, uses a stair-step configuration to allow daylight and heat into the office areas, while the laboratories in the back of the building are in a more controlled environment where tight levels of ventilation, humidity, temperature, and light are critical. A unique mechanical system makes the most of the natural environment and the building's design to efficiently heat and cool the building at an annual utility bill savings of almost $200,000 per year.

  18. Battling golden algae: Results suggest preventative lake managment approaches

    E-print Network

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    three university researchers from Texas provide potential methods to prevent these harmful algal blooms. Dr. Daniel Roelke with Texas AgriLife Research at Texas A&M University, Dr. James Grover with the University of Texas at Arlington, and Dr... in #23;#19;#18;#21; in the Pecos River, golden algae has since appeared in most of the #25;#21; major river systems throughout the state. Although it can exist in waters without being harmful, the algae caused major #28;sh kills in #28;ve of the state...

  19. Battling Golden Algae: Results suggest preventative lake management approaches

    E-print Network

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    three university researchers from Texas provide potential methods to prevent these harmful algal blooms. Dr. Daniel Roelke with Texas AgriLife Research at Texas A&M University, Dr. James Grover with the University of Texas at Arlington, and Dr... in #23;#19;#18;#21; in the Pecos River, golden algae has since appeared in most of the #25;#21; major river systems throughout the state. Although it can exist in waters without being harmful, the algae caused major #28;sh kills in #28;ve of the state...

  20. 78 FR 19068 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GOLDEN BOY II; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GOLDEN BOY II; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration...described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel GOLDEN BOY II is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: Limited charter...

  1. 76 FR 23582 - Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC; Supplemental Notice That That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3401-000] Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC; Supplemental Notice That That Initial...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC's application for...

  2. 75 FR 68354 - Golden Valley Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...Commission [Docket No. ER11-1882-000] Golden Valley Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental...Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization October 28, 2010...in the above-referenced proceeding of Golden Valley Wind Park, LLC's...

  3. 78 FR 77194 - Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ...SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order...and accurate information concerning the securities of Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  4. Has the Golden Rule of Public Finance Made a Difference in the UK ?

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Has the Golden Rule of Public Finance Made a Difference in the UK ? N° 2007-13 Avril 2007 Jérôme THE GOLDEN RULE OF PUBLIC FINANCE MADE A DIFFERENCE IN THE UK? Jérôme CREEL (OFCE) Paola MONPERRUS rule of public finance. We extend the existing literature by estimating a model of the British economy

  5. The status of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus L.) in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgos Giannatos; Yiannis Marinos; Panagiota Maragou; Giorgos Catsadorakis

    2005-01-01

    Broadcasted jackal howls were used to survey the status of the golden jackal in Greece. All sites with recent indication of jackal presence were surveyed at selected calling stations, and minimum population estimates were recorded. The results of the survey show that both populations and distribution area of the golden jackal in Greece have been declining steadily during the last

  6. Avian Response to Road Construction Noise with Emphasis on the Endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler

    E-print Network

    Lackey, Melissa A.

    2011-08-08

    ?2009 (Vickery et. al 1992) .................. 12 Table 2 Percentage of unpaired, paired but unsuccessful, and successful golden-cheeked warbler males in construction, road-noise only, and control sites in Real and Uvalde Counties, Texas, USA... used to document golden-cheeked warbler behavior before, during, and after playback surveys to individual males .................................................................................................. 41 Table 8 Initial behavior...

  7. CORTISOL RESPONSES OF GOLDEN SHINER (NOTEMIGONUS CRYSOLEUCAS) FED DIETS DIFFERING IN LIPID CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the plasma cortisol response in golden shiners under crowding stress, and to determine whether dietary lipid composition affects the cortisol response. In experiment 1, triplicate groups of golden shiners were fed diets with 4 or 13% menhaden fish oil, ...

  8. Two strategies for coping with food shortage in desert golden spiny mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roee Gutman; Dotan Yosha; Itzhak Choshniak; Noga Kronfeld-Schor

    2007-01-01

    Desert rodents face periods of food shortage and use different strategies for coping with it, including changes in activity level. Golden spiny mice (Acomys russatus) inhabit rock crevasses and do not dig burrows nor store food. When kept under 50% food restriction most, but not all, golden spiny mice defend their body mass by physiological means. We tested the hypothesis

  9. Patterns of urinary oestrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)

    E-print Network

    French, Jeffrey A.

