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1

Mechanisms of Population Structuring in Giant Australian Cuttlefish Sepia apama  

PubMed Central

While a suite of approaches have been developed to describe the scale, rate and spatial structure of exchange among populations, a lack of mechanistic understanding will invariably compromise predictions of population-level responses to ecosystem modification. In this study, we measured the energetics and sustained swimming capacity of giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama and combined these data with information on the life-history strategy, behaviour and circulation patterns experienced by the species to predict scales of connectivity throughout parts of their range. The swimming capacity of adult and juvenile S. apama was poor compared to most other cephalopods, with most individuals incapable of maintaining swimming above 15 cm s?1. Our estimate of optimal swimming speed (6–7 cm s?1) and dispersal potential were consistent with the observed fine-scale population structure of the species. By comparing observed and predicted population connectivity, we identified several mechanisms that are likely to have driven fine-scale population structure in this species, which will assist in the interpretation of future population declines.

Payne, Nicholas L.; Snelling, Edward P.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.

2013-01-01

2

Yellow discoloration of the liposome system of cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis) as influenced by lipid oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation, discoloration, loss of amine groups and pyrrolization of the liposome systems of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) in the presence of FeCl3 and ascorbic acid were studied. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the b?-value of cuttlefish liposomes increased with a coincidental decrease in amine groups when the incubation temperatures (0, 4, 25, and 37°C) and incubation times (0–24h) were increased

Amonrat Thanonkaew; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Eric A. Decker

2007-01-01

3

Molecular and morphological analyses of the cuttlefish Sepia apama indicate a complex population structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama Gray, 1849 annually forms a massive and unique spawning aggregation in northern Spencer Gulf, South Australia, which has attracted commercial fishing interests in recent years. However, many basic life-history characteristics of S. apama are unknown, and anecdotal evidence suggests that there is more than one species. The present study assessed the population structure and

K. S. Kassahn; S. C. Donnellan; A. J. Fowler; K. C. Hall; M. Adams; P. W. Shaw

2003-01-01

4

Perception of visual texture and the expression of disruptive camouflage by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

Juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage themselves by changing their body pattern according to the background. This behaviour can be used to investigate visual perception in these molluscs and may also give insight into camouflage design. Edge detection is an important aspect of vision, and here we compare the body patterns that cuttlefish produced in response to checkerboard backgrounds with responses to backgrounds that have the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the checkerboards, but randomized spatial phase. For humans, phase randomization removes visual edges. To describe the cuttlefish body patterns, we scored the level of expression of 20 separate pattern ‘components’, and then derived principal components (PCs) from these scores. After varimax rotation, the first component (PC1) corresponded closely to the so-called disruptive body pattern, and the second (PC2) to the mottle pattern. PC1 was predominantly expressed on checkerboards, and PC2 on phase-randomized backgrounds. Thus, cuttlefish probably have edge detectors that control the expression of disruptive pattern. Although the experiments used unnatural backgrounds, it seems probable that cuttlefish display disruptive camouflage when there are edges in the visual background caused by discrete objects such as pebbles. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of disruptive camouflage.

Kelman, E.J; Baddeley, R.J; Shohet, A.J; Osorio, D

2007-01-01

5

Polarization sensitivity in two species of cuttlefish - Sepia plangon (Gray 1849) and Sepia mestus (Gray 1849) - demonstrated with polarized optomotor stimuli.  

PubMed

The existence of polarization sensitivity (PS), most likely resulting from the orthogonal arrangement of microvilli in photoreceptors, has been proposed in cephalopods for some time, although it has rarely been examined behaviourally. Here, we tested the mourning cuttlefish, Sepia plangon, and the reaper cuttlefish, Sepia mestus, for polarization sensitivity using a large-field optomotor stimulus containing polarization contrast. Polaroid filter drums with stripes producing alternating e-vectors were rotated around free-moving animals. Polarized optomotor responses were displayed, and these responses were similar to those performed in response to a black-and-white, vertically-striped drum, whereas no responses were displayed to a plain polarizing control drum producing just a vertical e-vector. This indicates that the animals are able to see the contrast between adjacent stripes in the polarizing drum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of functional polarization sensitivity in cuttlefish. PMID:20833930

Talbot, Christopher M; Marshall, Justin

2010-10-01

6

Food imprinting, new evidence from the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

Imprinting provides precocial offspring with an efficient means to optimize their subsequent behaviours. We discovered food imprinting using a sophisticated invertebrate model: the cuttlefish. We showed that early juveniles preferred the prey to which they have been visually familiarized, when the amount of information was sufficient and only if such familiarization occurred during a short sensitive period. We also demonstrated that the effects of visual food imprinting overcame those of the first food ingested. Our study shows that visual imprinting is a critical process in animals, surpassing more direct reward experiences that occur outside the critical exposure period.

Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic

2006-01-01

7

Properties of film from cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin incorporated with cinnamon, clove and star anise extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of film from cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) ventral skin gelatin without and with partial hydrolysis (1.2% degree of hydrolysis) incorporated with 1% ethanolic extract of cinnamon (CME), clove (CLE) and star anise (SAE) were determined. Films with different herb extracts (without and with oxidation) had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with the control film

Soottawat Benjakul; Thummanoon Prodpran

2011-01-01

8

Maturation, fecundity and seasonality of reproduction of two commercially valuable cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis and S. dollfusi, in the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (maximum 250mm mantle length, ML) and S. dollfusi (maximum 150mm ML) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea to Japan and Australia. They are the primary fishery in the Suez Canal and the most valuable commercial cephalopods in the northern Indian Ocean. However, their reproductive biology, essential for fishery management, is poorly known.

Howaida R Gabr; Roger T Hanlon; Mahmoud H Hanafy; Salah G El-Etreby

1998-01-01

9

Testing hypotheses of population structuring in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structuring in species inhabiting marine environments such as the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (NEA) and Mediterranean Sea (MS) has usually been explained based on past and present physical barriers to gene flow and isolation by distance (IBD). Here, we examined the relative importance of these factors on population structuring of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis by using methods of phylogenetic

MARCOS PÉREZ-LOSADA; MARK J. NOLTE; KEITH A. CRANDALL; PAUL W. SHAW

2007-01-01

10

Adaptive Coloration in Young Cuttlefish (Sepia Officinalis L.): The Morphology and Development of Body Patterns and Their Relation to Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young Sepia officinalis (0-5 months) were studied in the laboratory and in the sea, and their appearance and behaviour compared with that of adult animals. Cuttlefish lay large eggs and the hatchlings are miniature replicas of the adults. From the moment of hatching they show body patterns as complex as those of adults and far more elaborate than those shown

R. T. Hanlon; J. B. Messenger

1988-01-01

11

Distribution of oxytocin-like and vasopressin-like immunoreactivities within the central nervous system of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the distribution of oxytocin\\/vasopressin (OT\\/VP) superfamily peptides in the central nervous system (CNS)\\u000a of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, by using antibodies raised against mammalian OT and VP. Several populations of OT-like and VP-like immunoreactive cell bodies\\u000a and fibers were widely distributed in cerebral structures involved in learning processes (vertical lobe complex, optic lobes),\\u000a behavioral communication (peduncle, lateral

Isabelle Bardou; Eric Maubert; Jérôme Leprince; Raymond Chichery; Claude Cocquerelle; Séverine Launay; Denis Vivien; Hubert Vaudry; Véronique Agin

2009-01-01

12

Role of blood-oxygen transport in thermal tolerance of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Mechanisms that affect thermal tolerance of ectothermic organisms have recently received much interest, mainly due to global warming and climate-change debates in both the public and in the scientific community. In physiological terms, thermal tolerance of several marine ectothermic taxa can be linked to oxygen availability, with capacity limitations in ventilatory and circulatory systems contributing to oxygen limitation at extreme temperatures. The present review briefly summarizes the processes that define thermal tolerance in a model cephalopod organism, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, with a focus on the contribution of the cephalopod oxygen-carrying blood pigment, hemocyanin. When acutely exposed to either extremely high or low temperatures, cuttlefish display a gradual transition to an anaerobic mode of energy production in key muscle tissues once critical temperatures (T(crit)) are reached. At high temperatures, stagnating metabolic rates and a developing hypoxemia can be correlated with a progressive failure of the circulatory system, well before T(crit) is reached. However, at low temperatures, declining metabolic rates cannot be related to ventilatory or circulatory failure. Rather, we propose a role for hemocyanin functional characteristics as a major limiting factor preventing proper tissue oxygenation. Using information on the oxygen binding characteristics of cephalopod hemocyanins, we argue that high oxygen affinities (= low P(50) values), as found at low temperatures, allow efficient oxygen shuttling only at very low venous oxygen partial pressures. Low venous PO(2)s limit rates of oxygen diffusion into cells, thus eventually causing the observed transition to anaerobic metabolism. On the basis of existing blood physiological, molecular, and crystallographical data, the potential to resolve the role of hemocyanin isoforms in thermal adaptation by an integrated molecular physiological approach is discussed. PMID:21672869

Melzner, Frank; Mark, Felix C; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

2007-07-23

13

Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.  

PubMed

Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison with 0.03-0.85kg/h in December-April. Seasonal catch rates indicated a migratory life cycle ofS. pharaonis between offshore and inshore coastal zones. PMID:23894959

Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

2013-03-01

14

Identification and expression of two oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Two novel members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily have been identified in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Oxytocin/vasopressin gene sequences were cloned by Race PCR. The two precursors we identified exhibit the classical organization of OT/VP superfamily precursors: a signal peptide followed by a nonapeptide and a neurophysin domain. The neurophysin domain is entirely conserved for the cuttlefish precursors, but the nonapeptides and the signal peptides differ. The first nonapeptide, called sepiatocin, is highly homologous to Octopus vulgaris octopressin. The second nonapeptide, called pro-sepiatocin, shows sequence homologies with a Crustacean oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide identified in Daphnia culex and with a novel form of oxytocin described in New World monkeys. The expression of pro-sepiatocin is restricted to the supraesophageal and subesophageal masses of the brain whereas sepiatocin is expressed in the entire central nervous system. Sepiatocin, as described for octopressin, modulates the contractile activity of several muscles such as penis, oviduct and vena cava muscles; this suggests its involvement in reproduction and blood circulation. Pro-sepiatocin is released in the hemolymph; it is a neurohormone able to target numerous peripheral organs. PMID:23764263

Henry, Joël; Cornet, Valerie; Bernay, Benoit; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

2013-06-11

15

Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish S. officinalis were studied. Cuttlefish used were one month old at the start of the experiment, on average; two densities were used (16 and 76 cuttlefish m?2). During the first experiment (until day 43), dead cuttlefish were replaced by individuals of similar weight. From that day onwards,

Miguel Correia; Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2005-01-01

16

Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish S. officinalis were studied. Cuttlefish used were one month old at the start of the experiment, on average; two densities were used (16 and 76 cuttlefish m2). During the first experiment (until day 43), dead cuttlefish were replaced by individuals of similar weight. From that day onwards,

Miguel Correia; Pedro M. Domingues; Antonio Sykes

17

Comparison of the Ontogeny of Hunting Behavior in Pharaoh Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) and Oval Squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana).  

PubMed

Animals adopt various forms of hunting according to their ecological, morphological, and cognitive features, and their specific hunting skills are acquired ontogenetically in relation to these features. It is noted that cuttlefish and squid hunt prey through the elongation of tentacles used specifically to capture prey. However, these two cephalopods have different lifestyles, leading to questions such as whether hunting skill is acquired similarly after birth and whether tentacle elongation is behaviorally identical. To address these questions, we observed and compared how captive pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) and oval squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) attack prey during their early life stages. Like the adults, S. pharaonis hatchlings used the tentacular lunge attack, whereas S. lessoniana hatchlings used the arm-opening attack. S. lessoniana began to exhibit the tentacular strike attack after 30 days of age. In addition to timing of the emergence of a specific hunting mode, some differences were observed in the physical aspect of hunting behavior. For cuttlefish, maximum tentacle length and maximum speed of tentacle elongation increased from hatching to 30 days of age and then decreased. In contrast, for squid, maximum tentacle length increased from hatching to 30 days of age and then became constant. The distance to prey was positively correlated with maximum length and speed of tentacle elongation in S. pharaonis and with maximum swimming speed in S. lessoniana. These results show that cuttlefish mainly use an ambush strategy and that squid use a pursuit strategy. Possible causes for the ontogenetic differences in hunting behavior are discussed. PMID:24088796

Sugimoto, Chikatoshi; Ikeda, Yuzuru

2013-09-01

18

Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and

T. Lacoue-Labarthe; S. Martin; F. Oberhänsli; J.-L. Teyssié; S. Markich; R. Jeffree; P. Bustamante

2009-01-01

19

The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.  

PubMed

The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field. PMID:23474299

Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2013-03-05

20

Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, which is one of the most studied cephalopod species in the world. Domoic acid was consistently found throughout 2003 and 2004 in the digestive gland of cuttlefish reaching concentrations of 241.7 microg DA g(-1). The highest DA values were detected during spring and summer months, periods when Pseudo-nitzschia occur in the plankton. In fact, Pseudo-nitzschia blooms preceded the highest DA concentrations in cuttlefish. Evaluation of DA tissue distribution showed elevated DA concentrations in the digestive gland and branchial hearts. Further, DA isomers comprised a relevant percentage of the toxin profile, indicating degradation and biotransformation of the toxin in the branchial hearts. The common cuttlefish, like other cephalopod species, plays a central position in the food web and might be a new DA vector to top predators like marine mammals. Human intoxications are not expected since DA was only seldom detected in the mantle and even then in very low levels (max 0.7 microg DA g(-1)). However, in some countries whole juvenile animals are consumed (i.e. without evisceration) and in this case they might represent a risk to human health. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence of phycotoxins in cephalopods and reveals a new member of the marine food web able to accumulate DA. PMID:15961171

Costa, Pedro R; Rosa, Rui; Duarte-Silva, Alexandra; Brotas, Vanda; Sampayo, Maria Antónia M

2005-08-15

21

A review of the factors influencing spawning, early life stage survival and recruitment variability in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).  

PubMed

Global landings of cephalopods (cuttlefish, squid and octopus) have increased dramatically over the past 50 years and now constitute almost 5% of the total world's fisheries production. At a time when landings of many traditional fin-fish stocks are continuing to experience a global decline as a result of over-exploitation, it is expected that fishing pressure on cephalopod stocks will continue to rise as the fishing industry switch their focus onto these non-quota species. However, long-term trends indicate that landings may have begun to plateau or even decrease. In European waters, cuttlefish are among the most important commercial cephalopod resource and are currently the highest yielding cephalopod group harvested in the north-east Atlantic, with the English Channel supporting the main fishery for this species. Recruitment variability in this short-lived species drives large fluctuations in landings. In order to provide sustainable management for Sepia officinalis populations, it is essential that we first have a thorough understanding of the ecology and life history of this species, in particular, the factors affecting spawning, early life stage (ELS) survival and recruitment variability. This review explores how and why such variability exists, starting with the impact of maternal effects (e.g. navigation, migration and egg laying), moving onto the direct impact of environmental variation on embryonic and ELSs and culminating on the impacts that these variations (maternal and environmental) have at a population level on annual recruitment success. Understanding these factors is critical to the effective management of expanding fisheries for this species. PMID:23763891

Bloor, Isobel S M; Attrill, Martin J; Jackson, Emma L

2013-01-01

22

Artificial surfaces for cuttlefish eggs ( Sepia officinalis L.) in Morbihan Bay, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

From March to September, cuttlefish lay eggs on natural substrata (tubes of polychaetes, Zostera leaves, algae) and also on artificial surfaces (cuttletraps, ropes, branches). In Morbihan Bay, during this period, between 18 and 40 million eggs are laid on cuttletraps. From March to May, fishermen empty traps every two days. They stack the traps on a pontoon-bridge before further use,

A Blanc; J Daguzan

1998-01-01

23

Effects of food thermal treatment on growth, absorption, and assimilation efficiency of juvenile cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of frozen grass shrimp (P. varians) was compared to similar grass shrimp that had suffered either boiling, drying at 60°C, or freeze-drying by lyophilization\\u000a at ?40°C. In experiment 1, cuttlefish fed the frozen shrimp were significantly larger (P < 0.05) at the end of 10 days and at the end of the experiment, compared with those fed the boiled or dried shrimp. Growth

Pedro M. Domingues; Lorenzo Marquez; Nelda López; Carlos Rosas

2009-01-01

24

Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

2012-07-01

25

Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases  

PubMed Central

Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4?L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P < 0.05) as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and ?-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

2011-01-01

26

Isolation and identification of a novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide inhibits the motility of the oviduct by decreasing the tonus, the frequency and the amplitude of the contractions. The primary structure of the peptide was determined as Gly-Trp-NH2. This new dipeptide is closely related to the Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 family first identified in gastropod molluscs. On the perfused oviduct, GWa appeared to be 3000 times more potent than APGW-amide. The processing of synthetic APGWa into GWa by diaminopeptidyl activity has been clearly observed in OL extract. Nevertheless, the analysis in MALDI-MS of HPLC OL fractions did not reveal any APGWa related peptides of the known: APGWa, KPGWa, RPGWa and TPGWa. GWa could be processed from a not yet identified APGWa related peptide. PMID:9437704

Henry, J; Favrel, P; Boucaud-Camou, E

1997-01-01

27

The complete mitochondrial genomes of deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola), bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis), and their application to the phylogenetic analysis of Decapodiformes.  

PubMed

We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola; supperfamily Bathyteuthoidea), the bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica; order Sepiolida) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis; order Sepiida). The unique structures of the mt genomes of Bathyteuthis and Semirossia provide new information about the evolution of decapodiform mt genomes. We show that the mt genome of B. abyssicola, like those of other oegopsids studied so far, has two long duplicated regions that include seven genes (COX1-3, ATP6 and ATP8, tRNA(Asn), and either ND2 or ND3) and that one of the duplicated COX3 genes has lost its function. The mt genome of S. patagonica is unlike any other decapodiforms and, like Nautilus, its ATP6 and ATP8 genes are not adjacent to each other. The four giant cuttlefish have identical mt gene order to other cuttlefish determined to date. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods suggest that traditional order Sepioidea (Sepiolida+Sepiida) is paraphyletic and Sepia (cuttlefish) has the sister-relationship with all other decapodiforms. Taking both the phylogenetic analyses and the mt gene order analyses into account, it is likely that the octopus-type mt genome is an ancestral state and that it had maintained from at least the Cephalopoda ancestor to the common ancestor of Oegopsida, Myopsida and Sepiolida. PMID:23811434

Kawashima, Yuumi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Akasaki, Tetsuya; Nikaido, Masato; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Segawa, Susumu; Okada, Norihiro

2013-06-26

28

Absence of formation of benzo[a]pyrene/DNA adducts in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

SciTech Connect

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) injected intramuscularly into the base of the arms of cuttlefish was released continuously from the injection site and removed from the organism. Only a portion of the compound accumulated in the body. Twenty-four hr after its injection, 75% of B[a]P applied in olive oil was removed from the cuttlefish, and 1.2% was found in the body outside the head, in site of injection. If the carcinogen was dissolved in dimethylformamide, the removal of B[a]P was slower, so that only 18% of the injected B[a]P was removed from the organism and 0.36% accumulated in the body outside the head 24 hr after injection. The high level of B[a]P in gills and hemolymph 4 hr after injection and the kinetics of the decrease of its concentration with time indicate that these two organs could be involved in the excretion of B[a]P from the body. The B[a]P/DNA adducts characteristic for vertebrates could not be demonstrated in gills, skin, brain, hepatopancreas, and lymphocytes of the cuttlefish 24 hr after injection. The dose of the carcinogene injected into the cuttlefish was 2-4 times higher than the dose resulting in the formation of a high level of B[a]P/DNA adducts in vertebrates. A different metabolism of B[a]P in the tissue of cephalopods, compared to vertebrates, could be less favorable to the process leading to malignant transformation and could explain the absence from the literature of reports of tumors in cephalopods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lee, P.G.; Lu, L.J.W.; Salazar, J.J.; Holoubek, V. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States))

1994-01-01

29

Visual interpolation for contour completion by the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and its use in dynamic camouflage  

PubMed Central

Cuttlefish rapidly change their appearance in order to camouflage on a given background in response to visual parameters, giving us access to their visual perception. Recently, it was shown that isolated edge information is sufficient to elicit a body pattern very similar to that used when a whole object is present. Here, we examined contour completion in cuttlefish by assaying body pattern responses to artificial backgrounds of ‘objects’ formed from fragmented circles, these same fragments rotated on their axis, and with the fragments scattered over the background, as well as positive (full circles) and negative (homogenous background) controls. The animals displayed similar responses to the full and fragmented circles, but used a different body pattern in response to the rotated and scattered fragments. This suggests that they completed the broken circles and recognized them as whole objects, whereas rotated and scattered fragments were instead interpreted as small, individual objects in their own right. We discuss our findings in the context of achieving accurate camouflage in the benthic shallow-water environment.

Zylinski, Sarah; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Shashar, Nadav

2012-01-01

30

Signaling to the Enemy? Body Pattern Expression and Its Response to External Cues During Hunting in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish can rapidly alter their appearance by using neurally controlled chromatophore organs. This abil- ity may provide a window into their cognitive capacity. We test whether the changes in body pattern that occur during hunting depend on context. If they do, then it may be possible to use these changes to study cephalopod cognition while the animal is engaged in

SHELLEY A. ADAMO; KELLY EHGOETZ; CHERYL SANGSTER; IVY WHITEHORNE

2006-01-01

31

Estimating recent growth in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: are nucleic acid-based indicators for growth and condition the method of choice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory calibration study was undertaken with juvenile Sepia officinalis (80–85 g initial wet weight) to investigate the effects of different food rations and different starving intervals on RNA\\/dry weight (DW) ratios and RNA\\/DNA ratios in cephalopod mantle muscle at two different temperatures. The digestive gland index was also used as an additional indicator of recent growth. High food rations

Frank Melzner; John W. Forsythe; Phillip G. Lee; James B. Wood; Uwe Piatkowski; Catriona Clemmesen

2005-01-01

32

Identifying the structure in cuttlefish visual signals.  

PubMed Central

The common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) communicates and camouflages itself by changing its skin colour and texture. Hanlon and Messenger (1988 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 320, 437-487) classified these visual displays, recognizing 13 distinct body patterns. Although this conclusion is based on extensive observations, a quantitative method for analysing complex patterning has obvious advantages. We formally define a body pattern in terms of the probabilities that various skin features are expressed, and use Bayesian statistical methods to estimate the number of distinct body patterns and their visual characteristics. For the dataset of cuttlefish coloration patterns recorded in our laboratory, this statistical method identifies 12-14 different patterns, a number consistent with the 13 found by Hanlon and Messenger. If used for signalling these would give a channel capacity of 3.4 bits per pattern. Bayesian generative models might be useful for objectively describing the structure in other complex biological signalling systems.

Crook, Anne C; Baddeley, Roland; Osorio, Daniel

2002-01-01

33

Can cuttlefish learn by observing others?  

PubMed

Observational learning is the ability to learn through observing others' behavior. The benefit of observational learning is apparent in that individuals can save time and energy without trial-and-error, thus enhance the chance of survival and reproduction. Cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) have the most sophisticated central nervous system among invertebrates, and it is conceivable that cephalopods can develop some forms of cognition. Although it has been suggested that octopuses have the capacity of observational learning, a previous study indicates that cuttlefish do not improve their predation tactics by observing conspecifics. Given that the danger avoidance is important for animals' survival, we sought to reevaluate whether cuttlefish show some form of observational learning or observational conditioning under threatening conditions. Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) were divided into three groups: the Experiencer group, the Observer group, and the Control group. In the training phase, a toy submarine was remotely controlled to expel the cuttlefish from its initially preferred place to establish the threat-place association in the Experiencer group. In the Observer group, the threat-place association was established by expelling a conspecific demonstrator at the observer's initially preferred place while the observer watched the whole process from behind a transparent divider. In the Control group, the observer watched a conspecific and a static toy submarine without actual threat. In the testing phase, the choice of safe place in the absence of threat was used to probe the learning/conditioning of cuttlefish. In the Experiencer group, we found that animals chose the safe place more often than their initially preferred place after training, an indication of the association learning/conditioning. However, in the Observer group, only a subset of animals showed this threat-place association by observation, while the place preference was unchanged in the Control group. These results indicate that most cuttlefish did not learn by observing others, but individual differences exist, and some cuttlefish may have the potential of observational learning/conditioning within their cognitive capacities. PMID:23100087

Huang, Kuan-Ling; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

2012-10-26

34

Cuttlefish use visual cues to determine arm postures for camouflage  

PubMed Central

To achieve effective visual camouflage, prey organisms must combine cryptic coloration with the appropriate posture and behaviour to render them difficult to be detected or recognized. Body patterning has been studied in various taxa, yet body postures and their implementation on different backgrounds have seldom been studied experimentally. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), masters of rapid adaptive camouflage, use visual cues from adjacent visual stimuli to control arm postures. Cuttlefish were presented with a square wave stimulus (period = 0.47 cm; black and white stripes) that was angled 0°, 45° or 90° relative to the animals' horizontal body axis. Cuttlefish positioned their arms parallel, obliquely or transversely to their body axis according to the orientation of the stripes. These experimental results corroborate our field observations of cuttlefish camouflage behaviour in which flexible, precise arm posture is often tailored to match nearby objects. By relating the cuttlefishes' visual perception of backgrounds to their versatile postural behaviour, our results highlight yet another of the many flexible and adaptive anti-predator tactics adopted by cephalopods.

Barbosa, Alexandra; Allen, Justine J.; Mathger, Lydia M.; Hanlon, Roger T.

2012-01-01

35

Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration of multiple visual cues  

PubMed Central

Prey camouflage is an evolutionary response to predation pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camouflage capabilities and studying them can offer insight into effective camouflage design. Here, we examine whether cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, show substrate or camouflage pattern preferences. In the first two experiments, cuttlefish were presented with a choice between different artificial substrates or between different natural substrates. First, the ability of cuttlefish to show substrate preference on artificial and natural substrates was established. Next, cuttlefish were offered substrates known to evoke three main camouflage body pattern types these animals show: Uniform or Mottle (function by background matching); or Disruptive. In a third experiment, cuttlefish were presented with conflicting visual cues on their left and right sides to assess their camouflage response. Given a choice between substrates they might encounter in nature, we found no strong substrate preference except when cuttlefish could bury themselves. Additionally, cuttlefish responded to conflicting visual cues with mixed body patterns in both the substrate preference and split substrate experiments. These results suggest that differences in energy costs for different camouflage body patterns may be minor and that pattern mixing and symmetry may play important roles in camouflage.

Allen, Justine J.; Mathger, Lydia M.; Barbosa, Alexandra; Buresch, Kendra C.; Sogin, Emilia; Schwartz, Jillian; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T.

2010-01-01

36

Selective signalling by cuttlefish to predators.  

PubMed

Rather than simply escaping, prey animals often attempt to deter an attack by signalling to an approaching predator, but this is a risky strategy if it allows time for the predator to draw closer (especially when the signal is a bluff). Because prey are vulnerable to multiple predators, the hunting techniques of which vary widely, it could well be beneficial for a prey animal to discriminate predators and to signal only to those that are likely to be deterred. Higher vertebrates make alarm calls that can identify the type of predator to the signaller's conspecifics, and a recent study shows that squirrels direct an infrared deterrent signal specifically at infrared-sensitive pit-vipers and not at other snakes. We show here that naïve juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.) use a visual signal selectively during encounters with different predatory species. We analysed sequences of defensive behaviours produced by cuttlefish, to control for effects of relative threat level (or 'response urgency'). This showed that a high contrast 'eyespot' signal, known as the deimatic display, was used before flight against visually oriented teleost fish, but not crabs and dogfish, which are chemosensory predators. PMID:18088584

Langridge, Keri V; Broom, Mark; Osorio, Daniel

2007-12-18

37

Sex differences in spatial cognition in an invertebrate: the cuttlefish  

PubMed Central

Evidence of sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported in a wide range of vertebrate species. Several evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences. The one best supported is the range size hypothesis that links spatial ability to range size. Our study aimed to determine whether male cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis; cephalopod mollusc) range over a larger area than females and whether this difference is associated with a cognitive dimorphism in orientation abilities. First, we assessed the distance travelled by sexually immature and mature cuttlefish of both sexes when placed in an open field (test 1). Second, cuttlefish were trained to solve a spatial task in a T-maze, and the spatial strategy preferentially used (right/left turn or visual cues) was determined (test 2). Our results showed that sexually mature males travelled a longer distance in test 1, and were more likely to use visual cues to orient in test 2, compared with the other three groups. This paper demonstrates for the first time a cognitive dimorphism between sexes in an invertebrate. The data conform to the predictions of the range size hypothesis. Comparative studies with other invertebrate species might lead to a better understanding of the evolution of cognitive dimorphism.

Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Moderan, Julien; Dickel, Ludovic

2008-01-01

38

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T\\u000a c) of 7.0 and 26.8°C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine

Frank Melzner; Christian Bock; Hans O. Pörtner

2006-01-01

39

Enhancement of Emulsifying Properties of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin by Modification with N -hydroxysuccinimide Esters of Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of various fatty acids including capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), and myristic acid (C14:0)\\u000a at different molar ratios was characterized and determined for emulsifying property. Fatty acid esters were incorporated into\\u000a gelatin as indicated by the decrease in free amino group content. Gelatin modified with fatty acid ester had the

Tanong Aewsiri; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Angel B. Encarnacion; Peter A. Wierenga; Harry Gruppen

40

Cuttlefish use visual cues to control three-dimensional skin papillae for camouflage.  

PubMed

Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are known for their camouflage. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis use chromatophores and light reflectors for color change, and papillae to change three-dimensional physical skin texture. Papillae vary in size, shape and coloration; nine distinct sets of papillae are described here. The objective was to determine whether cuttlefish use visual or tactile cues to control papillae expression. Cuttlefish were placed on natural substrates to evoke the three major camouflage body patterns: Uniform/Stipple, Mottle and Disruptive. Three versions of each substrate were presented: the actual substrate, the actual substrate covered with glass (removes tactile information) and a laminated photograph of the substrate (removes tactile and three-dimensional information because depth-of-field information is unavailable). No differences in Small dorsal papillae or Major lateral mantle papillae expression were observed among the three versions of each substrate. Thus, visual (not tactile) cues drive the expression of papillae in S. officinalis. Two sets of papillae (Major lateral mantle papillae and Major lateral eye papillae) showed irregular responses; their control requires future investigation. Finally, more Small dorsal papillae were shown in Uniform/Stipple and Mottle patterns than in Disruptive patterns, which may provide clues regarding the visual mechanisms of background matching versus disruptive coloration. PMID:19294390

Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Hanlon, Roger T

2009-03-18

41

Organization of the nervous system in the pygmy cuttlefish, Idiosepius paradoxus ortmann (Idiosepiidae, Cephalopoda).  

PubMed

The idiosepiid cuttlefish is a suitable organism for behavioral, genetic, and developmental studies. As morphological bases for these studies, organization of the nervous system was examined in Idiosepius paradoxus Ortmann, 1881, using Cajal's silver technique and immunohistochemical staining with anti-acetylated alpha-tubulin antibody. The nervous architecture is generally identical to that described in Sepia and Loligo, but some features characterize the idiosepiid nervous system. The olfactory system is highly developed in the optic tract region. The dorsolateral lobes show large neuropils, connected with each other by a novel well-fasciculated commissure. Each olfactory lobe is subdivided into two lobules. The neuropils of the anterior and the posterior chromatophore lobes are very poorly developed. Neuronal gigantism is not extensive in the brain; enlarged neuronal cells are visible only in the perikaryal layer of the posterior subesophageal mass. The giant nerve fiber system is of the Sepia type; the axons are not markedly thick and the first-order giant fibers do not fuse with each other at the chiasma. Three-dimensional images by whole-mount immunostaining clarified the innervation pattern in the peripheral nervous system in detail. Two commissural fibers link the left and right posterior funnel nerves ventrally and dorsally. The stellate commissure, which is absent in Sepia and Sepiola, connects the stellate ganglia with each other. A branch of the visceral nerve innervating the median pallial adductor muscle is characteristically thick. Tubulinergic reactivity of the cilia and axons reveals the presence of many ciliated cells giving off an axon toward brain nerves in the surface of the funnel, head integument, arm tips, and epidermal lines. Some of these features seem to reflect the inactive nekto-benthic life of the idiosepiid cuttlefish in the eelgrass bed. PMID:12219344

Shigeno, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Masamichi

2002-10-01

42

SEPIA: A Cooperative Hypermedia Authoring Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report about the design, development, and implementation of the SEPIA cooperative hyper- media authoring environment. It provides results on the following aspects of SEPIA: persistent and shared data storage, hypermedia data model with composites, so- phisticated and comprehensive authoring functionality, support for a new rhetoric and for cooperative work. We start by identifying the challenge of

Norbert A. Streitz; Jörg M. Haake; Jörg Hannemann; Andreas C. Lemke; Wolfgang Schuler; Helge Schtitt; Manfred Thüring

1992-01-01

43

Reproductive versus somatic tissue growth during the life cycle of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of maturation on relative growth of somatic tissues was investigated by measuring and compar- ing monthly changes in dry weight of somatic tissues and reproductive or- gans. In both sexes, reproductive tis- sues grew in relation to total body mass; at maturity female reproductive tissue was 16% of total dry body mass, whereas male reproductive tissue was 2.6%.

Howaida R. Gabr; Roger T. Hanlon; Salah G. El-Etreby; Mahmoud H. Hanafy

44

Five new species of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from two Australian cuttlefish species, with comments on dicyemid fauna composition.  

PubMed

Five new species of dicyemid mesozoans in two genera are described from two Australian cuttlefish species, Sepia apama Gray (giant Australian cuttlefish) and S. novaehollandiae Hoyle (nova cuttlefish): Dicyema coffinense n. sp. from S. apama collected from Coffin Bay, South Australia (SA), Australia; D. koinonum n. sp. from S. apama and S. novaehollandiae collected from Gulf St Vincent (GSV) and Spencer Gulf (SG), SA, Australia; D. multimegalum n. sp. from S. apama collected from Cronulla and North Bondi, New South Wales, Australia; D. vincentense n. sp. from S. novaehollandiae collected from GSV, SA, Australia; and Dicyemennea spencerense n. sp. from S. novaehollandiae and S. apama collected from SG, SA, Australia. Totals of 51 S. apama and 27 S. novaehollandiae individuals were examined, of which all except for four S. apama were infected by at least one dicyemid species. Dicyemid parasites were also observed in host individuals that were held in tanks for 2-3 months prior to examination, including nematogen-exclusive infections, leading to questions about persistence of dicyemids after host death and the mechanism responsible for the switch between a nematogen phase and a rhombogen phase. Variations in host size, calotte shape and collection locality are explored as predictors of differences in observed composition of the parasite fauna. In particular, dicyemid parasite fauna varied with host collection locality. As these parasites are highly host-species specific, their use as biological tags to assess cephalopod population structure using a combined morphological and molecular approach is discussed. This study increases the number of dicyemid species described from Australian cephalopods from five to ten, and from 117 to 122 species described worldwide. PMID:24048746

Catalano, Sarah R

2013-09-19

45

Lower hypoxia thresholds of cuttlefish early life stages living in a warm acidified ocean.  

