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Sample records for golden cuttlefish sepia

  1. Isozymes analysis of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianmin; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Rucai; Wang, Shidang; Zhou, Weiwu

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM) show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (P<0.99). The mean values of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

  2. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  3. Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Barbosa, Alexandra; Hanlon, Roger T

    2008-06-01

    The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish-although color blind-actively match various colors of their immediate surroundings, yet no quantitative data support this notion. We assembled several natural substrates chosen to evoke the three basic types of camouflaged body patterns that cuttlefish express (uniform/stipple, mottle, and disruptive) and measured the spectral reflectance of the camouflaged pattern and the respective background using a fiber optic spectrometer. We demonstrate that the reflectance spectra of cuttlefish skin patterns correlate closely with the spectra of these natural substrates. Since pigmented chromatophores play a key role in cephalopod color change, we also measured the spectral reflectance of individual cuttlefish chromatophores under the microscope, and confirm the results from a previous publication reporting three distinct colors of chromatophores (yellow, orange, and dark brown) on the animals' dorsal side. Taken together, our results show that the color variations in substrate and animal skin can be very similar and that this may facilitate color match on natural substrates in the absence of color vision. PMID:18414874

  4. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed. PMID:9317534

  5. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. PMID:26385328

  6. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

  7. Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2014-03-01

    To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration. PMID:23982859

  8. Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Langridge, Keri V

    2005-01-01

    The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the deimatic display. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

  9. Mechanisms of Population Structuring in Giant Australian Cuttlefish Sepia apama

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Nicholas L.; Snelling, Edward P.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.

    2013-01-01

    While a suite of approaches have been developed to describe the scale, rate and spatial structure of exchange among populations, a lack of mechanistic understanding will invariably compromise predictions of population-level responses to ecosystem modification. In this study, we measured the energetics and sustained swimming capacity of giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama and combined these data with information on the life-history strategy, behaviour and circulation patterns experienced by the species to predict scales of connectivity throughout parts of their range. The swimming capacity of adult and juvenile S. apama was poor compared to most other cephalopods, with most individuals incapable of maintaining swimming above 15 cm s−1. Our estimate of optimal swimming speed (6–7 cm s−1) and dispersal potential were consistent with the observed fine-scale population structure of the species. By comparing observed and predicted population connectivity, we identified several mechanisms that are likely to have driven fine-scale population structure in this species, which will assist in the interpretation of future population declines. PMID:23536813

  10. Mechanisms of population structuring in giant australian Cuttlefish Sepia apama.

    PubMed

    Payne, Nicholas L; Snelling, Edward P; Semmens, Jayson M; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2013-01-01

    While a suite of approaches have been developed to describe the scale, rate and spatial structure of exchange among populations, a lack of mechanistic understanding will invariably compromise predictions of population-level responses to ecosystem modification. In this study, we measured the energetics and sustained swimming capacity of giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama and combined these data with information on the life-history strategy, behaviour and circulation patterns experienced by the species to predict scales of connectivity throughout parts of their range. The swimming capacity of adult and juvenile S. apama was poor compared to most other cephalopods, with most individuals incapable of maintaining swimming above 15 cm s(-1). Our estimate of optimal swimming speed (6-7 cm s(-1)) and dispersal potential were consistent with the observed fine-scale population structure of the species. By comparing observed and predicted population connectivity, we identified several mechanisms that are likely to have driven fine-scale population structure in this species, which will assist in the interpretation of future population declines. PMID:23536813

  11. Effects of Visual Cues of a Moving Model Predator on Body Patterns in Cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kohei; Mori, Akira; Ikeda, Yuzuru

    2015-08-01

    We examined the effects of predator-prey distance (PPD) and trajectory of the predator on the body patterns that the pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, shows in response to a predator. A model predator moving in three different trajectories was presented to the cuttlefish: T1, approached the cuttlefish but bypassed above; T2, approached directly toward the cuttlefish; T3, bypassed the cuttlefish both vertically and horizontally. We divided the body patterns that the cuttlefish expressed into seven categories, i.e., "uniform light", "disruptive", "center circle", "dark square", "vertical stripe", "all dark" and "eyespots". In T1, the number of individuals that showed "dark square" increased as the model approached the cuttlefish, whereas the number of individuals that showed "disruptive" decreased. In T2, the number of individuals that showed "all dark" and "eyespots" increased as the model approached the cuttlefish. In T3, the number of individuals that showed "dark square" and "vertical stripe" increased as the model approached the cuttlefish, and it tended to decrease as the model receded from the cuttlefish. These results demonstrate that S. pharaonis changes its body patterns according to PPD and the trajectory of the predator, which would affect predation risk and/or predator perception. PMID:26245220

  12. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains. PMID:16376404

  13. Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ≥150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (Σ) monounsaturated fatty acids, Σ n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less Σ n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

  14. Octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) and cuttlefishes (Sepia pharaonis, S. officinalis) can conditionally discriminate.

    PubMed

    Hvorecny, Lauren M; Grudowski, Jessica L; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Simmons, Tiffany L; Roy, Paula R; Brooks, Jennifer A; Hanner, Rachel M; Beigel, Marie E; Karson, Miranda A; Nichols, Rachel H; Holm, Johanna B; Boal, Jean Geary

    2007-10-01

    In complex navigation using landmarks, an animal must discriminate between potential cues and show context (condition) sensitivity. Such conditional discrimination is considered a form of complex learning and has been associated primarily with vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that octopuses and cuttlefish are capable of conditional discrimination. Subjects were trained in two maze configurations (the conditions) in which they were required to select one of two particular escape routes within each maze (the discrimination). Conditional discrimination could be demonstrated by selecting the correct escape route in each maze. Six of ten mud-flat octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides), 6 of 13 pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis), and one of four common cuttlefish (S. officinalis) demonstrated conditional discrimination by successfully solving both mazes. These experiments demonstrate that cephalopods are capable of conditional discrimination and extend the limits of invertebrate complex learning. PMID:17437139

  15. Perception of visual texture and the expression of disruptive camouflage by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, E.J; Baddeley, R.J; Shohet, A.J; Osorio, D

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage themselves by changing their body pattern according to the background. This behaviour can be used to investigate visual perception in these molluscs and may also give insight into camouflage design. Edge detection is an important aspect of vision, and here we compare the body patterns that cuttlefish produced in response to checkerboard backgrounds with responses to backgrounds that have the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the checkerboards, but randomized spatial phase. For humans, phase randomization removes visual edges. To describe the cuttlefish body patterns, we scored the level of expression of 20 separate pattern components, and then derived principal components (PCs) from these scores. After varimax rotation, the first component (PC1) corresponded closely to the so-called disruptive body pattern, and the second (PC2) to the mottle pattern. PC1 was predominantly expressed on checkerboards, and PC2 on phase-randomized backgrounds. Thus, cuttlefish probably have edge detectors that control the expression of disruptive pattern. Although the experiments used unnatural backgrounds, it seems probable that cuttlefish display disruptive camouflage when there are edges in the visual background caused by discrete objects such as pebbles. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of disruptive camouflage. PMID:17389219

  16. A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

  17. Polarization sensitivity in two species of cuttlefish - Sepia plangon (Gray 1849) and Sepia mestus (Gray 1849) - demonstrated with polarized optomotor stimuli.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Christopher M; Marshall, Justin

    2010-10-01

    The existence of polarization sensitivity (PS), most likely resulting from the orthogonal arrangement of microvilli in photoreceptors, has been proposed in cephalopods for some time, although it has rarely been examined behaviourally. Here, we tested the mourning cuttlefish, Sepia plangon, and the reaper cuttlefish, Sepia mestus, for polarization sensitivity using a large-field optomotor stimulus containing polarization contrast. Polaroid filter drums with stripes producing alternating e-vectors were rotated around free-moving animals. Polarized optomotor responses were displayed, and these responses were similar to those performed in response to a black-and-white, vertically-striped drum, whereas no responses were displayed to a plain polarizing control drum producing just a vertical e-vector. This indicates that the animals are able to see the contrast between adjacent stripes in the polarizing drum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of functional polarization sensitivity in cuttlefish. PMID:20833930

  18. Hemocyte morphology and phagocytic activity in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Goux, Didier; Guillamin, Maryline; Safi, Georges; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Koueta, Noussithé; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the immune system of cephalopods, in spite of their many highly derived characters within the molluscan clade, including a vertebrate-like high-pressure closed circulatory system. Further the economic importance of cephalopod fisheries, potential for aquaculture, and use as ecotoxicology models demand a thorough understanding of their immune system. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of hemocytes in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Cytological stainings, electron microscopy- and flow cytometry-observations highlight a single granulocyte population with various densities of eosinophilic granules and unstained vesicles. These hemocytes contain acid phosphatase-, lysozyme- and proPO system enzymes, and have high activity in bead phagocytosis assays. Interestingly, bead pre-incubation in plasma results in time-dependent aggregation perhaps resulting from hemocyanin-coating, and decrease in phagocytosis. This study provides the basis for understanding hemocyte-mediated immunity in the common cuttlefish, and essential background for future studies on cephalopod immunity. PMID:25066968

  19. Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

  20. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-12-15

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 μPa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 μPa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods. PMID:25394634

  1. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods. PMID:26644087

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the needle cuttlefish Sepia aculeata (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Baoying; Wang, Wanchao; Qi, Pengzhi; Wu, Changwen; Chen, Yongjiu; Lv, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the needle cuttlefish Sepia aculeata. The genome was 16,219 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)]. The composition and order of genes, for the mitogenome found in S. aculeate, were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. aculeata is T 34.0%, C 17.0%, A 40.5% and G 8.5%, with a highly A + T bias of 74.5%. Two control regions (CR) both contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:24438256

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the common cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanchao; Guo, Baoying; Li, Jiji; Qi, Pengzhi; Wu, Changwen

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the common cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis was determined first. The genome was 16,208 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)], the gene composition and order of which were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. pharaonis is T: 36.3%, C: 14.7%, A: 40.9% and G: 8.1%, with a hightly A + T bias of 77.2%. Two control regions all contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigations of the phylogenetic relationships, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:23725482

  4. Trace metal concentrations in post-hatching cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and consequences of dissolved zinc exposure.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Milinkovitch, Thomas; Koueta, Noussithé; Cosson, Richard Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the changes of 13 trace metal and metalloid concentrations (i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) and their subcellular fractionation in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis reared in controlled conditions between hatching and 2 months post-hatching. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations were determined. Our results highlighted contrasting changes of studied metals. Indeed, As and Fe concentrations measured in hatchlings suggested a maternal transfer of these elements in cuttlefish. The non-essential elements Ag and Cd presented the highest accumulation during our study, correlated with the digestive gland maturation. During the 6 first weeks of study, soluble fractions of most of essential trace metals (i.e. Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn) slowly increased consistently with the progressive needs of cuttlefish metabolism during this period. In order to determine for the first time in a cephalopod how metal concentrations and their subcellular distributions are impacted when the animals are trace metal-exposed, we studied previously described parameters in juveniles exposed to dissolved Zn at environmental (i.e. 50 μg l(-1)) and sublethal (i.e. 200 μg l(-1)) levels. Moreover, oxidative stress (i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) was assessed in digestive gland and gills after 1 and 2 months exposures. Our results highlighted no or low ability of this stage of life to regulate dissolved Zn accumulation during the studied period, consistently with high sensitivity of this organism. Notably, Zn exposures caused a concentration-dependent Mn depletion in juvenile cuttlefish, and an increase of soluble fraction of Ag, Cd, Cu without accumulation modifications, suggesting substitution of these elements (i.e. Mn, Ag, Cd, Cu) by Zn. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations decreased in individuals most exposed to Zn. Finally, no perturbations in oxidative stress management were detected in gills, whereas modifications of GST, SOD and catalase activity levels were recorded in digestive gland, resulting in an increase of LPO content after a 6-week exposure to low Zn concentration. Altogether, these perturbations are consistent with previously described high sensitivity of juvenile cuttlefish towards Zn. Our results underlined the need to study deeply contamination impact on this animal at this stage of life. PMID:25500620

  5. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mthger, Lydia M; Roberts, Steven B; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-10-23

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max=492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This 'distributed sensing' could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

  6. Microbiological quality of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) fillets stored in dry and wet ice.

    PubMed

    Jeyasekaran, G; Jeya Shakila, R; Sukumar, D

    2012-10-01

    Microbiological quality of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) fillets stored in three different ice conditions was studied. Fillets stored in wet ice at a ratio of 1:1 (package III) were sensorially acceptable for only 18 h, while that stored in dry ice at 1:1 (package I) and combination of dry ice and wet ice at 1:0.2:0.5 (package II) were in acceptable condition up to 24 h without re-icing and thus there was an extension of shelf life by about 33%. Total bacterial load was 7 log₁₀ cfu/g at the end of the storage period. Total psychrophilic population increased from zero to 7 log₁₀ cfu/g while total lactic acid bacteria from zero to 5 log₁₀ cfu/g. H₂S producers were detected only at 18 h, with a count of 1 log₁₀ cfu/g. Sulphite-reducing Clostridia increased gradually from zero to 110 most probable number count/g. Fresh cuttlefish fillets carried a bacterial flora of Micrococcus, Planococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, Proteus and Aeromonas. Pseudomonas was dominant in wet ice pack, while Aeromonas was dominant in both the dry ice and combination pack. Immediately after packing, the temperatures recorded in packages I, II and III were 10.5, 1.2 and 3.0 °C, respectively, which drastically decreased in 1 h and then maintained and finally increased gradually. The results indicate that use of combination of dry ice and wet ice is economical and very much useful to seafood industries, as this package considerably reduced the cost of air freight, as well as improved the quality and shelf life of cuttlefish. PMID:22414930

  7. Fine structure of the blood-brain interface in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, M; Abbott, N J

    1992-04-01

    The blood-brain interface was studied in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, by thin-section electron microscopy. Layers lining blood vessels in the optic and vertical lobes of the brain, counting from lumen outwards, include a layer of endothelial cells and associated basal lamina, a layer of pericytes and a second basal lamina, and perivascular glial cells. The distinction between endothelial cells and pericytes breaks down in small vessels. In the smallest microvessels, equivalent to capillaries, and in venous channels, and endothelial and pericyte layers are discontinuous, but a layer of glial cells is always interposed between blood and neural tissue, except where neurosecretory endings reach the second basal lamina. In microvessels in which cell membranes of the entire perivascular glial sheath could be followed, the glial layer was apparently 'seamless', not interrupted by an intercellular cleft, in ca 90% (27/30) of the profiles. Where a cleft did occur, it showed an elongated overlap zone between adjacent cells. The walls of venous channels are formed by lamellae of overlapping glial processes. In arterial vessels, the pericyte layer is thicker and more complete, with characteristic sinuous intercellular clefts. Arterioles are defined as vessels containing 'myofilaments' within pericytes, and arteries those in which the region of the second basal lamina is additionally expanded into a wide collagenous zone containing fibroblast-like cells and cell processes enclosing myofilaments. The 'glio-vascular channels' observed in Octopus brain are not a prominent feature of Sepia optic and vertical lobe. The organization of cell layers at the Sepia blood-brain interface suggests that it is designed to restrict permeability between blood and brain. PMID:1588346

  8. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  9. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Darcy A A; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  10. Role of blood-oxygen transport in thermal tolerance of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Melzner, Frank; Mark, Felix C; Prtner, Hans-Otto

    2007-10-01

    Mechanisms that affect thermal tolerance of ectothermic organisms have recently received much interest, mainly due to global warming and climate-change debates in both the public and in the scientific community. In physiological terms, thermal tolerance of several marine ectothermic taxa can be linked to oxygen availability, with capacity limitations in ventilatory and circulatory systems contributing to oxygen limitation at extreme temperatures. The present review briefly summarizes the processes that define thermal tolerance in a model cephalopod organism, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, with a focus on the contribution of the cephalopod oxygen-carrying blood pigment, hemocyanin. When acutely exposed to either extremely high or low temperatures, cuttlefish display a gradual transition to an anaerobic mode of energy production in key muscle tissues once critical temperatures (T(crit)) are reached. At high temperatures, stagnating metabolic rates and a developing hypoxemia can be correlated with a progressive failure of the circulatory system, well before T(crit) is reached. However, at low temperatures, declining metabolic rates cannot be related to ventilatory or circulatory failure. Rather, we propose a role for hemocyanin functional characteristics as a major limiting factor preventing proper tissue oxygenation. Using information on the oxygen binding characteristics of cephalopod hemocyanins, we argue that high oxygen affinities (= low P(50) values), as found at low temperatures, allow efficient oxygen shuttling only at very low venous oxygen partial pressures. Low venous PO(2)s limit rates of oxygen diffusion into cells, thus eventually causing the observed transition to anaerobic metabolism. On the basis of existing blood physiological, molecular, and crystallographical data, the potential to resolve the role of hemocyanin isoforms in thermal adaptation by an integrated molecular physiological approach is discussed. PMID:21672869

  11. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

    2013-03-01

    Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison with 0.03-0.85kg/h in December-April. Seasonal catch rates indicated a migratory life cycle ofS. pharaonis between offshore and inshore coastal zones. PMID:23894959

  12. Physiological perturbations in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis induced by subchronic exposure to dissolved zinc.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Dallas, Lorna; Koueta, Noussithé

    2015-06-30

    Although cephalopod early life stage development often occurs in coastal areas where contamination is real and continuous, the physiological perturbations induced by contaminants have been rarely investigated. This study focused on the Zn as it is one of the trace metals the most concentrated in coastal waters, worldwide. As Zn-tolerance limits were unknown in juvenile Sepia officinalis, the aim of this study was to estimate the threshold inducing mortality during the 2-first weeks post-hatching, and to determine its sensitivity using digestive and immune enzymatic assays, as well as growth and behavior follow-up during the first 5weeks post-hatching. Our study highlighted a Zn-mortality threshold lying between 185 and 230μgl(-1), and growth reductions occurring after 5-week at 108μgl(-1) and above, associated with enzymatic perturbations. These results underline a relatively important sensitivity of juvenile cuttlefish to Zn, pointed out by a wide diversity of biomarkers. PMID:25749315

  13. Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

    2014-01-01

    The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

  14. Accelerometry estimates field metabolic rate in giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama during breeding.

    PubMed

    Payne, Nicholas L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Seymour, Roger S; Webber, Dale M; Snelling, Edward P; Semmens, Jayson M

    2011-03-01

    1. Estimating the metabolic rate of animals in nature is central to understanding the physiological, behavioural and evolutionary ecology of animals. Doubly labelled water and heart-rate methods are the most commonly used approaches, but both have limitations that preclude their application to some systems. 2. Accelerometry has emerged as a powerful tool for estimating energy expenditure in a range of animals, but is yet to be used to estimate field metabolic rate in aquatic taxa. We combined two-dimensional accelerometry and swim-tunnel respirometry to estimate patterns of energy expenditure in giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama during breeding. 3. Both oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) and swimming speed showed strong positive associations with body acceleration, with coefficients of determination comparable to those using similar accelerometers on terrestrial vertebrates. Despite increased activity during the day, field metabolic rate rarely approached Vo2, and night-time Vo2 was similar to that at rest. 4. These results are consistent with the life-history strategy of this species, which has a poor capacity to exercise anaerobically, and a mating strategy that is visually based. With the logistical difficulties associated with observation in aquatic environments, accelerometry is likely to prove a valuable tool for estimating energy expenditure in aquatic animals. PMID:20880022

  15. Identification and expression of two oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Henry, Joël; Cornet, Valerie; Bernay, Benoit; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2013-08-01

    Two novel members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily have been identified in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Oxytocin/vasopressin gene sequences were cloned by Race PCR. The two precursors we identified exhibit the classical organization of OT/VP superfamily precursors: a signal peptide followed by a nonapeptide and a neurophysin domain. The neurophysin domain is entirely conserved for the cuttlefish precursors, but the nonapeptides and the signal peptides differ. The first nonapeptide, called sepiatocin, is highly homologous to Octopus vulgaris octopressin. The second nonapeptide, called pro-sepiatocin, shows sequence homologies with a Crustacean oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide identified in Daphnia culex and with a novel form of oxytocin described in New World monkeys. The expression of pro-sepiatocin is restricted to the supraesophageal and subesophageal masses of the brain whereas sepiatocin is expressed in the entire central nervous system. Sepiatocin, as described for octopressin, modulates the contractile activity of several muscles such as penis, oviduct and vena cava muscles; this suggests its involvement in reproduction and blood circulation. Pro-sepiatocin is released in the hemolymph; it is a neurohormone able to target numerous peripheral organs. PMID:23764263

  16. Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Dupavillon, Jacqueline L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2009-01-01

    With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different concentrations of desalination brine on the growth, survival and condition of cuttlefish embryos were investigated. The primary egg-laying sites for the cuttlefish were in the vicinity of Stony Point (sites 4 and 3) and the area with the least egg abundance was on the eastern and western areas around Point Lowly (sites 9 and 7) where no eggs were found. The survival of embryos decreased with an increase in salinity, with no embryos surviving to full term in salinities greater than 50 per thousand. Mean weight and mantle length also decreased with increasing salinity. Besides elevated salinity, the brine also had increased concentrations of Ba, Ca, K, Sr and Mg relative to water near Point Lowly. Brine discharge from seawater desalination poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia. PMID:19332355

  17. Influence of environmental parameters on the life-history and population dynamics of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stefanie; Valls, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuel; Quetglas, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis constitutes an important fishery resource in the Mediterranean, where it is exploited by both the bottom trawl and small-scale fleet. However, there is currently scarce information on the Mediterranean stocks, since most studies on the population dynamics of this species have been undertaken in the northeast Atlantic. In this work we first analysed different aspects of the cuttlefish life-history from the western Mediterranean such as population structure, reproduction and the trade-offs between somatic condition and reproduction investments. Secondly, we investigated the effects of different environmental parameters (e.g. climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) and moon phase) on these populations, analysing several landing time series spanning the last 45 years. Our results revealed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations exhibit strong seasonal variations owing to a reproductive migration towards coastal waters. The positive relationships between somatic and reproductive condition pointed to an income breeder strategy; this was reinforced by the percentage of empty stomachs, which was lowest just before the reproductive period peak. Despite the putative high sensitivity of cephalopod populations to external abiotic factors, our results showed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations were not affected by most of the environmental parameters investigated. Significant effects were found for SST and a local climatic index, but no or very weak influences were evident for other parameters such as large-scale climatic phenomena (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation) or other locally-related variables (e.g. rainfall, Chla). Our results revealed a shift in the cuttlefish population dynamics in the early 1980s, which could be related to important changes in the local hydroclimatology reported by previous authors.

  18. Testing hypotheses of population structuring in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Prez-Losada, Marcos; Nolte, Mark J; Crandall, Keith A; Shaw, Paul W

    2007-07-01

    Population structuring in species inhabiting marine environments such as the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (NEA) and Mediterranean Sea (MS) has usually been explained based on past and present physical barriers to gene flow and isolation by distance (IBD). Here, we examined the relative importance of these factors on population structuring of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis by using methods of phylogenetic inference and hypothesis testing coupled with coalescent and classical population genetic parameter estimation. Individuals from 10 Atlantic and 15 Mediterranean sites were sequenced for 659 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene (259 sequences). IBD seems to be the main factor driving present and past genetic structuring of Sepia populations across the NEA-MS, both at large and small geographical scales. Such an evolutionary process agrees well with some of the biological features characterizing this cuttlefish species (short migrations, nektobenthic habit, benthic eggs hatching directly to benthic juveniles). Despite the many barriers to migration/gene flow suggested in the NEA-MS region, genetic population fragmentation due to past isolation of water masses (Pleistocene; 0.56 million years ago) and/or present-day oceanographic currents was only detected between the Aegean-Ionian and western Mediterranean Seas. Restricted gene flow associated with the Almera-Oran hydrographic front was also suggested between southern and eastern Spanish populations. Distinct population boundaries could not be clearly determined, except for the Aegean-Ionian stock. Two Atlantic and five Mediterranean samples showed evidence of current decline in genetic diversity, which may indicate over-exploitation of Sepia in both marine regions. PMID:17594438

  19. Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro R; Rosa, Rui; Duarte-Silva, Alexandra; Brotas, Vanda; Sampayo, Maria Antnia M

    2005-08-15

    Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, which is one of the most studied cephalopod species in the world. Domoic acid was consistently found throughout 2003 and 2004 in the digestive gland of cuttlefish reaching concentrations of 241.7 microg DA g(-1). The highest DA values were detected during spring and summer months, periods when Pseudo-nitzschia occur in the plankton. In fact, Pseudo-nitzschia blooms preceded the highest DA concentrations in cuttlefish. Evaluation of DA tissue distribution showed elevated DA concentrations in the digestive gland and branchial hearts. Further, DA isomers comprised a relevant percentage of the toxin profile, indicating degradation and biotransformation of the toxin in the branchial hearts. The common cuttlefish, like other cephalopod species, plays a central position in the food web and might be a new DA vector to top predators like marine mammals. Human intoxications are not expected since DA was only seldom detected in the mantle and even then in very low levels (max 0.7 microg DA g(-1)). However, in some countries whole juvenile animals are consumed (i.e. without evisceration) and in this case they might represent a risk to human health. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence of phycotoxins in cephalopods and reveals a new member of the marine food web able to accumulate DA. PMID:15961171

  20. Analysis of novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) muscle proteins.

    PubMed

    Balti, Rafik; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Adjé, Estelle Yaba; Guillochon, Didier; Nasri, Moncef

    2010-03-24

    The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) proteins by treatment with various bacterial proteases were investigated. The hydrolysate generated by the crude enzyme from Bacillus mojavensis A21 displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, and the higher inhibition activity (87.11 +/- 0.92% at 2 mg/mL) was obtained with hydrolysis degree of 16%. This hydrolysate was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography on a Sephadex G-25 into eight major fractions (P(1)-P(8)). Fraction P(6), which exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity, was then fractionated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Eleven ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated, and their molecular masses and amino acids sequences were determined using ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS, respectively. The structures of the most potent peptides were identified as Ala-His-Ser-Tyr, Gly-Asp-Ala-Pro, Ala-Gly-Ser-Pro and Asp-Phe-Gly. The first peptide displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 11.6 microM. The results of this study suggest that cuttlefish protein hydrolysates are a good source of ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:20180574

  1. Dimorphic growth in male and female cuttlefish Sepia orbignyana (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae) from the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Giambattista

    2001-04-01

    The relationships between mantle length and number of cuttlebone chambers (or septa), and between weight and number of cuttlebone chambers were studied in Sepia orbignyana collected in the south-western Adriatic Sea. Weight-at-chamber count and mantle length-at-chamber count were statistically higher in females than in males. As the available literature suggests that the rate of cuttlebone septum formation is the same in both sexes of Sepia species, it follows that in S. orbignyana females have higher growth rates than males.

  2. Cryptic and biochemical responses of young cuttlefish Sepia officinalis exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Di Poi, Carole; Bidel, Flavie; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants released in the environment have the potential to generate neural disrupting effects in non-target organisms, yet their putative effects on behaviors have never been studied in cephalopod molluscs. This study assessed the impact of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) on the efficiency of cryptic behaviors (body patterns on uniform, checkerboard and sandy substrates), locomotor activity, and brain chemistry in young cuttlefish exposed to environmental concentrations (1 and 100ngL(-1) of FLX) during the perinatal period. Behavioral responses of cuttlefish were monitored at hatching and two weeks later, and brain monoamine contents were quantified at one month of age. FLX significantly altered the camouflage efficiencies on uniform and sandy backgrounds only at the lowest concentration, but not at 100ngL(-1). Hatchlings exposed to 1ngL(-1) of FLX exhibited a duration exposure-dependent decrease in the uniform camouflage. They also showed a significant increase of the frequency of sand digging behaviors which might make them highly visible to predators in nature. When tested again two weeks later, cuttlefish seemed to have recovered and no more behavioral alterations were observed showing a transitory effect of the antidepressant. FLX did not affect the levels of serotonin, norepinephrine and their metabolites; however, it seemed to influence dopaminergic activity between the two FLX-exposed groups. The results show for the time that environmentally realistic concentrations of a single SSRI significantly impair the cryptic performances of newly hatched cuttlefish, and may ultimately reduce their chance for survival. PMID:24439571

  3. A review of the factors influencing spawning, early life stage survival and recruitment variability in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Bloor, Isobel S M; Attrill, Martin J; Jackson, Emma L

    2013-01-01

    Global landings of cephalopods (cuttlefish, squid and octopus) have increased dramatically over the past 50 years and now constitute almost 5% of the total world's fisheries production. At a time when landings of many traditional fin-fish stocks are continuing to experience a global decline as a result of over-exploitation, it is expected that fishing pressure on cephalopod stocks will continue to rise as the fishing industry switch their focus onto these non-quota species. However, long-term trends indicate that landings may have begun to plateau or even decrease. In European waters, cuttlefish are among the most important commercial cephalopod resource and are currently the highest yielding cephalopod group harvested in the north-east Atlantic, with the English Channel supporting the main fishery for this species. Recruitment variability in this short-lived species drives large fluctuations in landings. In order to provide sustainable management for Sepia officinalis populations, it is essential that we first have a thorough understanding of the ecology and life history of this species, in particular, the factors affecting spawning, early life stage (ELS) survival and recruitment variability. This review explores how and why such variability exists, starting with the impact of maternal effects (e.g. navigation, migration and egg laying), moving onto the direct impact of environmental variation on embryonic and ELSs and culminating on the impacts that these variations (maternal and environmental) have at a population level on annual recruitment success. Understanding these factors is critical to the effective management of expanding fisheries for this species. PMID:23763891

  4. Using the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) mass breeding aggregation to explore the life cycle of dicyemid parasites.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R; Whittington, Ian D; Donnellan, Stephen C; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2013-12-01

    Dicyemid mesozoan parasites, microscopic organisms found with high intensities in the renal appendages of benthic cephalopods, have a complex, partially unknown life cycle. It is uncertain at which host life cycle stage (i.e. eggs, juvenile, adult) new infection by the dispersive infusoriform embryo occurs. As adult cephalopods have a short lifespan and die shortly after reproducing only once, and juveniles are fast-moving, we hypothesize that the eggs are the life cycle stage where new infection occurs. Eggs are abundant and sessile, allowing a huge number of new individuals to be infected with low energy costs, and they also provide dicyemids with the maximum amount of time for survival compared with infection of juvenile and adult stages. In our study we collected giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) eggs at different stages of development and filtered seawater samples from the S. apama mass breeding aggregation area in South Australia, Australia, and tested these samples for the presence of dicyemid DNA. We did not recover dicyemid parasite cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences from any of the samples, suggesting eggs are not the stage where new infection occurs. To resolve this unknown in the dicyemid life cycle, we believe experimental infection is needed. PMID:24338325

  5. Characterization of homeobox genes reveals sophisticated regionalization of the central nervous system in the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  6. Influence of temperature, hypercapnia, and development on the relative expression of different hemocyanin isoforms in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Hu, Marian Y A; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lieb, Bernhard; Lucassen, Magnus; Melzner, Frank; Prtner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

    2012-12-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis expresses several hemocyanin isoforms with potentially different pH optima, indicating their reliance on efficient pH regulation in the blood. Ongoing ocean warming and acidification could influence the oxygen-binding properties of respiratory pigments in ectothermic marine invertebrates. This study examined whether S. officinalis differentially expresses individual hemocyanin isoforms to maintain optimal oxygen transport during development and acclimation to elevated seawater pCO(2) and temperature. Using quantitative PCR, we measured relative mRNA expression levels of three different hemocyanin isoforms in several ontogenetic stages (embryos, hatchlings, juveniles, and adults), under different temperatures and elevated seawater pCO(2). Our results indicate moderately altered hemocyanin expression in all embryonic stages acclimated to higher pCO(2), while hemocyanin expression in hatchlings and juveniles remained unaffected. During the course of development, total hemocyanin expression increased independently of pCO(2) or thermal acclimation status. Expression of isoform 3 is reported for the first time in a cephalopod in this study and was found to be generally low but highest in the embryonic stages (0.2% of total expression). Despite variable hemocyanin expression, hemolymph total protein concentrations remained constant in the experimental groups. Our data provide first evidence that ontogeny has a stronger influence on hemocyanin isoform expression than the environmental conditions chosen, and they suggest that hemocyanin protein abundance in response to thermal acclimation is regulated by post-transcriptional/translational rather than by transcriptional modifications. PMID:22791630

  7. Characterization of Homeobox Genes Reveals Sophisticated Regionalization of the Central Nervous System in the European Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  8. Depth perception: cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual texture density gradients.

