Science.gov

Sample records for golgi retrograde trafficking

  1. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Assembly of {gamma}-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH{sub 2}-terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with {gamma}-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  2. Retrograde trafficking from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network mediated by the retromer is required for fungal development and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenhui; Zheng, Huawei; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Qiurong; Lin, Xiaolian; Chen, Ahai; Yu, Wenying; Lu, Guodong; Shim, Won-Bo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-06-01

    In eukaryotes, the retromer is an endosome-localized complex involved in protein retrograde transport. However, the role of such intracellular trafficking events in pathogenic fungal development and pathogenicity remains unclear. The role of the retromer complex in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using cell biological and genetic methods. We observed the retromer core component FgVps35 (Vacuolar Protein Sorting 35) in the cytoplasm as fast-moving puncta. FgVps35-GFP co-localized with both early and late endosomes, and associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN), suggesting that FgVps35 functions at the donor endosome membrane to mediate TGN trafficking. Disruption of microtubules with nocodazole significantly restricted the transportation of FgVps35-GFP and resulted in severe germination and growth defects. Mutation of FgVPS35 not only mimicked growth defects induced by pharmacological treatment, but also affected conidiation, ascospore formation and pathogenicity. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, we determined the interactions among FgVps35, FgVps26, FgVps29, FgVps17 and FgVps5 which are analogous to the yeast retromer complex components. Deletion of any one of these genes resulted in similar phenotypic defects to those of the ΔFgvps35 mutant and disrupted the stability of the complex. Overall, our results provide the first clear evidence of linkage between the retrograde transport mediated by the retromer complex and virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:26875543

  3. Subversion of Retrograde Trafficking by Translocated Pathogen Effectors.

    PubMed

    Personnic, Nicolas; Bärlocher, Kevin; Finsel, Ivo; Hilbi, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens subvert the endocytic bactericidal pathway to form specific replication-permissive compartments termed pathogen vacuoles or inclusions. To this end, the pathogens employ type III or type IV secretion systems, which translocate dozens, if not hundreds, of different effector proteins into their host cells, where they manipulate vesicle trafficking and signaling pathways in favor of the intruders. While the distinct cocktail of effectors defines the specific processes by which a pathogen vacuole is formed, the different pathogens commonly target certain vesicle trafficking routes, including the endocytic or secretory pathway. Recently, the retrograde transport pathway from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network emerged as an important route affecting pathogen vacuole formation. Here, we review current insight into the host cell's retrograde trafficking pathway and how vacuolar pathogens of the genera Legionella, Coxiella, Salmonella, Chlamydia, and Simkania employ mechanistically distinct strategies to subvert this pathway, thus promoting intracellular survival and replication. PMID:26924068

  4. PtdIns4P recognition by Vps74/GOLPH3 links PtdIns 4-kinase signaling to retrograde Golgi trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Christopher S.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Bessman, Nicholas J.; Setty, Thanuja Gangi; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2010-02-11

    Targeting and retention of resident integral membrane proteins of the Golgi apparatus underly the function of the Golgi in glycoprotein and glycolipid processing and sorting. In yeast, steady-state Golgi localization of multiple mannosyltransferases requires recognition of their cytosolic domains by the peripheral Golgi membrane protein Vps74, an orthologue of human GOLPH3/GPP34/GMx33/MIDAS (mitochondrial DNA absence sensitive factor). We show that targeting of Vps74 and GOLPH3 to the Golgi apparatus requires ongoing synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) by the Pik1 PtdIns 4-kinase and that modulation of the levels and cellular location of PtdIns4P leads to mislocalization of these proteins. Vps74 and GOLPH3 bind specifically to PtdIns4P, and a sulfate ion in a crystal structure of GOLPH3 indicates a possible phosphoinositide-binding site that is conserved in Vps74. Alterations in this site abolish phosphoinositide binding in vitro and Vps74 function in vivo. These results implicate Pik1 signaling in retention of Golgi-resident proteins via Vps74 and show that GOLPH3 family proteins are effectors of Golgi PtdIns 4-kinases.

  5. Osmotically induced cell volume changes alter anterograde and retrograde transport, Golgi structure, and COPI dissociation.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Linstedt, A D

    1999-05-01

    Physiological conditions that impinge on constitutive traffic and affect organelle structure are not known. We report that osmotically induced cell volume changes, which are known to occur under a variety of conditions, rapidly inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in mammalian cells. Both ER export and ER Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC)-to-Golgi trafficking steps were blocked, but retrograde transport was active, and it mediated ERGIC and Golgi collapse into the ER. Extensive tubulation and relatively rapid Golgi resident redistribution were observed under hypo-osmotic conditions, whereas a slower redistribution of the same markers, without apparent tubulation, was observed under hyperosmotic conditions. The osmotic stress response correlated with the perturbation of COPI function, because both hypo- and hyperosmotic conditions slowed brefeldin A-induced dissociation of betaCOP from Golgi membranes. Remarkably, Golgi residents reemerged after several hours of sustained incubation in hypotonic or hypertonic medium. Reemergence was independent of new protein synthesis but required PKC, an activity known to mediate cell volume recovery. Taken together these results indicate the existence of a coupling between cell volume and constitutive traffic that impacts organelle structure through independent effects on anterograde and retrograde flow and that involves, in part, modulation of COPI function. PMID:10233155

  6. Osmotically Induced Cell Volume Changes Alter Anterograde and Retrograde Transport, Golgi Structure, and COPI Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tina H.; Linstedt, Adam D.

    1999-01-01

    Physiological conditions that impinge on constitutive traffic and affect organelle structure are not known. We report that osmotically induced cell volume changes, which are known to occur under a variety of conditions, rapidly inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in mammalian cells. Both ER export and ER Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC)-to-Golgi trafficking steps were blocked, but retrograde transport was active, and it mediated ERGIC and Golgi collapse into the ER. Extensive tubulation and relatively rapid Golgi resident redistribution were observed under hypo-osmotic conditions, whereas a slower redistribution of the same markers, without apparent tubulation, was observed under hyperosmotic conditions. The osmotic stress response correlated with the perturbation of COPI function, because both hypo- and hyperosmotic conditions slowed brefeldin A-induced dissociation of βCOP from Golgi membranes. Remarkably, Golgi residents reemerged after several hours of sustained incubation in hypotonic or hypertonic medium. Reemergence was independent of new protein synthesis but required PKC, an activity known to mediate cell volume recovery. Taken together these results indicate the existence of a coupling between cell volume and constitutive traffic that impacts organelle structure through independent effects on anterograde and retrograde flow and that involves, in part, modulation of COPI function. PMID:10233155

  7. The yeast Batten disease orthologue Btn1 controls endosome–Golgi retrograde transport via SNARE assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kama, Rachel; Kanneganti, Vydehi; Ungermann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The human Batten disease gene CLN3 and yeast orthologue BTN1 encode proteins of unclear function. We show that the loss of BTN1 phenocopies that of BTN2, which encodes a retromer accessory protein involved in the retrieval of specific cargo from late endosomes (LEs) to the Golgi. However, Btn1 localizes to Golgi and regulates soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) function to control retrograde transport. Specifically, BTN1 overexpression and deletion have opposing effects on phosphorylation of the Sed5 target membrane SNARE, on Golgi SNARE assembly, and on Golgi integrity. Although Btn1 does not interact physically with SNAREs, it regulates Sed5 phosphorylation by modulating Yck3, a palmitoylated endosomal kinase. This may involve modification of the Yck3 lipid anchor, as substitution with a transmembrane domain suppresses the deletion of BTN1 and restores trafficking. Correspondingly, deletion of YCK3 mimics that of BTN1 or BTN2 with respect to LE–Golgi retrieval. Thus, Btn1 controls retrograde sorting by regulating SNARE phosphorylation and assembly, a process that may be adversely affected in Batten Disease patients. PMID:21987636

  8. Syntaxin 5-Dependent Retrograde Transport to the trans-Golgi Network Is Required for Adeno-Associated Virus Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Nonnenmacher, Mathieu E.; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Gillet, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular transport of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) is still incompletely understood. In particular, the trafficking steps preceding the release of incoming AAV particles from the endosomal system into the cytoplasm, allowing subsequent nuclear import and the initiation of gene expression, remain to be elucidated fully. Others and we previously showed that a significant proportion of viral particles are transported to the Golgi apparatus and that Golgi apparatus disruption caused by the drug brefeldin A efficiently blocks AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) transduction. However, because brefeldin A is known to exert pleiotropic effects on the entire endosomal system, the functional relevance of transport to the Golgi apparatus for AAV transduction remains to be established definitively. Here, we show that AAV2 trafficking toward the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the Golgi apparatus correlates with transduction efficiency and relies on a nonclassical retrograde transport pathway that is independent of the retromer complex, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes. AAV2 transduction is unaffected by the knockdown of syntaxins 6 and 16, which are two major effectors in the retrograde transport of both exogenous and endogenous cargo. On the other hand, inhibition of syntaxin 5 function by small interfering RNA silencing or treatment with cyclized Retro-2 strongly decreases AAV2 transduction and transport to the Golgi apparatus. This inhibition of transduction is observed with several AAV serotypes and a number of primary and immortalized cells. Together, our data strongly suggest that syntaxin 5-mediated retrograde transport to the Golgi apparatus is a broadly conserved feature of AAV trafficking that appears to be independent of the identity of the receptors used for viral attachment. IMPORTANCE Gene therapy constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of life-threatening conditions refractory to any other form of remedy. Adeno-associated virus (AAV

  9. Defects in the COG complex and COG-related trafficking regulators affect neuronal Golgi function

    PubMed Central

    Climer, Leslie K.; Dobretsov, Maxim; Lupashin, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is an evolutionarily conserved hetero-octameric protein complex that has been proposed to organize vesicle tethering at the Golgi apparatus. Defects in seven of the eight COG subunits are linked to Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG)-type II, a family of rare diseases involving misregulation of protein glycosylation, alterations in Golgi structure, variations in retrograde trafficking through the Golgi and system-wide clinical pathologies. A troublesome aspect of these diseases are the neurological pathologies such as low IQ, microcephaly, and cerebellar atrophy. The essential function of the COG complex is dependent upon interactions with other components of trafficking machinery, such as Rab-GTPases and SNAREs. COG-interacting Rabs and SNAREs have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Defects in Golgi maintenance disrupts trafficking and processing of essential proteins, frequently associated with and contributing to compromised neuron function and human disease. Despite the recent advances in molecular neuroscience, the subcellular bases for most neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. This article gives an overview of the potential contributions of the COG complex and its Rab and SNARE partners in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26578865

  10. Characterization of a Novel Yeast SNARE Protein Implicated in Golgi Retrograde Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Pokrovskaya, Irina D.; McNew, James A.; Waters, M. Gerard

    1997-01-01

    The protein trafficking machinery of eukaryotic cells is employed for protein secretion and for the localization of resident proteins of the exocytic and endocytic pathways. Protein transit between organelles is mediated by transport vesicles that bear integral membrane proteins (v-SNAREs) which selectively interact with similar proteins on the target membrane (t-SNAREs), resulting in a docked vesicle. A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNARE protein, which has been termed Vti1p, was identified by its sequence similarity to known SNAREs. Vti1p is a predominantly Golgi-localized 25-kDa type II integral membrane protein that is essential for yeast viability. Vti1p can bind Sec17p (yeast SNAP) and enter into a Sec18p (NSF)-sensitive complex with the cis-Golgi t-SNARE Sed5p. This Sed5p/Vti1p complex is distinct from the previously described Sed5p/Sec22p anterograde vesicle docking complex. Depletion of Vti1p in vivo causes a defect in the transport of the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y through the Golgi. Temperature-sensitive mutants of Vti1p show a similar carboxypeptidase Y trafficking defect, but the secretion of invertase and gp400/hsp150 is not significantly affected. The temperature-sensitive vti1 growth defect can be rescued by the overexpression of the v-SNARE, Ykt6p, which physically interacts with Vti1p. We propose that Vti1p, along with Ykt6p and perhaps Sft1p, acts as a retrograde v-SNARE capable of interacting with the cis-Golgi t-SNARE Sed5p. PMID:9398683

  11. BACE1 retrograde trafficking is uniquely regulated by the cytoplasmic domain of sortilin.

    PubMed

    Finan, Gina M; Okada, Hirokazu; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2011-04-01

    BACE1 (β-site β-amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1) mediates the first proteolytic cleavage of APP, leading to amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production. It has been reported that BACE1 intracellular trafficking, in particular endosome-to-TGN sorting, is mediated by adaptor complexes, such as retromer and Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding proteins (GGAs). Here we investigated whether sortilin, a Vps10p domain-sorting receptor believed to participate in retromer-mediated transport of select membrane cargoes, contributes to the subcellular trafficking and activity of BACE1. Our initial studies revealed increased levels of sortilin in post-mortem brain tissue of AD patients and that overexpression of sortilin leads to increased BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP in cultured cells. In contrast, RNAi suppression of sortilin results in decreased BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP. We also found that sortilin interacts with BACE1 and that a sortilin construct lacking its cytoplasmic domain, which contains putative retromer sorting motifs, remains bound to BACE1. However, expression of this truncated sortilin redistributes BACE1 from the trans-Golgi network to the endosomes and substantially reduces the retrograde trafficking of BACE1. Site-directed mutagenesis and chimera experiments reveal that the cytoplasmic tail of sortilin, but not those from other VPS10p domain receptors (e.g. SorCs1b and SorLA), plays a unique role in BACE1 trafficking. Our studies suggest a new function for sortilin as a modulator of BACE1 retrograde trafficking and subsequent generation of Aβ. PMID:21245145

  12. A novel imaging method for quantitative Golgi localization reveals differential intra-Golgi trafficking of secretory cargoes

    PubMed Central

    Tie, Hieng Chiong; Mahajan, Divyanshu; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Li; VanDongen, Antonius M. J.; Lu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Cellular functions of the Golgi are determined by the unique distribution of its resident proteins. Currently, electron microscopy is required for the localization of a Golgi protein at the sub-Golgi level. We developed a quantitative sub-Golgi localization method based on centers of fluorescence masses of nocodazole-induced Golgi ministacks under conventional optical microscopy. Our method is rapid, convenient, and quantitative, and it yields a practical localization resolution of ∼30 nm. The method was validated by the previous electron microscopy data. We quantitatively studied the intra-Golgi trafficking of synchronized secretory membrane cargoes and directly demonstrated the cisternal progression of cargoes from the cis- to the trans-Golgi. Our data suggest that the constitutive efflux of secretory cargoes could be restricted at the Golgi stack, and the entry of the trans-Golgi network in secretory pathway could be signal dependent. PMID:26764092

  13. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke; Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1–2 h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. - Highlights: • The Golgi apparatus reversibly disassembles by low pH treatment. • The cis-Golgi disassembles quickly generating tubular structures. • Both anterograde and retrograde transport between the ER and the Golgi apparatus are reduced. • Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO

  14. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  15. Interaction of Golgin-84 with the COG complex mediates the intra-Golgi retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Sohda, Miwa; Misumi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Ogata, Shigenori; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Hirose, Shinichi; Ikehara, Yukio; Oda, Kimimitsu

    2010-12-01

    The coiled-coil Golgi membrane protein golgin-84 functions as a tethering factor for coat protein I (COPI) vesicles. Protein interaction analyses have revealed that golgin-84 interacts with another tether, the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, through its subunit Cog7. Therefore, we explored the function of golgin-84 as the tether for COPI vesicles of intra-Golgi retrograde traffic. First, glycosylic maturation of both plasma membrane (CD44) and lysosomal (lamp1) glycoproteins was distorted in golgin-84 knockdown (KD) cells. The depletion of golgin-84 caused fragmentation of the Golgi with the mislocalization of Golgi resident proteins, resulting in the accumulation of vesicles carrying intra-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and cis-Golgi membrane protein GPP130. Similar observations were obtained by diminution of the COG complex, suggesting a strong correlation between the two tethers. Indeed, COG complex-dependent (CCD) vesicles that accumulate in Cog3 or Cog7 KD cells carried golgin-84. Surprisingly, the interaction between golgin-84 and another candidate tethering partner CASP (CDP/cut alternatively spliced product) decreased in Cog3 KD cells. These results indicate that golgin-84 on COPI vesicles interact with the COG complex before SNARE assembly, suggesting that the interaction of golgin-84 with COG plays an important role in the tethering process of intra-Golgi retrograde vesicle traffic. PMID:20874812

  16. ER/Golgi Intermediates Acquire Golgi Enzymes by Brefeldin a–Sensitive Retrograde Transport in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Love, Harold D.; Gushue, Jennifer N.; Bergeron, John J.M.; Ostermann, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    Secretory proteins exit the ER in transport vesicles that fuse to form vesicular tubular clusters (VTCs) which move along microtubule tracks to the Golgi apparatus. Using the well-characterized in vitro approach to study the properties of Golgi membranes, we determined whether the Golgi enzyme NAGT I is transported to ER/Golgi intermediates. Secretory cargo was arrested at distinct steps of the secretory pathway of a glycosylation mutant cell line, and in vitro complementation of the glycosylation defect was determined. Complementation yield increased after ER exit of secretory cargo and was optimal when transport was blocked at an ER/Golgi intermediate step. The rapid drop of the complementation yield as secretory cargo progresses into the stack suggests that Golgi enzymes are preferentially targeted to ER/Golgi intermediates and not to membranes of the Golgi stack. Two mechanisms for in vitro complementation could be distinguished due to their different sensitivities to brefeldin A (BFA). Transport occurred either by direct fusion of preexisting transport intermediates with ER/Golgi intermediates, or it occurred as a BFA-sensitive and most likely COP I–mediated step. Direct fusion of ER/Golgi intermediates with cisternal membranes of the Golgi stack was not observed under these conditions. PMID:10613904

  17. Mutant Huntingtin Impairs Post-Golgi Trafficking to Lysosomes by Delocalizing Optineurin/Rab8 Complex from the Golgi Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    del Toro, Daniel; Alberch, Jordi; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Martín-Ibáñez, Raquel; Xifró, Xavier; Egea, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Huntingtin regulates post-Golgi trafficking of secreted proteins. Here, we studied the mechanism by which mutant huntingtin impairs this process. Colocalization studies and Western blot analysis of isolated Golgi membranes showed a reduction of huntingtin in the Golgi apparatus of cells expressing mutant huntingtin. These findings correlated with a decrease in the levels of optineurin and Rab8 in the Golgi apparatus that can be reverted by overexpression of full-length wild-type huntingtin. In addition, immunoprecipitation studies showed reduced interaction between mutant huntingtin and optineurin/Rab8. Cells expressing mutant huntingtin produced both an accumulation of clathrin adaptor complex 1 at the Golgi and an increase of clathrin-coated vesicles in the vicinity of Golgi cisternae as revealed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, inverse fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis for lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor showed that the optineurin/Rab8-dependent post-Golgi trafficking to lysosomes was impaired in cells expressing mutant huntingtin or reducing huntingtin levels by small interfering RNA. Accordingly, these cells showed a lower content of cathepsin D in lysosomes, which led to an overall reduction of lysosomal activity. Together, our results indicate that mutant huntingtin perturbs post-Golgi trafficking to lysosomal compartments by delocalizing the optineurin/Rab8 complex, which, in turn, affects the lysosomal function. PMID:19144827

  18. TMEM115 is an integral membrane protein of the Golgi complex involved in retrograde transport

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Yan Shan; Tran, Ton Hoai Thi; Gounko, Natalia V.; Hong, Wanjin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Searching and evaluating the Human Protein Atlas for transmembrane proteins enabled us to identify an integral membrane protein, TMEM115, that is enriched in the Golgi complex. Biochemical and cell biological analysis suggested that TMEM115 has four candidate transmembrane domains located in the N-terminal region. Both the N- and C-terminal domains are oriented towards the cytoplasm. Immunofluorescence analysis supports that TMEM115 is enriched in the Golgi cisternae. Functionally, TMEM115 knockdown or overexpression delays Brefeldin-A-induced Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport, phenocopying cells with mutations or silencing of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding experiments reveals that TMEM115 interacts with the COG complex, and might self-interact to form dimers or oligomers. A short region (residues 206–229) immediately to the C-terminal side of the fourth transmembrane domain is both necessary and sufficient for Golgi targeting. Knockdown of TMEM115 also reduces the binding of the lectins peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), suggesting an altered O-linked glycosylation profile. These results establish that TMEM115 is an integral membrane protein of the Golgi stack regulating Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport and is likely to be part of the machinery of the COG complex. PMID:24806965

  19. Arabidopsis COG Complex Subunits COG3 and COG8 Modulate Golgi Morphology, Vesicle Trafficking Homeostasis and Are Essential for Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingxin; Li, Pengxiang; Gao, Caiji; Ding, Yu; Lan, Zhiyi; Shi, Zhixuan; Rui, Qingchen; Feng, Yihong; Liu, Yulong; Zhao, Yanxue; Wu, Chengyun; Zhang, Qian; Li, Yan; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Spatially and temporally regulated membrane trafficking events incorporate membrane and cell wall materials into the pollen tube apex and are believed to underlie the rapid pollen tube growth. In plants, the molecular mechanisms and physiological functions of intra-Golgi transport and Golgi integrity maintenance remain largely unclear. The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex has been implicated in tethering of retrograde intra-Golgi vesicles in yeast and mammalian cells. Using genetic and cytologic approaches, we demonstrate that T-DNA insertions in Arabidopsis COG complex subunits, COG3 and COG8, cause an absolute, male-specific transmission defect that can be complemented by expression of COG3 and COG8 from the LAT52 pollen promoter, respectively. No obvious abnormalities in the microgametogenesis of the two mutants are observed, but in vitro and in vivo pollen tube growth are defective. COG3 or COG8 proteins fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) label the Golgi apparatus. In pollen of both mutants, Golgi bodies exhibit altered morphology. Moreover, γ-COP and EMP12 proteins lose their tight association with the Golgi. These defects lead to the incorrect deposition of cell wall components and proteins during pollen tube growth. COG3 and COG8 interact directly with each other, and a structural model of the Arabidopsis COG complex is proposed. We believe that the COG complex helps to modulate Golgi morphology and vesicle trafficking homeostasis during pollen tube tip growth. PMID:27448097

  20. Isolation of Functional Golgi-derived Vesicles with a Possible Role in Retrograde Transport

    PubMed Central

    Love, Harold D.; Lin, Chung-Chih; Short, Craig S.; Ostermann, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    Secretory proteins enter the Golgi apparatus when transport vesicles fuse with the cis-side and exit in transport vesicles budding from the trans-side. Resident Golgi enzymes that have been transported in the cis-to-trans direction with the secretory flow must be recycled constantly by retrograde transport in the opposite direction. In this study, we describe the functional characterization of Golgi-derived transport vesicles that were isolated from tissue culture cells. We found that under the steady-state conditions of a living cell, a fraction of resident Golgi enzymes was found in vesicles that could be separated from cisternal membranes. These vesicles appeared to be depleted of secretory cargo. They were capable of binding to and fusion with isolated Golgi membranes, and after fusion their enzymatic contents most efficiently processed cargo that had just entered the Golgi apparatus. Those results indicate a possible role for these structures in recycling of Golgi enzymes in the Golgi stack. PMID:9456315

  1. Transport According to GARP: Receiving Retrograde Cargo at the Trans-Golgi Network

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hierro, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    Tethering factors are large protein complexes that capture transport vesicles and enable their fusion with acceptor organelles at different stages of the endomembrane system. Recent studies have shed new light on the structure and function of a heterotetrameric tethering factor named Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP), which promotes fusion of endosome-derived, retrograde transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). X-ray crystallography of the Vps53 and Vps54 subunits of GARP has revealed that this complex is structurally related to other tethering factors such as the exocyst, COG and Dsl1, indicating that they all might work by a similar mechanism. Loss of GARP function compromises the growth, fertility and/or viability of the defective organisms, underscoring the essential nature of GARP-mediated retrograde transport. PMID:21183348

  2. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E.; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S.; Mortimer, Jenny C.; Brown, Steven P.; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus. PMID:27277162

  3. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S; Mortimer, Jenny C; Brown, Steven P; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus. PMID:27277162

  4. Protein Kinase A Activity Is Necessary for Fission and Fusion of Golgi to Endoplasmic Reticulum Retrograde Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, María J.; Luchsinger, Charlotte; Mardones, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly accepted that together with vesicles, tubules play a major role in the transfer of cargo between different cellular compartments. In contrast to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of vesicular transport, little is known about tubular transport. How signal transduction molecules regulate these two modes of membrane transport processes is also poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether protein kinase A (PKA) activity regulates the retrograde, tubular transport of Golgi matrix proteins from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found that Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport of the Golgi matrix proteins giantin, GM130, GRASP55, GRASP65, and p115 was impaired in the presence of PKA inhibitors. In addition, we unexpectedly found accumulation of tubules containing both Golgi matrix proteins and resident Golgi transmembrane proteins. These tubules were still attached to the Golgi and were highly dynamic. Our data suggest that both fission and fusion of retrograde tubules are mechanisms regulated by PKA activity. PMID:26258546

  5. ECHIDNA-mediated post-Golgi trafficking of auxin carriers for differential cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Yohann; Jonsson, Kristoffer; McFarlane, Heather E; Johnson, Errin; Gendre, Delphine; Swarup, Ranjan; Friml, Jirí; Samuels, Lacey; Robert, Stéphanie; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2013-10-01

    The plant hormone indole-acetic acid (auxin) is essential for many aspects of plant development. Auxin-mediated growth regulation typically involves the establishment of an auxin concentration gradient mediated by polarly localized auxin transporters. The localization of auxin carriers and their amount at the plasma membrane are controlled by membrane trafficking processes such as secretion, endocytosis, and recycling. In contrast to endocytosis or recycling, how the secretory pathway mediates the localization of auxin carriers is not well understood. In this study we have used the differential cell elongation process during apical hook development to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the post-Golgi trafficking of auxin carriers in Arabidopsis. We show that differential cell elongation during apical hook development is defective in Arabidopsis mutant echidna (ech). ECH protein is required for the trans-Golgi network (TGN)-mediated trafficking of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 to the plasma membrane. In contrast, ech mutation only marginally perturbs the trafficking of the highly related auxin influx carrier LIKE-AUX1-3 or the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED-3, both also involved in hook development. Electron tomography reveals that the trafficking defects in ech mutant are associated with the perturbation of secretory vesicle genesis from the TGN. Our results identify differential mechanisms for the post-Golgi trafficking of de novo-synthesized auxin carriers to plasma membrane from the TGN and reveal how trafficking of auxin influx carriers mediates the control of differential cell elongation in apical hook development. PMID:24043780