PubMed

The combined effects of future ocean acidification and global warming on the hypoxia thresholds of marine biota are, to date, poorly known. Here, we show that the future warming and acidification scenario led to shorter embryonic periods, lower survival rates and the enhancement of premature hatching in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Routine metabolic rates increased during the embryonic period, but environmental hypercapnia significantly depressed pre-hatchling's energy expenditures rates (independently of temperature). During embryogenesis, there was also a significant rise in the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the perivitelline fluid (PVF), bicarbonate levels, as well as a drop in pH and oxygen partial pressure (pO?). The critical partial pressure (i.e. hypoxic threshold) of the pre-hatchlings was significantly higher than the PVF oxygen partial pressure at the warmer and hypercapnic condition. Thus, the record of oxygen tensions below critical pO? in such climate scenario indicates that the already harsh conditions inside the egg capsules are expected to be magnified in the years to come, especially in populations at the border of their thermal envelope. Such a scenario promotes untimely hatching and smaller post-hatching body sizes, thus challenging the survival and fitness of early life stages. PMID:23926158

Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Repolho, Tiago; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Baptista, Miguel; Lopes, Vanessa M; Dionísio, Gisela; Leal, Miguel Costa; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O

2013-08-07

46

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T (c)) of 7.0 and 26.8 degrees C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine metabolic rate (rmr) rose exponentially between 11 and 23 degrees C, while below (8 degrees C) and above (26 degrees C) this temperature range, rmr was significantly depressed. Ventilation frequency (f (V)) and mean mantle cavity pressure (MMP) followed an exponential relationship within the entire investigated temperature range (8-26 degrees C). Oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current (EO(2)) decreased in a sigmoidal fashion with temperature, falling from > 90% at 8 degrees C to 32% at 26 degrees C. Consequently, ventilatory minute volume (MV(V)) increased by a factor of 20 from 7 to 150% body weight min(-1) in the same temperature interval. Increases in MMP and MV(V) resulted in ventilatory muscle power output (P (out)) increasing by a factor of > 80 from 0.03 to 2.4 mW kg(-1) animal. Nonetheless, costs for ventilatory mechanics remain below 1.5% rmr in the natural thermal window of the population (English Channel, 9-17 degrees C), owing to very low MMPs of < 0.05 kPa driving the ventilatory stream, and may maximally rise to 8.6% rmr at 26 degrees C. Model calculations suggest that the ventilatory system can maintain high arterial PO(2) values of > 14 kPa over the entire temperature interval. We therefore conclude that the cuttlefish ventilation system is probably not limiting oxygen transfer during acute thermal stress. Depression of rmr, well before critical temperatures are being reached, is likely caused by circulatory capacity limitations and not by fatigue of ventilatory muscle fibres. PMID:16710699

Melzner, Frank; Bock, Christian; Pörtner, Hans O

2006-05-18

47

Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) of networked systems.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes recent progress made in developing and utilizing hybrid Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) environments. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models separately to analyze interplay between threats and safeguards. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments. Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools. The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches.

Burton, David P.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; McDonald, Michael James; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Tarman, Thomas David; Urias, Vincent E.

2009-09-01

48

Statolith chemistry of two life history stages of cuttlefish: Effects of temperature and seawater trace element concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry of the giant Australian cuttlefish, Sepia apama, was compared between encapsulated embryos and recently hatched juveniles under controlled laboratory conditions. Seawater Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca were positively related to statolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca in embryos and hatchlings for all temperatures. For statoliths of embryos the effect of spiking increased at 14 °C compared to 20 °C but for hatchlings increased Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in statoliths were found at 20 °C compared to 14 °C. The results imply that the influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry was driven by elemental discrimination as described by partition coefficients but was reversed between life history stages. Differences in respiration and haemocyanin between the two life history stages may influence elemental uptake and discrimination. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that differences in element uptake in statoliths can occur among life history stages of S. apama and must be considered when reconstructing environmental histories of S. apama and other statolith bearing organisms.

Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Wilkinson, Leanne M.; Munro, Andrew R.; de Vries, Melita C.

2013-01-01

49

Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in

Pedro R. Costa; Rui Rosa; Alexandra Duarte-Silva; Vanda Brotas; Maria Antónia M. Sampayo

2005-01-01

50

An experimental study of the effect of diet on the fatty acid profiles of the European Cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid analysis is an alternative dietary investigation tool that complements the more traditional techniques of stomach\\u000a content and faecal analysis that are often subject to a wide range of biases. In applying fatty acid analysis to ecosystem\\u000a studies, it is important to have an understanding of the effect diet has on the fatty acid profile of the predator. A

Miriam Fluckiger; George D. Jackson; Peter Nichols; Patti Virtue; Adam Daw; Simon Wotherspoon

2008-01-01

51

Vasopressin\\/oxytocin-related peptides influence long-term memory of a passive avoidance task in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vasopressin (VP)\\/oxytocin (OT)-related peptides constitute a large superfamily found in a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate species. While intensive literature reports that these neuropeptides influence behavior, especially learning and memory, in numerous species from diverse vertebrate groups, their roles in behavioral regulation have never been studied in invertebrates. Here, we investigated the role of two VP\\/OT superfamily

Isabelle Bardou; Jérôme Leprince; Raymond Chichery; Hubert Vaudry; Véronique Agin

2010-01-01

52

Influence of temperature and salinity on the trace element incorporation into statoliths of the common cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of statolith chemistry to trace migration pathways and distinguish populations of cephalopods is based on the assumption\\u000a that the elemental composition of statoliths is influenced by physicochemical properties of the ambient environment. However,\\u000a such influences have not been investigated experimentally up until now. This study presents the first microchemical analyses\\u000a of cephalopod statoliths obtained from laboratory experiments under

Karsten Zumholz; Thor H. Hansteen; Uwe Piatkowski; Peter L. Croot

2007-01-01

53

How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning.  

PubMed

Rapid adaptive camouflage is the primary defense of soft-bodied cuttlefish. Previous studies have shown that cuttlefish body patterns are strongly influenced by visual edges in the substrate. The aim of the present study was to examine how cuttlefish body patterning is differentially controlled by various aspects of edges, including contrast polarity, contrast strength, and the presence or absence of "line terminators" introduced into a pattern when continuous edges are fragmented. Spatially high- and low-pass filtered white or black disks, as well as isolated, continuous and fragmented edges varying in contrast, were used to assess activation of cuttlefish skin components. Although disks of both contrast polarities evoked relatively weak disruptive body patterns, black disks activated different skin components than white disks, and high-frequency information alone sufficed to drive the responses to white disks whereas high- and low-frequency information were both required to drive responses to black disks. Strikingly, high-contrast edge fragments evoked substantially stronger body pattern responses than low-contrast edge fragments, whereas the body pattern responses evoked by high-contrast continuous edges were no stronger than those produced by low-contrast edges. This suggests that line terminators vs. continuous edges influence expression of disruptive body pattern components via different mechanisms that are controlled by contrast in different ways. PMID:23499977

Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Siemann, Liese A; Buresch, Kendra C; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

2013-03-13

54

Combined effect of sepia soaking and temperature on the shelf life of peeled shrimp Penaeus kerathurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sepia ink (Sepia officinalis) extract solutions with concentrations of 0.0%, 0.01%, 0.2% and 2% on the microbial flora and the chemical composition of stored peeled shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) were examined at two temperatures (?2 and 0 ° C). The quantification of aerobic and psychotrophic bacteria was performed by a plate count after each 3 days of storage.

Saloua Sadok; Abdelwahed Abdelmoulah; Amor El Abed

2004-01-01

55

Interactive effects of size, contrast, intensity and configuration of background objects in evoking disruptive camouflage in cuttlefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruptive body coloration is a primary camouflage tactic of cuttlefish. Because rapid changeable coloration of cephalopods is guided visually, we can present different visual backgrounds (e.g., computer-generated, two-dimensional prints) and video record the animal's response by describing and grading its body pattern. We showed previously that strength of cuttlefish disruptive patterning depends on the size, contrast, and density of discrete

Chuan-Chin Chiao; Charles Chubb; Roger T. Hanlon

2007-01-01

56

Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs  

PubMed Central

Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia.

Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

2010-01-01

57

The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about ratios, including the “Golden Ratio”, a ratio of length to width that can be found in art, architecture, and nature. Students examine different ratios to determine whether the Golden Ratio can be found in the human body.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-02-18

58

ALVA MORGAN GOLDEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alva Morgan Golden was a Nematologist with the United States Department of Agriculture and the longtime leader of the nematode taxonomy and systematics program within USDA. He was born on July 13, 1920 at the Golden family farm near Milledgeville, Georgia, and died on May 24, 2002. Upon receiving h...

59

The Great Golden Pyramid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The largest of the Giza pyramids is usually called the Great Pyramid. It can also be called the Great Golden Pyramid, because its geometry is that of the Golden Mean. Pictures and diagrams of the interior and exterior architecture, with explanations of the related math, astronomy, and physics. References included.

Smith, Tony

2007-02-21

60

Analysis of tissue condition based on interaction between inorganic and organic matter in cuttlefish bone.  

PubMed

The absorption properties of an inner layer of cuttlefish bone were measured using a transmission terahertz time-domain spectrometer in a band from approximately 0.1 to 4 THz. For oriented samples, an absorption peak related to the behavior of calcium carbonate appeared at approximately 2 THz. The peak magnitude and frequency depended on the direction of the incident terahertz electric field, indicating that calcium carbonate crystals constituting the inner layer were oriented in a certain direction. The absorbance of a sample heated to 350 °C for 0 to 2 h to remove organic matter tended to decrease with heating time in the oriented direction, while the peak frequency shifted to higher frequencies. Furthermore, we showed that the peak frequency depended on the interaction area within the unheated sample and we thus obtained a two-dimensional image reflecting crystal regularity inside the cuttlefish bone from the spectral data at each position. PMID:23860837

Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori

2012-10-20

61

Sixty golden minutes.  

PubMed

The golden hour concept started in the trauma setting but is becoming more familiar in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). For a premature baby, the first hour of life can make the difference between a good outcome, a poor outcome, and death. The golden hour is 60 minutes of team-oriented and task-driven protocols. The focus is on resuscitation, thermoregulation, early administration of antibiotics for suspected sepsis, early intravenous parenteral nutrition, hypoglycemia management, and completed admission within one hour of life. To a premature baby, the first 60 minutes of life are golden and can last a lifetime. PMID:22908049

Doyle, Kimberly Jane; Bradshaw, Wanda T

62

The Golden Ratio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides a "basic introduction to one of the most amazing discoveries in mathematics: the Golden Ratio." Created by David L. Narain, this site offers a particularly engaging way to bring together math and the natural sciences in the classroom. Seven straightforward activities have students construct a golden rectangle and spiral, and also explore the Golden Ratio in nature and in other contexts. The site also includes a quiz; answers are not provided, though. The activities are designed for 9th and 10th graders, but would also be appropriate for middle school students.

Narain, David L.

2001-01-01

63

Philippine Golden Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed by Kenneth Y. Ilio, Philippine Golden Links (also known as Tanikalang Ginto) has been online since 1994. The site contains numerous links, divided into thematic areas in an attempt to provide a broad range of online resources dealing with the Philippines. Two nice features on the site are the Golden Links of the Day and the Noteworthy Discovery of the Day. The Golden Links of the Day profile important links dealing with the Philippines, while the Noteworthy Discovery profiles new material on the Web. While the site does feature some commercial advertisements, there are some important resources covered here, and in particular, the sections dealing with travel and tourism throughout the area are thorough and authoritative.

64

Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of b-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond

Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer

2005-01-01

65

Golden Age Spanish Sonnets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Alix Ingber, Professor of Spanish at Sweet Briar College, this site hosts 107 Golden Age (Sixteenth Century) Spanish sonnets and English translations. The poems may be browsed by poet or by their first line. Each poet page includes links to related resources, most of which are in Spanish only. Also included are bibliographies and some other related links.

Ingber, Alix.

66

William T. Golden - Appreciation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short biography of William T. Golden who died October 7, 2007. Although he never worked as a scientist and didnât receive his masterâs degree in biology until age 70, he was one of the most influential figures in post-World War II American science.

67

Early exposure to odors changes later visual prey preferences in cuttlefish.  

PubMed

Developmental studies have shown that environmental stimulation received by a developing sensory system can alter the developmental outcome of both that sensory system and other aspects of the nervous system. We investigated the ecologically relevant question of whether prior exposure to prey early in development within one sensory modality could influence later prey choice within a different sensory modality. Cuttlefish are visual predators; they can detect prey odors but attacks on prey cannot be elicited without visual stimulation. Cuttlefish eggs were exposed to the odor of shrimp (preferred prey), crabs (non-preferred prey), mollusks (non-prey), or a seawater control (no prey). Seven days after hatching, prey preferences were tested with a visual choice test between crabs and shrimp. Hatchlings exposed to crabs odors and the seawater control were significantly more likely to attack shrimp. Hatchlings exposed to mollusk odors showed no visual prey preference, while those exposed to shrimp preferentially attacked crabs. These results demonstrate a complex relationship between an early sensory exposure and later prey preference PMID:21157990

Guibé, Mathieu; Boal, Jean G; Dickel, Ludovic

2010-12-01

68

The Golden Ratio Encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel Nyquist-rate analog-to-digital (A\\/D) conversion algorithm which achieves exponential accuracy in the bit-rate despite using imperfe ct components. The proposed algorithm is based on a robust implementation of a beta-encoder with ? = ? = (1 + ? 5)\\/2, the golden ratio. It was previously shown that beta-encoders can be implemented in such a way that

Ingrid Daubechies; C. Sinan Güntürk; Yang Wang; Özgür Yilmaz

2008-01-01

69

Isolation and characterization of new polymorphic microsatellite markers from the cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni (Cephalopoda; Sepiidae).  

PubMed

Fifteen new polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for the cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni. In 32 individuals from a wild population of coastal Ningde, Fujian Province, China, the number of alleles at these loci varied between 2 and 12, with an average of 5.86. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.6917 and 0.5993, respectively. Among these polymorphic microsatellite loci, 4 (SM2, SM19, SM40, and SM81) significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after sequential Bonferroni's correction. All of them were in linkage equilibrium. These microsatellite loci would be useful for evaluating the effect of releasing on extant S. maindroni populations as well as for investigating genetic diversity and population structure of this species. PMID:23884774

Guo, B-Y; Qi, P Z; Zhu, A Y; Lv, Z M; Wang, W C; Wu, C W

2013-07-11

70

Feel, smell and see in an egg: emergence of perception and learning in an immature invertebrate, the cuttlefish embryo.  

PubMed

It is now well established that prenatal sensory experience affects development itself and has long-term consequences in terms of postnatal behavior. This study focused on the functionality of the sensory system in cuttlefish in ovo. Embryos of stage 23, 25 and 30 received a tactile, chemical or visual stimulus. An increase of mantle contraction rhythm was taken to indicate a behavioral response to the stimulus. We clearly demonstrated that tactile and chemical systems are functional from stage 23, whereas the visual system is functional only from stage 25. At stage 25 and 30, embryos were also exposed to a repeated light stimulus. Stage 30 embryos were capable of habituation, showing a progressive decrease in contractions across stimulations. This process was not due to fatigue as we observed response recovery after a dishabituation tactile stimulus. This study is the first to show that cuttlefish embryos behaviorally respond to stimuli of different modalities and that the visual system is the last to become functional during embryonic development, as in vertebrate embryos. It also provides new evidence that the memory system develops in ovo in cuttlefish. PMID:23136152

Romagny, Sébastien; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Guibé, Mathieu; Bellanger, Cécile; Dickel, Ludovic

2012-12-01

71

Historical Golden Gate Tidal Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a comprehensive summary of the tide data and tidal datums for the Golden Gate tidal series covering the period from 1854 to 2000. The Golden Gate tidal series is the longest uninterrupted tidal series in the United States and one of the lon...

2002-01-01

72

Lichtheim's golden shot.  

PubMed

Lichtheim belongs to the ranks of most famous aphasiologists, in particular because of a diagram often referred to as 'Lichtheim's House'. His single paper on aphasia has drawn the attention of the aphasiological community for many years and may be considered a golden shot. But it became, to Lichtheim's own disappointment, famous for its schema rather than for the theoretical proposals formulated in that paper regarding various aphasia syndromes. In this paper, a translation is presented on the part of Lichtheim's memoirs, dealing with his views on his work on aphasia. I also discuss his insertion of the conceptual center in the model and Wernicke's response to that. Finally, I argue that it is surprising that Lichtheim's contribution has had such a lasting impact. PMID:20828675

Eling, Paul

2010-09-15

73

Are We Golden?: Investigations with the Golden Ratio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an activity in which students investigate the "golden nature" of their bodies through measurement and proportional thinking and make connections between mathematics and their world. (Contains 2 figures.)

Reeder, Stacy L.

2007-01-01

74

Golden Rice, Golden Crops, Golden Prospects Arroz Dorado, cultivos dorados, perspectivas doradas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Golden Rice is probably the best known second-generation—nutrition quality enhanced—transgenic crop, but several others are following suit. Golden Rice was developed to deal with the problem of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which affects millions of people all over the world, especially small children in deve- loping countries. VAD not only causes blindness and increased morbidity, but a hitherto almost

Jorge E. Mayer

2007-01-01

75

Emulsifying Property and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Modified with Oxidized Linoleic Acid and Oxidized Tannic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and\\u000a determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total\\u000a phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging\\u000a activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power of gelatin–OTA. Incorporation of OLA into gelatin (OLA-to-free amino group\\u000a molar ratio of

Tanong Aewsiri; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Peter A. Wierenga; Harry Gruppen

76

Why is golden rice golden (yellow) instead of red?  

PubMed

The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of beta-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond the transgenic end point and thus that the endogenous pathway must also be acting. By using TaqMan real-time PCR, we show in wild-type rice endosperm the mRNA expression of the relevant carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes encoding phytoene desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotene cis-trans-isomerase, beta-lycopene cyclase, and beta-carotene hydroxylase; only PSY mRNA was virtually absent. We show that the transgenic phenotype is not due to up-regulation of expression of the endogenous rice pathway in response to the transgenes, as was suggested to be the case in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit, where CRTI expression resulted in a similar carotenoid phenomenon. This means that beta-carotene and xanthophyll formation in Golden Rice relies on the activity of constitutively expressed intrinsic rice genes (carotene cis-trans-isomerase, alpha/beta-lycopene cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase). PSY needs to be supplemented and the need for the CrtI transgene in Golden Rice is presumably due to insufficient activity of the phytoene desaturase and/or zeta-carotene desaturase enzyme in endosperm. The effect of CRTI expression was also investigated in leaves of transgenic rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, again, the mRNA levels of intrinsic carotenogenic enzymes remained unaffected; nevertheless, the carotenoid pattern changed, showing a decrease in lutein, while the beta-carotene-derived xanthophylls increased. This shift correlated with CRTI-expression and is most likely governed at the enzyme level by lycopene-cis-trans-isomerism. Possible implications are discussed. PMID:15821145

Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Drake, Rachel; Beyer, Peter

2005-04-08

77

Platinum ratio search versus golden ratio search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this simulation study, we examine the traditional golden ratio search in view of cost minimization and search risk, and propose an alternative search plan with what we call “platinum ratio”. The golden ratio search has been thought the best for unimodal optimization. However, our study shows that the golden ratio search is the best only in the sense of

Xia Pan

2008-01-01

78

Declustering Using Golden Ratio Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new data declustering scheme for range queries. Our schemeis based on Golden Ratio Sequences (GRS), which have found applications in broadcast disks,hashing, packet routing, etc. We show by analysis and simulation that GRS is nearly the bestpossible scheme for 2-dimensional range queries. Specifically, it is the best possible scheme whenthe number of disks (M

Randeep Bhatia; Rakesh K. Sinha; Chung-min Chen

2000-01-01

79

Golden West College Intercultural Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to the increasing diversity of the student population at Golden West Community College, in California, the the Intercultural Center (IC) was established in 1989 to enhance campus-wide awareness of cultural diversity through services to immigrant and international students and the campus community. An Intercultural Task Force was first…

Nunez-Cronk, Brunilda; Willoughby, Donna

80

Golden rectangle (grades 6-8)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative can help students visualize the golden rectangle. It shows how a set of golden rectangles is generated by using the golden ratio (the ratio of the longer side to the shorter side of a golden rectangle) to create smaller golden rectangles within an initial rectangle. The size of the initial rectangle can be varied, and the center of the spiral generated by the applet can be seen. Instructions for using this online manipulative are included on the site, as is a link to the NCTM standard for geometry. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mathematics, Utah S.

2003-01-01

81

Evidence of hollow golden cages.  

PubMed

The fullerenes are the first "free-standing" elemental hollow cages identified by spectroscopy experiments and synthesized in the bulk. Here, we report experimental and theoretical evidence of hollow cages consisting of pure metal atoms, Au(n)(-) (n = 16-18); to our knowledge, free-standing metal hollow cages have not been previously detected in the laboratory. These hollow golden cages ("bucky gold") have an average diameter >5.5 A, which can easily accommodate one guest atom inside. PMID:16714382

Bulusu, Satya; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

2006-05-19

82

Evidence of hollow golden cages  

PubMed Central

The fullerenes are the first “free-standing” elemental hollow cages identified by spectroscopy experiments and synthesized in the bulk. Here, we report experimental and theoretical evidence of hollow cages consisting of pure metal atoms, Aun? (n = 16–18); to our knowledge, free-standing metal hollow cages have not been previously detected in the laboratory. These hollow golden cages (“bucky gold”) have an average diameter >5.5 Å, which can easily accommodate one guest atom inside.

Bulusu, Satya; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

2006-01-01

83

Diel Movement and Habitat Use of California Golden Trout in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

I used radio transmitters to determine the diel habitat use and movement patterns of California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aquabonita inside and outside cattle exclosures on the South Fork Kern River, Golden Trout Wilderness, California. Twenty-three golden trout were monitored from September 10 to 19, 1993, during 216 diel-tracking hours at four study sites in upper and lower Ramshaw Meadow.

KATHLEEN R. MATTHEWS

1996-01-01

84

77 FR 58255 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey off the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...after 3 to 11 minutes. Andre et al. (2011) exposed four species of cephalopods (Loligo vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Octopus vulgaris, and Ilex coindetii), primarily cuttlefish, to two hours of continuous 50 to 400 Hz sinusoidal wave sweeps...

2012-09-19

85

78 FR 11821 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...after 3 to 11 minutes. Andre et al. (2011) exposed four species of cephalopods (Loligo vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Octopus vulgaris, and Ilex coindetii), primarily cuttlefish, to two hours of continuous 50 to 400 Hz sinusoidal wave sweeps...

2013-02-20

86

78 FR 33811 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...after 3 to 11 minutes. Andre et al. (2011) exposed four species of cephalopods (Loligo vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Octopus vulgaris, and Ilex coindetii), primarily cuttlefish, to two hours of continuous 50 to 400 Hz sinusoidal wave sweeps...

2013-06-05

87

78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...after 3 to 11 minutes. Andre et al. (2011) exposed four species of cephalopods (Loligo vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Octopus vulgaris, and Ilex coindetii), primarily cuttlefish, to two hours of continuous 50 to 400 Hz sinusoidal wave sweeps...

2013-03-21

88

Coordination between ventilatory pressure oscillations and venous return in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under control conditions, spontaneous exercise and recovery.  

PubMed

Venous blood flow was measured for the first time in a cephalopod. Blood velocity was determined in the anterior vena cava (AVC) of cuttlefish S. officinalis with a Doppler, while simultaneously, ventilatory pressure oscillations were recorded in the mantle cavity. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed to investigate pulsatile flow in other major vessels. Blood pulses in the AVC are obligatorily coupled to ventilatory pressure pulses, both in frequency and phase. AVC peak blood velocity (v(AVC)) in animals of 232 (+/- 30 SD) g wet mass at 15 degrees C was found to be 14.2 (+/- 7.1) cm s(-1), AVC stroke volume (SV(AVC)) was 0.2 (+/- 0.1) ml stroke(-1), AVC minute volume (MV(AVC)) amounted to 5.5 (+/- 2.8) ml min(-1). Intense exercise bouts of 1-2 min resulted in 2.2-fold increases in MV(AVC), enabled by 1.6-fold increments in both, AVC pulse frequency (f (AVC)) and v(AVC). As increases in blood flow occurred delayed in time by 1.7 min with regard to exercise periods, we concluded that it is not direct mantle cavity pressure conveyance that drives venous return in this cephalopod blood vessel. However, during jetting at high pressure amplitude (> 1 kPa), AVC blood flow and mantle cavity pressure pulse shapes completely overlap, suggesting that under these conditions, blood transport must be driven passively by mantle cavity pressure. MRI measurements at 15 degrees C also revealed that under resting conditions, f (AVC )and ventilation frequency (f (V)) match at 31.6 (+/- 2.1) strokes min(-1). In addition, rates of pulsations in the cephalic artery and in afferent branchial vessels did not significantly differ from f (AVC) and f (V). It is suggested that these adaptations are beneficial for high rates of oxygen extraction observed in S. officinalis and the energy conserving mode of life of the cuttlefish ecotype in general. PMID:16868753

Melzner, Frank; Bock, Christian; Pörtner, Hans-O

2006-07-26

89

Traceability: The golden calf (revisited)  

SciTech Connect

The ancient religious symbol of the golden calf has become a present day metaphor for a tangible but specious object that diverts the attention from an intangible, authentic, and crucial entity that it purports to represent. Peter Stein, measurement guru, for several years (1962 et seq.) has noted that calibration traceability has taken on the character of a Golden Calf.'' He has cautioned that with the present day emphasis on formal quality assurance in measurement, calibration traceability as a primary attestation of accuracy can be disproportionately emphasized to the detriment of actual measurement accuracy. This seemingly paradoxical claim is well-founded as illustrated by many examples where the more important issues of measurement qualification, validation, system characterization, and transient correction are recognized as affecting end accuracy much more critically than usual calibration errors. This paper extends Stein's areas of concern and reviews several practical examples where instrument errors of the magnitude typically revealed in standards laboratory calibration are dwarfed by the more generally consequential measurement errors of misapplication and naive reliance on highly accurate laboratory calibration of component instruments. The purpose of the paper is not to denigrate calibration nor its traceability. Rather, it is to caution that experimenters, standards and specifications writers, calibration laboratories, and measurement quality auditors must recognize these two important aspects of quality assurance as merely a partial, and certainly not a predominant, tool for the assurance of accuracy and quality in measurement. 12 refs., 1 figs.

Reed, R.P.

1990-01-01

90

76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CP11-531-000] Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden Triangle) filed...construct and operate two new salt dome storage caverns at its existing storage site...

2011-08-23

91

12 CFR 750.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 750.4 Section 750...REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 750.4 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A Federally...

2013-01-01

92

12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2 Section...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No...

2013-01-01

93

12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section...SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.3 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No System...

2013-01-01

94

12 CFR 750.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 750.2 Section...REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 750.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited. A...

2013-01-01

95

12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4 Section 359...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 359.4 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) An insured...

2013-01-01

96

12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412...SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System...

2013-01-01

97

GOLDEN RATIO-HAAR WAVELET BASED STEGANOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have presented the golden ratio-Haar wavelet based multimedia steganography. The key features of the proposed method are: 1. New Haar wavelet structure based on the Fibonacci se- quence, and Golden Ratio. 2. Parametric transform dependency, as decryption key, on the security of the sensitive data. One of the important differences between the existing trans- form based

Sos S. Agaian; Okan Caglayan; Juan Pablo Perez; Hakob Sarukhanyan; Jaakko Astola

98

The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)|

Cooper, Martin

1982-01-01

99

Anthrax vaccine efficacy in golden Syrian hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of a licensed human anthrax vaccine (anthrax vaccine adsorbed, AVA) was tested in golden Syrian hamsters against a virulent Bacillus anthracis spore challenge. Groups of golden Syrian hamsters were vaccinated at either 0 and 4 weeks or 0, 4 and 8 weeks, then challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) at 10 weeks with spores of various B. anthracis isolates. Although ELISA

P. F Fellows; M. K Linscott; S. F Little; P Gibbs; B. E Ivins

2002-01-01

100

Comparative study of physico-mechanical and antioxidant properties of edible gelatin films from the skin of cuttlefish.  

PubMed

Physicochemical properties of edible films based on cuttlefish skin gelatin extracted without (G0) or with different concentrations of pepsins (5 (G5), 10 (G10) and 15 (G15) U/g of skin) were investigated. Edible films prepared with partially hydrolyzed gelatins had lower tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB), but higher water vapour permeability (WVP) and water solubility than the control film. FTIR spectra of obtained gelatin films revealed a significant loss of molecular order of the triple helix. In addition, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis indicated that partially hydrolyzed gelatine films exhibited lower transition temperature and enthalpy compared with those of control film. The properties of the films were related to their microstructure, which was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Films with G0 and G5 had a smooth surface and a more compact structure, while films prepared with G10 and G15 had coarser surface. Thus, the chain length of extracted gelatin directly affected the properties of corresponding films. PMID:23820179

Jridi, Mourad; Souissi, Nabil; Mbarek, Aïcha; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Kammoun, Maher; Nasri, Moncef

2013-06-29

101

The Mystery of the Golden Cube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help Rex solve the mystery of the golden cube! You will need to decide if it is a rock, mineral, or a fossil. You will also need to examine the cubes shape, hardness, color, streak, density, cleavage, and fracture.

2000-01-01

102

Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)|

Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.

1994-01-01

103

The golden ratio in special relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we show that Euclid’s construction of the golden rectangle can be used to derive both the dilation of time intervals and the Lorentz contraction of lengths as predicted by Einstein’s theory of special relativity. In this simple exercise, the Lorentz factor arises as a direct consequence of the Pythagorean theorem, while the golden ratio, ?=1+5\\/2, is found

Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti; Antonio Mejias

2006-01-01

104

Primary productivity in the Golden Horn.  

PubMed

The shores of the Golden Horn--once most important seaport of the region--represented throughout history a romantic and recreational venue. This tributary to the Bosphorus, however, became seriously polluted with the extensive industrialization and rapid population growth in Istanbul over the past century. Two main tributaries, the Alibeykoy and the Kagithane, dumped both liquid and solid waste from residential areas and industry (small and large-scale) into the Golden Horn. As a result of this pollution, the landward three to four kilometers of the estuary became swamped with sediment. The dominance of anaerobic activity resulted in a highly unpleasant smell, and the shallow depth as one progressed up the bay restricted navigation. In early 1997 The Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality began a dredging operation and gradually diverted all domestic and industrial wastewater discharge from the Golden Horn. Since then there have been remarkable improvements in water quality. This paper presents the state of eutrophication through the water body of the Golden Horn; parameters such as DO, TKN, NH(3)-N, NO(3)-N, the total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (PO(4)-P), phytoplankton and chlorophyll-a have been were analyzed in samples of water taken from various points in the Golden Horn. The presence of DO and the phytoplankton, both indicators of primary productivity in an aquatic body, has been evaluated in relation to former conditions. PMID:16240188

Gönüllü, M Talha; Av?ar, Ya?ar; Bayhan, Hürrem; Sakar, Süeyman; Arslankaya, Ertan; Apaydin, Omer; Kurt, U?ur

2005-10-01

105

A golden age of human pigmentation genetics.  

PubMed

The zebrafish golden mutation is characterized by the production of small and irregular-shaped melanin granules, resulting in a lightening of the pigmented lateral stripes of the animal. The recent positional cloning and localization of the golden gene, combined with genotype-phenotype correlations of alleles of its human orthologue (SLC24A5) in African-American and African-Caribbean populations, provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of human skin colour. SLC24A5 promotes melanin deposition through maturation of the melanosome, highlighting the importance of ion-exchange in the function of this organelle. PMID:16857289

Sturm, Richard A

2006-07-18

106

Inflow and Infiltration in Golden Valley  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The city of Golden Valley (MN) Web site offers the interactive Inflow and Infiltration in Golden Valley activity. This Flash based animation attempts to show homeowners how connecting a sump pump directly to the sewer system, besides being illegal, can cause other unforeseen problems. The characters explain that this could lead to higher water and sewer charges and even basement flooding of neighboring homes. Even though there isn't in-depth information on these subjects, the site does do a good job of explaining and illustrating how an average municipal sewerage system works, how a home sump pump works, and what happens to storm water.

107

12 CFR 741.224 - Golden parachute and indemnification payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute and indemnification payments. 741.224 Section 741...Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.224 Golden parachute and indemnification payments. Any credit union...

2013-01-01

108

7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT ...Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and...

2013-01-01

109

Sepia Ink Oligopeptide Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines via Caspase-3 Activation and Elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio  

PubMed Central

Sepia ink oligopeptide (SIO) is a tripeptide extracted from Sepia ink. To test the hypothesis that SIO inhibits prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis, the effects of SIO on the proliferation of three human prostate cancer cell lines were examined using a CCK-8 assay. SIO significantly inhibited the proliferation of DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry studies showed that exposing DU-145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells to 5, 10, or 15 mg/mL SIO for 24 h increased the percentage of the early-stage apoptotic cells from 11.84% to 38.26% (DU-145), 22.76% to 39.96% (PC-3) and 5.05% to 16.11% (LNCaP), respectively. In addition, typical morphologic changes were observed in the cells with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. SIO treatment induced strong S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in DU-145 and LNCaP. In contrast, SIO treatment induced strong Sub G1 and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in PC-3. SIO exposure for 24 h decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the apoptogenic protein Bax. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2expression ratio was increased. Concurrently, the expression of caspase-3 was upregulated. These data support our hypothesis that SIO has anticarcinogenic properties.

Huang, Fangfang; Yang, Zuisu; Yu, Di; Wang, Jiabin; Li, Rong; Ding, Guofang

2012-01-01

110

Turning points of the spherical pendulum and the golden ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To put our result

Hanno Essén; Nicholas Apazidis

2009-01-01

111

Golden quantum oscillator and Binet-Fibonacci calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Binet formula for Fibonacci numbers is treated as a q-number and a q-operator with Golden ratio bases q = phi and Q = -1\\/phi, and the corresponding Fibonacci or Golden calculus is developed. A quantum harmonic oscillator for this Golden calculus is derived so that its spectrum is given only by Fibonacci numbers. The ratio of successive energy levels

Oktay K. Pashaev; Sengul Nalci

2012-01-01

112

12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to make or may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent...amount and terms of the golden parachute payment. Such consent...to pay the promised golden parachute and the IRP shall not be accorded...that it is not aware of any information, evidence, documents...

2009-01-01

113

12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...make or may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent...amount and terms of the golden parachute payment. Such consent...to pay the promised golden parachute and the IAP shall not be accorded...possess and is not aware of any information, evidence, documents...

2010-01-01

114

12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to make or may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent...amount and terms of the golden parachute payment. Such consent...to pay the promised golden parachute and the IRP shall not be accorded...that it is not aware of any information, evidence, documents...

2010-01-01

115

12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...make or may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent...amount and terms of the golden parachute payment. Such consent...to pay the promised golden parachute and the IAP shall not be accorded...possess and is not aware of any information, evidence, documents...

2009-01-01

116

Golden Parachute as a Compensation-Shifting Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate how a golden parachute can be used to improve the target shareholders' net return by partially shifting the managerial compensation burden to the buyer through a higher acquisition price. Consistent with the empirical observations, we show that (1) the golden parachute will be contingent on a change-of-control rather than solely on the manager's layoff, (2) the golden parachute

Albert Choi

2004-01-01

117

36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5 Section 71.5 Parks...THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid...