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Mann, Ofri; Sykes, António V; Fiorito, Graziano; Reis, João; Maccusker, Steven; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-11-01

    Studies concerning the perceptual processes of animals are not only interesting, but are fundamental to the understanding of other developments in information processing among non-humans. Carefully used visual illusions have been proven to be an informative tool for understanding visual perception. In this behavioral study, we demonstrate that cuttlefish are responsive to visual cues involving texture gradients. Specifically, 12 out of 14 animals avoided swimming over a solid surface with a gradient picture that to humans resembles an illusionary crevasse, while only 5 out of 14 avoided a non-illusionary texture. Since texture gradients are well-known cues for depth perception in vertebrates, we suggest that these cephalopods were responding to the depth illusion created by the texture density gradient. Density gradients and relative densities are key features in distance perception in vertebrates. Our results suggest that they are fundamental features of vision in general, appearing also in cephalopods. PMID:24942108

  9. Chemical composition and tissue energy density of the cuttlefish (Sepia apama) and its assimilation efficiency by Diomedea albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Battam, H; Richardson, M; Watson, A W T; Buttemer, W A

    2010-11-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia apama Gray (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) is a seasonally abundant food resource exploited annually by moulting albatrosses throughout winter and early spring in the coastal waters of New South Wales, Australia. To assess its nutritional value as albatross forage, we analysed S. apama for water, lipid protein, ash contents, energy density and amino acid composition. Because albatrosses consistently consume S. apama parts preferentially in the order of head, viscera and mantle, we analysed these sections separately, but did not identify any nutritional basis for this selective feeding behaviour. The gross energy value of S. apama bodies was 20.9 kJ/g dry mass, but their high water content (>83%; cf <70% for fish) results in a relatively low energy density of 3.53 kJ/g. This may contribute to a need to take large meals, which subsequently degrade flight performance. Protein content was typically >75% dry mass, whereas fat content was only about 1%. Albatrosses feed on many species of cephalopods and teleost fish, and we found the amino acid composition of S. apama to be comparable to a range of species within these taxa. We used S. apama exclusively in feeding trials to estimate the energy assimilation efficiency for Diomedea albatrosses. We estimated their nitrogen-corrected apparent energy assimilation efficiency for consuming this prey to be 81.82 0.72% and nitrogen retention as 2.90 0.11 g N kg(-1) d(-1). Although S. apama has a high water content and relatively low energy density, its protein composition is otherwise comparable to other albatross prey species. Consequently, the large size and seasonal abundance of this prey should ensure that albatrosses remain replete and adequately nourished on this forage while undergoing moult. PMID:20640855

  10. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checa, Antonio G.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P.; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin-protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation.

  11. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P.; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin–protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation. PMID:26086668

  12. The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Sepiidae, Cephalopoda) constructs cuttlebone from a liquid-crystal precursor.

    PubMed

    Checa, Antonio G; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel; Andrade, José P; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlebone, the sophisticated buoyancy device of cuttlefish, is made of extensive superposed chambers that have a complex internal arrangement of calcified pillars and organic membranes. It has not been clear how this structure is assembled. We find that the membranes result from a myriad of minor membranes initially filling the whole chamber, made of nanofibres evenly oriented within each membrane and slightly rotated with respect to those of adjacent membranes, producing a helical arrangement. We propose that the organism secretes a chitin-protein complex, which self-organizes layer-by-layer as a cholesteric liquid crystal, whereas the pillars are made by viscous fingering. The liquid crystallization mechanism permits us to homologize the elements of the cuttlebone with those of other coleoids and with the nacreous septa and the shells of nautiloids. These results challenge our view of this ultra-light natural material possessing desirable mechanical, structural and biological properties, suggesting that two self-organizing physical principles suffice to understand its formation. PMID:26086668

  13. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4?L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P < 0.05) as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and ?-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins. PMID:22312455

  14. Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

    2012-07-01

    The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

  15. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of outer mantle epidermis of the cuttlefish, Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Lee, Jung Sick

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the ultrastructural characteristics of external epidermis of mantle of Sepia esculenta using light and electron microscopy. The epidermis was thicker on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface, with a higher secretory cell distribution on the ventral surface than on the dorsal surface. The epidermis was a single layer composed of epithelial cells, secretory cells, ciliated cells and neuroglial cells. Epithelial cells were columnar with well-developed microvilli on the free surface, and the microvilli were covered with glycocalyx. The epithelial cells were connected to the neighboring cells by tight junctions and membrane interdigitations of the apico-frontal surface. Well-developed microfilaments were arranged in a vertical direction in the cortical cytoplasm. The secretory cells were categorized into three types (A, B and C) in accordance with the light microscopical characteristics and ultrastructures of the secretory granules. The distribution of these cells was in the following order: Type A>Type B>Type C. SEM observation revealed that the secretory pore size of the Type A secretory cells was approximately 8.6 μm×12.2 μm. Cytoplasm displayed a red color as the result of Masson's trichrome stain and H-E stain, and contained polygonal granules of approximately 1.2 μm2 with a high electron density. The secretory pore size of the Type B secretory cells was approximately 10.1 μm×12.1 μm. As the results of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB (pH 2.5) reactions, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The cells contained membrane bounded secretory granules with very low electron density. The secretory pore of the Type C secretory cells was circular shape, and approximately 5.5 μm×5.5 μm. Cytoplasm was found to be homogeneous under H-E stain and Masson's trichrome stain, and displayed a red color. As the result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) reaction, the cytoplasm displayed a red color. The electron density of the secretory substance was the highest among the three types of secretory cells. The ciliated cells had a ciliary tuft on the free surface and were distributed throughout the mantle with the exception of the adhesive organs. Neuroglial cells were connected to the basal membrane, epithelial cells, secretory cells and nerve fibers through cytoplasmic process, and contained neurosecretory granules with high electron density within the cytoplasm. PMID:24361231

  16. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Jeffree, R.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-05-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we are testing the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the hatchlings weight at the end of development implying egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower pH of incubation seawater of eggs, the more the hatchlings accumulated 110m Ag in their tissues. The 109Cd CF decreased with increasing pH and 65Zn CF reached the maximal values pH 7.85, independent of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and the embryo metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the ocean acidification and ocean warming consequences on the metal uptake in marine organisms, stimulating further interest to evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stage of the cuttlefish.

  17. To be seen or to hide: visual characteristics of body patterns for camouflage and communication in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, S; How, M J; Osorio, D; Hanlon, R T; Marshall, N J

    2011-05-01

    It might seem obvious that a camouflaged animal must generally match its background whereas to be conspicuous an organism must differ from the background. However, the image parameters (or statistics) that evaluate the conspicuousness of patterns and textures are seldom well defined, and animal coloration patterns are rarely compared quantitatively with their respective backgrounds. Here we examine this issue in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama. We confine our analysis to the best-known and simplest image statistic, the correlation in intensity between neighboring pixels. Sepia apama can rapidly change their body patterns from assumed conspicuous signaling to assumed camouflage, thus providing an excellent and unique opportunity to investigate how such patterns differ in a single visual habitat. We describe the intensity variance and spatial frequency power spectra of these differing body patterns and compare these patterns with the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The measured image statistics of camouflaged animals closely resemble their backgrounds, while signaling animals differ significantly from their backgrounds. Our findings may provide the basis for a set of general rules for crypsis and signals. Furthermore, our methods may be widely applicable to the quantitative study of animal coloration. PMID:21508613

  18. The complete mitochondrial genomes of deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola), bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis), and their application to the phylogenetic analysis of Decapodiformes.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yuumi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Akasaki, Tetsuya; Nikaido, Masato; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Segawa, Susumu; Okada, Norihiro

    2013-12-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola; supperfamily Bathyteuthoidea), the bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica; order Sepiolida) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis; order Sepiida). The unique structures of the mt genomes of Bathyteuthis and Semirossia provide new information about the evolution of decapodiform mt genomes. We show that the mt genome of B. abyssicola, like those of other oegopsids studied so far, has two long duplicated regions that include seven genes (COX1-3, ATP6 and ATP8, tRNA(Asn), and either ND2 or ND3) and that one of the duplicated COX3 genes has lost its function. The mt genome of S. patagonica is unlike any other decapodiforms and, like Nautilus, its ATP6 and ATP8 genes are not adjacent to each other. The four giant cuttlefish have identical mt gene order to other cuttlefish determined to date. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods suggest that traditional order Sepioidea (Sepiolida+Sepiida) is paraphyletic and Sepia (cuttlefish) has the sister-relationship with all other decapodiforms. Taking both the phylogenetic analyses and the mt gene order analyses into account, it is likely that the octopus-type mt genome is an ancestral state and that it had maintained from at least the Cephalopoda ancestor to the common ancestor of Oegopsida, Myopsida and Sepiolida. PMID:23811434

  19. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Martin, S.; Oberhänsli, F.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Markich, S.; Ross, J.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-11-01

    Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2; pH 8.1 (pCO2, 400 ppm), 7.85 (900 ppm) and 7.6 (1400 ppm) at 16 and 19°C, respectively) laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the weight of hatchlings at the end of development implying an egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower the seawater pH, the more 110 mAg was accumulated in the tissues of hatchlings. The 109Cd concentration factor (CF) decreased with decreasing pH and 65Zn CF reached maximal values pH 7.85, independently of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and embryonic metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the consequences of ocean acidification and ocean warming on metal uptake in marine organisms, and our results indicate the need to further evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stages of the cuttlefish.

  20. Absence of formation of benzo[a]pyrene/DNA adducts in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.G.; Lu, L.J.W.; Salazar, J.J.; Holoubek, V. )

    1994-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) injected intramuscularly into the base of the arms of cuttlefish was released continuously from the injection site and removed from the organism. Only a portion of the compound accumulated in the body. Twenty-four hr after its injection, 75% of B[a]P applied in olive oil was removed from the cuttlefish, and 1.2% was found in the body outside the head, in site of injection. If the carcinogen was dissolved in dimethylformamide, the removal of B[a]P was slower, so that only 18% of the injected B[a]P was removed from the organism and 0.36% accumulated in the body outside the head 24 hr after injection. The high level of B[a]P in gills and hemolymph 4 hr after injection and the kinetics of the decrease of its concentration with time indicate that these two organs could be involved in the excretion of B[a]P from the body. The B[a]P/DNA adducts characteristic for vertebrates could not be demonstrated in gills, skin, brain, hepatopancreas, and lymphocytes of the cuttlefish 24 hr after injection. The dose of the carcinogene injected into the cuttlefish was 2-4 times higher than the dose resulting in the formation of a high level of B[a]P/DNA adducts in vertebrates. A different metabolism of B[a]P in the tissue of cephalopods, compared to vertebrates, could be less favorable to the process leading to malignant transformation and could explain the absence from the literature of reports of tumors in cephalopods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Spectral and spatial properties of polarized light reflections from the arms of squid (Loligo pealeii) and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Mthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Cronin, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    On every arm of cuttlefish and squid there is a stripe of high-reflectance iridophores that reflects highly polarized light. Since cephalopods possess polarization vision, it has been hypothesized that these polarized stripes could serve an intraspecific communication function. We determined how polarization changes when these boneless arms move. By measuring the spectral and polarizing properties of the reflected light from samples at various angles of tilt and rotation, we found that the actual posture of the arm has little or no effect on partial polarization or the e-vector angle of the reflected light. However, when the illumination angle changed, the partial polarization of the reflected light also changed. The spectral reflections of the signals were also affected by the angle of illumination but not by the orientation of the sample. Electron microscope samples showed that these stripes are composed of several groups of multilayer platelets within the iridophores. The surface normal to each group is oriented at a different angle, which produces essentially constant reflection of polarized light over a range of viewing angles. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish and squid could send out reliable polarization signals to a receiver regardless of arm orientation. PMID:17921164

  2. Visual interpolation for contour completion by the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and its use in dynamic camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, Sarah; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Cuttlefish rapidly change their appearance in order to camouflage on a given background in response to visual parameters, giving us access to their visual perception. Recently, it was shown that isolated edge information is sufficient to elicit a body pattern very similar to that used when a whole object is present. Here, we examined contour completion in cuttlefish by assaying body pattern responses to artificial backgrounds of objects formed from fragmented circles, these same fragments rotated on their axis, and with the fragments scattered over the background, as well as positive (full circles) and negative (homogenous background) controls. The animals displayed similar responses to the full and fragmented circles, but used a different body pattern in response to the rotated and scattered fragments. This suggests that they completed the broken circles and recognized them as whole objects, whereas rotated and scattered fragments were instead interpreted as small, individual objects in their own right. We discuss our findings in the context of achieving accurate camouflage in the benthic shallow-water environment. PMID:22337697

  3. A first survey on the biochemical composition of egg yolk and lysozyme-like activity of egg envelopment in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Conenna, Irene; Riedl, Verena Maria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Marčeta, Tihana; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is an important fishery resource in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). During reproduction, fertilised eggs are released by adult females in coastal waters and embryo development can take over two months. During this period, embryos rely on nutrients and other substances, such as immune factors, provided by the female in egg yolk. In cephalopods in general, and specifically in the common cuttlefish, little information is available on yolk biochemical composition and substances included in egg envelopment. In the present study, the main biochemical components of egg yolk and the presence of antimicrobial substances in egg envelopment of S. officinalis were determined for the first time. Statistically significant differences in total egg weight and egg yolk weight were observed among batches from different females. Egg and yolk weights were positively correlated, with yolk representing the 13% (±5%) of the total egg weight. Total proteins were the main biochemical component (46%) of egg yolk, followed by total carbohydrates plus glycogen (39%) and lipids (15%). Statistically significant differences among batches were recorded in egg yolk total protein amounts, lipids, carbohydrates and glycogen, but no correlations were found between egg yolk weight and the biochemical components. The Petri dish and the quantitative spectrophotometric assays revealed the presence of lysozyme-like activity in egg gelatinous envelopment. PMID:25982397

  4. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Mthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light. PMID:21075936

  5. Can cuttlefish learn by observing others?

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Ling; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2013-05-01

    Observational learning is the ability to learn through observing others' behavior. The benefit of observational learning is apparent in that individuals can save time and energy without trial-and-error, thus enhance the chance of survival and reproduction. Cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) have the most sophisticated central nervous system among invertebrates, and it is conceivable that cephalopods can develop some forms of cognition. Although it has been suggested that octopuses have the capacity of observational learning, a previous study indicates that cuttlefish do not improve their predation tactics by observing conspecifics. Given that the danger avoidance is important for animals' survival, we sought to reevaluate whether cuttlefish show some form of observational learning or observational conditioning under threatening conditions. Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) were divided into three groups: the Experiencer group, the Observer group, and the Control group. In the training phase, a toy submarine was remotely controlled to expel the cuttlefish from its initially preferred place to establish the threat-place association in the Experiencer group. In the Observer group, the threat-place association was established by expelling a conspecific demonstrator at the observer's initially preferred place while the observer watched the whole process from behind a transparent divider. In the Control group, the observer watched a conspecific and a static toy submarine without actual threat. In the testing phase, the choice of safe place in the absence of threat was used to probe the learning/conditioning of cuttlefish. In the Experiencer group, we found that animals chose the safe place more often than their initially preferred place after training, an indication of the association learning/conditioning. However, in the Observer group, only a subset of animals showed this threat-place association by observation, while the place preference was unchanged in the Control group. These results indicate that most cuttlefish did not learn by observing others, but individual differences exist, and some cuttlefish may have the potential of observational learning/conditioning within their cognitive capacities. PMID:23100087

  6. Nine novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) muscle protein hydrolysates and antihypertensive effect of the potent active peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; Sila, Assaâd; Guillochon, Didier; Dhulster, Pascal; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to identify novel ACE inhibitory peptides from the muscle of cuttlefish. Proteins were hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were then subjected to various types of chromatography to isolate the active peptides. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated and their molecular masses and amino acid sequences were determined using ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS, respectively. The structures of the most potent peptides were identified as Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro, Ala-Phe-Val-Gly-Tyr-Val-Leu-Pro and Glu-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro. The first peptide displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 5.22μM. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro acts as a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE. Furthermore, antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) also revealed that oral administration of Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro can decrease systolic blood pressure significantly (p<0.01). These results suggest that the Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro would be a beneficial ingredient for nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals acting against hypertension and its related diseases. PMID:25306378

  7. Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.

    PubMed

    Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

  8. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and FTIR characterization of the sepia melanin pigment used in works of art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Silvia A.; Shamir, Jacob

    2008-02-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and FTIR were used for the vibrational characterization of the sepia melanin pigment extracted from the cuttlefish or Sepia officinalis, a material used in works of art from at least the late 18th century. The heterogeneous polymeric nature of the pigment, together with its fluorescent background, makes its identification by normal Raman spectroscopy difficult. In the present study, SERS and FTIR spectra of sepia were obtained. SERS proved to be suitable to characterize this complex material in micro-samples because of its sensitivity, ability to quench fluorescence, and minimal preparation required. For the SERS measurements, different substrates were tested in contact with the sepia pigment. It was found that a sodium borohydride reduced silver colloid gave the best performance, particularly when applied as a drop on top of a solid sepia sample, and subsequently dried. A larger enhancement was observed in the SERS spectrum of the sepia sample extracted in the laboratory, when compared to the more pure commercial sample, consistently with the higher metal binding capacity of less pure sepia melanin reported by other authors. The FTIR and SERS frequencies observed were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature for closely related compounds, such as indole, pyrrole and substituted pyrroles, and were assigned by comparison with them and with other published data for functional groups in organic chemistry.

  9. Redox activity of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis by means of colorimetric oxidative assay.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, Pathomthat; Correlo, Vitor M; Leonor, Isabel B; Palladino, Pasquale; Reis, Rui L

    2016-04-01

    The redox properties of natural extract from cuttlefish ink sac (Sepia officinalis) and synthetic melanin used as a biomimetic in melanin structural investigation were determined by comparison of this phenol-based heterogeneous pigment with gallic acid used as a standard in Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay widely employed for characterisation of oxidative properties of biomaterials. Reactivity of sepia melanin reported here is much higher than previously indicated and this protocol should allow the redox characterisation of all melanins irrespective of their origin and composition. PMID:26299816

  10. Cuttlefish camouflage: context-dependent body pattern use during motion.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, S; Osorio, D; Shohet, A J

    2009-11-22

    It is virtually impossible to camouflage a moving target against a non-uniform background, but strategies have been proposed to reduce detection and targeting of movement. Best known is the idea that high contrast markings produce 'motion dazzle', which impairs judgement of speed and trajectory. The ability of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis to change its visual appearance allows us to compare the animal's choice of patterns during movement to the predictions of models of motion camouflage. We compare cuttlefish body patterns used during movement with those expressed when static on two background types; one of which promotes low-contrast mottle patterns and the other promotes high-contrast disruptive patterns. We find that the body pattern used during motion is context-specific and that high-contrast body pattern components are significantly reduced during movement. Thus, in our experimental conditions, cuttlefish do not use high contrast motion dazzle. It may be that, in addition to being inherently conspicuous during movement, moving high-contrast patterns will attract attention because moving particles in coastal waters tend to be of small size and of low relative contrast. PMID:19692411

  11. Sex differences in spatial cognition in an invertebrate: the cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Modéran, Julien; Dickel, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported in a wide range of vertebrate species. Several evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences. The one best supported is the range size hypothesis that links spatial ability to range size. Our study aimed to determine whether male cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis; cephalopod mollusc) range over a larger area than females and whether this difference is associated with a cognitive dimorphism in orientation abilities. First, we assessed the distance travelled by sexually immature and mature cuttlefish of both sexes when placed in an open field (test 1). Second, cuttlefish were trained to solve a spatial task in a T-maze, and the spatial strategy preferentially used (right/left turn or visual cues) was determined (test 2). Our results showed that sexually mature males travelled a longer distance in test 1, and were more likely to use visual cues to orient in test 2, compared with the other three groups. This paper demonstrates for the first time a cognitive dimorphism between sexes in an invertebrate. The data conform to the predictions of the range size hypothesis. Comparative studies with other invertebrate species might lead to a better understanding of the evolution of cognitive dimorphism. PMID:18505716

  12. Assessment of the effect of the climate variations of coastal surface water and study of Sepia officinalis spawing.

    PubMed

    Giansante, Carla; Conte, Annamaria; Giovannini, Armando; Castriota, Luca; Andaloro, Franco; Ferri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether climate change affected migratory behaviour of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), which is an important resource for small-scale fishermen of Abruzzo region (Italy). Starting at the beginning of March until the end of April, the cuttlefish in this area migrates from deep cold water towards warmer coastal waters, where they spawn. Small-scale fishing of cuttlefish is permitted in costal waters from March to September. During the study period, between March and September 2008, both cuttlefish traps and trammel nets were used in 5 sampling areas along the Abruzzo coast to test their relative efficiency in catching cuttlefish. Trapped specimens were counted, weighed and measured, their gender and sexual maturity were also determined. The data obtained from the sampling were correlated to surface water temperature to assess possible changes in migration behaviours. The obtained data show that during the first months of migration (March and April), a greater percentage of large males was caught, while females and smaller males predominated later in the year. The study also showed that surface water temperature did not reveal any significant shifts from the trend over the last 10 years. As for the efficiency of the fishing methods, traps were found to be more effective than trammel nets. PMID:25110776

  13. Cuttlefish see shape from shading, fine-tuning coloration in response to pictorial depth cues and directional illumination.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, D; Johnsen, Sonke

    2016-03-16

    Humans use shading as a cue to three-dimensional form by combining low-level information about light intensity with high-level knowledge about objects and the environment. Here, we examine how cuttlefish Sepia officinalis respond to light and shadow to shade the white square (WS) feature in their body pattern. Cuttlefish display the WS in the presence of pebble-like objects, and they can shade it to render the appearance of surface curvature to a human observer, which might benefit camouflage. Here we test how they colour the WS on visual backgrounds containing two-dimensional circular stimuli, some of which were shaded to suggest surface curvature, whereas others were uniformly coloured or divided into dark and light semicircles. WS shading, measured by lateral asymmetry, was greatest when the animal rested on a background of shaded circles and three-dimensional hemispheres, and less on plain white circles or black/white semicircles. In addition, shading was enhanced when light fell from the lighter side of the shaded stimulus, as expected for real convex surfaces. Thus, the cuttlefish acts as if it perceives surface curvature from shading, and takes account of the direction of illumination. However, the direction of WS shading is insensitive to the directions of background shading and illumination; instead the cuttlefish tend to turn to face the light source. PMID:26984626

  14. Progress towards elucidating the structure-function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deravi, Leila F.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Bell, George R. R.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-03-01

    The adaptive coloration observed in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis skin is facilitated in part by properties of pigmented chromatophores that have not been previously reported. We found that chromatophore coloration is enabled by a tethering system that distributes layered pigment granules, comprised of fluorescent nanostructures, to optimize color intensity as the chromatophores are actuated. The design features gleaned from these studies provide intriguing insights into the development of artificial photonic systems useful for products ranging from conformable, high-definition color displays to optical fabrics capable of adapting their coloration within an ambient environment.

  15. Comparative morphology of changeable skin papillae in octopus and cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Velankar, Sachin S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-04-01

    A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae. Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. officinalis small dorsal papillae, Octopus vulgaris small dorsal and ventral eye papillae, Macrotritopus defilippi dorsal eye papillae, Abdopus aculeatus major mantle papillae, O. bimaculoides arm, minor mantle, and dorsal eye papillae, and S. apama face ridge papillae. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla's perimeter toward its core and determine shape. A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla's apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. S. apama face ridge papillae are different: the contraction of erector muscles perpendicular to the ridge causes overlying tissues to buckle. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support. These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies. Future research on papilla morphology, biomechanics and neural control in the many unexamined species of octopus and cuttlefish may uncover new principles of actuation in soft, flexible tissue. PMID:24741712

  16. Cuttlefish capsule: An effective shield against contaminants in the wild.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Inês C; Raimundo, Joana; Lopes, Vanessa M; Brandão, Cláudio; Couto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Cabecinhas, Adriana S; Cereja, Rui; Calado, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Rosa, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures in estuaries are responsible for the rise of contaminants in several compartments of these ecosystems. Species that benefit from the nursery services provided by estuaries are exposed to such contaminants (e.g. metals and metalloids). It is therefore relevant to understand if marine invertebrates that use these areas as spawning grounds accumulate contaminants in their tissues throughout embryogenesis. This study aimed to quantify As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Pb, V and Zn concentrations in both capsule and embryos of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) in Sado Estuary (Portugal). Moreover, embryos at their initial, intermediate and final stage of development were collected in sites subjected to different anthropogenic pressures. In general, the capsule accumulated higher element concentration throughout embryogenesis which indicates that the capsule acts as an effective barrier against contaminants uptake by the embryo. Although the capsule becomes thinner throughout embryogenesis, embryo's protection does not seem to be compromised at later development stages. Additionally, the higher concentrations of As, Cu, Se and Zn in the embryo in comparison to the capsule suggests important biological roles during the embryogenesis of this cephalopod mollusc. PMID:25876030

  17. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Christine N; Kajiura, Stephen M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. PMID:26631562

  18. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  19. Cuttlefish skin papilla morphology suggests a muscular hydrostatic function for rapid changeability.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-06-01

    Coleoid cephalopods adaptively change their body patterns (color, contrast, locomotion, posture, and texture) for camouflage and signaling. Benthic octopuses and cuttlefish possess the capability, unique in the animal kingdom, to dramatically and quickly change their skin from smooth and flat to rugose and three-dimensional. The organs responsible for this physical change are the skin papillae, whose biomechanics have not been investigated. In this study, small dorsal papillae from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) were preserved in their retracted or extended state, and examined with a variety of histological techniques including brightfield, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. Analyses revealed that papillae are composed of an extensive network of dermal erector muscles, some of which are arranged in concentric rings while others extend across each papilla's diameter. Like cephalopod arms, tentacles, and suckers, skin papillae appear to function as muscular hydrostats. The collective action of dermal erector muscles provides both movement and structural support in the absence of rigid supporting elements. Specifically, concentric circular dermal erector muscles near the papilla's base contract and push the overlying tissue upward and away from the mantle surface, while horizontally arranged dermal erector muscles pull the papilla's perimeter toward its center and determine its shape. Each papilla has a white tip, which is produced by structural light reflectors (leucophores and iridophores) that lie between the papilla's muscular core and the skin layer that contains the pigmented chromatophores. In extended papillae, the connective tissue layer appeared thinner above the papilla's apex than in surrounding areas. This result suggests that papilla extension might create tension in the overlying connective tissue and chromatophore layers, storing energy for elastic retraction. Numerous, thin subepidermal muscles form a meshwork between the chromatophore layer and the epidermis and putatively provide active papillary retraction. PMID:23378271

  20. Five new species of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from two Australian cuttlefish species, with comments on dicyemid fauna composition.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-10-01

    Five new species of dicyemid mesozoans in two genera are described from two Australian cuttlefish species, Sepia apama Gray (giant Australian cuttlefish) and S. novaehollandiae Hoyle (nova cuttlefish): Dicyema coffinense n. sp. from S. apama collected from Coffin Bay, South Australia (SA), Australia; D. koinonum n. sp. from S. apama and S. novaehollandiae collected from Gulf St Vincent (GSV) and Spencer Gulf (SG), SA, Australia; D. multimegalum n. sp. from S. apama collected from Cronulla and North Bondi, New South Wales, Australia; D. vincentense n. sp. from S. novaehollandiae collected from GSV, SA, Australia; and Dicyemennea spencerense n. sp. from S. novaehollandiae and S. apama collected from SG, SA, Australia. Totals of 51 S. apama and 27 S. novaehollandiae individuals were examined, of which all except for four S. apama were infected by at least one dicyemid species. Dicyemid parasites were also observed in host individuals that were held in tanks for 2-3 months prior to examination, including nematogen-exclusive infections, leading to questions about persistence of dicyemids after host death and the mechanism responsible for the switch between a nematogen phase and a rhombogen phase. Variations in host size, calotte shape and collection locality are explored as predictors of differences in observed composition of the parasite fauna. In particular, dicyemid parasite fauna varied with host collection locality. As these parasites are highly host-species specific, their use as biological tags to assess cephalopod population structure using a combined morphological and molecular approach is discussed. This study increases the number of dicyemid species described from Australian cephalopods from five to ten, and from 117 to 122 species described worldwide. PMID:24048746

  1. The structure-function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Deravi, Leila F; Magyar, Andrew P; Sheehy, Sean P; Bell, George R R; Mäthger, Lydia M; Senft, Stephen L; Wardill, Trevor J; Lane, William S; Kuzirian, Alan M; Hanlon, Roger T; Hu, Evelyn L; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-04-01

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromatophore organs that allow rapid changes in skin patterning and coloration in response to visual cues. This process of adaptive coloration is enabled by the 500% change in chromatophore surface area during actuation. We report two adaptations that help to explain how colour intensity is maintained in a fully expanded chromatophore when the pigment granules are distributed maximally: (i) pigment layers as thin as three granules that maintain optical effectiveness and (ii) the presence of high-refractive-index proteins-reflectin and crystallin-in granules. The latter discovery, combined with our finding that isolated chromatophore pigment granules fluoresce between 650 and 720 nm, refutes the prevailing hypothesis that cephalopod chromatophores are exclusively pigmentary organs composed solely of ommochromes. Perturbations to granular architecture alter optical properties, illustrating a role for nanostructure in the agile, optical responses of chromatophores. Our results suggest that cephalopod chromatophore pigment granules are more complex than homogeneous clusters of chromogenic pigments. They are luminescent protein nanostructures that facilitate the rapid and sophisticated changes exhibited in dermal pigmentation. PMID:24478280

  2. The structure–function relationships of a natural nanoscale photonic device in cuttlefish chromatophores

    PubMed Central

    Deravi, Leila F.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Sheehy, Sean P.; Bell, George R. R.; Mäthger, Lydia M.; Senft, Stephen L.; Wardill, Trevor J.; Lane, William S.; Kuzirian, Alan M.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-01-01

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, possess neurally controlled, pigmented chromatophore organs that allow rapid changes in skin patterning and coloration in response to visual cues. This process of adaptive coloration is enabled by the 500% change in chromatophore surface area during actuation. We report two adaptations that help to explain how colour intensity is maintained in a fully expanded chromatophore when the pigment granules are distributed maximally: (i) pigment layers as thin as three granules that maintain optical effectiveness and (ii) the presence of high-refractive-index proteins—reflectin and crystallin—in granules. The latter discovery, combined with our finding that isolated chromatophore pigment granules fluoresce between 650 and 720 nm, refutes the prevailing hypothesis that cephalopod chromatophores are exclusively pigmentary organs composed solely of ommochromes. Perturbations to granular architecture alter optical properties, illustrating a role for nanostructure in the agile, optical responses of chromatophores. Our results suggest that cephalopod chromatophore pigment granules are more complex than homogeneous clusters of chromogenic pigments. They are luminescent protein nanostructures that facilitate the rapid and sophisticated changes exhibited in dermal pigmentation. PMID:24478280

  3. Lower hypoxia thresholds of cuttlefish early life stages living in a warm acidified ocean.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rui; Trbenbach, Katja; Repolho, Tiago; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Baptista, Miguel; Lopes, Vanessa M; Dionsio, Gisela; Leal, Miguel Costa; Calado, Ricardo; Prtner, Hans O

    2013-10-01

    The combined effects of future ocean acidification and global warming on the hypoxia thresholds of marine biota are, to date, poorly known. Here, we show that the future warming and acidification scenario led to shorter embryonic periods, lower survival rates and the enhancement of premature hatching in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Routine metabolic rates increased during the embryonic period, but environmental hypercapnia significantly depressed pre-hatchling's energy expenditures rates (independently of temperature). During embryogenesis, there was also a significant rise in the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the perivitelline fluid (PVF), bicarbonate levels, as well as a drop in pH and oxygen partial pressure (pO?). The critical partial pressure (i.e. hypoxic threshold) of the pre-hatchlings was significantly higher than the PVF oxygen partial pressure at the warmer and hypercapnic condition. Thus, the record of oxygen tensions below critical pO? in such climate scenario indicates that the already harsh conditions inside the egg capsules are expected to be magnified in the years to come, especially in populations at the border of their thermal envelope. Such a scenario promotes untimely hatching and smaller post-hatching body sizes, thus challenging the survival and fitness of early life stages. PMID:23926158

  4. Lower hypoxia thresholds of cuttlefish early life stages living in a warm acidified ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Repolho, Tiago; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Baptista, Miguel; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Dionísio, Gisela; Leal, Miguel Costa; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of future ocean acidification and global warming on the hypoxia thresholds of marine biota are, to date, poorly known. Here, we show that the future warming and acidification scenario led to shorter embryonic periods, lower survival rates and the enhancement of premature hatching in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Routine metabolic rates increased during the embryonic period, but environmental hypercapnia significantly depressed pre-hatchling's energy expenditures rates (independently of temperature). During embryogenesis, there was also a significant rise in the carbon dioxide partial pressure in the perivitelline fluid (PVF), bicarbonate levels, as well as a drop in pH and oxygen partial pressure (pO2). The critical partial pressure (i.e. hypoxic threshold) of the pre-hatchlings was significantly higher than the PVF oxygen partial pressure at the warmer and hypercapnic condition. Thus, the record of oxygen tensions below critical pO2 in such climate scenario indicates that the already harsh conditions inside the egg capsules are expected to be magnified in the years to come, especially in populations at the border of their thermal envelope. Such a scenario promotes untimely hatching and smaller post-hatching body sizes, thus challenging the survival and fitness of early life stages. PMID:23926158

  5. 14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (Original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) First and second floor plans - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  6. 16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Interior details - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  7. 15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of sepia of original construction drawing dated September 15, 1938 (original sepia in plan room of Base Civil Engineer, Scott AFB) Elevations - Scott Air Force Base, General Officer Quarters, 229 Birchard Street, O'Fallon, St. Clair County, IL

  8. Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Melzner, Frank; Bock, Christian; Prtner, Hans O

    2006-09-01

    Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T (c)) of 7.0 and 26.8 degrees C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine metabolic rate (rmr) rose exponentially between 11 and 23 degrees C, while below (8 degrees C) and above (26 degrees C) this temperature range, rmr was significantly depressed. Ventilation frequency (f (V)) and mean mantle cavity pressure (MMP) followed an exponential relationship within the entire investigated temperature range (8-26 degrees C). Oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current (EO(2)) decreased in a sigmoidal fashion with temperature, falling from > 90% at 8 degrees C to 32% at 26 degrees C. Consequently, ventilatory minute volume (MV(V)) increased by a factor of 20 from 7 to 150% body weight min(-1) in the same temperature interval. Increases in MMP and MV(V) resulted in ventilatory muscle power output (P (out)) increasing by a factor of > 80 from 0.03 to 2.4 mW kg(-1) animal. Nonetheless, costs for ventilatory mechanics remain below 1.5% rmr in the natural thermal window of the population (English Channel, 9-17 degrees C), owing to very low MMPs of < 0.05 kPa driving the ventilatory stream, and may maximally rise to 8.6% rmr at 26 degrees C. Model calculations suggest that the ventilatory system can maintain high arterial PO(2) values of > 14 kPa over the entire temperature interval. We therefore conclude that the cuttlefish ventilation system is probably not limiting oxygen transfer during acute thermal stress. Depression of rmr, well before critical temperatures are being reached, is likely caused by circulatory capacity limitations and not by fatigue of ventilatory muscle fibres. PMID:16710699

  9. Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) of networked systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, David P.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; McDonald, Michael James; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Tarman, Thomas David; Urias, Vincent E.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes recent progress made in developing and utilizing hybrid Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) environments. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models separately to analyze interplay between threats and safeguards. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments. Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools. The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches.