    Patterns of urinary oestrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) J, Omaha, NE 68182, U.S.A. Summary. Daily urine samples were collected from 5 female golden lion tamarins was the predominant urinary oestrogen excreted by female lion tamarins. Enzyme hydrolysis with Helix pomatia \\g

  10. Survival Probability and Mortality of Migratory Juvenile Golden Eagles from Interior Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROL L. McINTYRE; MICHAEL W. COLLOPY; MARK S. LINDBERG

    2006-01-01

    The conservation of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) requires a thorough understanding of their demographic parameters. Productivity, commonly measured as the number of nestlings or fledglings per pair, is the parameter reported by most studies of nesting golden eagles and is often used as a measure of their population status. Survival may be an equally or more important parameter to measure;

  11. Gene pool variability of a golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) population from the Swiss Alps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Suchentrunk; Heinrich Haller; Peider Ratti

    1999-01-01

    Numbers of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were severely reduced by hunting towards the end of the last century over large parts of central Europe. To estimate the genetic variation in a currently thriving golden eagle population from the Swiss Alps, organ samples of 15 carcasses, collected during 1975–1993, were used for electrophoretic analysis of 31 isozyme systems encoding for 37

  12. Evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys 761 J. Biosci. 33(5), December 2008

    E-print Network

    Karanth, K Praveen

    Evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys 761 J. Biosci. 33(5), December 2008 1. Introduction 1 branch lengths than those of Primate numts and reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys,karanth@ces.iisc.ernet.in) A recent phylogenetic study of langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia suggested a reticulate evolution

  13. Quantitative Determinations of Vitamin A Value of Golden Rice Given as Single or Multiple Meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine vitamin A value of Golden Rice, we grew Golden Rice in heavy water (25 atom %) and produced intrinsically labeled rice to be fed to subjects. Due to our dietary practices (50 to 200 g per meal, uncooked dry weight) and the sensitivity of trace analysis using mass spectrometry, the rice...

  14. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section and its applications in mathematics, science, and engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Stakhov

    2005-01-01

    The “Dichotomy Principle” and the classical “Golden Section Principle” are two of the most important principles of Nature, Science and also Art. The Generalized Principle of the Golden Section that follows from studying the diagonal sums of the Pascal triangle is a sweeping generalization of these important principles. This underlies the foundation of “Harmony Mathematics”, a new proposed mathematical direction.

  15. Nest predation and numbers of Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria and other moorland waders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Parr

    1993-01-01

    The recovery of a declining population of Golden Plovers may have been prevented by high nest predation from Carrion Crows Corvus corone and Common Gulls Larus canus. In order to test this hypothesis predators were experimentally removed from Kerloch moor in NE Scotland during 1986–89. Although the numbers of crows and gulls were significantly reduced, no young Golden Plover hatched

  16. Unexpected role of ungulate carcasses in the diet of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Mediterranean mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Eguía; Miguel Blázquez; Marcos Moleón; Francisco Botella

    2010-01-01

    Capsule Golden Eagles consumed more carrion than shown by traditional analyses.Aims To determine whether the traditional methods for diet determination in avian predators are subject to biases in relation to the consumption of carrion.Methods The consumption by Golden Eagles of ungulate carcasses supplied through sport hunting in a typical Mediterranean area of southeast Spain was monitored by camera trapping through

  17. Prey Remains in Nests of Four Corners Golden Eagles, 1998-2008

    E-print Network

    ... Lake City, Colorado 81235 The Golden Eagle ( Aqu ila chrysaetos ) is among the most studied of raptors (Watson 1997, Kochert et al. ... and Ellis, M. H. 2000. Predators as prey at a Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos eyrie in Mongolia. Ibis 142:139–142. Kochert, M. ...