2010-07-01

118

36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5 Section 71.5 Parks...THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid...

2009-07-01

119

Rehabilitation and water quality monitoring in the Golden Horn  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the oceanographic aspects of the Golden Horn and some results of the Golden Horn Rehabilitation Project are presented. The hydrographic structure of the Golden Horn responds rapidly to the conditions in the southern Bosphorus, which is especially true for the outer parts of the estuary up to the Valide Sultan Bridge (VS). West of this bridge which

H. I. Sur; E. Okus; H. Z. Sarikaya; H. Altiok; I. Öztürk

120

The Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This award-winning site explores not only who Fibonacci was, but also the Fibonacci number properties, where they occur in nature, and much, much more. Puzzles with answers, illustrations, diagrams, and graphs are included. The Golden Ratio and Lucas numbers are addressed here as well. This site contains over 200 pages of information.

Knott, Ron

2007-12-12

121

The "Golden Projects": China's National Networking Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For China, information technology and communications networks are a new solution to an old problem, reconstituting hierarchical state power. This article examines China's National Networking Initiative, "Golden Projects," within the context of economic and political reform to demonstrate an alternative to traditional economic based networking…

Lovelock, Peter; Clark, Theodore C.; Petrazzini, Ben A.

1996-01-01

122

Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries

Heather M. Coleman; Gurdal Kanat; F. Ilter Aydinol Turkdogan

2009-01-01

123

Generalized golden ratios of ternary alphabets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansions in noninteger bases often appear in number theory and probability theory, and they are closely connected to ergodic theory, measure theory and topology. For two-letter alphabets the golden ratio plays a special role: in smaller bases only trivial expansions are unique, whereas in greater bases there exist nontrivial unique expansions. In this paper we determine the corresponding critical bases

Vilmos Komornik; Anna Chiara Lai; Marco Pedicini

2009-01-01

124

Graphs (networks) with golden spectral ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose two new spectral measures for graphs and networks which characterize the ratios between the width of the “bulk” part of the spectrum and the spectral gap, as well as the ratio between spectral spread and the width of the “bulk” part of the spectrum. Using these definitions we introduce the concept of golden spectral graphs (GSG), which are

Ernesto Estrada; Edificio CACTUS

2007-01-01

125

Dynamic Programming creates The Golden Ratio, too  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times of Greek as the Parthenon at Athens, the Golden Ratio has been keeping to give a profound influence in many various fields. Mathematicians love the number to explain the nature of the universe and of human life. It comes up even with a formula for the human de- cision making process; aesthetics, etc. Also in the typical

Seiichi Iwamoto; Masami Yasuda

126

The Golden Heads of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The golden heads of Balsamorhiza and Wyethia covering the foothills herald spring in Utah's Wasatch Mountains. Balsamorhiza macrophylla, the cutleat balsamroot (shown here), commonly grows interspersed with B. sagittata (arrowleaf balsamroot) and W. amplexicaulis (mule's ear) on hillsides and in open woods.

Lynn Bohs (University of Utah;Department of Biology ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

127

Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)|

Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

2009-01-01

128

Golden parachutes, managerial incentives and shareholders' wealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of golden parachutes on shareholders' wealth when the measure is used as a compensation device instead of a takeover defense. The results show that the adoption of the measure has a negative influence on shareholders' wealth. These negative results are more prevalent for firms with an operating performance

Jorge Brusa; Wayne L. Lee; Carole Shook

2009-01-01

129

Golden Rice - the Partitioning of Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade significant scientific progress has been made with the Golden Rice project. Significant increases in carotenoid have been achieved. Micronutrient malnutrition has been recognised as a major factor in total world malnutrition. What could be responsible for the continuing slow progress of the project? The answer may be related to the confluence of three influences on world

Adrian C Dubock

130

Prevention of Golden Eagle Electrocution. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eagle electrocutions on distribution lines were documented in six western states by examination of carcasses found below the lines. Golden eagles represented 82.5% of the 416 carcasses found during the study. Fifty-one of the eagles were fresh enough to d...

P. C. Benson

1982-01-01

131

Directed Percolation and the Golden Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying the theory of Yang-Lee zeros to nonequilibrium critical phenomena,\\u000awe investigate the properties of a directed bond percolation process for a\\u000acomplex percolation parameter p. It is shown that for the Golden Ratio\\u000ap=(1(+\\/-)sqrt(5))\\/2 and for p=2 the survival probability of a cluster can be\\u000acomputed exactly.

Stephan M Dammer; Silvio R Dahmen; Haye Hinrichsenk

2001-01-01

132

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple texture that predicts the cotangent of the solar neutrino mixing angle to be equal to the golden ratio. This prediction is 1.4sigma below the present best-fit value and final SNO and KamLAND data could discriminate it from tri-bimaximal mixing. The neutrino mass matrix is invariant under a Z2?Z2' symmetry: that geometrically is a reflection along the

Yuji Kajiyama; Martti Raidal; Alessandro Strumia

2007-01-01

133

Golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been speculated that the solar neutrino mixing angle is connected to the golden ratio phiv. Two such proposals have been made, cot theta12=phiv and cos theta12=phiv\\/2. We compare these ansätze and discuss a model leading to cos theta12=phiv\\/2 based on the dihedral group D10. This symmetry is a natural candidate because the angle in the expression cos

Adisorn Adulpravitchai; Alexander Blum; Werner Rodejohann

2009-01-01

134

Golden parachutes, information, and shareholder value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden parachutes may increase shareholder value by aligning the incentives of the managers with those of the shareholders.\\u000a In particular, when a hostile takeover bid is made directly to shareholders via a tender offer, the shareholders will rely\\u000a on information they receive from incumbent management only if the shareholders believe that the incumbent management has no\\u000a incentive to mislead them.

Stephen Shmanske; Nabeela Khan

1995-01-01

135

The sisters of the golden section.  

PubMed

The golden proportion is widely believed to be extraordinarily prevalent in nature and the arts, which is often ascribed to it being the limit of the ratio between any two successive elements in the Fibonacci sequence. It is suggested here that the golden ratio may not be as exceptional as generally believed. Mathematically, some interesting properties are common to all members of a family of sequences, denoted ARS, characterised as solutions to the classic rabbit reproduction problem varying on some parameter, j, including the Fibonacci sequence as a prototypical member--ARS2. Furthermore, for j > 1, any limit of the ratio between successive elements in ARS(j), shares the same formal properties with all other such limits. Three actual interpretations and three further geometric applications of ARS3, all intimately analogous to corresponding ARS2 ones, are presented for the sake of illustration. Empirically, it is suggested here that, owing to the communality of interesting mathematical properties between ARS sequences, as well as between corresponding limits, nature might appear to have made use of some other limits, aside of its variegated use of the limit of ARS2--the golden ratio. Initial empirical clues are provided. Finally, the issue whether there really is special import to golden proportions in nature and the arts is revisited in view of some empirical comparisons of appearances related to Fibonacci numbers and ARS3 numbers, particular its limit (-1.466) and the inverse of that limit (-0.682). It is argued that the claim that Fibonacci-related numbers are especially distinguished seems to warrant a more qualified approach than it has often met. PMID:21936299

Navon, David

2011-01-01

136

Pleuritis and peritonitis in a golden eagle.  

PubMed

A female Golden Eagle died despite intensive treatment after being struck by a vehicle. Necropsy revealed poor body condition, with no fat stores. The proventriculus and ventriculus contained a pellet of fur and bone fragments, at the center of which was the leg of a Red-Tailed Hawk. A talon on the leg had punctured the ventriculus, resulting in fatal pleuritis and peritonitis. PMID:6749123

Gullett, P A; Littrell, E E

1984-07-01

137

Golden rice: introgression, breeding, and field evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress has been made on the genetic engineering of rice for improved nutritional content involving micronutrients\\u000a and carotenoid content. Golden Rice, developed by genetic engineering (Agrobacterium and biolistic transformation) was used in rice breeding for the transfer of high-nutritional value to the local rice cultivars.\\u000a Simultaneously, commercial Asian indica rice cultivars were also developed with expression of high-carotenoid levels.

Swapan K. Datta; Karabi Datta; Vilas Parkhi; Mayank Rai; Niranjan Baisakh; Gayatri Sahoo; Sayeda Rehana; Anindya Bandyopadhyay; Editha Abrigo; Norman Oliva; Lina Torrizo

2007-01-01

138

On the Golden Rule of capital accumulation under endogenous longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note derives the Golden Rule of capital accumulation in a Chakraborty- type economy, i.e. a two-period OLG economy where longevity is endogenous. It is shown that the capital per worker maximizing steady-state consumption per head is inferior to the Golden Rule capital level prevailing under exogenous longevity. We characterize also the Lifetime Golden Rule, that is, the capital per

David de la Croix; Gregory Ponthiere

2010-01-01

139

New "Golden" Ratios for Facial Beauty  

PubMed Central

In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye-mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the face’s vertical distance between the eyes and the mouth is approximately 36% of its length, and the horizontal distance between the eyes is approximately 46% of the face’s width. These “new” golden ratios match those of an average face.

Pallett, Pamela M.; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang

2009-01-01

140

The golden ratio in facial symmetry.  

PubMed

Symmetry is believed to be a hallmark of appealing faces. However, this does not imply that the most aesthetically pleasing proportions are necessary those that arise from the simple division of the face into thirds or fifths. Based on the etymology of the word symmetry, as well as on specific examples and theories of beauty, we conclude that ?-value, a ratio also known as the golden ratio or the divine proportion, can also characterize symmetrical forms. Therefore, we propose the utilization of this ratio in facial aesthetics. PMID:23441307

Prokopakis, E P; Vlastos, I M; Picavet, V A; Nolst Trenite, G; Thomas, R; Cingi, C; Hellings, P W

2013-03-01

141

Productivity of golden eagles wearing backpack radiotransmitters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the association between the presence of backpack radiotransmitters and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)reproduction (percentage of occupied territories producing young, and number of nestlings produced) over three years. The association between radio-tagging and nesting success and the number of nestlings produced varied significantly among years. A negative association with tagging was observed in one of three years, which coincided with low prey (jackrabbit) populations and a cold spring. However, small sample size and breeding by subadults may confound this result.

Marzluff, J. M.; Vekasy, M. S.; Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

1997-01-01

142

Golden Rice An Intimate Debate Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this intimate debate case, students consider whether to support the development and use of Golden Rice as a means to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in the developing world. Since many of the arguments typically raised against genetically modified organisms (GMOs) do not apply to this particular GM crop, students are forced to analyze the facts rather than rely on what they have heard in the media. Developed for an introductory molecular biology undergraduate course, the case could also be used at more senior levels.

Genereux, Annie P.

2009-01-01

143

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

2010-01-01

144

7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section 301...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Golden Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a...

2009-01-01

145

50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource...

2009-10-01

146

50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22...requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may...authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource...

2010-10-01

147

77 FR 25162 - Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. EL12-59-000] Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern...Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Complainant or Golden Spread) filed a formal complaint against...

2012-04-27

148

78 FR 46332 - Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. EL13-78-000] Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern...Take notice that on July 19, 2013, Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Golden Spread or Complainant) filed a formal complaint...

2013-07-31

149

A Golden Section approach to optimization of automotive friction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Golden Section approach combined with relational grade analysis is proposed as an experimental design tool helpful in the development of new automotive friction materials. Golden Section was used to design the volume fraction of the components systematically. The changes in friction performance (friction coefficient and wear) measured using Friction Assessment and Screening Test (FAST) can be correlated with component

Y. Lu

2003-01-01

150

Golden Ratio in a Coupled-Oscillator Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.|

Moorman, Crystal M.; Goff, John Eric

2007-01-01

151

Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100.

Rosemie M. A. Kiekens; Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman; Martin A. van't Hof; Bep E. van't Hof; Jaap C. Maltha

2008-01-01

152

Golden ratio in a coupled-oscillator problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

Crystal M Moorman; John Eric Goff

2007-01-01

153

A Golden Pair of Identities in the Theory of Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find an interesting relationship between the golden ratio, the Moebius function, the Euler totient function and the natural logarithm - central players in the theory of numbers. A number of identities involving the golden ratio and its reciprocal are proved, including an expression for the base of the natural logarithm. The theorem and corollaries highlight a connection between the

Robert P. Schneider

2011-01-01

154

SPA Resistant Scalar Multiplication using Golden Ratio Addition Chain Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an efficient and secure (SPA resistant) elliptic curve scalar mul- tiplication algorithm over odd prime fields. For this purpose, we propose an explicit algorithm for short addition-subtraction chain method which uti- lizes a golden ratio. We term it as golden ratio ad- dition chain method or GRAC method in short. Our proposed scalar multiplication algorithm

Raveen R. Goundar; Ken-ichi Shiota; Masahiko Toyonaga

2008-01-01

155

The Golden ratio, ionic and atomic radii and bond lengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work arose from the author's finding that the ratio of the radius of hydrogen, estimated recently (C.H. Suresh, N. Koga, J. Phys. Chem. A, 105, 5940 (2001)) by density functional methods, to the ground state Bohr radius is the Golden ratio, which operates in a variety of natural phenomena. It is found that the Golden ratio indeed plays a

Raji Heyrovska

2005-01-01

156

The Confessional Hero of the Temple of the Golden Pavilion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yukio Mishima’s “Temple of the Golden Pavilion” tells the story of a young boy who is sent to live and study at the great temple in Kyoto. The first-person narrative follows the upbringing a young monk and culminates with the defining moment of his young life: the instant he undertakes his decision to burn down the Temple of the Golden

Morgan Manoff

2006-01-01

157

Golden Ratio, the Phi, and Its Geometrical Substantiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden ratio is often denoted by the Greek letter, usually in lower case, Phi (?) which is an irrational mathematical constant, approximately 1.6180339887. Because of its unique and interesting properties, many mathematicians as well as renaissance artists and architects studied, documented and employed golden section proportions in remarkable works of sculpture, painting and architecture. Robot sizing especially for the Humanoid

Amir A. Shafie; Sharif M. Raihan; M. K. Hasan; Tanveer Ahsan; M. S. Alam

2011-01-01

158

Greek Origami: A Sculpture Exploring the Golden Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author created a sculpture using a rigorous mathematical procedure informed by aesthetic decisions. The form is based on the relationships found in the golden triangle and its spiral folded into three dimensions. In creating the form, the author discovered a three-dimensional motif (the golden gnomonoid) with interesting mathematical properties and sculptural ramifications.

Adam Storeygard

2001-01-01

159

Book Review: Stars (Copyright 1985, Golden Press; New York)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stars is a part of the Golden Guides collection produced by Golden Press. It is a small 160 page paperback guide to the constellations, the sun, the moon, planets, and other celestial bodies. The book is convenient to carry along wherever you go, making it an easy to access reference material.

Marigza, R. N., Jr.

2009-06-01

160

American Medicine's Golden Age: What Happened to It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defining medicine's golden age as freedom from adverse comment in mass and highbrow media, discusses: (1) the evolution of the medical image; (2) factors responsible for ending the golden age; (3) criticisms related to physicians' sacerdotal, technical, and social roles; and (4) the erosion of physicians' professional status. (SK)|

Burnham, John C.

1982-01-01

161

Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 ?g ?-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice ?-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Design: Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]?-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65–98 g (130–200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99–1.53 mg ?-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4–1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Results: Our results showed that the mean (±SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 ± 20.7 ?g·d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 ± 34.6 ?g·d), Golden Rice ?-carotene provided 0.24–0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice ?-carotene to retinol is 3.8 ± 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9–6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 ± 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0–3.4 to 1 by moles. Conclusion: ?-Carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

2009-01-01

162

A golden approach to ion channel inhibition.  

PubMed

Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: 'Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?' We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio. PMID:23972927

Jarvis, Gavin E; Thompson, Andrew J

2013-08-22

163

A golden approach to ion channel inhibition?  

PubMed Central

Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: ‘Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?’ We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio.

Jarvis, Gavin E.; Thompson, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

164

Delivering golden rice to developing countries.  

PubMed

Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties. PMID:17955992

Mayer, Jorge E

165

The Golden Age of Astroparticle Physics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we want to discuss the status of Astroparticle Physics, which is now in its golden age. Astroparticle physics - the new branch of physics born roughly at the end of the 1980-ies - takes into account results obtained from the observations of cosmic sources via photonic experiments and particle experiments, and try to detect their global behaviour in order to understand the physical processes giving rise to them. All this for a better knowledge of the physics governing the whole Universe. Because of a limited length of the paper we will discuss only a selection of arguments, which are biased by our knowledge, as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Few Remarkable Notes; 3. Background in the Universe; 4. A Round-the-Universe Cruise; 5. Prospects Conclusions

Giovannelli, Franco [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Roma (Italy); Sabau-Graziati, Lola [INTA-Departamento Programas Espaciales y Ciencias del Espacio, Madrid (Spain)

2010-01-01

166

Uracil metabolism in golden hamster after irradiation.  

PubMed

The catabolism of uracil and the total balance of excreted radioactivity were studied in golden hamsters after a peroral application of 14C-uracil. Twenty-four hours after administration most of the radioactivity taken up appeared in expired carbon dioxide. The percent proportion of radioactivity in carbon dioxide was independent of the amount of uracil administered. On the other hand, the percentage of radioactivity excreted in urine depended on the amount of uracil taken up, high doses of the compound causing up to eight-fold increase in urine-excreted radioactivity. Most of the exogenously-administered uracil was catabolized within the first 5 hours. Irradiation had no substantial effect on the dynamics of uracil catabolism. Analysis of urine revealed that most urine-excreted radioactivity is in the form of uracil. On peroral application of high doses of uracil to irradiated hamsters, their urine was found to contain barbituric acid which originated from uracil. PMID:300720

Buric, L; Grinberg, A; Muizniek, I; Novák, F; Vitol, M; Dienstbier, Z

1977-02-01

167

Identifying Introgressive Hybridization in Native Populations of California Golden Trout Based on Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita is one of three subspecies within the rainbow trout–redband trout complex endemic to the Kern River basin and historically restricted to Golden Trout Creek and the South Fork Kern River. Past allozyme studies have indicated that native populations of California golden trout in the Golden Trout Creek drainage may have become introgressed with

Jan F. Cordes; Molly R. Stephens; Marc A. Blumberg; Bernie May

2006-01-01

168

Solid-state physics: Golden ratio seen in a magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden ratio - an exact 'magic' number often claimed to be observed when taking ratios of distances in ancient and modern architecture, sculpture and painting - has been spotted in a magnetic compound.

Ian Affleck

2010-01-01

169

Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects: concluding remarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cataclysmic variables represent important part of modern astrophysics, as demonstrated by the conference Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects held on Mondello (Palermo) in September 2011.

Hudec, R.

170

13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, California, 1850's) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF CONVENTO BEFORE RESTORATION, 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

171

Golden Indica and Japonica Rice Lines Amenable to Deregulation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial \\

Tran Thi; Cuc Hoa; Salim Al-Babili; Patrick Schaub; Ingo Potrykus; Peter Beyer

2003-01-01

172

16. Photocopy of circa 1884 photograph in Golden Gate Park ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopy of circa 1884 photograph in Golden Gate Park Museum, San Francisco. VIEW OF 1884 CHURCH FROM THE EAST - Mission Santa Clara de Asis, Franklin & Grant Streets, Santa Clara, Santa Clara County, CA

173

12. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Park Museum, San ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Park Museum, San Francisco, California, 1850's) EXTERIOR, DETAIL OF FACADE OF MISSION SHOWING ARCHED WINDOWS, ENTRANCE AND BELFRY - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

174

Golden Ratio Sequences for Low-Discrepancy Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most classical constructions of low-discrepancy point sets are based on generalizations of the one-dimensional binary van der Corput sequence, whose implementation requires nontrivial bit-operations. As an alternative, we introduce the quasi-regular golden ratio sequences, which are based on the fractional part of successive integer multiples of the golden ratio. By leveraging results from number theory, we show that point sets,

Colas Schretter; Leif Kobbelt; Paul-Olivier Dehaye

2012-01-01

175

6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day: pharmacogenomics and individualized therapy  

PubMed Central

The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are international scientific meetings aiming to educate healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists about pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. In this meeting report, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day that was held in Belgrade, Serbia last June 5, 2012. The scientific program included lectures by the local and international speakers from Europe and the United States.

2012-01-01

176

A New Subspecies of Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei) from Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological, morphological, and phylogenetic concordance support the recognition of a new sub‐species of golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) from Bhutan. Extensive surveys since 1994 show that golden langurs in Bhutan occur from subtropical forests in the south to temperate and sub‐alpine forests in the north [Wangchuk, 1995; Wangchuk et al., 2001]. The great variation in the species’ range, from almost sea

Tashi Wangchuk; David W. Inouye; Matthew P. Hare

2003-01-01

177

6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day: pharmacogenomics and individualized therapy.  

PubMed

The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are international scientific meetings aiming to educate healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists about pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. In this meeting report, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day that was held in Belgrade, Serbia last June 5, 2012. The scientific program included lectures by the local and international speakers from Europe and the United States. PMID:23157848

Stojiljkovic, Maja; Fazlagic, Amira; Dokmanovic-Krivokapic, Lidija; Nikcevic, Gordana; Patrinos, George P; Pavlovic, Sonja; Zukic, Branka

2012-09-25

178

Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).  

PubMed

Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes. PMID:19781731

Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

2009-09-04

179

Is California still the Golden State?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rise of the Third Coast: The Gulf's Region's Ascendancy in U.S.http://blogs.forbes.com/joelkotkin/2011/06/23/the-rise-of-the-third-coast-the-gulf-regions-ascendancy-in-u-s/California homicides decline to lowest rate in 45 yearshttp://losangelescrimereport.com/california-homicides-decline-to-lowest-rate-in-45-yearsHuntington-USC Institute on California and the Westhttp://dornsife.usc.edu/icwPublic Policy Institute of Californiahttp://www.ppic.org/main/home.aspOnline Archive of Californiahttp://www.oac.cdlib.org/California is known as the Golden State for a host of reasons. Native Americans who lived in the state found a bounty of fish, pleasant climates, and a rather hospitable way of life. Europeans arriving from Spain, Britain, and Russia found much to enjoy here as well in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the middle of the 19th century, the proverbial and literal "gold in them hills" brought prospectors from all corners of the globe who dreamed of making a vast fortune. The 20th century saw a feverish period of land speculation, the explosive growth of Southern California, and glittering dreamscapes promoted by real estate developers and movie moguls alike. Today, things are much different, as the state continues to attract fewer new residents every year, and taxes continue to be quite onerous for middle-income families. During the 2000s, the state did continue to grow by about 10% in terms of population, but this was meager compared with growth rates of 53% in the 1950s. Speaking on this recent transformation, Professor Dowell Myers noted, "If things go really bad in the Midwest, Southern California could be a beacon of hope. But in general, immigration has slowed down now and is not likely to turn upward." The director of the Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West, William Deverell, offered another perspective recently, "The hold California has on people has been every bit as much psychological as actual-but people are leaving. It can be very, very difficult here."The first link will take visitors to an excellent piece on the current state of California from CNN's series "Defining America". It contains first-hand experiences from current residents, along with comments from public policy experts and others. The second link leads visitors to a bit of commentary from Joel Kotkin on the rise of the Gulf Region in and around Texas and Louisiana, and its potential effect on California's future prospects. Moving on, the third link will take interested parties to a bit more positive piece from the Washington Examiner which discusses the continued decline in California's homicide rate. The fourth link leads to the homepage of the Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West. Here visitors can learn about their work on examining and analyzing the state of California and its relationship with nearby states and regions. The fifth link will whisk users away to the homepage of the Public Policy Institute of California. Here visitors will find podcasts, working papers and other items that discuss housing, public finance, social policy, and water issues in the Golden State. Finally, the last link leads to the very comprehensive Online Archive of California, which contains links to hundreds of digital collections that document the state's history and culture.

Grinnell, Max

2011-07-01

180

Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.  

PubMed

Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. PMID:23797042

Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

2013-06-21

181

Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer: Beyond the golden rule  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer rate constant expressions that interpolate between the golden rule and solvent-controlled limits are derived. These expressions include the effects of solvent dynamics and thus are applicable for a wide range of vibronic couplings and solvent relaxation times. The golden rule limit is defined in terms of weak vibronic coupling and fast solvent relaxation, and the solvent-controlled limit is defined in terms of strong vibronic coupling and slow solvent relaxation. In the golden rule limit, the rate constant is proportional to the square of the vibronic coupling and is independent of the solvent relaxation time. In the solvent-controlled limit, the rate constant is independent of the vibronic coupling and increases as the solvent relaxation time decreases. The interconversion between the solvent-controlled and golden rule limits can be induced by altering the proton donor-acceptor mode frequency and the overlap between the reactant and product proton vibrational wave functions, as well as the electronic coupling, the solvent relaxation time, and the overpotential. The kinetic isotope effect behaves differently in the solvent-controlled and golden rule limits and thus provides a unique probe for characterizing electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer processes. The analogous rate constant expressions for electrochemical electron transfer and homogeneous proton-coupled electron transfer are also presented. The impact of electrode overpotential, solvent relaxation time, and proton donor-acceptor mode frequency on the rate constants are analyzed for model systems.

Navrotskaya, Irina; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2009-07-14

182

Golden Grove dolomite, Barbados: Origin from modified seawater  

SciTech Connect

Dolomite is known from Pleistocene carbonates in the southeastern part of Barbados. Most dolomite was found in a roadcut called Golden Grove. This occurrence is of interest because (1) some textures are rare; (2) the [delta][sup 13]C values of many dolomite samples are unusually low; (3) these dolomites have been interpreted to be diagenetic products of a coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zone with as little as 5% seawater; and (4) these dolomites have been used for modeling of extensive dolomitization in coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zones elsewhere (Humphrey and Quinn 1989). The authors investigated dolomite samples from Golden Grove, calcite samples from Golden Grove and elsewhere on Barbados, and groundwater samples from several locations on the island (first results have been reported in Machel and Burton 1991). The major objective of their study is to establish the geochemical and/or hydrological conditions of dolomitization.

Machel, H.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology); Burton, E.A. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1994-10-03

183

75 FR 27432 - Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco...support of Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise. These temporary security zones are...the statewide port security full scale exercise. Persons and vessels are...

2010-05-17

184

76 FR 79708 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Management Plan, Golden...National Recreation Area, CA...National Park Service...General Management Plan, Golden...National Recreation Area...National Park Service has...Draft General Management Plan...

2011-12-22

185

78 FR 51802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Silla: Korea's Golden...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Exhibition Determinations: ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...be included in the exhibition ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

2013-08-21

186

Radioisotopes Demonstrate the Contrasting Bioaccumulation Capacities of Heavy Metals in Embryonic Stages of Cephalopod Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic food webs and also constitute alternative fishery resources in the context of the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Most coastal cephalopod species of commercial importance migrate into shallow waters during the breeding season to lay their eggs, and are consequently subjected to coastal contamination. Eggs of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, European

Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe; Roger Villanueva; Claude Rouleau; François Oberhänsli; Jean-Louis Teyssié; Ross Jeffree; Paco Bustamante

2011-01-01

187

From the Cover: The surface oxidation potential of human neuromelanin reveals a spherical architecture with a pheomelanin core and a eumelanin surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromelanin (NM) isolated from the substantia nigra region of the human brain was studied by scanning probe and photoelectron emission microscopies. Atomic force microscopy reveals that NM granules are comprised of spherical structures with a diameter of 30 nm, similar to that observed for Sepia cuttlefish, bovine eye, and human eye and hair melanosomes. Photoelectron microscopy images were collected at

William D. Bush; Jacob Garguilo; Fabio A. Zucca; Alberto Albertini; Luigi Zecca; Glenn S. Edwards; Robert J. Nemanich; John D. Simon

2006-01-01

188

Size selectivity of trammel nets in southern European small-scale fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trammel net size selectivity was studied for the most important métiers in four southern European areas: the Cantabrian Sea (Atlantic, Basque Country, Spain), the Algarve (Atlantic, southern Portugal), the Gulf of Cádiz (Atlantic, Spain) and the Cyclades Islands (Mediterranean, Aegean Sea, Greece). These métiers were: cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and soles (Solea senegalensis, Microchirus azevia, Synaptura lusitanica) in the Algarve and

Karim Erzini; Jorge M. S. Gonçalves; L u ´ õs Bentes; Dimitrios K. Moutopoulos; Jose A. Hernando Casal; Milagrosa C. Soriguer; Esteban Puente; Luis A. Errazkin; Konstantinos I. Stergiou

2006-01-01

189

12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance plan payments. 303... Other Filings § 303.244 Golden parachute and severance plan payments. (a...institution holding company may not make golden parachute payments or excess...

2013-01-01

190

Golden Rice – five years on the road – five years to go?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provitamin A accumulates in the grain of Golden Rice as a result of genetic transformation. In developing countries, where vitamin A deficiency prevails, grain from Golden Rice is expected to provide this important micronutrient sustainably through agriculture. Since its original production, the prototype Golden Rice has undergone intense research to increase the provitamin A content, to establish the scientific basis

Salim Al-Babili; Peter Beyer

2005-01-01

191

Relationship between Autonomic and Behavioral Thermoregulation in the Golden Hamster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) of male golden hamsters (Mesocricitus auratus) was measured repeatedly by placing the animals in a temperature gradient for 80 min. A total of 180 observations were made during the last 20 min of treatment in the gradien...

C. J. Gordon K. S. Fehlner M. D. Long

1986-01-01

192

Clozapine chronically suppresses alcohol drinking in Syrian golden hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use disorder is common in patients with schizophrenia and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Preliminary reports from our group and others suggest that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine may decrease alcohol use in these patients. We have previously shown that clozapine suppresses alcohol consumption for 9 days in Syrian golden hamsters. Here, we assessed the effects of clozapine on

David T. Chau; Danielle Gulick; Haiyi Xie; Ree Dawson; Alan I. Green

2010-01-01

193

27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has sunk beyond the desert horizon, and darkness followed, under a dim light casting my lonesome heart.'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

194

36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...therein and that I am duly entitled to be issued free of charge one Golden Age Passport pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, 16 U.S.C. A.460l -6a (Supp., 1974), as amended by Pub. L. 93-303....

2013-07-01

195

Bald and Golden Eagles of the SRP. (Annual report, 1986)  

SciTech Connect

Both Bald and Golden Eagles have a prior history of occurrence on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Sightings of Bald Eagles have been uncommon but persistent, while Golden Eagle sightings have been rare. A one-year survey was conducted to assess the use of the SRP by these two species. Thirty-six Bald Eagles were seen during the study period. No Golden Eagles were observed. Over 90% of the Bald Eagle sightings were on Par Pond; three out of four of these birds were adults. Thirteen percent of the sightings were of paired birds, and the remainder were of solitary individuals. Bald Eagles were observed during every month of the survey. The majority were seen between November and May. Sightings were evenly divided between morning and afternoon hours. Two marked Bald Eagles were observed. Since the conclusion of this study, twenty-two Bald Eagles have been reported. Six were new locality records for the SRP. Four of these sightings were on L-Lake. Bald Eagle use of the SRP is higher than was previously thought; Golden Eagle use remains rare.

Mayer, J.J.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kennamer, R.A.

1986-01-01

196

Functional equations for circle homeomorphisms with golden ratio rotation number  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of a scaling limit for mappings of the circle to itself with golden ratio rotation number leads to a pair of functional equations with at least a formal resemblance to the functional equation using the accumulation of period-doubling bifurcations. We discuss the general theory of these functional equations, assuming that solutions exist.

Oscar E. Lanford

1984-01-01

197

Multidimensional Declustering Schemes Using Golden Ratio and Kronecker Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new declustering scheme for allocating uniform multidimensional data among parallel disks. The scheme, aimed at reducing disk access time for range queries, is based on Golden Ratio Sequences for two dimensions and Kronecker Sequences for higher dimensions. Using exhaustive simulation, we show that, in two dimensions, the worst-case (additive) deviation of the scheme from the optimal response

Chung-min Chen; Randeep Bhatia; Rakesh K. Sinha

2003-01-01

198

ON THE GOLDEN RATIO, STRONG LAW, AND FIRST PASSAGE PROBLEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a sequence of correlated square integrable random variables {Xn,n 1}, conditions are provided for the strong law of large numbers limn!1 Sn ESn n = 0 almost surely to hold where Sn = Pn i=1 Xi,n 1. The hypotheses stipulate that two series converge, the terms of which involve, respectively, both the Golden Ratio ' = 1+ p 5

Tien-Chung Hu; Andrew Rosalsky; Andrei I. Volodin

199

Golden ratio scheduling for flow control with low buffer requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of flow control that requires very few buffers to be allocated at each node to virtual circuits (or sessions) that have to transverse many links is described. Transmissions are scheduled using the golden ratio policy of A. Itai and Z. Rosberg (1984). It is shown that the buffer requirements of a session grow at most logarithmically with the

Shivendra S. Panwar; Thomas K. Philips; Mon-Song Chen

1992-01-01

200

Note on Biology, Time and the Golden Rule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The golden rule is a manifestation of the important role of symmetry in normative arguments in the social sciences. Symmetry plays a key role in many of the arguments in game theory concerning fair division and value. Tied in with the assumption of symmet...

M. Shubik

1984-01-01

201

HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education in subject areas…

Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

202

Golden West College FACTS: Fall Enrollment Trends through 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the fall enrollment trends through 1999 at California's Golden West College (GWC). This report contains charts and graphs of the following enrollment trend topics: (1) fall 1998 student enrollment snapshot, which includes counts and percentages by gender, time of day, age, educational goal, entrance level, high school…

Golden West Coll., Huntington Beach, CA. Research Office.

203

The Golden ratio, ionic and atomic radii and bond lengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work arose from the author's finding that the ratio of the radius of hydrogen, estimated recently (C.H. Suresh, N. Koga, J. Phys. Chem. A, 105, 5940 (2001)) by density functional methods, to the ground state Bohr radius is the Golden ratio, which operates in a variety of natural phenomena. It is found that the Golden ratio indeed plays a quantitative role in atomic physics. The interesting results are (1) that it arises in atomic dimensions due to the electrostatic forces between negative and positive charges; (2) that the energy of atomic hydrogen is actually equivalent to the energy of the simplest atomic condenser with the Golden mean capacity; (3) that the origin of two terms in the Rydberg equation for absorption and emission is in fact in the ground state term; (4) that all atoms can be assigned definite values of cationic and anionic radii based on the Golden ratio and covalent radii; (5) that these radii are additive and explain quantitatively bond lengths like those of alkali halides, of hydrides of many elements and of many other bonds, whether covalent or ionic or both; and (6) that the work functions of alkali metals can be evaluated using the bond lengths.