  10. Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ∼24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. PMID:24549606

  11. Relations between total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in five tissues of Sepia officinalis captured in the south Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos; Canário, João; Gaspar, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Mercury, methylmercury and selenium were determined in digestive gland, branchial hearts, mantle, kidney and gills of Sepia officinalis from two areas of the south Portuguese coast. To the best of our knowledge these are the first data on Hg, MeHg and Se in branchial hearts, kidney and gills of cuttlefish. Digestive gland, branchial hearts and kidney presented higher levels of Hg and Se than mantle and gills. Methylmercury was significantly higher in digestive gland, branchial hearts and mantle. The enhanced levels of Hg in digestive gland and branchial heart reinforce the elevated storage capacity of these two tissues. The percentage of MeHg varied from 6.1% in gills to 92% in mantle. Linear and positive MeHg-Hg relations were obtained for the five tissues, being the better relation and higher slope observed for mantle, followed by branchial hearts, digestive gland, kidney and gills. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed a surplus of Se in all tissues. Calculations based on the equimolarity of Se:Hg point that 95-99% of Se are not linked to Hg (Se free). The negligible quantity of Se associated with Hg suggests that the mechanism of MeHg demethylation was not triggered in none of the tissues, presumably because the threshold for MeHg toxicity was not achieved. PMID:24582035

  12. Statolith chemistry of two life history stages of cuttlefish: Effects of temperature and seawater trace element concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Wilkinson, Leanne M.; Munro, Andrew R.; de Vries, Melita C.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry of the giant Australian cuttlefish, Sepia apama, was compared between encapsulated embryos and recently hatched juveniles under controlled laboratory conditions. Seawater Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca were positively related to statolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca in embryos and hatchlings for all temperatures. For statoliths of embryos the effect of spiking increased at 14 °C compared to 20 °C but for hatchlings increased Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in statoliths were found at 20 °C compared to 14 °C. The results imply that the influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry was driven by elemental discrimination as described by partition coefficients but was reversed between life history stages. Differences in respiration and haemocyanin between the two life history stages may influence elemental uptake and discrimination. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that differences in element uptake in statoliths can occur among life history stages of S. apama and must be considered when reconstructing environmental histories of S. apama and other statolith bearing organisms.

  13. Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1953 architectural drawings by Horowick & Lee, Architects, Jacksonville, Florida) EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Photography Laboratory, 2617 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  14. Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of print (original sepia print is backward and in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1953 architectural drawings by Horowick & Lee, Architects, Jacksonville, Florida) FLOOR PLAN AND SCHEDULES - MacDill Air Force Base, Photography Laboratory, 2617 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  15. Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish

    PubMed Central

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Hébert, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization. PMID:23235708

  16. First descriptions of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Australian octopus (Octopodidae) and cuttlefish (Sepiidae), including a new record of Dicyemennea in Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-09-01

    Three new species of dicyemid mesozoans are described for the first time from Australian octopus and cuttlefish species. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is described from Octopus berrima Stranks et Norman (southern keeled octopus) collected from Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia, Australia and represents the first description of a species of Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 from Australian waters. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. and D. furuyi sp. n. are described from Sepia papuensis Hoyle (Papuan cuttlefish) collected from Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is a medium to large species that reaches approximately 4.9 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 23-28 peripheral cells, and a disc-shaped, flower-like calotte in larger individuals. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. is a small species that reaches approximately 1.1 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 30-33 peripheral cells and a relatively small, cap-shaped calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were occasionally observed in nematogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell. Dicyema furuyi sp. n. is a large species that reaches approximately 5.3 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 22-24 peripheral cells and an elongate calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Three secondary nematogens were also observed in the right renal appendages of two host individuals, confirming the occurrence of this form. PMID:24261132

  17. Golden Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that architects, musicians and other thoughtful people have, since the time of Pythagoras, been fascinated by various harmonious proportions. One, is the visual harmony attributed to Euclid, called "the golden section". He explores this concept in geometries of one, two and three dimensions. He added, that in…

  18. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  19. Characterization of the adhesive areas in Sepia tuberculata (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Scott, Robyn; Griffiths, Charles; Micossi, Andrea; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Adhesion in cephalopods is either mechanical, involving a reduced-pressure system of the arm and tentacle suckers, or is chemically mediated by special adhesive gland structures (as proposed for Euprymna, Idiosepius, and Nautilus). Four species of Sepia (S. typica, S. papillata, S. pulchra, and S. tuberculata) possess grooved structures on the ventral mantle surface and on the fourth arm pair, which are used to attach mechanically to the substratum. Because these areas are often partly covered with sand or debris, it has been hypothesized that chemical substances were involved in this attachment process. This study provides a histochemical and ultrastructural description of the glandular epithelium in the adhesive area of Sepia tuberculata. Two specific glandular cells (Type 1 and Type 2) are present in the epithelium, which differ clearly in their granule size and cellular structure. The aggregation of both cell types and their simultaneous secretion suggest that the secretions of both cell types work synergistically providing a two-component adhesive system which supports the primarily mechanical sucker adhesion by making the arm surface sticky. PMID:21688295

  20. Evidence of episodic-like memory in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Bertin, Marion; Clayton, Nicola S

    2013-12-01

    The recollection of past experiences allows us to recall what happened during a particular event, and where and when it occurred [1]. Since the first study on episodic-like memory in scrub-jays [2], there has been widespread acceptance of the idea that tests in animals should integrate the 'what', 'where' and 'when' components of a unique event that occurred in the past [3,4]. This is referred to as episodic-like memory rather than episodic memory per se, in acknowledgement of the lack of evidence for, or against, the phenomenological aspects that accompany episodic recollection in humans. So far, evidence for episodic-like memory has only been found in some birds and mammals. We show here that cuttlefish, cephalopod mollusks, keep track of what they have eaten, and where and how long ago they ate, in order to match their foraging behavior with the time of replenishing of different foods. Foraging in cuttlefish fulfils the criteria of 'what', 'where' and 'when' of unique events and thus provides behavioral evidence of episodic-like memory in an invertebrate. PMID:24309275

  1. Cellular attachment and osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on natural cuttlefish bone

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Sung, Hark-Mo; You, Hyung-Keun; Lee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an approach that aims to provide fundamental information for the application of natural cuttlefish bone. Before applying cuttlefish bone as a bone defect filling material, we evaluated proliferation, adhesion, and cell viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on cuttlefish bone. Cuttlefish bone was separated into two parts (dorsal shield and lamellar region) and each part was used. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using the MTS assay and live/dead fluorescence staining method. The morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). hMSCs were stimulated with osteogenic medium and osteoblast differentiation was evaluated. The fluorescence images showed that the seeded cells grew well and that cell distribution was in accordance with the surface morphology of the cuttlefish bone. Compared with the dorsal shield, cells penetrated deeper into the three-dimensional inner space of the lamellar part. Furthermore, under osteogenic differentiation conditions, alkaline phosphatase activity increased and the mRNA expression of ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, and collagen type I ?1 was increased in hMSCs cultured on both the dorsal shield and lamellar block. These results indicate the potential of cuttlefish bone as an ideal scaffold for bone regenerative materials. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012. PMID:22447716

  2. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J. Kenneth; Allen, Justine J.; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision. PMID:21576487

  3. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J Kenneth; Allen, Justine J; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-05-31

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision. PMID:21576487

  4. Calcium carbonate crystallization on xiphoid of the cuttlefish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoli, F.; Dalas, E.

    2000-08-01

    A mollusc shell, the xiphoid from cuttlefish was found to be a substrate favouring the deposition of aragonite crystals from stable supersaturated solutions at pH 8.50 and 25C. The crystallization was studied at constant solution composition, thus making it possible for a relatively large amount of the overgrowths to be formed and to be identified exclusively as aragonite crystals. The apparent order found from kinetics data was n=4.10.4, thus suggesting a polynuclear mechanism. A surface energy of 243 mJ m -2 was calculated for the growing phase and a four-ion cluster forming the critical nucleus, according to the classical nucleation theory.

  5. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that

  6. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Goux, Didier; Duval, Emilie; Bernay, Benoit; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Corre, Erwan; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection. PMID:26168161

  7. A review of visual perception mechanisms that regulate rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-09-01

    We review recent research on the visual mechanisms of rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish. These neurophysiologically complex marine invertebrates can camouflage themselves against almost any background, yet their ability to quickly (0.5-2s) alter their body patterns on different visual backgrounds poses a vexing challenge: how to pick the correct body pattern amongst their repertoire. The ability of cuttlefish to change appropriately requires a visual system that can rapidly assess complex visual scenes and produce the motor responses-the neurally controlled body patterns-that achieve camouflage. Using specifically designed visual backgrounds and assessing the corresponding body patterns quantitatively, we and others have uncovered several aspects of scene variation that are important in regulating cuttlefish patterning responses. These include spatial scale of background pattern, background intensity, background contrast, object edge properties, object contrast polarity, object depth, and the presence of 3D objects. Moreover, arm postures and skin papillae are also regulated visually for additional aspects of concealment. By integrating these visual cues, cuttlefish are able to rapidly select appropriate body patterns for concealment throughout diverse natural environments. This sensorimotor approach of studying cuttlefish camouflage thus provides unique insights into the mechanisms of visual perception in an invertebrate image-forming eye. PMID:25701389

  8. Steroidogenesis in the brain of Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; Di Donato, Paola; Palumbo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco; Paolucci, Marina; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The presence of vertebrate-like steroids, steroidogenic enzymes and steroid receptors has been reported exclusively in cephalopods gonads. The role played by these steroids has been also recently investigated. We here give evidence of steroidogenic activity in the brain of cephalopods. The activity of two key steroidogenic enzymes: 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17beta-HSD is present in the lobes of the nervous system of both Sepia and Octopus. Such enzymes convert pregnenolone to progesterone and androstenedione to testosterone respectively. Binding experiments seem to assign a functional role to the androgens in the brain of cephalopods. According to the present results, the absence of any progesterone binding moiety supports the hypothesis that progesterone may be a metabolite product along the steroidogenic chain leading to androgens. The presence of steroidogenic enzymes in specific lobes of the central nervous system is discussed in terms of the possible role that steroids can play in the sexual differentiation of the brain and in influencing some coded behaviours of cephalopods, such as learning processes. PMID:20036911

  9. The Golden Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runion, Garth E.

    The Golden Section, also known as the "Golden Mean" and the "Divine Proportion," is a ratio found in art and nature that has mathematical properties. This book explores these geometric and algebraic properties in a variety of activities. Construction problems, designs using the pentagon and pentagram, and opportunities to work through proofs are

  10. The "Prawn-in-the-Tube" Procedure in the Cuttlefish: Habituation or Passive Avoidance Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickel, Ludovic; Chichery, Marie-Paule; Agin, Veronique; Chichery, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether or not habituation contributes to the regulation of the inhibition of predatory behavior observed during the "prawn-in-the-tube" training procedure. When presented with prawns that are visible behind glass but untouchable, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their capture attempts. The first three experiments…

  11. The "Prawn-in-the-Tube" Procedure in the Cuttlefish: Habituation or Passive Avoidance Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickel, Ludovic; Chichery, Marie-Paule; Agin, Veronique; Chichery, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether or not habituation contributes to the regulation of the inhibition of predatory behavior observed during the "prawn-in-the-tube" training procedure. When presented with prawns that are visible behind glass but untouchable, cuttlefish promptly learn to inhibit their capture attempts. The first three experiments

  12. Sixty golden minutes.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Kimberly Jane; Bradshaw, Wanda T

    2012-01-01

    The golden hour concept started in the trauma setting but is becoming more familiar in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). For a premature baby, the first hour of life can make the difference between a good outcome, a poor outcome, and death. The golden hour is 60 minutes of team-oriented and task-driven protocols. The focus is on resuscitation, thermoregulation, early administration of antibiotics for suspected sepsis, early intravenous parenteral nutrition, hypoglycemia management, and completed admission within one hour of life. To a premature baby, the first 60 minutes of life are golden and can last a lifetime. PMID:22908049

  13. From Trap to Nursery. Mitigating the Impact of an Artisanal Fishery on Cuttlefish Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Melli, Valentina; Riginella, Emilio; Nalon, Marco; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexploitation and the impact of several types of human activities have caused declines of marine resources. The direct and active involvement of fishermen in the management of marine resources is effective not only for resource conservation, but also for changing fishermen’s attitudes. In this study, we proposed and tested the efficacy and suitability of a measure for mitigating the impact of a trap fishery on cuttlefish eggs in the North Adriatic Sea. This measure directly involves fishermen in promoting the conservation of the early, and more vulnerable, stages of the cuttlefish life cycle. Methodology/Principal findings Through surveys on fishing boats and interviews with fishermen, we found that traps placed in coastal areas during the cuttlefish breeding season have a high impact on cuttlefish eggs, with over 3 million eggs likely being destroyed by 3750 traps of 15 fishermen in less than 3 miles of coast. The use of removable ropes attached inside traps as an additional substrate for egg deposition allowed the recovery of 23.7% of the eggs deposited on the traps on average, without affecting the catch rate of adults. Experiments examining hatching success in the field highlighted the need for a careful choice of hatching sites to maximise the efficacy of the mitigation measure. Conclusions/Significance The proposed mitigation measure reduced the impact of fishing on cuttlefish eggs, with no significant effect on the commercial catch. Fishermen showed a positive attitude towards the application of this measure, which is inexpensive and easy to employ. The direct involvement of fishermen in the management of this resource and the maintenance of traditional fishing methods are a novel aspect of the proposed measure and represent the basis for its success. PMID:24587390

  14. Dopamine in the ink defence system of Sepia officinalis: biosynthesis, vesicular compartmentation in mature ink gland cells, nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP-induced depletion and fate in secreted ink.

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Gabriella; Poli, Annarita; Di Cosmo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The biosynthesis, localization and fate of catecholamines in the ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis were investigated by combined biochemical and immunohistocytochemical methodologies. HPLC analysis of crude ink gland extracts indicated the presence of dopa (2.18+/-0.82 nmol/mg of protein) and DA (dopamine, 0.06+/-0.02 nmol/mg of protein), but no detectable noradrenaline or adrenaline. DA was shown to derive from L-tyrosine, according to experiments performed by incubating intact ink glands with [L-14C]tyrosine. The biosynthetic process involves a tyrosine hydroxylase and a dopa decarboxylase pathway and is independent of tyrosinase. The tyrosine hydroxylase activity was detected under conditions of tyrosinase suppression in the cytosolic fraction, but not in the melanosomal fraction, of ink gland extracts, and the presence of the enzyme was confirmed by Western-blot analysis. Dopa and DA were found to be released from the ink glands by processes controlled through the NMDA-nitric oxide-cGMP (where NMDA stands for N -methyl-D-aspartate) signalling pathway, as apparent from incubation experiments performed with [L-14C]tyrosine in the presence of NMDA, diethylamine NONOate (diethylamine diazeniumdiolate), a nitric oxide donor, 8-bromo-cGMP or a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical results coupled with electron microscopy indicated that DA was concentrated in vesicles specifically localized in the mature melanin-producing cells of the ink gland proximal to the lumen and separated from the melanin-containing melanosomes. NMDA receptor stimulation or exposure to an NO donor caused a marked loss of DA immunoreactivity in mature cells, consistent with a release process. In the lumen of the ink gland, where mature exhausted cells pour their contents, DA immunoreactivity was found to be associated with the melanin granules, due apparently to physical adsorption. Overall, these results point to DA as a marker of cell maturation in Sepia ink gland subject to release by the NO/cGMP signalling pathway, and disclose apparently overlooked DA-melanin interactions in secreted ink of possible relevance to the defence mechanism. PMID:14670074

  15. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopic Study of Size-Controlled Ink Particles Isolated from Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshihiko Matsuura,; Shingo Watanabe,; Sei-ichi Akutagawa,; Yuhei Shimoyama,; Takanori Kobayashi,; Yoshihiro Taya,; Takashi Ueno,

    2010-06-01

    The paramagnetic properties of size-controlled ink particles isolated from the ink sacs of Sepia officinalis were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Both the size-controlled ink particles and synthetic melanins seemingly yielded similar ESR spectra consisting of a singlet with a slightly asymmetrical signal. However, the progressive microwave power saturation revealed a clear difference between their paramagnetic behaviors. In comparison with synthetic melanins, the ESR spectra of the ink particles readily reached saturation, indicating a long spin-lattice relaxation time. On the other hand, the ESR linewidth depended on particle size. This implies that the particle size is related to the distance between paramagnetic species in the particles. Hence, it is reasonable that the large ink particle has the weakest spin-spin interaction among these samples. The employment of the size-controlled ink particles enabled us to determine precisely the paramagnetic parameters of Sepia inks.

  16. Cuttlebone morphology limits habitat depth in eleven species of Sepia (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Sherrard, K M

    2000-06-01

    The cuttlebone is a rigid buoyancy tank that imposes a depth limit on Sepia, the only living speciose cephalopod genus with a chambered shell. Sections of 59 cuttlebones from a geographically diverse sample of 11 species were examined using confocal microscopy. Sepia species that live at greater depths had thicker septa and less space between pillars than did shallow species. A plate theory analysis of cuttlebone strength based on these two measures predicted maximum capture depths accurately in most species. Thus cuttlebone morphology confers differing degrees of strength against implosion from hydrostatic pressure, which increases with increasing habitat depth. Greater strength may come at the cost of increased cuttlebone density, which impinges on the cuttlebone's buoyancy function. PMID:10897454

  17. Microstructure, rheological and wound healing properties of collagen-based gel from cuttlefish skin.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Mourad; Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Rebaii, Tarak; Souissi, Nabil; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-based biomaterials are of the utmost importance for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate structural and rheological properties of collagen-based gel obtained from cuttlefish skin, and to investigate its ability to enhance wound healing. Scanning electron microscopy of resulted gel showed a dense fibrillar microstructure with high interconnection network with a smaller pore size. In addition, the rheological characterization of collagen gel showed an excellent reversibility, when subjected to a temperature variation. Moreover, in the wound-healing study, topical application of collagen based gel increased significantly the percentage of wound closure over a period of 12 days, when compared to the untreated and CICAFLORA()-treated groups. Wound-healing activity of collagen gel was confirmed by histopathology study. Thus, cuttlefish collagen based gel might be useful as a wound healing agent. PMID:25796451

  18. The "Golden Penny" Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the view that the explanation of the Golden Penny Experiment found in popular chemistry textbooks is insufficient or incorrect in part. Reports a series of electrochemical measurements that lead to a logical explanation for this demonstration and to a simplified design that makes it safer. (DDR)

  19. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

  20. 26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh semi-matte paper, aerial oblique of central Terre Haute with negative inscribed letters (prints on positive as white) along the bottom margin, "(02105-631K-118) (3-10-37. 10:30A) (R-1000) (State Normal College, Terre Haute, Ind.)" This view taken looking east shows the gas building in the near foreground right. On the reverse in red pencil, "Campus Scenes 10" and in black pencil, "1937". Source: Indiana State University Archives. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  1. Photon absorption in step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) of Sepia melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; DiMarzio, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has shown that melanin goes through a step-wise three-photon absorption process when the fluorescence is activated with high laser intensity. We have conducted further research using even higher laser intensity for the activation, and have shown the possibility of observing power dependence other than third-order. This article discusses the possible energy states of Sepia melanin by studying the power dependence curves of the step-wise multi-photon activated fluorescence signal. Three different excitation channels are activated. Possible reasons causing the three channels are discussed.

  2. Using cuttlefish ink as an additive to produce -non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Chen, Ang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian

    2015-08-26

    Non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility are produced by amorphous photonic structures, in which -natural cuttlefish ink is used as an additive to break down the long-range order of the structures. The color hue and its spectral purity can be tuned by adjusting the diameter of the polystyrene (PS) spheres and the proportion of ink particles. PMID:26175211

  3. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-like immunoreactivity in the brain of Sepia and Octopus.

    PubMed

    Di Cosmo, Anna; Paolucci, Marina; Di Cristo, Carlo

    2004-09-13

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors have been subdivided into N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and AMPA/kainate classes. NMDA receptor subunit 2A and 2B immunoreactivity is shown to be present in specific regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of the cephalopod molluscs Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. An antibody that recognizes both mammalian NMDAR2A and NMDAR2B subunits equally was used. SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis performed on membrane proteins revealed an immunoreactive band at 170 kDa for both species. Immunoreactive bands from both Octopus and Sepia brains disappeared when the antibody was preabsorbed with membrane proteins from rat hippocampus or from their own brains. The same antibody was then used for immunohistochemical staining of serial sections of the CNS to reveal localized specific staining of cell bodies and fibers in several lobes of the brain. Staining was found in lower motor centers, in some higher motor centers, in learning centers, and in the optic lobes. Immunopositivity was also found in the areas of brain that control the activity of the optic gland, a gonadotropic endocrine gland. These findings suggest that glutamate, via NMDA receptors, may be involved as a signaling molecule in motor, learning, visual, and olfactory systems in the cephalopod brain. PMID:15300790

  4. Analysis of tissue condition based on interaction between inorganic and organic matter in cuttlefish bone.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    The absorption properties of an inner layer of cuttlefish bone were measured using a transmission terahertz time-domain spectrometer in a band from approximately 0.1 to 4 THz. For oriented samples, an absorption peak related to the behavior of calcium carbonate appeared at approximately 2 THz. The peak magnitude and frequency depended on the direction of the incident terahertz electric field, indicating that calcium carbonate crystals constituting the inner layer were oriented in a certain direction. The absorbance of a sample heated to 350 °C for 0 to 2 h to remove organic matter tended to decrease with heating time in the oriented direction, while the peak frequency shifted to higher frequencies. Furthermore, we showed that the peak frequency depended on the interaction area within the unheated sample and we thus obtained a two-dimensional image reflecting crystal regularity inside the cuttlefish bone from the spectral data at each position. PMID:23860837

  5. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by β-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240 min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5 mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  6. Are We Golden?: Investigations with the Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Stacy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an activity in which students investigate the "golden nature" of their bodies through measurement and proportional thinking and make connections between mathematics and their world. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Stable isotope records from Sepia officinalis—a key to understanding the ecology of belemnites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexfort, A.; Mutterlose, J.

    2006-07-01

    The stable isotope ratios (δ 18O, δ 13C) of the aragonite of cuttlebones of Sepia officinalis were measured on a high resolution scale where every septum was measured. Our studies aim at understanding whether variations of the isotope signature are controlled by ontogenetic and/or ecological factors. Five specimens were reared from eggs under known water temperatures, a sixth specimen was caught in the German part of the North Sea. The data suggest that the oxygen isotope composition is in isotopic equilibrium with the surrounding seawater and reflects ambient temperature. Migration and seasonal temperature changes are visible in the acquired data set. The carbon isotope signature shows signs of biofractionation and no direct correlation to the oxygen signature as far as ontogeny and ecology are concerned.

  8. Intramolecular localization of the functional units of Sepia officinalis hemocyanin by immunoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lamy, J; You, V; Taveau, J C; Boisset, N; Lamy, J N

    1998-12-11

    The quaternary structure of Sepia officinalis hemocyanin (Hc) as studied in immunoelectron microscopy with rabbit IgGs and Fab fragments raised against functional units (FU) Soc, Sod, Soe, Sof, Sog, and Soh and fragment Soab. The architecture of immunocomplexes shows that (i) epitopes characteristic of FUs Soc and Sog and of fragment Soab are located in the two external tiers of FUs, (ii) FUs Soh and Soe or Sod are located in arches. These results were confirmed using immunocomplexes made up of Sepia Hc and IgGs or Fab fragments purified from antisera raised against FUs of Octopus vulgaris and Octopus dofleini. Frozen-hydrated immunocomplexes containing one Hc molecule and at least one FU-specific Fab fragment were observed in the electron microscope and submitted to image processing. When the Hc molecule is viewed along its 5-fold axis (i) anti-Soc Fab fragments project on a radius passing through the arch's pillar, (ii) anti-Sof Fabs project slightly out of the arches, and (iii) anti-Soh Fabs project between neighboring arches. When applied to a recent three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction volume, these results allow us to deduce the intramolecular location of five of the eight FUs. For the last three FUs limited uncertainties remain: (i) Soc can be located in two positions in the external tier of FUs; (ii) Soa and Sob can both occupy three positions in the external tiers; and (iii) because of an immunological cross-reactivity Sod may be located in the wall and Soe in the arch, or vice versa. An analysis of the quaternary structure considering the possible locations of the 80 FUs and postulating a single type of subunit shows that 80 possibilities of paths still exist for the polypeptide chain. To solve definitely these 80 possibilities only five questions remain to be answered. PMID:9837726

  9. Characteristics of the tertiary egg membrane of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Xiamin; Song, Weiwei; Xu, Yongjian

    2010-11-01

    We separated tertiary egg membrane (TGM) from 2- and 25-day-old eggs of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune, and revealed its ultrastructure, physical (solubility, barrier property) and biochemical (histology, histochemistry, nutritional components, bacteriostasis) characteristics. The results show that TGM could not be dissolved with natural seawater, alcohol, ether or hydrochloric acid (HCl), but it could be dissolved with 2-chloroethanol, diethylamine, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The black TGM was more effective in blocking off mud particulates, microorganisms ( Chlorella vulgaris, Vibrio alginolyticus) and lighter than the white TGM. The elasticity of black and white TGMs was 1.8 N and 1.5 N, respectively. There were some ink particulates and rod-shaped bacteria in the black TGM. The nutritional components were different between black and white TGMs: Lipid content was lower and protein content was higher in the black TGM. TGM could also inhibit the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis (Sepioidea, Sepiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanchao; Guo, Baoying; Li, Jiji; Wang, Hailing; Qi, Pengzhi; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the spineless cuttlefish Sepiella inermis. The genome was 16,191?bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 main non-coding regions [both are control regions (CR)]. The composition and order of genes, for the mitogenome found in S. inermis were similar to most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. inermis is T 35.6%, C 16.4%, A 40.0% and G 8.0%, with a highly A?+?T bias of 75.6%. Two control regions contain both termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Thus, mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationship, taxonomic resolution and phylogeography of the Sepiidae. PMID:24006867

  11. The Toll/NF-κB pathway in cuttlefish symbiotic accessory nidamental gland.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-11-01

    The female genital apparatus of decapod cephalopods contains a symbiotic accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that harbors bacterial symbionts. Although the ANG bacterial consortium is now well described, the impact of symbiosis on Sepia officinalis innate immunity pathways remains unknown. In silico analysis of the de novo transcriptome of ANG highlighted for the first time the existence of the NF-κB pathway in S. officinalis. Several signaling components were identified, i.e. five Toll-like receptors, eight signaling cascade features, and the immune response target gene iNOS, previously described as being involved in the initiation of bacterial symbiosis in a cephalopod gland. This work provides a first key for studying bacterial symbiosis and its impact on innate immunity in S. officinalis ANG. PMID:26143243

  12. Feel, smell and see in an egg: emergence of perception and learning in an immature invertebrate, the cuttlefish embryo.

    PubMed

    Romagny, Sébastien; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Guibé, Mathieu; Bellanger, Cécile; Dickel, Ludovic

    2012-12-01

    It is now well established that prenatal sensory experience affects development itself and has long-term consequences in terms of postnatal behavior. This study focused on the functionality of the sensory system in cuttlefish in ovo. Embryos of stage 23, 25 and 30 received a tactile, chemical or visual stimulus. An increase of mantle contraction rhythm was taken to indicate a behavioral response to the stimulus. We clearly demonstrated that tactile and chemical systems are functional from stage 23, whereas the visual system is functional only from stage 25. At stage 25 and 30, embryos were also exposed to a repeated light stimulus. Stage 30 embryos were capable of habituation, showing a progressive decrease in contractions across stimulations. This process was not due to fatigue as we observed response recovery after a dishabituation tactile stimulus. This study is the first to show that cuttlefish embryos behaviorally respond to stimuli of different modalities and that the visual system is the last to become functional during embryonic development, as in vertebrate embryos. It also provides new evidence that the memory system develops in ovo in cuttlefish. PMID:23136152

  13. De novo assembly and comparison of the ovarian transcriptomes of the common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica) with different gonadal development.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhenming; Liu, Wan; Liu, Liqin; Shi, Huilai; Ping, Hongling; Wang, Tianming; Chi, Changfeng; Wu, Changwen; Chen, Ching-Hung; Shen, Kang-Ning; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-03-01

    The common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica) has been considered one of the most economically important marine Cephalopod species in East Asia and seed breeding technology has been established for massive aquaculture and stock enhancement. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the ovary tissues of S. japonica for the first time. A total of 53,116,650 and 53,446,640 reads were obtained from the immature and matured ovaries, respectively (NCBI SRA database SRX1409472 and SRX1409473), and 70,039 contigs (N50 = 1443 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 47,288 contigs show differential expression profile and 793 contigs are highly expressed in the immature ovary, while 38 contigs are highly expressed in the mature ovary with FPKM > 100. We hope that the ovarian transcriptome and those stage-enriched transcripts of S. japonica can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of cuttlefish gonad tissue and give useful information in cuttlefish gonad development. PMID:26981395

  14. De novo assembly and comparison of the ovarian transcriptomes of the common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica) with different gonadal development

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Zhenming; Liu, Wan; Liu, Liqin; Shi, Huilai; Ping, Hongling; Wang, Tianming; Chi, Changfeng; Wu, Changwen; Chen, Ching-Hung; Shen, Kang-Ning; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2015-01-01

    The common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica) has been considered one of the most economically important marine Cephalopod species in East Asia and seed breeding technology has been established for massive aquaculture and stock enhancement. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the ovary tissues of S. japonica for the first time. A total of 53,116,650 and 53,446,640 reads were obtained from the immature and matured ovaries, respectively (NCBI SRA database SRX1409472 and SRX1409473), and 70,039 contigs (N50 = 1443 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 47,288 contigs show differential expression profile and 793 contigs are highly expressed in the immature ovary, while 38 contigs are highly expressed in the mature ovary with FPKM > 100. We hope that the ovarian transcriptome and those stage-enriched transcripts of S. japonica can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of cuttlefish gonad tissue and give useful information in cuttlefish gonad development. PMID:26981395

  15. Why is golden rice golden (yellow) instead of red?

    PubMed

    Schaub, Patrick; Al-Babili, Salim; Drake, Rachel; Beyer, Peter

    2005-05-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of beta-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI), is lycopene, which has a red color. The absence of lycopene in Golden Rice shows that the pathway proceeds beyond the transgenic end point and thus that the endogenous pathway must also be acting. By using TaqMan real-time PCR, we show in wild-type rice endosperm the mRNA expression of the relevant carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes encoding phytoene desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotene cis-trans-isomerase, beta-lycopene cyclase, and beta-carotene hydroxylase; only PSY mRNA was virtually absent. We show that the transgenic phenotype is not due to up-regulation of expression of the endogenous rice pathway in response to the transgenes, as was suggested to be the case in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit, where CRTI expression resulted in a similar carotenoid phenomenon. This means that beta-carotene and xanthophyll formation in Golden Rice relies on the activity of constitutively expressed intrinsic rice genes (carotene cis-trans-isomerase, alpha/beta-lycopene cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase). PSY needs to be supplemented and the need for the CrtI transgene in Golden Rice is presumably due to insufficient activity of the phytoene desaturase and/or zeta-carotene desaturase enzyme in endosperm. The effect of CRTI expression was also investigated in leaves of transgenic rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, again, the mRNA levels of intrinsic carotenogenic enzymes remained unaffected; nevertheless, the carotenoid pattern changed, showing a decrease in lutein, while the beta-carotene-derived xanthophylls increased. This shift correlated with CRTI-expression and is most likely governed at the enzyme level by lycopene-cis-trans-isomerism. Possible implications are discussed. PMID:15821145

  16. Intake of essential and non-essential elements from consumption of octopus, cuttlefish and squid.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Garofalo, R; Giungato, D; Giacominelli-Stuffler, R

    2010-01-01

    Total concentrations of essential (Cu, Zn, Se and Cr) and non-essential (Hg, Cd, Pb and As) trace elements were measured in the flesh and hepatopancreas of Octopodidae (Eledone moschata, Eledone cirrhosa, Octopus salutii), Sepiidae (Sepia elegans, Sepia orbignyana) and Loliginidae (Illex coindeti, Loligo vulgaris) from the Mediterranean Sea. As expected, the hepatopancreas showed higher metal concentrations than flesh; the only exceptions were Hg and As, which were equally distributed in the two tissues. Regarding the edible portion, the highest toxic metal concentrations were in Octopodidae (Hg: 0.44, Cd: 0.49, Pb: 0.10 g g(-1) wet weight) and Sepiidae (Hg: 0.27, Cd: 0.50, Pb: 0.12 g g(-1) wet weight), while Loliginidae tended to accumulate less metal, especially Hg (Hg: 0.11, Cd: 0.30, Pb: 0.05 g g(-1) wet weight). The other elements showed a heterogeneous distribution among the different cephalopod families. Loliginidae showed the highest Se concentrations (1.18 g g(-1) wet weight), Octopodidae of Cu (37.37 g g(-1) wet weight) and Zn (42.00 g g(-1) wet weight) and Sepiidae of As (61.43 g g(-1) wet weight), while Cr was uniformly distributed among the various families (0.38-0.43 g g(-1) wet weight). In these seafoods, the concentrations of essential and non-essential elements were within the prescribed limits set by various authorities, except for Cu and As. Health risks posed by toxic elements to humans via dietary intake of these mollusks were assessed on the basis on Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), while the estimated intakes of essential elements were compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (RDIs). A 70-g serving of these mollusks was shown to provide a large contribution to Cd intake (0.89 g kg(-1) body weight), corresponding to 35.6% of PTWI. Concerning the essential elements, the consumption of these mollusks made an important contribution to daily dietary intake of Se, Cu and Zn. PMID:24785311

  17. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant property of chitosan from cuttlebone Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885).