  18. First Breeding Attempt of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos L.) in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rimgaudas Treinys

    2006-01-01

    Golden Eagle is treated as extinct species in Lithuania, though the birds are regularly observed in suitable habitats in various places of Lithuania during migration and even during the breeding season. Nevertheless, there has been no reliable data on the breeding of this species since 1843. In 2004, Golden Eagle was recorded attached (foraging and displaying) to one territory in

  19. IMPROVING PREDICTION OF GOLDEN EAGLE (AQUILA CHRYSAETOS) RANGING IN WESTERN SCOTLAND USING GIS AND TERRAIN MODELING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID R. A. MCLEOD; D. PHILIP WHITFIELD; MICHAEL J. McGRADY

    2002-01-01

    A current model for predicting range use of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in western Scotland is derived from observed ranging behavior, a central point, and elevation. An improvement to this model is described that incorporates terrain tatures. Ridges are modeled as an assumed surrogate for deflected updrafts of air currents. Golden Eagles preferred areas close to ridges and close to

  20. Vasopressin/Serotonin Interactions in the Anterior Hypothalamus Control Aggressive Behavior in Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    in Golden Hamsters Craig F. Ferris,1 Richard H. Melloni Jr,1 Gary Koppel,2 Kenneth W. Perry,2 Ray W. Fuller) in the control of offensive aggres- sion in Syrian golden hamsters. First, specific V1A and 5-HT1B binding sites/intruder paradigm, resident hamsters treated with fluoxetine, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, have

  1. 7 CFR 51.1813 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1813 Section 51.1813 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangerines Grades § 51.1813 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  2. POSITIVE COMMUTATORS, FERMI GOLDEN RULE AND THE SPECTRUM OF ZERO TEMPERATURE PAULIFIERZ

    E-print Network

    POSITIVE COMMUTATORS, FERMI GOLDEN RULE AND THE SPECTRUM OF ZERO TEMPERATURE PAULI system for small coupling constants. Under the hypothesis of Fermi golden rule, we show that the embedded â?? ENIA where #(k) = |k|, see Section 2.1. This is a massless and zero temperature system. The free

  3. 7 CFR 51.753 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.753 Section 51.753 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Grapefruit Grades § 51.753 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  4. 7 CFR 51.753 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.753 Section 51.753 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Grapefruit Grades § 51.753 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  5. Reliable Group Communication in an Ad Hoc Network Lawrence Klos Golden G. Richard III

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Reliable Group Communication in an Ad Hoc Network Lawrence Klos Golden G. Richard III {lklos, golden}@cs.uno.edu Department of Computer Science University of New Orleans New Orleans, LA 70148 to coordinate the remaining two responsibilities of message storage and retransmission. Section 2 presents

  6. 7 CFR 51.1144 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1144 Section 51.1144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangelos Grades § 51.1144 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1813 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1813 Section 51.1813 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangerines Grades § 51.1813 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1813 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1813 Section 51.1813 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangerines Grades § 51.1813 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1144 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1144 Section 51.1144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangelos Grades § 51.1144 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are...

  10. 7 CFR 51.753 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.753 Section 51.753 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Grapefruit Grades § 51.753 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  11. Parameter Optimization for NC Machine Tool Based on Golden Section Search Driven PSO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sehoon Oh; Yoichi Hori

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a modified PSO; GPSO (golden-section-search driven particle swarm optimization) which updates only one particle in a generation based on a strategy: golden section search and steepest descent method. It was proved to be effect in various optimization problem. In this paper, first, this GPSO is revised to make clear its effectiveness. Then, the GPSO is utilized to

  12. 7 CFR 51.1144 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1144 Section 51.1144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangelos Grades § 51.1144 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1813 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1813 Section 51.1813 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangerines Grades § 51.1813 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  14. 7 CFR 51.753 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.753 Section 51.753 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Grapefruit Grades § 51.753 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1144 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1144 Section 51.1144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangelos Grades § 51.1144 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1813 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1813 Section 51.1813 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangerines Grades § 51.1813 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are the...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1144 - U.S. No. 1 Golden.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Golden. 51.1144 Section 51.1144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Tangelos Grades § 51.1144 U.S. No. 1 Golden. The requirements for this grade are...