Heyrovska, Raji

204

Golden Parachutes, Poison Pills, And Synergies From Raids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model where adopting anti-takeover measures and awarding golden parachutes may be attractive for the shareholders ex ante although ex post their adoption maybe value reducing. The acquisition process is viewed as symmetric information Nash bargaining game (between the target and the raiding shareholders), with parties bargaining over stochastic synergy gains through a tender offer. We show that,

Atreya Chakraborty; Abdikarim M. Farah

1993-01-01

205

The Effects of Severance Pay Taxation on Golden Handshakes Provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes up a framework in which imperfect information about the quality of the match between CEO and firm explains the use of CEOs' severance payments. It shows how fiscal policy can modify golden handshakes provision and CEOs' turnover rates. The optimal fiscal policy which implements CEO's opti- mal ending contract is found according with the nature of the

Fabienne Llense

206

PROJECTING THE BENEFITS OF GOLDEN RICE IN THE PHILIPPINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden Rice has been genetically engineered to produce beta-carotene in the endosperm of the grain. It could improve the vitamin A status of deficient food consumers, especially women and children in the developing world. This paper analyses the potential impacts in a Philippine context. Since the technology is still at the stage of R&D, benefits are simulated within a scenario

Roukayatou Zimmermann; Matin Qaim

2002-01-01

207

Potential health benefits of Golden Rice: a Philippine case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden Rice has been genetically modified to produce beta-carotene in the endosperm of grain. It could improve the vitamin A status of deficient food consumers, especially women and children in developing countries. This paper analyses potential impacts in a Philippine context. Since the technology is still at the stage of R&D, benefits are simulated with a scen- ario approach. Health

Roukayatou Zimmermann; Matin Qaim

2004-01-01

208

Potential health benefits of Golden Rice: a Philippine case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden Rice has been genetically modified to produce beta-carotene in the endosperm of grain. It could improve the vitamin A status of deficient food consumers, especially women and children in developing countries. This paper analyses potential impacts in a Philippine context. Since the technology is still at the stage of R&D, benefits are simulated with a scenario approach. Health effects

Roukayatou Zimmermann; Matin Qaim

2004-01-01

209

A Mutation of the Circadian System in Golden Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutation has been found that dramatically shortens the period of the circadian locomotor rhythm of golden hamsters. The pattern of inheritance of this mutation suggests that it occurred at a single, autosomal locus (tau). Wild-type animals have rhythms with free-running periods averaging about 24 hours; animals heterozygous for the mutation have periods of about 22 hours, whereas homozygous animals

Martin R. Ralph; Michael Menaker

1988-01-01

210

GOLDEN RICE: DEVELOPMENTS IN ITS BIOTECHNOLOGY, SAFETY, AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Golden Rice is a transgenic product that was developed to enable the synthesis of beta-carotene in rice grains. Beta-carotene is a yellow-orange carotenoid that can serve as a precursor for vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a significant nutritional concern, especially in developing countri...

211

Golden Gate Park, Chalet Recreation Field, Bounded by John F. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Golden Gate Park, Chalet Recreation Field, Bounded by John F. Kennedy Drive to the north and east, former Richmond-Sunset Sewage Treatment Plant to the south, and the Old Railroad Trail to the west, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

212

Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice: Help or Hazard?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice, part of the Genetics, Genomics, Genethics seminar, briefly covers genetically engineering rice to help combat blindness due to vitamin A deficiencies and the ethical and environmental concerns of this proposal.

213

Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and…

Ding, Suining

2008-01-01

214

The cultural-historical basis of the ‘Golden Key’ program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Golden Key’ programme is a preschool education programme that is constructed on the basis of Vygotskij's cultural-historical theory. One of the most important aspects of this theory is not just the unity of intellect and affect, but the fact that the relationship between these two changes during the course of development. In infants, affect drives action, whereas by the

Genady G. Kravtsov; Elena E. Kravtsova

2011-01-01

215

Structural transition of gold nanoclusters: from the golden cage to the golden pyramid.  

PubMed

How nanoclusters transform from one structural type to another as a function of size is a critical issue in cluster science. Here we report a study of the structural transition from the golden cage Au(16)(-) to the pyramidal Au(20)(-). We obtained distinct experimental evidence that the cage-to-pyramid crossover occurs at Au(18)(-), for which the cage and pyramidal isomers are nearly degenerate and coexist experimentally. The two isomers are observed and identified by their different interactions with O(2) and Ar. The cage isomer is observed to be more reactive with O(2) and can be preferentially "titrated" from the cluster beam, whereas the pyramidal isomer has slightly stronger interactions with Ar and is favored in the Au(18)Ar(x)(-) van der Waals complexes. The current study allows the detailed structural evolution and growth routes from the hollow cage to the compact pyramid to be understood and provides information about the structure-function relationship of the Au(18)(-) cluster. PMID:19371073

Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, Rhitankar; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

2009-05-26

216

CO chemisorption on the surfaces of the golden cages.  

PubMed

We report a joint experimental and theoretical study of CO chemisorption on the golden cages. We find that the Au(17)(-) cage is highly robust and retains its cage structure in Au(17)(CO)(-). On the other hand, the Au(16)(-) cage is transformed to a structure similar to Au(17)(-) upon the adsorption of CO. Au(18)(-) is known to consist of two nearly degenerate structures, i.e., a cage and a pyramidal isomer, which coexist in the cluster beam. However, upon CO chemisorption only the cage isomer is observed while the pyramidal isomer no longer exists due to its less favorable interaction with CO, compared to the cage isomer. We find that inclusion of the spin-orbit effects is critical in yielding simulated spectra in quantitative agreement with the experimental data and providing unequivocal structural information and molecular insights into the chemical interactions between CO and the golden cages. PMID:20025327

Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, Rhitankar; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

2009-12-21

217

CO chemisorption on the surfaces of the golden cages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a joint experimental and theoretical study of CO chemisorption on the golden cages. We find that the Au17- cage is highly robust and retains its cage structure in Au17(CO)-. On the other hand, the Au16- cage is transformed to a structure similar to Au17- upon the adsorption of CO. Au18- is known to consist of two nearly degenerate structures, i.e., a cage and a pyramidal isomer, which coexist in the cluster beam. However, upon CO chemisorption only the cage isomer is observed while the pyramidal isomer no longer exists due to its less favorable interaction with CO, compared to the cage isomer. We find that inclusion of the spin-orbit effects is critical in yielding simulated spectra in quantitative agreement with the experimental data and providing unequivocal structural information and molecular insights into the chemical interactions between CO and the golden cages.

Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, Rhitankar; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

2009-12-01

218

Autoradiography in fetal golden hamsters treated with tritiated diethylnitrosamine  

SciTech Connect

Tritiated diethylnitrosamine was administered to female Syrian golden hamsters on each of the last 4 days (days 12-15) of pregnancy. The distribution of bound radioactivity was monitored by light microscopic autoradiography of fetal tracheas and livers, the placentas, and the maternal livers. In the trachea, the fetal target organ, bound radioactivity was restricted to the respiratory epithelium, where diethylnitrosamine-induced tracheal tumors arise. Mucous cells and nonciliated stem cells were identified as the principal sites of binding; other cell types within the tracheal epithelium contained only small amounts of bound radioactivity. The level of binding observed in the fetal trachea increased steadily from day 12 to day 15, which correlated well with the levels of differentiation of this tissue during this period. This observation also agrees with the previously reported observation that tumor incidence increases from 40 to 95% in Syrian golden hamsters between days 12 and 15.

Reznik-Schueller, H.M.; Hague, B.F. Jr.

1981-04-01

219

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection of Golden Syrian Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small animal models are needed in order to evaluate the efficacy of candidate vaccines and antivirals directed against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV). We investigated the ability of SARS CoV to infect 5-week-old Golden Syrian hamsters. When administered intranasally, SARS CoV replicates to high titers in the lungs and nasal turbinates. Peak replication in the lower respiratory

Anjeanette Roberts; Leatrice Vogel; Jeannette Guarner; Norman Hayes; Brian Murphy; Sherif Zaki; Kanta Subbarao

2005-01-01

220

TELLURIDE MINERALOGY OF THE GOLDEN MILE DEPOSIT, KALGOORLIE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Mile, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, is a mesozonal gold deposit unusual because of its enormous size (>1,457 tonnes of gold) and because tellurides are responsible for approximately 20% of gold production. Gold mineralization is hosted primarily by Archean-aged dolerites and basalts that have been metamorphosed to the greenschist facies. This mineralization occurs in hundreds of auriferous and telluride-bearing lodes,

JILL M. SHACKLETON; PAUL G. SPRY; ROGER BATEMAN

2003-01-01

221

FOREST EDGES NEGATIVELY AFFECT GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER NEST SURVIVAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

I used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning the effects of edge and temporal factors on Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) nest survival on Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas, during 2003-2006. I predicted that nest survival would be greater earlier in the breeding season than later in the breeding season, in areas with less forest edge than in

REBECCA G. PEAK

2007-01-01

222

The Erd?s-Vershik problem for the golden ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of the Erd?s measure and the invariant Erd?s measure for the golden ratio and all values of the Bernoulli parameter\\u000a are studied. It is proved that a shift on the two-sided Fibonacci compact set with invariant Erd?s measure is isomorphic to\\u000a the integral automorphism for a Bernoulli shift with countable alphabet. An effective algorithm for calculating the entropy\\u000a of

Z. I. Bezhaeva; V. I. Oseledets

2010-01-01

223

Palladio’s Villa Emo: The Golden Proportion Hypothesis Rebutted  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  In a most thoughtful and persuasive paper Rachel Fletcher comes close to convincing that Palladio may well have made use of\\u000a the ‘golden section’, or extreme and mean ratio, in the design of the Villa Emo at Fanzolo. What is surprising is that a visually\\u000a gratifying result is so very wrong when tested by the numbers. Lionel March provides an

Lionel March

2001-01-01

224

Late autumn trophic flexibility of the golden jackal Canis aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the golden jackal Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758) were compared using scat analysis in Hungary (temperate\\u000a climate agricultural area), Greece (Mediterranean marshland), and Israel (Mediterranean agricultural area). Samples (84, 70\\u000a and 64 scats, respectively) were collected during late autumn, a period with capital importance to the long term survival\\u000a of young jackals, during which they become independent.

József Lanszki; Giorgos Giannatos; Amit Dolev; Gilad Bino; Miklós Heltai

2010-01-01

225

Little Red Riding Hood Meets - A Golden Retriever?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about how dogs evolved from wolves, and the similarities and differences between dogs and wolves. They will conduct some basic research on wolves and two dog breeds and fill in a chart to show what they have learned. Students will conclude by rewriting Little Red Riding Hood as if the main character had encountered a Maltese or a Golden Retriever instead of a wolf.

226

Potential Impacts of Golden Rice on Public Health in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects millions of people world-wide, causing serious health problems. Golden Rice (GR), which has been genetically engineered to produce beta-carotene, is being proposed as a remedy. While this new technology has aroused controversial debates, its nutritional impact and cost-effectiveness remain unclear. We determine the current burden of VAD in India from a public health perspective,and simulate

Alexander J. Stein; H. P. S. Sachdev; Matin Qaim

2006-01-01

227

The Golden Mouse: A Levels-of-Organization Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

I vividly recall the first time I observed a golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli) in the field. It was the summer in 1965 while conducting my doctoral dissertation research at the University of Georgia\\u000a (UGA). My dissertation research was the first major investigation conducted at HorseShoe Bend (HSB) Experimental Site located\\u000a in Clarke County, latitude 33°57?N and longitude 83°23?W, near Athens,

Gary W. Barrett

228

The golden mean as clock cycle of brain waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of information coding by the brain seems to be based on the golden mean. For decades psychologists have claimed memory span to be the missing link between psychometric intelligence and cognition. By applying Bose–Einstein-statistics to learning experiments, Pascual-Leone obtained a fit between predicted and tested span. Multiplying span by mental speed (bits processed per unit time) and using

Harald Weiss; Volkmar Weiss

2003-01-01

229

Hampton: A main season golden nematode resistant variety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hampton is a golden nematode resistant variety suited for main season tablestock production. It is resistant toVerticillium wilt, but susceptible to scab and late blight. Hampton yields as well as Katahdin and produces essentially the same distribution\\u000a of tuber sizes. Its shape is distinctively spherical with shallow eyes. Its specific gravity is like Katahdin and it will\\u000a not produce acceptably

R. L. Plaisted; H. D. Thurston; B. B. Brodie; E. D. Jones; R. Loria; D. Halseth; J. B. Sieczka; D. D. Moyer

1985-01-01

230

FOOD HABITS OF NESTING GOLDEN EAGLES IN NORTHEAST CALI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1976 and 1981, 1,156 prey items representing 37 species were collected from Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nests in the western Great Basin. The 4 most fre- quently encountered prey species were the black-tailed iackrabbit, mountain cottontail, yellow-bellied marmot, and Chukar. These species accounted for 90% of all prey items; the remains of livestock comprised less than 1%. Lagomorphs comprised

Peter H. Bloom; Stephen J. Hawks

231

Rehabilitation and water quality monitoring in the Golden Horn.  

PubMed

In this work, the oceanographic aspects of the Golden Horn and some results of the Golden Horn Rehabilitation Project are presented. The hydrographic structure of the Golden Horn responds rapidly to the conditions in the southern Bosphorus, which is especially true for the outer parts of the estuary up to the Valide Sultan Bridge (VS). West of this bridge which was blocked by the pontoons of the bridge, carries the major pollution load and is dependent on the underlying water and surface mixing, for its renewal. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured below the detection limit in the region between the VS and Eyüp-Sütlüce (ES) section during the majority of the measurement periods where H2S has been determined simultaneously until February 2000. Although the microbial contamination of the estuary stations is very high, decreases in the contamination at stations are observed. The highest concentrations are recorded at the ES-VS section and supported by Fecal Coliform data during the rainy months in general despite the operational collector system surrounding the estuary. An obvious decrease of pollution in comparison with the data of the previous years is clearly observed as an encouraging result of the rehabilitation efforts achieved so far. PMID:12422845

Sur, H I; Oku?, E; Sarikay, H Z; Altiok, H; Ero?lu, V; Oztürk, I

2002-01-01

232

A quantitative description of flagellar movement in golden hamster spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Flagellar movement of golden hamster spermatozoa obtained from the testis and the caput and cauda epididymides was observed by a light microscope while holding them at their heads with a micropipette. Flagellar movement of capacitated spermatozoa and of reactivated spermatozoa demembranated with Triton X-100 was also observed. Testicular and caput epididymal spermatozoa showed weak movement in Tyrode's solution, whereas cauda epididymal spermatozoa showed vigorous movement. The flagellar bends of the cauda epididymal spermatozoa were almost planar. Capacitated spermatozoa moved with waves of a large amplitude. Demembranated spermatozoa reactivated with ATP only had a latent period before the initiation of flagellar movement, and beat at low frequency, whereas demembranated spermatozoa reactivated with both ATP and cAMP began to move immediately at high frequency. Thrust and hydrodynamic power output were calculated using the parameters for the typical waveforms of cauda epididymal spermatozoa before and after capacitation. The possible role of the large amplitude beat in capacitated spermatozoa is discussed. A comparison of the 'principal' and 'reverse' bends in golden hamster sperm flagella as defined by Woolley (1977) with those in sea urchin sperm flagella suggests that the so-called 'principal' bend in golden hamster sperm flagella corresponds to the reverse bend in sea urchin sperm flagella and vice versa. PMID:2989407

Ishijima, S; Mohri, H

1985-01-01

233

Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)  

PubMed Central

The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

2011-01-01

234

Golden Beam Data for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning  

PubMed Central

Proton, as well as other ion, beams applied by electro-magnetic deflection in pencil-beam scanning (PBS) are minimally perturbed and thus can be quantified a-priori by their fundamental interactions in medium. This a-priori quantification permits an optimal reduction of characterizing measurements on a particular PBS delivery system. The combination of a-priori quantification and measurements will then suffice to fully describe the physical interactions necessary for treatment planning purposes. We consider, for proton beams, these interactions and derive a “Golden” beam data set. The Golden beam data set quantifies the pristine Bragg peak depth dose distribution in terms of primary, multiple Coulomb scatter, and secondary, nuclear scatter, components. The set reduces the required measurements on a PBS delivery system to the measurement of energy spread and initial phase space as a function of energy. The depth doses are described in absolute units of Gy(RBE).mm2.Gp?1, where Gp equals 109 (giga) protons, thus providing a direct mapping from treatment planning parameters to integrated beam current. We used this Golden beam data on our PBS delivery systems and demonstrate that it yields absolute dosimetry well within clinical tolerance.

Clasie, Benjamin; Depauw, Nicolas; Fransen, Maurice; Goma, Carles; Panahandeh, Hamid Reza; Seco, Joao; Flanz, Jacob B; Kooy, Hanne M

2012-01-01

235

Inhibitory effects of golden thread (Coptis chinensis) and berberine on Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The effects of 40 Chinese herbs on Microcystis aeruginosa growth were monitored spectrophotometrically. Golden thread (Coptis chinensis) exhibited the best inhibitory effects. Cell density of M. aeruginosa decreased with the increasing concentrations of golden thread and the prolongation of exposure time. Decreases in protein content, carbohydrate content, and chlorophyll a content were observed in a golden thread concentration-dependent manner after 96 h exposure. Changes in cell density, protein content, carbohydrate content, and chlorophyll a content of M. aeruginosa exposed to berberine, the main component of golden thread, were also investigated. It was observed that berberine exhibited the same inhibitory effects on M. aeruginosa. The results suggested that golden thread could inhibit M. aeruginosas growth effectively, and berberine might be the main allelochemical implementing the inhibitory effects of golden thread. PMID:20150713

Zhang, Shulin; Zhang, Bo; Xing, Kezhi; Zhang, Xiumei; Tian, Xiuping; Dai, Wei

2010-01-01

236

The Use of the Golden Section in the Great Mosque at Kairouan  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The geometrical analysis conducted reveals very clearly a consistent application of the golden section. The geometric technique\\u000a of construction of the golden section seems to have determined the major decisions of the spatial organisation. The golden\\u000a section appears repeatedly in some part of the building measurements. It is found in the overall proportion of the plan and\\u000a in the dimensioning

Kenza Boussora; Said Mazouz

2004-01-01

237

Secretion and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster ( Mesocricetus auratus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the secretion pattern and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden\\u000a hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). 100 pregnant golden hamsters were separated into 16 groups and the serum was sampled daily throughout gestation for the\\u000a leptin assay. Results indicated that a gestational leptin profile existed during pregnancy in the golden hamster. To

Cheng Wang; Liguo Yang; W. Gen; K. Taya

2003-01-01

238

A golden clue to human skin colour variation.  

PubMed

Variations in human skin pigmentation are obvious, but how have skin colour differences evolved? Although clearly a polymorphic trait, the number and identity of key variants has remained unclear. Investigation of pigmentation phenotypes in model organisms provides a route to identify these genes and showed MC1R to be one key locus. Now, cloning of a classic zebrafish mutant, golden, identifies slc24a5 as a gene involved in fish skin pigmentation.1 Strikingly this study identifies the human orthologue, SLC24A5, as likely to make a major contribution to the pale skin colouration of Western Europeans. PMID:16700060

Müller, Jeanette; Kelsh, Robert N

2006-06-01

239

Entanglement Entropy Scaling in the Disordered Golden Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For pure critical spin chains, the scaling of the entanglement entropy of a region of size L with its complement is proportional to L with the constant of proportionality being the central charge of the associated conformal field theory. Certain strongly disordered spin chains exhibit critical points with similar L scaling. Here we study the disordered golden chain (modeled by fibonacci anyons), and show that the usual random singlet critical point achieved with random antiferromagnetic (AFM) couplings is unstable to ferromagnetic (FM) perturbations. We identify the new mixed FM-AFM fixed point and compute its entanglement entropy scaling.

Fidkowski, Lukasz; Refael, Gil; Bonesteel, Nick; Yang, Kun; Moore, Joel

2008-03-01

240

Modified evisceration technique in a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).  

PubMed

Two different modified techniques have been described for enucleation in raptors, including the transaural approach and the globe-collapsing procedure. This case report describes an alternative, modified evisceration procedure in a mature female Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The advantages of this procedure are decreased anesthetic time, ease of procedure, decreased risk of excessive traction of the optic nerve, decreased intraoperative orbital trauma, and preservation of the natural symmetry of the head. The major disadvantage of this procedure is that it does not allow complete histologic examination of the globe. Patients with intraocular infection or neoplasia, or significant orbital disease may be poor candidates for this technique. PMID:21929613

Dees, D Dustin; Knollinger, Amy M; MacLaren, Nicole E

2011-05-18

241

Topographic map of Golden Gate Estates, Collier County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction of canals related to land development in the Golden Gate Estates area of Collier County, Fla., has altered the natural drainage pattern of the watershed. The area of approximately 300 square miles was topographically mapped with a contour interval of 0.5 foot to assist in determining the effects of canal construction on the surface-water and ground-water resources in the watershed. The topographic map was prepared at a scale of 1:48,000 using aerial photography and ground-control points. (USGS)

Jurado, Antonio

1981-01-01

242

Iridescent colour production in hairs of blind golden moles (Chrysochloridae)  

PubMed Central

Relative to other metazoans, the mammalian integument is thought to be limited in colour. In particular, while iridescence is widespread among birds and arthropods, it has only rarely been reported in mammals. Here, we examine the colour, morphology and optical mechanisms in hairs from four species of golden mole (Mammalia: Chrysochloridae) that are characterized by sheens ranging from purple to green. Microspectrophotometry reveals that this colour is weak and variable. Iridescent hairs are flattened and have highly reduced cuticular scales, providing a broad and smooth surface for light reflection. These scales form multiple layers of light and dark materials of consistent thickness, strikingly similar to those in the elytra of iridescent beetles. Optical modelling suggests that the multi-layers produce colour through thin-film interference, and that the sensitivity of this mechanism to slight changes in layer thickness and number explains colour variability. While coloured integumentary structures are typically thought to evolve as sexual ornaments, the blindness of golden moles suggests that the colour may be an epiphenomenon resulting from evolution via other selective factors, including the ability to move and keep clean in dirt and sand.

Snyder, Holly K.; Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shultz, Allison J.; Rowe, Karen M. C.; Rowe, Kevin C.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

2012-01-01

243

Golden triangle for folding rates of globular proteins.  

PubMed

The ability of protein chains to spontaneously form their spatial structures is a long-standing puzzle in molecular biology. Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference (11 orders of magnitude) is akin to the difference between the life span of a mosquito and the age of the universe. Here, we show that physical theory with biological constraints outlines a "golden triangle" limiting the possible range of folding rates for single-domain globular proteins of various size and stability, and that the experimentally measured folding rates fall within this narrow triangle built without any adjustable parameters, filling it almost completely. In addition, the golden triangle predicts the maximal size of protein domains that fold under solely thermodynamic (rather than kinetic) control. It also predicts the maximal allowed size of the "foldable" protein domains, and the size of domains found in known protein structures is in a good agreement with this limit. PMID:23251035

Garbuzynskiy, Sergiy O; Ivankov, Dmitry N; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Finkelstein, Alexei V

2012-12-18

244

Frequency of nest use by golden eagles in southwestern Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied nest use by Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from 1966 to 2011 to assess nest reuse within territories, ascertain the length of time that elapses between uses of nests, and test the hypotheses that reproductive success and adult turnover influence nest switching. Golden Eagles used 454 nests in 66 territories and used individual nests 1 to 26 times during 45 continuous years of observation. Time between reuse ranged from 1 to 39 yr. Distances between nearest adjacent alternative nests within territories ranged between 5 times. Two nests were unused for 21 and 27 yr after 1971 before being used every 1 to 3 yr thereafter. Eagles used 43% of the nests in series of consecutive years (range 3 to 20 consecutive nestings). Protecting unused nests for a proposed 10 yr after the last known use would not have protected 34% of all 300 nests that were reused during the study and 49% of 37 reused nests monitored consistently for 41 yr. The 102 nests that would not have received protection were in 56 of the 66 territories.

Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

2012-01-01

245

Imposex in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) was introduced into Taiwan intentionally in the early 1980s and has become a recurring pest that seriously threatens aquatic crops. In this study, a field description of imposex with a developed penis sheath and penis in female golden apple snails from crop/domestic wastewater drainage sites and a six-order river is presented for the first time. Based on the five field collections and the aquarium group, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) of P. canaliculata in imposex development was categorized into four stages, i.e., stage 0: without male genital system; stage 1: with rudimentary penis; stage 2: with rudimentary penis and penis sheath; and stage 3: the rudimentary penis developing into penis pouch and penis. The VDS indices varied between 1.07 and 2.82 and were lowest in the aquarium group and Yuanlin2. Regarding the severity of imposex, the aquarium group was less pronounced, as illustrated by the length of penis sheath and penis length, than the field collections (p<0.05). In respect of the penis length, males of the most imposex-affected site were up to 15% shorter than that of the aquarium group. Negative correlations between male penis length and female imposex characters (i.e., penis length and penis sheath length) were also observed. PMID:17023028

Liu, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Ming-Yie; Lee, Ching-Chang; Liu, Li-Lian

2006-10-04

246

Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host\\u000a and\\/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition\\/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and\\u000a place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins\\u000a parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi

Rafael V. Monteiro; James M. Dietz; Becky Raboy; Benjamin Beck; Kristel D. Vleeschower; Andrew Baker; Andréia Martins; Ana Maria Jansen

2007-01-01

247

50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the preservation of the area nesting population of golden eagles. The information...applicant must calculate the area nesting population of golden eagles and identify on an...nest used to calculate the area nesting population unless the Service has sufficient...

2012-10-01

248

Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term biological data supported by physicochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the biodiversity of the Golden Horn Estuary from the past to the present. Limited observations dating back to 60years ago indicated the existence of a diverse community in this small estuary. Unfortunately, in parallel with the increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn, pollution stress increased

Ahsen Yüksek; Erdo?an Oku?; ?. Noyan Yilmaz; Asl? Aslan-Yilmaz; Seyfettin Ta?

2006-01-01

249

Dutch golden glory : The financial power of the Netherlands through the ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dutch Golden Glory describes the economic and financial power of the Netherlands through the ages. The book aims to answer the questions of how this country achieved the position it did, why it came to stand out and what lessons we can learn from its history. Dutch Golden Glory comprises three parts. The first section (The Genesis) discusses the location

Nieuwkerk van M

2006-01-01

250

Aggressive behavior in female golden hamsters: development and the effect of repeated social stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In male golden hamsters, agonistic behavior matures during puberty, changing from play fighting to adult-like aggression. In addition, this transition is accelerated by repeated social subjugation early in puberty. However, little is known about the development of agonistic behavior in females. In the present study, we compared the development of agonistic behavior in male and female golden hamsters. Furthermore, we

Kereshmeh Taravosh-Lahn; Yvon Delville

2004-01-01

251

On the Performance of Golden Codes in Rayleigh Fading Channels with Doppler Spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden code has recently been proposed as a 2 x 2 space time block code that achieves the optimal diversity - multiplexing gain tradeoff for a multiple antenna system. In this paper we review the decoding methodology for the Golden code, followed by performance comparisons with the Alamouti code and V-BLAST in Rayleigh fading environments with Doppler spread. Simulation

Lance Linton; Phillip Conder; Michael Faulkner

252

Highway Effects on Gray Wolves within the Golden Canyon, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed gray wolf (Canis lupus) movement and highway crossing mitigation models for the Golden Canyon, situated in the continental ranges of the Rocky Mountains, west of Yoho National Park and east of Golden, British Columbia. The study area includes approximately 23 km of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Trans Canada Highway, for which highway expansion plans currently exist.

Carolyn Callaghan; Paul C. Paquet; Jack Wierzchowski

253

Comparing Open-Ended Choice Experiments and Experimental Auctions: An Application to Golden Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use two experimental valuation methods to estimate consumer demand for genetically modified golden rice. The first is an open-ended choice experiment (OECE) where participants name the quantities of golden rice and conventional rice demanded at each of several price combinations, one of which will be randomly chosen as binding. This allows us to estimate market demand by aggregating demand

Jay R. Corrigan; Dinah Pura T. Depositario; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.; Ximing Wu; Tiffany P. Laude

2009-01-01

254

Comparing Open-Ended Choice Experiments and Experimental Auctions: An Application to Golden Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use two experimental valuation methods to estimate consumer demand for genetically modified golden rice. The first is an open-ended choice experiment (OECE) where participants name the quantities of golden rice and conventional rice demanded at each of several price combinations, one of which will be randomly chosen as binding. This allows us to estimate market demand by aggregating demand

Jay R. Corrigan; Dinah Pura T. Depositario; Rodolfo M. Nayga; Ximing Wu; Tiffany P. Laude

2006-01-01

255

Effects of Loading Density on Golden Shiner Survival during and after Hauling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hauling trips of approximately 6 h each were conducted to investigate effects of loading density on survival of golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas. Commercially graded golden shiners (mean weight ± SE, 3.3 ± 0.04 g) were transported at densities of 120, 180, and 240 g of fish\\/L of water in insulated hauling tanks that were filled with fresh well water,

Philip R. Pearson; Brian C. Small; Rachel Venn Beecham; Todd D. Sink; Susan B. LaBarre; C. Douglas Minchew

2009-01-01

256

Habitat Management Series for Unique or Endangered Species. Report Number 7. Golden Eagle, 'Aquila chrysaetos'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The golden eagle is an avian predator with a wingspan ranging from 6 to 7 1/2 feet and a weight of 8-12 lbs. Primarily a bird of mountainous country, the golden eagle is mainly found in western United States. Life history, including hunting, nesting, repr...

C. Snow

1973-01-01

257

All that glitters: a review of psychological research on the aesthetics of the golden section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks, scholars have argued about whether the golden section -- a number approximately equal to 0.618 -- holds the key to the secret of beauty. Empirical investigations of the aesthetic properties of the golden section date back to the very origins of scientific psychology itself, the first studies being conducted by Fechner

Christopher D. Green

1995-01-01

258

76 FR 23582 - Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC; Supplemental Notice That That Initial Market-Based Rate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3401-000] Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC; Supplemental Notice That That Initial...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Golden Spread Panhandle Wind Ranch, LLC's application for...

2011-04-27

259

Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content.  

PubMed

"Golden Rice" is a variety of rice engineered to produce beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) to help combat vitamin A deficiency, and it has been predicted that its contribution to alleviating vitamin A deficiency would be substantially improved through even higher beta-carotene content. We hypothesized that the daffodil gene encoding phytoene synthase (psy), one of the two genes used to develop Golden Rice, was the limiting step in beta-carotene accumulation. Through systematic testing of other plant psys, we identified a psy from maize that substantially increased carotenoid accumulation in a model plant system. We went on to develop "Golden Rice 2" introducing this psy in combination with the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (crtI) used to generate the original Golden Rice. We observed an increase in total carotenoids of up to 23-fold (maximum 37 microg/g) compared to the original Golden Rice and a preferential accumulation of beta-carotene. PMID:15793573

Paine, Jacqueline A; Shipton, Catherine A; Chaggar, Sunandha; Howells, Rhian M; Kennedy, Mike J; Vernon, Gareth; Wright, Susan Y; Hinchliffe, Edward; Adams, Jessica L; Silverstone, Aron L; Drake, Rachel

2005-03-27

260

Golden Rice--five years on the road--five years to go?  

PubMed

Provitamin A accumulates in the grain of Golden Rice as a result of genetic transformation. In developing countries, where vitamin A deficiency prevails, grain from Golden Rice is expected to provide this important micronutrient sustainably through agriculture. Since its original production, the prototype Golden Rice has undergone intense research to increase the provitamin A content, to establish the scientific basis for its carotenoid complement, and to better comply with regulatory requirements. Today, the current focus is on how to get Golden Rice effectively into the hands of farmers, which is a novel avenue for public sector research, carried out with the aid of international research consortia. Additional new research is underway to further increase the nutritional value of Golden Rice. PMID:16297656

Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter

2005-11-15

261

Common evolutionary origin of aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses revealed by genome characterization of Golden shiner reovirus, Grass carp reovirus, Striped bass reovirus and golden ide reovirus (genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-length and partial genome sequences of four members of the genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae (Golden shiner reovirus, Grass carp reovirus, Striped bass reovirus and golden ide reovirus) were characterized. Based on sequence comparison, the unclassified Grass carp reovirus was shown to be a member of the species Aquareovirus C. The status of golden ide reovirus, another unclassified aquareovirus, was also

Houssam Attoui; Qin Fang; Fauziah Mohd Jaafar; Jean-François Cantaloube; Philippe Biagini; Philippe de Micco; Xavier de Lamballerie

262

77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...12-156-LNG] Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term...26, 2012, by Golden Pass Products LLC (GPP), requesting long...GPP is a Delaware limited liability company with its principal...1\\ Golden Pass Products LLC, Order Granting...

2012-12-06

263

50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of...Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor...

2010-10-01

264

50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fisheries 6 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of...Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor...

2009-10-01

265

A control of a golden retriever with renal dysplasia.  

PubMed

A six-month-old male Golden Retriever with a three-month history of polyuria and polydipsia was examined. Hematological examinations revealed nonregenerative anemia, azotemia, high serum creatinine level, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperamylasemia, and low level of total serum protein. Urinalysis indicated mild proteinuria, and low specific gravity. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations revealed bilateral small sized kidneys. Histological examination by renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of renal dysplasia. Treatment with a dietary protein restriction, oral adsorbents, and dried aluminum hydroxide gel have been performed in this dog, and then, azotemia, high serum creatinine level, hypercalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia were improved. During 10 months after the initiation of treatments, no significant clinical change except polydipsia and polyuria has been observed. PMID:9362046

Miyamoto, T; Wakizaka, S; Matsuyama, S; Baba, E; Ohashi, F; Kuwamura, M; Yamate, J; Kotani, T

1997-10-01

266

The Golden Crescent: Crossroads of Florida and Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the National Park Service, this site explores the geography and history of "the Golden Crescent," a wide swath of land "along the Atlantic Coast from Savannah to Cape Canaveral and inland towards Tallahassee." The site provides discussion of several "cultural themes" of particular significance to the region, including the mounds and rings left on the landscape by prehistoric peoples, the struggle between colonial empires for control of the territory, the role of Plantation Agriculture, the impact and history of African-Americans, and the region's history as a resort for wealthy tycoons of the gilded age. A Map Room also allows users to locate and read brief descriptions, including travel information, of the National Park sites that coincide with these themes.

267

The Golden Age for Studying Hot QCD Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty years ago, the study of hot QCD matter took off with the beginning of fixed target heavy ion experiments at the Brookhaven AGS and CERN SPS. Almost ten years ago, the center of mass energy of these collisions was increased by an order of magnitude with the completion of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven. This jump in energy, the dedicated nature of the facility, and the investment in experiments has allowed for both a broad characterization and detailed probing of the hot QCD matter created. In the coming decade, critical detector and accelerator upgrades at RHIC, the coming online of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and other worldwide efforts will bring these studies into what can be termed a Golden Age. In this talk, we will review what has been learned, and suggest what may be revealed by future efforts.

Nagle, James

2008-10-01

268

Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Golden Hamster as a Model for Human Kala-Azar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leishmania donovani infection in the golden hamster was studied as a model for human kala azar. Following intradermal inoculation of L. donovani amastigotes, hamsters developed positive DTH responses to parasite antigens and expressed resistance to reinfe...

J. P. Farrell

1988-01-01

269

Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Golden Hamster as a Model for Human Kala-Azar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Experimental Infections with Geographical Isolates of Leishmaniasis; Immunity to L. donovani in the Golden Hamster; Courses of Infection of WR503 Strain in Hamsters Following IC Inoculation of Promastigotes; Effect of Cortisone (2.5 mg/1...

J. P. Farrell

1984-01-01

270

Obtaining a New Representation for the Golden Ratio by Solving a Biquadratic Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we show how different ways to solve biquadratic equations can lead us to different representations of its solutions. A particular equation which has the golden ratio and its reciprocal as solutions is shown as example.