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-03-01

    Chitin was extracted from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis and chitosan was prepared through deacetylation. The chitosan was characterized for its structural, physical and thermal (CHN, DDA, FT-IR, NMR, XRD, Viscometric analysis, SEM and DSC) properties. Further, the chitosan exhibited the antioxidant activity of 50.68-74.36% at 1-10 mg ml(-1) and it also showed the reducing power of 0.28% at 1 mg ml(-1). At 10 mg ml(-1), the chitosan exhibited the scavenging ability of 46.17%, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, 23.38-73.70% on superoxide radicals at 0.05-1.6 mg ml(-1) and 18.34% to 62.39% (0.1-3.2 mg ml(-1)) on hydroxyl radicals; whereas at 1-10 mg ml(-1) the chelating ability on ferrous ions was calculated as 49.74-73.59%. Based on the potential antioxidant activity, scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating abilities on ferrous ions, the chitosan from the cuttlebone of S. kobiensis may not only be used as a potent natural antioxidant but also as a possible food quality enhancer ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24333227

  18. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. PMID:24530330

  19. Structural characterization and in vitro biomedical activities of sulfated chitosan from Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Ramachandran; Manigandan, Venkatesan; Saravanan, Ramachandran; Rajesh, Rajaian Pushpabai; Chandrika, Baby

    2016-03-01

    A low molecular weight sulfated chitosan (SP-LMWSC) was isolated from the cuttlebone of Sepia pharaonis. Elemental analysis established the presence of C, H and N. The sulfation of SP-LMWSC was confirmed by the presence of characteristic peaks in FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The thermal properties of SP-LMWSC were studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Electrolytic conductivity of SP-LMWSC was measured by cyclic voltammetry and the molecular weight was determined by MALDI-TOF/MS. The molecular structure and sulfation sites of SP-LMWSC were unambiguously confirmed using (1)H, (13)C, 2D COSY and 2D HSQC NMR spectroscopy. SP-LMWSC exhibited increased anticoagulant activity in avian blood by delaying coagulation parameters and displayed cytostatic activity by inhibiting the migration of avian leucocytes. SP-LMWSC demonstrated avian antiviral activity by binding to Newcastle disease virus receptors at a low titer value of 1/64. These findings suggested that SP-LMWSC isolated from an industrial discard holds immense potentials as carbohydrate based pharmaceuticals in future. PMID:26708430

  20. Effects of chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge on the blood parameters of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-04-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the field of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  1. Isolation, purification, and characterization of avian antimicrobial glycopeptide from the posterior salivary gland of Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Saravanan, R; Ebenezar, K Kumar; Sivamalai, T

    2015-02-01

    A proteinaceous glycopeptide was isolated from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of Sepia pharaonis by gel (Sephadex G-100) filtration chromatography and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the collected fractions, fraction 12 showed a retention time (RT) of 31 min. The total protein and neutral sugar contents of the purified glycopeptide were recorded as 68.14 and 2.95 mg, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified glycopeptide was found to be ~50 kDa. The infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of peptide and secondary structure in the purified glycopeptide. The antibacterial activity of the purified glycopeptide against avian bacterial strains was also determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the purified glycopeptide revealed the likely compounds for the antibacterial activity such as 22, 23-dibromostigmasterol acetate, 3-methyl 2-(2-oxypropyl) furan, and 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-5A-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-cyclohexene. These three compounds found in the purified glycopeptide could be responsible for the antibacterial activity against the avian pathogens. The results of this study suggest that the purified glycopeptide from the PSG of S. pharaonis could be an antibacterial agent against avian bacterial pathogens. PMID:25410800

  2. Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sbastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis. PMID:19683074

  3. Effects of Chitin and Sepia Ink Hybrid Hemostatic Sponge on the Blood Parameters of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu-Lin; Chen, Dao-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Chitin and sepia ink hybrid hemostatic sponge (CTSH sponge), a new biomedical material, was extensively studied for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CTSH sponge in the blood system are lacking. This experiment aimed to examine whether CTSH sponge has negative effect on blood systems of mice, which were treated with a dosage of CTSH sponge (135 mg/kg) through a laparotomy. CTSH sponge was implanted into the abdominal subcutaneous and a laparotomy was used for blood sampling from abdominal aortic. Several kinds of blood parameters were detected at different time points, which were reflected by coagulation parameters including thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4); anticoagulation parameter including antithrombin III (AT-III); fibrinolytic parameters including plasminogen (PLG), fibrin degradation product (FDP) and D-dimer; hemorheology parameters including blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV). Results showed that CTSH sponge has no significant effect on the blood parameters of mice. The data suggested that CTSH sponge can be applied in the field of biomedical materials and has potential possibility to be developed into clinical drugs of hemostatic agents. PMID:24727395

  4. GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2009-03-01

    We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes. PMID:18692104

  5. Tactical decisions for changeable cuttlefish camouflage: visual cues for choosing masquerade are relevant from a greater distance than visual cues used for background matching.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Cramer, Corinne; McAnulty, Sarah; Davison, William; Mthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    Cuttlefish use multiple camouflage tactics to evade their predators. Two common tactics are background matching (resembling the background to hinder detection) and masquerade (resembling an uninteresting or inanimate object to impede detection or recognition). We investigated how the distance and orientation of visual stimuli affected the choice of these two camouflage tactics. In the current experiments, cuttlefish were presented with three visual cues: 2D horizontal floor, 2D vertical wall, and 3D object. Each was placed at several distances: directly beneath (in a circle whose diameter was one body length (BL); at zero BL [(0BL); i.e., directly beside, but not beneath the cuttlefish]; at 1BL; and at 2BL. Cuttlefish continued to respond to 3D visual cues from a greater distance than to a horizontal or vertical stimulus. It appears that background matching is chosen when visual cues are relevant only in the immediate benthic surroundings. However, for masquerade, objects located multiple body lengths away remained relevant for choice of camouflage. PMID:26504156

  6. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... administering Designated Entrance Fee Areas and Designated Recreation Use Facilities. (2) The Golden...

  7. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... administering Designated Entrance Fee Areas and Designated Recreation Use Facilities. (2) The Golden...

  8. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... administering Designated Entrance Fee Areas and Designated Recreation Use Facilities. (2) The Golden...

  9. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... administering Designated Entrance Fee Areas and Designated Recreation Use Facilities. (2) The Golden...

  10. 36 CFR 71.6 - Golden Age Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Golden Age Passport. 71.6... RECREATION FEES § 71.6 Golden Age Passport. (a) Issuance of the Golden Age Passport: (1) Golden Age Passports... administering Designated Entrance Fee Areas and Designated Recreation Use Facilities. (2) The Golden...

  11. 76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden Triangle) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  12. The Divine Ratio and Golden Rectangles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martin

    1982-01-01

    The material examines aspects of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, the generation of the Divine Ratio, and the nature of this ratio in golden rectangles, triangles, and figures made up of golden triangles. It is noted Lucas sequence is formed like Fibonacci but has one and three as the first elements. (Author/MP)

  13. The Golden Ratio--A Contrary Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Clement

    2005-01-01

    Many assertions about the occurrence of the golden ratio phi in art, architecture, and nature have been shown to be false, unsupported, or misleading. For instance, we show that the spirals found in sea shells, in particular the "Nautilus pompilius," are not in the shape of the golden ratio, as is often claimed. Some of the most interesting

  14. A Golden Eagle Perches in a Tree

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A golden eagle perches in a tree at the William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon. USGS researchers are conducting research that will help support the FWS’s and energy industry efforts to reduce impacts to golden eagles from wind energy operations, including, of course, collision with...

  15. Using Sepia melanin as a PD model to describe the binding characteristics of neuromelanin - A critical review.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Rhiannon L; Double, Kay L; Gerber, Jacobus P

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterised pathologically by a relatively selective death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The vulnerability of these neurons appears to be linked to the pigment neuromelanin. However, as yet there is limited understanding behind the mechanisms of this disease process. Complications arise due to the difficulty in obtaining appreciable quantities of neuromelanin. Furthermore, an appropriate model for studying neuromelanin has not been identified. To date there has been many studies looking at the binding and chemical characteristics of neuromelanin. However, a range of different synthetic and organic melanins have been used as models and leading to many varied conclusions being drawn. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present Sepia melanin as the most appropriate study model for the binding characteristics of neuromelanin. Considerations included chemical structure, surface characteristics and structural features of both synthetic and organic melanins. PMID:25681296

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of Sepia officinalis from the Tunisian cost revealed by mitochondrial COI sequences.

    PubMed

    Meriam, Tir; Wafa, Tombari; Khawla, Telahigue; Tarek, Hajji; Abdeljelil, Ghram; Mhamed, Elcafsi

    2015-01-01

    Population substructure of Sepia officinalis sampled along the Tunisian coastline was studied. We have scored the genetic variation of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1. A total of 20 specimens from four sampling sites were analysed and revealed 12 different haplotypes. Haplotype diversity showed a decreasing north to south gradient which may be explained by the hydrogeography of the study area. The overall estimate of genetic divergence (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation between the pair-wise population comparisons supported by the AMOVA analysis which reveals significant genetic divergence. Finally, populations showed an excess of rare haplotypes. The mismatch distribution and several population genetic statistics indicate that the excess of rare variants is due to a recent expansion for Djerba and Kelibia populations. For Rades and Bizerte populations a constant population size was detected. These findings are important for fisheries management to preserve this marine resource for long-term utilization. PMID:25249225

  17. The golden rule of reviewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPeek, Mark A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Shaw, Ruth G.; Moore, Allen J.; Rausher, Mark D.; Strong, Donald R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Barrett, Louise; Rieseberg, Loren; Breed, Michael D.; Sullivan, Jack; Osenberg, Craig W.; Holyoak, Marcel; Elgar, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A major bottleneck in the time required to publish a scientific or scholarly paper is the speed with which reviews by peers are returned to journals. Peer review is a reciprocal altruistic system in which each individual may perform every task—editors, reviewers, and authors—at different times. Journals have no way to coerce reviewers to return their critiques faster. To greatly shorten the time to publication, all actors in this altruistic network should abide by the Golden Rule of Reviewing: review for others as you would have others review for you. Say yes to reviewing whenever your duties and schedule allow; provide a thorough, fair, and constructive critique of the work; and do it at your first opportunity regardless of the deadline.

  18. Identification of the Major ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Protein Concentrate from Cuttlefish Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Amado, Isabel; Vázquez, José Antonio; González, Pilar; Esteban-Fernández, Diego; Carrera, Mónica; Piñeiro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC50 = 76.8 ± 15.2 μg mL−1) after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC50 value of 58.4 ± 4.6 μg mL−1. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Four fractions (A–D) with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR) followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC50 values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 μg mL−1, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions. PMID:24619242

  19. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing golden crab intact. 622.247... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that golden crab on that vessel...

  20. 50 CFR 622.247 - Landing golden crab intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing golden crab intact. 622.247... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region 622.247 Landing golden crab intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that golden crab on that vessel...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The...

  3. 12 CFR 750.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 750.2... GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 750.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited. A Federally insured credit union must not make or agree to make any golden parachute payment, except as permitted...

  4. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited... make any golden parachute payment, except as provided in this part....

  5. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.4 Permissible golden parachute payments... may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent that: (1) The appropriate federal...

  6. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.4 Permissible golden parachute payments... may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent that: (1) The appropriate federal...

  7. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited... make any golden parachute payment, except as provided in this part....

  8. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.4 Permissible golden parachute payments... may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent that: (1) The appropriate federal...

  9. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.4 Permissible golden parachute payments... may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent that: (1) The appropriate federal...

  10. 12 CFR 750.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 750.2... GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 750.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited. A Federally insured credit union must not make or agree to make any golden parachute payment, except as permitted...

  11. 12 CFR 750.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 750.2... GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 750.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited. A Federally insured credit union must not make or agree to make any golden parachute payment, except as permitted...

  12. 12 CFR 359.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 359.4... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.4 Permissible golden parachute payments... may make a golden parachute payment if and to the extent that: (1) The appropriate federal...

  13. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited... make any golden parachute payment, except as provided in this part....

  14. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited... make any golden parachute payment, except as provided in this part....

  15. 12 CFR 359.2 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 359.2... GENERAL POLICY GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 359.2 Golden parachute payments prohibited... make any golden parachute payment, except as provided in this part....

  16. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful...

  17. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful...

  18. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a... Passport shall be $10. The annual Golden Eagle Passport shall be nontransferable and the unlawful...

  19. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same as for Seedless Raisins (See 52.1846...

  20. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same as for Seedless Raisins (See 52.1846...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same...

  6. Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  7. The Golden Section as Optical Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, Jonas; Brodsky, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The golden section, ? = (1 + ?5)/2 = 1.618 and its companion ? = 1/? = ? -1 = 0.618, are irrational numbers which for centuries were believed to confer aesthetic appeal. In line with the presence of golden sectioning in natural growth patterns, recent EEG recordings show an absence of coherence between brain frequencies related by the golden ratio, suggesting the potential relevance of the golden section to brain dynamics. Using Mondrian-type patterns comprising a number of paired sections in a range of five section-section areal ratios (including golden-sectioned pairs), participants were asked to indicate as rapidly and accurately as possible the polarity (light or dark) of the smallest section in the patterns. They were also asked to independently assess the aesthetic appeal of the patterns. No preference was found for golden-sectioned patterns, while reaction times (RTs) tended to decrease overall with increasing ratio independently of each patterns fractal dimensionality. (Fractal dimensionality was unrelated to ratio and measured in terms of the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting dimension). The ease of detecting the smallest section also decreased with increasing ratio, although RTs were found to be substantially slower for golden-sectioned patterns under 8-paired sectioned conditions. This was confirmed by a significant linear relationship between RT and ratio (p <.001) only when the golden-sectioned RTs were excluded [the relationship was non-significant for the full complement of ratios (p = .217)]. Image analysis revealed an absence of spatial frequencies between 4 and 8 cycles-per-degree that was exclusive to the 8-paired (golden)-sectioned patterns. The significance of this was demonstrated in a subsequent experiment by addition of uniformly distributed random noise to the patterns. This provided a uniform spatial-frequency profile for all patterns, which did not influence the decrease in RT with increasing ratio but abolished the elevated RTs to golden-sectioned patterns. This suggests that optical limitation in the form of reduced inter-neural synchronization during spatial-frequency coding may be the foundation for the perceptual effects of golden sectioning. PMID:26154761

  8. 75 FR 68398 - Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Golden Triangle Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Golden Triangle Railroad Company Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC (GTRA), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to: (1) Acquire from Golden Triangle Railroad Company (Old...

  9. The politics of Golden Rice.

    PubMed

    Dubock, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project. PMID:25437240

  10. Primary productivity in the Golden Horn.

    PubMed

    Gnll, M Talha; Av?ar, Ya?ar; Bayhan, Hrrem; Sakar, Seyman; Arslankaya, Ertan; Apaydin, Omer; Kurt, U?ur

    2005-10-01

    The shores of the Golden Horn--once most important seaport of the region--represented throughout history a romantic and recreational venue. This tributary to the Bosphorus, however, became seriously polluted with the extensive industrialization and rapid population growth in Istanbul over the past century. Two main tributaries, the Alibeykoy and the Kagithane, dumped both liquid and solid waste from residential areas and industry (small and large-scale) into the Golden Horn. As a result of this pollution, the landward three to four kilometers of the estuary became swamped with sediment. The dominance of anaerobic activity resulted in a highly unpleasant smell, and the shallow depth as one progressed up the bay restricted navigation. In early 1997 The Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality began a dredging operation and gradually diverted all domestic and industrial wastewater discharge from the Golden Horn. Since then there have been remarkable improvements in water quality. This paper presents the state of eutrophication through the water body of the Golden Horn; parameters such as DO, TKN, NH(3)-N, NO(3)-N, the total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (PO(4)-P), phytoplankton and chlorophyll-a have been were analyzed in samples of water taken from various points in the Golden Horn. The presence of DO and the phytoplankton, both indicators of primary productivity in an aquatic body, has been evaluated in relation to former conditions. PMID:16240188

  11. Neuropeptidome of the Cephalopod Sepia officinalis: Identification, Tissue Mapping, and Expression Pattern of Neuropeptides and Neurohormones during Egg Laying.

    PubMed

    Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Cornet, Valérie; Leduc, Alexandre; Zanuttini, Bruno; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Garderes, Johan; Kraut, Alexandra; Couté, Yohan; Henry, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Cephalopods exhibit a wide variety of behaviors such as prey capture, communication, camouflage, and reproduction thanks to a complex central nervous system (CNS) divided into several functional lobes that express a wide range of neuropeptides involved in the modulation of behaviors and physiological mechanisms associated with the main stages of their life cycle. This work focuses on the neuropeptidome expressed during egg-laying through de novo construction of the CNS transcriptome using an RNAseq approach (Illumina sequencing). Then, we completed the in silico analysis of the transcriptome by characterizing and tissue-mapping neuropeptides by mass spectrometry. To identify neuropeptides involved in the egg-laying process, we determined (1) the neuropeptide contents of the neurohemal area, hemolymph (blood), and nerve endings in mature females and (2) the expression levels of these peptides. Among the 38 neuropeptide families identified from 55 transcripts, 30 were described for the first time in Sepia officinalis, 5 were described for the first time in the animal kingdom, and 14 were strongly overexpressed in egg-laying females as compared with mature males. Mass spectrometry screening of hemolymph and nerve ending contents allowed us to clarify the status of many neuropeptides, that is, to determine whether they were neuromodulators or neurohormones. PMID:26632866

  12. Turning Points of the Spherical Pendulum and the Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essen, Hanno; Apazidis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To

  13. 12 CFR 750.4 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 750.4 Section 750.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 750.4 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A Federally insured credit union may agree to...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  17. Turning Points of the Spherical Pendulum and the Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essen, Hanno; Apazidis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To…

  18. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree...

  19. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree...

  20. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.3 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No System institution shall make or...

  1. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree...

  2. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.3 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No System institution shall make or...

  3. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.3 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No System institution shall make or...

  4. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree...

  5. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.3 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No System institution shall make or...

  6. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.3 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No System institution shall make or...

  7. 12 CFR 1412.5 - Permissible golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permissible golden parachute payments. 1412.5 Section 1412.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS 1412.5 Permissible golden parachute payments. (a) A System institution may agree...

  8. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  9. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  10. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  11. Quetzalcoatl and the Golden Age of Mesoamerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Heil, Celia

    1978-01-01

    Quetzalcoatl was both man and god, myth and true history, and was worshipped through centuries in temples in the great sacred cities of Teotihuacan, Tollan, and Chichen Itza. The White god, ruler of the Toltec golden age, who sailed toward the east promising to return, remains a mystery. (Author/NQ)

  12. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  13. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. Is the "golden age" of the "golden hour" in sepsis over?

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Derek S

    2015-01-01

    The so-called "golden hour" of trauma resuscitation has been applied to a number of disease conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. For example, the "golden hour" as applied to the treatment of critically children and adults with severe sepsis and septic shock is based upon early recognition, early administration of antibiotics, and early reversal of the shock state. However, several clinical studies published over the last decade have called into question this time-honored approach and suggest that overly aggressive fluid resuscitation may cause more harm than good. Perhaps we are finally leaving the "Golden Age" of the "golden hour" and entering a new age in which we are able to use a more personalized approach to fluid management for patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. PMID:26712155

  15. The Golden Years of Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    The 1960s were the Golden Years of Radio Astronomy. During this decade a new generation of young scientists discovered quasars, pulsars, the cosmic microwave background, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio source variability, superluminal motion, radio recombination lines, the rotation of Mercury and Venus, the Venus Greenhouse effect, Jupiter's radiation belts, and opened up the high redshift Universe. On the technical side, the 1960s saw the completion of the NRAO 140-ft and 300-ft radio telescopes, the Haystack, Arecibo and Parkes antennas, the Owens Valley Interferometer, the first practical demonstrations of aperture synthesis, VLBI, and CLEAN, the Cambridge 1-mile radio telescope, the most precise tests of GR light bending, and the introduction of the 4th test of GR. Following sessions at the recent IAU 29th General Assembly on the "Golden Years of Radio Astronomy," we will discuss the circumstances surrounding these transformational discoveries which changed the course of modern astronomy.

  16. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madry, Milena M.; Kraemer, Thomas; Kupper, Jacqueline; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Jenny, Hannes; Jenni, Lukas; Jenny, David

    2015-03-01

    Fragments from lead ammunition pose a poisoning risk for predators like golden eagles that scavenge on non-retrieved carcasses or offal left behind by hunters. Three golden eagles were found in the Swiss Alps with an acute lead poisoning. To investigate whether the few cases of lead-poisoned golden eagles are exceptional events or whether a substantial proportion of the Alpine golden eagle population is affected by lead at sublethal levels, we measured body burdens in golden eagles from Switzerland in comparison to eagle owls from the same area and to their respective prey. These two raptor species differ in their food as eagle owls feed on live-caught prey. Lead levels in soft tissues were significantly higher in golden eagles (median 1.14 μg g-1 dry weight in liver, 0.99 μg g-1 in kidney) than in eagle owls (0.14 and 0.23 μg g-1). Bones of golden eagles contained 10 times more lead (median of 12.45 μg g-1 dry weight) than owl bones (1.28 μg g-1), which represent substantially higher levels than previously reported for golden eagles. Bones of prey of both golden eagles and eagle owls had low lead concentrations. In order to investigate whether the sublethal lead of golden eagles originates from ammunition or from generic environmental contamination, we examined lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope signatures of golden eagle bones were very similar to those of ammunition, but differed from the signatures of bones of their prey, eagle owls and soil. Isotope signatures did not change with increasing bone lead concentration in golden eagles or any other group examined. These findings indicate that in the Alps, most golden eagles take up lead from spent ammunition in carcasses or their offal in sublethal quantities throughout their life and a few in lethal quantities leading to acute lead poisoning.

  17. Turning points of the spherical pendulum and the golden ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essn, Hanno; Apazidis, Nicholas

    2009-03-01

    We study the turning point problem of a spherical pendulum. The special cases of the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum are noted. For simple initial conditions the solution to this problem involves the golden ratio, also called the golden section, or the golden number. This number often appears in mathematics where you least expect it. To put our result in perspective we briefly discuss its relevance in physics.

  18. Productivity of golden eagles wearing backpack radiotransmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzluff, J.M.; Vekasy, M.S.; Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    1997-01-01

    We examined the association between the presence of backpack radiotransmitters and Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)reproduction (percentage of occupied territories producing young, and number of nestlings produced) over three years. The association between radio-tagging and nesting success and the number of nestlings produced varied significantly among years. A negative association with tagging was observed in one of three years, which coincided with low prey (jackrabbit) populations and a cold spring. However, small sample size and breeding by subadults may confound this result.

  19. The golden ratio in facial symmetry.

    PubMed

    Prokopakis, E P; Vlastos, I M; Picavet, V A; Nolst Trenite, G; Thomas, R; Cingi, C; Hellings, P W

    2013-03-01

    Symmetry is believed to be a hallmark of appealing faces. However, this does not imply that the most aesthetically pleasing proportions are necessary those that arise from the simple division of the face into thirds or fifths. Based on the etymology of the word symmetry, as well as on specific examples and theories of beauty, we conclude that ?-value, a ratio also known as the golden ratio or the divine proportion, can also characterize symmetrical forms. Therefore, we propose the utilization of this ratio in facial aesthetics. PMID:23441307

  20. 36 CFR 7.97 - Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Golden Gate National Recreation Area. 7.97 Section 7.97 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.97 Golden Gate National Recreation Area. (a) Boat landingsAlcatraz...

  1. 36 CFR 71.15 - The Golden Eagle Insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and regulations issued pursuant thereto (41 CFR Ch. 60) unless the royalty fees to be paid under the....15 Section 71.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES 71.15 The Golden Eagle Insignia. (a) Definitions. (1) The term The Golden...

  2. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  3. Is University Education a Golden Key for a Happy Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    This article explores what the ultimate purpose of university education is, and whether a university is indeed a golden key for a happy life. Two research questions are addressed as follows: for what the young study in a university?; and a university, is it a golden key for happiness? To defend the research questions systematically, the author…

  4. 26 CFR 1.280G-1 - Golden parachute payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Golden parachute payments. 1.280G-1 Section 1.280G-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280G-1 Golden parachute payments. The following questions and answers relate to...

  5. American Medicine's Golden Age: What Happened to It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, John C.

    1982-01-01

    Defining medicine's golden age as freedom from adverse comment in mass and highbrow media, discusses: (1) the evolution of the medical image; (2) factors responsible for ending the golden age; (3) criticisms related to physicians' sacerdotal, technical, and social roles; and (4) the erosion of physicians' professional status. (SK)

  6. 12 CFR 741.224 - Golden parachute and indemnification payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute and indemnification payments. 741.224 Section 741.224 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... Golden parachute and indemnification payments. Any credit union insured pursuant to title II of the...

  7. 12 CFR 1237.14 - Golden parachute payments [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute payments 1237.14 Section 1237.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CONSERVATORSHIP AND RECEIVERSHIP Other 1237.14 Golden parachute payments...

  8. 12 CFR 1237.14 - Golden parachute payments [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute payments 1237.14 Section 1237.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CONSERVATORSHIP AND RECEIVERSHIP Other 1237.14 Golden parachute payments...

  9. 12 CFR 741.224 - Golden parachute and indemnification payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute and indemnification payments. 741.224 Section 741.224 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... Golden parachute and indemnification payments. Any credit union insured pursuant to Title II of the...

  10. 12 CFR 741.224 - Golden parachute and indemnification payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute and indemnification payments. 741.224 Section 741.224 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... Golden parachute and indemnification payments. Any credit union insured pursuant to Title II of the...

  11. 12 CFR 1237.14 - Golden parachute payments. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute payments. 1237.14 Section 1237.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CONSERVATORSHIP AND RECEIVERSHIP Other 1237.14 Golden parachute payments....

  12. Book Review: Stars (Copyright 1985, Golden Press; New York)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marigza, R. N., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Stars is a part of the Golden Guides collection produced by Golden Press. It is a small 160 page paperback guide to the constellations, the sun, the moon, planets, and other celestial bodies. The book is convenient to carry along wherever you go, making it an easy to access reference material.

  13. Effects of loading density on golden shiner survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted four hauling trips of 6 h each to investigate effects of loading density (120, 180, and 240 g fish/L) on survival of golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas. Commercially graded golden shiners (mean weight 3.3 g +/- 0.04 SE) were transported in insulated hauling tanks filled with fresh w...

  14. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered Golden Rice contains up to 35 ?g ?-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice ?-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. Objective: The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Design: Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]?-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 6598 g (130200 g cooked rice) containing 0.991.53 mg ?-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.41.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Results: Our results showed that the mean (SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 20.7 ?gd after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 34.6 ?gd), Golden Rice ?-carotene provided 0.240.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice ?-carotene to retinol is 3.8 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.96.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.03.4 to 1 by moles. Conclusion: ?-Carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355. PMID:19369372

  15. 78 FR 62319 - Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... operation of the Golden Pass Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project and Golden Pass Export Pipeline Project... law. A fact sheet prepared by the FERC entitled ``An Interstate Natural Gas Facility on My Land? What... Natural Gas Act of 1938, as amended (NGA), 15 U.S.C. 717b, DOE would authorize applications to...

  16. A golden approach to ion channel inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Thompson, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: 'Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?' We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio. PMID:23972927

  17. A golden approach to ion channel inhibition☆

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Gavin E.; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs are often used in combination and, for pharmacologists, the manner of their interactions can cast light on drug mechanisms and biological processes. Here we provide simplified descriptions of commonly used analytical methods for analysing drug combinations and describe a new and practical experimental solution to address the mechanistic question: ‘Do two channel-blocking drugs bind at the same site?’ We define two simple mathematical models that describe the effects of two channel blockers acting simultaneously at either the same (Syntopic Model) or different (Allotopic Model) binding sites within a channel pore. We find that the optimum concentrations of two drugs for distinguishing between the two models are related to the mathematical Golden Ratio. PMID:23972927

  18. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties. PMID:17955992

  19. The Golden Age of Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannelli, Franco; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we want to discuss the status of Astroparticle Physics, which is now in its golden age. Astroparticle physics - the new branch of physics born roughly at the end of the 1980-ies - takes into account results obtained from the observations of cosmic sources via photonic experiments and particle experiments, and try to detect their global behaviour in order to understand the physical processes giving rise to them. All this for a better knowledge of the physics governing the whole Universe. Because of a limited length of the paper we will discuss only a selection of arguments, which are biased by our knowledge, as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Few Remarkable Notes; 3. Background in the Universe; 4. A Round-the-Universe Cruise; 5. Prospects Conclusions

  20. Old Sepia Photos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The author has always been fascinated by old photographs. As she looks at them, she wonders about the people. Who were they? What were their lives like? Where was this photo taken? A moment in time is frozen forever, for all to see. Inspired by old photographs, the author describes how her fifth-grade classes made their own "photographs" by…

  1. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Fratanduono, M.

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  2. The golden jubilee of vaccination against poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    John, T Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), developed in the USA by Jonas Salk in the early 1950s, was field tested in 1954, and found to be safe and effective. The year 2004 marks the golden jubilee of this breakthrough. From 1955 IPV was used extensively in the US and polio incidence declined by more than 95 per cent. However, in 1962, when oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) became available, the national policy was shifted to its exclusive use, for reasons other than science and economics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) also adopted the policy of the exclusive use of OPV in developing countries. Thus IPV fell into disrepute in much of the world, while Northern European countries continued to use it. New research led to improving its potency, reducing its manufacturing costs and combining it with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine to simplify its administration and reduce programmatic costs. All countries that chose to persist with IPV eliminated poliovirus circulation without OPV-induced polio or the risk of live vaccine viruses reverting to wild-like nature. IPV is highly immunogenic, confers mucosal immunity and exerts herd protective effect, all qualities of a good vaccine. It can be used in harmony with the extendend programme on immunization (EPI) schedule of infant immunisation with DTP, thus reducing programmatic costs. During the last ten years IPV has once again regained its popularity and some 25 industrialised countries use it exclusively. The demand is increasing from other countries and the supply has not caught up, leaving market forces to dictate the sale price of IPV. Anticipating such a turn of events India had launched its own IPV manufacturing programme in 1987, but the project was closed in 1992. Today it is not clear if we can complete the job of global polio eradication without IPV, on account of the genetic instability of OPV and the consequent tendency of vaccine viruses to revert to wild-like properties. The option to use IPV is complicated since it is not yet licensed in India, we do not manufacture it and imported vaccine would be prohibitively costly. However, in this golden jubilee year we have much to celebrate as the global eradication of wild polioviruses is within sight. Had we strictly followed the principles of science and health economics, perhaps we could have achieved success earlier and cheaper, with the absence of vaccine-induced polio as the bonus. PMID:14997988

  3. Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects: concluding remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.

    The cataclysmic variables represent important part of modern astrophysics, as demonstrated by the conference Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects held on Mondello (Palermo) in September 2011.

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park - San Francisco, California Original: c1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM NORTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey From Golden Gate Park San Francisco, California Original: Ante 1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTH - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  6. The golden number: applications to cranio-facial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Amoric, M

    1995-01-01

    The Golden Number, expressing in numbers what the ancient Greeks called the "Divine Proportion" has a value of 1.618. This number is found in numerous natural phenomena, geometrical propositions and human architectural constructions. These proportions are worth comparing to those of the human face. The author shows that this "golden proportion" is found in many cephalometric measurements and in various stages of facial growth. PMID:8613109

  7. Prevention of Golden Eagle electrocution. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.C.

    1982-10-01

    Eagle electrocutions on distribution lines were documented in six western states by examination of carcasses found below the lines. Golden eagles represented 82.5% of the 416 carcasses found during the study. Fifty-one of the eagles were fresh enough to determine age and time and cause of death. Of these, 80.6% died of electrocution during the winter months, and only 5.8% of these were adult birds. More eagles were electrocuted in areas of cottontail rabbit habitat than in other areas: 36% of the poles in cottontail rabbit habitat had carcasses under them during the time of the study, 21.9% of the poles with mixed cottontail-jack rabbit habitat had eagle carcasses, and 14% of the poles in jack rabbit-only habitat had eagle carcasses (significant at P = 0.001). Poles placed on topographic salients had more eagle mortalities than poles at low points (P = 0.001). None of the carcasses found had gunshot wounds. Measures found to lower incidence of eagle electrocution inlcude routing lines around preferred prey habitat, locating power poles in topographically low areas, and insulating conductors on corner and transformer poles.