  18. All that glitters: a review of psychological research on the aesthetics of the golden section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Green

    1995-01-01

    Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks, scholars have argued about whether the golden section -- a number approximately equal to 0.618 -- holds the key to the secret of beauty. Empirical investigations of the aesthetic properties of the golden section date back to the very origins of scientific psychology itself, the first studies being conducted by Fechner

  19. Navigating Robot Swarms Using Collective Intelligence Learned from Golden Shiner Fish

    E-print Network

    Gao, Grace Xingxin

    modulated by the light intensity and its direction affected by its neighbors. Let a complex scalar pi denote1 Navigating Robot Swarms Using Collective Intelligence Learned from Golden Shiner Fish LIANG HENG of schooling fish that naturally prefer darkness. It had long been believed that individual golden shiners

  20. Foarm Magazine 5, 73-81, 2006 The Golden Mean and the Physics of Aesthetics

    E-print Network

    Kak, Subhash

    Foarm Magazine 5, 73-81, 2006 The Golden Mean and the Physics of Aesthetics Subhash Kak Abstract The golden mean, , has been applied in diverse situations in art, architecture and music, and although some have claimed that it represents a basic aesthetic proportion, others have argued that it is only one

  1. Afrotherian Conservation Number 4(May 2006) Radio-tracking Namib Desert golden

    E-print Network

    seas of the Namib Desert in Namibia. These golden moles hunt down invertebrate prey while travelling on the surface of the dunes mostly at night, but also while swimming through the loose sand below the surface. © G.B. Rathbun Plate 5: We kept newly tagged golden moles in a dark bucket for about 15 minutes before

  2. Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael V. Monteiro; James M. Dietz; Becky Raboy; Benjamin Beck; Kristel D. Vleeschower; Andrew Baker; Andréia Martins; Ana Maria Jansen

    2007-01-01

    The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host\\u000a and\\/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition\\/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and\\u000a place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins\\u000a parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi

  3. 76 FR 4148 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Brunswick-Golden Isles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...Property Release at Brunswick-Golden Isles Airport, Brunswick...provisions of Title 49, U.S.C. Section 47153(c), notice is being...public roadway, Brunswick-Golden Isles Airport, be used for...Airport Director of Brunswick-Golden Isles Airport at the...

  4. The normal electrocardiogram of conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos).

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Moghaddam, Abdol Karim Zamani; Bashi, Mehdi Cheraghchi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal electrocardiographic patterns and values in conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). The standard bipolar and augmented unipolar limb leads' electrocardiograms were recorded in the golden eagles. The waveforms were analyzed in all leads at 50 mm/sec and at 10 mm = 1 mV to determine P, PR (segment and interval), QRS, ST, and QT durations and P, net QRS complex, and T amplitudes. The polarity of each waveform was tabulated in all leads. The mean electrical axis for the frontal plane was calculated using standard bipolar leads II and III. The mean heart rate was 346.7 +/- 14.29 beats/min. The P wave was predominantly positive in standard bipolar leads I and II and augmented unipolar limb leads aVL and aVF. The dominant pattern ofwaveforms of the QRS complexes were QS in leads I, II, III, and aVF, whereas in leads aVR and aVL, the pattern was always R. The T wave was slightly positive in leads I, II, and aVF. The average value of the heart mean electrical axis was -85.9 +/- 7.50 degrees. Establishment of normal electrocardiogram values will facilitate a better understanding of electrocardiographic changes seen in many avian diseases. PMID:20945639

  5. Frequency of nest use by golden eagles in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We studied nest use by Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from 1966 to 2011 to assess nest reuse within territories, ascertain the length of time that elapses between uses of nests, and test the hypotheses that reproductive success and adult turnover influence nest switching. Golden Eagles used 454 nests in 66 territories and used individual nests 1 to 26 times during 45 continuous years of observation. Time between reuse ranged from 1 to 39 yr. Distances between nearest adjacent alternative nests within territories ranged between 5 times. Two nests were unused for 21 and 27 yr after 1971 before being used every 1 to 3 yr thereafter. Eagles used 43% of the nests in series of consecutive years (range 3 to 20 consecutive nestings). Protecting unused nests for a proposed 10 yr after the last known use would not have protected 34% of all 300 nests that were reused during the study and 49% of 37 reused nests monitored consistently for 41 yr. The 102 nests that would not have received protection were in 56 of the 66 territories.