Leonardo Mondaini

2002-01-01

271

RFE Page 1 for Sebastes norvegicus, Golden Redfish ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... RFE Page 1 for Sebastes norvegicus, Golden Redfish, FDA Market Name: Perch, Ocean. Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia Page 1: High Resolution ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/rfe

272

'Ten Golden Rules' for Designing Software in Medical Education: Results from a Formative Evaluation of DIALOG.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of an evaluation of Distance Interactive Learning in Obstetrics and Gynecology (DIALOG) which is an electronic program for continuing education. Presents 10 golden rules for designing software for medical practitioners. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)

Jha, Vikram; Duffy, Sean

2002-01-01

273

What Makes a Fairy Tale Good: The Queer Kindness of "The Golden Bird."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses a literary analysis of "The Golden Bird," a Grimm Brothers fairy tale, to show how an investigation of the literary qualities of fairy tales can reveal what the artistry of such tales consists of. (GT)|

Nodelman, Perry M.

1977-01-01

274

A study to evaluate the prevalence of golden proportion and RED proportion in aesthetically pleasing smiles.  

PubMed

A beautiful smile is the most striking feature in the face. However beauty is not absolute and is extremely subjective. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of 'Golden proportion and Recurring aesthetic dental proportion' in individuals presenting attractive smiles. 214 smile photographs of students of SDM Dental College aged 18-25 years with natural dentition were analysed for their attractiveness based on 6 predetermined criteria. Further, smiles were digitally analysed to evaluate the prevalence of Golden Proportion and Recurring Aesthetic dental proportion (RED) and obtained data was statistically analysed. RED proportion was present in 6.6% of population as opposed to golden proportion which was found in 0.6% of population. It was found that 70% RED was more prevalent than Golden Proportion in attractive as well as unattractive smiles. PMID:23682507

Meshramkar, R; Patankar, A; Lekha, K; Nadiger, R

2013-03-01

275

Defining the crack pattern of RC beams through the golden section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both in architecture and arts, the golden section has been exclusively taken into consideration for its geometrical properties. Specifically, among all the proportions, the golden section can inspire beauty. Indeed, it has driven the construction of buildings for centuries. Nevertheless, as discussed for the first time in the present paper, static equilibrium of structures calls the golden section into play. This is the case of reinforced concrete beam in four point bending, whose average crack spacing in the constant moment zone increases of a factor equal to the irrational number 1.61803 when the geometrical dimensions of the beam are doubled. In other words, it can be argued that the centrality of golden section in the art of construction has profound physical meanings, as it can bring together the aesthetic of nature and architecture, and the equilibrium of stress flow in solid bodies.

Fantilli, A. P.; Chiaia, B.; Cennamo, C.

2011-07-01

276

Nexus of Terrorism and Drug Trafficking in the Golden Crescent: Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nexus of terrorism and drug trafficking in the Golden Crescent region of Southwest Asia and the broader Middle East is Afghanistan. As the region's core state, how Afghanistan builds a strong political and security framework by eliminating safe havens...

L. Taylor

2006-01-01

277

76 FR 6009 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...number of factors, including the size and complexity of their organizations, the nature and complexity of their golden parachute compensation...purposes under generally accepted accounting principles. 5. For each of columns (b)...

2011-02-02

278

The Acute Toxicity of Praziquantel to Grass Carp and Golden Shiners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and highest nonlethal concentration of praziquantel (LC0) were determined in the laboratory for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, two cyprinids known to harbor the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with tapeworms. The 24-h and 96-h LC50 values were 55.1 and 49.7 mg\\/L for golden shiners (1.3

Andrew J. Mitchell; Melissa S. Hobbs

2007-01-01

279

Ossicular differentiation of airborne and seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole ( Chrysochloris asiatica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison between the middle ear anatomy of the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica), which exhibits a club-shaped malleus head, and the Desert golden mole (Eremitalpa granti), with a ball-shaped malleus head, suggests differences in sensitivity to airborne sound. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometric\\u000a measurements of the ossicular behavior in response to both vibration and airborne sound were made in C. asiatica.

U. B. Willi; G. N. Bronner; P. M. Narins

2006-01-01

280

Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Genetically engineered ''Golden Rice'' contains up to 35 lg b-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice b-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming popula- tions that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically

Guangwen Tang; Jian Qin; Gregory G Dolnikowski; Robert M Russell; Michael A Grusak

2009-01-01

281

78 FR 59710 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Shiloh IV...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announces the availably of a draft Environmental Assessment (DEA) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the issuance of a take permit for golden eagles pursuant to the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (Eagle Act), in association with the operation of the Shiloh IV Wind Project in Solano County, California. The DEA was prepared in response to......

2013-09-27

282

Takeover defenses, golden parachutes, and bargaining over stochastic synergy gains: a note on optimal contracting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We incorporate managerial risk aversion and stochasticity of takeover synergy gains into Harris’ (Harris, E.G. 1990. Antitakeover measures, golden parachutes, and target firm shareholder welfare. Rand Journal of Economics 21, no. 4: 614–25. bargaining model for the coexistence of antitakeover defenses and golden parachutes in corporate charters. We show that: (i) it is not always optimal that the target-firm shareholders

Atreya Chakraborty; Abdikarim Farah; John Barkoulas

2008-01-01

283

Somatic embryogenesis in Narcissus pseudonarcissus cvs. Golden Harvest and St. Keverne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos (SEs) have been produced from bulb and shoot culture leaf explants of Narcissus pseudonarcissus cvs. Golden Harvest and St. Keverne. Initial experiments with cv. Golden Harvest resulted in SEs from leaf lamina, leaf base, bulb scale and scape (flower stem) explants. Embryogenesis was induced on media with a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentrations. There

Darren O Sage; James Lynn; Neil Hammatt

2000-01-01

284

Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer Enters Its Golden Age  

PubMed Central

In the United States, prostate cancer is the most frequent malignancy in men and ranks second in terms of mortality. Although recurrent or metastatic disease can be managed initially with androgen ablation, most patients eventually develop castration-resistant disease within a number of years, for which conventional treatments (eg, chemotherapy) provide only modest benefits. In the last few years, immunotherapy has emerged as an exciting therapeutic modality for advanced prostate cancer, and this field is evolving rapidly. Encouragingly, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved two novel immunotherapy agents for patients with advanced cancer: the antigen presenting cell-based product sipuleucel-T and the anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) antibody ipilimumab, based on improvements in overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and metastatic melanoma, respectively. Currently, a number of trials are investigating the role of various immunological approaches for the treatment of prostate cancer, many of them with early indications of success. As immunotherapy for prostate cancer enters its golden age, the challenge of the future will be to design rational combinations of immunotherapy agents with each other or with other standard prostate cancer treatments in an effort to improve patient outcomes further.

Boikos, Sosipatros A.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.

2012-01-01

285

Circadian Regulation of Cortisol Release in Behaviorally Split Golden Hamsters  

PubMed Central

The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Lilley, Travis R.; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01

286

Newspaper reporting of space weather: End of a golden age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reporting of the human impacts of space weather phenomena as a significant American newspaper story has passed through a golden age, which ended just after World War II. Prior to this time, significant geomagnetic storms and solar flare events were reported in considerable detail, with specific references made to actual impacts to telegraph, wireless, and radio communications systems among others. After World War II, news stories shrank dramatically in terms of the size of the article, the location of the story in the newspaper, and the number of items mentioned in the article. This paper is an historical analysis of the scope of newspaper reporting on 52 major storms with AA* > 170 occurring in American newspapers since 1870 and the changing trends in how the events were covered. I will show that even before the advent of news reporting on the World Wide Web, there was a precipitous decline in space weather reporting during the postwar period from ca. 1945-1990. The reason for this decline is not immediately obvious, but a few suggestions will be provided. I also publish 141 excerpts from the newspaper sample highlighting a variety of "human impacts" caused by this complete sample of storm events, along with a small collection of interesting illustrations that accompanied a few of the articles.

Odenwald, Sten

2007-11-01

287

Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.  

PubMed

As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development. PMID:12970483

Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

2003-09-01

288

Progressive parenting behavior in wild golden lion tamarins  

PubMed Central

Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food independently once they are weaned. Adults of some callitrichid species produce a specialized vocalization that encourages immature group members to take proffered food from the caller. Here, I report that wild adult golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) not only used this food-offering call to encourage young, mobile offspring to approach and take captured prey from them, but as the young began to spend significant time foraging for themselves and to acquire prey by independent means, the frequency of these vocalizations in the context of food transfer declined. Adults then began to use food-offering calls in a novel context: to direct juveniles to foraging sites that contained hidden prey that the adults had found but not captured. During the period of these most frequent adult-directed prey captures, the independent prey-capture success rates of juveniles improved. Thus, adults modified their provisioning behavior in a progressive developmentally sensitive manner that may have facilitated learning how to find food. I hypothesize that as a result of these demonstrations by adults, juveniles either may be encouraged to continue foraging despite low return rates or to learn the properties of productive prey-foraging substrates in a complex environment.

2011-01-01

289

Transient expression of heterologous RNAs using tomato golden mosaic virus.  

PubMed

The genome of the geminivirus tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) consists of two circular DNA molecules designated as components A and B. The A component contains the only virally-encoded function required for autonomous replication in infected plant cells. We used agroinoculation of petunia leaf discs with the A component to develop a transient expression system which permits direct examination of viral transcripts by S1 nuclease protection. The AR1 gene, which encodes the TGMV coat protein, was transcribed transiently in leaf discs after agroinoculation of TGMV a DNA. Synthesis of AR1 RNA was dependent on T-DNA transfer and TGMV DNA replication, demonstrating that it is a plant transcription product. The AL open reading frames of TGMV A were also expressed transiently in leaf discs. The ratio between AR1 RNA and the major leftward RNA was constant and was used to normalize AR1 transcription for viral DNA copy number. The bacterial genes encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were transiently expressed in leaf discs from the AR1 promoter in TGMV A. The levels of AR1 and GUS RNAs were similar in leaf discs after adjusting for viral DNA copy number, while CAT RNA was less abundant. The geminivirus transient expression system allows rapid analysis of RNAs transcribed from foreign genes and can serve as a preliminary screen in the construction of transgenic plants. PMID:3205715

Hanley-Bowdoin, L; Elmer, J S; Rogers, S G

1988-11-25

290

Transient expression of heterologous RNAs using tomato golden mosaic virus.  

PubMed Central

The genome of the geminivirus tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) consists of two circular DNA molecules designated as components A and B. The A component contains the only virally-encoded function required for autonomous replication in infected plant cells. We used agroinoculation of petunia leaf discs with the A component to develop a transient expression system which permits direct examination of viral transcripts by S1 nuclease protection. The AR1 gene, which encodes the TGMV coat protein, was transcribed transiently in leaf discs after agroinoculation of TGMV a DNA. Synthesis of AR1 RNA was dependent on T-DNA transfer and TGMV DNA replication, demonstrating that it is a plant transcription product. The AL open reading frames of TGMV A were also expressed transiently in leaf discs. The ratio between AR1 RNA and the major leftward RNA was constant and was used to normalize AR1 transcription for viral DNA copy number. The bacterial genes encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were transiently expressed in leaf discs from the AR1 promoter in TGMV A. The levels of AR1 and GUS RNAs were similar in leaf discs after adjusting for viral DNA copy number, while CAT RNA was less abundant. The geminivirus transient expression system allows rapid analysis of RNAs transcribed from foreign genes and can serve as a preliminary screen in the construction of transgenic plants. Images

Hanley-Bowdoin, L; Elmer, J S; Rogers, S G

1988-01-01

291

National Wind Technology Center sitewide, Golden, CO: Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the nation`s primary solar and renewable energy research laboratory, proposes to expand its wind technology research and development program activities at its National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Golden, Colorado. NWTC is an existing wind energy research facility operated by NREL for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Proposed activities include the construction and reuse of buildings and facilities, installation of up to 20 wind turbine test sites, improvements in infrastructure, and subsequent research activities, technology testing, and site operations. In addition to wind turbine test activities, NWTC may be used to support other NREL program activities and small-scale demonstration projects. This document assesses potential consequences to resources within the physical, biological, and human environment, including potential impacts to: air quality, geology and soils, water resources, biological resources, cultural and historic resources, socioeconomic resources, land use, visual resources, noise environment, hazardous materials and waste management, and health and safety conditions. Comment letters were received from several agencies in response to the scoping and predecisional draft reviews. The comments have been incorporated as appropriate into the document with full text of the letters contained in the Appendices. Additionally, information from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site on going sitewide assessment of potential environmental impacts has been reviewed and discussed by representatives of both parties and incorporated into the document as appropriate.

NONE

1996-11-01

292

Non-Markovian modification of the golden rule rate expression  

SciTech Connect

The reformulation of the standard golden rule approach considered in this paper for treating reactive tunneling reduces the computation of the reaction rate to a derivation of band shapes for energy levels of reactant and product states. This treatment is based on the assumption that the medium environment is actively involved as a partner in the energy exchange with the reactive subsystem but its reorganization effect is negligible. Starting from the quantum relaxation equation for the density matrix, the required band shapes are represented in terms of the spectral density function, exhibiting the continuum spectrum inherent to the interaction between the reactants and the medium in the total reactive system. The simplest Lorentzian spectral bands, obtained under Redfield approximation, proved to be unsatisfactory because they produced a divergent rate expression at low temperature. The problem is resolved by invoking a refined spectral band shape, which behaves as Lorentzian one at the band center but decays exponentially at its tails. The corresponding closed non-Markovian rate expression is derived and investigated taking as an example the photochemical H-transfer reaction between fluorene and acridine proceeding in the fluorene molecular crystal. The kinetics in this reactive system was thoroughly studied experimentally in a wide temperature range [B. Prass et al., Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 102, 498 (1998)].

Basilevsky, M. V.; Davidovich, G. V.; Titov, S. V.; Voronin, A. I. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Novatorov 7a, Moscow 119421, Russia and L. Ya. Karpov Institute of Physical Cemistry, ul. Vorontsovo pole 10, Moscow 105064 (Russian Federation); L. Ya. Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, ul. Vorontsovo pole 10, Moscow 105064 (Russian Federation); Institute of Problems in Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow region 142432 (Russian Federation)

2006-11-21

293

Identification of three distinguishable phenotypes in golden retriever muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a human disease characterized by progressive and irreversible skeletal muscle degeneration caused by mutations in genes coding for important muscle proteins. Unfortunately, there is no efficient treatment for this disease; it causes progressive loss of motor and muscular ability until death. The canine model (golden retriever muscular dystrophy) is similar to DMD, showing similar clinical signs. Fifteen dogs were followed from birth and closely observed for clinical signs. Dogs had their disease status confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis and genotyping. Clinical observations of musculoskeletal, morphological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal features allowed us to identify three distinguishable phenotypes in dystrophic dogs: mild (grade I), moderate (grade II) and severe (grade III). These three groups showed no difference in dystrophic alterations of muscle morphology and creatine kinase levels. This information will be useful for therapeutic trials, because DMD also shows significant, inter- and intra-familiar clinical variability. Additionally, being aware of phenotypic differences in this animal model is essential for correct interpretation and understanding of results obtained in pre-clinical trials. PMID:19440974

Ambrósio, C E; Fadel, L; Gaiad, T P; Martins, D S; Araújo, K P C; Zucconi, E; Brolio, M P; Giglio, R F; Morini, A C; Jazedje, T; Froes, T R; Feitosa, M L T; Valadares, M C; Beltrão-Braga, P C B; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A

2009-04-07

294

Perception, action, and experience: unraveling the golden braid.  

PubMed

Much of our human mental life looks to involve a seamless unfolding of perception, action and experience: a golden braid in which each element twines intimately with the rest. We see the very world we act in and we act in the world we see. But more than this, visual experience presents us with the world in a way apt for the control and fine guidance of action. Or so it seems. Milner and Goodale's [Milner, D., Goodale, M. (1995). The visual brain in action. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Milner, A., Goodale, M. (2006). Epilogue: Twelve years on. In Milner, A., Goodale, M. (Ed.), The visual brain in action (2nd ed., pp. 207-252). Oxford: Oxford University Press] influential work on the dual visual systems hypothesis casts doubt on certain versions of this intuitive vision. It does so by prising apart the twining strands of conscious visual perception and the fine control of visuomotor action. Such a bold proposal is of major interest both to cognitive science and philosophy. In what follows I first clarify the major claims that the bold proposal involves, then examine three sets of worries and objections. The first set concern some important matters of detail. The second set concern a certain kind of conceptual or philosophical worry to the effect that the perception/action model unfairly equates visual experience itself with what are in fact certain elements within visual experience. The third set concern the very idea of conscious experience as a well-defined conceptual or experimental target. I conclude that the boldest versions of the Dual Visual Systems (2VS) story underestimate the variety and richness of visual experience, but that the general picture of visual uptake as a fragmented, multi-stream, multipurpose adaptation is correct, and still revealing after all these years. PMID:19026670

Clark, Andy

2008-11-05

295

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection of Golden Syrian Hamsters  

PubMed Central

Small animal models are needed in order to evaluate the efficacy of candidate vaccines and antivirals directed against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV). We investigated the ability of SARS CoV to infect 5-week-old Golden Syrian hamsters. When administered intranasally, SARS CoV replicates to high titers in the lungs and nasal turbinates. Peak replication in the lower respiratory tract was noted on day 2 postinfection (p.i.) and was cleared by day 7 p.i. Low levels of virus were present in the nasal turbinates of a few hamsters at 14 days p.i. Viral replication in epithelial cells of the respiratory tract was accompanied by cellular necrosis early in infection, followed by an inflammatory response coincident with viral clearance, focal consolidation in pulmonary tissue, and eventual pulmonary tissue repair. Despite high levels of virus replication and associated pathology in the respiratory tract, the hamsters showed no evidence of disease. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in sera at day 7 p.i., and mean titers at day 28 p.i. exceeded 1:400. Hamsters challenged with SARS CoV at day 28 p.i. were completely protected from virus replication and accompanying pathology in the respiratory tract. Comparing these data to the mouse model, SARS CoV replicates to a higher titer and for a longer duration in the respiratory tract of hamsters and is accompanied by significant pathology that is absent in mice. Viremia and extrapulmonary spread of SARS CoV to liver and spleen, which are seen in hamsters, were not detected in mice. The hamster, therefore, is superior to the mouse as a model for the evaluation of antiviral agents and candidate vaccines against SARS CoV replication.

Roberts, Anjeanette; Vogel, Leatrice; Guarner, Jeannette; Hayes, Norman; Murphy, Brian; Zaki, Sherif; Subbarao, Kanta

2005-01-01

296

Census and distribution of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

During 1990-1992, a survey of the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, was carried out throughout its known distribution area. Forest remnants were identified by visual interpretation of Landsat-TM satellite images. Localities occupied by L. rosalia were first identified by interviews with local people. All forests more than 20 ha in size, and for which two or more interviews suggested the presence of the species, were surveyed using "play-back" recordings of lion tamarin long calls. The total wild population of L. rosalia, including that of the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, was estimated to be 562 individuals in 109 groups. The lion tamarins were generally found in four major areas of forest (six or more groups per forest, not including Poço das Antas), with a further 12 groups isolated in small forest patches. Currently the species' distribution is restricted to just four municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro: Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, and Araruama. Although they are typically confined to lowland forest of <300 m altitude, L. rosalia was recorded at an altitude of 550 m in one locality. Average group size varied from 3.6 to 5.7 individuals, and densities from 0.39 groups/km(2) to 2.35 groups/km(2) (2.17 individuals/ km(2) to 8.53 individuals/km(2)). Six of the isolated groups found during the survey were successfully translocated to a forest of 2400 ha. There is now also a significant population of reintroduced lion tamarins. Overall, however, the possibilities for further expansion of the wild population are severely limited. PMID:12526037

Kierulff, M Cecília M; Rylands, Anthony B

2003-01-01

297

Rehabilitation studies and recovery of a once lifeless estuary: the Golden Horn.  

PubMed

Within this study fluctuations in biodiversity of the Golden Horn from past to present are evaluated. Limited studies and observations dating back to 60 years ago pointed out the importance of the Golden Horn as a fishery. Unfortunately, in accordance with increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn in the 1960s, pollution stress became a demanding factor for this unique environment, affecting biodiversity adversely. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, at the relatively cleaner outer estuary. Following intensification of "still ongoing" rehabilitation studies in 1998, a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has began, in regard to improvements in water quality. Surveys conducted in 2002 using SCUBA, documented the level of diversification of life at the Golden Horn. Extended till Haliç Bridge, all appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms and particularly filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Detection of seahorses at the inner-middle parts of the estuary, in addition to numerous fish, invertebrate and macroalgae species, clearly depicted the level of recovery and change in the ecosystem. All results support the existence of a dynamic biological life at the Golden Horn, improving considerably with rehabilitation studies. Achieving the diversity of the 1940s is not possible, since the Black and Marmara seas, highly influencing water quality in the Golden Horn are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far beyond their rich diversity in the 1940s. However, it is obvious that ecosystems should recover when mankind gave a chance to them. Recovery of the recently lifeless Golden Horn in such a short period of time is a very good example. PMID:16114614

Yüksek, A; Oku?, E; Yilmaz, N

2005-01-01

298

A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California  

SciTech Connect

Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

1995-05-01

299

Proportions of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Relative to Each Other and to Golden Standard in Tabriz Dental Faculty Students  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden pro-portion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. The aim of this study was to eval-uate the occurrence of golden standard values and golden proportion in the anterior teeth. Materials and methods Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. The visible widths and lengths of maxillary right and left incisors were calculated and the ratios were compared with golden standard. Data was analyzed using SPSS 14 software. Results Review of the results of the means showed statistically significant differences between the width ratio of right lateral teeth to the central teeth width with golden proportion (P<0.001). Likewise, the difference was significant for the left side, too (P<0.001). Test results of mean differences showed that the mean difference between proportion of right laterals to centrals with golden proportion was significant (P<0.001). The difference was significant for the left side, too (P<0.001). As a result, there is no golden proportion among maxillary incisors. The review of results of mean differences for single samples showed that the mean differences between the proportion of width-to-length of left and right central teeth was statistically significant by golden standard (P<0.001). Therefore, considering the width-to-length proportion of maxillary central teeth, no golden standard exists. Conclusion In the evaluation of the width-to-width and width-to-length proportions of maxillary incisors no golden proportions and standards were detected, respectively.

Parnia, Fereydoun; Hafezeqoran, Ali; Mahboub, Farhang; Moslehifard, Elnaz; Koodaryan, Rodabeh; Moteyagheni, Rosa; Saleh Saber, Fariba

2010-01-01

300

The chemical oceanographic consequences of environmental restoration projects in the Golden Horn estuary (Marmara Sea, Turkey).  

PubMed

The input of industrial and domestic waste to the horizontal circulation in the Golden Horn Estuary of Marmara Sea has resulted in one of the most polluted estuaries in the past. Consequently, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in both the surface and bottom waters decreased toward to the estuary head during 1998-2005. In contrast, the total suspended solids content of the surface water decreased toward to the estuary mouth. However, construction of the operational collector system surrounding the estuary during the process of rehabilitation projects, combined with the opening of the middle pontoons of the Valide Sultan Bridge, resulted in gradually improved water quality of the estuary with a concomitant decrease in pollution. However, phytoplankton blooms and eutrophication persist especially in the innermost part of the Golden Horn in 2005. The region from the estuary mouth up to Camialti has a dynamic structure, and sufficient circulation seemingly occurs in this part of the Golden Horn. PMID:19353286

Balkis, N; Müftüo?lu, E; Aksu, A; Sur, H I; Apak, R

2009-04-08

301

Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality.  

PubMed

Long-term biological data supported by physicochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the biodiversity of the Golden Horn Estuary from the past to the present. Limited observations dating back to 60 years ago indicated the existence of a diverse community in this small estuary. Unfortunately, in parallel with the increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn, pollution stress increased since the 1960s. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, in the relatively cleaner lower estuary. Following the intensification of rehabilitation studies in 1998 and particularly after the opening of the floating bridge at the mid estuary; a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has begun with the improving water quality. Nutrient concentrations decreased markedly; while water clarity significantly increased. Fecal coliform values decreased 10(3) fold. Phytoplankton composition changed and dense blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankters frequently occurred. Hydrogen sulfide almost completely disappeared even during the warmest periods of the year and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased. All results clearly depicted that the Golden Horn ecosystem shifted to eutrophic conditions from an anoxic environment. SCUBA dives in 2002, documented the level of diversification of life in the Golden Horn. All appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms until the Halic Bridge and filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Achieving the diversity of 1940s is not possible since the Black and Marmara seas, influencing water quality of the Golden Horn, are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far less diverse than their rich diversity in 1940s. However, the Golden Horn is a good example that even the most polluted ecosystems can recover when appropriate measures are taken. PMID:16814327

Yüksek, Ahsen; Oku?, Erdo?an; Yilmaz, I Noyan; Aslan-Yilmaz, Asli; Ta?, Seyfettin

2006-03-06

302

Nocturnal position in the Panamanian Golden Frog, Atelopus zeteki (Anura, Bufonidae), with notes on fluorescent pigment tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturnal position in the Panamanian Golden Frog, Atelopus zeteki (Anura, Bufonidae), with notes on fluorescent pigment tracking. The endangered Panamanian golden frog, Atelopus zeteki, is a stream dweller of middle elevation rain forests of the Panamanian isthmus. In order to better understand this species for conservation, we set out to determine the nocturnal whereabouts of this diurnally active animal. It

Erik D. Lindquist; Scott A. Sapoznick; Edgardo J. Griffith Rodriguez; Peter B. Johantgen; Joni M. Criswell

303

76 FR 4148 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Brunswick-Golden Isles...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Brunswick-Golden...requirement that a 16.84- acre parcel of surplus property, located on Glynn County Airport...Commission to release 16.84 acres of surplus property at the Brunswick-Golden...

2011-01-24

304

78 FR 9771 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Brunswick-Golden Isles...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Brunswick--Golden...requirement that a 0.739-acre parcel of surplus property, located on Glynn County airport...Commission to release 0.739 acres of surplus property at the Brunswick--Golden...

2013-02-11

305

Evaluation of different species of fish for biological control of golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of rice–fish farming was employed to evaluate five species of fish for biological control of golden apple snail in rice. Aquaria trials were initially used to observe the predation potential of the individual fish species, followed by replicated field trials. In the aquaria studies all the fish species preyed upon the hatchlings of the golden apple snail, but

Teo Su Sin

2006-01-01

306

Invertebrate Species Available as Food for the Golden-Cheeked Warbler in Its Nesting Habitat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors sampled arthropods biweekly from ashe juniper, Texas oak, live oak, and cedar elm throughout the activity period of the golden-cheeked warbler (GCWA) in central Texas (March 1 - July 31). A database of arthropod species collected by date, site...

R. A. Wharton E. G. Riley M. A. Quinn J. B. Woolley J. S. Schaffner H. R. Burke

1996-01-01

307

Genetic signatures of population change in the British golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) was once widely distributed in the uplands of the British Isles, but is now extinct in Ireland, and largely confined to the highlands and islands of Scotland. As the precise extent and severity of the reduction in population size are unclear, it is important to understand how the population was affected by the decline. We

BRIAN P. BOURKE; Alain C. Frantz; Christopher P. Lavers; Angus Davison; Deborah A. Dawson; Terry A. Burke

2010-01-01

308

Identification of the Coat Protein Gene of Tomato Golden Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An open reading frame, designated AR1, on DNA component A of tomato golden mosaic virus has been identified as the virus coat protein gene on the basis of the molecular weight and amino acid composition of the virus capsid polypeptide, the mass spectra and N-terminal sequences of peptides produced by cyanogen bromide cleavage of the capsid polypeptide and by

H. Kallender; I. T. D. Petty; V. E. Stein; M. Panico; I. P. Blench; A. T. Etienne; H. R. Morris; R. H. A. Coutts; K. W. Buck

1988-01-01

309

Rhythms of Temperature Selection and Body Temperature Are Out of Phase in the Golden Hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body temperature, locomotor activity, and thermoregulatory behavior of freely moving golden hamsters maintained in a spatial thermocline were measured over several weeks. The thermoregulatory behavior of temperature selection exhibited a robust daily rhythm 180° out of phase with the rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity. However, the parameters of the body temperature rhythm (rhythmicity, mean level, and amplitude) were

Roberto Refinetti

1995-01-01

310

The Politics of Urban Waterfront Regeneration: The Case of Haliç (the Golden Horn), Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the efforts to regenerate Istanbul's urban waterfront area of Haliç (the Golden Horn), since the mid-1980s, from the perspective of the actors involved and their power dynamics. It uses as examples three projects: the Fener-Balat neighborhood rehabilitation, Feshane Cultural Center, and Rahmi M. Koç Museum initiatives. It argues that the case of Haliç cannot be understood through

DIKMEN BEZMEZ

2008-01-01

311

Analysis in Blood of Golden Hamster by Naa for Clinical Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

2009-06-01

312

Characteristics of a Short Incubation Model of Scrapie in the Golden Hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Repeated passage of the ' Chandler' strain of scrapie in female golden hamsters using the intracerebral route of inoculation reduces the minimum incubation period to 60 days, about half of the minimum incubation period so far found in any of the mouse models of scrapie. The infectivity titres in brain in the clinical stage of the disease are considerably

R. H. Kimberlin; CAROL A. WALKER

1977-01-01

313

Range Expansion of Golden Crayfish, Orconectes luteus, in the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden crayfish (Orconectes luteus) specimens were collected in the Mississippi River at Grand Tower, Jackson County, Illinois in September and October 1999. This locality is the most eastern on record for the species and the most southern in Illinois. The high stream order habitat from which these crayfish were collected is generally not consistent habitat compared with preferred smaller order

James E. Wetzel; William J. Poly

2000-01-01

314

TAXONOMY, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVOLUTION OF GOLDEN PLOVERS (PLUVIALIS DOMINICA AND PLUVIALIS FULVA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discriminant function analysis of specimen measurements separates 96% of two forms of Lesser Golden Plover in breeding plumage, previously described as subspecies. The forms breed sympatrically in northwest Alaska and are not isolated by habitat, but the incidence of specimens phenotypically intermediate between the two forms is no higher there than in areas of allopatry. The absence of a

PETER G. CONNORS

315

Factors Affecting Golden-Cheeked Warbler Nest Survival in Urban and Rural Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate models that evaluated habitat and landscape

Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak

2009-01-01

316

Efficient high-order methods based on golden ratio for nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive new iterative methods with order of convergence four or higher, for solving nonlinear systems, by composing iteratively golden ratio methods with a modified Newton’s method. We use different efficiency indices in order to compare the new methods with other ones and present several numerical tests which confirm the theoretical results.

Alicia Cordero; José L. Hueso; Eulalia Martínez; Juan R. Torregrosa

2011-01-01

317

An Optimal Radial Profile Order Based on the Golden Ratio for Time-Resolved MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the motion kinetics or the contrast variability are often hard to predict, hampering an appropriate choice of the image update rate or the temporal resolution. A constant azimuthal profile spacing (111.246deg), based on the Golden Ratio, is investigated as optimal for image reconstruction from an arbitrary number of profiles in radial MRI. The

Stefanie Winkelmann; Tobias Schaeffter; Thomas Koehler; Holger Eggers; Olaf Doessel

2007-01-01

318

Greedy and lazy representations of numbers in the negative golden ratio base  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider positional numeration systems with real base (both positive and negative) and study the extremal representations in these systems, called here the greedy and lazy representations. We focus on the base $\\\\beta = - \\\\phi$, where $\\\\phi= \\\\frac{1+\\\\sqrt{5}}{2}$ is the golden mean. We show, that the algorithm introduced by Ito and Sadahiro in 2009 produces neither minimal nor maximal

Tomás Hejda; Zuzana Masáková; Edita Pelantová

2011-01-01

319

Computation of a face attractiveness index based on neoclassical canons, symmetry, and golden ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of attractiveness of faces has long been a topic of research. Literature has identified many different factors that can be related to attractiveness. In this research we analyze the role of symmetry, neoclassical canons, and golden ratio in the determination of attractiveness of a face. We focus on the geometry of a face and use actual faces for our

Kendra Schmid; David Marx; Ashok Samal

2008-01-01

320

Risky mate search and mate preference in the golden orb-web spider (Nephila plumipes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate searching is a risky behavior that decreases survival by increasing predation risk and the risk of energy depletion. However, few studies have quantified actual mortality during mate search, making it difficult to predict mate searching and mating strategies. Using a mark and recapture study, we examined mate-searching success in a highly sexually dimorphic species, the golden orb-web spider (Nephila

Michael M. Kasumovic; Matthew J. Bruce; Marie E. Herberstein; M. C. B. Andrade

2006-01-01

321

SHM data interpretation and structural condition assessment of the Manitoba Golden Boy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Boy statue was placed on top of the Manitoba Legislative Building in 1919 and has since served as a source of inspiration to all Manitobans. An inspection of this heritage structure was conducted in 2001and revealed that its steel supporting shaft had deteriorated significantly. A decision was made to take the statue down for restoration. A stronger, stainless

Bogdan A. Bogdabovic; Aftab A. Mufti; Ashutosh Bagchi

2005-01-01

322

Aging of Cylinders Excised from Pulp Tissues of the `Golden Delicious' Apple  

PubMed Central

Aging cylinders excised from `Golden Delicious' apple (Pyrus malus L.) pulp, like the intact fruit, exhibit some characteristic phenomena such as rise in respiration (climacteric), ethylene synthesis, enzymic changes, and increase in ribosomes and mRNA. Aging of cylinders of pulp tissues may offer a useful physiological tool for the study of maturation and senescence.

Hartmann, Claude; Drouet, Alain; Cormier, Francois; Nivet, Claude; Rigault, Christine

1984-01-01

323

How Golden West College Is Addressing Pedagogical, Assessment, and Accountability Concerns through Integrated Spoken Communication Labs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes how results of the Golden West College Speech Department's program review led to the alignment of performance-based communication prerequisite and outcome expectations for: student placement recommendation; consistency of course curriculum and sequencing; measures of content-based competencies; and measures of…

Flores, Norma Landa

324

Allozyme diversity in the federally threatened golden paintbrush, Castilleja levisecta (Scrophulariaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Castilleja levisecta (Scrophulariaceae), the golden paintbrush, is an insect-pollinated herbaceaous perennial found in the Pacific Northwest. Currently restricted to two island populations off British Columbia and nine populations (eight on islands) in Washington, C. levisecta is a rare species threatened with extinction. Allozymes were used to describe genetic diversity and structure in these eleven populations. Despite its threatened status and

Mary Jo W. Godt; Florence Caplow; J. L. Hamrick

2005-01-01

325

Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Golden Gate National Recreation Area to Sea-Level Rise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within the legislative boundary of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) in Northern California. The CVI ranks the following in ter...

E. A. Pendleton E. R. Thieler S. J. Williams

2005-01-01

326

RESPONSE TO CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN CHARLES RIVER GOLDEN-SYRIAN HAMSTERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to characterize the Charles River (CR) Golden-Syrian hamster for use in the study of diet induced changes in lipoprotein metabolism in response to cholesterol and different classes of fatty acids. In Experiment 1, CR hamsters were fed a non-purified diet containing 1...

327

Harvesting by Peel Color to Reduce Bruising of "Golden Delicious" Apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Golden Delicious’ apples harvested at three peel color stages were immediately bruised to a constant depth using an artificial finger attached to an Instron universal material testing instrument. Bruised tissue was sliced sequentially from the fruit surface in a plane perpendicular to the directio...