  8. Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes. PMID:19781731

  9. Light and harmonicity: the golden section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftopoulos, Dionysios G.

    2015-09-01

    Adhering to Werner Heisenberg's and to the school of Copenhagen's physical philosophy we introduce the localized observer as an absolutely necessary element of a consistent physical description of nature. Thus we have synthesized the theory of the harmonicity of the field of light, which attempts to present a new approach to the events in the human perceptible space. It is an axiomatic theory based on the selection of the projective space as the geometrical space of choice, while its first fundamental hypothesis is none other than special relativity theory's second hypothesis, properly modified. The result is that all our observations and measurements of physical entities always refer not to their present state but rather to a previous one, a conclusion evocative of the "shadows" paradigm in Plato's cave allegory. In the kinematics of a material point this previous state we call "conjugate position", which has been called the "retarded position" by Richard Feynman. We prove that the relation of the present position with its conjugate is ruled by a harmonic tetrad. Thus the relation of the elements of the geometrical (noetic) and the perceptible space is harmonic. In this work we show a consequence of this harmonic relation: the golden section.

  10. The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

  11. A second golden age of aeroacoustics?

    PubMed

    Lele, Sanjiva K; Nichols, Joseph W

    2014-08-13

    In 1992, Sir James Lighthill foresaw the dawn of a second golden age in aeroacoustics enabled by computer simulations (Hardin JC, Hussaini MY (eds) 1993 Computational aeroacoustics, New York, NY: Springer (doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-8342-0)). This review traces the progress in large-scale computations to resolve the noise-source processes and the methods devised to predict the far-field radiated sound using this information. Keeping focus on aviation-related noise sources a brief account of the progress in simulations of jet noise, fan noise and airframe noise is given highlighting the key technical issues and challenges. The complex geometry of nozzle elements and airframe components as well as the high Reynolds number of target applications require careful assessment of the discretization algorithms on unstructured grids and modelling compromises. High-fidelity simulations with 200-500 million points are not uncommon today and are used to improve scientific understanding of the noise generation process in specific situations. We attempt to discern where the future might take us, especially if exascale computing becomes a reality in 10 years. A pressing question in this context concerns the role of modelling in the coming era. While the sheer scale of the data generated by large-scale simulations will require new methods for data analysis and data visualization, it is our view that suitable theoretical formulations and reduced models will be even more important in future. PMID:25024417

  12. Dendritic cell leukemia in a Golden Retriever.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robin W; Brunker, Jill D; Breshears, Melanie A; Avery, Anne C; Moore, Peter F; Affolter, Verena K; Vernau, William

    2008-06-01

    An 8-year-old castrated male Golden Retriever was evaluated for decreased appetite, lethargy, and labored breathing of 1-week duration. Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were present. Results of a CBC revealed marked leukocytosis (62,600/microL; reference interval 4000-15,500/microL) and large numbers of atypical cells (30,700/microL) with abundant cytoplasm. There was no concurrent anemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia. Morphology of the atypical cells was most consistent with a histiocytic origin. Similar cells were identified in bone marrow aspirates, and were morphologically suggestive of the macrophage variant of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. However, flow cytometry of the abnormal circulating cells revealed CD1c, CD11c, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II expression without expression of CD11d or lymphoid markers, consistent with myeloid dendritic antigen-presenting cells. At necropsy, the splenic architecture was effaced by neoplastic histiocytes that were also infiltrating lung, liver, an abdominal lymph node, myocardium, an bone marrow. Immunohistochemistry of the splenic neoplastic cells confirmed dendritic cell origin (CD1c+, CD11c+, MHC II+, no expression of CD11d and lymphoid markers). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of canine dendritic cell leukemia-in this instance accompanied by marked tissue infiltration. PMID:18533919

  13. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. PMID:23797042

  14. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Gartland KM; Bruschi F; Dundar M; Gahan PB; Viola Magni Mp; Akbarova Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come.

  15. Golden Grove dolomite, Barbados: Origin from modified seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Machel, H.G. . Dept. of Geology); Burton, E.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-10-03

    Dolomite is known from Pleistocene carbonates in the southeastern part of Barbados. Most dolomite was found in a roadcut called Golden Grove. This occurrence is of interest because (1) some textures are rare; (2) the [delta][sup 13]C values of many dolomite samples are unusually low; (3) these dolomites have been interpreted to be diagenetic products of a coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zone with as little as 5% seawater; and (4) these dolomites have been used for modeling of extensive dolomitization in coastal freshwater-seawater mixing zones elsewhere (Humphrey and Quinn 1989). The authors investigated dolomite samples from Golden Grove, calcite samples from Golden Grove and elsewhere on Barbados, and groundwater samples from several locations on the island (first results have been reported in Machel and Burton 1991). The major objective of their study is to establish the geochemical and/or hydrological conditions of dolomitization.

  16. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India than in other parts of the world, although further sampling from Africa, the Middle East and south-east Asia is needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:26414163

  17. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jess E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India than in other parts of the world, although further sampling from Africa, the Middle East and south-east Asia is needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:26414163

  18. 76 FR 4635 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Expenditure Survey of Golden Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Expenditure Survey of Golden Crab Fishermen in the U.S. South Atlantic Region AGENCY: National Oceanic and... National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) proposes to collect economic information from golden-crab...

  19. Golden catfish microsatellite analysis reveals a distinct Iinbred stock of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden-colored fish have been reported for rainbow trout, tilapia, several species of carps and Clarias catfish. The current golden catfish stock was created through mixing fish with predominant gold/yellow pigment and spots to normal sized and colored catfish. The golden catfish possess a distinct...

  20. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  1. 50 CFR 622.241 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region 622.241 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the...

  2. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  3. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  4. 50 CFR 622.17 - South Atlantic golden crab controlled access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic golden crab controlled... ATLANTIC Effort Limitations 622.17 South Atlantic golden crab controlled access. (a) General. In accordance with the procedures specified in the Fishery Management Plan for the Golden Crab Fishery of...

  5. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... Regulations § 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise governing the movement of live golden nematodes in interstate or foreign commerce are contained in...

  6. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance plan payments... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings 303.244 Golden parachute and severance plan payments. (a) Scope... depository institution or depository institution holding company may not make golden parachute payments...

  7. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance plan payments... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings 303.244 Golden parachute and severance plan payments. (a) Scope... depository institution or depository institution holding company may not make golden parachute payments...

  8. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance plan payments... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings 303.244 Golden parachute and severance plan payments. (a) Scope... depository institution or depository institution holding company may not make golden parachute payments...

  9. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance plan payments... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings 303.244 Golden parachute and severance plan payments. (a) Scope... depository institution or depository institution holding company may not make golden parachute payments...

  10. 12 CFR 303.244 - Golden parachute and severance plan payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden parachute and severance plan payments... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings 303.244 Golden parachute and severance plan payments. (a) Scope... depository institution or depository institution holding company may not make golden parachute payments...

  11. 7 CFR 301.85-9 - Movement of live golden nematodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live golden nematodes. 301.85-9 Section... Regulations 301.85-9 Movement of live golden nematodes. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise governing the movement of live golden nematodes in interstate or foreign commerce are contained in...

  12. Golden Gate Park, Chalet Recreation Field, Bounded by John F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Golden Gate Park, Chalet Recreation Field, Bounded by John F. Kennedy Drive to the north and east, former Richmond-Sunset Sewage Treatment Plant to the south, and the Old Railroad Trail to the west, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Bald and Golden Eagles of the SRP. (Annual report, 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.J.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kennamer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Both Bald and Golden Eagles have a prior history of occurrence on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Sightings of Bald Eagles have been uncommon but persistent, while Golden Eagle sightings have been rare. A one-year survey was conducted to assess the use of the SRP by these two species. Thirty-six Bald Eagles were seen during the study period. No Golden Eagles were observed. Over 90% of the Bald Eagle sightings were on Par Pond; three out of four of these birds were adults. Thirteen percent of the sightings were of paired birds, and the remainder were of solitary individuals. Bald Eagles were observed during every month of the survey. The majority were seen between November and May. Sightings were evenly divided between morning and afternoon hours. Two marked Bald Eagles were observed. Since the conclusion of this study, twenty-two Bald Eagles have been reported. Six were new locality records for the SRP. Four of these sightings were on L-Lake. Bald Eagle use of the SRP is higher than was previously thought; Golden Eagle use remains rare.

  14. Representing the Past by Solid Modeling + Golden Ratio Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Suining

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of reconstructing ancient architecture using solid modeling with geometric analysis, especially the Golden Ratio analysis. In the past the recovery and reconstruction of ruins required bringing together fragments of evidence and vast amount of measurements from archaeological site. Although researchers and

  15. 36 CFR 7.97 - Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.97 Golden Gate National... and conditions of a permit. (c) Designated bicycle routes. The use of a bicycle is permitted according to 4.30 of this chapter and, in non-developed areas, as follows: (1) Bicycle use is permitted...

  16. 36 CFR 7.97 - Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.97 Golden Gate National... and conditions of a permit. (c) Designated bicycle routes. The use of a bicycle is permitted according to 4.30 of this chapter and, in non-developed areas, as follows: (1) Bicycle use is permitted...

  17. 36 CFR 7.97 - Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.97 Golden Gate National... and conditions of a permit. (c) Designated bicycle routes. The use of a bicycle is permitted according to 4.30 of this chapter and, in non-developed areas, as follows: (1) Bicycle use is permitted...

  18. GOLDEN RICE: DEVELOPMENTS IN ITS BIOTECHNOLOGY, SAFETY, AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice is a transgenic product that was developed to enable the synthesis of beta-carotene in rice grains. Beta-carotene is a yellow-orange carotenoid that can serve as a precursor for vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a significant nutritional concern, especially in developing countri...

  19. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis. PMID:26471765

  20. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall admit the permittee and any persons accompany him in a single, private, noncommercial vehicle, or... by any means other than private, noncommercial vehicle, to Designated Entrance Fee Areas. Golden... Designated Entrance Fee Area in two separate, private, noncommercial vehicles. In this case, only the...

  1. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis. PMID:26471765

  2. From Graphical to Mathematical: The Spiral of Golden Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    There has been a lot of material written about logarithmic spirals of golden proportion but this author states that he has never come across an article that states the exact equation of the spiral which ultimately spirals tangentially to the sides of the rectangles. In this article, the author intends to develop such an equation. (Contains 5…

  3. 27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has sunk beyond the desert horizon, and darkness followed, under a dim light casting my lonesome heart.'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  4. HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education in subject areas…

  5. 78 FR 28452 - Golden Parachute and Indemnification Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Payments in the Federal Register on September 16, 2008 (73 FR 53356). Subsequently, it published..., 2008 (73 FR 54309) and on September 23, 2008 (73 FR 54673). On November 14, 2008 (73 FR 67424), FHFA... (74 FR 5101), FHFA published the final regulation on Golden Parachute Payments. On June 29, 2009...

  6. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  7. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A.; Smallwood, Kenneth S.; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  8. Renal nephroblastoma in a 3-month-old golden retriever

    PubMed Central

    Montinaro, Vincenzo; Boston, Sarah E.; Stevens, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Nephrectomy was performed in a 3-month-old intact female golden retriever dog for a renal nephroblastoma. The dog has remained disease-free for 19 months with nephrectomy alone. The adoption of human Wilms’ tumor grading criteria may be useful in determining clinical stage, adjuvant treatment options, and prognosis in this rare disease. PMID:24155463

  9. A New Golden Age of Natural Products Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ben

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to William C. Campbell, Satoshi Omura, and Youyou Tu for the discovery of avermectins and artemisinin, respectively, therapies that revolutionized the treatment of devastating parasite diseases. With the recent technological advances, a New Golden Age of natural products drug discovery is dawning. PMID:26638061

  10. Swimming performance and metabolism of cultured golden shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) of male golden hamsters (Mesocricitus auratus) was measured repeatedly by placing the animals in a temperature gradient for 80 min. A total of 180 observations were made during the last 20 min of treatment in the gradient. The mean preferred Ta ...

  12. Golden Parachutes: CEOs and the Exercise of Social Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, James; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Uses an agency theory framework and data on 89 Fortune 500 firms to assess whether granting golden parachutes to chief executive officers is determined by an economically rational process or by the CEO's social influence. Results suggest that each influence has merit, depending on the firm's ownership structure. Includes 45 references. (MLH)

  13. Results of Matriculation Services Survey, Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dwayne E.

    In an attempt to measure student satisfaction with the various components of matriculation (i.e., admissions and registration, orientation and advisement, assessment, and counseling), Golden West College (GWC) in Huntington Beach, California, administered a Matriculation Services Survey to a representative sample of 853 students in fall 1993.

  14. Golden West College FACTS: Fall Enrollment Trends through 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden West Coll., Huntington Beach, CA. Research Office.

    This report presents the fall enrollment trends through 1999 at California's Golden West College (GWC). This report contains charts and graphs of the following enrollment trend topics: (1) fall 1998 student enrollment snapshot, which includes counts and percentages by gender, time of day, age, educational goal, entrance level, high school

  15. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis.

  16. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  17. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  18. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  19. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  20. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  1. Structural Transition of Gold Nanoclusters: From the Golden Cage to the Golden Pyramid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, R.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai S.

    2009-05-01

    How nanoclusters transform from one structural type to another as a function of size is a critical issue in cluster science. Here we report a study of the structural transition from the golden cage Au16- to the pyramidal Au20-. We obtained distinct experimental evidence that the cage-to-pyramid crossover occurs at Au18- , for which the cage and pyramidal isomers are nearly degenerate and coexist experimentally. The two isomers are observed and identified by their different interactions with O2 and Ar. The cage isomer is observed to be more reactive with O2 and can be preferentially "titrated" from the cluster beam, whereas the pyramidal isomer has slightly stronger interactions with Ar and is favored in the Au18Arx- van der Waals complexes. The current study allows the detailed structural evolution and growth routes from the hollow cage to the compact pyramid to be understood and provides information about the structure-function relationship of the Au18- cluster.

  2. CO chemisorption on the surfaces of the golden cages

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wei; Bulusu, Satya; Pal, R; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Lai S

    2009-12-18

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study of CO chemisorption on the golden cages. We find that the Au17- cage is highly robust and retains its cage structure in Au17-CO-. On the other hand, the Au16 - cage is transformed to a structure similar to Au17- upon the adsorption of CO. Au18 - is known to consist of two nearly degenerate structures, i.e., a cage and a pyramidal isomer, which coexist in the cluster beam. However, upon CO chemisorption only the cage isomer is observed while the pyramidal isomer no longer exists due to its less favorable interaction with CO, compared to the cage isomer. We find that inclusion of the spin-orbit effects is critical in yielding simulated spectra in quantitative agreement with the experimental data and providing unequivocal structural information and molecular insights into the chemical interactions between CO and the golden cages.

  3. Autoradiography in fetal golden hamsters treated with tritiated diethylnitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik-Schueller, H.M.; Hague, B.F. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    Tritiated diethylnitrosamine was administered to female Syrian golden hamsters on each of the last 4 days (days 12-15) of pregnancy. The distribution of bound radioactivity was monitored by light microscopic autoradiography of fetal tracheas and livers, the placentas, and the maternal livers. In the trachea, the fetal target organ, bound radioactivity was restricted to the respiratory epithelium, where diethylnitrosamine-induced tracheal tumors arise. Mucous cells and nonciliated stem cells were identified as the principal sites of binding; other cell types within the tracheal epithelium contained only small amounts of bound radioactivity. The level of binding observed in the fetal trachea increased steadily from day 12 to day 15, which correlated well with the levels of differentiation of this tissue during this period. This observation also agrees with the previously reported observation that tumor incidence increases from 40 to 95% in Syrian golden hamsters between days 12 and 15.

  4. A golden-silk spider spins its web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of Kennedy Space Center, a female Golden-Silk Spider repairs its web. The female can be identified by its brownish-green abdomen with a white spotted irregular pattern. The golden-silk spider repairs the webbing each day, replacing half but never the whole web at one time. Its web may measure two to three feet across. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a 92,000-acre refuge that is a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  5. Golden spiral photonic crystal fiber: polarization and dispersion properties.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Arti; Kejalakshmy, N; Chen, J; Rahman, B M A; Grattan, K T V

    2008-11-15

    A golden spiral photonic crystal fiber (GS-PCF) design is presented in which air holes are arranged in a spiral pattern governed by the golden ratio, where the design has been inspired by the optimal arrangement of seeds found in nature. The birefringence and polarization properties of this fiber are analyzed using a vectorial finite-element method. The fiber that is investigated shows a large modal birefringence peak value of 0.016 at an operating wavelength of 1.55 microm and exhibits highly tuneable dispersion with multiple zero dispersion wavelengths and also large normal dispersion. The GS-PCF design has identical circular air holes that potentially simplify fabrication. In light of its properties, the GS-PCF could have application as a highly birefringent fiber and in nonlinear optics, and moreover the 2D chiral nature of the pattern could yield exotic properties. PMID:19015719

  6. Nick Sagan Reflects on Voyager 1 and the Golden Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    When scientists confirmed on 12 September that NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft had entered interstellar space (Eos, 94(39), 339, doi:10.1002/2013EO390003), the probe was acknowledged as the first human-made object to travel into that realm. The probe and its twin, Voyager 2, each carry a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk, known as the Golden Record.

  7. Perception, Action, and Experience: Unraveling the Golden Braid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Much of our human mental life looks to involve a seamless unfolding of perception, action and experience: a golden braid in which each element twines intimately with the rest. We see the very world we act in and we act in the world we see. But more than this, visual experience presents us with the world in a way apt for the control and fine

  8. Golden Eagle predation on experimental Sandhill and Whooping Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Clegg, K.R.; Lewis, J.C.; Spaulding, E.

    1999-01-01

    There are very few published records of Golden Eagles preying upon cranes, especially in North America. During our experiments to lead cranes on migration behind motorized craft in the western United States, we experienced 15 attacks (four fatal) and believe many more attacks would have occurred (and more would have been fatal) without human intervention. We recognize eagle predation as an important risk to cranes especially during migration.

  9. Perception, Action, and Experience: Unraveling the Golden Braid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Much of our human mental life looks to involve a seamless unfolding of perception, action and experience: a golden braid in which each element twines intimately with the rest. We see the very world we act in and we act in the world we see. But more than this, visual experience presents us with the world in a way apt for the control and fine…

  10. Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodeur, Serge; DeCarie, R.; Bird, D.M.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles(Aquila chrysaetosc anadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles(five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three of which completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and migrated to known wintering areas in the eastern United States. They used different routes but each followed the same general path during fall and spring migrations which lasted between 26 and 40 days,and 25 and 51 days, respectively. Eagles wintered from 93 to 135 days in areas located 1,650 to 3,000 km south of their breeding territory. In spring 1993, satellite telemetry located the eagles in their former breeding territory in late March, mid-April and early May. This study confirms previous suggestion that some breeding Golden Eagles wintering in eastern United States come from northern Quebec and describes the first successful tracking of the complete yearly migration cycle of a bird of prey.

  11. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments. PMID:21787386

  12. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments. PMID:21787386

  13. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects golden mussels by preventing them from filtering food and oxygen from water, and in this way killing them. The attachment density decreased with increased sediment deposition. Golden mussel density decreased by about 70-90% when the sedimentation rate increased by 3-6 times. Therefore, spraying with fine sediment or creating hyper-concentration of sediment water to treat golden mussels before they enter tunnels is recommended as an effective strategy for controlling golden mussel invasion and high-density bio-fouling. Key words: golden mussel invasion; bio-fouling; sediment settling; habitat; controlling strategy

  14. Topographic map of Golden Gate Estates, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurado, Antonio

    1981-01-01

    Construction of canals related to land development in the Golden Gate Estates area of Collier County, Fla., has altered the natural drainage pattern of the watershed. The area of approximately 300 square miles was topographically mapped with a contour interval of 0.5 foot to assist in determining the effects of canal construction on the surface-water and ground-water resources in the watershed. The topographic map was prepared at a scale of 1:48,000 using aerial photography and ground-control points. (USGS)

  15. Detection of Golden apples' climacteric peak by laser biospeckle measurements.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Rana; Nader, Christelle Abou; Afif, Charbel; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Brun, Guy; Le Jeune, Bernard; Abboud, Marie

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, we report a study in which a laser biospeckle technique is used to detect the climacteric peak indicating the optimal ripeness of fruits. We monitor two batches of harvested Golden apples going through the ripening phase in low- and room-temperature environments, determine speckle parameters, and measure the emitted ethylene concentration using gas chromatography as reference method. Speckle results are then correlated to the emitted ethylene concentration by a principal component analysis. From a practical point of view, this approach allows us to validate biospeckle as a noninvasive and alternative method to respiration rate and ethylene production for climacteric peak detection as a ripening index. PMID:25608070

  16. Frequency of nest use by golden eagles in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We studied nest use by Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from 1966 to 2011 to assess nest reuse within territories, ascertain the length of time that elapses between uses of nests, and test the hypotheses that reproductive success and adult turnover influence nest switching. Golden Eagles used 454 nests in 66 territories and used individual nests 1 to 26 times during 45 continuous years of observation. Time between reuse ranged from 1 to 39 yr. Distances between nearest adjacent alternative nests within territories ranged between 5 times. Two nests were unused for 21 and 27 yr after 1971 before being used every 1 to 3 yr thereafter. Eagles used 43% of the nests in series of consecutive years (range 3 to 20 consecutive nestings). Protecting unused nests for a proposed 10 yr after the last known use would not have protected 34% of all 300 nests that were reused during the study and 49% of 37 reused nests monitored consistently for 41 yr. The 102 nests that would not have received protection were in 56 of the 66 territories.

  17. Extracting Effective Higgs Couplings in the Golden Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2014-04-08

    Kinematic distributions in Higgs decays to four charged leptons, the so called ‘golden channel, are a powerful probe of the tensor structure of its couplings to neutral electroweak gauge bosons. In this study we construct the first part of a comprehensive analysis framework designed to maximize the information contained in this channel in order to perform direct extraction of the various possible Higgs couplings. We first complete an earlier analytic calculation of the leading order fully differential cross sections for the golden channel signal and background to include the 4e and 4μ final states with interference between identical final states. We also examine the relative fractions of the different possible combinations of scalar-tensor couplings by integrating the fully differential cross section over all kinematic variables as well as show various doubly differential spectra for both the signal and background. From these analytic expressions we then construct a ‘generator level’ analysis framework based on the maximum likelihood method. Then, we demonstrate the ability of our framework to perform multi-parameter extractions of all the possible effective couplings of a spin-0 scalar to pairs of neutral electroweak gauge bosons including any correlations. Furthermore, this framework provides a powerful method for study of these couplings and can be readily adapted to include the relevant detector and systematic effects which we demonstrate in an accompanying study to follow.

  18. Extracting Effective Higgs Couplings in the Golden Channel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Yi; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2014-04-08

    Kinematic distributions in Higgs decays to four charged leptons, the so called ‘golden channel, are a powerful probe of the tensor structure of its couplings to neutral electroweak gauge bosons. In this study we construct the first part of a comprehensive analysis framework designed to maximize the information contained in this channel in order to perform direct extraction of the various possible Higgs couplings. We first complete an earlier analytic calculation of the leading order fully differential cross sections for the golden channel signal and background to include the 4e and 4μ final states with interference between identical final states.more » We also examine the relative fractions of the different possible combinations of scalar-tensor couplings by integrating the fully differential cross section over all kinematic variables as well as show various doubly differential spectra for both the signal and background. From these analytic expressions we then construct a ‘generator level’ analysis framework based on the maximum likelihood method. Then, we demonstrate the ability of our framework to perform multi-parameter extractions of all the possible effective couplings of a spin-0 scalar to pairs of neutral electroweak gauge bosons including any correlations. Furthermore, this framework provides a powerful method for study of these couplings and can be readily adapted to include the relevant detector and systematic effects which we demonstrate in an accompanying study to follow.« less

  19. Golden triangle for folding rates of globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Garbuzynskiy, Sergiy O; Ivankov, Dmitry N; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Finkelstein, Alexei V

    2013-01-01

    The ability of protein chains to spontaneously form their spatial structures is a long-standing puzzle in molecular biology. Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference (11 orders of magnitude) is akin to the difference between the life span of a mosquito and the age of the universe. Here, we show that physical theory with biological constraints outlines a "golden triangle" limiting the possible range of folding rates for single-domain globular proteins of various size and stability, and that the experimentally measured folding rates fall within this narrow triangle built without any adjustable parameters, filling it almost completely. In addition, the golden triangle predicts the maximal size of protein domains that fold under solely thermodynamic (rather than kinetic) control. It also predicts the maximal allowed size of the "foldable" protein domains, and the size of domains found in known protein structures is in a good agreement with this limit. PMID:23251035

  20. Imposex in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Ming-Yie; Lee, Ching-Chang; Liu, Li-Lian

    2006-12-01

    The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) was introduced into Taiwan intentionally in the early 1980s and has become a recurring pest that seriously threatens aquatic crops. In this study, a field description of imposex with a developed penis sheath and penis in female golden apple snails from crop/domestic wastewater drainage sites and a six-order river is presented for the first time. Based on the five field collections and the aquarium group, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) of P. canaliculata in imposex development was categorized into four stages, i.e., stage 0: without male genital system; stage 1: with rudimentary penis; stage 2: with rudimentary penis and penis sheath; and stage 3: the rudimentary penis developing into penis pouch and penis. The VDS indices varied between 1.07 and 2.82 and were lowest in the aquarium group and Yuanlin2. Regarding the severity of imposex, the aquarium group was less pronounced, as illustrated by the length of penis sheath and penis length, than the field collections (p<0.05). In respect of the penis length, males of the most imposex-affected site were up to 15% shorter than that of the aquarium group. Negative correlations between male penis length and female imposex characters (i.e., penis length and penis sheath length) were also observed. PMID:17023028

  1. There Was No Golden Age of Sport for African American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Earl

    2000-01-01

    Disagrees with Harry Edwards' belief about a golden age in sports for African Americans, asserting that the golden age never existed for them. Suggests that Edwards' research does not thoroughly examine the new African American athlete and ignores the issue that the unfulfilled promise of riches and glory requires a larger socioeconomic and

  2. 75 FR 27432 - Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise... Bay in support of Golden Guardian 2010 Regional Exercise. These temporary security zones are necessary... exercise. Persons and vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or anchoring...

  3. 76 FR 79708 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Extended Public Comment Period for Draft Environmental Impact Statement/General Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation...

  4. Quantitative Determinations of Vitamin A Value of Golden Rice Given as Single or Multiple Meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine vitamin A value of Golden Rice, we grew Golden Rice in heavy water (25 atom %) and produced intrinsically labeled rice to be fed to subjects. Due to our dietary practices (50 to 200 g per meal, uncooked dry weight) and the sensitivity of trace analysis using mass spectrometry, the rice...

  5. 78 FR 55093 - Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate... Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Plan/SEIS), Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA), California. Current dog management in the park is based on a number of factors. Areas included in the GGNRA...

  6. 76 FR 22917 - Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National... comment period for Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: The National Park Service has prepared a Draft Dog Management Plan...

  7. 76 FR 3652 - Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... National Park Service Dog Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Golden Gate National Recreation... Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan, Golden Gate National Recreation Area. SUMMARY: Pursuant to...) is releasing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Dog Management Plan (Draft...

  8. CORTISOL RESPONSES OF GOLDEN SHINER (NOTEMIGONUS CRYSOLEUCAS) FED DIETS DIFFERING IN LIPID CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the plasma cortisol response in golden shiners under crowding stress, and to determine whether dietary lipid composition affects the cortisol response. In experiment 1, triplicate groups of golden shiners were fed diets with 4 or 13% menhaden fish oil, ...

  9. Effects of Loading Density on Golden Shiner Survival During and After Hauling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four hauling trips of approximately 6 h each were conducted to investigate effects of loading density on survival of golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas. Commercially graded golden shiners (mean weight 3.3 g +/- 0.04 SE) were transported at densities of 120, 180, and 240 g fish/L in insulated hau...

  10. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  11. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  12. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  13. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  14. Shearing the Golden Fleece: Chilling the Discussion of Science in the Public Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhard, Wallace B.

    This paper briefly describes the history of the Golden Fleece Award given monthly by Senator William Proxmire for "the biggest waste of taxpayers' money" in the form of grants for research. It particularly focuses on the case brought by Dr. R. R. Hutchinson who was the recipient of the Golden Fleece Award for his research on the aggressive

  15. Golden Rice--five years on the road--five years to go?

    PubMed

    Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Provitamin A accumulates in the grain of Golden Rice as a result of genetic transformation. In developing countries, where vitamin A deficiency prevails, grain from Golden Rice is expected to provide this important micronutrient sustainably through agriculture. Since its original production, the prototype Golden Rice has undergone intense research to increase the provitamin A content, to establish the scientific basis for its carotenoid complement, and to better comply with regulatory requirements. Today, the current focus is on how to get Golden Rice effectively into the hands of farmers, which is a novel avenue for public sector research, carried out with the aid of international research consortia. Additional new research is underway to further increase the nutritional value of Golden Rice. PMID:16297656

  16. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655

  17. 76 FR 98 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 5 to the Golden Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ..., and South Atlantic; Amendment 5 to the Golden Crab Fishery Management Plan of the South Atlantic... management actions to be included in Amendment 5 to the Golden Crab Fishery Management Plan of the South... for the golden crab fishery. The purpose of this NOI is to solicit public comments on the scope...

  18. Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: spirurida) in golden lion tamarins.

    PubMed

    Montali, R J; Gardiner, C H; Evans, R E; Bush, M

    1983-04-01

    Pterygodermatites nycticebi (syn Rictularia nycticebi), a spirurid nematode first described in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), recently has been associated with morbidity and mortality in the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) collection at the National Zoological Park. Adult worms were found in the lumen of the small intestine with their anterior ends embedded in the mucosa. Larvae, when present, were deeper in the submucosa. A few heavily infected animals developed profound weakness, anemia, and hypoproteinemia. Infective larvae of Pterygodermatites nycticebi developed in laboratory-reared German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) that were fed tamarin feces containing eggs of Pterygodermatites nycticebi. Wild-caught German cockroaches also were found to harbor these infective larvae which implicates this ubiquitous pest as an intermediate host. Effective control of Pterygodermatites nycticebi has been achieved by regular fecal screening of all callitrichids for spirurid eggs and biannual prophylaxis with mebendazole at 40 mg/kg, as well as a rigorous cockroach extermination program. PMID:6406763

  19. A golden-silk spider spins its web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    On the grounds of Kennedy Space Center, a female Golden-Silk Spider repairs its web. During the day spider hands head downward from the underside of the web near the center. Its web may measure two to three feet across and it repairs the webbing each day, replacing half but never the whole web at one time. The center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a 92,000-acre refuge that is a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  20. Shifting foundations and metrics for golden-cheeked warbler recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Duarte, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Using the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) as a case study, this paper discusses what lessons can be learned from the process of the emergency listing and subsequent development of the recovery plan. Are the metrics for recovery in the current warbler plan appropriate, including population size and distribution (recovery units), migration corridors, and wintering habitat? In other words, what happened, what can we learn, and what should happen (in general) in the future for development of such plans? We discuss the number of recovery units required for species persistence and estimate the number of male warblers in protected areas across the breeding range of the species, using newly published density estimates. We also discuss future monitoring strategies to estimate warbler population trends and dispersal rates.

  1. An unusual lipomatous brain mass in a Golden Retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Scott, Steven J; Elliot, Kirsty; Philibert, Helene; Summers, Brian A; Godson, Dale; Singh, Baljit; Simko, Elemir

    2015-11-01

    A 9-year-old Golden Retriever dog was presented to the Veterinary Medical Center with a 3-week history of grand mal seizures and was subsequently euthanized. At autopsy, a discrete, firm, expansile mass was found in the right pyriform lobe, which compressed the ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Histologically, the mass was composed of well-differentiated adipose tissue supported by fibrous and mucinous stroma. Adipocytes exhibited strong immunoreactivity for vimentin and were negative for pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3), glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, and synaptophysin. These findings are most compatible with an intracranial lipomatous hamartoma, which is an extraparenchymal lesion that has been identified in several species. The current report describes an intracerebral lipomatous hamartoma in a veterinary species. PMID:26450836

  2. Outcomes of a Neonatal Golden Hour Implementation Project.

    PubMed

    Ashmeade, Terri L; Haubner, Laura; Collins, Sherie; Miladinovic, Branko; Fugate, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate a quality improvement project (the golden hour pathway [GHP]) aimed at improving the quality and efficiency of care delivered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants <28 weeks gestation and/or <1000 g birth weight during the first hour of life. Process improvement and patient data collected during the quality improvement cycles were compared with retrospective data for ELBW infants admitted to the study neonatal intensive care unit during the 2 years prior to GHP implementation. GHP implementation resulted in improvements compared with past internal performance in time to surfactant administration, time to administration of dextrose and amino acids, body temperature at admission, odds of developing chronic lung disease, and odds of developing retinopathy of prematurity. A standardized interdisciplinary approach to the care of ELBW infants in the first hour of life can lead to more efficient care delivery and contribute to improved outcomes. PMID:25194002

  3. Interactive effects of prey and weather on golden eagle reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McDonald, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The reproduction of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos was studied in southwestern Idaho for 23 years, and the relationship between eagle reproduction and jackrabbit Lepus californicus abundance, weather factors, and their interactions, was modelled using general linear models. Backward elimination procedures were used to arrive at parsimonious models. 2. The number of golden eagle pairs occupying nesting territories each year showed a significant decline through time that was unrelated to either annual rabbit abundance or winter severity. However, eagle hatching dates were significantly related to both winter severity and jackrabbit abundance. Eagles hatched earlier when jackrabbits were abundant, and they hatched later after severe winters. 3. Jackrabbit abundance influenced the proportion of pairs that laid eggs, the proportion of pairs that were successful, mean brood size at fledging, and the number of young fledged per pair. Weather interacted with prey to influence eagle reproductive rates. 4. Both jackrabbit abundance and winter severity were important in predicting the percentage of eagle pairs that laid eggs. Percentage laying was related positively to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to winter severity. 5. The variables most useful in predicting percentage of laying pairs successful were rabbit abundance and the number of extremely hot days during brood-rearing. The number of hot days and rabbit abundance were also significant in a model predicting eagle brood size at fledging. Both success and brood size were positively related to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to the frequency of hot days in spring. 6. Eagle reproduction was limited by rabbit abundance during approximately twothirds of the years studied. Weather influenced how severely eagle reproduction declined in those years. 7. This study demonstrates that prey and weather can interact to limit a large raptor population's productivity. Smaller raptors could be affected more strongly, especially in colder or wetter climates.