  6. Translating Cuttlefish: Underwater Lifewritings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Brant

    2009-01-01

    In underwater life-writing, poetry, marine biology, and memoir meet like ocean currents. Both biography—the subject is the sea—and autobiography—the subject is the writer—the genre's practitioners explore metaphor and metamorphosis in sea life and in themselves. In attempting to \\

  7. Squids, cuttlefish and octopuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Okutani

    1990-01-01

    General biology of cephalopods is described. First, all commercially important cephalopods are classified and the general morphology and distribution of all major families is described in detail. Mating and spawning characteristics of all major families are discussed in detail. This is followed by a discussion on early life history, growth and principal ecoological changes that occur during the growth period.

  8. Mathematics 2210, Sections 2 and 4 Calculus III Fall 2013 Instructor: Professor Kenneth M. Golden, LCB 328, 801-581-6176 (o), 801-582-0570 (h)

    E-print Network

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Mathematics 2210, Sections 2 and 4 Calculus III Fall 2013 Instructor: Professor Kenneth M. Golden, LCB 328, 801-581-6176 (o), 801-582-0570 (h) kenatmath@gmail.com, golden@math.utah.edu, website: www.math.utah.edu/golden be obtained at www.math.utah.edu/golden by clicking on the "Teaching" tab on the left. Course Description

  9. Bilaterally symmetric focal cortical dysplasia in a golden retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Casey, K M; Bollen, A W; Winger, K M; Vernau, K M; Dickinson, P J; Higgins, R J; Sisó, S

    2014-11-01

    A 10-year-old golden retriever dog was referred with a 24-h history of generalized seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain found no abnormalities on 3 mm transverse sections and the dog was subsequently humanely destroyed. Microscopically there was bilaterally symmetrical focal disorganization of cortical grey matter within the tips of the right and left suprasylvian gyri of the temporal cortex. The focal abnormal cortical lamination was characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons with abnormal, irregular, angular, remaining neurons occasionally forming clusters, surrounded by fibrillary astrogliosis and microgliosis and vascular proliferation. These histological findings are consistent with focal cortical dysplasia, a cerebral cortical malformation that causes seizures in people, but not reported previously in the dog. PMID:25246180

  10. Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework). PMID:23146157

  11. The Golden Crescent: Crossroads of Florida and Georgia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by the National Park Service, this site explores the geography and history of "the Golden Crescent," a wide swath of land "along the Atlantic Coast from Savannah to Cape Canaveral and inland towards Tallahassee." The site provides discussion of several "cultural themes" of particular significance to the region, including the mounds and rings left on the landscape by prehistoric peoples, the struggle between colonial empires for control of the territory, the role of Plantation Agriculture, the impact and history of African-Americans, and the region's history as a resort for wealthy tycoons of the gilded age. A Map Room also allows users to locate and read brief descriptions, including travel information, of the National Park sites that coincide with these themes.

  12. Recurrent urethral fibroepithelial polyps in a golden retriever.

    PubMed

    Grant, David C; Troy, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    A 2 yr old castrated male golden retriever was referred multiple times over a period of 7.5 yr for stranguria, pollakiuria, urinary incontinence and urinary outflow obstructions due to urethral polyps. Diagnostic imaging modalities used to identify polyps included abdominal ultrasound, excretory urography, double-contrast retrograde urethrocystograms, and urethrocystoscopy, which revealed multiple filling defects within the proximal and prostatic urethra. Multiple cystotomies and endourologic procedures were performed to remove the multiple fibroepithelial polyps within the proximal and prostatic urethra. Urinary incontinence resulted from treatments, but did respond to phenylpropanolamine. Medical treatment consisted of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which appeared to decrease the recurrence of the polyps over time. Urethral polyps are an uncommon cause of urinary outflow obstruction and do not usually recur after removal. This case illustrates an uncommon clinical presentation and the difficulties encountered in treatment over an expanded time frame. PMID:25028431