328

California Golden Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Are Susceptible to Proliferative Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of proliferative kidney disease affecting farmed California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in the United Kingdom is described. The fish displayed the clinical signs of the disease, such as characteristic swelling of the posterior kidney and spleen. Confirmation of infection with Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in the renal tissue was done by means of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using a

D. J. Morris; M. Longshaw; A. Adams

2003-01-01

329

ANALYSIS IN BLOOD OF GOLDEN HAMSTER BY NAA FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE  

SciTech Connect

In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2009-06-03

330

Ornamental identity: commodity fetishism, masculinity, and sexuality in the golden bowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opening scene of The Golden Bowl signals the preoccupation with sex and shopping, and their overlap, that is central to the novel. Amerigo wanders idly down Bond Street, stopping now and then to look at “objects” “tumbled” together in the shop windows or experiencing similar momentary “arrests” at the faces of passing women (43). But if the inclusion of

Guy. Davidson

2007-01-01

331

Female Syrian golden hamster: drinking of high concentrations of ethanol aversive to other mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiments were designed to determine: 1) the pattern of preference for different concentrations of ethanol in the female Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and 2) the influence of drinking ethanol on their intakes of food and total calories. A standard three-bottle preference test was undertaken in six female hamsters over an 11-day period in which water was offered

K. Todd Piercy; R. D. Myers

1995-01-01

332

CORTISOL RESPONSE OF GOLDEN SHINERS NOTEMIGONUS CRYSOLEUCAS FED DIETS DIFFERING IN LIPID CONTENT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) is the predominant fish species raised for bait for recreational fishing in the US. Baitfish are marketed as live products, and they undergo frequent handling during production and transport to distribution points. Nutritional enhancement of stress resista...

333

A Short History of the Fibonacci and Golden Numbers with Their Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article deals with a brief history of Fibonacci's life and career. It includes Fibonacci's major mathematical discoveries to establish that he was undoubtedly one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the Medieval Period. Special attention is given to the Fibonacci numbers, the golden number and the Lucas numbers and their fundamental…

Debnath, Lokenath

2011-01-01

334

Choanal lymphosarcoma in a 7-year-old golden retriever: Diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 7-year-old, spayed female, golden retriever with a 1-year history of progressive stertor and reverse sneezing was referred for further diagnostics. Endoscopy and computed tomography of the head revealed a bilobed mass in the choanae. Cytologic and histopathologic examinations of the mass were consistent with lymphosarcoma. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy.

2005-01-01

335

Industrial Hygiene Walk-Through Survey Report of Colorado Chemical Specialties, Golden, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A walk through survey was conducted at Colorado Chemical Specialties (SIC-2821), Golden, Colorado in August, 1985. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate exposure to 1,3-butadiene (106990) during the manufacture of homopolymer and copolymer liquid poly...

J. M. Fajen L. J. Ungers

1986-01-01

336

Current Status of the Golden Apple Snail in the Ifugao Rice Terraces, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden apple snail (GAS) was introduced in the Philippines between 1982 and 1984 to supplement sources of food protein of low-income Filipino farmers. However, in 1986, it began to damage heavily rice farms in northwestern Luzon. Its rapid multiplication and wide distribution threaten rice production and food security in the country.This study led by scientists and researchers of the

R. C. Joshi; M. S. Delacruz; E. C. Martin; J. C. Cabigat; R. G. Bahatan; A. D. Bahatan; E. H. Abayao; Joe Choy-Awon; N. P. Chilagan; A. B. Cayong

2001-01-01

337

A Jubilant Connection: General Jubal Early's Troops and the Golden Ratio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The golden ratio, one of the most beautiful numbers in all of mathematics, arises in some surprising places. At first glance, we might expect that a General checking his troops' progress would be nothing more than a basic distance-rate-time problem. However, further exploration reveals a multi-faceted problem, one in which the ratio of rates…

Bolte, Linda A.; Noon, Tim R., Jr.

2012-01-01

338

Changes in DNA Loop Domain Structure During Spermatogenesis and Embryogenesis in the Syrian Golden Hamster1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that are 25 to 100 kilobases long and attached at their bases to the nuclear matrix. This organization plays major roles in DNA replication and transcription. We examined changes in DNA loop structure of the 5S rDNA gene cluster in the Syrian golden hamster as a function of cellular differentiation

Angela V. Klaus; John R. McCarrey; Andrew Farkas; W. Steven Ward

339

Locomotion of free-ranging golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) at the National Zoological Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotor behavior and substrate use of cage-reared golden lion tamarins (Le- ontopithecus rosalia), newly released and free-ranging on the grounds of the National Zoological Park, were studied to determine if locomotion changed fol- lowing exposure to naturalistic conditions. The animals employed a predomi- nantly quadrupedal locomotor profile, incorporating leaping and vertical climbing to a lesser degree. There was no clear

Brian J. Stafford; Alfred L. Rosenberger; Benjamin B. Beck

1994-01-01

340

THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

341

Effects of Information on Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Golden Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of information on consumer bidding behavior using a uniform-price auction with four units supply for golden rice. Our findings show that mean willingness to pay (WTP) bids are highest under positive information, followed by no information, negative information, and unexpectedly lowest with two-sided information. Participants might have put more weight on the negative when faced with

Dinah Pura T. Depositario; Ximing Wu; Tiffany P. Laude

2009-01-01

342

Environmental impact of the golden snail (Pomacea sp.) on rice farming systems in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary report of the workshop held at the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, on 9-10 November 1989. It discusses the effects wrought by the golden snail since its introduction to the Philippines, particularly on rice farming systems. Ways to control the snail are presented.

B. Acosta; R. S. V. Pullin

343

Microsatellite variation within and among recently fragmented populations of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four variable microsatellite loci were used toexamine the genetic diversity and differentiation of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) in four populations recently isolated by habitat fragmentation. Using Rst estimates of genetic differentiation, a considerable genetic divergence was detected among these populations, with an averagedifferentiation of 31%. Significant differences in allele number among these populations were found. However, the heterozygosity among

A. D. Grativol; J. D. Ballou; R. C. Fleischer

2001-01-01

344

Adaptive range selection by golden eagles in a changing landscape: A multiple modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land abandonment is causing considerable woodland expansion in many mountainous areas of Europe, with potential repercussions on conservation-sensitive species typical of open habitats. We examined the potential impact of such changes on an alpine golden eagle population, by estimating the ranges potentially used by the eagles for foraging through different techniques (concentric circles of different radii and a tessellation-method based

Fabrizio Sergio; Paolo Pedrini; Franco Rizzolli; Luigi Marchesi

2006-01-01

345

Seasonal energetics of the Hottentot golden mole at 1500 m altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter is an energetically stressful period for small mammals as increasing demands for thermoregulation are often coupled with shortages of food supply. In sub-tropical savannah, Hottentot golden moles (Ambysomus hottentottus longiceps) forage throughout the year and for long periods of each day. This may enable them to acquire sufficient resources from an insectivorous prey base that is both widely dispersed

M. Scantlebury; M. K. Oosthuizen; J. R. Speakman; C. R. Jackson; N. C. Bennett

2005-01-01

346

Memory Recall and Participation Levels in the Elderly: A Study of Golden Age Radio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twelve women (mean age 90) in a nursing home listened to Golden Age radio programs and answered trivia questions. Reactions to musical programs showed they encouraged reminiscence; trivia stimulated recall of historical and life events. In contrast, comedy programs evoked little response. (SK)|

Durham, Pamela R.; Whittemore, Margaret P.

1993-01-01

347

MEMORY RECALL AND PARTICIPATION LEVELS IN THE ELDERLY: A STUDY OF GOLDEN AGE RADIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutionalized elderly people often appear to live in the past, or in their long?term memories. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of playing tapes of Golden Age radio shows, both musical and comedy, on the residents of a nursing home. In particular, the researchers were interested in memory recall, reactions to the memories, and the effects

Pamela R. Durham; Margaret P. Whittemore

1993-01-01

348

Ultrastructural features of the pineal gland in normal and light deprived golden hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although current physiological findings imply that the mammalian pineal organ liberates an antigonadal agent, microscopic examinations of this organ have afforded little information regarding the possible storage and release of such a substance. Since it is known that light deprivation for six weeks results in pineal-induced atrophy of certain reproductive organs in adult golden hamsters, one might expect that any

Jeanne W. Clabough

1971-01-01

349

Synaptic ribbons during postnatal development of the pineal gland in the golden hamster ( Mesocricetus auratus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synaptic ribbons, functionally enigmatic structures of mammalian pinealocytes, were studied during the postnatal development of the pineal gland in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). On day 4 post partum, synaptic ribbons appear in cells that have already started to differentiate into pinealocytes. Between days 4 and 9, an increase in the number of synaptic ribbons occurs, concomitant with the continuing

Maria Hewing

1979-01-01

350

A short history of the Fibonacci and golden numbers with their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with a brief history of Fibonacci's life and career. It includes Fibonacci's major mathematical discoveries to establish that he was undoubtedly one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the Medieval Period. Special attention is given to the Fibonacci numbers, the golden number and the Lucas numbers and their fundamental properties with enlightening examples. A large number of

Lokenath Debnath

2011-01-01

351

Postnatal development of vagina, clitoris and urethral glands of the golden hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made a histological study of the postnatal development of the clitoris, preputial glands, urethral glands and vagina of the golden hamster. The ‘phallic groove’ of the clitoris is closed at 10 days of life, then the urethra has a cuboidal stratified, a stratified squamous and a stratified keratinized epithelium. The preputial glands are composed of branched saccular glands.

N. Hisano

1977-01-01

352

Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors evaluated the environmental education program of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association in Brazil by comparing results of a 2001 survey with baseline data from 1986. Responses of 666 residents and results from 4 focus groups revealed an increase in public support for the tamarin and its habitat and an increase in general environmental…

Engels, Christine Archer; Jacobson, Susan K.

2007-01-01

353

Effects of Light, Cold Storage, and Temperature on Seed Germination of Golden Thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden thistle (Scolymus hispanicus L., family Asteraceae), is used as both a medicinal plant and a vegetable in the Mediterranean region. Although the plant grows in the wild, information to promote seed germination is needed for the cultivation necessary to meet demand. In this study, seed from two wild-grown and one cultivated source were used to determine the effect of

Ali Osman Sari; Mehmet Tutar

2010-01-01

354

A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam

Hunt

1995-01-01

355

Prevalence of uveal cysts and pigmentary uveitis in Golden Retrievers in three Midwestern states.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine the prevalence of uveal cysts and pigmentary uveitis (PU) in Golden Retrievers in 3 Midwestern states. Design-Prospective cross-sectional study. Animals-164 American Kennel Club-registered Golden Retrievers in the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan. Procedures-For all dogs, biomicroscopic and binocular indirect ophthalmoscopic examinations of both eyes were performed after pupillary dilation. A finding of pigment deposition in a radial pattern or in zones on the anterior aspect of the lens capsule of 1 or both eyes was required for a diagnosis of PU. Results-Eighty of the 328 (24.4%) eyes and 57 of the 164 (34.8%) dogs had visible uveal cysts. Of those 80 eyes with cysts, 41 (51.3%) had a single cyst located nasally and posterior to the iris, 33 (41.3%) had multiple uveal cysts, and 6 (75%) had a single, free-floating cyst. A diagnosis of PU was made for 9 (5.5%) dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Prevalences of uveal cysts (34.3%) and PU (5.5%) in the examined Golden Retrievers were both higher than prevalences reported previously (5.4% for uveal cysts and 1.5% for PU) in the Canine Eye Registry Foundation's 2009 All-Breeds Report. Study findings have indicated that PU is not a rare condition and should be considered as a differential diagnosis for Golden Retrievers with ocular disease. PMID:24134580

Townsend, Wendy M; Gornik, Kara R

2013-11-01

356

Daidzin and Daidzein Suppress Free-Choice Ethanol Intake by Syrian Golden Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocryptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcoholdependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanoldrinking animal model has high \\

Wing-Ming Keung; Bert L. Vallee

1993-01-01

357

Tangled hierarchies: Goedel, Escher, Bach: an eternal golden braid and gravity's rainbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study brings together what might well appear to be two unlikely texts: Douglas Hofstadter's 1980 Pulitzer prize-winning work of nonfiction, Goedel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid, and Thomas Pynchon's controversial novel of 1973, Gravity's Rainbow. Goedel, Escher, Bach gives us a computer science professor's effusive speculations on the nature of human intelligence and the potential for artificial intelligence.

Bayerl

1985-01-01

358

Expression of Functional Replication Protein from Tomato Golden Mosaic Virus in Transgenic Tobacco Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The A component of the bipartite genome of the geminivirus tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) encodes the viral protein (AL1) that is required for viral DNA replication. We have constructed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants in which the AL1 open reading frame is transcribed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The transgenic plants, which were phenotypically normal,

Linda Hanley-Bowdoin; J. Scott Elmer; Stephen G. Rogers

1990-01-01

359

Neural Connections of the Anterior Hypothalamus and Agonistic Behavior in Golden Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In male golden hamsters, offensive aggression is regulated by an interaction between arginine-vasopressin and serotonin at the level of the anterior hypothalamus. The present studies were conducted to study a neural network underlying this interaction. The connections of the anterior hypothalamus were examined by retrograde and anterograde tracing in adult male hamsters. Several limbic areas were found to contain both

Yvon Delville; Geert J. De Vries; Craig F. Ferris

2000-01-01

360

Were the Fibonacci Series and the Golden Section Known in Ancient Egypt?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fibonacci series and the Golden Section have often been used to explain the proportions of ancient Egyptian art and architecture. All such theories, however, are based on our modern mathematical system. They have never been examined in the realm of ancient Egyptian mathematics as we understand it from studying the surviving mathematical sources. This article analyses the compatibility of

Corinna Rossi; Christopher A. Tout

2002-01-01

361

Decrease of liver glycogen content in golden hamsters infected with plerocercoids of Spirometra erinacei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver glycogen content decreased in golden hamsters experimentally infected with plerocercoids ofSpirometra erinacei. The activity of glycogen synthasea decreased significantly in infected animals, whereas that of glycogen phosphorylasea was not significantly affected. These observations suggest that changes in glycogen content were not attributable to increased glycogenolysis, but rather resulted from suppressed glycogenesis. Plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentrations in infected animals

T. Tsuboi; K. Hirai; M. Torii; H. Nishida

1991-01-01

362

Quest for the Golden Rule: An Effective Social Skills Promotion and Bullying Prevention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Everyday many students face bullying situations that they are ill equipped to manage. E-learning has recently emerged as a potentially effective tool in teaching children social skills, in addition to academic subject matter. Quest for the Golden Rule is one of the first bullying prevention e-learning programs available, designed by the…

Rubin-Vaughan, Alice; Pepler, Debra; Brown, Steven; Craig, Wendy

2011-01-01

363

Camp Golden Treasures: A Multidisciplinary Weight-Loss and a Healthy Lifestyle Camp for Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camp Golden Treasures, (CGT) the first non-profit weight loss camp for overweight adolescent girls in the nation, was held for six weeks from June 24 to August 3, 2007 at the East Carolina University campus in Greenville, NC. The primary goal was to support campers to lose weight, raise self esteem, and to learn the tools necessary to lead a

Keeley J. Pratt; Angela L. Lamson; David N. Collier; Yancey S. Crawford; Nancy Harris; Kevin Gross; Sharon Ballard; Sharon Sarvey; Maria Saporito

2009-01-01

364

76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA701 Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector...length of the 2011 recreational fishing season for golden tilefish based on the 2010...reduce the length of the following fishing season by the amount necessary to ensure...

2011-10-04

365

The Consequences of Road Development in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park, South Africa: Paradise Lost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Gate Highlands National Park (GGHNP) was one of the pristine wildlife areas of South Africa until a small dirt road in the park was upgraded in the mid-1990s. The unique environment of the park is a true highland habitat, providing a home to a variety of mammals and birds. As a result of the upgrading of the road

Nico J. Kotze

2002-01-01

366

The golden section search algorithm for finding a good shape parameter for meshless collocation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose to apply the golden section search algorithm to determining a good shape parameter of multiquadrics (MQ) for the solution of partial differential equations. We use two radial basis function based meshless collocation methods, the method of approximate particular solutions (MAPS) and Kansa's method, to solve partial differential equations. Due to the severely ill-conditioned matrix system

C. H. Tsai; Joseph Kolibal; Ming Li

2010-01-01

367

Illumination and Food Deprivation as Determinants for Hoarding in Golden Hampsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for animals to adapt to changes in food availability in order to survive. Hoarding is one method of accomplishing this and the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is particularly adept at hoarding. Previous literature suggests a connection between hoarding and stress. To further examine this connection, the present study looked at the effects of illumination and food deprivation

ErinSmith

2002-01-01

368

Herbivory on aquatic vascular plants by the introduced golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata ) in Lao PDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of naturally found densities of the exotic and herbivorous golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on three dominant aquatic plants – duckweed (Lemna minor), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) – was assessed in a wetland survey and quantified in a field experiment in Laos in southeast Asia. Snail grazing reduced plant biomass, but plant species

Nils O. L. Carlsson; Jean O. Lacoursière

2005-01-01

369

Array-based genotyping and expression analysis of barley cv. Maythorpe and Golden Promise  

PubMed Central

Background Golden Promise is a salt-tolerant spring barley closely related to Maythorpe. Salt tolerance in Golden Promise has been attributed to a single mutation at the Ari-e locus (on 5H) resulting from irradiation of Maythorpe. Golden Promise accumulates lower shoot Na+ compared to Maythorpe when growing under saline conditions. This study focused on elucidating the genetic basis and mechanisms involved in this difference. Results The level of polymorphism between the two genotypes was explored using the Barley1 GeneChip for single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) and an oligonucleotide pool assay for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Polymorphism analyses revealed three haplotype blocks spanning 6.4 cM on chromosome 1H, 23.7 cM on chromosome 4H and 3.0 cM on 5H. The Barley1 GeneChip was used to examine transcript abundance in different tissues and stages during development. Several genes within the polymorphic haplotype blocks were differentially regulated. Additionally, a more global difference in the jasmonic acid pathway regulation was detected between the two genotypes. Conclusion The results confirm that Golden Promise and Maythorpe are genetically very closely related but establish that they are not isogenic, as previously reported, due to three polymorphic haplotype blocks. Transcriptome analysis indicates that the response of the two genotypes to salinity stress is quite different. Additionally, the response to salinity stress in the roots and shoot tissue is strikingly different.

Walia, Harkamal; Wilson, Clyde; Condamine, Pascal; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Xu, Jin; Cui, Xinping; Close, Timothy J

2007-01-01

370

Higher Education and Development: A Selection of Papers Presented to the Golden Jubilee Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selected papers on higher education and development that were presented to the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the Association of Indian Universities are presented. Topics include development and underdevelopment, recent trends in development strategy, and India in the 1980's and 1990's. Contents include the following: "Development and…

Association of Indian Universities, New Delhi (India).

371

Bridging Poetic and Cold War Divides in Lyn Hejinian's Oxota and Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyn Hejinian's Oxota: A Short Russian Novel (1991) and Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate (1986) are works from two very different poetic camps? Language poetry and New Formalism?that both draw on Russia's national poet Alexander Pushkin's novel in verse Eugene Onegin (1833) for inspiration and so offer a unique opportunity for reconsidering poetic and Cold War divides in U.S. poetry.

Jacob Edmond

372

PNPLA1 mutations cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in golden retriever dogs and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ichthyoses comprise a heterogeneous group of genodermatoses characterized by abnormal desquamation over the whole body, for which the genetic causes of several human forms remain unknown. We used a spontaneous dog model in the golden retriever breed, which is affected by a lamellar ichthyosis resembling human autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCI), to carry out a genome-wide association study. We identified

Anaïs Grall; Eric Guaguère; Sandrine Planchais; Susanne Grond; Emmanuelle Bourrat; Ingrid Hausser; Christophe Hitte; Matthieu Le Gallo; Céline Derbois; Gwang-Jin Kim; Laëtitia Lagoutte; Frédérique Degorce-Rubiales; Franz P W Radner; Anne Thomas; Sébastien Küry; Emmanuel Bensignor; Jacques Fontaine; Didier Pin; Robert Zimmermann; Rudolf Zechner; Mark Lathrop; Francis Galibert; Catherine André; Judith Fischer

2012-01-01

373

Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of ?0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: ?4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we noted slightly declining trends in southern BCRs and slightly increasing trends in northern BCRs. However, we estimated the average rate of golden eagle population change across all 12 BCRs for the period 1968–2010 as +0.40% per year (95% CI?=??0.27% to 1.00%), suggesting a stable population. We also estimated the average rate of population change for the period 1990–2010 was +0.5% per year (95% CI?=??0.33% to 1.3%). Our annual estimates of population size for the most recent decade range from 31,370 (95% CI: 25,450–39,310) in 2004 to 33,460 (95% CI: 27,380–41,710) in 2007. Our results clarify that golden eagles are not declining widely in the western United States. © 2013 The Wildlife Society.

Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert

2013-01-01

374

Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).  

PubMed

The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342

Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria

2007-08-04

375

64 FR 61687 - Stagecoach Holdings plc and Coach USA, Inc., et al.Control Golden Isles Coaches of Florida, Inc  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MC-F-20955] Stagecoach Holdings plc and Coach USA, Inc., et al.--Control-- Golden...Stagecoach) and its subsidiary, Coach USA, Inc. (Coach), noncarriers, and various...management subsidiaries, including Coach USA Southeast, Inc. (Southeast), have...

1999-11-12

376

76 FR 31920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Golden...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy, such as information...International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists golden-winged...however, are not regulatory in nature. [[Page 31925

2011-06-02

377

76 FR 13600 - Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand #3 and #4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand 3 and 4 Lode Mining...Krassel Ranger District, Payette National Forest, 500 N. Mission, McCall, Idaho 83638. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2011-03-14

378

Ossicular differentiation of airborne and seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica).  

PubMed

Comparison between the middle ear anatomy of the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica), which exhibits a club-shaped malleus head, and the Desert golden mole (Eremitalpa granti), with a ball-shaped malleus head, suggests differences in sensitivity to airborne sound. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometric measurements of the ossicular behavior in response to both vibration and airborne sound were made in C. asiatica. Two distinct vibrational modes were observed. In response to low-frequency vibration (70-200 Hz), the malleus oscillates about the ligament of the short process of the incus, whereas in response to high-frequency airborne sound (1-6 kHz) the ossicular chain rotates about the long axis of malleus. It is proposed that the club-shaped malleus head in C. asiatica constitutes an adaptation towards bimodal hearing-sensitivity to substrate vibrations and airborne sound. Possible functional differences between these two middle ear types are discussed. PMID:16283329

Willi, U B; Bronner, G N; Narins, P M

2005-11-09

379

Plasma lipids of golden Syrian hamsters fed dietary rose hip, sunflower, olive and coconut oils.  

PubMed

Plasma lipids of male golden Syrian hamsters fed diets supplemented with 15% (w/w) rose hip, sunflower, olive, or coconut oils during four weeks were assessed. The results confirm the saturated fat hyperlipidemic effect on golden Syrian hamsters fed with the olive oil and coconut oil, reaching the highest triglyceride levels. The monounsaturated (olive oil) or polyunsaturated (rose hip and sunflower oils) fatty acid-rich-vegetable oils have a similar action on the HDL-cholesterol. No statistically significant difference was observed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels in the rose hip and sunflower groups, showing that the polyunsaturation degree of both oils does not affect those results. Compared with the plasma levels obtained in the olive and coconut oil groups, rose hip and sunflower oils present a marked hypolipidemic effect, which could be due to specific action of the series n-6 linoleic acid. PMID:9291530

González, I; Escobar, M; Olivera, P

1997-06-01

380

Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.  

PubMed

Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Sréter, T

2013-04-26

381

Icosahedral (A5) family symmetry and the golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility of using icosahedral symmetry as a family symmetry group in the lepton sector. The rotational icosahedral group, which is isomorphic to A5, the alternating group of five elements, provides a natural context in which to explore (among other possibilities) the intriguing hypothesis that the solar neutrino mixing angle is governed by the golden ratio, ?=(1+5)/2. We present a basic toolbox for model building using icosahedral symmetry, including explicit representation matrices and tensor product rules. As a simple application, we construct a minimal model at tree level in which the solar angle is related to the golden ratio, the atmospheric angle is maximal, and the reactor angle vanishes to leading order. The approach provides a rich setting in which to investigate the flavor puzzle of the standard model.

Everett, Lisa L.; Stuart, Alexander J.

2009-04-01

382

Golden Rule of Radiation Hardness: a Study of Strain Effect on Controlled Radiation Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stain is widely presented in microstructures. Strain effect to radiation hardness is critical in understanding and engineering nano-materials. Here we studied the strain effect on the controlled radiation damage in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) through ab initio density functional theory calculations. We observed a general behavior of reduction in the radiation hardness by the strain, for both B-vacancy and N-vacancy configurations, in both compressive and tensive strain states, at the directions of zigzag, armchair and bi-axial. We proposed a golden rule of the radiation hardness states that any effort adding energy to the system will reduce the radiation hardness. Such golden rule of radiation hardness could be widely applied to material design and engineering for those devices working in irradiation-enrich environments, for example, electronic and optoelectronic devices in outer space.

Peng, Qing; Ji, Wei; de, Suvranu

2012-02-01

383

Visualization of Fermi's golden rule through imaging of light emission from atomic silver chains.  

PubMed

Atomic-scale spatial imaging of one-dimensional chains of silver atoms allows Fermi's golden rule, a fundamental principle governing optical transitions, to be visualized. We used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to assemble a silver atom chain on a nickel-aluminum alloy surface. Photon emission was induced with electrons from the tip of the STM. The emission was spatially resolved with subnanometer resolution by changing the tip position along the chain. The number and positions of the emission maxima in the photon images match those of the nodes in the differential conductance images of particle-in-a-box states. This surprising correlation between the emission maxima and nodes in the density of states is a manifestation of Fermi's golden rule in real space for radiative transitions and provides an understanding of the mechanism of STM-induced light emission. PMID:19696347

Chen, Chi; Bobisch, C A; Ho, W

2009-08-21

384

Rock Magnetic and Paleointensity Study of Eastern California's ~83 Ma Golden Bear and Coso Dikes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraordinary intermediate-composition (Kspar +/- quartz andesite porphyry) dikes are coincident with the end of Sierra Nevada magmatism and crop out on both the east and the west sides of Owens Valley, but offset dextrally by >60 km. If this offset represents ancient (possibly Cretaceous) strike-slip partitioning of Pacific-North America plate boundary strain, then at least one of the south- and east-sited Coso dikes might be expected to be paleomagnetically "identical" to its presumed paleo-contiguous, north- and west-sited Golden Bear partner. Accompanying a directional study by Pluhar and colleagues at CSU-Fresno, we are characterizing magnetic mineralogy, fabric, and thermal lability of Coso dikes and the Golden Bear dike. We are also applying the pTRM difference multi-specimen paleointensity technique to these samples, testing for across-Owens Valley correlation.

Feldman, M.; Raub, T. D.

2009-12-01

385

Highlighting High Performance: National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Visitors Center, Golden, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Visitors Center, also known as the Dan Schaefer Federal Building, is a high-performance building located in Golden, Colorado. The 6,400-square-foot building incorporates passive solar heating, energy-efficient lighting, an evaporative cooling system, and other technologies to minimize energy costs and environmental impact. The Visitors Center displays a variety of interactive exhibits on energy efficiency and renewable energy, and the building includes an auditorium, a public reading room, and office space.

Burgert, S.

2001-06-19

386

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 4. Verbesina encelioides, Golden Crownbeard (Magnoliopsida: Asteraceae) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray, golden crownbeard, is a sunflower-like herbaceous annual plant ranging in height from 0.3 to 1.7 m with showy yellow flowers. It is native to the southwestern United States, the Mexican Plateau, and other parts of tropical America. Its in- vasive characteristics include high seed production (as many as 300-350 seeds

Kathleen R. Feenstra; David R. Clements

2008-01-01

387

Aerobic respiration rate of Golden Delicious apples as a function of temperature and P O 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the temperature dependence of the constants involved in a mathematical model relating the aerobic respiration rate of Golden Delicious apples to the PO2 of the surrounding atmosphere, O2 consumption (rO2) and CO2 production (rCO2) rates were measured at four temperatures (21, 16, 6 and 1°C) and five partial pressures of O2 (0, 3, 5, 10 and 21 kPa),

G. Andrich; A. Zinnai; S. Balzini; S. Silvestri; R. Fiorentini

1998-01-01

388

The origins of US total factor productivity growth in the golden age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consideration of TFP growth in the United States during the golden age (1948–1973) raises two related questions: on the\\u000a one hand why was it so strong and on the other hand, why were TFP growth rates lower than they were during the Depression\\u000a years (1929–1941)? A continuing downward trend in TFP growth within manufacturing, and its declining share after

Alexander J. Field

2007-01-01

389

Phytoplankton as an Indicator of Improving Water Quality in the Golden Horn Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in phytoplankton community as a response to improving water quality has been studied in the severely polluted\\u000a Golden Horn Estuary (GHE). Phytoplankton data collected monthly for 4 years and a detailed set of environmental parameters\\u000a clearly showed the remarkable change in the GHE. The GHE ecosystem did not respond to numerous rehabilitation efforts to improve\\u000a water quality, unless strict

Seyfettin Tas; I. Noyan Yilmaz; Erdogan Okus

2009-01-01

390

Icosahedral (A5) family symmetry and the golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the possibility of using icosahedral symmetry as a family symmetry group in the lepton sector. The rotational icosahedral group, which is isomorphic to A5, the alternating group of five elements, provides a natural context in which to explore (among other possibilities) the intriguing hypothesis that the solar neutrino mixing angle is governed by the golden ratio, varphi=(1+5)\\/2. We

Lisa L. Everett; Alexander J. Stuart

2009-01-01

391

Golden ratio versus pi as random sequence sources for Monte Carlo integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algebraic irrational number golden ratio ?=(1+5)\\/2 = one of the two roots of the algebraic equation x2?x?1=0 and the transcendental number ?=2sin?1(1) = the ratio of the circumference and the diameter of any circle both have infinite number of digits with no apparent pattern. We discuss here the relative merits of these numbers as possible random sequence sources. The quality of these sequences

Syamal K. Sen; Ravi P. Agarwal; Gholam Ali Shaykhian

2008-01-01

392

Golden ratio scheduling for low delay flow control in computer networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a scheme for flow control based on the golden ratio policy of A. Itai and Z. Rosberg (1984) that requires very few buffers and guarantees low end-to-end delays. Messages are formed into equal length packets and then transmitted in accordance with a cyclic schedule. The scheme is very well suited to an asynchronous time-division multiplexing (ATM) environment as it

S. S. Panwar; T. K. Philips; M. S. Chen

1988-01-01

393

The role of the golden proportion in the evaluation of facial esthetics.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective: To demonstrate if one or more golden relationships between different measurements of the human face exist. Materials and Methods: To make our measurements, we used three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry, which has proved to be the "gold standard" in the field of facial anthropometry. We obtained 3D stereophotogrammetric facial acquisitions of 400 healthy young adult subjects, then had them scored by an Evaluation Jury. Each subject received an esthetic evaluation ranging from 0 to 40. Individuals with a score larger than 28 were considered very attractive (VA), and individuals with a score lower than 12 were considered not attractive (NA). Fifteen subjects per group were chosen by chance, with a final total group of 60 subjects: 15 VA males, 15 NA males, 15 VA females, and 15 NA females. For each subject, a set of facial distances was obtained from the stereophotogrammetric facial reconstruction, and 10 ratios were computed. The effects of sex and attractiveness were tested by analysis of variance. Additionally, Student's t-tests verified if the ratios were statistically different from the golden ratio. Results: For nine ratios, no significant effects of sex or attractiveness were found. Only the eye-mouth distance/height of the mandible ratio was significantly influenced by sex (P ?=? .035) and attractiveness (P ?=? .032). Seven out of 10 ratios were statistically different from the hypothetical value of 1.618, and only three of them were similar to the golden ratio. Conclusions: Ratios between 3D facial distances were not related to attractiveness. Most of the facial ratios were different from the golden ratio. PMID:23477386

Rossetti, Alberto; De Menezes, Marcio; Rosati, Riccardo; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella

2013-03-11

394

Perturbation expansion and Nth order Fermi golden rule of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations with external potentials. We find the expressions for the fourth and the sixth order Fermi golden rules (FGRs), conjectured in Gang and Sigal [Rev. Math. Phys. 17, 1143-1207 (2005); Geom. Funct. Anal. 16, No. 7, 1377-1390 (2006)]. The FGR is a key condition in a study of the asymptotic dynamics of trapped solitons.

Zhou, Gang

2007-05-01

395

An immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamster model for SARS-CoV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several small animal models have been developed for the study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication and pathogenesis. Syrian golden hamsters are among the best small animal models, though little clinical illness and no mortality are observed after virus infection. Cyclophosphamide was used to immunosuppress hamsters leading to a prolonged disease course and higher mortality after SARS-CoV infection.

Scott R. Schaecher; Jennifer Stabenow; Christina Oberle; Jill Schriewer; R. Mark Buller; John E. Sagartz; Andrew Pekosz

2008-01-01

396

Lunar Synchronization of in Vitro Steroidogenesis in Ovaries of the Golden Rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the relationship between lunar cycle and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, the intact follicles of oocytes were incubated in vitro with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and seven steroid hormones, 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), 17?,20?,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20?-S), 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), progesterone (P), cortisol, estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone, during the two lunar phases, the new moon (1 week before

Akihiro Takemura; Kazunori Takano

2002-01-01

397

Annual cycle of energy and time expenditure in a golden-mantled ground squirrel population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed seasonal shifts of energy and time allocation in a population of golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus saturatus) by directly measuring total daily energy expenditure (DEE) with an isotopic technique (“doubly labeled water”=dlw), and by estimating components of total DEE through an integration of field behavioral observations with laboratory-measured rates of energy expenditure (oxygen consumption) associated with major behavioral

G. J. Kenagy; S. M. Sharbaugh; K. A. Nagy

1989-01-01

398

A golden point rule in rock-paper-scissors-lizard-spock game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a novel five-species system on two-dimensional lattices when each species have two superior and two inferior partners. Here we simplify the huge parameter space of predation probability to only two parameters. Both of Monte Carlo simulation and Mean Field Theory reveal that two of strategies may die out when the ratio of the two parameters is close to the golden point 0.618, and the remaining three strategies are provided a cyclic dominance system.

Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui; Wang, Xueting; He, Mingfeng

2013-06-01

399

Hunton and Sycamore reservoirs in Golden Trend field, Garvin County, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s, significant reserves have been developed from Hunton and Sycamore reservoirs subcropping beneath the basal Desmoinesian unconformity, on the east flank of the Anadarko basin in T2, 3N, R2, 3W. Earlier oil production from the giant Golden Trend field has been largely from several overlapping Pennsylvanian stratigraphic traps, with only a minor contribution from pre-Pennsylvanian reservoirs within the

R. P. Sorenson; F. W. White; C. N. Clark

1987-01-01

400

Direct somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf, petiole, and stem explants of Golden Pothos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos directly formed at cut edges or on the surface of leaf explants, around cut ends or along side surfaces of petiole and stem explants of ‘Golden Pothos’ [ Epipremnum aureum (Linden & Andre) Bunt.] on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)- N?-phenylurea (CPPU) or N-phenyl- N?-1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (TDZ) with ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and a

Q. Zhang; J. Chen; R. J. Henny

2005-01-01

401

Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes have shown promise as contrast agents for photoacoustic and photothermal imaging of tumours and infections because they offer high resolution and allow deep tissue imaging. However, in vivo applications have been limited by the relatively low absorption displayed by nanotubes at near-infrared wavelengths and concerns over toxicity. Here, we show that gold-plated carbon nanotubes-termed golden carbon nanotubes-can be

Jin Woo Kim; Ekaterina I. Galanzha; Evgeny V. Shashkov; Hyung-Mo Moon; Vladimir P. Zharov

2009-01-01

402

Golden rice: what role could it play in alleviation of vitamin A deficiency?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden rice (GR) is a new rice variety that has been genetically modified to contain beta-carotene, a source of vA. This modification was undertaken as a strategy to address VAD, which is widespread in less developed countries of Asia. Children’s food intake data from a poor rural region of the Philippines are used to simulate the potential impact of GR

D. Dawe; R. Robertson; L. Unnevehr

2002-01-01

403

RESPONSES OF 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS' APPLES TO 1-MCP APPLIED IN AIR AND WATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Golden Delciuous' [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]apple fruit were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 0.42, 4.2 or 42 mmol m**-3 in air at 20 deg C or 0.03, 0.3 or 3 mmol m**-3 in 20 deg C water. Fruit were held in air at 20 deg C for 25 days after treatment or stored at ...