  4. Thinking about feathers: Adaptations of Golden Eagle rectrices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The striking black and white plumage of the juvenile Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) provides an excellent opportunity to examine the possible selective forces influencing the strategic placement of dark pigment in birds. The conflict between opposing selective pressures (first, toward large white patches, which may allay aggression in adults, and second, toward dark plumage to promote camouflage and limit solar and abrasive wear) provides the stage whereon are revealed a score of pigmentation traits of potential adaptive value. The general pigmentation trend is for zones that are more exposed to the sun to be darker than elsewhere. More specifically: (1) for rectrices and remiges, outer webs are darker than inner; (2) for those few feathers (e.g., central rectrices, some scapulars, and some tertials), where both inner and outer webs are heavily and nearly equally solar exposed, pigmentation is supplied similarly on both webs; (3) outermost primaries and rectrices are darkest of all and are structurally similar; (4) for central rectrices, subject to high levels of abrasion with substrate, the tip is paler (resultant flexibility may limit breakage); and (5) pigment is heavier along or on the rachis than on the webs. Many of the traits listed above for the Golden Eagle are also found in other families of birds. Traits of the tail common to many species were a terminal pale tip, a subterminal dark band, rachis darker than vane, and outer webs darker than inner for both remiges and rectrices. The most widespread traits likely have adaptive value. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  5. Golden eagle records from the Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey: information for wind energy management and planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakle, Wade; Haggerty, Patti; Fuller, Mark; Phillips, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Data Series report is to provide the occasions, locations, and counts when golden eagles were recorded during the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Surveys. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are protected by Federal statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) (16 USC 668-668c) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 USC 703-12). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) manages golden eagles with the goal of maintaining stable or increasing breeding populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009). Development for the generation of electricity from wind turbines is occurring in much of the range of the golden eagle in the western United States. Development could threaten population stability because golden eagles might be disturbed by construction and operation of facilities and they are vulnerable to mortality from collisions with wind turbines (Smallwood and Thelander, 2008). Therefore, the Service has proposed a process by which wind energy developers can collect information that could lead to Eagle Conservation Plans (ECP), mitigation, and permitting that allow for golden eagle management in areas of wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The Service recommends that ECP be developed in stages, and the first stage is to learn if golden eagles occur at the landscape level where potential wind facilities might be located. Information about where eagles occur can be obtained from technical literature, agency files, and other sources of information including on-line biological databases. The broad North American distribution of golden eagles is known, but there is a paucity of readily available information about intermediate geographic scales and site-specific scales, especially during the winter season (Kochert and others, 2002).

  6. Results of NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC1999), October 4-10, 1999, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2000-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  7. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF DIETARY EXPOSURE TO AMOSITE AND CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays of amosite, short range (SR), intermediate range (IR) or intermediate range chrysotile asbestos in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Syrian golden hamsters. Amosite and both forms o...

  8. AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER DURING SUBCHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF CLORGYLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic administration of clorgyline, a type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, leads to a decrease in peritoneal (i.e., core) temperature of golden hamsters. o better understand the mechanisms of clorgyline's thermoregulatory effects, autonomic and behavioral thermoregulatory effect...

  9. 'Ten Golden Rules' for Designing Software in Medical Education: Results from a Formative Evaluation of DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jha, Vikram; Duffy, Sean

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of an evaluation of Distance Interactive Learning in Obstetrics and Gynecology (DIALOG) which is an electronic program for continuing education. Presents 10 golden rules for designing software for medical practitioners. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)

  10. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2001), September 24 - October 5, 2001, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2003-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  11. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2002), September 23 - October 4, 2002, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2003-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  12. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2003), September 22 - October 3, 2003, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.

    2004-07-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  13. 78 FR 27856 - Golden Nematode; Removal of Regulated Areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the golden nematode regulations by removing areas in Livingston and Steuben Counties in New York from the list of generally infested areas. Surveys have shown that certain areas in these two counties are free of golden nematode, and we determined that regulation of these areas was no longer necessary. As a result of......

  14. [The golden number. Applications to architectural and structural cranio-facial analysis].

    PubMed

    Amoric, M

    1989-06-01

    The Golden Number, expressing in numbers what ancient Greeks called the "Divine Proportion", has a value of 1.618. This number is found in numerous natural phenomena, geometrical propositions and human architectural constructions. These proportions are worth being compared to those of the human face. The author shows that this "golden proportion" is found in many cephalometric measurements and in the comparison of the various stages of facial growth. PMID:2635553

  15. You Cant Always Get What You Want Linearity as the Golden Ratio of Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Aalt; Hanekamp, Jaap C.

    2014-01-01

    Referring to the Golden Ratio (i.e. expressed in the Fibonacci sequence) in nature and art, we conclude that toxicology knows its own Golden Ration, namely linearity. The latter seems imposed on pharmaco-toxicological processes that in fact show far more complexity than simple linearity could hope to elucidate. Understanding physiological and pharmaco-toxicological processes as primarily linear is challenged in this contribution based on very straightforward principles and examples. PMID:25552963

  16. "You Can't Always Get What You Want" - Linearity as the Golden Ratio of Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bast, Aalt; Hanekamp, Jaap C

    2014-12-01

    Referring to the Golden Ratio (i.e. expressed in the Fibonacci sequence) in nature and art, we conclude that toxicology knows its own Golden Ration, namely linearity. The latter seems imposed on pharmaco-toxicological processes that in fact show far more complexity than simple linearity could hope to elucidate. Understanding physiological and pharmaco-toxicological processes as primarily linear is challenged in this contribution based on very straightforward principles and examples. PMID:25552963

  17. Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework). PMID:23146157

  18. Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Scharton, Dionna; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Vest, Zachary; Westover, Jonna B.; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Gowen, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a formidable pathogen that causes severe disease and abortion in a variety of livestock species and a range of disease in humans that includes hemorrhagic fever, fulminant hepatitis, encephalitis and blindness. The natural transmission cycle involves mosquito vectors, but exposure can also occur through contact with infected fluids and tissues. The lack of approved antiviral therapies and vaccines for human use underlies the importance of small animal models for proof-of-concept efficacy studies. Several mouse and rat models of RVFV infection have been well characterized and provide useful systems for the study of certain aspects of pathogenesis, as well as antiviral drug and vaccine development. However, certain host-directed therapeutics may not act on mouse or rat pathways. Here, we describe the natural history of disease in golden Syrian hamsters challenged subcutaneously with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Peracute disease resulted in rapid lethality within 2 to 3 days of RVFV challenge. High titer viremia and substantial viral loads were observed in most tissues examined; however, histopathology and immunostaining for RVFV antigen were largely restricted to the liver. Acute hepatocellular necrosis associated with a strong presence of viral antigen in the hepatocytes indicates that fulminant hepatitis is the likely cause of mortality. Further studies to assess the susceptibility and disease progression following respiratory route exposure are warranted. The use of the hamsters to model RVFV infection is suitable for early stage antiviral drug and vaccine development studies. PMID:25607955

  19. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  20. Finite-Size Corrections to Fermi's Golden Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Kenzo; Tobita, Yutaka

    The decay rates and cross sections are computed by Fermi's golden rule under the assumption that a time interval T is approximated with ? . The corrections to the formula were considered negligible, but are found to become sizable and to modify the rates substantially in various processes where light particles are involved. The decay products have varying kinetic energy and behave like waves in the region where the wave functions of the daughters and parent overlap. The transition amplitude then reveals the correction even at a macroscopic distance. Its implication to the accelerator neutrino is presented. The probability of the event that the neutrino in pion decay is detected at T ? ? ? reveals the unique corrections which can be detected at near detectors. They are approximately proportional to tfrac{1}{T} and determined by the fundamental constants of Lagrangian. From the comparison of the correction with LSND experiment, the heaviest neutrino mass of 0.098 0.022 or 0.085 0.022 eV/c2 for normal or inverted hierarchies is obtained.

  1. Purification characteristics of golden pothos for atmospheric gasoline.

    PubMed

    Oyabu, Takashi; Takenaka, Kozaburo; Wolverton, Bill; Onodera, Takeshi; Nanto, Hidehito

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that plants have the ability to purify various atmospheric chemicals. Gasoline is one of the more serious pollutants. Soil and atmospheric pollution caused by gasoline is increasing due to the widespread use of automobiles. In this article, the purification characteristic of the pothos plant for atmospheric gasoline is investigated using a tin oxide gas sensor. The purification rate (Pr), defined as the purification ability per hour as described by a differential coefficient, has a maximum value at longer time intervals as the pollutant concentration becomes higher. Pr can be represented by an exponential function of lapsed time and its characteristic in soil is similar. A golden pothos plant growing in a 30-cm diameter pot of was placed in a 300-I experimental chamber to examine its purification ability. Pr had a maximum value 40 h after a 0.04-ml injection of gasoline into the chamber. The total purification ability (Pa) is also used in this study and is derived using the peak value (h) and the full width (tw) at half maximum of the tin oxide gas-sensor characteristic, namely Pa = h/tw x 100. The Pa of the pothos for gasoline was about 7, with the value decreasing as the pollutant concentration increased. PMID:14750433

  2. Transient expression of heterologous RNAs using tomato golden mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Hanley-Bowdoin, L; Elmer, J S; Rogers, S G

    1988-11-25

    The genome of the geminivirus tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) consists of two circular DNA molecules designated as components A and B. The A component contains the only virally-encoded function required for autonomous replication in infected plant cells. We used agroinoculation of petunia leaf discs with the A component to develop a transient expression system which permits direct examination of viral transcripts by S1 nuclease protection. The AR1 gene, which encodes the TGMV coat protein, was transcribed transiently in leaf discs after agroinoculation of TGMV a DNA. Synthesis of AR1 RNA was dependent on T-DNA transfer and TGMV DNA replication, demonstrating that it is a plant transcription product. The AL open reading frames of TGMV A were also expressed transiently in leaf discs. The ratio between AR1 RNA and the major leftward RNA was constant and was used to normalize AR1 transcription for viral DNA copy number. The bacterial genes encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were transiently expressed in leaf discs from the AR1 promoter in TGMV A. The levels of AR1 and GUS RNAs were similar in leaf discs after adjusting for viral DNA copy number, while CAT RNA was less abundant. The geminivirus transient expression system allows rapid analysis of RNAs transcribed from foreign genes and can serve as a preliminary screen in the construction of transgenic plants. PMID:3205715

  3. Lactose ingestion in the adult golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    DiBattista, D

    1991-03-01

    Adult mammals generally demonstrate a lower preference for the disaccharide sugar lactose than for any other common sugar, and because adults typically have low levels of the intestinal enzyme lactase, lactose ingestion may cause gastrointestinal distress. The lactose intake of adult golden hamsters was examined in three experiments; the main findings were: (a) hamsters allowed to choose between tap water and lactose solutions (maximum concentration = 32% weight/volume) over a 20-day period showed a clear preference for lactose solutions and ingested substantial quantities of lactose (up to 3 g/100 g body weight/day) without noticeable adverse effects; (b) hamsters consuming a single diet with lactose added (maximum concentration = 50%) over a period of days ingested up to 3.42 g/100 g body weight/day of lactose without noticeable adverse effects; (c) both hamsters with prior exposure to lactose solutions and those without such exposure consumed similar amounts of 32% lactose solution over an 8-day period, suggesting that hamsters' lactose intake does not depend on the occurrence of adaptation. It is suggested that the fermentative capacity of the hamster's pregastric pouch may underlie this animal's unusual tolerance for lactose. PMID:2032461

  4. RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION IN UNSEDATED DOGS WITH GOLDEN RETRIEVER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    DeVanna, Justin C.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Bogan, Daniel J.; Bogan, Janet R.; Dow, Jennifer L.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a well-established model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The value of this model would be greatly enhanced with practical tools to monitor progression of respiratory dysfunction during treatment trials. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal breathing spirometry, and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) were performed to determine if quantifiable abnormalities could be identified in unsedated, untrained, GRMD dogs. Results from 11 dogs with a mild phenotype of GRMD and 11 age-matched carriers were compared. Arterial blood gas analysis was successfully performed in all dogs, spirometry in 21 of 22 (95%) dogs, and RIP in 18 of 20 (90%) dogs. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration were higher in GRMD dogs. Tidal breathing peak expiratory flows were markedly higher in GRMD dogs. Abnormal abdominal motion was present in 7 of 10 (70%) GRMD dogs. Each technique provided objective, quantifiable measures that will be useful for monitoring respiratory function in GRMD dogs during clinical trials while avoiding the influence of sedation on results. Increased expiratory flows and the pattern of abdominal breathing are novel findings, not reported in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and might be a consequence of hyperinflation. PMID:24295812

  5. National Wind Technology Center sitewide, Golden, CO: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the nation`s primary solar and renewable energy research laboratory, proposes to expand its wind technology research and development program activities at its National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Golden, Colorado. NWTC is an existing wind energy research facility operated by NREL for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Proposed activities include the construction and reuse of buildings and facilities, installation of up to 20 wind turbine test sites, improvements in infrastructure, and subsequent research activities, technology testing, and site operations. In addition to wind turbine test activities, NWTC may be used to support other NREL program activities and small-scale demonstration projects. This document assesses potential consequences to resources within the physical, biological, and human environment, including potential impacts to: air quality, geology and soils, water resources, biological resources, cultural and historic resources, socioeconomic resources, land use, visual resources, noise environment, hazardous materials and waste management, and health and safety conditions. Comment letters were received from several agencies in response to the scoping and predecisional draft reviews. The comments have been incorporated as appropriate into the document with full text of the letters contained in the Appendices. Additionally, information from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site on going sitewide assessment of potential environmental impacts has been reviewed and discussed by representatives of both parties and incorporated into the document as appropriate.

  6. Assembly of Designer TAL Effectors by Golden Gate Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ernst; Gruetzner, Ramona; Werner, Stefan; Engler, Carola; Marillonnet, Sylvestre

    2011-01-01

    Generation of customized DNA binding domains targeting unique sequences in complex genomes is crucial for many biotechnological applications. The recently described DNA binding domain of the transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas consists of a series of repeats arranged in tandem, each repeat binding a nucleotide of the target sequence. We present here a strategy for engineering of TALE proteins with novel DNA binding specificities based on the 17.5 repeat-containing AvrBs3 TALE as a scaffold. For each of the 17 full repeats, four module types were generated, each with a distinct base preference. Using this set of 68 repeat modules, recognition domains for any 17 nucleotide DNA target sequence of choice can be constructed by assembling selected modules in a defined linear order. Assembly is performed in two successive one-pot cloning steps using the Golden Gate cloning method that allows seamless fusion of multiple DNA fragments. Applying this strategy, we assembled designer TALEs with new target specificities and tested their function in vivo. PMID:21625552

  7. The virulence of some strains of BCG for golden hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Bunch-Christensen, K.; Ladefoged, A.; Guld, J.

    1970-01-01

    In principle, a strain of BCG used for the preparation of live vaccine should retain a moderate residual virulence. The inoculation of golden hamsters with large doses of BCG causes progressive, fatal disease but not all strains are equally active. In a previous paper, the present authors gave data from experiments with 9 BCG strains; in this report, 4 additional strains, three of which are in routine use in vaccine-production laboratories, are compared with one of the strains used in the previous experiments. The five strains differ widely in their ability to kill hamsters and were ranked in nearly the same order in two identically designed experiments. The differences in virulence found between strains derived relatively recently from a single mother strain were particularly noticeable. These differences were sometimes accompanied by striking changes in the growth characteristics of the strains with a lower virulence. The hypothesis that the lower virulence in such cases is a sign of genetic mutation is consistent with the general biological experience that virulence is often lost in vitro but that it practically never increases. PMID:4921093

  8. Progressive parenting behavior in wild golden lion tamarins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food independently once they are weaned. Adults of some callitrichid species produce a specialized vocalization that encourages immature group members to take proffered food from the caller. Here, I report that wild adult golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) not only used this food-offering call to encourage young, mobile offspring to approach and take captured prey from them, but as the young began to spend significant time foraging for themselves and to acquire prey by independent means, the frequency of these vocalizations in the context of food transfer declined. Adults then began to use food-offering calls in a novel context: to direct juveniles to foraging sites that contained hidden prey that the adults had found but not captured. During the period of these most frequent adult-directed prey captures, the independent prey-capture success rates of juveniles improved. Thus, adults modified their provisioning behavior in a progressive developmentally sensitive manner that may have facilitated learning how to find food. I hypothesize that as a result of these demonstrations by adults, juveniles either may be encouraged to continue foraging despite low return rates or to learn the properties of productive prey-foraging substrates in a complex environment. PMID:22479136

  9. Molecular architecture of silk fibroin of Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsh K; Mita, Kazuei; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2015-01-01

    The golden silk spun by Indian golden silkmoth Antheraea assama, is regarded for its shimmering golden luster, tenacity and value as biomaterial. This report describes the gene coding for golden silk H-fibroin (AaFhc), its expression, full-length sequence and structurally important motifs discerning the underlying genetic and biochemical factors responsible for its much sought-after properties. The coding region, with biased isocodons, encodes highly repetitious crystalline core, flanked by a pair of 5' and 3' non-repetitious ends. AaFhc mRNA expression is strictly territorial, confined to the posterior silk gland, encoding a protein of size 230?kDa, which makes homodimers making the elementary structural units of the fibrous core of the golden silk. Characteristic polyalanine repeats that make tight ?-sheet crystals alternate with non-polyalanine repeats that make less orderly antiparallel ?-sheets, ?-turns and partial ?-helices. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved N-terminal amorphous motif and the comparative analysis of the crystalline region with other saturniid H-fibroins reveal that AaFhc has longer, numerous and relatively uniform repeat motifs with lower serine content that assume tighter ?-crystals and denser packing, which are speculated to be responsible for its acclaimed properties of higher tensile strength and higher refractive index responsible for golden luster. PMID:26235912

  10. Molecular architecture of silk fibroin of Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama

    PubMed Central

    Gupta K, Adarsh; Mita, Kazuei; Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2015-01-01

    The golden silk spun by Indian golden silkmoth Antheraea assama, is regarded for its shimmering golden luster, tenacity and value as biomaterial. This report describes the gene coding for golden silk H-fibroin (AaFhc), its expression, full-length sequence and structurally important motifs discerning the underlying genetic and biochemical factors responsible for its much sought-after properties. The coding region, with biased isocodons, encodes highly repetitious crystalline core, flanked by a pair of 5′ and 3′ non-repetitious ends. AaFhc mRNA expression is strictly territorial, confined to the posterior silk gland, encoding a protein of size 230 kDa, which makes homodimers making the elementary structural units of the fibrous core of the golden silk. Characteristic polyalanine repeats that make tight β-sheet crystals alternate with non-polyalanine repeats that make less orderly antiparallel β-sheets, β-turns and partial α-helices. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved N-terminal amorphous motif and the comparative analysis of the crystalline region with other saturniid H-fibroins reveal that AaFhc has longer, numerous and relatively uniform repeat motifs with lower serine content that assume tighter β-crystals and denser packing, which are speculated to be responsible for its acclaimed properties of higher tensile strength and higher refractive index responsible for golden luster. PMID:26235912

  11. Ductuli efferentes of the male Golden Syrian hamster reproductive tract

    PubMed Central

    Ford, James; Carnes, Kay; Hess, Rex A.

    2014-01-01

    Efferent ductules are responsible for the transportation of sperm from the testis to the epididymis and their epithelium is responsible for the reabsorption of over 90% of the luminal fluid. The purpose of this research was to characterize the gross morphology and histology of efferent ductules in the male Golden Syrian hamster. The efferent ductules emerge from rete testis with a unique polarity at the apex or cephalic pole of the testis. The number of efferent ductules varied from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.0 and blind ending ducts were observed in approximately 56 % of the males. The ductules merged into a single common duct prior to entering the caput epididymidis. The proximal efferent ductule lumen was wider than the distal (conus and common ducts), consistent with reabsorption of most of the luminal fluid, as was morphology of the ductal epithelium. Nonciliated cells in the proximal region had prominent endocytic apparatuses, showing both coated pits and apical tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Large basolateral, intercellular spaces were also present in the epithelium of the proximal region. Distal nonciliated cells had an abundance of large endosomes and lysosomal granules. Localization of sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3; SLC9A3) and aquaporins 1 and 9 (AQP1, AQP9) along the microvillus border was also consistent with ion transport and fluid reabsorption by this epithelium. In comparison, the caput epididymidis epithelium expressed only AQP9 immunostaining. Another unusual feature of the hamster efferent ductules was the presence of glycogen aggregates in the basal cytoplasm of small groups of epithelial cells, but only in the proximal ducts near the rete testis. Androgen (AR), estrogen (ESR1 and ESR2) and vitamin D (VDR) receptors were also abundant in epithelial nuclei of proximal and distal efferent ductules. In comparison, caput epididymidis showed very little immunostaining for ESR1. PMID:24677666

  12. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826

  13. Reproductive and parental behavior in Taveta golden weavers (Ploceus castaneiceps).

    PubMed

    Valuska, Annie J; Leighty, Katherine A; Plassé, Chelle; Schutz, Paul; Nichols, Val; Sky, Christy; Breeding, Shawnlei

    2015-01-01

    Taveta golden weavers are popular in zoos, but little has been published on their reproduction, social behavior, or other aspects of their management. At Disney's Animal Kingdom® , we have had great success with our breeding program and house a large flock in our mixed-species walk-through Africa aviary and smaller groups in the off-exhibit Avian Research Center. We conducted observations on both groups in order to document behavioral differences between the groups living under differing management conditions. Data on which individuals were inside, on or near focal nests were collected using a 30-s scan samples. Scan data were analyzed using a two-factor ANOVA, with aviary location and nest contents as the factors. We found that, in both aviary locations, females spent more time inside and on the nests than males did. As expected, females spent more time inside the nests containing eggs and more time on the nests containing chicks, likely due to incubation and chick-feeding demands, respectively. Interestingly, we found that females spent significantly more time inside their nests and males spent more time near their nests in the Africa aviary than in ARC. Despite Africa aviary's higher nest attendance, a higher proportion of nests fledged chicks in ARC (72% vs. 41%). These data are consistent with findings in wild sociable weavers [Spottiswoode, 2007. Oecologia 154: 589-600]. Future work with zoo-housed populations of weavers could help shed light on this phenomenon, which is not yet well understood. A better understanding of the consequences of different group sizes and housing conditions could have important implications for how Taveta weavers are managed. PMID:25728345

  14. Multitargeting by turmeric, the golden spice: From kitchen to clinic.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subash C; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Ji Hye; Prasad, Sahdeo; Li, Shiyou; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2013-09-01

    Although much has been published about curcumin, which is obtained from turmeric, comparatively little is known about turmeric itself. Turmeric, a golden spice obtained from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, has been used to give color and taste to food preparations since ancient times. Traditionally, this spice has been used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of such ailments as gynecological problems, gastric problems, hepatic disorders, infectious diseases, and blood disorders. Modern science has provided the scientific basis for the use of turmeric against such disorders. Various chemical constituents have been isolated from this spice, including polyphenols, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenoids, sterols, and alkaloids. Curcumin, which constitutes 2-5% of turmeric, is perhaps the most-studied component. Although some of the activities of turmeric can be mimicked by curcumin, other activities are curcumin-independent. Cell-based studies have demonstrated the potential of turmeric as an antimicrobial, insecticidal, larvicidal, antimutagenic, radioprotector, and anticancer agent. Numerous animal studies have shown the potential of this spice against proinflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, depression, diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. At the molecular level, this spice has been shown to modulate numerous cell-signaling pathways. In clinical trials, turmeric has shown efficacy against numerous human ailments including lupus nephritis, cancer, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, acne, and fibrosis. Thus, a spice originally common in the kitchen is now exhibiting activities in the clinic. In this review, we discuss the chemical constituents of turmeric, its biological activities, its molecular targets, and its potential in the clinic. PMID:22887802

  15. Stepwise propagation of the Golden Gate thrust, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.A.; Bartley, J.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1992-01-01

    Field mapping and calcite strain analyses around the exposed northern lateral tip of the east-vergent Golden Gate thrust define the structural pattern around the tip. This pattern includes (1) normal faults near the tip that strike perpendicular to the thrust and accommodated N-S (lateral) stretching; (2) folds NW of the tip that trend about 60[degree] counterclockwise to the thrust trace and indicate sinistral transpression; and (3) principal strains derived from calcite strain analysis that corroborate N-S stretching near the tip and sinistral transpression to the north. This kinematic pattern can be modeled in terms of rigid rock panels that pivot around the subsurface fault tip. Slip measurements from balanced serial cross sections along the 7 km strike length indicate that slip is not bilinear, but makes two linear increases separated by a zero gradient section. The zero gradient section 2.5 km from the tip corresponds spatially to two other observations: (1) a pattern of structures resembling that around the thrust tip; and (2) the splitting of the thrust into two faults bounding a highly internally deformed horse. The authors interpret these observations as follows. The thrust initially propagated northward to the location of the zero gradient slip section and accumulated about 1.4 km of slip with the tip pinned at this location. The fault then broke through the pinned tip, most likely along a new branch line that resulted in the imbricate thrust structure. The new rupture arrested and became pinned at the present tip location, after which the thrust accumulated an additional 1 km of slip. These observations suggest episodic thrust propagation events, separated by periods during which 1 km or more slip accumulated across the fault with the tip effectively pinned.

  16. Natural parasitic infection of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Keawjam, R S; Poonswad, P; Upatham, E S; Banpavichit, S

    1993-03-01

    Golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata, were collected once a month during a year to search for their natural parasites. The collections were made at two localities having different ecological environments. Of 576 collected snails from a canal, 176 individuals (30.6%) were infected by three groups of metacercariae. These parasites were amphistome, distome and echinostome metacercariae, which had prevalences of 23.5, 19.5 and 0.5%, respectively. The incidence of infection was highest (68.4% in October) when the snail population was composed of the old, juvenile and young Pomacea. Amphistome metacercariae were found most frequently and echinostome metacercariae the least frequently; both parasites were localized in the foot muscle of the snails and had a Shannon index of zero. The range of amphistomes was 1 to 115 with the mean +/- SD of 1 +/- 2 and 95% CL of 1, 2. Distome metacercariae were found primarily in the heart (range: 1-13), and also in the foot muscle (range: 1-5) and kidney (range: 1-14), with a Shannon index of 0.4. The means +/- SD (with 95% CL) were 3 +/- 4 (95% CL = 1, 5), 3 +/- 4 (95% CL = 2, 4) and 2 +/- 1 (95% CL = 1, 2) for the foot muscle, heart and kidney, respectively. The snails from a pond, another locality, had a low proportion of infected individuals. Of 605 snails, only 24 individuals (4.0%) were infected, with the prevalence of amphistomes, distomes and echinostomes being 0.8, 1.8 and 2.1%, respectively. The incidence of infection for each month was zero or less than 10%, except in May when it was 30.2%. PMID:8362292

  17. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  18. Long-term health effects of neutering dogs: comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Hart, Benjamin L; Hart, Lynette A; Thigpen, Abigail P; Willits, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6-11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4-5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3-4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal. PMID:25020045

  19. Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.; Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 611 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 45 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 34 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal. PMID:25020045

  20. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    PubMed

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification. PMID:26234211

  1. 78 FR 19068 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GOLDEN BOY II; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... BOY II; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation... the applicant the intended service of the vessel GOLDEN BOY II is: Intended Commercial Use Of...

  2. Golden eagles in the U.S. and Canada: Status, trends, and conservation challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to assess status and population trends and to identify mortality factors affecting Golden Eagle populations in the U.S. and Canada. Nesting populations in Alaska and Canada are stable, but some nesting populations in the western U.S. have declined. Small but steady declines in the intermountain West have been associated with shrub loss and declining jackrabbit populations; declines in southern California have been attributed to urbanization. Migration counts in the eastern U.S. suggest a decline in Golden Eagles from the 1930s to the early 1970s, with a stable or increasing trend since the early 1970s. No significant trends in migration counts were reported for Golden Eagles in the western U.S. sincet he mid-1980s. Western migration count sites on the continental divide in the Rocky Mountains at or just north of the U.S.-Canadian border (49-51??N latitude) show potential to provide information on trends of Golden Eagle populations from Alaska and western Canada. Most eagle mortality is human related. This paper illustrates the need for more effective monitoring of Golden Eagle populations in North America.

  3. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America.

    PubMed

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit. PMID:25686747

  4. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-06-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties. PMID:25603722

  5. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jason D; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development. PMID:26262876

  6. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development. PMID:26262876

  7. Changes of spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and development potential of golden hamster oocytes during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Han; Wang, Ce; Guan, Jiyu; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Ziyi

    2015-01-01

    The golden hamster is an excellent animal experimental model for oocyte research. The hamster oocytes are very useful in clinical examination of human spermatozoan activity. Non-fertile oocytes can lead to time-dependent processes of aging, which will affect the results of human spermatozoa examination. As a consequence there is a need to investigate the aging and anti-aging processes of golden hamster oocytes. In order to study the aging processes and parthenogenetic activation of golden hamster oocytes, in vivo oocytes, oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells, and oocytes treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) or caffeine were collected and investigated. We found that: (1) spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, developmental potential (cleavage rate), and zona pellucida (ZP) hardening undergo age-dependent changes in in vivo, in vitro, and after TSA or caffeine treatment; (2) in vivo, oocytes became spontaneously parthenogenetic 25 h post-hCG treatment; (3) in vitro, cumulus cells did not significantly increase the parthenogenetic activation rate of cultured hamster oocytes; and (4) TSA or caffeine could delay spontaneous oocyte parthenogenetic activation and the aging processes by at least 5h, but also accelerated the hardening of the ZP. These results define the conditions for the aging and anti-aging processes in golden hamster oocytes. TSA and caffeine play roles in controlling spontaneous activation, which could facilitate the storage and use of golden hamster oocytes for studying processes relevant to human reproduction. PMID:25480399

  8. Landscapes for energy and wildlife: conservation prioritization for golden eagles across large spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  9. Evaluation of amitrole (aminotriazole) for potential carcinogenicity in orally dosed rats, mice, and golden hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, D.; Weber, H.; Mohr, U.; Boehme, K.

    1983-06-30

    Amitrole was evaluated for carcinogenic potential in lifespan studies on Wistar rats, NMRI mice, and golden hamsters. At the start of the studies the animals were 6 weeks old. Amitrole was administered, mixed with pulverized chow, at dietary concentrations of 0, 1, 10, and 100 micrograms/g (ppm). Each treated group and control group consisted of 75 male and 75 female rats and mice and of 76 male and 76 female golden hamsters. Additional animals were used to evaluate the functional state of the thyroid. Somewhat lower body weights, slightly reduced survival times, and transient effects on thyroid function were observed in golden hamsters at 100 ppm. In mice, a slight increase in pituitary gland hyperemias was seen at 100 ppm; also an effect on thyroid function usually occurred at the same concentration. In rats, a very large number of cystic dilatations of follicles in the thyroid at 100 ppm and a dose-unrelated increase in hemorrhages and hyperemias in the pituitary gland were indicative of an effect of amitrole on these organs. The strongest effect of amitrole on thyroid function, as compared to golden hamsters and mice, was seen in rats at 100 ppm. At this concentration a highly increased number of thyroid and pituitary gland tumors was observed in rats. In golden hamsters and mice, no tumor induction was seen.

  10. An intergeneric hybrid of a native minnow, the golden shiner, and an exotic minnow, the rudd

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhead, N.M.; Williams, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The hybrid golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas × rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus is the first known nonsalmonid, intergeneric hybrid of an exotic species and a North American native species. The cross is also the first valid record of a viable hybrid involving the native golden shiner. Meristic and mensural characters of 30 artificially produced hybrids of male golden shiners and female rudds were analyzed. Forty-seven percent of the meristic traits exhibited character states intermediate between those of parents. Twenty-seven percent of the meristic characters were supernumerary, suggesting developmental instability of the hybrid genome. Mensural hybrid characters were significantly skewed to the golden shiner phenotype. The skewed mensural inheritance and other skewed patterns of morphological inheritance also suggest problems in canalization of the hybrid phenome or atypical patterns of dominance. All hybrids were identifiable by intermediate squamation of the cultrate abdomen: the keel was mostly scaled but exhibited a small fleshy ridge posteriorly. This minnow hybrid allows general inferences to be made about the phylogenetic affinity of the golden shiner to other cultrate cyprinids of Eurasia. The hybrid cross has important management and conservation implications for fishes in North America. The hybrid is an example of how an exotic species may negatively affect a native species.