  6. Golgi- and trans-Golgi network-mediated vesicle trafficking is required for wax secretion from epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Heather E; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Yang, Weili; Huang, Yan; Ohlrogge, John; Samuels, A Lacey

    2014-03-01

    Lipid secretion from epidermal cells to the plant surface is essential to create the protective plant cuticle. Cuticular waxes are unusual secretory products, consisting of a variety of highly hydrophobic compounds including saturated very-long-chain alkanes, ketones, and alcohols. These compounds are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but must be trafficked to the plasma membrane for export by ATP-binding cassette transporters. To test the hypothesis that wax components are trafficked via the endomembrane system and packaged in Golgi-derived secretory vesicles, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stem wax secretion was assayed in a series of vesicle-trafficking mutants, including gnom like1-1 (gnl1-1), transport particle protein subunit120-4, and echidna (ech). Wax secretion was dependent upon GNL1 and ECH. Independent of secretion phenotypes, mutants with altered ER morphology also had decreased wax biosynthesis phenotypes, implying that the biosynthetic capacity of the ER is closely related to its structure. These results provide genetic evidence that wax export requires GNL1- and ECH-dependent endomembrane vesicle trafficking to deliver cargo to plasma membrane-localized ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:24468625

  7. KIF13B regulates angiogenesis through Golgi to plasma membrane trafficking of VEGFR2

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kaori H.; Nakajima, Yuki; Geyer, Melissa; Wary, Kishore K.; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Komarova, Yulia; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the trafficking of newly synthesized VEGFR2 to the plasma membrane is a key determinant of angiogenesis, the molecular mechanisms of Golgi to plasma membrane trafficking are unknown. Here, we have identified a key role of the kinesin family plus-end molecular motor KIF13B in delivering VEGFR2 cargo from the Golgi to the endothelial cell surface. KIF13B is shown to interact directly with VEGFR2 on microtubules. We also observed that overexpression of truncated versions of KIF13B containing the binding domains that interact with VEGFR2 inhibited VEGF-induced capillary tube formation. KIF13B depletion prevented VEGF-mediated endothelial migration, capillary tube formation and neo-vascularization in mice. Impairment in trafficking induced by knockdown of KIF13B shunted VEGFR2 towards the lysosomal degradation pathway. Thus, KIF13B is an essential molecular motor required for the trafficking of VEGFR2 from the Golgi, and its delivery to the endothelial cell surface mediates angiogenesis. PMID:25128562

  8. Regulation of post-Golgi LH3 trafficking is essential for collagen homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Banushi, Blerida; Forneris, Federico; Straatman-Iwanowska, Anna; Strange, Adam; Lyne, Anne-Marie; Rogerson, Clare; Burden, Jemima J; Heywood, Wendy E; Hanley, Joanna; Doykov, Ivan; Straatman, Kornelis R; Smith, Holly; Bem, Danai; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Ariceta, Gema; Risteli, Maija; Wang, Chunguang; Ardill, Rosalyn E; Zaniew, Marcin; Latka-Grot, Julita; Waddington, Simon N; Howe, S J; Ferraro, Francesco; Gjinovci, Asllan; Lawrence, Scott; Marsh, Mark; Girolami, Mark; Bozec, Laurent; Mills, Kevin; Gissen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications are necessary for collagen precursor molecules (procollagens) to acquire final shape and function. However, the mechanism and contribution of collagen modifications that occur outside the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi are not understood. We discovered that VIPAR, with its partner proteins, regulate sorting of lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3, also known as PLOD3) into newly identified post-Golgi collagen IV carriers and that VIPAR-dependent sorting is essential for modification of lysines in multiple collagen types. Identification of structural and functional collagen abnormalities in cells and tissues from patients and murine models of the autosomal recessive multisystem disorder Arthrogryposis, Renal dysfunction and Cholestasis syndrome caused by VIPAR and VPS33B deficiencies confirmed our findings. Thus, regulation of post-Golgi LH3 trafficking is essential for collagen homeostasis and for the development and function of multiple organs and tissues. PMID:27435297

  9. Regulation of post-Golgi LH3 trafficking is essential for collagen homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Banushi, Blerida; Forneris, Federico; Straatman-Iwanowska, Anna; Strange, Adam; Lyne, Anne-Marie; Rogerson, Clare; Burden, Jemima J.; Heywood, Wendy E.; Hanley, Joanna; Doykov, Ivan; Straatman, Kornelis R.; Smith, Holly; Bem, Danai; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Ariceta, Gema; Risteli, Maija; Wang, Chunguang; Ardill, Rosalyn E.; Zaniew, Marcin; Latka-Grot, Julita; Waddington, Simon N.; Howe, S. J.; Ferraro, Francesco; Gjinovci, Asllan; Lawrence, Scott; Marsh, Mark; Girolami, Mark; Bozec, Laurent; Mills, Kevin; Gissen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications are necessary for collagen precursor molecules (procollagens) to acquire final shape and function. However, the mechanism and contribution of collagen modifications that occur outside the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi are not understood. We discovered that VIPAR, with its partner proteins, regulate sorting of lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3, also known as PLOD3) into newly identified post-Golgi collagen IV carriers and that VIPAR-dependent sorting is essential for modification of lysines in multiple collagen types. Identification of structural and functional collagen abnormalities in cells and tissues from patients and murine models of the autosomal recessive multisystem disorder Arthrogryposis, Renal dysfunction and Cholestasis syndrome caused by VIPAR and VPS33B deficiencies confirmed our findings. Thus, regulation of post-Golgi LH3 trafficking is essential for collagen homeostasis and for the development and function of multiple organs and tissues. PMID:27435297

  10. SAP97-mediated ADAM10 trafficking from Golgi outposts depends on PKC phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Saraceno, C; Marcello, E; Di Marino, D; Borroni, B; Claeysen, S; Perroy, J; Padovani, A; Tramontano, A; Gardoni, F; Di Luca, M

    2014-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is the major α-secretase that catalyzes the amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain shedding in the brain and prevents amyloid formation. Its activity depends on correct intracellular trafficking and on synaptic membrane insertion. Here, we describe that in hippocampal neurons the synapse-associated protein-97 (SAP97), an excitatory synapse scaffolding element, governs ADAM10 trafficking from dendritic Golgi outposts to synaptic membranes. This process is mediated by a previously uncharacterized protein kinase C phosphosite in SAP97 SRC homology 3 domain that modulates SAP97 association with ADAM10. Such mechanism is essential for ADAM10 trafficking from the Golgi outposts to the synapse, but does not affect ADAM10 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum. Notably, this process is altered in Alzheimer's disease brains. These results help in understanding the mechanism responsible for the modulation of ADAM10 intracellular path, and can constitute an innovative therapeutic strategy to finely tune ADAM10 shedding activity towards APP. PMID:25429624

  11. The Putative Arabidopsis Homolog of Yeast Vps52p Is Required for Pollen Tube Elongation, Localizes to Golgi, and Might Be Involved in Vesicle Trafficking1

    PubMed Central

    Lobstein, Eglantine; Guyon, Anouchka; Férault, Madina; Twell, David; Pelletier, Georges; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2004-01-01

    The screening of the Versailles collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA transformants allowed us to identify several male gametophytic mutants, including poky pollen tube (pok). The pok mutant, which could only be isolated as a hemizygous line, exhibits very short pollen tubes, explaining the male-specific transmission defect observed in this line. We show that the POK gene is duplicated in the Arabidopsis genome and that the predicted POK protein sequence is highly conserved from lower to higher eukaryotes. The putative POK homolog in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), referred to as Vps52p/SAC2, has been shown to be located at the late Golgi and to function in a complex with other proteins, Vps53p, Vps54p, and Vps51p. This complex is involved in retrograde trafficking of vesicles between the early endosomal compartment and the trans-Golgi network. We present the expression patterns of the POK gene and its duplicate P2 in Arabidopsis, and of the putative Arabidopsis homologs of VPS53 and VPS54 of yeast. We show that a POK::GFP fusion protein localizes to Golgi in plant cells, supporting the possibility of a conserved function for Vps52p and POK proteins. These results, together with the expression pattern of the POK::GUS fusion and the lack of plants homozygous for the pok mutation, suggest a more general role for POK in polar growth beyond the pollen tube elongation process. PMID:15235115

  12. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development. PMID:26887613

  13. Sip1, a Conserved AP-1 Accessory Protein, Is Important for Golgi/Endosome Trafficking in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Kita, Ayako; Udo, Masako; Katayama, Yuta; Shintani, Mami; Park, Kwihwa; Hagihara, Kanako; Umeda, Nanae; Sugiura, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    We had previously identified the mutant allele of apm1+ that encodes a homolog of the mammalian μ 1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex and demonstrated that the AP-1 complex plays a role in Golgi/endosome trafficking, secretion, and vacuole fusion in fission yeast. Here, we isolated a mutant allele of its4+/sip1+, which encodes a conserved AP-1 accessory protein. The its4-1/sip1-i4 mutants and apm1-deletion cells exhibited similar phenotypes, including sensitivity to the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, Cl− and valproic acid as well as various defects in Golgi/endosomal trafficking and cytokinesis. Electron micrographs of sip1-i4 mutants revealed vacuole fragmentation and accumulation of abnormal Golgi-like structures and secretory vesicles. Overexpression of Apm1 suppressed defective membrane trafficking in sip1-i4 mutants. The Sip1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) co-localized with Apm1-mCherry at Golgi/endosomes, and Sip1 physically interacted with each subunit of the AP-1 complex. We found that Sip1 was a Golgi/endosomal protein and the sip1-i4 mutation affected AP-1 localization at Golgi/endosomes, thus indicating that Sip1 recruited the AP-1 complex to endosomal membranes by physically interacting with each subunit of this complex. Furthermore, Sip1 is required for the correct localization of Bgs1/Cps1, 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase to polarized growth sites. Consistently, the sip1-i4 mutants displayed a severe sensitivity to micafungin, a potent inhibitor of 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase. Taken together, our findings reveal a role for Sip1 in the regulation of Golgi/endosome trafficking in coordination with the AP-1 complex, and identified Bgs1, required for cell wall synthesis, as the new cargo of AP-1-dependent trafficking. PMID:23028933

  14. Conserved Arabidopsis ECHIDNA protein mediates trans-Golgi-network trafficking and cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Delphine; Oh, Jaesung; Boutté, Yohann; Best, Jacob G; Samuels, Lacey; Nilsson, Robert; Uemura, Tomohiro; Marchant, Alan; Bennett, Malcolm J; Grebe, Markus; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2011-05-10

    Multiple steps of plant growth and development rely on rapid cell elongation during which secretory and endocytic trafficking via the trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role. Here, we identify the ECHIDNA (ECH) protein from Arabidopsis thaliana as a TGN-localized component crucial for TGN function. ECH partially complements loss of budding yeast TVP23 function and a Populus ECH complements the Arabidopsis ech mutant, suggesting functional conservation of the genes. Compared with wild-type, the Arabidopsis ech mutant exhibits severely perturbed cell elongation as well as defects in TGN structure and function, manifested by the reduced association between Golgi bodies and TGN as well as mislocalization of several TGN-localized proteins including vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit a1 (VHA-a1). Strikingly, ech is defective in secretory trafficking, whereas endocytosis appears unaffected in the mutant. Some aspects of the ech mutant phenotype can be phenocopied by treatment with a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases, concanamycin A, indicating that mislocalization of VHA-a1 may account for part of the defects in ech. Hence, ECH is an evolutionarily conserved component of the TGN with a central role in TGN structure and function. PMID:21512130

  15. Dynein Dysfunction Reproduces Age-Dependent Retromer Deficiency: Concomitant Disruption of Retrograde Trafficking Is Required for Alteration in β-Amyloid Precursor Protein Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Nobuyuki; Samura, Eriko; Suzuki, Keiko; Okabayashi, Sachi; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that β-amyloid (Aβ) protein plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis, and accumulating evidence suggests that endocytic dysfunction is involved in Aβ pathology. Retromer, a conserved multisubunit complex, mediates the retrograde transport of numerous kinds of cargo from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Several studies have found that retromer deficiency enhances Aβ pathology both in vitro and in vivo. Cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule-based motor protein, mediates minus-end-directed vesicle transport via interactions with dynactin, another microtubule-associated protein that also interacts with retromer. Aging attenuates the dynein-dynactin interaction, and dynein dysfunction reproduces age-dependent endocytic disturbance, resulting in the intracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its β-cleavage products, including Aβ. Here, we report that aging itself affects retromer trafficking in cynomolgus monkey brains. In addition, dynein dysfunction reproduces this type of age-dependent retromer deficiency (ie, the endosomal accumulation of retromer-related proteins and APP. Moreover, we found that knockdown of Rab7, Rab9, or Rab11 did not alter endogenous APP metabolism, such as that observed in aged monkey brains and in dynein-depleted cells. These findings suggest that dynein dysfunction can cause retromer deficiency and that concomitant disruption of retrograde trafficking may be the key factor underlying age-dependent Aβ pathology. PMID:27179390

  16. IntraGolgi distribution of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Vasile, Eliza; Oka, Toshihiko; Ericsson, Maria; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Krieger, Monty . E-mail: krieger@mit.edu

    2006-10-01

    The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is an eight-subunit (Cog1-8) peripheral Golgi protein involved in membrane trafficking and glycoconjugate synthesis. COG appears to participate in retrograde vesicular transport and is required to maintain normal Golgi structure and function. COG mutations interfere with normal transport, distribution, and/or stability of Golgi proteins associated with glycoconjugate synthesis and trafficking, and lead to failure of spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, misdirected migration of gonadal distal tip cells in Caenorhabditis elegans, and type II congenital disorders of glycosylation in humans. The mechanism by which COG influences Golgi structure and function is unclear. Immunogold electron microscopy was used to visualize the intraGolgi distribution of a functional, hemagglutinin epitope-labeled COG subunit, Cog1-HA, that complements the Cog1-deficiency in Cog1-null Chinese hamster ovary cells. COG was found to be localized primarily on or in close proximity to the tips and rims of the Golgi's cisternae and their associated vesicles and on vesicles and vesiculo-tubular structures seen on both the cis and trans-Golgi Network faces of the cisternal stacks, in some cases on COPI containing vesicles. These findings support the proposal that COG is directly involved in controlling vesicular retrograde transport of Golgi resident proteins throughout the Golgi apparatus.

  17. The Function of the Intermediate Compartment in Pre-Golgi Trafficking Involves its Stable Connection with the Centrosome

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Michaël; Dale, Hege A.; Sannerud, Ragna

    2009-01-01

    Because the functional borders of the intermediate compartment (IC) are not well defined, the spatial map of the transport machineries operating between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus remains incomplete. Our previous studies showed that the IC consists of interconnected vacuolar and tubular parts with specific roles in pre-Golgi trafficking. Here, using live cell imaging, we demonstrate that the tubules containing the GTPase Rab1A create a long-lived membrane compartment around the centrosome. Separation of this pericentrosomal domain of the IC from the Golgi ribbon, due to centrosome motility, revealed that it contains a distinct pool of COPI coats and acts as a temperature-sensitive way station in post-ER trafficking. However, unlike the Golgi, the pericentrosomal IC resists the disassembly of COPI coats by brefeldin A, maintaining its juxtaposition with the endocytic recycling compartment, and operation as the focal point of a dynamic tubular network that extends to the cell periphery. These results provide novel insight into the compartmental organization of the secretory pathway and Golgi biogenesis. Moreover, they reveal a direct functional connection between the IC and the endosomal system, which evidently contributes to unconventional transport of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator to the cell surface. PMID:19710425

  18. Retrograde intraciliary trafficking of opsin during the maintenance of cone-shaped photoreceptor outer segments of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guilian; Lodowski, Kerrie H; Lee, Richard; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Photoreceptor outer segments (OSs) are essential for our visual perception, and take either rod or cone forms. The cell biological basis for the formation of rods is well established; however, the mechanism of cone formation is ill characterized. While Xenopus rods are called rods, they exhibit cone-shaped OSs during the early process of development. To visualize the dynamic reorganization of disk membranes, opsin and peripherin/rds were fused to a fluorescent protein, Dendra2, and expressed in early developing rod photoreceptors, in which OSs are still cone-shaped. Dendra2 is a fluorescent protein which can be converted from green to red irreversibly, and thus allows spatiotemporal labeling of proteins. Using a photoconversion technique, we found that disk membranes are assembled at the base of cone-shaped OSs. After incorporation into disks, however, Opsin-Dendra2 was also trafficked from old to new disk membranes, consistent with the hypothesis that retrograde trafficking of membrane components contributes to the larger disk membrane observed toward the base of the cone-shaped OS. Such retrograde trafficking is cargo-specific and was not observed for peripherin/rds-Dendra2. The trafficking is unlikely mediated by diffusion, since the disk membranes have a closed configuration, as evidenced by CNGA1 labeling of the plasma membrane. Consistent with retrograde trafficking, the axoneme, which potentially mediates retrograde intraflagellar trafficking, runs through the entire axis of OSs. This study provides an insight into the role of membrane reorganization in developing photoreceptor OSs, and proves that retrograde trafficking of membrane cargoes can occur there. PMID:24855015

  19. A novel tribasic Golgi export signal directs cargo protein interaction with activated Rab11 and AP-1-dependent Golgi-plasma membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hirendrasinh B; Duncan, Roy

    2016-04-15

    The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins comprise a unique family of viral membrane fusion proteins dedicated to inducing cell-cell fusion. We recently reported that a polybasic motif (PBM) in the cytosolic tail of reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein functions as a novel tribasic Golgi export signal. Using coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays, we now show the PBM directs interaction of p14 with GTP-Rab11. Overexpression of dominant-negative Rab11 and RNA interference knockdown of endogenous Rab11 inhibited p14 plasma membrane trafficking and resulted in p14 accumulation in the Golgi complex. This is the first example of Golgi export to the plasma membrane that is dependent on the interaction of membrane protein cargo with activated Rab11. RNA interference and immunofluorescence microscopy further revealed that p14 Golgi export is dependent on AP-1 (but not AP-3 or AP-4) and that Rab11 and AP-1 both colocalize with p14 at the TGN. Together these results imply the PBM mediates interactions of p14 with activated Rab11 at the TGN, resulting in p14 sorting into AP1-coated vesicles for anterograde TGN-plasma membrane transport. PMID:26941330

  20. JMY is involved in anterograde vesicle trafficking from the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Kai; Waschbüsch, Dieter; Anft, Moritz; Hügging, Debbie; Kind, Sabine; Hänisch, Jan; Lakisic, Goran; Gautreau, Alexis; Barnekow, Angelika; Stradal, Theresia E B

    2014-01-01

    Junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) was originally identified as a transcriptional co-factor in the p53-response to DNA damage. Aside from this nuclear function, recent years have uncovered an additional function of JMY, namely in cytoskeleton remodelling and actin assembly. The C-terminus of JMY comprises a canonical VCA-module, the sequence signature of Arp2/3 complex activators. Furthermore, tandem repeats of 3 WH2 (V, or more recently also W) domains render JMY capable of Arp2/3 independent actin assembly. The motility promoting cytoplasmic function of JMY is abrogated upon DNA-damage and nuclear translocation of JMY. To address the precise cellular function of JMY in cellular actin rearrangements, we have searched for potential new interaction partners by mass spectrometry. We identified several candidates and correlated their localization with the subcellular dynamics of JMY. JMY is localized to dynamic vesiculo-tubular structures throughout the cytoplasm, which are decorated with actin and Arp2/3 complex. Moreover, JMY partially colocalizes and interacts with VAP-A, which is involved in vesicle-based transport processes. Finally, overexpression of JMY results in Golgi dispersal by loss from the trans-site and affects VSV-G transport. These analyses, together with biochemical experiments, indicate that JMY drives vesicular trafficking in the trans-Golgi region and at ER-membrane contact sites (MCS), distinct from other Arp2/3 activators involved in vesicle transport processes such as the related WHAMM or WASH. PMID:25015719

  1. The Noncanonical Role of ULK/ATG1 in ER-to-Golgi Trafficking Is Essential for Cellular Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Joo, Joung Hyuck; Wang, Bo; Frankel, Elisa; Ge, Liang; Xu, Lu; Iyengar, Rekha; Li-Harms, XiuJie; Wright, Christopher; Shaw, Timothy I; Lindsten, Tullia; Green, Douglas R; Peng, Junmin; Hendershot, Linda M; Kilic, Fusun; Sze, Ji Ying; Audhya, Anjon; Kundu, Mondira

    2016-05-19

    ULK1 and ULK2 are thought to be essential for initiating autophagy, and Ulk1/2-deficient mice die perinatally of autophagy-related defects. Therefore, we used a conditional knockout approach to investigate the roles of ULK1/2 in the brain. Although the mice showed neuronal degeneration, the neurons showed no accumulation of P62(+)/ubiquitin(+) inclusions or abnormal membranous structures, which are observed in mice lacking other autophagy genes. Rather, neuronal death was associated with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. An unbiased proteomics approach identified SEC16A as an ULK1/2 interaction partner. ULK-mediated phosphorylation of SEC16A regulated the assembly of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites and ER-to-Golgi trafficking of specific cargo, and did not require other autophagy proteins (e.g., ATG13). The defect in ER-to-Golgi trafficking activated the UPR pathway in ULK-deficient cells; both processes were reversed upon expression of SEC16A with a phosphomimetic substitution. Thus, the regulation of ER-to-Golgi trafficking by ULK1/2 is essential for cellular homeostasis. PMID:27203176

  2. Direct interactions of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 2 with the copper transporter ATP7A mediate its anterograde and retrograde trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    ATP7A is a P-type ATPase in which diverse mutations lead to X-linked recessive Menkes disease or occipital horn syndrome. Recently, two previously unknown ATP7A missense mutations, T994I and P1386S, were shown to cause an isolated distal motor neuropathy without clinical or biochemical features of other ATP7A disorders. These mutant alleles cause subtle defects in ATP7A intracellular trafficking, resulting in preferential plasma membrane localization compared with wild-type ATP7A. We reported previously that ATP7AP1386S causes unstable insertion of the eighth and final transmembrane segment, preventing proper position of the carboxyl-terminal tail in a proportion of mutant molecules. Here, we utilize this and other naturally occurring and engineered mutant ATP7A alleles to identify mechanisms of normal ATP7A trafficking. We show that adaptor protein (AP) complexes 1 and 2 physically interact with ATP7A and that binding is mediated in part by a carboxyl-terminal di-leucine motif. In contrast to other ATP7A missense mutations, ATP7AP1386S partially disturbs interactions with both APs, leading to abnormal axonal localization in transfected NSC-34 motor neurons and altered calcium-signaling following glutamate stimulation. Our results imply that AP-1 normally tethers ATP7A at the trans-Golgi network in the somatodendritic segments of motor neurons and that alterations affecting the ATP7A carboxyl-terminal tail induce release of the copper transporter to the axons or axonal membranes. The latter effects are intensified by diminished interaction with AP-2, impeding ATP7A retrograde trafficking. Taken together, these findings further illuminate the normal molecular mechanisms of ATP7A trafficking and suggest a pathophysiological basis for ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy. PMID:25574028

  3. Golgi- and Trans-Golgi Network-Mediated Vesicle Trafficking Is Required for Wax Secretion from Epidermal Cells1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Heather E.; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Yang, Weili; Huang, Yan; Ohlrogge, John; Samuels, A. Lacey

    2014-01-01

    Lipid secretion from epidermal cells to the plant surface is essential to create the protective plant cuticle. Cuticular waxes are unusual secretory products, consisting of a variety of highly hydrophobic compounds including saturated very-long-chain alkanes, ketones, and alcohols. These compounds are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but must be trafficked to the plasma membrane for export by ATP-binding cassette transporters. To test the hypothesis that wax components are trafficked via the endomembrane system and packaged in Golgi-derived secretory vesicles, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stem wax secretion was assayed in a series of vesicle-trafficking mutants, including gnom like1-1 (gnl1-1), transport particle protein subunit120-4, and echidna (ech). Wax secretion was dependent upon GNL1 and ECH. Independent of secretion phenotypes, mutants with altered ER morphology also had decreased wax biosynthesis phenotypes, implying that the biosynthetic capacity of the ER is closely related to its structure. These results provide genetic evidence that wax export requires GNL1- and ECH-dependent endomembrane vesicle trafficking to deliver cargo to plasma membrane-localized ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:24468625

  4. Cargo trafficking from the trans-Golgi network towards the endosome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungtae

    2016-08-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is a major sorting, packing and delivering station of newly synthesised proteins and lipids to their final destination. These cargo molecules follow the secretory pathway, which is a vital part of cellular trafficking machinery in all eukaryotic cells. This secretory pathway is well conserved in all eukaryotes from low-level eukaryotes, such as yeast, to higher level eukaryotes like mammals. The molecular mechanisms of protein sorting by adaptor proteins, membrane elongation and transport to the final destinations by motor proteins and the cytoskeleton, and membrane pinching-off by scission proteins must be choreographically managed for efficient cargo delivery, and the understanding of these detailed processes is not yet completed. Functionally, defects in these mechanisms are associated with the pathology of prominent diseases such as acute myeloid leukaemia, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, I-cell disease and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The present review points out the recent advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the transportation of the cargo from the TGN towards the endosome. PMID:27061938

  5. High-content analysis of Rab protein function at the ER-Golgi interface

    PubMed Central

    Galea, George; Simpson, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Rab family of small GTPases play fundamental roles in the regulation of trafficking pathways between intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells. In this short commentary we highlight a recent high-content screening study that investigates the roles of Rab proteins in retrograde trafficking from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum, and we discuss how the findings of this work and other literature might influence our thoughts on how the architecture of the Golgi complex is regulated. PMID:26693811

  6. A Membrane Coat Complex Essential for Endosome-to-Golgi Retrograde Transport in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, Matthew N.J.; Michael McCaffery, J.; Emr, Scott D.