404

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Exposure During Adolescence and Aggressive Behavior in Golden Hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melloni, R.H., Jr., D. F. Connor, P. T. Xuan Hang, R. J. Harrison and C. F. Ferris. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters. Physiol Behav 61(3) 359–364, 1997.—Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior.

Richard H. Melloni; Daniel F. Connor; Phuong T. Xuan Hang; Robert J. Harrison; Craig F. Ferris

1997-01-01

405

Possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide in the development of resistance mechanisms in ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apples (Malusdomestica L. cv Golden Delicious) were picked 7 days before (harvest 1), or after (harvest 2) the commercial harvest time. Changes in H2O2 levels and in the activity of the H2O2-generating enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and H2O2-scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and unspecific peroxidase (POX) were estimated immediately after harvest and during the first 24 h following wounding and inoculation

R. Torres; M. C. Valentines; J. Usall; I. Viñas; C. Larrigaudiere

2003-01-01

406

Primary localized nodular cutaneous amyloidosis in a male neutered Golden Retriever.  

PubMed

Cutaneous amyloidosis occurs as primary localized form or secondary to systemic amyloidosis. In dogs, cutaneous amyloidosis is reported in association with localized plasma cell proliferation or cutaneous extramedullary plasmacytoma. Primary cutaneous amyloidosis is a very rare condition in dogs. There is paucity of information and published report on primary nodular cutaneous amyloidosis in dogs. This report describes a case of primary nodular cutaneous amyloidosis for the first time in a male Golden Retriever. PMID:18181363

Woldemeskel, M

2007-12-01

407

NemaRus: A golden nematode resistant, russet-skin potato variety  

Microsoft Academic Search

NemaRus, a russet-skinned potato variety resistant to race A of the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), is medium-late in maturity (110 days) and adapted primarily to the Northeastern United States and Northern Florida. Tubers\\u000a are oblong to long with moderately shallow eyes, and medium-to-heavy russeted skin. The specific gravity of NemaRus is similar\\u000a to the popular Western U.S.A. fresh market russet

R. W. Goth; J. R. Shumaker; R. E. Webb; D. R. Wilson; R. Moore; L. L. Sanford; K. G. Haynes

1989-01-01

408

Marcy: A chipping variety with resistance to common scab and the golden nematode  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Marcy’ is a white-skinned, white-fleshed potato cultivar notable for its high yield, good chip color, and resistance to common\\u000a scab and race Ro1 of the golden cyst nematode. It was selected from a cross made at Cornell University in 1990 between ‘Atlantic’\\u000a and Q155-3. Full-season marketable yields of Marcy have averaged 15% to 20% greater than Atlantic in 83 trials

Walter S. De Jong; Donald E. Halseth; Bill B. Brodie; Keith L. Perry; Joseph B. Sieczka; Barbara J. Christ; Gregory A. Porter; Ken M. Paddock; Michael W. Peck; Robert L. Plaisted

2006-01-01

409

Sunrise: An early maturing, golden nematode resistant, round, white potato variety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sunrise potato variety is an early maturing variety with round to oblong, moderately smooth, white skinned tubers with\\u000a medium-shallow eyes. Its characteristics are closely parallel to those of Superior, except Sunrise is resistant to race A\\u000a of the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis). Sunrise is primarily a table potato; however, in southern areas it can be used for chips when

A. F. Reeves; R. V. Akeley; C. E. Cunningham; H. J. Murphy; R. H. True; F. E. Manzer

1985-01-01

410

Islander: A golden nematode resistant potato variety for fresh market and chipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Islander potato variety is a medium maturing variety with oblong, shallow-eyed, white-skinned tubers. High dry matter\\u000a and good chip color characterize this variety which is better adapted to Long Island, New York and New Jersey than to other\\u000a northeastern areas. It is resistant to golden nematode and net necrosis; moderately resistant to common scab and early blight;\\u000a and less

R. V. Akeley; F. E. Manzer; H. J. Murphy; R. H. True; J. B. Sieczka; D. D. Moyer

1984-01-01

411

Castile: A multiple-purpose, high yielding full-season golden nematode resistant potato variety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Castile is a golden nematode Race A (Globodera rostochiensis) resistant potato variety with the potential to produce high marketable yields of attractive tubers suitable for tablestock\\u000a and processing. Tubers are oblong to long, slightly flattened with a smooth white skin and moderately shallow eyes. Vines\\u000a of this variety are large, providing a dense canopy, and require a full growing season

D. E. Halseth; J. B. Sieczka; D. D. Moyer; R. W. Goth; R. E. Webb; D. R. Wilson; K. G. Haynes; W. C. Mehlenbacher

1991-01-01

412

Oxygen Depletion Events Control the Invasive Golden Mussel ( Limnoperna fortunei ) in a Tropical Floodplain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 10 years the golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), an exotic species native to eastern Asia, has become widespread and abundant in the Pantanal Wetland, Brazil. Oxygen concentrations\\u000a are often low in rivers and floodplain waters of the Pantanal and oxygen depletion events can last for several weeks during\\u000a the rising water phase. Although mortality of L. fortunei has been

Márcia D. Oliveira; Stephen K. Hamilton; Debora F. Calheiros; Claudia M. Jacobi

2010-01-01

413

A Pentagonal Crystal, the Golden Section, alcove packing and aperiodic tilings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lie theoretic interpretation is given to a pattern with five-fold symmetry occurring in aperiodic Penrose tiling based on isosceles triangles with length ratios equal to the Golden Section. Specifically a $B(\\\\infty)$ crystal based on that of Kashiwara is constructed exhibiting this five-fold symmetry. It is shown that it can be represented as a Kashiwara $B(\\\\infty)$ crystal in type $A_4$.

Anthony Joseph

2008-01-01

414

A pentagonal crystal, the golden section, alcove packing and aperiodic tilings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Lie theoretic interpretation is given to a pattern with five-fold symmetry occurring in aperiodic Penrose tiling based on\\u000a isosceles triangles with length ratios equal to the Golden Section. Specifically a B(?) crystal based on that of Kashiwara is constructed exhibiting this five-fold symmetry. It is shown that it can be represented\\u000a as a Kashiwara B(?) crystal in type A4.

Anthony Joseph; Donald Frey

2009-01-01

415

Interfamily pregnancy and expression of CD57, CD68 in deciduas between golden hamster and mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy between different species is one of the key steps to interspecific somatic cell cloning. Although interspecific\\u000a clone embryos have been constructed, they could not develop to birth after being transferred to recipients. In order to clarify\\u000a the mechanism of this phenomenon, interfamily pregnancy between golden hamste (Mesocricetus auratus) and mouse (Mus musculus) was studied. Co-culture results indicated that the

Xichao Wang; Bojie Dai; Dayuan Chen; Zelong Liu; Weimin Liu; Enkui Duan

2003-01-01

416

Twelve novel microsatellite loci from an endangered marine fish species golden pompano Trachinotus blochii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) is a marine fish species in tropical regions. No information about genetic variation and population structure of wild populations\\u000a is available. A first set of 12 polymorphic microsatellites isolated from this species were characterized. The number of alleles\\u000a ranged from 5 to 14 with an average of 8.0 alleles per locus. All 12 markers conformed

Ping Gong; Jiale Li; Gen Hua Yue

2009-01-01

417

Ethogram and Natural History of Golden-backed Uakaris ( Cacajao melanocephalus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an ethogram for golden-backed uakaris (Cacajao melanocephalus), based on observations in the field and on a captive individual. We also provide additional observations on the ecology\\u000a of the wild animals. We studied 3 free-living groups (maximum counts of 5, 15, and 26 individuals) during two wet-seasons\\u000a (March–July 2007 and January–June 2008) in the flooded igapó forest of Jaú

Bruna Martins Bezerra; Adrian A. Barnett; Antonio Souto; Gareth Jones

2011-01-01

418

Evaluation of a Dietary Dairy–Yeast Prebiotic in Juvenile Golden Shiners in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the performance in ponds of juvenile golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas fed a control diet or a diet with 2% dairy–yeast prebiotic. Fish weighing 0.1 ± 0.001 g (mean ± SD) were initially stocked into five 0.04-ha earthen ponds per diet at 21.9 kg\\/ha and fed extruded 35%-protein pellets to satiation twice daily. Subsamples of fish were weighed at

Rebecca Lochmann; Todd D. Sink; Harold Phillips; Ruguang Chen

2010-01-01

419

Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, 1819) in Sabah, Malaysia - Current Situation and Management Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the control operation of the golden apple snail in Sabah implemented by the Department of Agriculture following the outbreak of the pest in the 1990s. The snail was sighted in Keningau in 1992. Two years later it mushroomed to most of the rice-growing districts with a total infested area of about 5,000 ha. The control operation employed

Su Sin

420

Nocturnal Predation of Females on Nests: An Important Source of Mortality for Golden-cheeked Warblers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We monitored 124 female Golden- cheeked Warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia )a t 133 nests with video cameras from 1997-2002 and 2005- 2006 at two study areas in central Texas, USA. Six adult females were depredated by snakes in 781 cam- era-monitored intervals when females were on the nest at night and exposed to possible nocturnal predation. Daily nest survival was 0.971

Jennifer L. Reidy; Mike M. Stake; Frank R. Thompson

2009-01-01

421

Filipin-sterol complexes in golden hamster sperm membranes with special reference to epididymal maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of membrane filipin-sterol complexes (FSCs) was qualitatively surveyed on freeze-fracture replicas of spermatozoa from the male reproductive tract and ejaculates of golden hamster. In the head, the acrosomal plasma membrane showed the strongest filipin labeling on the principal segment, but it was absent in the “quilt-like pattern” areas. These latter were observed in both caput and corpus epididymal

Kiyotaka Toshimori; Ruiko Higashi; Chikayoshi ?ura

1987-01-01

422

Cloning, characterization and expression of the pepsinogen C from the golden mandarin fish Siniperca scherzeri (Teleostei: Perciformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepsinogens are precursors of pepsins, which are gastric digestive proteinases that degrade food proteins into peptides. In\\u000a the study reported here, the cDNA and its corresponding genomic DNA of the golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri, Perciformes) pepsinogen C (PGC) were cloned and sequenced. The golden mandarin fish PGC gene was deduced to have nine exons\\u000a and eight introns, a structure

Yanfei Deng; Jinliang Zhao; Guoqing Lu; Xuefeng Wu; Yan Tao

2010-01-01

423

Isolation calls and retrieving behavior in laboratory and wild-derived golden hamsters—No sign for inbreeding depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated juvenile golden hamsters produce ultrasonic and audible vocalizations, so-called isolation calls, as a reaction to being separated from their mother and nest and their cooling down. Their aim is to stimulate mothers to search and retrieve the pups. In this work, the vocalization of juvenile laboratory (Zoh:GOHA; Institute of Zoology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg) and juvenile wild-derived golden hamsters (captured in

Nadine Schneider; Peter Fritzsche

2011-01-01

424

Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the  -carotene content in Golden Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the b-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimiza- tion of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden

Salim Al-Babili; Tran Thi; Cuc Hoa; Patrick Schaub

2006-01-01

425

Modelling habitat use and distribution of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in a low-density area of the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the current situation of the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the region of Galicia in NW Spain. At present, the entire Galician population (five pairs) is located within an area\\u000a of about 2000 km2 in the province of Ourense. To identify high-priority areas for golden eagle conservation, we derived predictive models of\\u000a habitat suitability using logistic regression and a

Luis Tapia; Jesús Domínguez; Luis Rodríguez

2007-01-01

426

Modelling habitat use and distribution of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in a low-density area of the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the current situation of the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the region of Galicia in NW Spain. At present, the entire Galician population (five pairs) is located within an area\\u000a of about 2000 km2 in the province of Ourense. To identify high-priority areas for golden eagle conservation, we derived predictive\\u000a models of habitat suitability using logistic regression and a

Luis Tapia; Jesús Domínguez; Luis Rodríguez

427

Problems with the Management of the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: an Important Exotic Pest of Rice in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) is native to South America. It was introduced to farmers in the Philippines in the 1980s from Argentina via Taiwan,\\u000a and to other countries in Asia, to increase farmers' income and enrich the protein in their diet, and also as an aquarium\\u000a pet. Golden apple snail is expanding its distribution in Asia, threatening

R. C. Joshi

428

Assessment of Facial Golden Proportions among North Maharashtri-an Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Divine Proportion in Orthodontics and Prosthodontics has always been intriguing. This was applied to the North Maharashtrian population to evaluate the relationship between facial esthetics and the golden proportions. Materials & Methods: Facial proportions were assessed by examining photographs of sum total of 300 subjects of North Maharashtrian population. Young adults with a skeletal and dental Class 1 occlusion, competent lips, and balanced facial proportion were selected. Photographic prints were taken and manually parameters were plotted and analysis was done. Results: The measurements of anterior facial height showed proportionality with the total facial height. The values showed shorter lower anterior facial height and deviation of facial width parameters from the divine proportion indicating small mouth, nose, and narrow-set eyes with respect to the inter-temporal width. Conclusion: There is soft-tissue facial balance of North Maharashtrian population in comparison with the golden proportion. However, certain parameters show some deviation from the divine proportion.. How to cite this article: Sunilkumar L N, Jadhav K S, Nazirkar G, Singh S, Nagmode P S, Ali F M. Assessment of Facial Golden Proportions among North Maharashtrian Population. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):48-54.

Sunilkumar, L N; Jadhav, Kalpana S; Nazirkar, Girish; Singh, Shailendra; Nagmode, Pradnya S; Ali, Fareedi Mukram

2013-01-01

429

Golden GATEway Cloning - A Combinatorial Approach to Generate Fusion and Recombination Constructs  

PubMed Central

The design and generation of DNA constructs is among the necessary but generally tedious tasks for molecular biologists and, typically, the cloning strategy is restricted by available restriction sites. However, increasingly sophisticated experiments require increasingly complex DNA constructs, with an intricacy that exceeds what is achievable using standard cloning procedures. Many transgenes such as inducible gene cassettes or recombination elements consist of multiple components that often require precise in-frame fusions. Here, we present an efficient protocol that facilitates the generation of these complex constructs. The golden GATEway cloning approach presented here combines two established cloning methods, namely golden Gate cloning and Multisite GatewayTM cloning. This allows efficient and seamless assembly as well as reuse of predefined DNA elements. The golden Gate cloning procedure follows clear and simple design rules and allows the assembly of multiple fragments with different sizes into one open reading frame. The final product can be directly integrated into the widely used Multisite GatewayTM cloning system, granting more flexibility when using a transgene in the context of multiple species. This adaptable and streamlined cloning procedure overcomes restrictions of “classical construct generation” and allows focusing on construct design.

Wittbrodt, Joachim

2013-01-01

430

Complex periodic orbits, renormalization, and scaling for quasiperiodic golden-mean transition to chaos.  

PubMed

At the critical point of the golden-mean quasiperiodic transition to chaos we show the presence of an infinite sequence of unstable orbits in complex domain with periods given by the Fibonacci numbers. The Floquet eigenvalues (multipliers) are found to converge fast to a universal complex constant. We explain this result on the basis of the renormalization group approach and suggest using it for accurate estimates of the location of the golden-mean critical points in parameter space for a class of nonlinear dissipative systems defined analytically. As an example, we obtain data for the golden-mean critical point in the two-dimensional dissipative invertible map of Zaslavsky. We give a set of graphical illustrations for the scaling properties and emphasize that demonstration of self-similarity on two-dimensional diagrams of Arnold tongues requires the use of a properly chosen curvilinear coordinate system. We discuss a procedure of construction of the appropriate local coordinate system in the parameter plane and present the corresponding data for the circle map and Zaslavsky map. PMID:11308933

Ivankov, N Y; Kuznetsov, S P

2001-03-28

431

The effects of low levels of pollutants on the reproduction of golden eagles in western Norway.  

PubMed

The reproductive success of golden eagles was studied in an area in western Norway between 62 degrees and 63 degrees N between 1973 and 1999. Addled eggs were collected for analysis of chemical pollutants from nine territories; five from coastal areas and four from inland. The coastal sites had lower annual reproductive output than inland sites, and the eggs had a higher content of organochlorine compounds. There were relatively strong negative correlations between reproductive output and (1) shell thickness and (2) DDE concentration in eggs. The data indicate that the golden eagle may be a particularly sensitive species to DDE. It is proposed that the higher organochlorine content found in the eggs of coastal birds was caused by a contribution of marine birds to the diet, as opposed to inland eagles which have a prey basis consisting almost entirely of terrestrial herbivores such as grouse, mountain hare and cervids. Our data-set on reproductive output is, however, too small to establish a general relationship between DDE contamination and reproductive output in golden eagles. PMID:11556115

Nygård, T; Gjershaug, J O

2001-10-01

432

Golden GATEway Cloning - A Combinatorial Approach to Generate Fusion and Recombination Constructs.  

PubMed

The design and generation of DNA constructs is among the necessary but generally tedious tasks for molecular biologists and, typically, the cloning strategy is restricted by available restriction sites. However, increasingly sophisticated experiments require increasingly complex DNA constructs, with an intricacy that exceeds what is achievable using standard cloning procedures. Many transgenes such as inducible gene cassettes or recombination elements consist of multiple components that often require precise in-frame fusions. Here, we present an efficient protocol that facilitates the generation of these complex constructs. The golden GATEway cloning approach presented here combines two established cloning methods, namely golden Gate cloning and Multisite Gateway(TM) cloning. This allows efficient and seamless assembly as well as reuse of predefined DNA elements. The golden Gate cloning procedure follows clear and simple design rules and allows the assembly of multiple fragments with different sizes into one open reading frame. The final product can be directly integrated into the widely used Multisite Gateway(TM) cloning system, granting more flexibility when using a transgene in the context of multiple species. This adaptable and streamlined cloning procedure overcomes restrictions of "classical construct generation" and allows focusing on construct design. PMID:24116091

Kirchmaier, Stephan; Lust, Katharina; Wittbrodt, Joachim

2013-10-07

433

The clinical and morphologic features of nonepidermolytic ichthyosis in the golden retriever.  

PubMed

A scaling disorder specific to Golden Retriever dogs has been recognized by both dermatologists and pathologists, but to date has not been well characterized. At the University of Pennsylvania's Laboratory of Toxicology and Pathology, 46 cases of ichthyosis were diagnosed histologically in Golden Retriever dogs from January 2004 to January 2007. A total of 22 dogs had skin lesions documented at younger than 1 year of age; 3 dogs between 1 and 2 years of age; 13 dogs developed lesions at older than 2 years; and the time of onset was unknown for 8 dogs. A total of 25 dogs were female, and 21 were male. All dogs had strikingly similar histopathologic changes that consisted of mild to moderate laminar orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with an absence of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation. Ultrastructural analysis using a ruthenium tetroxide fixation method was performed on punch biopsy samples from 5 dogs and compared with 2 control dogs (1 clinically and histologically normal sibling of an affected dog and 1 Cairn Terrier). All affected dogs had retained and convoluted membranes with crystalline structures in the stratum corneum. Scattered keratinocytes in the granular cell layer had prominent, clear, membrane-bound, cytoplasmic vacuoles. Pedigree analysis of 14 dogs was compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance, but incomplete dominance could not be ruled out. This unique hyperkeratotic/scaling disorder in Golden Retrievers has distinctive clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural features, which are consistent with a primary cornification defect. PMID:18424829

Mauldin, E A; Credille, K M; Dunstan, R W; Casal, M L

2008-03-01

434

Semen analysis of Golden Retriever healthy dogs and those affected by muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

This study aimed to characterise canine flow cytometry semen analysis, as well as seminal reactive oxygen species dosage using the Golden Retriever breed as model of study. Moreover, we searched for the influence of muscular dystrophy in Golden Retriever dogs on semen parameters. Thirty-seven semen samples were obtained from healthy Golden Retrievers (n = 15) and from muscular dystrophy affected dogs (n = 22). Sperm-rich fractions were analysed by standardised breeding soundness examination in addition to the assay of fluorescence assisted cell sorting for acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity and DNA fragmentation. Volume of ejaculate, per cent of motile spermatozoa and vigour were similar between groups; there were no differences in the per cent of minor and major defects. Integrity of acrosomal membrane, mitochondrial potential and sperm DNA fragmentation had no significant differences between groups either. Animals from control group had higher concentration of spontaneous seminal oxidative species in comparison with affected animals. Dogs affected by dystrophy had seminal parameters similar to those observed in healthy dogs except for the lower concentration of oxidative species. Future studies aiming to establish reference values for canine seminal parameters should be considered preferably with distinction of breeds. PMID:23463904

Peres, M A; da Rocha, A M; Vannucchi, C I; Mendes, C M; Cavalcanti, P V; Nichi, M; Ambrosio, C E; Miglino, M A; Visintin, J A; D'Ávila Assumpção, M E O

2013-03-01

435

Bacteria associated with golden pompano ( Trachinotus blochii ) broodstock from commercial hatchery in Malaysia with emphasis on their antibiotic and heavy metal resistances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was the first report on pathogenic bacteria isolated from golden pompano (Trachinotus blochii) with the antibiogram, as well as the heavy metal resistance pattern. Golden pompano becomes popular among Malaysian fish\\u000a farmers due to its high value and demand from local and oversea markets. However, the baseline information on antibiogram\\u000a of pathogenic bacteria associated with golden pompano is

Seong Wei Lee; Musa Najiah; Wee Wendy

2010-01-01

436

Hematologic reference values for clinically healthy captive golden conures (Guaruba guarouba).  

PubMed

Golden conures or ararajubas (Guaruba guarouba) are endangered parrots endemic to the Brazilian Amazon forest. Body mass, blood cell counts, and total plasma protein were determined for 70 clinically healthy golden conures captive at zoologic parks and private breeder facilities in Brazil. Hematologic results (mean +/- SD) were: Erythrocytes 3.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(6) cells/mm3, hemoglobin 12.8 +/- 1.4 g/dl, packed cell volume 46 +/- 3.8%, mean corpuscular volume 132 +/- 20 fl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 36 +/- 5.7 pg, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 28 +/- 3.5%, thrombocytes 26.3 +/- 9.3 x 10(3) cells/mm3, leukocytes 11.9 +/- 4.5 x 10(3) cells/mm3, heterophils 6284 +/- 2715 cells/mm3, lymphocytes 5473 +/- 2408 cells/ mm3, monocytes 113 +/- 162 cells/mm3, eosinophils 10 +/- 42 cells/mm3, basophils 27 +/- 64 cells/mm3. Body mass was 254 +/- 24.9 g and total plasma protein (TPP) was 3.54 +/- 0.58 g/dl. No statistical differences were observed between genders within age groups. Differences between juveniles (J) and adults (A) were identified for TPP (J < A), MCH (J > A), and MCHC (J > A). These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic results for the species. Hematology may be an important tool for population health investigations on free-ranging golden conure populations and will also be essential to survey the health of release candidates in future reintroduction programs. PMID:23397841

Prioste, Fabíola Eloisa Setim; Zwarg, Ticiana; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Rocha, Arnaldo; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

2012-12-01

437

Phylogeography and population structure of the golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana): inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.  

PubMed

The golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is one of the most endangered primate species due to its dramatically shrinking distribution during the past 400 years. Its populations are restricted to three isolated regions, Qinglin (QL), Sichuan/Gansu (SG), and Shennongjia (SNJ) in China. As with other snub-nosed monkeys in China and Vietnam, the biology and evolution of this species is still poorly known. To assess genetic differentiation and explore the relationships among populations of golden monkeys from different geographic locations, 379 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) hypervariable segment I (HVI) was studied from 60 individuals. Twelve haplotypes were identified from seven populations within the three regions. Haplotype diversity was high (0.845), whereas nucleotide diversity among all haplotypes was low (0.0331). The most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) among mtDNA haplotypes was estimated to have lived approximately 0.48-0.32 million years ago. None of the haplotypes is shared among any of the three regions. Phylogenetic analysis and AMOVA revealed clear and significant phylogeographic structure between the three regions. However, only SG contained haplotypes of the two main clades, indicating either incomplete random sorting of haplotypes or a complex history with phases of population subdivisions and merging of populations. The phylogeographic structure implies that R. roxellana should be regarded as separate management units (MUs) for each of the three regions. It is likely that recent phylogeographic history has shaped the pattern of genetic differentiation observed in the golden monkey and that its populations have suffered significant demographic fluctuation. PMID:17385699

Li, Ming; Liu, Zhijin; Gou, Jinxun; Ren, Baoping; Pan, Ruliang; Su, Yanjie; Funk, Stephan M; Wei, Fuwen

2007-11-01

438

Search for the Golden Moon Bear: Using Readerâs Theater to Teach Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readerâs theater is an activity in which students, while reading directly from scripts, are able to tell a story in its most entertaining form. Typically, teachers create or purchase premade scripts of stories, and students focus on reading those scripts in a fluent and expressive manner. However, in the lesson presented here, students turn the book, Search for the Golden Bear Moon: Science and Adventure in the Asian Tropics by Sy Montgomery into a readerâs theater script themselves. This article describes how students act out this genetics-based story to strengthen their language skills and reinforce science concepts in the process.

Brooks, Susan

2009-11-01

439

Golden dish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico was both shaken and stirred this year, but not by an earthquake or a tropical storm. The world's largest curved radio telescope—which is operated by Cornell University and the National Science Foundation—makes a stellar appearance in the climax of Goldeneye, the latest film in the James Bond series. At 300 m in diameter, 8 hectares (20 acres) in area, and 51 m in depth from lip to trough, the giant radio astronomy dish looms large in the film as a satellite antenna that will be used to cause an electromagnetic pulse over London.During shooting of the film, actors raced along the antenna's 129 m-long, 545-metric ton bridge, which is suspended by 12 cables hanging from reinforced concrete towers.

440

Golden Handcuffs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher pensions consume a substantial portion of school budgets. If relatively generous pensions help attract effective teachers, the expense might be justified. But new evidence suggests that current pension systems, by concentrating benefits on teachers who spend their entire careers in a single state and penalizing mobile teachers, may…

Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael

2010-01-01

441

Golden Retrievers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a basic definition of metadata, including the usefulness of metatags for online information retrieval and documentation. Defines the elements of the Dublin Core, the next level of metadata. Discusses how librarians can take advantage of metadata. Describes the Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) Project whose goal is to use metadata…

Christensen, Deborah

1999-01-01

442

Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).  

PubMed

Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

2008-06-17

443

Aesthetic judgment of triangular shape: compactness and not the golden ratio determines perceived attractiveness.  

PubMed

Many studies over a period of more than a century have investigated the influence of the golden ratio on perceived geometric beauty. Surprisingly, very few of these studies used triangular shapes. In Experiment 1, we presented right triangles that differed in regard to their elongation determined by increasing the length of one side relative to another. Attractiveness ratings did not peak at the golden ratio, but there was a very strong influence of axis ratio overall. Participant ratings were a negative decreasing function of ratio. Triangles that pointed upward were judged as significantly more attractive than those that pointed down. We interpret these results according to a compactness hypothesis: triangles that are more compact are less likely to move or break and are thus considered more pleasing. Orientation also affects aesthetics. Upward-pointing triangles with a base parallel to the ground, regardless of their compactness, are also considered more perceptually stable and attractive. These findings were replicated across stimulus type in a second experiment with isosceles triangles and across testing procedure in a third experiment using a paired comparison technique. PMID:23145277

Friedenberg, Jay

2012-03-16

444

Thermosensitivity of preoptic neurones in a hibernator (golden hamster) and a non-hibernator (guinea pig).  

PubMed

Thermosensitivity of preoptic units was studied at hypothalamic temperatures (Thy) ranging from 8-43 degrees C in golden hamsters in a non-hibernating state as well as in guinea pigs. In golden hamsters 2 types of thermoresponsive preoptic neurones were found: 1. Neurones sensitive to Thy ranging from 10-42 degrees C with an exponential characteristic and very high spontaneous firing rates (29-59 imp/s) at Thy 36-37 degrees C. 2. Neurones with a bell-shaped temperature-firing rate characteristic, a negative temperature coefficient at Thy 40-30 degrees C, a maximal activity at Thy 20-30 degrees C and a positive temperature coefficient (+0.8 to +4 imp/s-degrees C) even at Thy close to 10 degees C. In guinea pigs thermoresponsive preoptic units became inactive or insensitive to thermal stimulation as soon as Thy fell below 30 degrees C. These results suggest that in hibernators central nervous structures involved in temperature regulation are adapted to maintain their function over the wide range of core temperatures which occur during the different phases of hibernation. PMID:945545

Wünnenberg, W; Merker, G; Speulda, E

1976-05-12

445

Sensitivity of early-life-stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 [mu]g/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations [>=] [mu]g/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress.

DeLonay, A.J. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). School of Natural Resources); Little, E.E.; Woodward, F.; Brumbaugh, W.G. (National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center, Columbia, MO (United States). Fish and Wildlife Service); Farag, A.M. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology); Rabeni, C.F. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Missouri Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit)

1993-07-01

446

Internal fixation in compound type III fractures presenting after golden period  

PubMed Central

Objective: Patients often reach the hospital late after passage of golden hours (initial 6 hours) after sustaining high-velocity injuries. The decision of internal fixation in Gustilo's Type IIIA and IIIB fractures becomes a formidable challenge in patients reaching late. The purpose of the present study was to find out if internal fixation could be safely undertaken in these patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty-three patients, having 70 compound fractures (46 Type IIIA and 24 IIIB), which were internally fixed after 6h but within 24h after injury, were included in the present analysis. Follow-up ranged from 18 to 48 months with mean of 28 months. Result: Overall infection rate noted was (n = 11) 15.71% (8.7% in IIIA, and 29.16% in IIIB). The difference in deep infection rate between Type IIIA and Type IIIB was found to be statistically significant (P value < 0.01). Nonunion was seen in five fractures. Functional evaluation using Katenjian's criteria, showed 62.85% (44 fractures of 70) good to excellent results. Conclusion: Satisfactory results may be obtained in Gustilo's Type IIIA and IIIB fractures even if fixed after the golden period, provided strict protocol such as aggressive debridement, prophylactic antibiotic coverage, early soft tissue reconstruction and timely bone grafting is followed. The primary coverage of the wound is discouraged.

Azam, Quamar; Sherwani, MKA; Abbas, Mazhar; Gupta, Rahul; Asif, Naiyer; Sabir, AB

2007-01-01

447

Age- and dose-dependent transplacental carcinogenesis by N-nitrosoethylurea in Syrian golden hamsters.  

PubMed

Syrian golden hamsters have a very short period (15 days) of gestation. The implantation of the blastocyst occurs on day 5, embryogenesis proceeds very rapidly thereafter and neural tube closure is completed by day 9. In the present study the effects of two different doses of N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU) administered at various stages of gestation were quantitatively evaluated in Syrian golden hamsters. NEU at either 0.2 or 0.5 mmol/kg was administered transplacentally as a single i.p. injection to pregnant hamsters on gestation days 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or 14. The incidence, latency period and multiplicity of tumors varied with the dose of NEU and the stage of development at the time of NEU administration. Although tumors of the peripheral nervous system predominated, a variety of other tumors, including melanomas and visceral tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, were also observed in hamster offspring exposed transplacentally to NEU. Sensitivity to transplacental carcinogenesis was maximal during late gestation and very low before day 9. PMID:8898973

Diwan, B A; Rehm, S; Rice, J M

1996-01-01

448

Seasonal energetics of the Hottentot golden mole at 1500 m altitude.  

PubMed

Winter is an energetically stressful period for small mammals as increasing demands for thermoregulation are often coupled with shortages of food supply. In sub-tropical savannah, Hottentot golden moles (Ambysomus hottentottus longiceps) forage throughout the year and for long periods of each day. This may enable them to acquire sufficient resources from an insectivorous prey base that is both widely dispersed and energetically costly to obtain. However, they also inhabit much cooler regions; how their energy budgets are managed in these areas is unknown. We measured the daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and water turnover (WTO) of free-living golden moles during both winter and summer at high altitude (1500 m). We used measurements of deuterium dilution to estimate body fat during these two periods. DEE, WTO and body mass did not differ significantly between seasons. However, RMR values were higher during the winter than the summer and, in the latter case were also lower than allometric predictions. Body fat was also higher during the winter. Calculations show that during the winter they may restrict activity to shorter, more intense periods. This, together with an increase in thermal insulation, might enable them to survive the cold. PMID:15885250

Scantlebury, M; Oosthuizen, M K; Speakman, J R; Jackson, C R; Bennett, N C

2005-04-18

449

Delayed effect of pinealectomy on hibernation of the golden-mantled ground squirrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinealectomy or radical sham pinealectomy were performed on adult golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus (=Citellus) lateralis, approximately 1 month prior to the date of normal winter emergence. The first hibernatory period and subsequent active season were not different in either of the operated groups from intact animals. However, although the initiation of the second hibernatory period was not affected in the pinealectomized animals, this group failed to show the progressive increase in the length of heterothermic bouts that is characteristic of normal hibernation. Also, terminal arousal occurred approximately 6 weeks earlier in the second year after pinealectomy. Male squirrels showed a corresponding time compression in their annual gonadal cycle, as was assessed by testicular state. These results suggest that the pineal gland of the golden-mantled ground squirrel is involved in the expression of the annual hibernatory cycle. In the absence of the pineal gland the adult of this species is unable to sustain the normal depth and duration of hibernation in the second over-wintering period following pinealectomy. We have carried out additional experiments with young, laboratory-born S. lateralis and with field-caught, adult S. richardsonii. The results of these studies also are described in this paper.

Ralph, C. L.; Harlow, H. J.; Phillips, J. A.

1982-12-01

450

Molluscicidal saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata.  

PubMed

Extracts of soapnut, Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Sapindaceae) showed molluscicidal effects against the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck. (Ampullariidae) with LC(50) values of 85, 22, and 17 ppm after treating 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of S. mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (1), along with six known hederagenin saponins, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (3), hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (4), hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (5), hederagenin 3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (6), and hederagenin 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (7). The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail. PMID:12903945

Huang, Hui-Chi; Liao, Sin-Chung; Chang, Fang-Rong; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Wu, Yang-Chang

2003-08-13

451

Functional Integral Representations and Golden-Thompson Inequalities in Boson-Fermion Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a general class of boson-fermion Hamiltonians H acting in the tensor product Hilbert space L2(?n) ? ?(?r) of L2(?n) and the fermion Fock space ?(?r) over ?r(n, r ? ?), we establish, in terms of an n-dimensional conditional oscillator measure, a functional integral representation for the trace Tr(F ? zNfe-tH)(F ? L?(?n), z ? ??{0}, t > 0), where Nf is the fermion number operator on ?(?r). We prove a Golden-Thompson type inequality for |Tr(F ? zNfe-tH)|. Also we discuss applications to a model in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and present an improved version of the Golden-Thompson inequality in supersymmetric quantum mechanics given by Klimek and Lesniewski ([Lett. Math. Phys.21 (1991) 237-244]). An upper bound for the number of the supersymmetric states is given as well as a sufficient condition for the spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. Moreover, we derive a functional integral representation for the analytical index of a Dirac type operator on ?n (Witten index) associated with the supersymmetric quantum mechanical model.