  11. Conditioned defeat in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Potegal, M; Huhman, K; Moore, T; Meyerhoff, J

    1993-09-01

    When singly housed under laboratory conditions, male Syrian golden hamsters routinely attack novel conspecific intruders introduced into their home cages. As we report here, after being repeatedly defeated by a larger, more aggressive intruder, such normal territorial aggression on the part of the resident hamsters is replaced by defensive behavior and flight. We have found that such conditioned defeat (CD) can be reliably induced by a series of 5-min trials with an aggressive intruder whether these trials are spread over 4 days or are all given on the same day. A useful behavioral criterion for the appearance of CD during acquisition is the first occurrence of anticipatory flight (AF), i.e., the first time the resident flees from the next aggressive intruder before being attacked. CD shows generalization: Animals trained to the AF criterion (AF Group) subsequently show defensive behavior toward, and even flee from, intruders which show absolutely no sign of aggressiveness. Animals in the AF Group persisted in such defense behavior for two test sessions; animals given three additional defeat trials beyond the appearance of AF (AF + 3 Group) showed a greater magnitude and persistence of defense and flight. A comparison of CD-trained animals which met a non-aggressive intruder (NAI) every day for 5 days to similarly trained animals which met the intruder only on the fifth day after acquisition suggests that CD diminishes passively as a function of time and not as the consequence of repeated encounters with a nonaggressive stimulus animal. We also found that near ideal NAIs could be prepared by treating nonaggressive hamsters with high doses of diazepam: animals so treated locomote more or less continuously around the cage virtually ignoring the subject. An unexpected observation was that subjects in the AF Group tended to closely follow these diazepam-treated, rapidly locomoting NAIs around the cage. Following may be an example of the "risk assessment" activities directed toward a potential threat. The development of a rapid and reliable technique for inducing CD in hamsters sets the stage for further physiological and pharmacological work on this interesting phenomenon. PMID:8117243

  12. Conceptual Sound System Design for Clifford Odets' "GOLDEN BOY"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yen Chun

    There are two different aspects in the process of sound design, "Arts" and "Science". In my opinion, the sound design should engage both aspects strongly and in interaction with each other. I started the process of designing the sound for GOLDEN BOY by building the city soundscape of New York City in 1937. The scenic design for this piece is designed in the round, putting the audience all around the stage; this gave me a great opportunity to use surround and specialization techniques to transform the space into a different sonic world. My specialization design is composed of two subsystems -- one is the four (4) speakers center cluster diffusing towards the four (4) sections of audience, and the other is the four (4) speakers on the four (4) corners of the theatre. The outside ring provides rich sound source localization and the inside ring provides more support for control of the specialization details. In my design four (4) lavalier microphones are hung under the center iron cage from the four (4) corners of the stage. Each microphone is ten (10) feet above the stage. The signal for each microphone is sent to the two (2) center speakers in the cluster diagonally opposite the microphone. With the appropriate level adjustment of the microphones, the audience will not notice the amplification of the voices; however, through my specialization system, the presence and location of the voices of all actors are preserved for all audiences clearly. With such vocal reinforcements provided by the microphones, I no longer need to worry about overwhelming the dialogue on stage by the underscoring. A successful sound system design should not only provide a functional system, but also take the responsibility of bringing actors' voices to the audience and engaging the audience with the world that we create on stage. By designing a system which reinforces the actors' voices while at the same time providing control over localization of movement of sound effects, I was able not only to make the text present and clear for the audiences, but also to support the storyline strongly through my composed music, environmental soundscapes, and underscoring.

  13. Golden carbon nanotubes as multimodal photoacoustic and photothermal high-contrast molecular agents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Moon, Hyung-Mo; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise as contrast agents for photoacoustic and photothermal imaging of tumours and infections because they offer high resolution and allow deep tissue imaging. However, in vivo applications have been limited by the relatively low absorption displayed by nanotubes at near-infrared wavelengths and concerns over toxicity. Here, we show that gold-plated carbon nanotubes—termed golden carbon nanotubes—can be used as photoacoustic and photothermal contrast agents with enhanced near-infrared contrast (~102-fold) for targeting lymphatic vessels in mice using extremely low laser fluence levels of a few mJ cm−2. Antibody-conjugated golden carbon nanotubes were used to map the lymphatic endothelial receptor, and preliminary in vitro viability tests show golden carbon nanotubes have minimal toxicity. This new nanomaterial could be an effective alternative to existing nanoparticles and fluorescent labels for non-invasive targeted imaging of molecular structures in vivo. PMID:19809462

  14. The Golden-Thompson inequality: Historical aspects and random matrix applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Peter J. Thompson, Colin J.

    2014-02-15

    The Golden-Thompson inequality, Tr (e{sup A+B}) ⩽ Tr (e{sup A}e{sup B}) for A, B Hermitian matrices, appeared in independent works by Golden and Thompson published in 1965. Both of these were motivated by considerations in statistical mechanics. In recent years the Golden-Thompson inequality has found applications to random matrix theory. In this article, we detail some historical aspects relating to Thompson's work, giving in particular a hitherto unpublished proof due to Dyson, and correspondence with Pólya. We show too how the 2 × 2 case relates to hyperbolic geometry, and how the original inequality holds true with the trace operation replaced by any unitarily invariant norm. In relation to the random matrix applications, we review its use in the derivation of concentration type lemmas for sums of random matrices due to Ahlswede-Winter, and Oliveira, generalizing various classical results.

  15. The chemical oceanographic consequences of environmental restoration projects in the Golden Horn estuary (Marmara Sea, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Balkis, N; Mfto?lu, E; Aksu, A; Sur, H I; Apak, R

    2010-05-01

    The input of industrial and domestic waste to the horizontal circulation in the Golden Horn Estuary of Marmara Sea has resulted in one of the most polluted estuaries in the past. Consequently, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in both the surface and bottom waters decreased toward to the estuary head during 1998-2005. In contrast, the total suspended solids content of the surface water decreased toward to the estuary mouth. However, construction of the operational collector system surrounding the estuary during the process of rehabilitation projects, combined with the opening of the middle pontoons of the Valide Sultan Bridge, resulted in gradually improved water quality of the estuary with a concomitant decrease in pollution. However, phytoplankton blooms and eutrophication persist especially in the innermost part of the Golden Horn in 2005. The region from the estuary mouth up to Camialti has a dynamic structure, and sufficient circulation seemingly occurs in this part of the Golden Horn. PMID:19353286

  16. Interspecific competition and torpor in golden spiny mice: two sides of the energy-acquisition coin.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-09-01

    We studied the occurrence of torpor in golden spiny mice in a hot rocky desert near the Dead Sea. In this rodent assemblage, a congener, the nocturnal common spiny mouse, competitively excluded the golden spiny mouse from the nocturnal part of the diel cycle and forced it into diurnal activity; this temporal partitioning allows the two species to partition their prey populations, particularly in summer when the diet of the two species is comprised mainly of arthropods, and largely overlap. We studied the effect of the presence of the common spiny mice at two resource levels (natural food availability and food added ad libitum) on populations of golden spiny mice in four large outdoor enclosures: two with common spiny mice removed and two enclosures with populations of both species. We hypothesized that with interspecific competition and/or reduced resources, golden spiny mice will increase their use of torpor. As we expected, supplemented food reduced the total time spent torpid. In summer, when the different activity periods of the two species results in prey species partitioning, removal of the congener did not affect torpor in the golden spiny mouse. However, in winter, when insect populations are low and the two species of mice overlap in a largely vegetarian diet, removal of the common spiny mouse reduced torpor in golden spiny mice, whether food was supplemented or not. This result suggests that torpor, a mechanism that allows small mammals to sustain periods of low availability of resources or high energetic requirements, may also help them to tolerate periods of enhanced interspecific competition. This may be a significant short-term mechanism that reduces competition and hence increases fitness, in particular of individuals of the subordinate species whose accessibility to resources may be limited. PMID:21719432

  17. Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality.

    PubMed

    Yksek, Ahsen; Oku?, Erdo?an; Yilmaz, I Noyan; Aslan-Yilmaz, Asli; Ta?, Seyfettin

    2006-10-01

    Long-term biological data supported by physicochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the biodiversity of the Golden Horn Estuary from the past to the present. Limited observations dating back to 60 years ago indicated the existence of a diverse community in this small estuary. Unfortunately, in parallel with the increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn, pollution stress increased since the 1960s. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, in the relatively cleaner lower estuary. Following the intensification of rehabilitation studies in 1998 and particularly after the opening of the floating bridge at the mid estuary; a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has begun with the improving water quality. Nutrient concentrations decreased markedly; while water clarity significantly increased. Fecal coliform values decreased 10(3) fold. Phytoplankton composition changed and dense blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankters frequently occurred. Hydrogen sulfide almost completely disappeared even during the warmest periods of the year and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased. All results clearly depicted that the Golden Horn ecosystem shifted to eutrophic conditions from an anoxic environment. SCUBA dives in 2002, documented the level of diversification of life in the Golden Horn. All appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms until the Halic Bridge and filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Achieving the diversity of 1940s is not possible since the Black and Marmara seas, influencing water quality of the Golden Horn, are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far less diverse than their rich diversity in 1940s. However, the Golden Horn is a good example that even the most polluted ecosystems can recover when appropriate measures are taken. PMID:16814327

  18. Caribou antlers as nest materials for golden eagles in northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Bunn, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    There are few published records of antlers in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nests. This note reports extensive use of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) antlers in three golden eagle nests in the Cape Kruzenstern region of northwestern Alaska. The importance of antlers to this population of eagles can be explained at least in part by (1) the lack of suitable woody vegetation on the open tundra, (2) the similarity of antlers to sticks, and (3) the abundance of antlers, especially cow caribou antlers, in the region.

  19. 76 FR 13600 - Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand #3 and #4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Forest Service Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand 3 and 4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations... withdrawing the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for The Golden Hand No. 3 and No. 4 Lode Mining Claims Proposed Plan of Operations. The project included mining operations on the lode claims along...

  20. 78 FR 77194 - Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc., and Pacific Alliance Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading... accurate information concerning the securities of Golden Elephant Glass Technology, Inc. because it has...

  1. 76 FR 15275 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Golden Crab Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Golden Crab Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Control Date... crab fishery operating in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the South Atlantic. If changes to the... Fishery Management Council (Council) and NMFS consider whether and how access to the golden crab...

  2. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... decision by the Director, the Governor will be advised in writing concerning the request and a notice will... request of Governor of a State. 22.31 Section 22.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State....

  3. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... decision by the Director, the Governor will be advised in writing concerning the request and a notice will... request of Governor of a State. 22.31 Section 22.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State....

  4. 78 FR 9451 - Academy Express, L.L.C.-Acquisition of Property-Golden Ring Travel & Transportation, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Academy Express, L.L.C.--Acquisition of Property--Golden Ring Travel... Transaction. SUMMARY: On January 10, 2013, Academy Express, L.L.C. (Academy), a motor carrier of passengers, filed an application for authority under 49 U.S.C. 14303 to acquire the property of Golden Ring...

  5. 76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age...

  6. 75 FR 57102 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Titian and the Golden Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Titian and the Golden Age of... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Titian and the Golden Age...

  7. Golden-Angle Radial Sparse Parallel MRI: Combination of Compressed Sensing, Parallel Imaging, and Golden-Angle Radial Sampling for Fast and Flexible Dynamic Volumetric MRI

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Grimm, Robert; Block, Kai Tobias; Chandarana, Hersh; Kim, Sungheon; Xu, Jian; Axel, Leon; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Otazo, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a fast and flexible free-breathing dynamic volumetric MRI technique, iterative Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel MRI (iGRASP), that combines compressed sensing, parallel imaging, and golden-angle radial sampling. Methods Radial k-space data are acquired continuously using the golden-angle scheme and sorted into time series by grouping an arbitrary number of consecutive spokes into temporal frames. An iterative reconstruction procedure is then performed on the undersampled time series where joint multicoil sparsity is enforced by applying a total-variation constraint along the temporal dimension. Required coil-sensitivity profiles are obtained from the time-averaged data. Results iGRASP achieved higher acceleration capability than either parallel imaging or coil-by-coil compressed sensing alone. It enabled dynamic volumetric imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution for various clinical applications, including free-breathing dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging in the abdomen of both adult and pediatric patients, and in the breast and neck of adult patients. Conclusion The high performance and flexibility provided by iGRASP can improve clinical studies that require robustness to motion and simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:24142845

  8. Genetic diversity of a newly established population of golden eagles on the Channel Islands, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Coonan, Timothy J.; Latta, Brian C.; Sage, George K.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene flow can have profound effects on the genetic diversity of a founding population depending on the number and relationship among colonizers and the duration of the colonization event. Here we used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess genetic diversity in golden eagles of the recently colonized Channel Islands, California. Genetic diversity in the Channel Island population was low, similar to signatures observed for other recent colonizing island populations. Differences in levels of genetic diversity and structure observed between mainland California and the islands suggests that few individuals were involved in the initial founding event, and may have comprised a family group. The spatial genetic structure observed between Channel Island and mainland California golden eagle populations across marker types, and genetic signature of population decline observed for the Channel Island population, suggest a single or relatively quick colonization event. Polarity in gene flow estimates based on mtDNA confirm an initial colonization of the Channel Islands by mainland golden eagles, but estimates from microsatellite data suggest that golden eagles on the islands were dispersing more recently to the mainland, possibly after reaching the carrying capacity of the island system. These results illustrate the strength of founding events on the genetic diversity of a population, and confirm that changes to genetic diversity can occur within just a few generations.

  9. A Short History of the Fibonacci and Golden Numbers with Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a brief history of Fibonacci's life and career. It includes Fibonacci's major mathematical discoveries to establish that he was undoubtedly one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the Medieval Period. Special attention is given to the Fibonacci numbers, the golden number and the Lucas numbers and their fundamental…

  10. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  11. Choanal lymphosarcoma in a 7-year-old golden retriever: Diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old, spayed female, golden retriever with a 1-year history of progressive stertor and reverse sneezing was referred for further diagnostics. Endoscopy and computed tomography of the head revealed a bilobed mass in the choanae. Cytologic and histopathologic examinations of the mass were consistent with lymphosarcoma. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy. PMID:15825520

  12. 75 FR 66589 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...We are proposing amendments to our rules to implement the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act relating to shareholder approval of executive compensation and ``golden parachute'' compensation arrangements. Section 951 of the Dodd-Frank Act amends the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by adding Section 14A, which requires companies to conduct a separate......

  13. A Review of Research on the Golden Section Hypothesis in Art and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinnie, Harold J.

    The Golden Section as a concept and a term has had a long history in the arts as well as the sciences. It is one of those concepts that has undergone much recent research, which is presented as part of this review. The research is considered in relation to the design fields and to the creation of visual forms rather than aesthetic preference

  14. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... mitigate overages of the ACL if they occur. On December 30, 2010, NMFS issued a final rule (75 FR 82280) to... sector. This action is necessary to reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic golden tilefish resource...-Stevens Act implemented new requirements that ACLs and AMs be established to end overfishing and...

  15. ANALYSIS IN BLOOD OF GOLDEN HAMSTER BY NAA FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, R.; Zamboni, C. B.; Genezini, F. A.

    2009-06-03

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of Golden Hamster. The normal range for Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations were determined. The knowledge of these values permits clinical investigation of animal model using whole blood as well as to check the similarities with human blood.

  16. Higher Education and Development: A Selection of Papers Presented to the Golden Jubilee Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Indian Universities, New Delhi (India).

    Selected papers on higher education and development that were presented to the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the Association of Indian Universities are presented. Topics include development and underdevelopment, recent trends in development strategy, and India in the 1980's and 1990's. Contents include the following: "Development and

  17. A Jubilant Connection: General Jubal Early's Troops and the Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Linda A.; Noon, Tim R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The golden ratio, one of the most beautiful numbers in all of mathematics, arises in some surprising places. At first glance, we might expect that a General checking his troops' progress would be nothing more than a basic distance-rate-time problem. However, further exploration reveals a multi-faceted problem, one in which the ratio of rates

  18. A Short History of the Fibonacci and Golden Numbers with Their Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a brief history of Fibonacci's life and career. It includes Fibonacci's major mathematical discoveries to establish that he was undoubtedly one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the Medieval Period. Special attention is given to the Fibonacci numbers, the golden number and the Lucas numbers and their fundamental

  19. Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Christine Archer; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the environmental education program of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association in Brazil by comparing results of a 2001 survey with baseline data from 1986. Responses of 666 residents and results from 4 focus groups revealed an increase in public support for the tamarin and its habitat and an increase in general environmental

  20. Truth-in-Testing & the Golden Rule Principle: Two Practical Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, John

    Two reforms are suggested as ways to improve standardized testing. They are Truth-in-Testing legislation and the Golden Rule bias reduction principle. Test publishers, state departments of education, and colleges who administer tests are often reluctant to provide statistical data on test results. It is also difficult for researchers to see test

  1. Golden Rice Can Provide Vitamin A Effectively as Assessed Using Isotope Reference Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR) is enriched with beta-carotene (beta-C) genetically. To determine its vitamin A value, intrinsically labeled GR was obtained by growing plants in a nutrient solution containing 23% D2O. The GR beta-C was enriched with deuterium with the highest abundance isotopomer peak at M+9. Hea...

  2. CORTISOL RESPONSE OF GOLDEN SHINERS NOTEMIGONUS CRYSOLEUCAS FED DIETS DIFFERING IN LIPID CONTENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) is the predominant fish species raised for bait for recreational fishing in the US. Baitfish are marketed as live products, and they undergo frequent handling during production and transport to distribution points. Nutritional enhancement of stress resista...

  3. An Interview with Larry Golden: Long-Time Marriage and Family Counselor and Counselor Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Yu, Fangzhou

    2010-01-01

    Larry Golden started the marriage and family therapy program at Our Lady of the Lake University and was founding chair of the Department of Counseling at the University of Texas at San Antonio. He has contributed substantially to the literature in marriage and family counseling. This interview secured his unique perspective on developments in the…

  4. INVESTIGATION OF EFFECTS OF PROLONGED INHALATION OF NICKEL-ENRICHED FLY ASH IN SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groups of 102 Male Syrian Golden hamsters were chronically exposed to approx. 70 micrograms/l respirable Nickel Enriched Fly Ash aerosol (high NEFA group), approx. 17 micrograms/l (low NEFA group), or approx. 70 micrograms/l FA 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 month...

  5. Quest for the Golden Rule: An Effective Social Skills Promotion and Bullying Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin-Vaughan, Alice; Pepler, Debra; Brown, Steven; Craig, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Everyday many students face bullying situations that they are ill equipped to manage. E-learning has recently emerged as a potentially effective tool in teaching children social skills, in addition to academic subject matter. Quest for the Golden Rule is one of the first bullying prevention e-learning programs available, designed by the

  6. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  7. An Interview with Larry Golden: Long-Time Marriage and Family Counselor and Counselor Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Yu, Fangzhou

    2010-01-01

    Larry Golden started the marriage and family therapy program at Our Lady of the Lake University and was founding chair of the Department of Counseling at the University of Texas at San Antonio. He has contributed substantially to the literature in marriage and family counseling. This interview secured his unique perspective on developments in the

  8. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, Carol L.; Adams, Layne G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare( Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lugopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  9. First identification of Trichinella sp. in golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Romania.

    PubMed

    Blaga, R; Gherman, C; Seucom, D; Cozma, V; Boireau, P

    2008-04-01

    Larvae of Trichinella sp. were identified in a golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Romania by both trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. The larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction biotyping method. This is the first report of Trichinella sp. in a jackal in Romania. PMID:18436679

  10. Uniform ripening (U) encodes a Golden 2-like transcription factor regulating tomato fruit chloroplast development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties are bred for recessive uniform ripening (u) light green fruit phenotypes to facilitate maturity determinations without information about the underlying gene. We show that U encodes a Golden 2-like (GLK) transcription factor, SlGLK2, which determines the...

  11. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Director—Attention: Migratory Bird Permit Office. You can find addresses for the appropriate Regional Directors in 50 CFR 2.2. We will only accept applications if you are engaged in a resource development or... development or recovery operation and identifies the exact location of each golden eagle nest proposed to...

  12. Golden rice: Development, Nutritional Assessment, and Potential for Alleviating Vitamin A Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Rice (GR) is a transgenic product engineered to produce beta-carotene in the rice endosperm. It has been developed as a means to combat vitamin A malnutrition, which exists throughout much of the developing world (especially in rice eating populations) and can lead to blindness, increased sus...

  13. Reproductive characteristics of migratory golden eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, C.L.; Adams, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe reproductive characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska during an entire snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle, 1988-1997. Data on nesting eagles were collected at 58 to 72 nesting areas annually using two aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted during the incubation period to determine occupancy and nesting activities and late in the nestling period to count nestlings and determine nesting success. Annual occupancy rates of nesting areas did not vary significantly, whereas laying rates, success rates, and mean brood size varied significantly over the study period. Fledgling production for the study population varied sevenfold during the ten-year period. Laying rates, mean brood size, and overall population productivity were significantly correlated with abundance of cyclic snowshoe hare and Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) populations. Reproductive rates of Golden Eagles in Denali were similar to those of Golden Eagles from other high latitude study areas in North America, but lower than for Golden Eagles from temperate zone study areas in North America.

  14. Harvesting by Peel Color to Reduce Bruising of "Golden Delicious" Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Golden Delicious’ apples harvested at three peel color stages were immediately bruised to a constant depth using an artificial finger attached to an Instron universal material testing instrument. Bruised tissue was sliced sequentially from the fruit surface in a plane perpendicular to the directio...

  15. Juvenile cellulitis in a 7-week-old golden retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Martens, Sabrina M

    2016-02-01

    A 7-week-old golden retriever puppy was presented with acute onset of marked facial inflammation and pustular dermatitis, markedly enlarged submandibular lymph nodes, and pyrexia. Treatment included high-dose corticosteroids and antibiotics. One week after presentation the puppy showed a significant decrease in inflammation and healing pustules. PMID:26834274

  16. Marker-assisted Characterization of Durum Wheat Langdon-Golden Ball Disomic Substitution Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The durum wheat cultivar ‘Golden Ball’ (GB) has superior solid stem, which is a source of resistance to wheat sawfly and also a potential source of biofeed for producing biofuel. Dr. Leonard Joppa previously used GB as the chromosome donor and Langdon (LDN) durum as the recipient to develop a compl...

  17. Evaluation of the Focal Skills Pilot ESL Program at Golden West College, 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    Beginning in fall 1993, Golden West College, in California, began pilot testing an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course adapted from the Focal Skills approach, which features instruction in intensive modules in listening, reading, writing, and general immersion. The listening and reading skills modules were offered in the fall 1993 semester,

  18. Implementation and Initial Validation of the MDTP Tests at Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    In 1992, a study was conducted at Golden West College (California) to determine the predictive validity of the Math Diagnostic Testing Project (MDTP) tests. A total of 1,137 students were tested in-class; 601 took the Algebra Readiness test, 376 took the Elementary Algebra test, and 160 took the Intermediate Algebra test. Two correlation

  19. Profile of Students on Probation/Disqualification at Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    During the 1994-95 academic year, a task force on underpreparedness was convened at Golden West College, in Huntington Beach, California, to address the large number of students underprepared for college work. The task force examined records from the 1992-93 and 1993-94 academic years with regard to student academic status, gender, race/ethnicity,

  20. Implementation and Initial Validation of the Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA) at Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    During spring 1992, the Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA) test was piloted with a sample of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes at Golden West College (GWC) in Huntington Beach, California. The CELSA, which utilizes a cloze format including parts of conversations and short dialogues, combines items from beginning,

  1. Judgments of Placement Writing Samples at Golden West College: An Evaluation of Inter-Rater Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    At Golden College (California), student writing samples are holistically scored by pairs of judges on a six-point scale. Judges are allowed to use plus and minus figures, thus converting the integer scale to a decimal scale of evaluation. In 1991, 499 writing samples written as part of the placement testing process for students in the Coast

  2. Retention and Success Rates by Course Category, Year, and Selected Student Characteristics at Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    A study was conducted at Golden West College in California using data from the state-report management information system files to analyze course completion and course success data from fall 1991, 1992, and 1993. In addition to identifying trends, the study made comparisons among ethnic groups, between males and females, and between persons for

  3. English Placement Recommendations at Golden West College: An Analysis of Disproportionate Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    In 1992, a study was conducted to determine whether student placement rates into college-level courses varied across subgroups of students at Golden West College (GWC), and, if so, the extent to which this disproportionate impact (DI) occurred. The standard of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) for employee selection holds that DI

  4. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    PubMed

    K?l?, nder; Belivermi?, Murat; Gzel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of ?stanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.030.23, 38941.6, 2.611.23, not detected (ND), 91.9637.88 and 11.484.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in<63 ?m particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn. PMID:25023437

  5. 77 FR 55967 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for Texas Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... and Animal Taxa that are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (62 FR... through 2004 (64 FR 57533, October 25, 1999; 66 FR 54808, October 30, 2001; 67 FR 40657, June 13, 2002; and 69 FR 24876, May 4, 2004). A petition to list Texas golden gladecress and the Neches River...

  6. 77 FR 129 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) from West Butte Wind Power, LLC, for a... eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) take permit from West Butte Wind Power, LLC. The company plans to develop the West Butte wind-power project in central Oregon, and there is a risk of eagle fatalities as a result...

  7. 78 FR 69367 - Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit #2 Restart

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) has issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement (SFEIS) related to RUS's consideration of potential agency actions that would facilitate a proposal from Golden Valley Electric Association, Inc. (GVEA) for the restart and commercial operation of Healy Unit 2, a power generation facility at the Healy Power......

  8. Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of ?0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: ?4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,25035,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,76032,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we noted slightly declining trends in southern BCRs and slightly increasing trends in northern BCRs. However, we estimated the average rate of golden eagle population change across all 12 BCRs for the period 19682010 as +0.40% per year (95% CI?=??0.27% to 1.00%), suggesting a stable population. We also estimated the average rate of population change for the period 19902010 was +0.5% per year (95% CI?=??0.33% to 1.3%). Our annual estimates of population size for the most recent decade range from 31,370 (95% CI: 25,45039,310) in 2004 to 33,460 (95% CI: 27,38041,710) in 2007. Our results clarify that golden eagles are not declining widely in the western United States. 2013 The Wildlife Society.

  9. Evolution of metal pollution in the golden horn (Turkey) sediments between 1912 and 1987.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, G; Tuncel, G; Balkas, T I

    2001-05-01

    The Golden Horn is a heavily polluted water body in a large metropolitan area with a population of approximately 10 million. A 3-m long undisturbed core sample was collected in the Golden Horn, from research vessel RV Knorr, during the third leg of the joint Turkish--American Black Sea expedition in 1989. The core was sliced and dated using the 210Pb isotope technique. The bottom of the core corresponds to the year 1912. Each slice was analysed for major, minor and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). The masses of the measured elements can account for approximately half of the sediment mass. The lithophilic elements Li, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Ba, Al, La, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni account for more than 90% of the elemental mass and do not show any change in their concentrations between 1912 and 1987. Although anthropogenic elements Mo, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ag, and Cd account for a minute fraction of the elemental mass, their concentrations increase along the core, signifying human influence on chemical composition of the Golden Horn Sediments. Lead was enriched at the bottom of the core suggesting pollution of Golden Horn sediments by this element even at the beginning of the century, but observed concentrations of the remaining anthropogenic elements, at the bottom of the core, can be explained by sedimentary material. Concentrations of pollution-derived elements do not change significantly between 1912 and 1950, but their concentrations increase sharply in the second half of the century. A factor analysis applied to the data set has shown that the inorganic fraction of the Golden Horn sediments includes crustal, marine and two anthropogenic components. One of the anthropogenic components is attributed to the discharges from an iron and steel plant. The second anthropogenic component, which accounted for a larger fraction of system variance, is due to discharges from industries, particularly metalwork plants. PMID:11436815

  10. 76 FR 31920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... interactions are not as common in this region. Deforestation events have increased in golden-winged warbler... by increasing deforestation and migrating individuals are impacted by the increasing number...

  11. Genomics into Healthcare: the 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium.

    PubMed

    Fortina, Paolo; Al Khaja, Najib; Al Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Nair, Pratibha; Innocenti, Federico; Patrinos, George P; Kricka, Larry J

    2014-05-01

    The joint 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium, "Genomics into Healthcare" was coorganized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in collaboration with the Golden Helix Foundation (http://www.goldenhelix.org) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 17 to 19 November, 2013. The meeting was attended by over 900 participants, doctors and biomedical students from over 50 countries and was organized into a series of nine themed sessions that covered cancer genomics and epigenetics, genomic and epigenetic studies, genomics of blood and metabolic disorders, cytogenetic diagnosis and molecular profiling, next-generation sequencing, consanguinity and hereditary diseases, clinical genomics, clinical applications of pharmacogenomics, and genomics in public health. PMID:24526565

  12. Genomics into Healthcare: The 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Fortina, Paolo; AlKhaja, Najib; Al Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Nair, Pratibha; Innocenti, Federico; Patrinos, George P.; Kricka, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The joint 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium, Genomics into Healthcare was coorganized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in collaboration with the Golden Helix Foundation (http://www.goldenhelix.org) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 17 to 19 November, 2013. The meeting was attended by over 900 participants, doctors and biomedical students from over 50 countries and was organized into a series of nine themed sessions that covered cancer genomics and epigenetics, genomic and epigenetic studies, genomics of blood and metabolic disorders, cytogenetic diagnosis and molecular profiling, next-generation sequencing, consanguinity and hereditary diseases, clinical genomics, clinical applications of pharmacogenomics, and genomics in public health. PMID:24526565

  13. Allelic diversity at the DLA-88 locus in Golden Retriever and Boxer breeds is limited

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Peter; Buntzman, Adam S.; Vincent, Benjamin G.; Grover, Elise N.; Gojanovich, Gregory S.; Collins, Edward J.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Hess, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    In the dog, previous analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes suggest a single polymorphic locus, Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA)-88. While 51 alleles have been reported, estimates of prevalence have not been made. We hypothesized that, within a breed, DLA-88 diversity would be restricted, and one or more dominant alleles could be identified. Accordingly, we determined allele usage in 47 Golden Retrievers and 39 Boxers. In each population, 10 alleles were found; 4 were shared. Seven novel alleles were identified. DLA-88*05101 and *50801 predominated in Golden Retrievers, while most Boxers carried *03401. In these breeds DLA-88 polymorphisms are limited and largely non-overlapping. The finding of highly prevalent alleles fulfills an important prerequisite for studying canine CD8+ T-cell responses. PMID:22571293

  14. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamor virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamor virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamor virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamor virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. PMID:25064267

  15. Echinococcus multilocularis and Trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (Canis aureus) of Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szll, Z; Marucci, G; Pozio, E; Srter, T

    2013-10-18

    Over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has increased significantly in Europe, particularly in the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe. Vagrant individuals were described in many European countries. Herein, we report Echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and Trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in Hungary. It is a new host record of E. multilocularis and T. spiralis in Europe and Hungary, respectively. As jackals migrate for long distances through natural ecological corridors (e.g., river valleys), they may play a significant role in the long distance spread of zoonotic parasites into non-endemic areas of Europe. Therefore, monitoring zoonotic parasites in this host species can be recommended in the European Union. PMID:23688637

  16. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirovi?, Duko; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Sneana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  17. [Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region. PMID:21874583

  18. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    ?irovi?, Duko; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanovi?, Sneana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/201002/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  19. Effect of noise on the critical golden-mean quasiperiodic dynamics in the circle map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexander P.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.; Sedova, Julia V.

    2006-01-01

    Scaling regularities are examined associated with effect of additive noise on a critical circle map at the golden-mean rotation number. We present an improved numerical estimate for the scaling constant of Hamm and Graham (Phys. Rev. A46, (1992) 6323) responsible for the effect of noise, ?=2.3061852653. Decrease of the noise amplitude by this number ensures possibility to distinguish one more level of fractal-like structure, associated with increase of characteristic time scale by the golden mean factor (?{5}+1)/2. Numeric results demonstrating evidence of the expected scaling are presented, e.g. portraits of the noisy attractors, devil's staircase plots, Lyapunov charts on the parameter plane in different scales.

  20. Isolation of blood granulocytes from golden hamsters for the study of chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Spanel-Borowski, K

    1991-01-01

    Since the number of granulocytes is low in the circulating pool of adult golden hamsters, intraperitoneal injection of oyster glycogen was used to mobilize white blood cells from the non-circulating pool. The percentage of blood granulocytes increased from 7 to 49%. Mobilized granulocytes, purified by a discontinuous Percoll gradient, showed adherence to polycarbonate filters only when coated by collagen. Random migration was high using the modified Boyden chamber technique. While endotoxin-activated serum caused chemotactic response, it was absent when the tripeptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine was applied at concentrations of 10(-7) or 10(-8) M. The true chemotactic response corresponded to the proportion of migrated cells versus the total cell number adherent to both sides of the filter. It is concluded that the golden hamster is a good model for the study of granulocyte sequestration. PMID:1849210

  1. 76 FR 56220 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan for Golden Gate National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...In accord with Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, and pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality's regulations (40 CFR parts 1500-08), the National Park Service has prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) for the updating the General Management Plan (GMP) for Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Muir Woods National Monument. The Draft......