    1998-01-01

    We have recently characterized three yeast gene products (Vps35p, Vps29p, and Vps30p) as candidate components of the sorting machinery required for the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the vacuolar protein sorting receptor Vps10p (Seaman, M.N.J., E.G. Marcusson, J.-L. Cereghino, and S.D. Emr. 1997. J. Cell Biol. 137:79–92). By genetic and biochemical means we now show that Vps35p and Vps29p interact and form part of a multimeric membrane-associated complex that also contains Vps26p, Vps17p, and Vps5p. This complex, designated here as the retromer complex, assembles from two distinct subcomplexes comprising (a) Vps35p, Vps29p, and Vps26p; and (b) Vps5p and Vps17p. Density gradient fractionation of Golgi/endosomal/vesicular membranes reveals that Vps35p cofractionates with Vps5p/Vps17p in a vesicle-enriched dense membrane fraction. Furthermore, gel filtration analysis indicates that Vps35p and Vps5p are present on a population of vesicles and tubules slightly larger than COPI/coatomer-coated vesicles. We also show by immunogold EM that Vps5p is localized to discrete regions at the rims of the prevacuolar endosome where vesicles appear to be budding. Size fractionation of cytosolic and recombinant Vps5p reveals that Vps5p can self-assemble in vitro, suggesting that Vps5p may provide the mechanical impetus to drive vesicle formation. Based on these findings we propose a model in which Vps35p/Vps29p/Vps26p function to select cargo for retrieval, and Vps5p/Vps17p assemble onto the membrane to promote vesicle formation. Conservation of the yeast retromer complex components in higher eukaryotes suggests an important general role for this complex in endosome-to-Golgi retrieval. PMID:9700157

  7. Structure of a C-terminal fragment of its Vps53 subunit suggests similarity of Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex to a family of tethering complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Vasan, Neil; Hutagalung, Alex; Novick, Peter; Reinisch, Karin M.

    2010-08-13

    The Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex is a membrane-tethering complex that functions in traffic from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Here we present the structure of a C-terminal fragment of the Vps53 subunit, important for binding endosome-derived vesicles, at a resolution of 2.9 {angstrom}. We show that the C terminus consists of two {alpha}-helical bundles arranged in tandem, and we identify a highly conserved surface patch, which may play a role in vesicle recognition. Mutations of the surface result in defects in membrane traffic. The fold of the Vps53 C terminus is strongly reminiscent of proteins that belong to three other tethering complexes - Dsl1, conserved oligomeric Golgi, and the exocyst - thought to share a common evolutionary origin. Thus, the structure of the Vps53 C terminus suggests that GARP belongs to this family of complexes.

  8. Molecular motor KIF1C is not essential for mouse survival and motor-dependent retrograde Golgi apparatus-to-endoplasmic reticulum transport.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuo; Takei, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yosuke; Nakagawa, Terunaga; Nakata, Takao; Noda, Yasuko; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2002-02-01

    KIF1C is a new member of the kinesin superfamily of proteins (KIFs), which act as microtubule-based molecular motors involved in intracellular transport. We cloned full-length mouse kif1C cDNA, which turned out to have a high homology to a mitochondrial motor KIF1Balpha and to be expressed ubiquitously. To investigate the in vivo significance of KIF1C, we generated kif1C(-/-) mice by knocking in the beta-galactosidase gene into the motor domain of kif1C gene. On staining of LacZ, we detected its expression in the heart, liver, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Unexpectedly, kif1C(-/-) mice were viable and showed no obvious abnormalities. Because immunocytochemistry showed partial colocalization of KIF1C with the Golgi marker protein, we compared the organelle distribution in primary lung fibroblasts from kif1C(+/+) and kif1C(-/-) mice. We found that there was no significant difference in the distribution of the Golgi apparatus or in the transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) facilitated by brefeldin A between the two cells. This retrograde membrane transport was further confirmed to be normal by time-lapse analysis. Consequently, KIF1C is dispensable for the motor-dependent retrograde transport from the Golgi apparatus to the ER. PMID:11784862

  9. Role of the Small GTPase Rho3 in Golgi/Endosome Trafficking through Functional Interaction with Adaptin in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Ayako; Li, Cuifang; Yu, Yang; Umeda, Nanae; Doi, Akira; Yasuda, Mitsuko; Ishiwata, Shunji; Taga, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Yoshitaka; Sugiura, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Background We had previously identified the mutant allele of apm1+ that encodes a homolog of the mammalian µ1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex, and we demonstrated the role of Apm1 in Golgi/endosome trafficking, secretion, and vacuole fusion in fission yeast. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we isolated rho3+, which encodes a Rho-family small GTPase, an important regulator of exocystosis, as a multicopy-suppressor of the temperature-sensitive growth of the apm1-1 mutant cells. Overexpression of Rho3 suppressed the Cl− sensitivity and immunosuppressant sensitivity of the apm1-1 mutant cells. Overexpression of Rho3 also suppressed the fragmentation of vacuoles, and the accumulation of v-SNARE Syb1 in Golgi/endosomes and partially suppressed the defective secretion associated with apm1-deletion cells. Notably, electron microscopic observation of the rho3-deletion cells revealed the accumulation of abnormal Golgi-like structures, vacuole fragmentation, and accumulation of secretory vesicles; these phenotypes were very similar to those of the apm1-deletion cells. Furthermore, the rho3-deletion cells and apm1-deletion cells showed very similar phenotypic characteristics, including the sensitivity to the immunosuppressant FK506, the cell wall-damaging agent micafungin, Cl−, and valproic acid. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Rho3 was localized at Golgi/endosomes as well as the plasma membrane and division site. Finally, Rho3 was shown to form a complex with Apm1 as well as with other subunits of the clathrin-associated AP-1 complex in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our findings reveal a novel role of Rho3 in the regulation of Golgi/endosome trafficking and suggest that clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 and Rho3 co-ordinate in intracellular transport in fission yeast. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of a direct link

  10. Retrograde Trafficking Inhibitor of Shiga Toxins Reduces Morbidity and Mortality of Mice Infected with Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Secher, T.; Shima, A.; Hinsinger, K.; Cintrat, J. C.; Johannes, L.; Barbier, J.; Gillet, D.

    2015-01-01

    The most deadly outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred in Europe in 2011. Here, we evaluated the effects of the retrograde trafficking inhibitor Retro-2cycl in a murine model of E. coli O104:H4 infection. Systemic treatment with Retro-2cycl significantly reduced body weight loss and improved clinical scores and survival rates for O104:H4-infected mice. The present data established that Retro-2cycl contributes to the protection of mice against O104:H4 infection and may represent a novel approach to limit Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-induced toxicity. PMID:25987610

  11. A 29-kilodalton Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (Vti1-rp2) implicated in protein trafficking in the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Wong, S H; Tang, B L; Subramaniam, V N; Zhang, T; Hong, W

    1998-08-21

    Expressed sequence tags coding for a potential SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) were revealed during data base searches. The deduced amino acid sequence of the complete coding region predicts a 217-residue protein with a COOH-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor. Affinity-purified antibodies raised against the cytoplasmic region of this protein specifically detect a 29-kilodalton integral membrane protein enriched in the Golgi membrane. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that this protein is mainly associated with the Golgi apparatus. When detergent extracts of the Golgi membrane are incubated with immobilized glutathione S-transferase alpha soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (GST-alpha-SNAP), this protein was specifically retained. This protein has been independently identified and termed Vti1-rp2, and it is homologous to Vti1p, a yeast Golgi SNARE. We further show that Vti1-rp2 can be qualitatively coimmunoprecipitated with Golgi syntaxin 5 and syntaxin 6, suggesting that Vti1-rp2 exists in at least two distinct Golgi SNARE complexes. In cells microinjected with antibodies against Vti1-rp2, transport of the envelope protein (G-protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane was specifically arrested at the Golgi apparatus, providing further evidence for functional importance of Vti1-rp2 in protein trafficking in the secretory pathway. PMID:9705316

  12. Uni-directional ciliary membrane protein trafficking by a cytoplasmic retrograde IFT motor and ciliary ectosome shedding

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Muqing; Ning, Jue; Hernandez-Lara, Carmen I; Belzile, Olivier; Wang, Qian; Dutcher, Susan K; Liu, Yanjie; Snell, William J

    2015-01-01

    The role of the primary cilium in key signaling pathways depends on dynamic regulation of ciliary membrane protein composition, yet we know little about the motors or membrane events that regulate ciliary membrane protein trafficking in existing organelles. Recently, we showed that cilium-generated signaling in Chlamydomonas induced rapid, anterograde IFT-independent, cytoplasmic microtubule-dependent redistribution of the membrane polypeptide, SAG1-C65, from the plasma membrane to the periciliary region and the ciliary membrane. Here, we report that the retrograde IFT motor, cytoplasmic dynein 1b, is required in the cytoplasm for this rapid redistribution. Furthermore, signaling-induced trafficking of SAG1-C65 into cilia is unidirectional and the entire complement of cellular SAG1-C65 is shed during signaling and can be recovered in the form of ciliary ectosomes that retain signal-inducing activity. Thus, during signaling, cells regulate ciliary membrane protein composition through cytoplasmic action of the retrograde IFT motor and shedding of ciliary ectosomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05242.001 PMID:25688564

  13. BEX5/RabA1b Regulates trans-Golgi Network-to-Plasma Membrane Protein Trafficking in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Feraru, Elena; Feraru, Mugurel I.; Asaoka, Rin; Paciorek, Tomasz; De Rycke, Riet; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nakano, Akihiko; Friml, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive endocytic recycling is a crucial mechanism allowing regulation of the activity of proteins at the plasma membrane and for rapid changes in their localization, as demonstrated in plants for PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins, the auxin transporters. To identify novel molecular components of endocytic recycling, mainly exocytosis, we designed a PIN1-green fluorescent protein fluorescence imaging–based forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that showed increased intracellular accumulation of cargos in response to the trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). We identified bex5 (for BFA-visualized exocytic trafficking defective), a novel dominant mutant carrying a missense mutation that disrupts a conserved sequence motif of the small GTPase, RAS GENES FROM RAT BRAINA1b. bex5 displays defects such as enhanced protein accumulation in abnormal BFA compartments, aberrant endosomes, and defective exocytosis and transcytosis. BEX5/RabA1b localizes to trans-Golgi network/early endosomes (TGN/EE) and acts on distinct trafficking processes like those regulated by GTP exchange factors on ADP-ribosylation factors GNOM-LIKE1 and HOPM INTERACTOR7/BFA-VISUALIZED ENDOCYTIC TRAFFICKING DEFECTIVE1, which regulate trafficking at the Golgi apparatus and TGN/EE, respectively. All together, this study identifies Arabidopsis BEX5/RabA1b as a novel regulator of protein trafficking from a TGN/EE compartment to the plasma membrane. PMID:22773752

  14. Reconstitution of the targeting of Rab6A to the Golgi apparatus in semi-intact HeLa cells: A role of BICD2 in stabilizing Rab6A on Golgi membranes and a concerted role of Rab6A/BICD2 interactions in Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Matsuto, Mariko; Kano, Fumi; Murata, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    Rab is a small GTP-binding protein family that regulates various pathways of vesicular transport. Although more than 60 Rab proteins are targeted to specific organelles in mammalian cells, the mechanisms underlying the specificity of Rab proteins for the respective organelles remain unknown. In this study, we reconstituted the Golgi targeting of Rab6A in streptolysin O (SLO)-permeabilized HeLa cells in a cytosol-dependent manner and investigated the biochemical requirements of targeting. Golgi-targeting assays identified Bicaudal-D (BICD)2, which is reportedly involved in the dynein-mediated transport of mRNAs during oogenesis and embryogenesis in Drosophila, as a cytosolic factor for the Golgi targeting of Rab6A in SLO-permeabilized HeLa cells. Subsequent immunofluorescence analyses indicated decreased amounts of the GTP-bound active form of Rab6 in BICD2-knockdown cells. In addition, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analyses revealed that overexpression of the C-terminal region of BICD2 decreased the exchange rate of GFP-Rab6A between the Golgi membrane and the cytosol. Collectively, these results indicated that BICD2 facilitates the binding of Rab6A to the Golgi by stabilizing its GTP-bound form. Moreover, several analyses of vesicular transport demonstrated that Rab6A and BICD2 play crucial roles in Golgi tubule fusion with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in brefeldin A (BFA)-treated cells, indicating that BICD2 is involved in coat protein I (COPI)-independent Golgi-to-ER retrograde vesicular transport. PMID:25962623

  15. Cholesterol regulates Syntaxin 6 trafficking at trans-Golgi network endosomal boundaries.

    PubMed

    Reverter, Meritxell; Rentero, Carles; Garcia-Melero, Ana; Hoque, Monira; Vilà de Muga, Sandra; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Conway, James R W; Wood, Peta; Cairns, Rose; Lykopoulou, Lilia; Grinberg, Daniel; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Bosch, Marta; Heeren, Joerg; Blasi, Juan; Timpson, Paul; Pol, Albert; Tebar, Francesc; Murray, Rachael Z; Grewal, Thomas; Enrich, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes causes cellular cholesterol imbalance, including cholesterol depletion in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Here, using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) mutant cell lines and human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts, we show that altered cholesterol levels at the TGN/endosome boundaries trigger Syntaxin 6 (Stx6) accumulation into VAMP3, transferrin, and Rab11-positive recycling endosomes (REs). This increases Stx6/VAMP3 interaction and interferes with the recycling of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins and cell migration, possibly in a Stx6-dependent manner. In NPC1 mutant cells, restoration of cholesterol levels in the TGN, but not inhibition of VAMP3, restores the steady-state localization of Stx6 in the TGN. Furthermore, elevation of RE cholesterol is associated with increased amounts of Stx6 in RE. Hence, the fine-tuning of cholesterol levels at the TGN-RE boundaries together with a subset of cholesterol-sensitive SNARE proteins may play a regulatory role in cell migration and invasion. PMID:24746815

  16. RAB2A controls MT1-MMP endocytic and E-cadherin polarized Golgi trafficking to promote invasive breast cancer programs.

    PubMed

    Kajiho, Hiroaki; Kajiho, Yuko; Frittoli, Emanuela; Confalonieri, Stefano; Bertalot, Giovanni; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Oldani, Amanda; Garre, Massimiliano; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Palamidessi, Andrea; Vecchi, Manuela; Chavrier, Philippe; Perez, Frank; Scita, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of tumor cell dissemination and the contribution of membrane trafficking in this process are poorly understood. Through a functional siRNA screening of human RAB GTPases, we found that RAB2A, a protein essential for ER-to-Golgi transport, is critical in promoting proteolytic activity and 3D invasiveness of breast cancer (BC) cell lines. Remarkably, RAB2A is amplified and elevated in human BC and is a powerful and independent predictor of disease recurrence in BC patients. Mechanistically, RAB2A acts at two independent trafficking steps. Firstly, by interacting with VPS39, a key component of the late endosomal HOPS complex, it controls post-endocytic trafficking of membrane-bound MT1-MMP, an essential metalloprotease for matrix remodeling and invasion. Secondly, it further regulates Golgi transport of E-cadherin, ultimately controlling junctional stability, cell compaction, and tumor invasiveness. Thus, RAB2A is a novel trafficking determinant essential for regulation of a mesenchymal invasive program of BC dissemination. PMID:27255086

  17. Golgi fragmentation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gunjan; Bekier, Michael E.; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an essential cellular organelle for post-translational modifications, sorting, and trafficking of membrane and secretory proteins. Proper functionality of the Golgi requires the formation of its unique cisternal-stacking morphology. The Golgi structure is disrupted in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a common mechanism and contribution of Golgi defects in neurodegenerative disorders. A recent study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) revealed that phosphorylation of the Golgi stacking protein GRASP65 disrupts its function in Golgi structure formation, resulting in Golgi fragmentation. Inhibiting GRASP65 phosphorylation restores the Golgi morphology from Aβ-induced fragmentation and reduces Aβ production. Perturbing Golgi structure and function in neurons may directly impact trafficking, processing, and sorting of a variety of proteins essential for synaptic and dendritic integrity. Therefore, Golgi defects may ultimately promote the development of AD. In the current review, we focus on the cellular impact of impaired Golgi morphology and its potential relationship to AD disease development. PMID:26441511

  18. Insights into the Localization and Function of the Membrane Trafficking Regulator GNOM ARF-GEF at the Golgi Apparatus in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Naramoto, Satoshi; Otegui, Marisa S.; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; de Rycke, Riet; Dainobu, Tomoko; Karampelias, Michael; Fujimoto, Masaru; Feraru, Elena; Miki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Hiroo; Nakano, Akihiko; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    GNOM is one of the most characterized membrane trafficking regulators in plants, with crucial roles in development. GNOM encodes an ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) that activates small GTPases of the ARF (ADP ribosylation factor) class to mediate vesicle budding at endomembranes. The crucial role of GNOM in recycling of PIN auxin transporters and other proteins to the plasma membrane was identified in studies using the ARF-GEF inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). GNOM, the most prominent regulator of recycling in plants, has been proposed to act and localize at so far elusive recycling endosomes. Here, we report the GNOM localization in context of its cellular function in Arabidopsis thaliana. State-of-the-art imaging, pharmacological interference, and ultrastructure analysis show that GNOM predominantly localizes to Golgi apparatus. Super-resolution confocal live imaging microscopy identified GNOM and its closest homolog GNOM-like 1 at distinct subdomains on Golgi cisternae. Short-term BFA treatment stabilizes GNOM at the Golgi apparatus, whereas prolonged exposures results in GNOM translocation to trans-Golgi network (TGN)/early endosomes (EEs). Malformed TGN/EE in gnom mutants suggests a role for GNOM in maintaining TGN/EE function. Our results redefine the subcellular action of GNOM and reevaluate the identity and function of recycling endosomes in plants. PMID:25012191

  19. A novel tribasic Golgi export signal directs cargo protein interaction with activated Rab11 and AP-1–dependent Golgi–plasma membrane trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Hirendrasinh B.; Duncan, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The reovirus fusion–associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins comprise a unique family of viral membrane fusion proteins dedicated to inducing cell–cell fusion. We recently reported that a polybasic motif (PBM) in the cytosolic tail of reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein functions as a novel tribasic Golgi export signal. Using coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays, we now show the PBM directs interaction of p14 with GTP-Rab11. Overexpression of dominant-negative Rab11 and RNA interference knockdown of endogenous Rab11 inhibited p14 plasma membrane trafficking and resulted in p14 accumulation in the Golgi complex. This is the first example of Golgi export to the plasma membrane that is dependent on the interaction of membrane protein cargo with activated Rab11. RNA interference and immunofluorescence microscopy further revealed that p14 Golgi export is dependent on AP-1 (but not AP-3 or AP-4) and that Rab11 and AP-1 both colocalize with p14 at the TGN. Together these results imply the PBM mediates interactions of p14 with activated Rab11 at the TGN, resulting in p14 sorting into AP1-coated vesicles for anterograde TGN–plasma membrane transport. PMID:26941330

  20. Insights into the localization and function of the membrane trafficking regulator GNOM ARF-GEF at the Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Naramoto, Satoshi; Otegui, Marisa S; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; de Rycke, Riet; Dainobu, Tomoko; Karampelias, Michael; Fujimoto, Masaru; Feraru, Elena; Miki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Hiroo; Nakano, Akihiko; Friml, Jiří

    2014-07-01

    GNOM is one of the most characterized membrane trafficking regulators in plants, with crucial roles in development. GNOM encodes an ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) that activates small GTPases of the ARF (ADP ribosylation factor) class to mediate vesicle budding at endomembranes. The crucial role of GNOM in recycling of PIN auxin transporters and other proteins to the plasma membrane was identified in studies using the ARF-GEF inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). GNOM, the most prominent regulator of recycling in plants, has been proposed to act and localize at so far elusive recycling endosomes. Here, we report the GNOM localization in context of its cellular function in Arabidopsis thaliana. State-of-the-art imaging, pharmacological interference, and ultrastructure analysis show that GNOM predominantly localizes to Golgi apparatus. Super-resolution confocal live imaging microscopy identified GNOM and its closest homolog GNOM-like 1 at distinct subdomains on Golgi cisternae. Short-term BFA treatment stabilizes GNOM at the Golgi apparatus, whereas prolonged exposures results in GNOM translocation to trans-Golgi network (TGN)/early endosomes (EEs). Malformed TGN/EE in gnom mutants suggests a role for GNOM in maintaining TGN/EE function. Our results redefine the subcellular action of GNOM and reevaluate the identity and function of recycling endosomes in plants. PMID:25012191

  1. The golgin GMAP-210 is required for efficient membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roboti, Peristera; Sato, Keisuke; Lowe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi complex. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular trafficking and Golgi organization. However, the degree to which individual golgins contribute to these processes is poorly defined, and it has been proposed that golgins act in a largely redundant manner. Previous studies on the golgin GMAP-210 (also known as TRIP11), which is mutated in the rare skeletal disorder achondrogenesis type 1A, have yielded conflicting results regarding its involvement in trafficking. Here, we re-investigated the trafficking role of GMAP-210, and found that it is indeed required for efficient trafficking in the secretory pathway. GMAP-210 acts at both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex during anterograde trafficking, and is also required for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Using co-depletion experiments, we also found that GMAP-210 acts in a partially redundant manner with the golgin GM130 to ensure efficient anterograde cargo delivery to the cis-Golgi. In summary, our results indicate a role for GMAP-210 in several trafficking steps at the ER–Golgi interface, some of which are partially redundant with another golgin, namely GM130 (also known as GOLGA2). PMID:25717001

  2. The golgin GMAP-210 is required for efficient membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Roboti, Peristera; Sato, Keisuke; Lowe, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that participate in membrane-tethering events at the Golgi complex. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular trafficking and Golgi organization. However, the degree to which individual golgins contribute to these processes is poorly defined, and it has been proposed that golgins act in a largely redundant manner. Previous studies on the golgin GMAP-210 (also known as TRIP11), which is mutated in the rare skeletal disorder achondrogenesis type 1A, have yielded conflicting results regarding its involvement in trafficking. Here, we re-investigated the trafficking role of GMAP-210, and found that it is indeed required for efficient trafficking in the secretory pathway. GMAP-210 acts at both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex during anterograde trafficking, and is also required for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Using co-depletion experiments, we also found that GMAP-210 acts in a partially redundant manner with the golgin GM130 to ensure efficient anterograde cargo delivery to the cis-Golgi. In summary, our results indicate a role for GMAP-210 in several trafficking steps at the ER-Golgi interface, some of which are partially redundant with another golgin, namely GM130 (also known as GOLGA2). PMID:25717001

  3. Soluble Glucan Is Internalized and Trafficked to the Golgi Apparatus in Macrophages via a Clathrin-Mediated, Lipid Raft-Regulated Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Matthew P.; Kalbfleisch, John H.; Williams, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Glucans are natural product carbohydrates that stimulate immunity. Glucans are internalized by the pattern recognition receptor, Dectin-1. Glucans were thought to be trafficked to phagolysosomes, but this is unproven. We examined the internalization and trafficking of soluble glucans in macrophages. Incubation of macrophages with glucan resulted in internalization of Dectin-1 and glucan. Inhibition of clathrin blocked internalization of the Dectin-1/glucan complex. Lipid raft depletion resulted in decreased Dectin levels and glucan uptake. Once internalized, glucans colocalized with early endosomes at 0 to 15 min, with the Golgi apparatus at 15 min to 24 h, and with Dectin-1 immediately (0 h) and again later (15 min-24 h). Glucans did not colocalize with lysosomes at any time interval examined. We conclude that the internalization of Dectin-1/glucan complexes in macrophages is mediated by clathrin and negatively regulated by lipid rafts and/or caveolin-1. Upon internalization, soluble glucans are trafficked via endosomes to the Golgi apparatus, not lysosomes. PMID:22700434

  4. Lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 participates in transport carrier formation and protein trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Johannes, Ludger; Pyne, Susan; Sarri, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2013-06-15

    The inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) activity by propanolol indicates that diacylglycerol (DAG) is required for the formation of transport carriers at the Golgi and for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Here we report that the PAP2 family member lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 (LPP3, also known as PAP2b) localizes in compartments of the secretory pathway from ER export sites to the Golgi complex. The depletion of human LPP3: (i) reduces the number of tubules generated from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi, with those formed from the Golgi being longer in LPP3-silenced cells than in control cells; (ii) impairs the Rab6-dependent retrograde transport of Shiga toxin subunit B from the Golgi to the ER, but not the anterograde transport of VSV-G or ssDsRed; and (iii) induces a high accumulation of Golgi-associated membrane buds. LPP3 depletion also reduces levels of de novo synthesized DAG and the Golgi-associated DAG contents. Remarkably, overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of LPP3 mimics the effects of LPP3 knockdown on Rab6-dependent retrograde transport. We conclude that LPP3 participates in the formation of retrograde transport carriers at the ER-Golgi interface, where it transitorily cycles, and during its route to the plasma membrane. PMID:23591818

  5. Common Pharmacophore of Structurally Distinct Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Intracellular Retrograde Trafficking of Ribosome Inactivating Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shichao; Park, Jewn Giew; Kahn, Jennifer Nielsen; Tumer, Nilgun E.; Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2013-12-01

    We reported previously (+/-)-2-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-3-phenyl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one [(+/-)-Retro-2cycl] as the chemical structure of Retro-2 that showed mouse protection against ricin, a notorious ribosome inactivating protein (RIP). Herein we report our chemical resolution of (+/-)-Retro-2cycl, analog synthesis, and cell-based evaluation showing that the two optically pure enantiomers and their achiral analog have nearly the same degree of cell protection against ricin as (+/-)-Retro-2cycl. We also report our computational studies explaining the lack of stereo preference and revealing a common pharmacophore of structurally distinct inhibitors of intracellular retrograde trafficking of RIPs. This pharmacophore comprises a central aromatic ring o-substituted by an aromatic ring and a moiety bearing an O or S atom attached to sp2 C atom(s). These results offer new insights into lead identification and optimization for RIP antidote development to minimize the global health threat caused by ribosome-inactivating proteins.

  6. Retromer-Mediated Trafficking of Transmembrane Receptors and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Stine C.; Siupka, Piotr; Nielsen, Morten S.