Arai, Asao

2013-09-01

452

Final mass and maximum spin of merged black holes and the golden black hole  

SciTech Connect

We present results on the mass and spin of the final black hole from mergers of equal mass, spinning black holes. The study extends over a broad range of initial orbital configurations, from direct plunges to quasicircular inspirals to more energetic orbits (generalizations of Newtonian elliptical orbits). It provides a comprehensive search of those configurations that maximize the final spin of the remnant black hole. We estimate that the final spin can reach a maximum spin a/M{sub h{approx_equal}}0.99{+-}0.01 for extremal black hole mergers. In addition, we find that, as one increases the orbital angular momentum from small values, the mergers produce black holes with mass and spin parameters (Mh/M,a/Mh) spiraling around the values (M-circumflex{sub h}/M,a-circumflex/M{sub h}) of a golden black hole. Specifically, (M{sub h}-M-circumflex{sub h})/M{proportional_to}e{sup {+-}B{phi}c}os{phi} and (a-a-circumflex)/M{sub h{proportional_to}}e{sup {+-}C{phi}s}in{phi}, with {phi} a monotonically growing function of the initial orbital angular momentum. We find that the values of the parameters for the golden black hole are those of the final black hole obtained from the merger of a binary with the corresponding spinning black holes in a quasicircular inspiral.

Healy, James [Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre M. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Matzner, Richard A. [Center for Relativity and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2010-04-15

453

[A dyslipidemia animal model induced by poloxamer 407 in golden hamsters and pilot study on the mechanism].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to establish a simple and stable model like poloxamer 407 (P-407)-induced dyslipidemia of golden hamster model, and investigate the mechanism of lipid metabolism disturbance in this model. PPARalpha agonist and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor were administrated to validate the efficacy on regulating lipid metabolism in the dyslipidemia golden hamster model. Six weeks male golden hamsters were chosen to inject P-407 intraperitoneally at a bolus dose of 300 mg x kg(-1), an intermittent injection at a dose of 200 mg x kg(-1) every 72 hours after the bolus. The results showed that P-407-induced golden hamster model characterized as increased serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (free-CHO), cholesteryl ester (CE), free fatty acids (FFA) and apoB levels, and the hyperlipidemia state maintained at a stable level persistently. Meanwhile, augmented malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) level was observed. LCAT and SR-B I mRNA levels in liver of model group were down-regulated (expression ratio is 0.426; 0.783), while HMG-CoA reductase mRNA level was up-regulated (expression ratio is 1.493) compared with those of the normal group. The serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower in P-407-induced dyslipidemia hamster model after treated with atorvastatin (Ato) at a dose of 50 mg x kg(1) or fenofibrate (Fen) at 100 mg x kg(-1) for two weeks. These findings suggest that serum lipid distribution in dyslipidemia golden hamster is similar to that of human, and which may be relevant to the disturbance of the enzymes expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver. Results obtained from this study support the concept that dyslipidemia golden hamster may be an adequate animal model to evaluate the efficacy of lipid-lowering agents. PMID:21751494

Liu, Quan; Liu, Shuai-nan; Li, Lin-yi; Chen, Zhi-yu; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Ning; Shen, Zhu-fang

2011-04-01

454

End of the Golden Age for X-ray Astronomy: Technical and Fiscal Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Golden Ages don't last much more than 50 years (viz. Athens 4th century BCE, Renaissance Italy, Dutch Golden Age) - that's why they're golden. X-ray astronomy is now 50 years old. Should we expect it to continue to flourish? Or is this the end of our Golden Age? Technologically there is tremendous promise. New optics and detectors are set to deliver great improvements along all axes: collecting area, angular and spectral resolution, field of view, polarimetry. To be optimal along a given axis, missions should not try to combine all these improvements in a single mission. Hence specialized missions of modest size (similar to NASA's Explorer class) should be pursued world-wide. Multiple missions also support a wide, varied, and creative community, not only of observers but also of instrument builders, operations staff and data/archive developers. All are necessary for a healthy field. We should encourage our agencies to adopt vigorous modest-mission programs, and to encourage open access to promote intellectual creativity. But some axes are almost certainly out of reach for Explorer-class missions. Most likely equaling or bettering Chandra angular resolution with larger area will require an Observatory-class, flagship, mission. While the technology is promising, the world-wide prospects for such a mission are grim. This is not merely the result of current economic woes, although they have brought the crisis to a head. Each generation of mission has to be an order of magnitude better than its predecessor in order to win funding. But to achieve this costs go up by a factor of a few each time. The progression: rockets - UHURU - Einstein - Chandra illustrates this clearly. The same exponentiation is evident in UV/visible astronomy and, perhaps, in Mars exploration. We have now hit the "funding wall" where each flagship mission costs so much that they pop into politicians notice. JWST is now a budget line item in the US, a precarious position previously held by the cancelled Superconducting SuperCollider. The only way to get our missions back "under the radar" is to make them cheaper. And the only way I can see to achieve that is to make the overall cost of access to space cheaper. This is technologically feasible, but is sociologically not going to be delivered by government agencies, to judge by their track record. If we are ever to have a renewed Golden Age of "Greater Observatories" spanning the electromagnetic spectrum, our hopes must rest on the profitable commercial exploitation of space resources. As platinum group metals are a good bet for the resource that will first make fortunes from space, perhaps it will be a "Platinum Age". Why will this work? When you have to make a profit, you watch the costs. That should do it - "Greed is the counterweight to caution". reference: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7402/full/486181a.html

Elvis, Martin

2012-09-01

455

Aqui y Alla (Here and There) Information-Based Learning Corridors between Tennessee and Puerto Rico: The Five Golden Rules in Intercultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes five information-based Golden Rules in intercultural education that represent a holistic approach to creating learning corridors across geographically dispersed academic communities. The Golden Rules are generated through qualitative analysis, grounded theory application, reflective practice, and critical research to…

Mehra, Bharat; Allard, Suzie; Qayyum, M. Asim; Barclay-McLaughlin, Gina

2008-01-01

456

REGISTRATION OF BEAN GOLDEN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS RESISTANT DRY BEAN GERMPLASM PR9771-3-2, PR0247-49 AND PR0157-4-1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) resistant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines PR9771-3-2, PR0247-49, and PR0157-4-1 were developed and released collaboratively by the Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. In the Caribbean Basin, bean golden yellow mosaic, a whi...

457

Nesting Ecology of Golden Eagles and Other Raptors in Southeastern Montana and Northern Wyoming. Distribution and Abundance of Golden Eagles and Other Raptors in Campbell and Converse Counties, Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on the distribution and abundance of 19 species of raptors are presented in the combined reports. Studies on the Sheridan-Decker area and on the Eagle Research Area emphasized long-term reproductive performance of golden eagles, while the much larger...

R. L. Phillips A. H. Wheeler J. M. Lockhart T. P. McEneaney N. C. Forrester

1990-01-01

458

Quality of the bottom sediment prior to dredging in the Golden Horn of Istanbul.  

PubMed

The Golden Horn has experienced severe pollution due to uncontrolled domestic and industrial wastewater discharges until recent years. A restoration project has been developed by our universities, upon a request from Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Two principal alternatives for the dredging and disposal of the bottom sediments were considered: disposing on the land and disposing in the sea. Both of these alternatives include several sub-alternatives. Characterization of the sediment quality is crucially important for selecting the best alternative considering the cost, environmental impact and public acceptance. However, only a few and rather old studies were present with which it was not possible to get a comprehensive information on the critical sediment characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this study was determination of spatial distribution of sediment characteristics. The project area, at which the sediment quality determined, covers the part of the Golden Horn remaining at the upstream of Valide Sultan Bridge. The number of sampling stations were thirteen and the sediment samples were collected from 0.0m, 5.0m and 10.0m from the bottom surface. The following parameters were measured on each sample: Total solids, organic matter, total phosphorus, TKN, oil and grease, total sulphur, and sediment oxygen demand (SOD). Sediment oxygen demand parameter was further divided into three fractions, namely, biological (SOD-B) and chemical (SOD-C). Average organic content of the bottom sediment was around 10% while ammonia and sulfur exhibit very high levels. It is found that the bottom sediment is well stabilized with very low organic content below 5.0m from the bottom surface. It can be said that, removing the upper 5m of the bottom sediment will be enough for creating a relatively stable bottom surface which will cause oxygen depletion in the overlaying water at acceptable levels. High SOD values of the bottom sediment makes the alternatives considering disposal in the Marmara Sea and Black Sea inapplicable. High SOD-C values, especially, indicate that the sediment will cause a tremendous reduction in the oxygen concentration in a very short time at any marine environment, and even it may create anaerobic conditions. Therefore, disposal of dredged sediment into abandoned mines 4km from the Golden Horn by a pressure pipeline has been chosen as the best applicable alternative. PMID:15027820

Kinaci, C; Inanc, B; Aydin, A F; Yuksel, E; Sevimli, M F; Arikan, O; Topacik, D

2004-01-01

459

Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.  

PubMed

Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field conditions, confirming that this virus is a causal agent of Wissadula yellow mosaic disease in W. amplissima. PMID:19768650

Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

2009-09-20

460

Effects of Different Pot Mixtures on Pothos (Epipremnum aureum Lindl. and Andre 'Golden Pothos') Growth and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Epipremnum aureum Lindl. and Andre ('Golden Pothos') plants were evaluated using different pot mixtures. Plant growth was measured by 11 parameters: freshness, leaf area, leaf number, mean root length, root number, shoot number, root fresh and dry weight, shoot fresh and dry weight and mean shoot length. Parameters such as freshness, shoot length, shoot fresh and dry

M. Khayyat; F. Nazari; H. Salehi

461

Biological control of invasive golden wattle trees ( Acacia pycnantha) by a gall wasp, Trichilogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undescribed species of gall wasp, Trichilogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), has been introduced to South Africa for biological control of the invasive Australian tree, golden wattle (Acacia pycnantha). After a slow start, Trichilogaster sp. is now common and widespread on the weed. The wasps usually lay their eggs in immature inflorescences, although about 10% are laid in meristematic vegetative tissues.

J. H Hoffmann; F. A. C Impson; V. C Moran; D Donnelly

2002-01-01

462

The blooms of a cyanobacterium, Microcystis cf. aeruginosa in a severely polluted estuary, the Golden Horn, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis cf. aeruginosa in the severely polluted Golden Horn Estuary was studied from 1998 to 2000. Microcystis persisted at the upper estuary where the water circulation was poor and values ranged between 2.9 × 104 and 2.7 × 106 cells ml-1 throughout the study. Simultaneously measured physical (salinity, temperature, rainfall and secchi disc) and chemical

Seyfettin Tas; Erdogan Okus; Asli Aslan-Yilmaz

2006-01-01

463

Women in Radio Soap Operas: A Historical Perspective of the Image of Women's "Sphere" in the "Golden Age."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Radio's "Golden Age," the 1930s and 1940s produced numerous successful and profitable daytime serials, called "soap operas" because they were most often sponsored by firms selling laundry products. Among the most popular of these series were those produced by the team of Anne and Frank Hummert. Working through the Blackett-Sample-Hummert…

St John, Jacqueline

464

The effect of teaching the subject of Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through the history of mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to determine the influence of teaching Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through history of mathematics on student achievement and the opinions of students regarding this issue. This study was carried out by case study method with 30 students who attended the 8th grade of an elementary school in Erzincan in spring term of 2009-2010 school year. Data

Bülent Kaygin; Bilal Balçin; Cemalettin Yildiz; Selahattin Arslan

2011-01-01

465

Screen and analysis of key disease genes for precancerous lesions of oral buccal mucosa induced by DMBA in golden hamsters  

PubMed Central

7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma in Syrian golden hamsters was used to establish precancerous lesions. Agilent rat whole-genome microarray and biological information analysis were used to screen for genes related to key diseases during the transformation of normal buccal mucosa to precancerous lesions in golden hamsters. DMBA acetone solution (0.5%) was used to establish a model of precancerous lesions in oral buccal mucosa in golden hamsters. The results showed that a total of 1331 genes were differentially expressed, including 1278 known, 53 unknown, 747 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes. Analysis revealed a total of 14 gene interaction pathways that significantly associated with the 1278 known differentially expressed genes (P<0.05). In conclusion, the occurrence of precancerous lesions in the oral buccal mucosa of golden hamsters was caused by a number of genetic changes that resulted in changes to their respective pathways. Key candidate genes for the formation of precancerous lesions in oral buccal mucosa included Cyp2b13, Orc1L, casp8, CCL5, CXCL12, CCL20, Serping1, P518/Qrfp, F5, TFPI, Vcam1, Fn1, Angpt2, Lcp2, Cxadr, Lyn, Hck, Btk, RGD1564385/fes, Vav1 and IL5ra.

CHEN, DAN; YANG, KAI; ZHANG, GUODONG; MEI, JIE; XIANG, LI

2011-01-01

466

From Golden Age Mexican Cinema to Transnational Border Feminism: The Community of Spectators in "Loving Pedro Infante"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The novel "Loving Pedro Infante" by Chicana writer Denise Chavez provides an insightful transcultural feminist critique of Golden Age Mexican cinema culture through a careful examination of gender roles. In the novel, the reception of Pedro Infante's films by spectators bridges generations and national spaces and leads to the formation of a…

Heredia, Juanita

2008-01-01

467

Evaluation of 36%Protein Diets with or without Animal Protein for Rearing Tank-Hatched Golden Shiner Fry in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether fry of golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas reared in ponds differed with respect to growth, survival, feed conversion, total yield, condition, and response to low dissolved oxygen when fed a practical diet of 36% protein from animal and plant sources (five ponds) versus a diet of only plant sources (six ponds). Newly

Rebecca Lochmann; Nathan Stone; Harold Phillips; Melinda Bodary

2004-01-01

468

Metabolomic profiling and sensorial quality of 'Golden Delicious', 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' apples grown using organic and integrated production systems.  

PubMed

Apple quality was investigated in the scab-resistant 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' cultivars and the scab-susceptible 'Golden Delicious' cultivar. Trees subjected to the same crop load were cultivated using either an organic (ORG) or an integrated production (IP) system. Physicochemical properties, phenolic content, and sensorial quality of fruit from both systems were compared. There were no significant differences in fruit mass, starch, and total soluble solid content (the latter was higher in ORG 'Liberty') between ORG and IP fruit, whereas significantly higher flesh firmness was found in ORG fruit (except no difference in 'Golden Delicious'). Significantly higher total phenolic content in ORG fruit was found in 'Golden Delicious', whereas differences in other cultivars were not significant. Targeted metabolomic profiling of multiple classes of phenolics confirmed the impact of the production system on the 'Golden Delicious' phenolic profile as higher levels of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, neo- and chlorogenic acids, phloridzin, procyanidin B2+B4, -3-O-glucoside and -3-O-galactoside of quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and rutin being found in ORG fruit. The results obtained suggested that scab resistance influenced the phenolic biosynthesis in relation to the agricultural system. Sensorial evaluation indicated significantly better flavor (except for 'Topaz') and better appearance of IP fruit. PMID:23745580

Vanzo, Andreja; Jenko, Mojca; Vrhovsek, Urska; Stopar, Matej

2013-06-24

469

Guy Davidson - Ornamental Identity: Commodity Fetishism, Masculinity, and Sexuality in The Golden Bowl - The Henry James Review 28:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Bowl marks a shift in James's account of the relations between the commodity form, sexuality, and gendered identities. Whereas James's earlier fictions develop their interest in the interimplication of consumer and sexual desires through an emphasis on the exchangeability of the female body, in this novel the pre-eminent human commodity is a male, Amerigo. The connections drawn between

Guy Davidson

2007-01-01

470

78 FR 36566 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Golden Sedge  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...draft recovery plan for the endangered golden sedge, a species endemic to the coastal plain in North Carolina. The draft recovery...a rare perennial member of the sedge family (Cyperaceae) endemic to the coastal plain of North Carolina. It is currently...

2013-06-18

471

Evaluating the Relative Risks of Pit Reclamation Alternatives at the Golden Sunlight Mine (Montana, USA); A Multiple Accounts Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Multiple Accounts Analysis (MAA) was initiated to develop and evalu- ate potential alternatives for the pit reclamation at the Golden Sunlight Mine, Montana USA. Seven alternatives were developed and ranged from those that included pit backfill (of various scenarios) to those that retained an open pit or a pit lake (a.k.a. pit pond). One of the issues of most

Shannon Shaw; Shannon Dunlap; Bill Maehl

472

Evidence that Bean Golden Mosaic Virus Invades Non-phloem Tissue in Double Infections with Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Bean leaves that had been doubly infected systemically with the legume strain of tobacco mosaic virus (CP-TMV) and bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) were studied ultrastructurally. Virus particles and the cytopathological changes associated with each virus in single infections occurred within the same cell when plants were doubly infected, indicating that individual systemically infected host cells can multiply viruses

R. J. Carr; K. S. Kim

1983-01-01

473

Learning from the Golden Age of Czechoslovak Animation: The Past as the Key to Unlocking Contemporary Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can Czech animators resurrect the Golden Age of Czech animation or will they succumb to the changes of an open market economy? The post-1989 privatization of animation studios and subsequent withdrawal of government funding are commonly considered as one of the most significant factors contributing to the current decline of Czech animated films. This article argues that a number of

Lucie Joschko; Michael Morgan

2008-01-01

474

Field Observations of the Golden-Mantled Tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus, on theRío Curaray, Peruvian Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a primatological survey on the Río Curaray in north-eastern Peruvian Amazonia, observations on the ecology and behaviour of the golden-mantled tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus, were made. Two groups consisting of 6 and 9 individuals were observed. The diet of one group that was observed in some detail consisted of fruit, insects (tettigoniid orthopterans) and gums. Patterns of height use were

Eckhard W. Heymann

2000-01-01

475

GENDER, SPORT AND THE BODY POLITICFraming Femininity in the Golden Girls of Sport Calendar and The Atlanta Dream  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the Golden Girls of Sport calendar, which was ostensibly launched to provide Australian women competing in the 1996 Olympic Games with greater access to the media, with a special issue of black+white magazine, titled The Atlanta Dream, which featured Australian men and women competitors at the Olympic Games in Atlanta. The two publications are analysed in the

Janine M. Mikosza; Murray G. Phillips

1999-01-01

476

A Juvenile Sichuan Golden Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Predated by a Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Qinling Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that hawks, panthers, jackals, lynxes and wolves may prey on Sichuan golden monkeys in the wild [1, 2], but all these assumptions were based on observations of dead monkeys eaten by predators, and no direct attack of a living individual has been witnessed. During our field study on the behavioural ecology of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in

Shuyi Zhang; Baoping Ren; Baoguo Li

1999-01-01

477

Oxygen consumption and body temperature rhythms in the golden spiny mouse: Responses to changes in day length  

Microsoft Academic Search

The golden spiny mouse Acomys russatus is a rock dwelling rodent which lives in extremely arid and hot habitats. In Israel it is nocturnal except in areas in which it coexists with the common spiny mouse A. cahirinus. In such places it is diurnal. The daily rhythms of body temperature (Tb) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were compared in mice acclimated

A. Haim; N. Zisapel

1995-01-01

478

A comparative study of 239,240Pu in soil near the former Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility, Golden, CO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant near Golden, CO released plutonium into the environment during almost 40 years of operation. Continuing concern over possible health impacts of these releases has been heightened by lack of public disclosure of the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. A dose reconstruction study for the Rocky Flats facilities, begun in 1990, provided a unique

Todd D. Margulies; Niels D. Schonbeck; Normie C. Morin-Voillequé; Katherine A. James; James M. LaVelle

2004-01-01

479

Effects of Castration, Blinding, and the Pineal Gland on the Harderian Glands of the Male Golden Hamster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Harderian glands of the golden hamster exhibit a sexual dimorphism manifested by acinar cells of one type and the presence of porphyrin granules in the female, and by acinar cells of two types and the absence of porphyrin in the male. Castration of male hamsters produces Harderian glands of the female type. In the present study, it was found

Jeanne W. Clabough; J. E. Norvell

1973-01-01

480

Reinforcement and the Organization of Behavior in Golden Hamsters: Pavlovian Conditioning with Food and Shock Unconditioned Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been considerable interest lately in cases where instrumental conditionability appears to depend on the reinforcer used. Here the effects of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs)on golden hamster behaviors was observed. The intent was to see whether previously reported differences among the behaviors produced by food reinforcement and…

Shettleworth, Sara J.

1978-01-01

481

Progressive muscular dystrophy in a golden retriever dog: light microscope and ultrastructural features at 4 and 8 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical and morphological features of a congenital myopathy in a young male golden retriever dog were studied. Muscle biopsies at 4 and 8 months of age were examined with light and electron microscopy. Clinical features included early onset of generalized muscle weakness with selective muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, splaying of the limbs, stiff gait, and marked elevation of serum

B. A. Valentine; B. J. Cooper; J. F. Cummings; A. deLahunta

1986-01-01

482

76 FR 15275 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Golden Crab Fishery Off the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...control date of December 7, 2010, to control future access to the golden crab fishery operating...choose to take no further action to control entry or access to the fisheries, in which case the control date may be rescinded. Any...

2011-03-21

483

Dietary Self-Selection of Golden Hamsters in Response to Acute Food Deprivation and Chronic Food Restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult male golden hamsters were maintained on either Purine Rat Chow (Chow diet) or a self-selection diet consisting of high-protein chow, pure fat, and pure carbohydrate (Choice diet). In Experiment 1, animals were deprived of food for single periods of up to 48 hr. Animals on the Chow diet did not increase intake at any time after deprivation; animals on

David DiBattista

1987-01-01

484

Inhibition of egg hatching with apple wax solvent as a novel method for controlling golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is an important pest of rice in Asia. Among chemicals screened for ability to inhibit hatching of snail eggs, morpholine which is a solvent of apple wax was very effective in suppressing hatching of snail eggs. At a concentration of 60%, or higher, morpholine completely suppressed egg hatching in the laboratory and outdoor conditions. Scanning

Der-Chung Wu; Jih-Zu Yu; Bing-Huei Chen; Chien-Yih Lin; Wen-Hsiung Ko

2005-01-01

485

Uniform ripening encodes a Golden 2-like transcription factor regulating tomato fruit chloroplast development.  

PubMed

Modern tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties are bred for uniform ripening (u) light green fruit phenotypes to facilitate harvests of evenly ripened fruit. U encodes a Golden 2-like (GLK) transcription factor, SlGLK2, which determines chlorophyll accumulation and distribution in developing fruit. In tomato, two GLKs--SlGLK1 and SlGLK2--are expressed in leaves, but only SlGLK2 is expressed in fruit. Expressing GLKs increased the chlorophyll content of fruit, whereas SlGLK2 suppression recapitulated the u mutant phenotype. GLK overexpression enhanced fruit photosynthesis gene expression and chloroplast development, leading to elevated carbohydrates and carotenoids in ripe fruit. SlGLK2 influences photosynthesis in developing fruit, contributing to mature fruit characteristics and suggesting that selection of u inadvertently compromised ripe fruit quality in exchange for desirable production traits. PMID:22745430

Powell, Ann L T; Nguyen, Cuong V; Hill, Theresa; Cheng, Kalai Lam; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Aktas, Hakan; Ashrafi, Hamid; Pons, Clara; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Vicente, Ariel; Lopez-Baltazar, Javier; Barry, Cornelius S; Liu, Yongsheng; Chetelat, Roger; Granell, Antonio; Van Deynze, Allen; Giovannoni, James J; Bennett, Alan B

2012-06-29

486

Hormones and the neuromuscular control of courtship in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus).  

PubMed

Many animals engage in spectacular courtship displays, likely recruiting specialized neural, hormonal and muscular systems to facilitate these performances. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform physically elaborate courtship displays that include novel forms of visual and acoustic signaling. We study the behavioral neuroendocrinology of this male's courtship, combining field behavioral observations with anatomical, biochemical and molecular laboratory-based studies. Seasonally, male courtship is activated by testosterone with little correspondence between testosterone levels and display intensity. Females prefer males whose displays are exceptionally frequent, fast and accurate. The activation of androgen receptors (AR) is crucial for optimal display performance, with AR expressed at elevated levels in several neuromuscular tissues. Apparently, courtship enlists an elaborate androgen-dependent network that includes spinal motoneurons, skeletal muscles and somatosensory systems. This work highlights the value of studying non-traditional species to illuminate physiological adaptations and, hopefully, stimulates future research on other species with complex behaviors. PMID:23624091

Schlinger, Barney A; Barske, Julia; Day, Lainy; Fusani, Leonida; Fuxjager, Matthew J

2013-04-25

487

Assessment of toxicity of dissolved and microencapsulated biocides for control of the Golden Mussel Limnoperna fortunei.  

PubMed

Biological invasions currently pose major threats to ecosystems worldwide. Invasive bivalves such as the Golden Mussel Limnoperna fortunei can act as 'environmental engineers', altering biogeochemistry, reducing biodiversity, and literally changing the landscape of aquatic environments. The risk that this mussel will invade the Amazon basin is a great concern for environmental authorities, especially because no efficient control methods presently exist. In this study, we tested new microencapsulated chemicals, along with the traditional dissolved chlorine and KCl, as alternatives to control L. fortunei infestation in industrial and water supply plants along rivers. Because these bivalves can close their valves when they sense toxic substances in the water, microencapsulation has improved the effectiveness of the chemicals in controlling L. fortunei, reducing variation in the application and increasing toxicity compared to dissolved chemicals. Microencapsulation should be seriously considered as an alternative to replace hazardous chlorine. PMID:23582773

Calazans, Sávio Henrique C; Americo, Juliana Alves; Fernandes, Flavio da Costa; Aldridge, David C; Rebelo, Mauro de Freitas

2013-03-15

488

Splendide Californie: French Artists' Impressions of the Golden State, 1786-1900  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Historical Society's Website presents accessible, interesting, and well-designed scholarly and educational materials relating to California history. Running March 1 -- June 10, 2001, the site has posted an exhibition of painted images of California -- Splendide Californie French Artists' Impressions of the Golden State, 1786-1900 -- that presents texts and images of French Impressionists painting and drawing California's landscape and culture. Of course, these are lesser-known artists in comparison to their Parisian compatriots, and their artwork is not always as "impressionistic" as the school's exemplars. Nonetheless, the exhibit provides a fascinating look at one of the cultural synergies that took place in the days of California's most frenetic development.

2001-01-01

489

Studies on infectivity, longevity and fecundity of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in golden hamsters.  

PubMed

Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a new introduction as an experimental hookworm model. Information on the biology of this parasite in its laboratory host--the golden hamster, is meagre. Its infectivity, longevity and fecundity were studied to obtain relevant information especially on vulnerable points in the maintenance and continuation of the infection. 100% infectivity was obtained with an inoculum of 60 larvae per animal. Maximum numbers of parasites were harboured from day 15 to day 18 after infection and thereafter gradually declined. Approximately 10% of the worms were still present at the end of the third month of infection. The in vitro release of eggs in a 24-hour period by one female nematode peaked from day 25 to day 39, a second rise occurred in day 70 after infection. PMID:6747259

Visen, P K; Katiyar, J C; Sen, A B

1984-06-01

490

Maporal viral infection in the Syrian golden hamster: a model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  

PubMed

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe and often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis. Maporal (MAP) virus is a newly discovered hantavirus that originally was isolated from an arboreal rice rat captured in central Venezuela. The results of this study indicate that MAP virus in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) can cause a disease that is clinically and pathologically remarkably similar to HPS. The similarities include the time course of clinical disease, presence of virus-specific IgG at the onset of clinical disease, subacute pneumonitis, rapid onset of diffuse alveolar edema in the absence of necrosis, hepatic-portal triaditis, mononuclear-cellular infiltrate in lung and liver, widespread distribution of hantaviral antigen in endothelial cells of the microvasculature of lung and other tissues, and variable lethality. These similarities suggest that the MAP virus-hamster system is a useful model for studies of the pathogenesis of HPS and for the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:12404153

Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Molina, Claudia P; Fulhorst, Charles F

2002-10-29

491

Golden Gate Bridge response: a study with low-amplitude data from three earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dynamic response of the Golden Gate Bridge, located north of San Francisco, CA, has been studied previously using ambient vibration data and finite element models. Since permanent seismic instrumentation was installed in 1993, only small earthquakes that originated at distances varying between ~11 to 122 km have been recorded. Nonetheless, these records prompted this study of the response of the bridge to low amplitude shaking caused by three earthquakes. Compared to previous ambient vibration studies, the earthquake response data reveal a slightly higher fundamental frequency (shorter-period) for vertical vibration of the bridge deck center span (~7.7–8.3 s versus 8.2–10.6 s), and a much higher fundamental frequency (shorter period) for the transverse direction of the deck (~11.24–16.3 s versus ~18.2 s). In this study, it is also shown that these two periods are dominant apparent periods representing interaction between tower, cable, and deck.

Celebi, Mehmet

2012-01-01

492

Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).  

PubMed

Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. PMID:21592637

Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

2011-05-17

493

Exploration along lower Cretaceous shelf margin - Golden Lane, Mexico, to Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Exploration for hydrocarbons from lower Cretaceous shelf-margin carbonates began more than 40 yr ago and continues today along the Gulf Coast of Mexico, Texas, and Louisiana. Detailed core studies along the shelf-margin indicate the existence of a nearly continuous trend of Rudist banks and associated tidal bars. Seaward, argillaceous carbonate mud was deposited in deeper water; landward, shallow water lagoon and shelf sediments were diverse and resulted in the accumulation of a wide variety of facies. In the Mexican fields, extremely high early secondary porosity in the Golden Lane is believed to have formed when the carbonates were exposed to subaerial weathering during early stages of the Laramide Orogeny. In the Poza Rica Field, production is from intercrystalline dolomite porosity. Along the US Gulf Coast, most porosity is primary within the preserved Rudist shells and permeability is very low.

Bebout, D.G.

1982-05-01

494

Ultrasonographic and laboratory screening in clinically normal mature golden retriever dogs.  

PubMed

Wellness and pre-anesthetic screening of blood and urine of geriatric companion animals are routinely recommended. In addition, there are occasional references to the use of imaging in clinically normal geriatric patients. However, the utility of wellness testing is not known, and there is limited information regarding the value of pre-anesthetic testing. Wellness testing, including complete blood cell count, biochemical profile, urinalysis, and abdominal ultrasound, was performed on 53 clinically normal, mature golden retriever dogs. Laboratory analysis revealed abnormalities in 54.7% (29/53) of the dogs. Abdominal ultrasound screening demonstrated abnormalities in 64.2% (34/53) of the dogs. As only a small number of dogs had follow-up diagnostic testing available, the significance of these abnormalities is unknown. Further study involving a larger cohort of animals and analysis of follow-up data is necessary to determine the utility of laboratory and imaging studies in clinically normal geriatric patients. PMID:23204581

Webb, Jinelle A; Kirby, Gordon M; Nykamp, Stephanie G; Gauthier, Meredith J

2012-06-01

495

Avian pox infection with secondary Candida albicans encephalitis in a juvenile golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).  

PubMed

Abstract: A juvenile golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) was presented with proliferative epithelial lesions, consistent with avian poxvirus infection, around the eyes, on commissures of the beak, and on both feet. Despite treatment, the eagle declined clinically, and, 15 days after presentation, the eagle began seizuring and was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. On postmortem examination, avian poxvirus infection was confirmed in the nodular skin lesions, and Candida albicans was cultured from the skin, lungs, and brain. Breaks in the skin barrier from poxvirus infection likely led to secondary infection with C albicans. Systemic vascular dissemination of C albicans to the brain resulted in thrombosis, hemorrhage, local hypoxia, and the clinically observed seizures. The combination of the breach in the primary immune system, immunosuppression, and a prolonged course of antibiotics were contributory factors to the opportunistic fungal infection in this eagle. Candida albicans should be considered as a differential diagnosis for encephalitis in an immunocompromised avian patient. PMID:20496607

Shrubsole-Cockwill, Alana N; Millins, Caroline; Jardine, Claire; Kachur, Kelti; Parker, Dennilyn L

2010-03-01

496

Gibberellins in Dormant Embryos of Pyrus malus L. cv Golden delicious.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to search for free gibberellins in dormant embryos of Pyrus malus L. cv Golden delicious using several extraction procedures. Quantitative estimations were made by biotest (lettuce hypocotyle test) and by GLC. Using an ethanolic extraction, only minute quantities of free gibberellins were detected. When extraction was carried out in the Tris buffer pH 7.2, the quantities of gibberellins detected were slightly higher. When the embryos were crushed in Tris buffer and treated with Triton X 100, very large amounts of gibberellins were detected, especially GA1 and GA4. These results indicate that gibberellins are present in dormant embryos before chilling treatment. The form in which the gibberellins exist and the origin of GA4 are discussed. PMID:23195054

Bianco, J; Lasséchère, S; Bulard, C

2012-01-20

497

Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata.  

PubMed

We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of "100 of the world's worst invasive alien species". The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310-0.966 and 0.523-0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata. PMID:22016640

Chen, Lian; Xu, Haigen; Li, Hong; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hui; Liu, Yan

2011-09-16

498

Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata  

PubMed Central

We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

Chen, Lian; Xu, Haigen; Li, Hong; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hui; Liu, Yan

2011-01-01

499

Tropical cloud forest climate variability and the demise of the Monteverde golden toad.  

PubMed

Widespread amphibian extinctions in the mountains of the American tropics have been blamed on the interaction of anthropogenic climate change and a lethal pathogen. However, limited meteorological records make it difficult to conclude whether current climate conditions at these sites are actually exceptional in the context of natural variability. We use stable oxygen isotope measurements from trees without annual rings to reconstruct a century of hydroclimatology in the Monteverde Cloud Forest of Costa Rica. High-resolution measurements reveal coherent isotope cycles that provide annual chronological control and paleoclimate information. Climate variability is dominated by interannual variance in dry season moisture associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation events. There is no evidence of a trend associated with global warming. Rather, the extinction of the Monteverde golden toad (Bufo periglenes) appears to have coincided with an exceptionally dry interval caused by the 1986-1987 El Niño event. PMID:20194772

Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Evans, Michael N

2010-03-01

500

A golden A5 model of leptons with a minimal NLO correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new A5 model of leptons which corrects the LO predictions of Golden Ratio mixing via a minimal NLO Majorana mass correction which completely breaks the original Klein symmetry of the neutrino mass matrix. The minimal nature of the NLO correction leads to a restricted and correlated range of the mixing angles allowing agreement within the one sigma range of recent global fits following the reactor angle measurement by Daya Bay and RENO. The minimal NLO correction also preserves the LO inverse neutrino mass sum rule leading to a neutrino mass spectrum that extends into the quasi-degenerate region allowing the model to be accessible to the current and future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

Cooper, Iain K.; King, Stephen F.; Stuart, Alexander J.

2013-10-01