  2. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce genotoxicity but not mutagenicity in golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei.

    PubMed

    Girardello, Francine; Custdio Leite, Camila; Vianna Villela, Izabel; da Silva Machado, Miriana; Luiz Mendes Juchem, Andr; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Neves Fernandes, Andreia; Salvador, Mirian; Antonio Pgas Henriques, Joo

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) in consumer products is the cause of its appearance in wastewater and effluents, reaching the aquatic environment. The evaluation of the biological impact of TiO2-NP and the need to understand its ecotoxicological impact to the aquatic ecosystem are of major concern. Bivalve mollusks may represent a target group for nanoparticle toxicity. Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel), a freshwater bivalve organism that has been employed in biomonitoring environmental conditions. Comet assay, micronucleus test and oxidative damage to lipids and proteins were performed after the golden mussel was exposed to TiO2-NP (1, 5, 10 and 50?gmL(-1)). The results demonstrate that TiO2-NP can damage the DNA of haemocytes after 2h of exposure and the genotoxic activity significantly increased after 4h exposure to TiO2-NP, at all the TiO2-NP concentrations. TiO2-NP was ineffective in causing mutagenicity in the haemolymph cells of golden mussel. The increase in the lipid peroxidation levels and carbonyl proteins after the exposure to TiO2-NP indicates the induction of oxidative stress at 2h exposure with similar results to all TiO2-NP concentrations, but these effects did not occur at 4h exposure. These results demonstrated that, although TiO2-NP is not mutagenic to golden mussel, it does induce DNA damage and oxidative stress in these organisms. PMID:26675368

  3. Improved Coagulation and Blood Conservation in the Golden Hours After Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Scott R.; Carlile, Dee; Bissinger, Randall C.; Burrell, M.; Winkler, Thomas; Shely, William W.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The Hemobag (HB) technique allows the open-heart team to safely concentrate the residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit contents and return a high volume of concentrated clotting factors and blood cells back to the patient as autotransfusion. Hematocrit, platelet count, fibrinogen concentration ([Fib]), prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) were compared between two prospective convenience groups of cardiac surgical patients whose residual circuit blood was processed by the HB (n = 10) or by the Cell Saver (CS; n = 10) at two times after CPB: (a) after acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) infusion and protamine administration and (b) after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), ?1 hour after CPB and HB content infusion. Minimal cell processing was also used in the HB patients to conserve blood. Golden hours is defined as the first few hours after CPB and protamine sulfate administration and extend into the ICU, when maintaining hemostasis is vital during cardiac surgery and is the most susceptible period for blood product administration and the opportunity to improve patient outcome. Except for PTT, all parameters changed significantly from the ANH infusion and protamine administration to ?1 hour after HB blood infusion and arrival in the ICU. Fibrinogen (p = .048) and hematocrit (p = .046) were significantly higher in the HB group compared with the CS group at the end of the golden hour despite infusion of significantly more allogeneic blood products (p = .070) and more washed red blood cells (RBCs; p = .001) in the CS group. All but one of the HB patients did not receive any allogeneic blood products during the golden hours. Use of the HB technique for salvaging blood is associated with significant increases in the patients protein and cellular concentrations and lowered coagulation times in the important, first few golden hours after CPB, and except for one patient, without the addition of expensive and precarious allogeneic blood products. PMID:17672193

  4. Atherosclerosis associated with vasculopathic lesions in a golden retriever with hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Boynosky, Nicole A.; Stokking, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male golden retriever dog presented for lameness secondary to ulcerations of multiple digital paw pads was diagnosed with vasculitis and hypercholesterolemia. Despite treatment, ischemic necrosis progressed to include all distal extremities and the dog eventually expired due to myocardial infarction secondary to severe atherosclerosis. The rapid demise and the dermatologic lesions may have been secondary to cholesterol embolism syndrome which has never before been reported in a dog. PMID:24790237

  5. A golden point rule in rock-paper-scissors-lizard-spock game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui; Wang, Xueting; He, Mingfeng

    2013-06-01

    We study a novel five-species system on two-dimensional lattices when each species have two superior and two inferior partners. Here we simplify the huge parameter space of predation probability to only two parameters. Both of Monte Carlo simulation and Mean Field Theory reveal that two of strategies may die out when the ratio of the two parameters is close to the golden point 0.618, and the remaining three strategies are provided a cyclic dominance system.

  6. Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Whittingham, M J

    2005-04-01

    Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of their adult tipulid prey, to assess the potential for climate change to disrupt breeding performance. Golden plover first-laying dates were negatively correlated with both March and April temperature, the mean laying date of first clutches was additionally negatively correlated with March rainfall. The timing of final laying dates were negatively correlated with April temperature only. The timing of tipulid emergence was negatively correlated with May temperature. In combination with historical climatic data, these models suggest a 9-day advancement of golden plover first-laying dates occurred during the 1990s, although this remains within the range of natural variation for the twentieth century. The magnitudes of predicted changes in mean and final laying dates, and the timing of tipulid emergence, were smaller. Climate predictions for 2070-2099 suggest potential advances in first-laying dates by 25 days, whilst the timings of mean and final laying dates are predicted to change by 18 days and 13 days, and tipulid emergence by 12 days. Given the importance of adult tipulids to young golden plover chicks, these changes may result in a mismatch between the timing of first-laying dates and tipulid emergence, so reducing the success of early breeding attempts. Modelling suggests that these changes could reduce breeding success in a South Pennines population by about 11%. PMID:15685442

  7. RESPONSES OF 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS' APPLES TO 1-MCP APPLIED IN AIR AND WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Golden Delciuous' [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]apple fruit were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 0.42, 4.2 or 42 mmol m**-3 in air at 20 deg C or 0.03, 0.3 or 3 mmol m**-3 in 20 deg C water. Fruit were held in air at 20 deg C for 25 days after treatment or stored at ...

  8. The clinical and morphologic features of nonepidermolytic ichthyosis in the golden retriever.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, E A; Credille, K M; Dunstan, R W; Casal, M L

    2008-03-01

    A scaling disorder specific to Golden Retriever dogs has been recognized by both dermatologists and pathologists, but to date has not been well characterized. At the University of Pennsylvania's Laboratory of Toxicology and Pathology, 46 cases of ichthyosis were diagnosed histologically in Golden Retriever dogs from January 2004 to January 2007. A total of 22 dogs had skin lesions documented at younger than 1 year of age; 3 dogs between 1 and 2 years of age; 13 dogs developed lesions at older than 2 years; and the time of onset was unknown for 8 dogs. A total of 25 dogs were female, and 21 were male. All dogs had strikingly similar histopathologic changes that consisted of mild to moderate laminar orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with an absence of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation. Ultrastructural analysis using a ruthenium tetroxide fixation method was performed on punch biopsy samples from 5 dogs and compared with 2 control dogs (1 clinically and histologically normal sibling of an affected dog and 1 Cairn Terrier). All affected dogs had retained and convoluted membranes with crystalline structures in the stratum corneum. Scattered keratinocytes in the granular cell layer had prominent, clear, membrane-bound, cytoplasmic vacuoles. Pedigree analysis of 14 dogs was compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance, but incomplete dominance could not be ruled out. This unique hyperkeratotic/scaling disorder in Golden Retrievers has distinctive clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural features, which are consistent with a primary cornification defect. PMID:18424829

  9. Medical care of children during the golden age of Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Modanlou, Houchang D

    2015-04-01

    During the Sassanid Empire in Persia (226-652 AD), there was a renaissance of humanistic sciences, including medicine, in the city of Gondi-Shapur. When the Islamic center of power moved to Baghdad in about 750 AD, physicians of Gondi-Shapur, including the dean of the medical school (a Nestorian Christian), gradually moved to Baghdad constructing hospitals and medical schools. Aided by the Persian and Nestorian Christians, the Islamic civilization ushered in what is considered to be the Golden Age of Islam from the 8th to 13th century AD. During this period, there were remarkable achievements in humanistic sciences including medicine by many physicians/authors whose medical textbooks were used for centuries in burgeoning medical schools in Europe. The medical texts written during the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine contain sections and chapters about the clinical conditions, diseases and medical care of children. It was during this era that the first treatise was written on the diseases of children and their care. This essay will describe, in brief, the writings about the conditions and diseases of children and their medical care, by three prominent Persian physicians of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine: 1) Abubakr Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Razi, Rhazes (865-925 AD); 2) Ali ibn-al-Abbas al-Majusi or Haly Abbas (949-994 AD); and 3)  Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina or Avicenna (980-1037 AD). PMID:25841951

  10. Complex periodic orbits, renormalization, and scaling for quasiperiodic golden-mean transition to chaos.

    PubMed

    Ivankov, N Y; Kuznetsov, S P

    2001-04-01

    At the critical point of the golden-mean quasiperiodic transition to chaos we show the presence of an infinite sequence of unstable orbits in complex domain with periods given by the Fibonacci numbers. The Floquet eigenvalues (multipliers) are found to converge fast to a universal complex constant. We explain this result on the basis of the renormalization group approach and suggest using it for accurate estimates of the location of the golden-mean critical points in parameter space for a class of nonlinear dissipative systems defined analytically. As an example, we obtain data for the golden-mean critical point in the two-dimensional dissipative invertible map of Zaslavsky. We give a set of graphical illustrations for the scaling properties and emphasize that demonstration of self-similarity on two-dimensional diagrams of Arnold tongues requires the use of a properly chosen curvilinear coordinate system. We discuss a procedure of construction of the appropriate local coordinate system in the parameter plane and present the corresponding data for the circle map and Zaslavsky map. PMID:11308933

  11. Complex periodic orbits, renormalization, and scaling for quasiperiodic golden-mean transition to chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivankov, Nikolai Yu.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2001-04-01

    At the critical point of the golden-mean quasiperiodic transition to chaos we show the presence of an infinite sequence of unstable orbits in complex domain with periods given by the Fibonacci numbers. The Floquet eigenvalues (multipliers) are found to converge fast to a universal complex constant. We explain this result on the basis of the renormalization group approach and suggest using it for accurate estimates of the location of the golden-mean critical points in parameter space for a class of nonlinear dissipative systems defined analytically. As an example, we obtain data for the golden-mean critical point in the two-dimensional dissipative invertible map of Zaslavsky. We give a set of graphical illustrations for the scaling properties and emphasize that demonstration of self-similarity on two-dimensional diagrams of Arnold tongues requires the use of a properly chosen curvilinear coordinate system. We discuss a procedure of construction of the appropriate local coordinate system in the parameter plane and present the corresponding data for the circle map and Zaslavsky map.

  12. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  13. Denovo assembly and characterization of tissue-specific transcriptome in the endangered golden mahseer, Tor putitora

    PubMed Central

    Barat, Ashoktaru; Kumar, Rohit; Goel, Chirag; Singh, Atul Kumar; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari

    2015-01-01

    The golden mahseer (Tor putitora) graces most of the Himalayan Rivers of India and neighboring South Asian countries. Despite its several importance as a research model, as food, and in sport fishing, knowledge on transcriptome database is nil. Therefore, it was targeted to develop reference transcriptome databases of the species using next-generation sequencing. In the present study, 100,540,130 high-quality paired-end reads were obtained from six cDNA libraries of spleen, liver, gill, kidney, muscle, and brain with 28.4GB data using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Tissue-specific transcriptomes as well as complete transcriptome assembly were analyzed for concise representation of the study. In brief, the de novo assembly of individual tissue resulted in an average of 31,829 (18,51246,348) contigs per sample, while combined transcriptome comprised 77,907 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) assembled from reads of six tissues. Approximately 75,407 (96.8%) unigenes could be annotated according to their homology matches in the nr, SwisseProt, GO, or KEGG databases. Comparative analysis showed that 84% of the unigenes have significant similarity to zebra fish RefSeq proteins. Tissue-specific-dominated genes were also identified to hypothesize their localization and expression in individual tissue. In addition, 2485 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected from 77,907 transcripts in the combined transcriptome of the golden mahseer. This study has generated organ-specific transcriptome profiles, which will be helpful to understand the local adaptation, genome evolution, and also future functional studies on immune system of the golden mahseer. PMID:26702399

  14. Thioredoxin of golden pompano involved in the immune response to Photobacterium damselae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Zhang, Nan; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui; Zhang, Dianchang

    2015-08-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is one of the key systems responsible for keeping the intracellular environment in a highly reduced state. In this study, a full-length TRX cDNA sequence (ToTRX) from golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus was identified after pyrosequencing of golden pompano cDNA library. ToTRX cDNA is comprised of 786 bp, and contained a 324 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 107 amino acid polypeptide, a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 116 bp, and a long 3'- UTR of 346 bp. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that ToTRX contained the highly conserved redox active disulphide/dithiol site (CGPC) of the thioredoxin active family, and phylogenetic tree showed that ToTRX had a closer evolution relationship with TRX from Oplegnathus fasciatus and Anoplopoma fimbria. ToTRX mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissues with the higher expression levels in the stomach, gill and fin tissues. The expression of ToTRX mRNA was significantly up-regulated in liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of golden pompano injected with Photobacterium damselae. The recombinant ToTRX protein (rToTRX) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then purified and refolded. The insulin disulfides assay was performed to investigate the enzymatic oxidoreductase activity of rToTRX, and the results demonstrated that rToTRX exhibited a high reducing activity in presence of DTT, while no activity was observed in the regroup without DTT and blank control group. Over all, the study provided the useful information to help further understand the functional mechanism of TRX in marine fish immunity. PMID:26052015

  15. Vomeronasal organ lesion disrupts social odor recognition, behaviors and fitness in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Zhang, Jinhua; Liu, Dingzhen; Zhang, Jianxu

    2014-06-01

    Most studies support the viewpoint that the vomeronasal organ has a profound effect on conspecific odor recognition, scent marking and mating behavior in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in social odor recognition, social interaction and fitness is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a series of behavioral and physiological tests to examine the referred points in golden hamster. We found that male hamsters with vomeronasal organ lesion showed no preference between a predator odor (the anal gland secretion of the Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) and putative female pheromone components (myristic acid and palmitic acid), but were still able to discriminate between these 2 kinds of odors. In behavioral tests of anxiety, we found that vomeronasal organ removal causes female hamsters to spend much less time in center grids and to cross fewer center grids and males to make fewer crossings between light and dark boxes than sham-operated controls. This indicates that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion induced anxious responses in females. In aggressive behavioral tests, we found that a chronic vomeronasal organ lesion decreased agonistic behavior in female hamsters but not in males. The pup growth and litter size show no differences between the 2 groups. All together, our data suggested that vomeronasal organ ablation disrupted the olfactory recognition of social chemosignals in males, and induced anxiety-like and aggressive behavior changes in females. However, a vomeronasal organ lesion did not affect the reproductive capacity and fitness of hamsters. Our studies may have important implications concerning the role of the vomeronasal organ in golden hamsters and also in rodents. PMID:24952966

  16. Hematologic reference values for clinically healthy captive golden conures (Guaruba guarouba).

    PubMed

    Prioste, Fabola Eloisa Setim; Zwarg, Ticiana; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Rocha, Arnaldo; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2012-12-01

    Golden conures or ararajubas (Guaruba guarouba) are endangered parrots endemic to the Brazilian Amazon forest. Body mass, blood cell counts, and total plasma protein were determined for 70 clinically healthy golden conures captive at zoologic parks and private breeder facilities in Brazil. Hematologic results (mean +/- SD) were: Erythrocytes 3.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(6) cells/mm3, hemoglobin 12.8 +/- 1.4 g/dl, packed cell volume 46 +/- 3.8%, mean corpuscular volume 132 +/- 20 fl, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 36 +/- 5.7 pg, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 28 +/- 3.5%, thrombocytes 26.3 +/- 9.3 x 10(3) cells/mm3, leukocytes 11.9 +/- 4.5 x 10(3) cells/mm3, heterophils 6284 +/- 2715 cells/mm3, lymphocytes 5473 +/- 2408 cells/ mm3, monocytes 113 +/- 162 cells/mm3, eosinophils 10 +/- 42 cells/mm3, basophils 27 +/- 64 cells/mm3. Body mass was 254 +/- 24.9 g and total plasma protein (TPP) was 3.54 +/- 0.58 g/dl. No statistical differences were observed between genders within age groups. Differences between juveniles (J) and adults (A) were identified for TPP (J < A), MCH (J > A), and MCHC (J > A). These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic results for the species. Hematology may be an important tool for population health investigations on free-ranging golden conure populations and will also be essential to survey the health of release candidates in future reintroduction programs. PMID:23397841

  17. Golden mean renormalization for a generalized Harper equation: The Ketoja-Satija orchid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestel, B. D.; Osbaldestin, A. H.

    2004-12-01

    We provide a rigorous analysis of the fluctuations of localized eigenstates in a generalized Harper equation with golden mean flux and with next-nearest-neighbor interactions. For next-nearest-neighbor interaction above a critical threshold, these self-similar fluctuations are characterized by orbits of a renormalization operator on a universal strange attractor, whose projection was dubbed the "orchid" by Ketoja and Satija [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2762 (1995)]. We show that the attractor is given essentially by an embedding of a subshift of finite type, and give a description of its periodic orbits.

  18. Lead contamination of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos within the range of the California condor Gymnogyps californianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloom, P.H.; Scott, J.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Smith, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 66 golden eagles from June 1985 to January 1986 and analyzed for their lead content. Thirty-nine percent had blood lead levels greater than 0.2 ppm, indicating exposure to environmental lead. Within the exposed group, 3 had blood levels exceeding 0.6 ppm and one exceeded 1.0 ppm. These data suggest that lead, probably in the form of shot, bullets, or bullet fragments, poses a hazard to scavenging birds within the range of the California condor.

  19. The {tau}-contamination in the golden channel at the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Coloma, Pilar

    2011-10-06

    Experimental results could lead to wrong measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters if the so-called {tau}-contamination is not properly taken into account in the data analysis. It was shown in [1] that, if a migration matrix giving the energy distribution of muon neutrinos coming from tau-decays in the detector is included, the analysis can be done in the reconstructed neutrino energy and the problem is solved for the golden channel. We will also present some preliminary results for the disappearance channel, where the {tau}-contamination is more severe.

  20. CPV Cell Characterization Following One-Year Exposure in Golden, Colorado: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-08-01

    A CPV module containing 30 III-V multijunction cells was operated on?sun for one year in Golden, Colorado. Each cell was characterized prior to and following exposure. A module power degradation of 10% was observed and found to be a result as an overall decrease in cell short circuit current and the presence of at least one shunted cell. A positive correlation between initial shunt current and an increase in shunt current following exposure was also found. Cell exfoliation was also observed and found to be coincident with the presence of water and/or charring of the cell package due to an off-sun event.

  1. First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. Methods A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Results Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. Conclusions This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country. PMID:24985073

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Taillebois, Laura; Crook, David; Saunders, Thor; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    We describe the complete mitochondrial genome of the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii. It was assembled from approximately 1.4 million reads produced by Ion Torrent next generation sequencing. The complete genome was 16,596 bp in length consisting of 13 protein-coding regions, 22 tRNA, 12S and 16S rRNA as well as two non-coding regions. The A+T base content (52.8%) is similar to other teleosts. PMID:24845443

  3. The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, J B

    1995-07-01

    The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.

  4. Preliminary evidence for the use of microseismic cues for navigation by the Namib golden mole.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Edwin R; Narins, Peter M; Jarvis, Jennifer U M; Bronner, Gary; Mason, Matthew J

    2006-02-01

    Insect prey of the Namib golden mole congregate beneath clumps of grass scattered among the sand dunes of the Namib Desert. In the presence of the light winds that typically blow over the Namib Desert, these grass clumps emit low-amplitude vibrations that are transmitted through the sand. While foraging in the sand-swimming mode (a few centimeters below the surface of the sand), some moles apparently were attracted toward manmade sources emitting vibrations matching those recorded from the grass clumps. This is the first direct evidence that these desert mammals use seismic cues for navigation. PMID:16521787

  5. Golden Handcuffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Teacher pensions consume a substantial portion of school budgets. If relatively generous pensions help attract effective teachers, the expense might be justified. But new evidence suggests that current pension systems, by concentrating benefits on teachers who spend their entire careers in a single state and penalizing mobile teachers, may…

  6. Golden Retrievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Provides a basic definition of metadata, including the usefulness of metatags for online information retrieval and documentation. Defines the elements of the Dublin Core, the next level of metadata. Discusses how librarians can take advantage of metadata. Describes the Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) Project whose goal is to use metadata to

  7. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    PubMed

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-01

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

  8. Radio-transmitters do not affect seasonal productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Gesmundo, Callie; Johnson, Michael K.; Fish, Alexander C.; Lehman, Justin A.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the potential effects of handling and marking techniques on study animals is important for correct interpretation of research results and to effect progress in data-collection methods. Few investigators have compared the reproductive output of radio-tagged and non-radio-tagged songbirds, and no one to date has examined the possible effect of radio-tagging adult songbirds on the survival of their fledglings. In 2011 and 2012, we compared several parameters of reproductive output of two groups of female Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) breeding in Minnesota, including 45 females with radio-transmitters and 73 females we did not capture, handle, or mark. We found no difference between groups in clutch sizes, hatching success, brood sizes, length of incubation and nestling stages, fledging success, number of fledglings, or survival of fledglings to independence. Thus, radio-tags had no measurable impact on the productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers. Our results build upon previous studies where investigators have reported no effects of radio-tagging on the breeding parameters of songbirds by also demonstrating no effect of radio-tagging through the post-fledging period and, therefore, the entire breeding season.

  9. Delayed effect of pinealectomy on hibernation of the golden-mantled ground squirrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, C. L.; Harlow, H. J.; Phillips, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Pinealectomy or radical sham pinealectomy were performed on adult golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus (=Citellus) lateralis, approximately 1 month prior to the date of normal winter emergence. The first hibernatory period and subsequent active season were not different in either of the operated groups from intact animals. However, although the initiation of the second hibernatory period was not affected in the pinealectomized animals, this group failed to show the progressive increase in the length of heterothermic bouts that is characteristic of normal hibernation. Also, terminal arousal occurred approximately 6 weeks earlier in the second year after pinealectomy. Male squirrels showed a corresponding time compression in their annual gonadal cycle, as was assessed by testicular state. These results suggest that the pineal gland of the golden-mantled ground squirrel is involved in the expression of the annual hibernatory cycle. In the absence of the pineal gland the adult of this species is unable to sustain the normal depth and duration of hibernation in the second over-wintering period following pinealectomy. We have carried out additional experiments with young, laboratory-born S. lateralis and with field-caught, adult S. richardsonii. The results of these studies also are described in this paper.

  10. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study: establishing an observational cohort study with translational relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Michael K.; Page, Rodney L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Olson, Patricia N.; Haworth, J. David; Searfoss, Erin E.; Brown, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study (GRLS) is the first prospective longitudinal study attempted in veterinary medicine to identify the major dietary, genetic and environmental risk factors for cancer and other important diseases in dogs. The GRLS is an observational study that will follow a cohort of 3000 purebred Golden Retrievers throughout their lives via annual online questionnaires from the dog owner and annual physical examinations and collection of biological samples by the primary care veterinarian. The field of comparative medicine investigating naturally occurring disorders in pets is specifically relevant to the many diseases that have a genetic basis for disease in both animals and humans, including cancer, blindness, metabolic and behavioural disorders and some neurodegenerative disorders. The opportunity for the GRLS to provide high-quality data for translational comparative medical initiatives in several disease categories is great. In particular, the opportunity to develop a lifetime dataset of lifestyle and activity, environmental exposure and diet history combined with simultaneous annual biological sample sets and detailed health outcomes will provide disease incidence data for this cohort of geographically dispersed dogs and associations with a wide variety of potential risk factors. The GRLS will provide a lifetime historical context, repeated biological sample sets and outcomes necessary to interrogate complex associations between genes and environmental influences and cancer. PMID:26056371

  11. Effects of fire on golden eagle territory occupancy and reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen; Marzluff, J.M.; Carpenter, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    We examined effects of fire on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproductive success in southwestern Idaho because wildfires since 1980 have resulted in large-scale losses of shrub habitat in the Snake River Plain. Success (percentage of pairs that raised young) at burned territories declined after major fires (P = 0.004). Pairs in burned areas that could expand into adjacent vacant territories were as successful as pairs in unburned territories and more successful than pairs in burned territories that could not expand. Success at extensively burned territories was lowest 4-6 years after burning but increased 4-5 years later. The incidence and extent of fires did not help predict territories that would have low occupancy and success rates in postburn years. The presence of a vacant neighboring territory and the amount of agriculture and proportion of shrubs within 3 km of the nesting centroid best predicted probability of territory occupancy. Nesting success during preburn years best predicted the probability of a territory being successful in postburn years. Burned territories with high success rates during preburn years continued to have high success rates during postburn years, and those with low success in preburn years continued to be less successful after burning. In areas where much shrub habitat has been lost to fire, management for golden eagles should include active fire suppression and rehabilitation of burned areas.

  12. DNA damage and repair in haemolymph cells of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) exposed to environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Villela, Izabel Vianna; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, Joo Antonio Pgas

    2006-06-16

    The development of methodologies for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems is of particular relevance in view of the serious problem of aquatic environmental pollution. The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) was chosen to be tested as a biomonitor organism based on its population data and distribution. L. fortunei individuals were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, and in vivo to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), with the aim of standardizing comet assay and micronucleus test methodologies and evaluating the potential of this organism as a biomonitor. Haemolymph cells immobilized in agarose on slides exposed to UV radiation showed a dose-response relationship with maximum damage at 4.2 J/m(2). For the chemical tests, individuals were exposed for 2h for the comet assay and 24 and 48 h for the micronucleus test. A dose-response relationship was observed for both chemicals. 3x10(-5) M CuSO(4) induced high genotoxicity, also producing some toxicity after 48 h of exposure. PCP induced maximum damage in both assays at 150 ?g/L. Individuals exposed to PCP showed 100% repair 2 h after the exposure period, as assessed by the comet assay. Exposure to an environmental sample over 7 days confirmed the mussel sensitivity to water contaminants, detected both by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The results allow us to suggest the golden mussel as a potential biomonitor organism. PMID:16697250

  13. Aesthetic judgment of triangular shape: compactness and not the golden ratio determines perceived attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Friedenberg, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Many studies over a period of more than a century have investigated the influence of the golden ratio on perceived geometric beauty. Surprisingly, very few of these studies used triangular shapes. In Experiment 1, we presented right triangles that differed in regard to their elongation determined by increasing the length of one side relative to another. Attractiveness ratings did not peak at the golden ratio, but there was a very strong influence of axis ratio overall. Participant ratings were a negative decreasing function of ratio. Triangles that pointed upward were judged as significantly more attractive than those that pointed down. We interpret these results according to a compactness hypothesis: triangles that are more compact are less likely to move or break and are thus considered more pleasing. Orientation also affects aesthetics. Upward-pointing triangles with a base parallel to the ground, regardless of their compactness, are also considered more perceptually stable and attractive. These findings were replicated across stimulus type in a second experiment with isosceles triangles and across testing procedure in a third experiment using a paired comparison technique. PMID:23145277

  14. The influence of weather on Golden Eagle migration in northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, R.E.; McClelland, B.R.; Mcclelland, P.T.; Key, C.H.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of 17 weather factors on migrating Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) near the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A. Local weather measurements were recorded at automated stations on the flanks of two peaks within the migration path. During a total of 506 hr of observation, the yearly number of Golden Eagles in autumn counts (1994-96) averaged 1973; spring counts (1995 and 1996) averaged 605 eagles. Mean passage rates (eagles/hr) were 16.5 in autumn and 8.2 in spring. Maximum rates were 137 in autumn and 67 in spring. Using generalized linear modeling, we tested for the effects of weather factors on the number of eagles counted. In the autumn model, the number of eagles increased with increasing air temperature, rising barometric pressure, decreasing relative humidity, and interactions among those factors. In the spring model, the number of eagles increased with increasing wind speed, barometric pressure, and the interaction between these factors. Our data suggest that a complex interaction among weather factors influenced the number of eagles passing on a given day. We hypothesize that in complex landscapes with high topographic relief, such as Glacier National Park, numerous weather factors produce different daily combinations to which migrating eagles respond opportunistically. ?? 2001 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. Examination of the negative alcohol-deprivation effect in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    DiBattista, D

    1991-01-01

    When ethanol-consuming animals are denied access to their ethanol solution for a period of days, there is typically a temporary but substantial increase in their ethanol consumption when the solution is returned. Golden hamsters are unusual in that they actually decrease their consumption of a 7% ethanol solution (v/v) under these circumstances. There experiments were therefore undertaken to further investigate this unusual negative alcohol-deprivation effect (ADE) in hamsters. In Experiment 1, the negative ADE was observed across a wide range of ethanol concentrations; adult male hamsters were given access to food, water, and either a 7.5, 15, or 30% (v/v) ethanol solution, and when the ethanol solution was withdrawn for seven days and then returned, ethanol consumption decreased significantly for several days and then recovered. Experiment 2 demonstrated that similar negative deprivation effects occur with glucose (15% w/v) and saccharin (0.1%) solutions, suggesting that the nutritional and pharmacological properties of ethanol do not play an important role in the negative ADE of hamsters. In Experiment 3, when hamsters with continuous access to either an ethanol, glucose, or saccharin solution were switched to an alternate-days access schedule, their intake of solutions decreased substantially, supporting the conclusion that a common mechanism accounts for the golden hamster's negative deprivation responses to ethanol solutions and to other solutions, both nutritive and nonnutritive. Hypotheses relating to the mechanism underlying negative deprivation effects are presented and discussed. PMID:1797030

  16. Sensitivity of early-life-stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    DeLonay, A.J. . School of Natural Resources); Little, E.E.; Woodward, F.; Brumbaugh, W.G. . Fish and Wildlife Service); Farag, A.M. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology); Rabeni, C.F. . Missouri Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit)

    1993-07-01

    Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 [mu]g/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations [>=] [mu]g/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress.

  17. Influenza A virus infection of primary differentiated airway epithelial cell cultures derived from Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, Celeste M.; Rowe, Regina K.; Pekosz, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The ability of several different influenza A virus strains to infect and replicate in primary, differentiated airway epithelial cell cultures from Syrian golden hamsters was investigated. All virus strains tested replicated equivalently in the cultures and displayed a preference for infecting nonciliated cells. This tropism correlated with the expression of both ?2,3- and ?2.,6-linked sialic acid on the nonciliated cells. In contrast, the ciliated cells did not have detectable ?2,6-linked sialic acid and expressed only low amounts of ?2,3-linked sialic acid. In contrast to clinical isolates, laboratory strains of influenza A virus infected a limited number of ciliated cells at late times post infection. The presence of ?2,3- and ?2,6-linked sialic acid residues on the same cell type suggests , Syrian golden hamsters and differentiated airway epithelial cell cultures derived from hamsters may provide a system for studying the reassortment of influenza A virus strains which utilize different forms of sialic acid as a primary virus receptor. PMID:16876846

  18. The connection between anthropometry and gait harmony unveiled through the lens of the golden ratio.

    PubMed

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Bini, Fabiano; Fusco, Augusto; Paolucci, Stefano; Marinozzi, Franco

    2016-01-26

    In nature, many systems have a harmonic organization due to their fractal structure related to an irrational number called golden ratio. That is a constant proportion found in phases of human gait cycle, and is also found in the lengths of human body segments. In this study we tested if artificial alterations in anthropometric proportions may alter gait proportions. Twenty healthy subjects (29.15±5.66years) were enrolled in this study and asked to walk normally and with special shoes altering their anthropometric proportions. Further, to test if the relationship between gait phases and anthropometry could be due to the pendular mechanism of walking, subjects were also asked to walk with extra masses located on their shanks. Results showed that the artificial alteration of body segment proportions affected the gait ratio based on the proportion of time between stance and swing (p=0.015). Conversely, no changes occurred during walking in weighted condition (p=0.394). These results confirm the connection between anthropometric proportions and gait ratio, and suggest the idea that humans may have evolved into the actual anthropometric proportions for favoring a walking having a golden ratio based harmony, but research is required to verify this hypothesis. PMID:26700875

  19. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    PubMed Central

    Poorbaghi, Seyedeh Leila; Javdani, Moosa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised. PMID:25653750

  20. Continuous Melatonin Attenuates the Regressing Activities of Short Photoperiod in Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donchan

    2013-01-01

    Golden hamsters reproduce in a limited time of a year. Their sexual activities are active in summer but inactive in winter during which day length does not exceed night time and environmental conditions are severe to them. The reproductive activities are determined by the length of light in a day (photoperiod). Melatonin is synthesized and secreted only at night time from the pineal gland. Duration of elevated melatonin is longer in winter than summer, resulting in gonadal regression. The present study aimed at the influences of continuous melatonin treatments impinging on the gonadal function in male golden hamsters. Animals received empty or melatonin-filled capsules for 10 weeks. They were divided into long photoperiod (LP) and short photoperiod (SP). All the animals maintained in LP (either empty or melatonin-filled capsules) showed large testes, implying that melatonin had no effects on testicular functions. Animals housed in SP displayed completely regressed testes. But animals kept in SP and implanted with melatonin capsules exhibited blockage of full regression by SP. These results suggest that constant release of melatonin prohibits the regressing influence of SP. PMID:25949127