    2015-01-01

    Transport between the endoplasmatic reticulum, the Golgi-network, the endo-lysosomal system and the cell surface can be categorized as anterograde or retrograde, describing traffic that goes forward or backward, respectively. Traffic going from the plasma membrane to endosomes and lysosomes or the trans-Golgi network (TGN) constitutes the major retrograde transport routes. Several transmembrane proteins undergo retrograde transport as part of a recycling mechanism that contributes to reutilization and maintenance of a steady-state protein localization. In addition, some receptors are hijacked by exotoxins and used for entry and intracellular transport. The physiological relevance of retrograde transport cannot be overstated. Retrograde trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein determines the distribution between organelles, and hence the possibility of cleavage by γ-secretase. Right balancing of the pathways is critical for protection against Alzheimer’s disease. During embryonic development, retrograde transport of Wntless to the TGN is essential for the following release of Wnt from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of Wntless has been linked to oncogenesis. Here, we review relevant aspects of the retrograde trafficking of mammalian transmembrane receptors and transporters, with focus on the retromer-mediated transport between endosomes and the TGN. PMID:26154780

  7. Retromer-Mediated Trafficking of Transmembrane Receptors and Transporters.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Stine C; Siupka, Piotr; Nielsen, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    Transport between the endoplasmatic reticulum, the Golgi-network, the endo-lysosomal system and the cell surface can be categorized as anterograde or retrograde, describing traffic that goes forward or backward, respectively. Traffic going from the plasma membrane to endosomes and lysosomes or the trans-Golgi network (TGN) constitutes the major retrograde transport routes. Several transmembrane proteins undergo retrograde transport as part of a recycling mechanism that contributes to reutilization and maintenance of a steady-state protein localization. In addition, some receptors are hijacked by exotoxins and used for entry and intracellular transport. The physiological relevance of retrograde transport cannot be overstated. Retrograde trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein determines the distribution between organelles, and hence the possibility of cleavage by γ-secretase. Right balancing of the pathways is critical for protection against Alzheimer's disease. During embryonic development, retrograde transport of Wntless to the TGN is essential for the following release of Wnt from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of Wntless has been linked to oncogenesis. Here, we review relevant aspects of the retrograde trafficking of mammalian transmembrane receptors and transporters, with focus on the retromer-mediated transport between endosomes and the TGN. PMID:26154780

  8. Subcellular localizations of Arabidopsis myotubularins MTM1 and MTM2 suggest possible functions in vesicular trafficking between ER and cis-Golgi.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Akanksha; Ndamukong, Ivan; Hassan, Ammar; Avramova, Zoya; Baluška, František

    2016-08-01

    The two Arabidopsis genes AtMTM1 and AtMTM2 encode highly similar phosphoinositide 3-phosphatases from the myotubularin family. Despite the high-level conservation of structure and biochemical activities, their physiological roles have significantly diverged. The nature of a membrane and the concentrations of their membrane-anchored substrates (PtdIns3P or PtdIns3,5P2) and/or products (PtdIns5P and PtdIns) are considered critical for determining the functional specificity of myotubularins. We have performed comprehensive analyses of the subcellular localization of AtMTM1 and AtMTM2 using a variety of specific constructs transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells under the control of 35S promoter. AtMTM1 co-localized preferentially with cis-Golgi membranes, while AtMTM2 associated predominantly with ER membranes. In a stark contrast with animal/human MTMs, neither AtMTM1 nor AtMTM2 co-localizes with early or late endosomes or with TGN/EE compartments, making them unlikely participants in the endosomal trafficking system. Localization of the AtMTM2 is sensitive to cold and osmotic stress challenges. In contrast to animal myotubularins, Arabidopsis myotubularins do not associate with endosomes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis myotubularins play a role in the vesicular trafficking between ER exit sites and cis-Golgi elements. The significance of these results is discussed also in the context of stress biology and plant autophagy. PMID:27340857

  9. Suppression of oxidative damage by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATX2, which encodes a manganese-trafficking protein that localizes to Golgi-like vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S J; Culotta, V C

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) can be suppressed by overexpression of the S. cerevisiae ATX2 gene. Multiple copies of ATX2 were found to reverse the aerobic auxotrophies of sod1(delta) mutants for lysine and methionine and also to enhance the resistance of these yeast strains to paraquat and atmospheric levels of oxygen. ATX2 encodes a novel 34.4-kDa polypeptide with a number of potential membrane-spanning domains. Our studies indicate that Atx2p localizes to the membrane of a vesicular compartment in yeast cells reminiscent of the Golgi apparatus. With indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, Atx2p exhibited a punctate pattern of staining typical of the Golgi apparatus, and upon subcellular fractionation, Atx2p colocalized with a biochemical marker for the yeast Golgi apparatus. We demonstrate here that this vesicle protein normally functions in the homeostasis of manganese ions and that this role in metal metabolism is necessary for the ATX1 suppression of SOD1 deficiency. First, overexpression of ATX2 caused cells to accumulate increased levels of manganese. Second, a deletion in ATX2 caused a decrease in the apparent available level of intracellular manganese and caused sod1(delta) mutants to become dependent upon exogenous manganese for aerobic growth. Third, ATX2 was incapable of suppressing oxidative damage in cells depleted of manganese ions or lacking the plasma membrane transporter for manganese. The effect of ATX2 overexpression on manganese accumulation and oxygen resistance is similar to what we have previously reported for mutations in PMR1, which encodes a manganese-trafficking protein that also resides in a vesicular compartment. Our studies are consistent with a model in which Atx2p and Pmr1p work in opposite directions to control manganese homeostasis. PMID:8887660

  10. C4orf41 and TTC-15 are mammalian TRAPP components with a role at an early stage in ER-to-Golgi trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Scrivens, P. James; Noueihed, Baraa; Shahrzad, Nassim; Hul, Sokunthear; Brunet, Stephanie; Sacher, Michael

    2011-01-01

    TRAPP is a multisubunit tethering complex implicated in multiple vesicle trafficking steps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and conserved throughout eukarya, including humans. Here we confirm the role of TRAPPC2L as a stable component of mammalian TRAPP and report the identification of four novel components of the complex: C4orf41, TTC-15, KIAA1012, and Bet3L. Two of the components, KIAA1012 and Bet3L, are mammalian homologues of Trs85p and Bet3p, respectively. The remaining two novel TRAPP components, C4orf41 and TTC-15, have no homologues in S. cerevisiae. With this work, human homologues of all the S. cerevisiae TRAPP proteins, with the exception of the Saccharomycotina-specific subunit Trs65p, have now been reported. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrate that the novel proteins are bona fide components of human TRAPP and implicate C4orf41 and TTC-15 (which we call TRAPPC11 and TRAPPC12, respectively) in ER-to-Golgi trafficking at a very early stage. We further present a binary interaction map for all known mammalian TRAPP components and evidence that TRAPP oligomerizes. Our data are consistent with the absence of a TRAPP I–equivalent complex in mammalian cells, suggesting that the fundamental unit of mammalian TRAPP is distinct from that characterized in S. cerevisiae. PMID:21525244

  11. Role of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex in protein glycosylation☆

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Lupashin, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a central hub for both protein and lipid trafficking/sorting and is also a major site for glycosylation in the cell. This organelle employs a cohort of peripheral membrane proteins and protein complexes to keep its structural and functional organization. The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is an evolutionary conserved peripheral membrane protein complex that is proposed to act as a retrograde vesicle tethering factor in intra-Golgi trafficking. The COG protein complex consists of eight subunits, distributed in two lobes, Lobe A (Cog1–4) and Lobe B (Cog5–8). Malfunctions in the COG complex have a significant impact on processes such as protein sorting, glycosylation, and Golgi integrity. A deletion of Lobe A COG subunits in yeasts causes severe growth defects while mutations in COG1, COG7, and COG8 in humans cause novel types of congenital disorders of glycosylation. These pathologies involve a change in structural Golgi phenotype and function. Recent results indicate that down-regulation of COG function results in the resident Golgi glycosyltransferases/glycosidases to be mislocalized or degraded. PMID:18353293

  12. The small G protein Arl5 contributes to endosome-to-Golgi traffic by aiding the recruitment of the GARP complex to the Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Ferreira, Cláudia; Christis, Chantal; Torres, Isabel L.; Munro, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The small G proteins of the Arf family play critical roles in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton organization. However, the function of some members of the family remains poorly understood including Arl5 which is widely conserved in eukaryotes. Humans have two closely related Arl5 paralogues (Arl5a and Arl5b), and both Arl5a and Arl5b localize to the trans-Golgi with Arl5b being involved in retrograde traffic from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the function of Arl5, we have used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. We find that the single Arl5 orthologue in Drosophila also localizes to the trans-Golgi, but flies lacking the Arl5 gene are viable and fertile. By using both liposome and column based affinity chromatography methods we find that Arl5 interacts with the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex that acts in the tethering of vesicles moving from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In Drosophila tissues the GARP complex is partially displaced from the Golgi when Arl5 is absent, and the late endosomal compartment is enlarged. In addition, in HeLa cells GARP also becomes cytosolic upon depletion of Arl5b. These phenotypes are consistent with a role in endosome-to-Golgi traffic, but are less severe than loss of GARP itself. Thus it appears that Arl5 is one of the factors that directs the recruitment of the GARP complex to the trans-Golgi, and this function is conserved in both flies and humans. PMID:25795912

  13. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization. PMID:24424320

  14. Gga2 Mediates Sequential Ubiquitin-independent and Ubiquitin-dependent Steps in the Trafficking of ARN1 from the trans-Golgi Network to the Vacuole*

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi; Guo, Yan; Watson, Hadiya; Au, Wei-Chun; Shakoury-Elizeh, Minoo; Basrai, Munira A.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2009-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ARN1 encodes a transporter for the uptake of ferrichrome, an important nutritional source of iron. In the absence of ferrichrome, Arn1p is sorted directly from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the vacuolar lumen via the vacuolar protein-sorting pathway. Arn1p is mis-sorted to the plasma membrane in cells lacking Gga2p, a monomeric clathrin-adaptor protein involved in vesicular transport from the TGN. Although Ggas have been characterized as ubiquitin receptors, we show here that ubiquitin binding by Gga2 was not required for the TGN-to-endosome trafficking of Arn1, but it was required for subsequent sorting of Arn1 into the multivesicular body. In a ubiquitin-binding mutant of Gga2, Arn1p accumulated on the vacuolar membrane in a ubiquitinated form. The yeast epsins Ent3p and Ent4p were also involved in TGN-to-vacuole sorting of Arn1p. Amino-terminal sequences of Arn1p were required for vacuolar protein sorting, as mutation of ubiquitinatable lysine residues resulted in accumulation on the vacuolar membrane, and mutation of either a THN or YGL sequence resulted in mis-sorting to the plasma membrane. These studies suggest that Gga2 is involved in sorting at both the TGN and multivesicular body and that the first step can occur without ubiquitin binding. PMID:19574226

  15. Retromer guides STxB and CD8-M6PR from early to recycling endosomes, EHD1 guides STxB from recycling endosome to Golgi

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jenna E.; Raisley, Brent; Zhou, Xin; Naslavsky, Naava; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Caplan, Steve; Sheff, David

    2012-01-01

    Retrograde trafficking transports proteins, lipids and toxins from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and ER. To reach the Golgi, these cargos must transit the endosomal system, consisting of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes. All cargos pass through early endosomes, but may take different routes to the Golgi. Retromer dependent cargos bypass the late endosomes to reach the Golgi. We compared how two very different retromer dependent cargos negotiate the endosomal sorting system. Shiga toxin B, bound to the external layer of the plasma membrane, and chimeric CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor, which is anchored via a transmembrane domain. Both appear to pass through the recycling endosome. Ablation of the recycling endosome diverted both of these cargos to an aberrant compartment and prevented them from reaching the Golgi. Once in the recycling endosome, Shiga toxin required EHD1 to traffic to the TGN, while the CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor was not significantly dependent on EHD1. Knockdown of retromer components left cargo in the early endosomes, suggesting that it is required for retrograde exit from this compartment. This work establishes the recycling endosome as a required step in retrograde traffic of at least these two retromer dependent cargos. Along this pathway, retromer is associated with EE to recycling endosome traffic, while EHD1 is associated with recycling endosome to TGN traffic of STxB. PMID:22540229

  16. A tyrosine-based motif and a casein kinase II phosphorylation site regulate the intracellular trafficking of the varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein I, a protein localized in the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed Central

    Alconada, A; Bauer, U; Hoflack, B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the intracellular trafficking of the envelope glycoprotein I (gpI) of the varicella-zoster virus, a human herpes virus whose assembly is believed to occur in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and/or in endocytic compartments. When expressed in HeLa cells in the absence of additional virally encoded factors, this type-I membrane protein localizes to the TGN and cycles between this compartment and the cell surface. The expression of gpI promotes the recruitment of the AP-1 Golgi-specific assembly proteins onto TGN membranes, strongly suggesting that gpI, like the mannose 6-phosphate receptors, can leave the TGN in clathrin-coated vesicles for subsequent transport to endosomes. Its return from the cell surface to the TGN also occurs through endosomes. The transfer of the gpI cytoplasmic domain onto a reporter molecule shows that this domain is sufficient to confer TGN localization. Mutational analysis of this domain indicates that proper subcellular localization and cycling of gpI depend on two different determinants, a tyrosine-containing tetrapeptide related to endocytosis sorting signals and a cluster of acidic amino acids containing casein kinase II phosphorylatable residues. Thus, the VZV gpI and the mannose 6-phosphate receptors, albeit localized in different intracellular compartments at steady-state, follow similar trafficking pathways and share similar sorting mechanisms. Images PMID:8947032

  17. A Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent Prostaglandin E2 Biosynthetic System in the Golgi Apparatus*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chong; Smith, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COXs) catalyze the committed step in prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis. COX-1 is constitutively expressed and stable, whereas COX-2 is inducible and short lived. COX-2 is degraded via endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) following post-translational glycosylation of Asn-594. COX-1 and COX-2 are found in abundance on the luminal surfaces of the ER and inner membrane of the nuclear envelope. Using confocal immunocytofluorescence, we detected both COX-2 and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) but not COX-1 in the Golgi apparatus. Inhibition of trafficking between the ER and Golgi retarded COX-2 ERAD. COX-2 has a C-terminal STEL sequence, which is an inefficient ER retention signal. Substituting this sequence with KDEL, a robust ER retention signal, concentrated COX-2 in the ER where it was stable and slowly glycosylated on Asn-594. Native COX-2 and a recombinant COX-2 having a Golgi targeting signal but not native COX-1 exhibited efficient catalytic coupling to mPGES-1. We conclude that N-glycosylation of Asn-594 of COX-2 occurs in the ER, leading to anterograde movement of COX-2 to the Golgi where the Asn-594-linked glycan is trimmed prior to retrograde COX-2 transport to the ER for ERAD. Having an inefficient ER retention signal leads to sluggish Golgi to ER transit of COX-2. This permits significant Golgi residence time during which COX-2 can function catalytically. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α, which mobilizes arachidonic acid for PG synthesis, preferentially translocates to the Golgi in response to physiologic Ca2+ mobilization. We propose that cytosolic phospholipase A2α, COX-2, and mPGES-1 in the Golgi comprise a dedicated system for COX-2-dependent PGE2 biosynthesis. PMID:25548276

  18. Golgi as an MTOC: making microtubules for its own good

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Kaverina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    In cells, microtubules (MTs) are nucleated at MT-organizing centers (MTOCs). The centrosome-based MTOCs organize radial MT arrays which are often not optimal for polarized trafficking. A recently discovered subset of non-centrosomal MTs nucleated at the Golgi has proven to be indispensable for the Golgi organization, post-Golgi trafficking and cell polarity. Here, we summarize the history of this discovery, known molecular prerequisites of MT nucleation at the Golgi and unique functions of Golgi-derived MTs. PMID:23821162

  19. Cell cycle regulation of Golgi membrane dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danming; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2013-06-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a membranous organelle in the cell that plays essential roles in protein and lipid trafficking, sorting, processing, and modification. Its basic structure is a stack of closely aligned flattened cisternae. In mammalian cells, dozens of Golgi stacks are often laterally linked into a ribbon-like structure. Biogenesis of the Golgi during cell division occurs through a sophisticated disassembly and reassembly process that can be divided into three distinct but cooperative steps, including the deformation and reformation of the Golgi cisternae, stacks, and ribbon. Here, we review our current understanding of the protein machineries that control these three steps in the cycle of mammalian cell division: GRASP65 and GRASP55 in Golgi stack and ribbon formation; ubiquitin and AAA ATPases in postmitotic Golgi membrane fusion; and golgins and cytoskeleton in Golgi ribbon formation. PMID:23453991

  20. Spatial and Functional Aspects of ER-Golgi Rabs and Tethers

    PubMed Central

    Saraste, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Two conserved Rab GTPases, Rab1 and Rab2, play important roles in biosynthetic-secretory trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells. Both are expressed as two isoforms that regulate anterograde transport via the intermediate compartment (IC) to the Golgi, but are also required for transport in the retrograde direction. Moreover, Rab1 has been implicated in the formation of autophagosomes. Rab1 and Rab2 have numerous effectors or partners that function in membrane tethering, but also have other roles. These include the coiled-coil proteins p115, GM130, giantin, golgin-84, and GMAP-210, as well as the multisubunit COG (conserved oligomeric Golgi) and TRAPP (transport protein particle) tethering complexes. TRAPP also acts as the GTP exchange factor (GEF) in the activation of Rab1. According to the traditional view of the IC elements as motile, transient structures, the functions of the Rabs could take place at the two ends of the ER-Golgi itinerary, i.e., at ER exit sites (ERES) and/or cis-Golgi. However, there is considerable evidence for their specific association with the IC, including its recently identified pericentrosomal domain (pcIC), where many of the effectors turn out to be present, thus being able to exert their functions at the pre-Golgi level. The IC localization of these proteins is of particular interest based on the imaging of Rab1 dynamics, indicating that the IC is a stable organelle that bidirectionally communicates with the ER and Golgi, and is functionally linked to the endosomal system via the pcIC. PMID:27148530

  1. Aldosterone-induced ENaC and basal Na+/K+-ATPase trafficking via protein kinase D1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinaseIIIβ trans Golgi signalling in M1 cortical collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Ruth; Angibaud, Emmanuelle; Yusef, Yamil R; Thomas, Warren; Harvey, Brian J

    2013-06-15

    Aldosterone regulates Na(+) transport in the distal nephron through multiple mechanisms that include the transcriptional control of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits. Aldosterone also induces the rapid phosphorylation of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1). PKD isoforms regulate protein trafficking, by the control of vesicle fission from the trans Golgi network (TGN) through activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinaseIIIβ (PI4KIIIβ). We report rapid ENaCγ translocation to the plasma membrane after 30 min aldosterone treatment in polarized M1 cortical collecting duct cells, which was significantly impaired in PKD1 shRNA-mediated knockdown cells. In PKD1-deficient cells, the ouabain-sensitive current was significantly reduced and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α and β subunits showed aberrant localization. PKD1 and PI4KIIIβ localize to the TGN, and aldosterone induced an interaction between PKD1 and PI4KIIIβ following aldosterone treatment. This study reveals a novel mechanism for rapid regulation of ENaC and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, via directed trafficking through PKD1-PI4KIIIβ signalling at the level of the TGN. PMID:23541637

  2. GRASPs in Golgi Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a central intracellular membrane organelle for trafficking and modification of proteins and lipids. Its basic structure is a stack of tightly aligned flat cisternae. In mammalian cells, dozens of stacks are concentrated in the pericentriolar region and laterally connected to form a ribbon. Despite extensive research in the last decades, how this unique structure is formed and why its formation is important for proper Golgi functioning remain largely unknown. The Golgi ReAssembly Stacking Proteins, GRASP65, and GRASP55, are so far the only proteins shown to function in Golgi stacking. They are peripheral membrane proteins on the cytoplasmic face of the Golgi cisternae that form trans-oligomers through their N-terminal GRASP domain, and thereby function as the “glue” to stick adjacent cisternae together into a stack and to link Golgi stacks into a ribbon. Depletion of GRASPs in cells disrupts the Golgi structure and results in accelerated protein trafficking and defective glycosylation. In this minireview we summarize our current knowledge on how GRASPs function in Golgi structure formation and discuss why Golgi structure formation is important for its function. PMID:26779480

  3. Regulation of Golgi function via phosphoinositide lipids.

    PubMed

    Mayinger, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Phosphoinositides play important roles in Golgi traffic and structural integrity. Specific lipid kinases and phosphatases associate with the Golgi complex and regulate the multiplicity of trafficking routes from this organelle. Work in different model systems showed that the basic elements that regulate lipid signaling at the Golgi are conserved from yeast to humans. Many of the enzymes involved in Golgi phosphoinositide metabolism are essential for viability or cause severe human disease when malfunctioning. Phosphoinositide effectors at the Golgi control both non-vesicular transfer of lipids and sorting of secretory and membrane proteins. In addition, Golgi phosphoinositides were recently implicated in the metabolic and cell growth-dependent regulation of the secretory pathway. PMID:19508852

  4. Regulation of Golgi function via phosphoinositide lipids

    PubMed Central

    Mayinger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositides play important roles in Golgi traffic and structural integrity. Specific lipid kinases and phosphatases associate with the Golgi complex and regulate the multiplicity of trafficking routes from this organelle. Work in different model systems showed that the basic elements that regulate lipid signaling at the Golgi are conserved form yeast to humans. Many of the enzymes involved in Golgi phosphoinositide metabolism are essential for viability or cause severe human disease when malfunctioning. Phosphoinositide effectors at the Golgi control both non-vesicular transfer of lipids and sorting of secretory and membrane proteins. In addition, Golgi phosphoinositides were recently implicated in the metabolic and cell growth-dependent regulation of the secretory pathway. PMID:19508852

  5. Retromer Regulates HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking and Incorporation into Virions

    PubMed Central

    Groppelli, Elisabetta; Jolly, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) is a critical determinant of viral infectivity, tropism and is the main target for humoral immunity; however, little is known about the cellular machinery that directs Env trafficking and its incorporation into nascent virions. Here we identify the mammalian retromer complex as a novel and important cellular factor regulating Env trafficking. Retromer mediates endosomal sorting and is most closely associated with endosome-to-Golgi transport. Consistent with this function, inactivating retromer using RNAi targeting the cargo selective trimer complex inhibited retrograde trafficking of endocytosed Env to the Golgi. Notably, in HIV-1 infected cells, inactivating retromer modulated plasma membrane expression of Env, along with Env incorporation into virions and particle infectivity. Mutagenesis studies coupled with coimmunoprecipitations revealed that retromer-mediated trafficking requires the Env cytoplasmic tail that we show binds directly to retromer components Vps35 and Vps26. Taken together these results provide novel insight into regulation of HIV-1 Env trafficking and infectious HIV-1 morphogenesis and show for the first time a role for retromer in the late-steps of viral replication and assembly of a virus. PMID:25393110

  6. Opposing microtubule motors control motility, morphology and cargo segregation during ER-to-Golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna K; Hunt, Sylvie D; Stephens, David J

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that dynein and kinesin motors drive multiple aspects of endosomal function in mammalian cells. These functions include driving motility, maintaining morphology (notably through providing longitudinal tension to support vesicle fission), and driving cargo sorting. Microtubule motors drive bidirectional motility during traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. Here, we have examined the role of microtubule motors in transport carrier motility, morphology, and domain organization during ER-to-Golgi transport. We show that, consistent with our findings for endosomal dynamics, microtubule motor function during ER-to-Golgi transport of secretory cargo is required for motility, morphology, and cargo sorting within vesicular tubular carriers en route to the Golgi. Our data are consistent with previous findings that defined roles for dynein-1, kinesin-1 (KIF5B) and kinesin-2 in this trafficking step. Our high resolution tracking data identify some intriguing aspects. Depletion of kinesin-1 reduces the number of motile structures seen, which is in line with other findings relating to the role of kinesin-1 in ER export. However, those transport carriers that were produced had a much greater run length suggesting that this motor can act as a brake on anterograde motility. Kinesin-2 depletion did not significantly reduce the number of motile transport carriers but did cause a similar increase in run length. These data suggest that kinesins act as negative regulators of ER-to-Golgi transport. Depletion of dynein not only reduced the number of motile carriers formed but also caused tubulation of carriers similar to that seen for sorting nexin-coated early endosomes. Our data indicated that the previously observed anterograde-retrograde polarity of transport carriers in transit to the Golgi from the ER is maintained by microtubule motor function. PMID:24705013

  7. PtdIns(4)P regulates retromer-motor interaction to facilitate dynein-cargo dissociation at the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhi; Li, Ke; Sun, Demeng; Yang, Yanrui; Tian, Changlin; Gong, Weimin; Liu, Jia-Jia

    2013-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms for the retrograde motor dynein-dynactin to unload its cargoes at their final destination remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the regulatory mechanism underlying release of retromer-associated cargoes at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). We report that phosphotidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), a Golgi-enriched phosphoinositide, negatively regulates the protein-protein interaction between the p150(Glued) subunit of dynein-dynactin and the retromer component SNX6. We show that PtdIns(4)P specifically facilitates dissociation of retromer-mediated membranous cargoes from the motor at the TGN and uncover an important function for PtdIns(4)P in the spatial control of retrograde vesicular trafficking to the TGN membrane. PtdIns(4)P also regulates SNX4-mediated retrograde vesicular trafficking to the endocytic recycling compartment by modulating its interaction with dynein. These results establish organelle-specific phosphoinositide regulation of motor-cargo interaction as a mechanism for cargo release by molecular motors at target membrane. PMID:23524952

  8. GOLPH3 Links the Golgi, DNA Damage, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buschman, Matthew D.; Rahajeng, Juliati; Field, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    GOLPH3 is the first example of an oncogene that functions in secretory trafficking at the Golgi. The discovery of GOLPH3’s roles in both cancer and Golgi trafficking raises questions about how GOLPH3 and the Golgi contribute to cancer. Our recent investigation of the regulation of GOLPH3 revealed a surprising response by the Golgi upon DNA damage that is mediated by DNA-PK and GOLPH3. These results provide new insight into the DNA damage response with important implications for understanding the cellular response to standard cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:25634214

  9. A new role for RINT-1 in SNARE complex assembly at the trans-Golgi network in coordination with the COG complex

    PubMed Central

    Arasaki, Kohei; Takagi, Daichi; Furuno, Akiko; Sohda, Miwa; Misumi, Yoshio; Wakana, Yuichi; Inoue, Hiroki; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Docking and fusion of transport vesicles/carriers with the target membrane involve a tethering factor–mediated initial contact followed by soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)–catalyzed membrane fusion. The multisubunit tethering CATCHR family complexes (Dsl1, COG, exocyst, and GARP complexes) share very low sequence homology among subunits despite likely evolving from a common ancestor and participate in fundamentally different membrane trafficking pathways. Yeast Tip20, as a subunit of the Dsl1 complex, has been implicated in retrograde transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum. Our previous study showed that RINT-1, the mammalian counterpart of yeast Tip20, mediates the association of ZW10 (mammalian Dsl1) with endoplasmic reticulum–localized SNARE proteins. In the present study, we show that RINT-1 is also required for endosome-to–trans-Golgi network trafficking. RINT-1 uncomplexed with ZW10 interacts with the COG complex, another member of the CATCHR family complex, and regulates SNARE complex assembly at the trans-Golgi network. This additional role for RINT-1 may in part reflect adaptation to the demand for more diverse transport routes from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network in mammals compared with those in a unicellular organism, yeast. The present findings highlight a new role of RINT-1 in coordination with the COG complex. PMID:23885118

  10. The GOLPH3 pathway regulates Golgi shape and function and is activated by DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Buschman, Matthew D.; Xing, Mengke; Field, Seth J.