  13. Thinking about feathers: Adaptations of Golden Eagle rectrices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The striking black and white plumage of the juvenile Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) provides an excellent opportunity to examine the possible selective forces influencing the strategic placement of dark pigment in birds. The conflict between opposing selective pressures (first, toward large white patches, which may allay aggression in adults, and second, toward dark plumage to promote camouflage and limit solar and abrasive wear) provides the stage whereon are revealed a score of pigmentation traits of potential adaptive value. The general pigmentation trend is for zones that are more exposed to the sun to be darker than elsewhere. More specifically: (1) for rectrices and remiges, outer webs are darker than inner; (2) for those few feathers (e.g., central rectrices, some scapulars, and some tertials), where both inner and outer webs are heavily and nearly equally solar exposed, pigmentation is supplied similarly on both webs; (3) outermost primaries and rectrices are darkest of all and are structurally similar; (4) for central rectrices, subject to high levels of abrasion with substrate, the tip is paler (resultant flexibility may limit breakage); and (5) pigment is heavier along or on the rachis than on the webs. Many of the traits listed above for the Golden Eagle are also found in other families of birds. Traits of the tail common to many species were a terminal pale tip, a subterminal dark band, rachis darker than vane, and outer webs darker than inner for both remiges and rectrices. The most widespread traits likely have adaptive value. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  14. Interactive effects of prey and weather on golden eagle reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McDonald, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The reproduction of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos was studied in southwestern Idaho for 23 years, and the relationship between eagle reproduction and jackrabbit Lepus californicus abundance, weather factors, and their interactions, was modelled using general linear models. Backward elimination procedures were used to arrive at parsimonious models. 2. The number of golden eagle pairs occupying nesting territories each year showed a significant decline through time that was unrelated to either annual rabbit abundance or winter severity. However, eagle hatching dates were significantly related to both winter severity and jackrabbit abundance. Eagles hatched earlier when jackrabbits were abundant, and they hatched later after severe winters. 3. Jackrabbit abundance influenced the proportion of pairs that laid eggs, the proportion of pairs that were successful, mean brood size at fledging, and the number of young fledged per pair. Weather interacted with prey to influence eagle reproductive rates. 4. Both jackrabbit abundance and winter severity were important in predicting the percentage of eagle pairs that laid eggs. Percentage laying was related positively to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to winter severity. 5. The variables most useful in predicting percentage of laying pairs successful were rabbit abundance and the number of extremely hot days during brood-rearing. The number of hot days and rabbit abundance were also significant in a model predicting eagle brood size at fledging. Both success and brood size were positively related to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to the frequency of hot days in spring. 6. Eagle reproduction was limited by rabbit abundance during approximately twothirds of the years studied. Weather influenced how severely eagle reproduction declined in those years. 7. This study demonstrates that prey and weather can interact to limit a large raptor population's productivity. Smaller raptors could be affected more strongly, especially in colder or wetter climates.

  15. Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days: educational activities on pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Squassina, Alessio; Severino, Giovanni; Grech, Godfrey; Fenech, Anthony; Borg, Joseph; Patrinos, George P

    2012-04-01

    The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are high-profile international educational scientific meetings discussing pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 4th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day, held in Cagliari, Italy, on 7 October 2011, and the 5th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day, that was held in Msida, Malta, on 3 December 2011. The scientific programs of both events included scientific and company lectures on pharmacogenomics, bioinformatics and personalized medicine by local and international speakers from Europe and the USA. PMID:22462744

  16. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo bioactivity: cuttlefish-bone-derived hydroxyapatite and synthetic hydroxyapatite granules as a bone graft substitute.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yang, Sun-Sik; Lee, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Bone reconstruction in clinical settings often requires bone substitutes. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a widely used bone substitute due to its osteoconductive properties and bone bonding ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate HAp granules derived from cuttlefish bone (CB-HAp) as a substitute biomaterial for bone grafts. In this study, HAp granules were prepared from raw CB by using a hydrothermal reaction. The formation of HAp from CB was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The bioactivity of the CB-HAp granules was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that CB-HAp is non-toxic and that CB-HAp granules supported improved cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared to stoichiometric synthetic HAp granules. Furthermore, in vivo bone defect healing experiments show that the formation of bone with CB-HAp is higher than that with pure HAp. These results show that CB-HAp granules have excellent potential for use as a bone graft material. PMID:24487123

  17. Obtaining a New Representation for the Golden Ratio by Solving a Biquadratic Equation

    E-print Network

    Leonardo Mondaini

    2014-11-11

    In the present work we show how different ways to solve biquadratic equations can lead us to different representations of its solutions. A particular equation which has the golden ratio and its reciprocal as solutions is shown as an example.

  18. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2001), September 24 - October 5, 2001, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2003-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  19. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2002), September 23 - October 4, 2002, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2003-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  20. Results of NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC1999), October 4-10, 1999, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2000-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.