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi protein GOLPH3 binds to PtdIns(4)P and MYO18A, linking the Golgi to the actin cytoskeleton. The GOLPH3 pathway is essential for vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. A side effect of GOLPH3-dependent trafficking is to generate the extended ribbon shape of the Golgi. Perturbation of the pathway results in changes to both Golgi morphology and secretion, with functional consequences for the cell. The cellular response to DNA damage provides an example of GOLPH3-mediated regulation of the Golgi. Upon DNA damage, DNA-PK phosphorylation of GOLPH3 increases binding to MYO18A, activating the GOLPH3 pathway, which consequently results in Golgi fragmentation, reduced trafficking, and enhanced cell survival. The PtdIns(4)P/GOLPH3/MYO18A/F-actin pathway provides new insight into the relationship between Golgi morphology and function, and their regulation. PMID:26500484

  11. Ent3p and Ent5p Exhibit Cargo-specific Functions in Trafficking Proteins between the Trans-Golgi Network and the Endosomes in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Čopič, Alenka; Starr, Trevor L.

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoinositide-binding proteins Ent3p and Ent5p are required for protein transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the vacuole in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both proteins interact with the monomeric clathrin adaptor Gga2p, but Ent5p also interacts with the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex, which facilitates retention of proteins such as Chs3p at the TGN. When both ENT3 and ENT5 are mutated, Chs3p is diverted from an intracellular reservoir to the cell surface. However, Ent3p and Ent5p are not required for the function of AP-1, but rather they seem to act in parallel with AP-1 to retain proteins such as Chs3p at the TGN. They have all the properties of clathrin adaptors, because they can both bind to clathrin and to cargo proteins. Like AP-1, Ent5p binds to Chs3p, whereas Ent3p facilitates the interaction between Gga2p and the endosomal syntaxin Pep12p. Thus, Ent3p has an additional function in Gga-dependent transport to the late endosome. Ent3p also facilitates the association between Gga2p and clathrin; however, Ent5p can partially substitute for this function. We conclude that the clathrin adaptors AP-1, Ent3p, Ent5p, and the Ggas cooperate in different ways to sort proteins between the TGN and the endosomes. PMID:17344475

  12. ER trapping reveals Golgi enzymes continually revisit the ER through a recycling pathway that controls Golgi organization

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Seo, Arnold Y.; Burnette, Dylan T.; Patterson, George H.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Whether Golgi enzymes remain localized within the Golgi or constitutively cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is unclear, yet is important for understanding Golgi dependence on the ER. Here, we demonstrate that the previously reported inefficient ER trapping of Golgi enzymes in a rapamycin-based assay results from an artifact involving an endogenous ER-localized 13-kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP13) competing with the FKBP12-tagged Golgi enzyme for binding to an FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB)-tagged ER trap. When we express an FKBP12-tagged ER trap and FRB-tagged Golgi enzymes, conditions precluding such competition, the Golgi enzymes completely redistribute to the ER upon rapamycin treatment. A photoactivatable FRB-Golgi enzyme, highlighted only in the Golgi, likewise redistributes to the ER. These data establish Golgi enzymes constitutively cycle through the ER. Using our trapping scheme, we identify roles of rab6a and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in Golgi enzyme recycling, and show that retrograde transport of Golgi membrane underlies Golgi dispersal during microtubule depolymerization and mitosis. PMID:26598700

  13. Golgi Tubule Traffic and the Effects of Brefeldin A Visualized in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sciaky, Noah; Presley, John; Smith, Carolyn; Zaal, Kristien J.M.; Cole, Nelson; Moreira, Jorge E.; Terasaki, Mark; Siggia, Eric; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    The Golgi complex is a dynamic organelle engaged in both secretory and retrograde membrane traffic. Here, we use green fluorescent protein–Golgi protein chimeras to study Golgi morphology in vivo. In untreated cells, membrane tubules were a ubiquitous, prominent feature of the Golgi complex, serving both to interconnect adjacent Golgi elements and to carry membrane outward along microtubules after detaching from stable Golgi structures. Brefeldin A treatment, which reversibly disassembles the Golgi complex, accentuated tubule formation without tubule detachment. A tubule network extending throughout the cytoplasm was quickly generated and persisted for 5–10 min until rapidly emptying Golgi contents into the ER within 15–30 s. Both lipid and protein emptied from the Golgi at similar rapid rates, leaving no Golgi structure behind, indicating that Golgi membranes do not simply mix but are absorbed into the ER in BFA-treated cells. The directionality of redistribution implied Golgi membranes are at a higher free energy state than ER membranes. Analysis of its kinetics suggested a mechanism that is analogous to wetting or adsorptive phenomena in which a tension-driven membrane flow supplements diffusive transfer of Golgi membrane into the ER. Such nonselective, flow-assisted transport of Golgi membranes into ER suggests that mechanisms that regulate retrograde tubule formation and detachment from the Golgi complex are integral to the existence and maintenance of this organelle. PMID:9382862

  14. Two independent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic domain determine trans-Golgi network localization and endosomal trafficking of the proprotein convertase furin.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, W; Stroh, A; Berghöfer, S; Seiler, J; Vey, M; Kruse, M L; Kern, H F; Klenk, H D; Garten, W

    1995-01-01

    Furin, a subtilisin-like eukaryotic endoprotease, is responsible for proteolytic cleavage of cellular and viral proteins transported via the constitutive secretory pathway. Cleavage occurs at the C-terminus of basic amino acid sequences, such as R-X-K/R-R and R-X-X-R. Furin was found predominantly in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), but also in clathrin-coated vesicles dispatched from the TGN, on the plasma membrane as an integral membrane protein and in the medium as an anchorless enzyme. When furin was vectorially expressed in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells it accumulated in the TGN similarly to the endogenous glycoprotein TGN38, often used as a TGN marker protein. The signals determining TGN targeting of furin were investigated by mutational analysis of the cytoplasmic tail of furin and by using the hemagglutinin (HA) of fowl plague virus, a protein with cell surface destination, as a reporter molecule, in which membrane anchor and cytoplasmic tail were replaced by the respective domains of furin. The membrane-spanning domain of furin grafted to HA does not localize the chimeric molecule to the TGN, whereas the cytoplasmic domain does. Results obtained on furin mutants with substitutions and deletions of amino acids in the cytoplasmic tail indicate that wild-type furin is concentrated in the TGN by a mechanism involving two independent targeting signals, which consist of the acidic peptide CPSDSEEDEG783 and the tetrapeptide YKGL765. The acidic signal in the cytoplasmic domain of a HA-furin chimera is necessary and sufficient to localize the reporter molecule to the TGN, whereas YKGL is a determinant for targeting to the endosomes. The data support the concept that the acidic signal, which is the dominant one, retains furin in the TGN, whereas the YKGL motif acts as a retrieval signal for furin that has escaped to the cell surface. Images PMID:7781597

  15. Overexpression of Rab22a hampers the transport between endosomes and the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mesa, Rosana; Magadan, Javier; Barbieri, Alejandro; Lopez, Cecilia; Stahl, Philip D.; Mayorga, Luis S. . E-mail: lmayorga@fcm.uncu.edu.ar

    2005-04-01

    The transport and sorting of soluble and membrane-associated macromolecules arriving at endosomal compartments require a complex set of Rab proteins. Rab22a has been localized to the endocytic compartment; however, very little is known about the function of Rab22a and inconsistent results have been reported in studies performed in different cell lines. To characterize the function of Rab22a in endocytic transport, the wild-type protein (Rab22a WT), a hydrolysis-deficient mutant (Rab22a Q64L), and a mutant with reduced affinity for GTP (Rab22a S19N) were expressed in CHO cells. None of the three Rab22a constructs affected the transport of rhodamine-dextran to lysosomes, the digestion of internalized proteins, or the lysosomal localization of cathepsin D. In contrast with the mild effect of Rab22a on the endosome-lysosome route, cells expressing Rab22a WT and Rab22a Q64L presented a strong delay in the retrograde transport of cholera toxin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Moreover, these cells accumulated the cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor in endosomes. These observations indicate that Rab22a can affect the trafficking from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus probably by promoting fusion among endosomes and impairing the proper segregation of membrane domains required for targeting to the trans-Golgi network (TGN)

  16. Acute perturbations in Golgi organization impact de nova sphingomyelin synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Suchismita; Machamer, Carolyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian Golgi apparatus is composed of multiple stacks of cisternal membranes organized laterally into a ribbon-like structure, with close apposition of trans Golgi regions with specialized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. These contacts may be the site of ceramide transfer from its site of synthesis (ER) to sphingomyelin (SM) synthase via ceramide transfer protein (CERT). CERT extracts ceramide from the ER and transfers it to Golgi membranes, but the role of overall Golgi structure in this process is unknown. We show here that localization of CERT in puncta around the Golgi complex requires both ER and Golgi binding domains of CERT. To examine how Golgi structure contributes to SM synthesis, we treated cells with Golgi perturbing drugs and measured newly synthesized SM. Interestingly, disruption of Golgi morphology with nocodazole, but not ilimaquinone inhibited SM synthesis. Decreased localization of CERT with a Golgi marker correlated with decreased SM synthesis. We propose that some Golgi structural perturbations interfere with efficient ceramide trafficking via CERT, and thus SM synthesis. The organization of the mammalian Golgi ribbon together with CERT may promote specific ER-Golgi interactions for efficient delivery of ceramide for SM synthesis. PMID:18785922

  17. Retrograde ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder instead of going out through the urethra during ejaculation. ... bladder (bladder neck) does not close. This causes semen to go backwards into the bladder rather than ...

  18. Silencing of Small Valosin-containing Protein-interacting Protein (SVIP) Reduces Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) Secretion from Rat Hepatocytes by Disrupting Its Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Samata; Siddiqi, Shaila; Zhelyabovska, Olga; Siddiqi, Shadab A

    2016-06-10

    The transport of nascent very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi determines their secretion by the liver and is mediated by a specialized ER-derived vesicle, the VLDL transport vesicle (VTV). Our previous studies have shown that the formation of ER-derived VTV requires proteins in addition to coat complex II proteins. The VTV proteome revealed that a 9-kDa protein, small valosin-containing protein-interacting protein (SVIP), is uniquely present in these specialized vesicles. Our biochemical and morphological data indicate that the VTV contains SVIP. Using confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we show that SVIP co-localizes with apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB100) and specifically interacts with VLDL apoB100 and coat complex II proteins. Treatment of ER membranes with myristic acid in the presence of cytosol increases SVIP recruitment to the ER in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that myristic acid treatment of hepatocytes increases both VTV budding and VLDL secretion. To determine the role of SVIP in VTV formation, we either blocked the SVIP protein using specific antibodies or silenced SVIP by siRNA in hepatocytes. Our results show that both blocking and silencing of SVIP lead to significant reduction in VTV formation. Additionally, we show that silencing of SVIP reduces VLDL secretion, suggesting a physiological role of SVIP in intracellular VLDL trafficking and secretion. We conclude that SVIP acts as a novel regulator of VTV formation by interacting with its cargo and coat proteins and has significant implications in VLDL secretion by hepatocytes. PMID:27129256

  19. Golgi Membrane Dynamics Viewed Through a Lens of Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Bankaitis, Vytas A.; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Mousley, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The striking morphology of the Golgi complex has fascinated cell biologists since its discovery over 100 years ago. Yet, despite intense efforts to understand how membrane flow relates to Golgi form and function, this organelle continues to baffle cell biologists and biochemists alike. Fundamental questions regarding Golgi function, while hotly debated, remain unresolved. While Golgi function is historically described from a protein-centric point of view, we now appreciate that conceptual frameworks for how lipid metabolism is integrated with Golgi biogenesis and function are essential for a mechanistic understanding of this fascinating organelle. It is from a lipid-centric perspective that we discuss the larger question of Golgi dynamics and membrane trafficking. We review the growing body of evidence for how lipid metabolism is integrally written into the engineering of the Golgi system, and highlight questions for future study. PMID:22625862

  20. Cellular Endocytosis and Trafficking of Cholera Toxin B-Modified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William A.; Tarannum, Mubin; Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were functionalized with Cholera toxin subunit B (CTxB) protein to influence their intracellular trafficking pathways. The CTxB-MSN carrier was synthesized, and its chemical and structural properties were characterized. Endocytic pathway inhibition assays showed that the uptake of CTxB-MSNs in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells was partially facilitated by both chlatrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis mechanisms. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) experiments demonstrated that CTxB-MSNs were taken up by the cells and partially trafficked through the trans-Golgi network into to the endoplasmic reticulum in a retrograde fashion. The delivery abilities of CTxB-MSNs were evaluated using propidium iodide, an impermeable cell membrane dye. LSCM images depicted the release of propidium iodide in the endoplasmic reticulum and cell nucleus of HeLa cells. PMID:27134749

  1. Scattered Golgi elements during microtubule disruption are initially enriched in trans-Golgi proteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Storrie, B

    1998-01-01

    of Golgi proteins from endoplasmic reticulum to scattered structures following brefeldin A removal in the presence of nocodazole was not blocked by GTPgammaS. We conclude that Golgi subcompartments can separate one from the other. We discuss how direct trafficking of Golgi proteins from the TGN/trans-Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum may explain the observed trans-first scattering of Golgi transferases in response to microtubule depolymerization. PMID:9437000

  2. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1–positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42–associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling. PMID:25775511

  3. Retrograde ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem. Alternative Names Ejaculation retrograde; Dry climax Images Male reproductive system References Bhasin S, Basson R. Sexual dysfunction in men and women. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. Williams ... management of male infertility. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . ...

  4. Golgi defects enhance APP amyloidogenic processing in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gunjan; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Increased amyloid beta (Aβ) production by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β- and γ-secretases contributes to the etiological basis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This process requires APP and the secretases to be in the same subcellular compartments, such as the endosomes. Since all membrane organelles in the endomembrane system are kinetically and functionally linked, any defects in the trafficking and sorting machinery would be expected to change the functional properties of the whole system. The Golgi is a primary organelle for protein trafficking, sorting and modifications, and Golgi defects have been reported in AD. Here we hypothesize that Golgi fragmentation in AD accelerates APP trafficking and Aβ production. Furthermore, Golgi defects may perturb the proper trafficking and processing of many essential neuronal proteins, resulting in compromised neuronal function. Therefore, molecular tools that can restore Golgi structure and function could prove useful as potential drugs for AD treatment. PMID:25546412

  5. Regulation of protein glycosylation and sorting by the Golgi matrix proteins GRASP55/65

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Nix, David B.; Katoh, Toshihiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2013-01-01

    The Golgi receives the entire output of newly synthesized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), processes it in the stack largely through modification of bound oligosaccharides, and sorts it in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). GRASP65 and GRASP55, two proteins localized to the Golgi stack and early secretory pathway, mediate processes including Golgi stacking, Golgi ribbon linking, and unconventional secretion. Previously we have shown that GRASP depletion in cells disrupts Golgi stack formation. Here we report that knockdown of the GRASP proteins, alone or combined, accelerates protein trafficking through the Golgi membranes but also has striking negative effects on protein glycosylation and sorting. These effects are not caused by Golgi ribbon unlinking, unconventional secretion, or ER stress. We propose that GRASP55/65 are negative regulators of exocytic transport and that this slowdown helps to ensure more complete protein glycosylation in the Golgi stack and proper sorting at the TGN. PMID:23552074

  6. Nucleation and Dynamics of Golgi-derived Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Anna A. W. M.; Kaverina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Integrity of the Golgi apparatus requires the microtubule (MT) network. A subset of MTs originates at the Golgi itself, which in this case functions as a MT-organizing center (MTOC). Golgi-derived MTs serve important roles in post-Golgi trafficking, maintenance of Golgi integrity, cell polarity and motility, as well as cell type-specific functions, including neurite outgrowth/branching. Here, we discuss possible models describing the formation and dynamics of Golgi-derived MTs. How Golgi-derived MTs are formed is not fully understood. A widely discussed model implicates that the critical step of the process is recruitment of molecular factors, which drive MT nucleation (γ-tubulin ring complex, or γ-TuRC), to the Golgi membrane via specific scaffolding interactions. Based on recent findings, we propose to introduce an additional level of regulation, whereby MT-binding proteins and/or local tubulin dimer concentration at the Golgi helps to overcome kinetic barriers at the initial nucleation step. According to our model, emerging MTs are subsequently stabilized by Golgi-associated MT-stabilizing proteins. We discuss molecular factors potentially involved in all three steps of MT formation. To preserve proper cell functioning, a balance must be maintained between MT subsets at the centrosome and the Golgi. Recent work has shown that certain centrosomal factors are important in maintaining this balance, suggesting a close connection between regulation of centrosomal and Golgi-derived MTs. Finally, we will discuss potential functions of Golgi-derived MTs based on their nucleation site location within a Golgi stack. PMID:26617483

  7. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... TRAFFICKING (English) Listen < Back to Search FACT SHEET: HUMAN TRAFFICKING (English) Published: August 2, 2012 Topics: Public Awareness , ... organizations that protect and serve trafficking victims. National Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1.888.373.7888 Last ...

  8. Are Wnts Retrogradely Transported to the ER?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-11-01

    A recent report showed that Drosophila miR-307a initiates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in wingless (wg)-expressing cells by suppression of the evolutionarily conserve Wnt secretion factor Wntless (Wls). Interestingly, the authors noted that wg has a putative C-terminal dilysine motif (KKVY), which is required for its apparent retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport. Wls suppression resulted in ER stress, which was phenocopied by several other manipulations that impaired wg secretion in flies, as well as Wnt5a secretion in mammalian cells. The authors surmised that their data "reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress." However, there are obvious caveats to this interpretation, as ER stress resulting from Wnt secretion impairment could be readily explained by its inability to leave the ER, and not resulting from Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2315-2316, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26916992

  9. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Repella, Tana L.; Ho, Mengfei; Chong, Tracy P. M.; Bannai, Yuka; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2011-01-01

    The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn) and cholera toxin (CT), the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity. PMID:22053287

  10. Retrograde transport is not required for cytosolic translocation of the B-subunit of Shiga toxin.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Castillo, Maria Daniela; Tran, Thi; Bobard, Alexandre; Renard, Henri-François; Rathjen, Stefan J; Dransart, Estelle; Stechmann, Bahne; Lamaze, Christophe; Lord, Mike; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Enninga, Jost; Tartour, Eric; Johannes, Ludger

    2015-07-01

    Antigen-presenting cells have the remarkable capacity to transfer exogenous antigens to the cytosol for processing by proteasomes and subsequent presentation on major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I) molecules, a process termed cross-presentation. This is the target of biomedical approaches that aim to trigger a therapeutic immune response. The receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB) has been developed as an antigen delivery tool for such immunotherapy applications. In this study, we have analyzed pathways and trafficking factors that are involved in this process. A covalent conjugate between STxB and saporin was generated to quantitatively sample the membrane translocation step to the cytosol in differentiated monocyte-derived THP-1 cells. We have found that retrograde trafficking to the Golgi complex was not required for STxB-saporin translocation to the cytosol or for STxB-dependent antigen cross-presentation. Depletion of endosomal Rab7 inhibited, and lowering membrane cholesterol levels favored STxB-saporin translocation. Interestingly, experiments with reducible and non-reducible linker-arm-STxB conjugates led to the conclusion that after translocation, STxB remains associated with the cytosolic membrane leaflet. In summary, we report new facets of the endosomal escape process bearing relevance to antigen cross-presentation. PMID:25977475

  11. Insulin Granule Biogenesis, Trafficking and Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, June Chunqiu; Min, Le; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that beta cell dysfunction resulting in abnormal insulin secretion is the essential element in the progression of patients from a state of impaired glucose tolerance to frank type 2 diabetes (Del Prato, 2003; Del Prato and Tiengo, 2001). Although extensive studies have examined the molecular, cellular and physiologic mechanisms of insulin granule biogenesis, sorting, and exocytosis the precise mechanisms controlling these processes and their dysregulation in the developed of diabetes remains an area of important investigation. We now know that insulin biogenesis initiates with the synthesis of preproinsulin in rough endoplastic reticulum and conversion of preproinsulin to proinsulin. Proinsulin begins to be packaged in the Trans-Golgi Network and is sorting into immature secretory granules. These immature granules become acidic via ATP-dependent proton pump and proinsulin undergoes proteolytic cleavage resulting the formation of insulin and C-peptide. During the granule maturation process, insulin is crystallized with zinc and calcium in the form of dense-core granules and unwanted cargo and membrane proteins undergo selective retrograde trafficking to either the constitutive trafficking pathway for secretion or to degradative pathways. The newly formed mature dense-core insulin granules populate two different intracellular pools, the readily releasable pools (RRP) and the reserved pool. These two distinct populations are thought to be responsible for the biphasic nature of insulin release in which the RRP granules are associated with the plasma membrane and undergo an acute calcium-dependent release accounting for first phase insulin secretion. In contrast, second phase insulin secretion requires the trafficking of the reserved granule pool to the plasma membrane. The initial trigger for insulin granule fusion with the plasma membrane is a rise in intracellular calcium and in the case of glucose stimulation results from

  12. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16231.001 PMID:27542195

  13. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation.

    PubMed

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. PMID:27542195

  14. Expression, sorting, and segregation of Golgi proteins during germ cell differentiation in the testis

    PubMed Central

    Au, Catherine E.; Hermo, Louis; Byrne, Elliot; Smirle, Jeffrey; Fazel, Ali; Simon, Paul H. G.; Kearney, Robert E.; Cameron, Pamela H.; Smith, Charles E.; Vali, Hojatollah; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Julia; Ma, Kewei; Nilsson, Tommy; Bergeron, John J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular basis of changes in structure, cellular location, and function of the Golgi apparatus during male germ cell differentiation is unknown. To deduce cognate Golgi proteins, we isolated germ cell Golgi fractions, and 1318 proteins were characterized, with 20 localized in situ. The most abundant protein, GL54D of unknown function, is characterized as a germ cell–specific Golgi-localized type II integral membrane glycoprotein. TM9SF3, also of unknown function, was revealed to be a universal Golgi marker for both somatic and germ cells. During acrosome formation, several Golgi proteins (GBF1, GPP34, GRASP55) localize to both the acrosome and Golgi, while GL54D, TM9SF3, and the Golgi trafficking protein TMED7/p27 are segregated from the acrosome. After acrosome formation, GL54D, TM9SF3, TMED4/p25, and TMED7/p27 continue to mark Golgi identity as it migrates away from the acrosome, while the others (GBF1, GPP34, GRASP55) remain in the acrosome and are progressively lost in later steps of differentiation. Cytoplasmic HSP70.2 and the endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein-folding enzyme PDILT are also Golgi recruited but only during acrosome formation. This resource identifies abundant Golgi proteins that are expressed differentially during mitosis, meiosis, and postacrosome Golgi migration, including the last step of differentiation. PMID:25808494

  15. Golgi fragmentation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, an overview of possible triggers and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Sultana, Jessica M.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorder, which specifically targets motor neurons in the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. Whilst the etiology of ALS remains unknown, fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus is detected in ALS patient motor neurons and in animal/cellular disease models. The Golgi is a highly dynamic organelle that acts as a dispatching station for the vesicular transport of secretory/transmembrane proteins. It also mediates autophagy and maintains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and axonal homeostasis. Both the trigger for Golgi fragmentation and the functional consequences of a fragmented Golgi apparatus in ALS remain unclear. However, recent evidence has highlighted defects in vesicular trafficking as a pathogenic mechanism in ALS. This review summarizes the evidence describing Golgi fragmentation in ALS, with possible links to other disease processes including cellular trafficking, ER stress, defective autophagy, and axonal degeneration. PMID:26578862

  16. Ureteral retrograde brush biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - brush - urinary tract; Retrograde ureteral brush biopsy cytology; Cytology - ureteral retrograde brush biopsy ... to be biopsied is rubbed with the brush. Biopsy forceps may be used instead to collect a ...

  17. GOLPH3L antagonizes GOLPH3 to determine Golgi morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Michelle M.; Dippold, Holly C.; Buschman, Matthew D.; Noakes, Christopher J.; Field, Seth J.

    2013-01-01

    GOLPH3 is a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) effector that plays an important role in maintaining Golgi architecture and anterograde trafficking. GOLPH3 does so through its ability to link trans-Golgi membranes to F-actin via its interaction with myosin 18A (MYO18A). GOLPH3 also is known to be an oncogene commonly amplified in human cancers. GOLPH3L is a GOLPH3 paralogue found in all vertebrate genomes, although previously it was largely uncharacterized. Here we demonstrate that although GOLPH3 is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells, GOLPH3L is present in only a subset of tissues and cell types, particularly secretory tissues. We show that, like GOLPH3, GOLPH3L binds to PI4P, localizes to the Golgi as a consequence of its PI4P binding, and is required for efficient anterograde trafficking. Surprisingly, however, we find that perturbations of GOLPH3L expression produce effects on Golgi morphology that are opposite to those of GOLPH3 and MYO18A. GOLPH3L differs critically from GOLPH3 in that it is largely unable to bind to MYO18A. Our data demonstrate that despite their similarities, unexpectedly, GOLPH3L antagonizes GOLPH3/MYO18A at the Golgi. PMID:23345592

  18. An OBSL1-Cul7Fbxw8 Ubiquitin Ligase Signaling Mechanism Regulates Golgi Morphology and Dendrite Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Litterman, Nadia; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Gallardo, Gilbert; O'Connell, Brenda C.; Sowa, Mathew E.; Gygi, Steven P.; Harper, J. Wade; Bonni, Azad

    2011-01-01

    The elaboration of dendrites in neurons requires secretory trafficking through the Golgi apparatus, but the mechanisms that govern Golgi function in neuronal morphogenesis in the brain have remained largely unexplored. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cul7Fbxw8 localizes to the Golgi complex in mammalian brain neurons. Inhibition of Cul7Fbxw8 by independent approaches including Fbxw8 knockdown reveals that Cul7Fbxw8 is selectively required for the growth and elaboration of dendrites but not axons in primary neurons and in the developing rat cerebellum in vivo. Inhibition of Cul7Fbxw8 also dramatically impairs the morphology of the Golgi complex, leading to deficient secretory trafficking in neurons. Using an immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry screening approach, we also uncover the cytoskeletal adaptor protein OBSL1 as a critical regulator of Cul7Fbxw8 in Golgi morphogenesis and dendrite elaboration. OBSL1 forms a physical complex with the scaffold protein Cul7 and thereby localizes Cul7 at the Golgi apparatus. Accordingly, OBSL1 is required for the morphogenesis of the Golgi apparatus and the elaboration of dendrites. Finally, we identify the Golgi protein Grasp65 as a novel and physiologically relevant substrate of Cul7Fbxw8 in the control of Golgi and dendrite morphogenesis in neurons. Collectively, these findings define a novel OBSL1-regulated Cul7Fbxw8 ubiquitin signaling mechanism that orchestrates the morphogenesis of the Golgi apparatus and patterning of dendrites, with fundamental implications for our understanding of brain development. PMID:21572988

  19. Retrograde peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Jumshad B; Shivakumar, B; Sudarsan, Sabitha; Arun, K V; Kumar, T S S

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to) retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation. PMID:20922082

  20. Proteomic analysis of the Simkania-containing vacuole: the central role of retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Herweg, Jo-Ana; Pons, Valérie; Becher, Dörte; Hecker, Michael; Krohne, Georg; Barbier, Julien; Berger, Hilmar; Rudel, Thomas; Mehlitz, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Simkania negevensis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that grows in amoeba or human cells within a membrane-bound vacuole forming endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites. The membrane of this Simkania-containing vacuole (SnCV) is a critical host-pathogen interface whose origin and molecular interactions with cellular organelles remain poorly defined. We performed proteomic analysis of purified ER-SnCV-membranes using label free LC-MS(2) to define the pathogen-containing organelle composition. Of the 1,178 proteins of human and 302 proteins of Simkania origin identified by this strategy, 51 host cell proteins were enriched or depleted by infection and 57 proteins were associated with host endosomal transport pathways. Chemical inhibitors that selectively interfere with trafficking at the early endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) interface (retrograde transport) affected SnCV formation, morphology and lipid transport. Our data demonstrate that Simkania exploits early endosome-to-TGN transport for nutrient acquisition and growth. PMID:26374382

  1. Sorting receptor SORLA--a trafficking path to avoid Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Willnow, Thomas E; Andersen, Olav M

    2013-07-01

    Excessive proteolytic breakdown of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to neurotoxic amyloid β peptides (Aβ) by secretases in the brain is a molecular cause of Alzheimer disease (AD). According to current concepts, the complex route whereby APP moves between the secretory compartment, the cell surface and endosomes to encounter the various secretases determines its processing fate. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the intracellular trafficking of APP in neurons and their contribution to AD remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the functional elucidation of a new sorting receptor SORLA that emerges as a central regulator of trafficking and processing of APP. SORLA interacts with distinct sets of cytosolic adaptors for anterograde and retrograde movement of APP between the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes, thereby restricting delivery of the precursor to endocytic compartments that favor amyloidogenic breakdown. Defects in SORLA and its interacting adaptors result in transport defects and enhanced amyloidogenic processing of APP, and represent important risk factors for AD in patients. As discussed here, these findings uncovered a unique regulatory pathway for the control of neuronal protein transport, and provide clues as to why defects in this pathway cause neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23813966

  2. Polymeric Nucleic Acid Vehicles Exploit Active Inter-Organelle Trafficking Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fichter, Katye M.; Ingle, Nilesh. P.; McLendon, Patrick M.; Reineke, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Materials that self-assemble with nucleic acids into nanocomplexes (polyplexes) are widely used in many fundamental biological and biomedical experiments. However, understanding the intracellular transport mechanisms of these vehicles remains a major hurdle in their effective usage. Here, we investigate two polycation models, Glycofect, (which slowly degrades via hydrolysis) and linear PEI, (which does not rapidly hydrolyze) to determine the impact of polymeric structure on intracellular trafficking. Cells transfected using Glycofect underwent increasing transgene expression over the course of 40 h, and remained benign over the course of 7 days. Transgene expression in cells transfected with PEI peaked at 16 h post-transfection and resulted in less than 10% survival after 7 days. While saccharide-containing Glycofect has a higher buffering capacity than PEI, polyplexes created with Glycofect demonstrate more sustained endosomal release, possibly suggesting an additional or alternative delivery mechanism to the classical “proton sponge mechanism”. PEI appeared to promote release of DNA from acidic organelles more than Glycofect. Immunofluorescence images indicate that both Glycofect and linear PEI traffic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum, which may be a route taken for nuclear delivery. However, Glycofect polyplexes demonstrated higher colocalization with the ER than PEI polyplexes and colocalization experiments indicate retrograde transport of polyplexes via COP I vesicles from the Golgi to the ER. We conclude that slow release and unique trafficking behaviors of Glycofect polyplexes may be due to the presence of saccharide units and the degradable nature of the polymer, allowing more efficacious and benign delivery. PMID:23234474

  3. A three-stage model of Golgi structure and function.

    PubMed

    Day, Kasey J; Staehelin, L Andrew; Glick, Benjamin S

    2013-09-01

    The Golgi apparatus contains multiple classes of cisternae that differ in structure, composition, and function, but there is no consensus about the number and definition of these classes. A useful way to classify Golgi cisternae is according to the trafficking pathways by which the cisternae import and export components. By this criterion, we propose that Golgi cisternae can be divided into three classes that correspond to functional stages of maturation. First, cisternae at the cisternal assembly stage receive COPII vesicles from the ER and recycle components to the ER in COPI vesicles. At this stage, new cisternae are generated. Second, cisternae at the carbohydrate synthesis stage exchange material with one another via COPI vesicles. At this stage, most of the glycosylation and polysaccharide synthesis reactions occur. Third, cisternae at the carrier formation stage produce clathrin-coated vesicles and exchange material with endosomes. At this stage, biosynthetic cargo proteins are packaged into various transport carriers, and the cisternae ultimately disassemble. Discrete transitions occur as a cisterna matures from one stage to the next. Within each stage, the structure and composition of a cisterna can evolve, but the trafficking pathways remain unchanged. This model offers a unified framework for understanding the properties of the Golgi in diverse organisms. PMID:23881164

  4. Actin- and microtubule-dependent regulation of Golgi morphology by FHDC1

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Sarah J.; Thurston, Susan F.; Copeland, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is the central hub of intracellular trafficking and consists of tethered stacks of cis, medial, and trans cisternae. In mammalian cells, these cisternae are stitched together as a perinuclear Golgi ribbon, which is required for the establishment of cell polarity and normal subcellular organization. We previously identified FHDC1 (also known as INF1) as a unique microtubule-binding member of the formin family of cytoskeletal-remodeling proteins. We show here that endogenous FHDC1 regulates Golgi ribbon formation and has an apparent preferential association with the Golgi-derived microtubule network. Knockdown of FHDC1 expression results in defective Golgi assembly and suggests a role for FHDC1 in maintenance of the Golgi-derived microtubule network. Similarly, overexpression of FHDC1 induces dispersion of the Golgi ribbon into functional ministacks. This effect is independent of centrosome-derived microtubules and instead likely requires the interaction between the FHDC1 microtubule-binding domain and the Golgi-derived microtubule network. These effects also depend on the interaction between the FHDC1 FH2 domain and the actin cytoskeleton. Thus our results suggest that the coordination of actin and microtubule dynamics by FHDC1 is required for normal Golgi ribbon formation. PMID:26564798

  5. M-COPA, a novel Golgi system disruptor, suppresses apoptosis induced by Shiga toxin.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Takayuki; Watanabe-Takahashi, Miho; Shiina, Isamu; Ohashi, Yoshimi; Dan, Shingo; Nishikawa, Kiyotaka; Yamori, Takao; Naito, Mikihiko

    2016-08-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is a main virulence factor of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) that contributes to diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis and occasionally to fatal systemic complications. Therefore, the development of an antidote to neutralize Stx toxicity is urgently needed. After internalization into cells, Stx is transferred to the Golgi apparatus via a retrograde vesicular transport system. We report here that 2-methylcoprophilinamide (M-COPA), a compound that induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus by inactivating ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1), suppresses Stx-induced apoptosis. M-COPA inhibited transport of Stx from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus and suppressed degradation of anti-apoptotic proteins and the activation of caspases. These findings suggest that inhibition of Stx retrograde transport by M-COPA could be a novel approach to suppress Stx toxicity. PMID:27302278

  6. A KDEL Retrieval System for ER-Golgi Transport of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Robert YL; Wu, Yu-Jen; Chen, Han-Shan; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has emerged that RNA viruses utilize the host secretory pathway for processing and trafficking mature viral particles and for exiting the infected cells. Upon completing the complex assembly process, the viral particles take advantage of the cellular secretory trafficking machinery for their intracellular trafficking toward the Golgi organelle and budding or export of virions. In this study, we showed that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced extracellular GRP78 contains no KDEL motif using an anti-KDEL-specific antibody. Overexpression of the KDEL-truncated GRP78 in the GPR78 knocked down cells significantly reduced JEV infectivity, suggesting that the KDEL motif is required for GRP78 function in the release of JE viral particles. In addition, we demonstrated the KDELR protein, an ER-Golgi retrieval system component, is associated with viral envelope proteins and is engaged in the subcellular localization of viral particles in Golgi. More importantly, accumulation of intracellular virions was observed in the KDELR knocked down cells, indicating that the KDELR protein mediated the intracellular trafficking of JE viral particles. Altogether, we demonstrated that intracellular trafficking of JE assembled viral particles was mediated by the host ER-Golgi retrieval system prior to exit by the secretory pathway. PMID:26861384

  7. Downregulation of the small GTPase SAR1A: a key event underlying alcohol-induced Golgi fragmentation in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Petrosyan, Armen; Cheng, Pi-Wan; Clemens, Dahn L.; Casey, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) is posttranslationally modified in the Golgi en route to the plasma membrane, where it mediates clearance of desialylated serum glycoproteins. It is known that content of plasma membrane-associated ASGP-R is decreased after ethanol exposure, although the mechanisms remain elusive. Previously, we found that formation of compact Golgi requires dimerization of the largest Golgi matrix protein giantin. We hypothesize that ethanol-impaired giantin function may be related to altered trafficking of ASGP-R. Here we report that in HepG2 cells expressing alcohol dehydrogenase and hepatocytes of ethanol-fed rats, ethanol metabolism results in Golgi disorganization. This process is initiated by dysfunction of SAR1A GTPase followed by altered COPII vesicle formation and impaired Golgi delivery of the protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), an enzyme that catalyzes giantin dimerization. Additionally, we show that SAR1A gene silencing in hepatocytes mimics the effect of ethanol: dedimerization of giantin, arresting PDIA3 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and large-scale alterations in Golgi architecture. Ethanol-induced Golgi fission has no effect on ER-to-Golgi transportation of ASGP-R, however, it results in its deposition in cis-medial-, but not trans-Golgi. Thus, alcohol-induced deficiency in COPII vesicle formation predetermines Golgi fragmentation which, in turn, compromises the Golgi-to-plasma membrane transportation of ASGP-R. PMID:26607390

  8. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  9. Photobleaching Methods to Study Golgi Complex Dynamics in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Snapp, Erik Lee

    2014-01-01

    The Golgi complex (GC) is a highly dynamic organelle that constantly receives and exports proteins and lipids from both the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. While protein trafficking can be monitored with traditional biochemical methods, these approaches average the behaviors of millions of cells, provide modest temporal information and no spatial information. Photobleaching methods enable investigators to monitor protein trafficking in single cells or even single GC stacks with subsecond precision. Furthermore, photobleaching can be exploited to monitor the behaviors of resident GC proteins to provide insight into mechanisms of retention and trafficking. In this chapter, general photobleaching approaches with laser scanning confocal microscopes are described. Importantly, the problems associated with many fluorescent proteins (FPs) and their uses in the secretory pathway are discussed and appropriate choices are suggested. For example, Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) and most red FPs are extremely problematic. Finally, options for data analyses are described. PMID:24295308

  10. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to debt bondage or peonage in which traffickers demand labor as a means repayment for a real ... human smuggling are two separate crimes under federal law. There are several important differences between them. Human ...

  11. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced endothelial cell megalocytosis involves a Golgi blockade mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B

    2005-04-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids initiate disease in the lung (pulmonary hypertension), liver (veno-occlusive disease and cirrhosis), and kidneys (afferent arteriolar block and mesangiolysis) by inducing a megalocytotic phenotype in target endothelial and parenchymal cells. A "hit-and-run" type of exposure to the bioactive pyrrolizidine results, within 2-3 days, in enlarged cells with large nuclei and enlarged Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum, while the cells remain in G2/M block. In the present study, we recapitulated monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP)-induced megalocytosis in cultures of bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC), human Hep3B hepatocytes, human type II-like alveolar epithelial cells (A549), and human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and investigated the subcellular mechanism involved. There was an inverse relationship between reduction in caveolin (Cav)-1 levels and stimulation of promitogenic STAT3 and ERK1/2 cell signaling. In megalocytotic PAEC, the Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 was shifted from membranes with heavy density to those with a lighter density. This lighter Golgi fraction was enriched for hypo-oligomeric Cav-1, indicating dysfunctional trafficking of cargo. Immunofluorescence imaging studies confirmed the trapping of Cav-1 in a GM130-positive Golgi compartment. There was an increase in Ser25 phosphorylation of GM130 (typically a prelude to Golgi fragmentation and mitosis) and increased association between pGM130, cdc2 kinase, and Cav-1. Nevertheless, megalocytotic MCTP-treated cells showed reduced entry into mitosis upon stimulation with 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), reduced 2-ME-induced Golgi fragmentation, and a slowing of Golgi reassembly after nocodazole-induced fragmentation. These data suggest that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis sensor functions of the Golgi may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis ("the Golgi blockade hypothesis"). PMID:15561761

  12. Diacylglycerol kinases in membrane trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) belong to a family of cytosolic kinases that regulate the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG), converting it into phosphatidic acid (PA). There are 10 known mammalian DGK isoforms, each with a different tissue distribution and substrate specificity. These differences allow regulation of cellular responses by fine-tuning the delicate balance of cellular DAG and PA. DGK isoforms are best characterized as mediators of signal transduction and immune function. However, since recent studies reveal that DAG and PA are also involved in the regulation of endocytic trafficking, it is therefore anticipated that DGKs also plays an important role in membrane trafficking. In this review, we summarize the literature discussing the role of DGK isoforms at different stages of endocytic trafficking, including endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling, and transport from/to the Golgi apparatus. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding of the involvement of PA and DAG in endocytic trafficking, an area of research that is drawing increasing attention in recent years. PMID:27057419

  13. Organization of the ER–Golgi interface for membrane traffic control

    PubMed Central

    Brandizzi, Federica; Barlowe, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Coat protein complex I (COPI) and COPII are required for bidirectional membrane trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. While these core coat machineries and other transport factors are highly conserved across species, high-resolution imaging studies indicate that the organization of the ER–Golgi interface is varied in eukaryotic cells. Regulation of COPII assembly, in some cases to manage distinct cellular cargo, is emerging as one important component in determining this structure. Comparison of the ER–Golgi interface across different systems, particularly mammalian and plant cells, reveals fundamental elements and distinct organization of this interface. A better understanding of how these interfaces are regulated to meet varying cellular secretory demands should provide key insights into the mechanisms that control efficient trafficking of proteins and lipids through the secretory pathway. PMID:23698585

  14. The Golgi apparatus is a functionally distinct Ca2+ store regulated by PKA and Epac branches of the β1-adrenergic signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaokang.; Kirton, Hannah M.; MacDougall, David A.; Boyle, John P.; Deuchars, James; Frater, Brenda; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Hardy, Matthew E.; White, Edward; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Peers, Chris; Steele, Derek S.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+ release from the Golgi apparatus regulates key functions of the organelle, including vesicle trafficking. However, the signaling pathways that control this form of Ca2+ release are poorly understood and evidence of discrete Golgi Ca2+ release events is lacking. Here, we identified the Golgi apparatus as the source of prolonged Ca2+ release events that originate from the nuclear ‘poles’ of primary cardiac cells. Once initiated, Golgi Ca2+ release was unaffected by global depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+, and disruption of the Golgi apparatus abolished Golgi Ca2+ release without affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum function, suggesting functional and anatomical independence of Golgi and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores. Maximal activation of β1-adrenoceptors had only a small stimulating effect on Golgi Ca2+ release. However, inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 or 4, or downregulation of PDE 3 and 4 in heart failure markedly potentiated β1-adrenergic stimulation of Golgi Ca2+ release, consistent with compartmentalization of cAMP signaling within the Golgi apparatus microenvironment. β1-adrenergic stimulation of Golgi Ca2+ release involved activation of both Epac and PKA signaling pathways and CaMKII. Interventions that stimulated Golgi Ca2+ release induced trafficking of vascular growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) from the Golgi apparatus to the surface membrane. These data establish the Golgi apparatus as a juxtanuclear focal point for Ca2+ and β1-adrenergic signaling, which functions independently from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the global Ca2+ transients that underlie the primary contractile function of the cell. PMID:26462734

  15. A Bispecific Antibody Promotes Aggregation of Ricin Toxin on Cell Surfaces and Alters Dynamics of Toxin Internalization and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Cristina; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    JJX12 is an engineered bispecific antibody against ricin, a member of the medically important A-B family of toxins that exploits retrograde transport as means to gain entry into the cytosol of target cells. JJX12 consists of RTA-D10, a camelid single variable domain (VHH) antibody directed against an epitope on ricin’s enzymatic subunit (RTA), linked via a 15-mer peptide to RTB-B7, a VHH against ricin’s bivalent galactose binding subunit (RTB). We previously reported that JJX12, but not an equimolar mixture of RTA-D10 and RTB-B7 monomers, was able to passively protect mice against a lethal dose ricin challenge, demonstrating that physically linking RTB-B7 and RTA-D10 is critical for toxin-neutralizing activity in vivo. We also reported that JJX12 promotes aggregation of ricin in solution, presumably through the formation of intermolecular crosslinking. In the current study, we now present evidence that JJX12 affects the dynamics of ricin uptake and trafficking in human epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy, as well as live cell imaging coupled with endocytosis pathway-specific inhibitors, revealed that JJX12-toxin complexes are formed on the surfaces of mammalian cells and internalized via a pathway sensitive to amiloride, a known inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Moreover, in the presence of JJX12, retrograde transport of ricin to the trans-Golgi network was significantly reduced, while accumulation of the toxin in late endosomes was significantly enhanced. In summary, we propose that JJX12, by virtue of its ability to crosslink ricin toxin, alters the route of toxin uptake and trafficking within cells. PMID:27300140

  16. A Bispecific Antibody Promotes Aggregation of Ricin Toxin on Cell Surfaces and Alters Dynamics of Toxin Internalization and Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Cristina; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    JJX12 is an engineered bispecific antibody against ricin, a member of the medically important A-B family of toxins that exploits retrograde transport as means to gain entry into the cytosol of target cells. JJX12 consists of RTA-D10, a camelid single variable domain (VHH) antibody directed against an epitope on ricin's enzymatic subunit (RTA), linked via a 15-mer peptide to RTB-B7, a VHH against ricin's bivalent galactose binding subunit (RTB). We previously reported that JJX12, but not an equimolar mixture of RTA-D10 and RTB-B7 monomers, was able to passively protect mice against a lethal dose ricin challenge, demonstrating that physically linking RTB-B7 and RTA-D10 is critical for toxin-neutralizing activity in vivo. We also reported that JJX12 promotes aggregation of ricin in solution, presumably through the formation of intermolecular crosslinking. In the current study, we now present evidence that JJX12 affects the dynamics of ricin uptake and trafficking in human epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy, as well as live cell imaging coupled with endocytosis pathway-specific inhibitors, revealed that JJX12-toxin complexes are formed on the surfaces of mammalian cells and internalized via a pathway sensitive to amiloride, a known inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Moreover, in the presence of JJX12, retrograde transport of ricin to the trans-Golgi network was significantly reduced, while accumulation of the toxin in late endosomes was significantly enhanced. In summary, we propose that JJX12, by virtue of its ability to crosslink ricin toxin, alters the route of toxin uptake and trafficking within cells. PMID:27300140

  17. Transport of soluble proteins through the Golgi occurs by diffusion via continuities across cisternae

    PubMed Central

    Beznoussenko, Galina V; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Rizzo, Riccardo; Polishchuk, Roman; Martella, Oliviano; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Fusella, Aurora; Spaar, Alexander; Sallese, Michele; Capestrano, Maria Grazia; Pavelka, Margit; Vos, Matthijn R; Rikers, Yuri GM; Helms, Volkhard; Mironov, Alexandre A; Luini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of transport through the Golgi complex is not completely understood, insofar as no single transport mechanism appears to account for all of the observations. Here, we compare the transport of soluble secretory proteins (albumin and α1-antitrypsin) with that of supramolecular cargoes (e.g., procollagen) that are proposed to traverse the Golgi by compartment progression–maturation. We show that these soluble proteins traverse the Golgi much faster than procollagen while moving through the same stack. Moreover, we present kinetic and morphological observations that indicate that albumin transport occurs by diffusion via intercisternal continuities. These data provide evidence for a transport mechanism that applies to a major class of secretory proteins and indicate the co-existence of multiple intra-Golgi trafficking modes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02009.001 PMID:24867214

  18. Secretion Without Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Prudovsky, Igor; Tarantini, Francesca; Landriscina, Matteo; Neivandt, David; Sold, Raffaella; Kirov, Aleksandr; Small, Deena; Kathir, Karuppanan Muthusamy; Rajalingam, Dakshinamurthy; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of proteins devoid of signal peptides have been demonstrated to be released through the non-classical pathways independent of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Among them are two potent proangiogenic cytokines FGF1 and IL1α. Stress-induced transmembrane translocation of these proteins requires the assembly of copper-dependent multiprotein release complexes. It involves the interaction of exported proteins with the acidic phospholipids of the inner leaflet of the cell membrane and membrane destabilization. Not only stress, but also thrombin treatment and inhibition of Notch signaling stimulate the export of FGF1. Non-classical release of FGF1 and IL1α presents a promising target for treatment of cardiovascular, oncologic, and inflammatory disorders. PMID:17786931

  19. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a role for multipass membrane proteins in endosome-to-golgi retrieval.

    PubMed

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Seaman, Matthew N J

    2014-12-11

    Endosome-to-Golgi retrieval is an essential membrane trafficking pathway required for many important physiological processes and linked to neurodegenerative disease and infection by bacterial and viral pathogens. The prototypical cargo protein for this pathway is the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR), which delivers lysosomal hydrolases to endosomes. Efficient retrieval of CIMPR to the Golgi requires the retromer complex, but other aspects of the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway are poorly understood. Employing an image-based antibody-uptake assay, we conducted a genome-wide RNAi loss-of-function screen for novel regulators of this trafficking pathway and report ∼90 genes that are required for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of a CD8-CIMPR reporter protein. Among these regulators of endosome-to-Golgi retrieval are a number of multipass membrane-spanning proteins, a class of proteins often overlooked with respect to a role in membrane trafficking. We further demonstrate a role for three multipass membrane proteins, SFT2D2, ZDHHC5, and GRINA, in endosome-to-Golgi retrieval. PMID:25464851

  20. Genome-wide RNAi Screen Reveals a Role for Multipass Membrane Proteins in Endosome-to-Golgi Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Breusegem, Sophia Y.; Seaman, Matthew N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Endosome-to-Golgi retrieval is an essential membrane trafficking pathway required for many important physiological processes and linked to neurodegenerative disease and infection by bacterial and viral pathogens. The prototypical cargo protein for this pathway is the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR), which delivers lysosomal hydrolases to endosomes. Efficient retrieval of CIMPR to the Golgi requires the retromer complex, but other aspects of the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway are poorly understood. Employing an image-based antibody-uptake assay, we conducted a genome-wide RNAi loss-of-function screen for novel regulators of this trafficking pathway and report ∼90 genes that are required for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of a CD8-CIMPR reporter protein. Among these regulators of endosome-to-Golgi retrieval are a number of multipass membrane-spanning proteins, a class of proteins often overlooked with respect to a role in membrane trafficking. We further demonstrate a role for three multipass membrane proteins, SFT2D2, ZDHHC5, and GRINA, in endosome-to-Golgi retrieval. PMID:25464851

  1. Retromer-Mediated Protein Sorting and Vesicular Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Jia

    2016-04-20

    Retromer is an evolutionarily conserved multimeric protein complex that mediates intracellular transport of various vesicular cargoes and functions in a wide variety of cellular processes including polarized trafficking, developmental signaling and lysosome biogenesis. Through its interaction with the Rab GTPases and their effectors, membrane lipids, molecular motors, the endocytic machinery and actin nucleation promoting factors, retromer regulates sorting and trafficking of transmembrane proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane. In this review, I highlight recent progress in the understanding of retromer-mediated protein sorting and vesicle trafficking and discuss how retromer contributes to a diverse set of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. PMID:27157806

  2. The Golgi-Associated Hook3 Protein Is a Member of a Novel Family of Microtubule-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walenta, Jason H.; Didier, Aaron J.; Liu, Xinran; Krämer, Helmut

    2001-01-01

    Microtubules are central to the spatial organization of diverse membrane-trafficking systems. Here, we report that Hook proteins constitute a novel family of cytosolic coiled coil proteins that bind to organelles and to microtubules. The conserved NH2-terminal domains of Hook proteins mediate attachment to microtubules, whereas the more divergent COOH-terminal domains mediate the binding to organelles. Human Hook3 bound to Golgi membranes in vitro and was enriched in the cis-Golgi in vivo. Unlike other cis-Golgi–associated proteins, however, a large fraction of Hook3 maintained its juxtanuclear localization after Brefeldin A treatment, indicating a Golgi-independent mechanism for Hook3 localization. Because overexpression of Hook3 caused fragmentation of the Golgi complex, we propose that Hook3 participates in defining the architecture and localization of the mammalian Golgi complex. PMID:11238449

  3. Geldanamycin Enhances Retrograde Transport of Shiga Toxin in HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Roger; Torgersen, Maria Lyngaas; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) has been shown to alter endosomal sorting, diverting cargo destined for the recycling pathway into the lysosomal pathway. Here we investigated whether GA also affects the sorting of cargo into the retrograde pathway from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. As a model cargo we used the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin, which exploits the retrograde pathway as an entry route to the cytosol. Indeed, GA treatment of HEp-2 cells strongly increased the Shiga toxin transport to the Golgi apparatus. The enhanced Golgi transport was not due to increased endocytic uptake of the toxin or perturbed recycling, suggesting that GA selectively enhances endosomal sorting into the retrograde pathway. Moreover, GA activated p38 and both inhibitors of p38 or its substrate MK2 partially counteracted the GA-induced increase in Shiga toxin transport. Thus, our data suggest that GA-induced p38 and MK2 activation participate in the increased Shiga toxin transport to the Golgi apparatus. PMID:26017782

  4. Geldanamycin Enhances Retrograde Transport of Shiga Toxin in HEp-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Dyve Lingelem, Anne Berit; Hjelseth, Ieva Ailte; Simm, Roger; Torgersen, Maria Lyngaas; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) has been shown to alter endosomal sorting, diverting cargo destined for the recycling pathway into the lysosomal pathway. Here we investigated whether GA also affects the sorting of cargo into the retrograde pathway from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. As a model cargo we used the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin, which exploits the retrograde pathway as an entry route to the cytosol. Indeed, GA treatment of HEp-2 cells strongly increased the Shiga toxin transport to the Golgi apparatus. The enhanced Golgi transport was not due to increased endocytic uptake of the toxin or perturbed recycling, suggesting that GA selectively enhances endosomal sorting into the retrograde pathway. Moreover, GA activated p38 and both inhibitors of p38 or its substrate MK2 partially counteracted the GA-induced increase in Shiga toxin transport. Thus, our data suggest that GA-induced p38 and MK2 activation participate in the increased Shiga toxin transport to the Golgi apparatus. PMID:26017782

  5. Emerging Trends in Retrograde Signaling.

    PubMed

    Suvarna, Yashasvi; Maity, Nivedita; Shivamurthy, M C

    2016-05-01

    Retrograde signaling is defined as the signaling events leading from the plastids to the nucleus in plants and across the chemical synapse, from the postsynaptic neuron to the presynaptic neuron in animals. The discovery of various retrograde messengers has opened many avenues and clouds of thoughts as to the role of retrograde signaling. They have been implicated particularly in long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity. But the basic assumptions about retrograde signaling have not been studied upon for many years. This review focuses on established facts and hypothesis put forward in retrograde signaling. PMID:26081150

  6. Golgi: Interactive Online Brain Mapping.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2015-01-01

    Golgi (http://www.usegolgi.com) is a prototype interactive brain map of the rat brain that helps researchers intuitively interact with neuroanatomy, connectomics, and cellular and chemical architecture. The flood of "-omic" data urges new ways to help researchers connect discrete findings to the larger context of the nervous system. Here we explore Golgi's underlying reasoning and techniques and how our design decisions balance the constraints of building both a scientifically useful and usable tool. We demonstrate how Golgi can enhance connectomic literature searches with a case study investigating a thalamocortical circuit involving the Nucleus Accumbens and we explore Golgi's potential and future directions for growth in systems neuroscience and connectomics. PMID:26635596

  7. Secretory protein trafficking in Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Hehl, Adrian B; Marti, Matthias

    2004-07-01

    Early diverged extant organisms, which may serve as convenient laboratory models to look for and study evolutionary ancient features of eukaryotic cell biology, are rare. The diplomonad Giardia intestinalis, a protozoan parasite known to cause diarrhoeal disease, has become an increasingly popular object of basic research in cell biology, not least because of a genome sequencing project nearing completion. Commensurate with its phylogenetic status, the Giardia trophozoite has a very basic secretory system and even lacks hallmark structures such as a morphologically identifiable Golgi apparatus. The cell's capacity for protein sorting is nevertheless unimpeded, exemplified by its ability to cope with massive amounts of newly synthesized cyst wall proteins and glycans, which are sorted to dedicated Golgi-like compartments termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) generated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived transport intermediates. This soluble bulk cargo is kept strictly separate from constitutively transported variant surface proteins during export, a function that is dependent on the stage-specific recognition of trafficking signals. Encysting Giardia therefore provide a unique system for the study of unconventional, Golgi-independent protein trafficking mechanisms in the broader context of eukaryotic endomembrane organization and evolution. PMID:15225300

  8. Local translation and retrograde axonal transport of CREB regulates IL-6-induced nociceptive plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of genes by cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is essential for the maintenance of long-term memory. Moreover, retrograde axonal trafficking of CREB in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the survival of developing primary sensory neurons. We have previously demonstrated that hindpaw injection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming that is prevented by the local injection of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, proteins that are locally synthesized that might lead to this effect have not been identified. We hypothesized that retrograde axonal trafficking of nascently synthesized CREB might link local, activity-dependent translation to nociceptive plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we determined if IL-6 enhances the expression of CREB and if it subsequently undergoes retrograde axonal transport. IL-6 treatment of sensory neurons in vitro caused an increase in CREB protein and in vivo treatment evoked an increase in CREB in the sciatic nerve consistent with retrograde transport. Importantly, co-injection of IL-6 with the methionine analogue azido-homoalanine (AHA), to assess nascently synthesized proteins, revealed an increase in CREB containing AHA in the sciatic nerve 2 hrs post injection, indicating retrograde transport of nascently synthesized CREB. Behaviorally, blockade of retrograde transport by disruption of microtubules or inhibition of dynein or intrathecal injection of cAMP response element (CRE) consensus sequence DNA oligonucleotides, which act as decoys for CREB DNA binding, prevented the development of IL-6-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming. Consistent with previous studies in inflammatory models, intraplantar IL-6 enhanced the expression of BDNF in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This effect was blocked by inhibition of retrograde axonal transport and by intrathecal CRE oligonucleotides. Collectively, these findings

  9. The Golgi complex in stress and death

    PubMed Central

    Machamer, Carolyn E.

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi complex is a central organelle of the secretory pathway where sorting and processing of cargo occurs. While Golgi structure is important for the efficient processing of secretory cargo, the unusual organization suggests additional potential functions. The Golgi is disassembled after various cellular stresses, and we hypothesize that Golgi disassembly activates a stress signaling pathway. This pathway would function to correct the stress if possible, with irreparable stress resulting in apoptosis. Neurons appear to be particularly sensitive to Golgi stress; early disassembly of the organelle correlates with many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, Golgi stress and potential signaling pathways to the nucleus are reviewed. PMID:26594142

  10. The Golgi complex in stress and death.

    PubMed

    Machamer, Carolyn E

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi complex is a central organelle of the secretory pathway where sorting and processing of cargo occurs. While Golgi structure is important for the efficient processing of secretory cargo, the unusual organization suggests additional potential functions. The Golgi is disassembled after various cellular stresses, and we hypothesize that Golgi disassembly activates a stress signaling pathway. This pathway would function to correct the stress if possible, with irreparable stress resulting in apoptosis. Neurons appear to be particularly sensitive to Golgi stress; early disassembly of the organelle correlates with many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, Golgi stress and potential signaling pathways to the nucleus are reviewed. PMID:26594142

  11. The Leishmania ARL-1 and Golgi Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Tetaud, Emmanuel; Cuvillier, Armelle; Lartigue, Lydia; Ambit, Audrey; Robinson, Derrick R.; Merlin, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    We present here the characterisation of the Leishmania small G protein ADP-Ribosylation Factor-Like protein 1 (ARL-1). The ARL-1 gene is present in one copy per haploid genome and conserved among trypanosomatids. It encodes a protein of 20 kDa, which is equally expressed in the insect promastigote and mammalian amastigote forms of the parasite. ARL-1 localises to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN); N-terminal myristoylation is essential for TGN localisation. In vivo expression of the LdARL-1/Q74L and LdARL-1/T51N mutants (GTP- and GDP-bound blocked forms respectively) shows that GDP/GTP cycling occurs entirely within the TGN. This is contrary to previous reports in yeast and mammals, where the mutant empty form devoid of nucleotide has been considered as the GDP-blocked form. The dominant-negative empty form mutant LdARL-1/T34N inhibits endocytosis and intracellular trafficking from the TGN to the Lysosome/Multivesicular Tubule and to the acidocalcisomes; these defects are probably related to a mislocalisation of the GRIP domain-containing vesicle tethering factors which cannot be recruited to the TGN by the cytoplasmic LdARL-1/T34N. Thus, besides the functional characterization of a new mutant and a better understanding of ARL-1 GDP/GTP cycling, this work shows that Leishmania ARL-1 is a key component of an essential pathway worth future study. PMID:18286177

  12. The leishmania ARL-1 and Golgi traffic.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Annelise; Espiau, Benoît; Tetaud, Emmanuel; Cuvillier, Armelle; Lartigue, Lydia; Ambit, Audrey; Robinson, Derrick R; Merlin, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    We present here the characterisation of the Leishmania small G protein ADP-Ribosylation Factor-Like protein 1 (ARL-1). The ARL-1 gene is present in one copy per haploid genome and conserved among trypanosomatids. It encodes a protein of 20 kDa, which is equally expressed in the insect promastigote and mammalian amastigote forms of the parasite. ARL-1 localises to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN); N-terminal myristoylation is essential for TGN localisation. In vivo expression of the LdARL-1/Q74L and LdARL-1/T51N mutants (GTP- and GDP-bound blocked forms respectively) shows that GDP/GTP cycling occurs entirely within the TGN. This is contrary to previous reports in yeast and mammals, where the mutant empty form devoid of nucleotide has been considered as the GDP-blocked form. The dominant-negative empty form mutant LdARL-1/T34N inhibits endocytosis and intracellular trafficking from the TGN to the Lysosome/Multivesicular Tubule and to the acidocalcisomes; these defects are probably related to a mislocalisation of the GRIP domain-containing vesicle tethering factors which cannot be recruited to the TGN by the cytoplasmic LdARL-1/T34N. Thus, besides the functional characterization of a new mutant and a better understanding of ARL-1 GDP/GTP cycling, this work shows that Leishmania ARL-1 is a key component of an essential pathway worth future study. PMID:18286177

  13. Golgi Localization of Syne-1

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Lisa Lucio; Fan, Jun; Chu, Stephen; Winnick, Shawn; Beck, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously identified a Golgi-localized spectrin isoform by using an antibody to the β-subunit of erythrocyte spectrin. In this study, we show that a screen of a λgt11 expression library resulted in the isolation of an ∼5-kb partial cDNA from a Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line, which encoded a polypeptide of 1697 amino acids with low, but detectable, sequence homology to spectrin (37%). A blast search revealed that this clone overlaps with the 5′ end of a recently identified spectrin family member Syne-1B/Nesprin-1β, an alternately transcribed gene with muscle-specific forms that bind acetylcholine receptor and associate with the nuclear envelope. By comparing the sequence of the MDBK clone with sequence data from the human genome database, we have determined that this cDNA represents a central portion of a very large gene (∼500 kb), encoding an ∼25-kb transcript that we refer to as Syne-1. Syne-1 encodes a large polypeptide (8406 amino acids) with multiple spectrin repeats and a region at its amino terminus with high homology to the actin binding domains of conventional spectrins. Golgi localization for this spectrin-like protein was demonstrated by expression of epitope-tagged fragments in MDBK and COS cells, identifying two distinct Golgi binding sites, and by immunofluorescence microscopy by using several different antibody preparations. One of the Golgi binding domains on Syne-1 acts as a dominant negative inhibitor that alters the structure of the Golgi complex, which collapses into a condensed structure near the centrosome in transfected epithelial cells. We conclude that the Syne-1 gene is expressed in a variety of forms that are multifunctional and are capable of functioning at both the Golgi and the nuclear envelope, perhaps linking the two organelles during muscle differentiation. PMID:12808039

  14. Finding the Golgi: Golgin Coiled-Coil Proteins Show the Way.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, Alison K; Munro, Sean

    2016-06-01

    The Golgi apparatus lies at the centre of the secretory pathway. It consists of a series of flattened compartments typically organised into a stack that, in mammals, is connected to additional stacks to form a Golgi ribbon. The Golgi is responsible for the maturation and modification of proteins and lipids, and receives and exports vesicles to and from multiple destinations within the cell. This complex trafficking network requires that only the correct vesicles fuse with the correct destination membrane. Recently, a group of coiled-coil proteins called golgins were shown to not only capture incoming vesicles but to also provide specificity to the tethering step. This raises many interesting questions about how they interact with other components of membrane traffic, some of which may also contribute to specificity. PMID:26972448

  15. Imaging and Quantitation Techniques for Tracking Cargo along Endosome-to-Golgi Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the resolution of light microscopy, coupled with the development of a range of fluorescent-based probes, have provided new approaches to dissecting membrane domains and the regulation of membrane trafficking. Here, we review these advances, as well as highlight developments in quantitative image analysis and novel unbiased analytical approaches to quantitate protein localization. The application of these approaches to endosomal sorting and endosome-to-Golgi transport is discussed. PMID:24709647

  16. Neogenesis and maturation of transient Golgi-like cisternae in a simple eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Sasa; Morf, Laura; Kulangara, Caroline; Regös, Attila; Sonda, Sabrina; Schraner, Elisabeth; Spycher, Cornelia; Wild, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B

    2009-08-15

    The highly reduced protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia has minimal machinery for cellular processes such as protein trafficking. Giardia trophozoites maintain diverse and regulated secretory pathways but lack an identifiable Golgi complex. During differentiation to cysts, however, they produce specialized compartments termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs). ESVs are hypothesized to be unique developmentally regulated Golgi-like organelles dedicated to maturation and export of pre-sorted cyst wall proteins. Here we present a functional analysis of this unusual compartment by direct interference with the functions of the small GTPases Sar1, Rab1 and Arf1. Conditional expression of dominant-negative variants revealed an essential role of Sar1 in early events of organelle neogenesis, whilst inhibition of Arf1 uncoupled morphological changes and cell cycle progression from extracellular matrix export. The latter led to development of ;naked cysts', which lacked water resistance and thus infectivity. Time-lapse microscopy and photobleaching experiments showed that putative Golgi-like cisternae in Giardia develop into a network capable of exchanging soluble cargo at a high rate via dynamic, tubular connections, presumably to synchronize maturation. The minimized and naturally pulsed trafficking machinery for export of the cyst wall biopolymer in Giardia is a simple model for investigating basic principles of neogenesis and maturation of Golgi compartments. PMID:19622633

  17. RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 Promote Retrograde Transport in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donglei; Dubey, Jyoti; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Rongo, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde transport is a critical mechanism for recycling certain membrane cargo. Following endocytosis from the plasma membrane, retrograde cargo is moved from early endosomes to Golgi followed by transport (recycling) back to the plasma membrane. The complete molecular and cellular mechanisms of retrograde transport remain unclear. The small GTPase RAB-6.2 mediates the retrograde recycling of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunit GLR-1 in C. elegans neurons. Here we show that RAB-6.2 and a close paralog, RAB-6.1, together regulate retrograde transport in both neurons and non-neuronal tissue. Mutants for rab-6.1 or rab-6.2 fail to recycle GLR-1 receptors, resulting in GLR-1 turnover and behavioral defects indicative of diminished GLR-1 function. Loss of both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 results in an additive effect on GLR-1 retrograde recycling, indicating that these two C. elegans Rab6 isoforms have overlapping functions. MIG-14 (Wntless) protein, which undergoes retrograde recycling, undergoes a similar degradation in intestinal epithelia in both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 mutants, suggesting a broader role for these proteins in retrograde transport. Surprisingly, MIG-14 is localized to separate, spatially segregated endosomal compartments in rab-6.1 mutants compared to rab-6.2 mutants. Our results indicate that RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 have partially redundant functions in overall retrograde transport, but also have their own unique cellular- and subcellular functions. PMID:26891225

  18. Small GTPase regulation of GPCR anterograde trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guansong; Wu, Guangyu

    2011-01-01

    The physiological functions of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are dictated by their intracellular trafficking and precise targeting to the functional destinations. Over the past decades, most studies on the trafficking of GPCRs have focused on the events involved in endocytosis and recycling. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms underlying anterograde transport of newly synthesized GPCRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface have just begun to be revealed. In this review, we will discuss current advances in understanding the role of Ras-like GTPases, specifically the Rab and Sar1/ARF subfamilies, in regulating cell-surface transport of GPCRs en route from the ER and the Golgi. PMID:22015208

  19. Retrograde TrkAIII transport from ERGIC to ER: a re-localisation mechanism for oncogenic activity

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Antonietta Rosella; Cappabianca, Lucia; Ruggeri, Pierdomenico; Gneo, Luciana; Maccarone, Rita; Mackay, Andrew Reay

    2015-01-01

    In human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma (NB) cells, nascent immature N-glycosylated 110kDa TrkA moves rapidly from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi Network (GN), where it matures into the 140kDa receptor prior to being transported to the cell surface, creating GN and cell surface pools of inactive receptor maintained below the spontaneous activation threshold by a full compliment of inhibitory domains and endogenous PTPases. In contrast, the oncogenic alternative TrkAIII splice variant is not expressed at the cell surface but re-localises to intracellular membranes, within which it exhibits spontaneous ERGIC/COPI-associated activation and oncogenic Akt signalling. In this study, we characterise the mechanism responsible for TrkAIII re-localisation. Spontaneous TrkAIII activation, facilitated by D4 IG-like domain and N-glycosylation site omission, increases spontaneous activation potential by altering intracellular trafficking, inhibiting cell surface expression and eliminating an important inhibitory domain. TrkAIII, spontaneously activated within the permissive ERGIC/COPI compartment, rather than moving in an anterograde direction to the GN exhibits retrograde transport back to the ER, where it is inactivated. This sets-up self-perpetuating TrkAIII re-cycling between the ERGIC and ER, that ensures continual accumulation above the spontaneous activation threshold of the ERGIC/COPI compartment. This is reversed by TrkA tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which promote anterograde transport of inactivated TrkAIII to the GN, resulting in GN-associated TrkAIII maturation to a 120kDa species that is degraded at the proteasome. PMID:26415233

  20. Golgi Disruption and Early Embryonic Lethality in Mice Lacking USO1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Susie; Hill, Adele; Warman, Matthew L.; Smits, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Golgins are a family of long rod-like proteins characterized by the presence of central coiled-coil domains. Members of the golgin family have important roles in membrane trafficking, where they function as tethering factors that capture transport vesicles and facilitate membrane fusion. Golgin family members also have essential roles in maintaining the organization of the Golgi apparatus. Knockdown of individual golgins in cultured cells resulted in the disruption of the Golgi structure and the dispersal of Golgi marker proteins throughout the cytoplasm. However, these cellular phenotypes have not always been recapitulated in vivo. For example, embryonic development proceeds much further than expected and Golgi disruption was observed in only a subset of cell types in mice lacking the ubiquitously expressed golgin GMAP-210. Cell-type specific functional compensation among golgins may explain the absence of global cell lethality when a ubiquitously expressed golgin is missing. In this study we show that functional compensation does not occur for the golgin USO1. Mice lacking this ubiquitously expressed protein exhibit disruption of Golgi structure and early embryonic lethality, indicating that USO1 is indispensable for early embryonic development. PMID:23185636

  1. Rab43 regulates the sorting of a subset of membrane protein cargo through the medial Golgi.

    PubMed

    Cox, John V; Kansal, Rita; Whitt, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the role of cytoplasmic domains of membrane-spanning proteins in directing trafficking through the secretory pathway, we generated fluorescently tagged VSV G tsO45 with either the native G tail (G) or a cytoplasmic tail derived from the chicken AE1-4 anion exchanger (G(AE)). We previously showed that these two proteins progressed through the Golgi with distinct kinetics. To investigate the basis for the differential sorting of G and G(AE), we analyzed the role of several Golgi-associated small GTP-binding proteins and found that Rab43 differentially regulated their transport through the Golgi. We show that the expression of GFP-Rab43 arrested the anterograde transport of G(AE) in a Rab43-positive medial Golgi compartment. GFP-Rab43 expression also inhibited the acquisition of endoH-resistant sugars and the surface delivery of G(AE), as well as the surface delivery of the AE1-4 anion exchanger. In contrast, GFP-Rab43 expression did not affect the glycosylation or surface delivery of G. Unexpectedly, down-regulation of endogenous Rab43 using small interfering RNA resulted in an increase in the accumulation of G(AE) on the cell surface while having minimal effect on the surface levels of G. Our data demonstrate that Rab43 regulates the sorting of a subset of membrane-spanning cargo as they progress through the medial Golgi. PMID:27053659

  2. Golgi: Interactive Online Brain Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ramsay A.; Swanson, Larry W.

    2015-01-01

    Golgi (http://www.usegolgi.com) is a prototype interactive brain map of the rat brain that helps researchers intuitively interact with neuroanatomy, connectomics, and cellular and chemical architecture. The flood of “-omic” data urges new ways to help researchers connect discrete findings to the larger context of the nervous system. Here we explore Golgi’s underlying reasoning and techniques and how our design decisions balance the constraints of building both a scientifically useful and usable tool. We demonstrate how Golgi can enhance connectomic literature searches with a case study investigating a thalamocortical circuit involving the Nucleus Accumbens and we explore Golgi’s potential and future directions for growth in systems neuroscience and connectomics. PMID:26635596

  3. Export of cyst wall material and Golgi organelle neogenesis in Giardia lamblia depend on endoplasmic reticulum exit sites.

    PubMed

    Faso, Carmen; Konrad, Christian; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Hehl, Adrian B

    2013-04-01

    Giardia lamblia parasitism accounts for the majority of cases of parasitic diarrheal disease, making this flagellated eukaryote the most successful intestinal parasite worldwide. This organism has undergone secondary reduction/elimination of entire organelle systems such as mitochondria and Golgi. However, trophozoite to cyst differentiation (encystation) requires neogenesis of Golgi-like secretory organelles named encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs), which traffic, modify and partition cyst wall proteins produced exclusively during encystation. In this work we ask whether neogenesis of Golgi-related ESVs during G. lamblia differentiation, similarly to Golgi biogenesis in more complex eukaryotes, requires the maintenance of distinct COPII-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomains in the form of ER exit sites (ERES) and whether ERES are also present in non-differentiating trophozoites. To address this question, we identified conserved COPII components in G. lamblia cells and determined their localization, quantity and dynamics at distinct ERES domains in vegetative and differentiating trophozoites. Analogous to ERES and Golgi biogenesis, these domains were closely associated to early stages of newly generated ESV. Ectopic expression of non-functional Sar1 GTPase variants caused ERES collapse and, consequently, ESV ablation, leading to impaired parasite differentiation. Thus, our data show how ERES domains remain conserved in G. lamblia despite elimination of steady-state Golgi. Furthermore, the fundamental eukaryotic principle of ERES to Golgi/Golgi-like compartment correspondence holds true in differentiating Giardia presenting streamlined machinery for secretory organelle biogenesis and protein trafficking. However, in the Golgi-less trophozoites ERES exist as stable ER subdomains, likely as the sole sorting centres for secretory traffic. PMID:23094658

  4. Vesicles Bearing Toxoplasma Apicoplast Membrane Proteins Persist Following Loss of the Relict Plastid or Golgi Body Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Bouchut, Anne; Geiger, Jennifer A.; DeRocher, Amy E.; Parsons, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and malaria parasites contain a unique and essential relict plastid called the apicoplast. Most apicoplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus and are transported to the organelle via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Three trafficking routes have been proposed for apicoplast membrane proteins: (i) vesicular trafficking from the ER to the Golgi and then to the apicoplast, (ii) contiguity between the ER membrane and the apicoplast allowing direct flow of proteins, and (iii) vesicular transport directly from the ER to the apicoplast. Previously, we identified a set of membrane proteins of the T. gondii apicoplast which were also detected in large vesicles near the organelle. Data presented here show that the large vesicles bearing apicoplast membrane proteins are not the major carriers of luminal proteins. The vesicles continue to appear in parasites which have lost their plastid due to mis-segregation, indicating that the vesicles are not derived from the apicoplast. To test for a role of the Golgi body in vesicle formation, parasites were treated with brefeldin A or transiently transfected with a dominant-negative mutant of Sar1, a GTPase required for ER to Golgi trafficking. The immunofluorescence patterns showed little change. These findings were confirmed using stable transfectants, which expressed the toxic dominant-negative sar1 following Cre-loxP mediated promoter juxtaposition. Our data support the hypothesis that the large vesicles do not mediate the trafficking of luminal proteins to the apicoplast. The results further show that the large vesicles bearing apicoplast membrane proteins continue to be observed in the absence of Golgi and plastid function. These data raise the possibility that the apicoplast proteome is generated by two novel ER to plastid trafficking pathways, plus the small set of proteins encoded by the apicoplast genome. PMID:25369183

  5. How Rab proteins determine Golgi structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Storrie, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Rab proteins, small GTPases, are key regulators of mammalian Golgi apparatus organization. Based on the effect of Rab activation state, Rab proteins fall into two functional classes. In Class1, inactivation induces Golgi ribbon fragmentation and/or redistribution of Golgi enzymes to the Endoplasmic Reticulum, while overexpression of wild type or activation has little, if any, effect on Golgi ribbon organization. In Class 2, the reverse is true. We give emphasis to Rab6, the most abundant Golgi-associated Rab protein. Rab6 depletion in HeLa cells causes an increase in Golgi cisternal number, longer, more continuous cisternae, and a pronounced accumulation of vesicles; the effect of Rab6 on Golgi ribbon organization is probably through regulation of vesicle transport. In effector studies, motor proteins and their regulators are found to be key Rab6 effectors. A related Rab, Rab41, affects Golgi ribbon organization in a contrasting manner. The balance between minus- and plus-end directed motor recruitment may well be the major Rab-dependent factor in Golgi ribbon organization. PMID:25708460

  6. Involvement of complex sphingolipids and phosphatidylserine in endosomal trafficking in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2012-12-01

    Sphingolipids play critical roles in many physiologically important events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we found that csg2Δ mutant cells defective in the synthesis of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide exhibited abnormal intracellular accumulation of an exocytic v-SNARE, Snc1, under phosphatidylserine synthase gene (PSS1)-repressive conditions, although in wild-type cells, Snc1 was known to cycle between plasma membranes and the late Golgi via post-Golgi endosomes. The mislocalized Snc1 was co-localized with an endocytic marker dye, FM4-64, upon labelling for a short time. The abnormal distribution of Snc1 was suppressed by deletion of GYP2 encoding a GTPase-activating protein that negatively regulates endosomal vesicular trafficking, or expression of GTP-restricted form of Ypt32 GTPase. Furthermore, an endocytosis-deficient mutant of Snc1 was localized to plasma membranes in PSS1-repressed csg2Δ mutant cells as well as wild-type cells. Thus, the PSS1-repressed csg2Δ mutant cells were indicated to be defective in the trafficking of Snc1 from post-Golgi endosomes to the late Golgi. In contrast, the vesicular trafficking pathways via pre-vacuolar endosomes in the PSS1-repressed csg2Δ mutant cells seemed to be normal. These results suggested that specific complex sphingolipids and phosphatidylserine are co-ordinately involved in specific vesicular trafficking pathway. PMID:23062277

  7. EHD3 regulates early-endosome-to-Golgi transport and preserves Golgi morphology

    PubMed Central

    Naslavsky, Naava; McKenzie, Jenna; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Sheff, David; Caplan, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Summary Depletion of EHD3 affects sorting in endosomes by altering the kinetics and route of receptor recycling to the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that siRNA knockdown of EHD3, or its interaction partner rabenosyn-5, causes redistribution of sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) to enlarged early endosomes and disrupts transport of internalized Shiga toxin B subunit (STxB) to the Golgi. Moreover, under these conditions, Golgi morphology appears as a series of highly dispersed and fragmented stacks that maintain characteristics of cis-, medial- and trans-Golgi membranes. Although Arf1 still assembled onto these dispersed Golgi membranes, the level of AP-1 γ-adaptin recruited to the Golgi was diminished. Whereas VSV-G-secretion from the dispersed Golgi remained largely unaffected, the distribution of mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) was altered: it remained in peripheral endosomes and did not return to the Golgi. Cathepsin D, a hydrolase that is normally transported to lysosomes via an M6PR-dependent pathway, remained trapped at the Golgi. Our findings support a role for EHD3 in regulating endosome-to-Golgi transport, and as a consequence, lysosomal biosynthetic, but not secretory, transport pathways are also affected. These data also suggest that impaired endosome-to-Golgi transport and the resulting lack of recruitment of AP-1 γ-adaptin to Golgi membranes affect Golgi morphology. PMID:19139087

  8. Dynamin-related proteins in plant post-Golgi traffic

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Masaru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Membrane traffic between two organelles begins with the formation of transport vesicles from the donor organelle. Dynamin-related proteins (DRPs), which are large multidomain GTPases, play crucial roles in vesicle formation in post-Golgi traffic. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that animal dynamins, which are members of DRP family, assemble into ring- or helix-shaped structures at the neck of a bud site on the donor membrane, where they constrict and sever the neck membrane in a GTP hydrolysis-dependent manner. While much is known about DRP-mediated trafficking in animal cells, little is known about it in plant cells. So far, two structurally distinct subfamilies of plant DRPs (DRP1 and DRP2) have been found to participate in various pathways of post-Golgi traffic. This review summarizes the structural and functional differences between these two DRP subfamilies, focusing on their molecular, cellular and developmental properties. We also discuss the molecular networks underlying the functional machinery centering on these two DRP subfamilies. Furthermore, we hope that this review will provide direction for future studies on the mechanisms of vesicle formation that are not only unique to plants but also common to eukaryotes. PMID:25237312

  9. Novel Coronin7 interactions with Cdc42 and N-WASP regulate actin organization and Golgi morphology.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kurchi; Swaminathan, Karthic; Peche, Vivek S; Clemen, Christoph S; Knyphausen, Philipp; Lammers, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A; Rastetter, Raphael H

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to the unique architecture of the Golgi complex is manifold. An important player in this process is Coronin7 (CRN7), a Golgi-resident protein that stabilizes F-actin assembly at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) thereby facilitating anterograde trafficking. Here, we establish that CRN7-mediated association of F-actin with the Golgi apparatus is distinctly modulated via the small Rho GTPase Cdc42 and N-WASP. We identify N-WASP as a novel interaction partner of CRN7 and demonstrate that CRN7 restricts spurious F-actin reorganizations by repressing N-WASP 'hyperactivity' upon constitutive Cdc42 activation. Loss of CRN7 leads to increased cellular F-actin content and causes a concomitant disruption of the Golgi structure. CRN7 harbours a Cdc42- and Rac-interactive binding (CRIB) motif in its tandem β-propellers and binds selectively to GDP-bound Cdc42N17 mutant. We speculate that CRN7 can act as a cofactor for active Cdc42 generation. Mutation of CRIB motif residues that abrogate Cdc42 binding to CRN7 also fail to rescue the cellular defects in fibroblasts derived from CRN7 KO mice. Cdc42N17 overexpression partially rescued the KO phenotypes whereas N-WASP overexpression failed to do so. We conclude that CRN7 spatiotemporally influences F-actin organization and Golgi integrity in a Cdc42- and N-WASP-dependent manner. PMID:27143109

  10. Novel Coronin7 interactions with Cdc42 and N-WASP regulate actin organization and Golgi morphology

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Kurchi; Swaminathan, Karthic; Peche, Vivek S.; Clemen, Christoph S.; Knyphausen, Philipp; Lammers, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A.; Rastetter, Raphael H.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to the unique architecture of the Golgi complex is manifold. An important player in this process is Coronin7 (CRN7), a Golgi-resident protein that stabilizes F-actin assembly at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) thereby facilitating anterograde trafficking. Here, we establish that CRN7-mediated association of F-actin with the Golgi apparatus is distinctly modulated via the small Rho GTPase Cdc42 and N-WASP. We identify N-WASP as a novel interaction partner of CRN7 and demonstrate that CRN7 restricts spurious F-actin reorganizations by repressing N-WASP ‘hyperactivity’ upon constitutive Cdc42 activation. Loss of CRN7 leads to increased cellular F-actin content and causes a concomitant disruption of the Golgi structure. CRN7 harbours a Cdc42- and Rac-interactive binding (CRIB) motif in its tandem β-propellers and binds selectively to GDP-bound Cdc42N17 mutant. We speculate that CRN7 can act as a cofactor for active Cdc42 generation. Mutation of CRIB motif residues that abrogate Cdc42 binding to CRN7 also fail to rescue the cellular defects in fibroblasts derived from CRN7 KO mice. Cdc42N17 overexpression partially rescued the KO phenotypes whereas N-WASP overexpression failed to do so. We conclude that CRN7 spatiotemporally influences F-actin organization and Golgi integrity in a Cdc42- and N-WASP-dependent manner. PMID:27143109

  11. The Golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulou, Areti

    2016-05-01

    Cargo passage through the Golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. Although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the Golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. During the past decade the Golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly Aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. Here an overview of the most important findings in the field is provided. Golgi architecture and dynamics, as well as the novel cell biology tools that were developed in filamentous fungi in these studies, are addressed. An emphasis is placed on the central role the Golgi has as a crossroads in the endocytic and secretory-traffic pathways in hyphae. Finally the major advances that the A. nidulans Golgi biology has yielded so far regarding our understanding of key Golgi regulators, such as the Rab GTPases RabC(Rab6) and RabE(Rab11), the oligomeric transport protein particle, TRAPPII, and the Golgi guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf1, GeaA(GBF1/Gea1) and HypB(BIG/Sec7), are highlighted. PMID:26932185

  12. α-Arrestins Aly1 and Aly2 Regulate Intracellular Trafficking in Response to Nutrient Signaling

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Allyson F.; Apffel, Alex; Gardner, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular signals regulate trafficking events to reorganize proteins at the plasma membrane (PM); however, few effectors of this regulation have been identified. β-Arrestins relay signaling cues to the trafficking machinery by controlling agonist-stimulated endocytosis of G-protein–coupled receptors. In contrast, we show that yeast α-arrestins, Aly1 and Aly2, control intracellular sorting of Gap1, the general amino acid permease, in response to nutrients. These studies are the first to demonstrate association of α-arrestins with clathrin and clathrin adaptor proteins (AP) and show that Aly1 and Aly2 interact directly with the γ-subunit of AP-1, Apl4. Aly2-dependent trafficking of Gap1 requires AP-1, which mediates endosome-to-Golgi transport, and the nutrient-regulated kinase, Npr1, which phosphorylates Aly2. During nitrogen starvation, Npr1 phosphorylation of Aly2 may stimulate Gap1 incorporation into AP-1/clathrin-coated vesicles to promote Gap1 trafficking from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Ultimately, increased Aly1-/Aly2-mediated recycling of Gap1 from endosomes results in higher Gap1 levels within cells and at the PM by diverting Gap away from trafficking pathways that lead to vacuolar degradation. This work defines a new role for arrestins in membrane trafficking and offers insight into how α-arrestins coordinate signaling events with protein trafficking. PMID:20739461

  13. ER-Golgi network– a future target for anti-cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Skommer, Joanna; McGuinness, Dagmara; Hillier, Chris; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Tumor cell demise is an important event in the elimination of abnormal malignant cells and provides an important mechanism of natural tumor suppression. Abnormalities incapacitating these finely tuned processes provide a strong advantage for cancer clones to succeed in evading both the physiological control systems and therapeutic intervention. Expanding our knowledge of the molecular “cross-talks” that regulate tumor cell demise is crucial in guiding the successful design of future anti-cancer therapeutics. Although currently available data indicate that elimination of malignant cells often depends on classical apoptotic pathways (mitochondrial and/or death receptor pathways), the evidence is mounting that alternative apoptotic and non-apoptotic pathways may effectively contribute to tumor cell death. The assumption that every organelle is capable of sensing, amplificating and executing cell death is also a relatively novel and unexplored concept. As recently shown, the secretory pathway can be actively involved in sensing stress stimuli and possibly even initiating and propagating cell death signaling. Experimental evidence indicates that ER and Golgi apparatus can activate both pro-survival (recovery) mechanisms as well as cell suicide programs if the stress-signaling threshold is exceeded. It is thus conceivable that the fragile balance of protein trafficking between various subcellular compartments provides an exceptional therapeutic opportunity. Interestingly, a growing number of reports recognize novel therapeutic targets, including proteins in control of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi homeostasis. Further studies are, however, needed to elucidate precise signaling pathways emanating from ER-Golgi compartment. Development of more potent and selective small-molecule drugs that activate ER-Golgi mediated cell demise is also needed. As the interest in the role of ER-Golgi network during cancer cell death has been gaining momentum, we attempt here to

  14. Discovery and rediscoveries of Golgi cells

    PubMed Central

    Galliano, Elisa; Mazzarello, Paolo; D’Angelo, Egidio

    2010-01-01

    When Camillo Golgi invented the black reaction in 1873 and first described the fine anatomical structure of the nervous system, he described a ‘big nerve cell’ that later took his name, the Golgi cell of cerebellum (‘Golgi'schen Zellen’, Gustaf Retzius, 1892). The Golgi cell was then proposed as the prototype of type-II interneurons, which form complex connections and exert their actions exclusively within the local network. Santiago Ramón y Cajal (who received the Nobel Prize with Golgi in 1906) proceeded to a detailed description of Golgi cell morphological characteristics, but functional insight remained very limited for many years. The first rediscovery happened in the 1960s, when neurophysiological analysis in vivo revealed that Golgi cells are inhibitory interneurons. This finding promoted the development of two major cerebellar theories, the ‘beam theory’ of John Eccles and the ‘motor learning theory’ of David Marr, in which the Golgi cells regulate the spatial organisation and the gain of input signals to be processed and learned by the cerebellar circuit. However, the matter was not set and a series of pioneering observations using single unit recordings and electron microscopy raised new issues that could not be fully explored until the 1990s. Then, the advent of new electrophysiological and imaging techniques in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the cellular and network activities of these neurons. Now we know that Golgi cells, through complex systems of chemical and electrical synapses, effectively control the spatio-temporal organisation of cerebellar responses. The Golgi cells regulate the timing and number of spikes emitted by granule cells and coordinate their coherent activity. Moreover, the Golgi cells regulate the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity along the mossy fibre pathway. Eventually, the Golgi cells transform the granular layer of cerebellum into an adaptable spatio-temporal filter capable of performing several kinds

  15. Regulation of α2B-Adrenerigc Receptor Export Trafficking by Specific Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guangyu; Davis, Jason E.; Zhang, Maoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular trafficking and precise targeting to specific locations of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control the physiological functions of the receptors. Compared to the extensive efforts dedicated to understanding the events involved in the endocytic and recycling pathways, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport of the GPCR superfamily from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi to the plasma membrane are relatively less well defined. Over the past years, we have used α2B-adrenergic receptor (α2B-AR) as a model to define the factors that control GPCR export trafficking. In this chapter, we will review specific motifs identified to mediate the export of nascent α2B-AR from the ER and the Golgi and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms. As these motifs are highly conserved among GPCRs, they may provide common mechanisms for export trafficking of these receptors. PMID:26055061

  16. Journey to the cell surface--the central role of the trans-Golgi network in plants.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Delphine; Jonsson, Kristoffer; Boutté, Yohann; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2015-03-01

    The secretion of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates to the cell surface is essential for plant development and adaptation. Secreted substances synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum pass through the Golgi apparatus and trans-Golgi network (TGN) en route to the plasma membrane via the conventional secretion pathway. The TGN is morphologically and functionally distinct from the Golgi apparatus. The TGN is located at the crossroads of many trafficking pathways and regulates a range of crucial processes including secretion to the cell surface, transport to the vacuole, and the reception of endocytic cargo. This review outlines the TGN's central role in cargo secretion, showing that its behavior is more complex and controlled than the bulk-flow hypothesis suggests. Its formation, structure, and maintenance are discussed along with the formation and release of secretory vesicles. PMID:25187082

  17. Sub-Compartmental Organization of Golgi-Resident N-Glycan Processing Enzymes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Schoberer, Jennifer; Strasser, Richard

    2011-01-01

    In all eukaryotes, the Golgi apparatus is the main site of protein glycosylation. It is widely accepted that the glycosidases and glycosyltransferases involved in N-glycan processing are found concentrated within the Golgi stack where they provide their function. This means that enzymes catalyzing early steps in the processing pathway are located mainly at the cis-side, whereas late-acting enzymes mostly locate to the trans-side of the stacks, creating a non-uniform distribution along the cis–trans axis of the Golgi. There is compelling evidence that the information for their sorting to specific Golgi cisternae depends on signals encoded in the proteins themselves as well as on the trafficking machinery that recognizes these signals and it is believed that cisternal sub-compartmentalization is achieved and maintained by a combination of retention and retrieval mechanisms. Yet, the signals, mechanism(s), and molecular factors involved are still unknown. Here, we address recent findings and summarize the current understanding of this fundamental process in plant cell biology. PMID:21307368

  18. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B

    2006-03-15

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a "megalocytosis" phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the "Golgi blockade" hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and alpha-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1alpha and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis. PMID:16000202

  19. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B. . E-mail: pravin_sehgal@nymc.edu

    2006-03-15

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and {alpha}-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1{alpha} and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis.

  20. Discovery and rediscoveries of Golgi cells.

    PubMed

    Galliano, Elisa; Mazzarello, Paolo; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2010-10-01

    When Camillo Golgi invented the black reaction in 1873 and first described the fine anatomical structure of the nervous system, he described a ‘big nerve cell’ that later took his name, the Golgi cell of cerebellum (‘Golgi’schen Zellen’, Gustaf Retzius, 1892). The Golgi cell was then proposed as the prototype of type-II interneurons, which form complex connections and exert their actions exclusively within the local network. Santiago Ramón y Cajal (who received the Nobel Prize with Golgi in 1906) proceeded to a detailed description of Golgi cell morphological characteristics, but functional insight remained very limited for many years. The first rediscovery happened in the 1960s, when neurophysiological analysis in vivo revealed that Golgi cells are inhibitory interneurons. This finding promoted the development of two major cerebellar theories, the ‘beam theory’ of John Eccles and the ‘motor learning theory’ of David Marr, in which the Golgi cells regulate the spatial organisation and the gain of input signals to be processed and learned by the cerebellar circuit. However, the matter was not set and a series of pioneering observations using single unit recordings and electronmicroscopy raised new issues that could not be fully explored until the 1990s. Then, the advent of new electrophysiological and imaging techniques in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the cellular and network activities of these neurons. Now we know that Golgi cells, through complex systems of chemical and electrical synapses, effectively control the spatio-temporal organisation of cerebellar responses. The Golgi cells regulate the timing and number of spikes emitted by granule cells and coordinate their coherent activity. Moreover, the Golgi cells regulate the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity along the mossy fibre pathway. Eventually, the Golgi cells transform the granular layer of cerebellum into an adaptable spatio-temporal filter capable of performing several kinds

  1. The postsynaptic t-SNARE Syntaxin 4 controls traffic of Neuroligin 1 and Synaptotagmin 4 to regulate retrograde signaling

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kathryn P; Zhang, Yao V; Piccioli, Zachary D; Perrimon, Norbert; Littleton, J Troy

    2016-01-01

    Postsynaptic cells can induce synaptic plasticity through the release of activity-dependent retrograde signals. We previously described a Ca2+-dependent retrograde signaling pathway mediated by postsynaptic Synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4). To identify proteins involved in postsynaptic exocytosis, we conducted a screen for candidates that disrupted trafficking of a pHluorin-tagged Syt4 at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Here we characterize one candidate, the postsynaptic t-SNARE Syntaxin 4 (Syx4). Analysis of Syx4 mutants reveals that Syx4 mediates retrograde signaling, modulating the membrane levels of Syt4 and the transsynaptic adhesion protein Neuroligin 1 (Nlg1). Syx4-dependent trafficking regulates synaptic development, including controlling synaptic bouton number and the ability to bud new varicosities in response to acute neuronal stimulation. Genetic interaction experiments demonstrate Syx4, Syt4, and Nlg1 regulate synaptic growth and plasticity through both shared and parallel signaling pathways. Our findings suggest a conserved postsynaptic SNARE machinery controls multiple aspects of retrograde signaling and cargo trafficking within the postsynaptic compartment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13881.001 PMID:27223326

  2. The postsynaptic t-SNARE Syntaxin 4 controls traffic of Neuroligin 1 and Synaptotagmin 4 to regulate retrograde signaling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathryn P; Zhang, Yao V; Piccioli, Zachary D; Perrimon, Norbert; Littleton, J Troy

    2016-01-01

    Postsynaptic cells can induce synaptic plasticity through the release of activity-dependent retrograde signals. We previously described a Ca(2+)-dependent retrograde signaling pathway mediated by postsynaptic Synaptotagmin 4 (Syt4). To identify proteins involved in postsynaptic exocytosis, we conducted a screen for candidates that disrupted trafficking of a pHluorin-tagged Syt4 at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Here we characterize one candidate, the postsynaptic t-SNARE Syntaxin 4 (Syx4). Analysis of Syx4 mutants reveals that Syx4 mediates retrograde signaling, modulating the membrane levels of Syt4 and the transsynaptic adhesion protein Neuroligin 1 (Nlg1). Syx4-dependent trafficking regulates synaptic development, including controlling synaptic bouton number and the ability to bud new varicosities in response to acute neuronal stimulation. Genetic interaction experiments demonstrate Syx4, Syt4, and Nlg1 regulate synaptic growth and plasticity through both shared and parallel signaling pathways. Our findings suggest a conserved postsynaptic SNARE machinery controls multiple aspects of retrograde signaling and cargo trafficking within the postsynaptic compartment. PMID:27223326

  3. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1–NPP6. Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2–GFP and NPP6–GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER–Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs. PMID:27335351

  4. N-Glycomic and Microscopic Subcellular Localization Analyses of NPP1, 2 and 6 Strongly Indicate that trans-Golgi Compartments Participate in the Golgi to Plastid Traffic of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterases in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Takamatsu, Takeshi; Inomata, Takuya; Oikawa, Kazusato; Itoh, Kimiko; Hirose, Kazuko; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1-NPP6 Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking. Computer-assisted analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from different Oryza sativa NPP-encoding cDNAs predicted all NPPs to be secretory glycoproteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy observation of cells expressing NPP2 and NPP6 fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that NPP2 and NPP6 are plastidial proteins. Plastid targeting of NPP2-GFP and NPP6-GFP was prevented by brefeldin A and by the expression of ARF1(Q71L), a dominant negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 that arrests the ER to Golgi traffic, indicating that NPP2 and NPP6 are transported from the ER-Golgi to the plastidial compartment. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted electron microscopy analyses of transgenic rice cells ectopically expressing the trans-Golgi marker sialyltransferase fused with GFP showed the occurrence of contact of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles with cargo and subsequent absorption into plastids. Sensitive and high-throughput glycoblotting/mass spectrometric analyses showed that complex-type and paucimannosidic-type glycans with fucose and xylose residues occupy approximately 80% of total glycans of NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6. The overall data strongly indicate that the trans-Golgi compartments participate in the Golgi to plastid trafficking and targeting mechanism of NPPs. PMID:27335351

  5. Membrane trafficking in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model.

    PubMed

    Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:25584613

  6. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    PubMed Central

    Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L.; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:25584613

  7. Rab1 defines a novel pathway connecting the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment with the cell periphery.

    PubMed

    Sannerud, Ragna; Marie, Michaël; Nizak, Clément; Dale, Hege Avsnes; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Perez, Franck; Goud, Bruno; Saraste, Jaakko

    2006-04-01

    The function of the pre-Golgi intermediate compartment (IC) and its relationship with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi remain only partially understood. Here, we report striking segregation of IC domains in polarized PC12 cells that develop neurite-like processes. Differentiation involves expansion of the IC and movement of Rab1-containing tubules to the growth cones of the neurites, whereas p58- and COPI-positive IC elements, like rough ER and Golgi, remain in the cell body. Exclusion of Rab1 effectors p115 and GM130 from the neurites further indicated that the centrifugal, Rab1-mediated pathway has functions that are not directly related to ER-to-Golgi trafficking. Disassembly of COPI coats did not affect this pathway but resulted in missorting of p58 to the neurites. Live cell imaging showed that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Rab1A-containing IC elements move bidirectionally both within the neurites and cell bodies, interconnecting different ER exit sites and the cis-Golgi region. Moreover, in nonpolarized cells GFP-Rab1A-positive tubules moved centrifugally towards the cell cortex. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, colocalized with slowly sedimenting, Rab1-enriched membranes when the IC subdomains were separated by velocity sedimentation. These results reveal a novel pathway directly connecting the IC with the cell periphery and suggest that this Rab1-mediated pathway is linked to the dynamics of smooth ER. PMID:16421253

  8. Golgi-Cox Staining Step by Step

    PubMed Central

    Zaqout, Sami; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi staining remains a key method to study neuronal morphology in vivo. Since most protocols delineating modifications of the original staining method lack details on critical steps, establishing this method in a laboratory can be time-consuming and frustrating. Here, we describe the Golgi-Cox staining in such detail that should turn the staining into an easily feasible method for all scientists working in the neuroscience field. PMID:27065817

  9. Retrograde signaling: Organelles go networking.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario

    2016-08-01

    The term retrograde signaling refers to the fact that chloroplasts and mitochondria utilize specific signaling molecules to convey information on their developmental and physiological states to the nucleus and modulate the expression of nuclear genes accordingly. Signals emanating from plastids have been associated with two main networks: 'Biogenic control' is active during early stages of chloroplast development, while 'operational' control functions in response to environmental fluctuations. Early work focused on the former and its major players, the GUN proteins. However, our view of retrograde signaling has since been extended and revised. Elements of several 'operational' signaling circuits have come to light, including metabolites, signaling cascades in the cytosol and transcription factors. Here, we review recent advances in the identification and characterization of retrograde signaling components. We place particular emphasis on the strategies employed to define signaling components, spanning the entire spectrum of genetic screens, metabolite profiling and bioinformatics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26997501

  10. Deregulation and Station Trafficking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Benjamin J.

    To test whether the revocation of the Federal Communications Commission's "Anti-Trafficking" rule (requiring television station owners to keep a station for three years before transferring its license to another party) impacted station owner behavior, a study compared the behavior of television station "traffickers" (owners seeking quick turnovers…

  11. CCDC115 Deficiency Causes a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis with Abnormal Protein Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jos C; Cirak, Sebahattin; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Timal, Sharita; Reunert, Janine; Rust, Stephan; Pérez, Belén; Vicogne, Dorothée; Krawitz, Peter; Wada, Yoshinao; Ashikov, Angel; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Medrano, Celia; Arnoldy, Andrea; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; Quelhas, Dulce; Diogo, Luisa; Rymen, Daisy; Jaeken, Jaak; Guffon, Nathalie; Cheillan, David; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Maeda, Yusuke; Kaiser, Olaf; Schara, Ulrike; Gerner, Patrick; van den Boogert, Marjolein A W; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Sokal, Etienne; Salomon, Jody; van den Bogaart, Geert; Drenth, Joost P H; Huynen, Martijn A; Veltman, Joris A; Wevers, Ron A; Morava, Eva; Matthijs, Gert; Foulquier, François; Marquardt, Thorsten; Lefeber, Dirk J

    2016-02-01

    Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are challenging. Exome sequencing in a family with three siblings affected by abnormal Golgi glycosylation revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.92T>C (p.Leu31Ser), in coiled-coil domain containing 115 (CCDC115), the function of which is unknown. The same mutation was identified in three unrelated families, and in one family it was compound heterozygous in combination with a heterozygous deletion of CCDC115. An additional homozygous missense mutation, c.31G>T (p.Asp11Tyr), was found in a family with two affected siblings. All individuals displayed a storage-disease-like phenotype involving hepatosplenomegaly, which regressed with age, highly elevated bone-derived alkaline phosphatase, elevated aminotransferases, and elevated cholesterol, in combination with abnormal copper metabolism and neurological symptoms. Two individuals died of liver failure, and one individual was successfully treated by liver transplantation. Abnormal N- and mucin type O-glycosylation was found on serum proteins, and reduced metabolic labeling of sialic acids was found in fibroblasts, which was restored after complementation with wild-type CCDC115. PSI-BLAST homology detection revealed reciprocal homology with Vma22p, the yeast V-ATPase assembly factor located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human CCDC115 mainly localized to the ERGIC and to COPI vesicles, but not to the ER. These data, in combination with the phenotypic spectrum, which is distinct from that associated with defects in V-ATPase core subunits, suggest a more general role for CCDC115 in Golgi trafficking. Our study reveals CCDC115 deficiency as a disorder of Golgi homeostasis that can be readily identified via screening for abnormal

  12. Dynamin-like protein 1 at the Golgi complex: A novel component of the sorting/targeting machinery en route to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bonekamp, Nina A.; Vormund, Kerstin; Jacob, Ralf; Schrader, Michael

    2010-12-10

    The final step in the liberation of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) involves the mechanical action of the large GTPase dynamin as well as conserved dynamin-independent fission mechanisms, e.g. mediated by Brefeldin A-dependent ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS). Another member of the dynamin family is the mammalian dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1/Drp1) that is known to constrict and tubulate membranes, and to divide mitochondria and peroxisomes. Here, we examined a potential role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex. DLP1 localized to the Golgi complex in some but not all cell lines tested, thus explaining controversial reports on its cellular distribution. After silencing of DLP1, an accumulation of the apical reporter protein YFP-GL-GPI, but not the basolateral reporter VSVG-SP-GFP at the Golgi complex was observed. A reduction in the transport of YFP-GL-GPI to the plasma membrane was confirmed by surface immunoprecipitation and TGN-exit assays. In contrast, YFP-GL-GPI trafficking was not disturbed in cells silenced for BARS, which is involved in basolateral sorting and trafficking of VSVG-SP-GFP in COS-7 cells. Our data indicate a new role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex and thus a role for DLP1 as a novel component of the apical sorting machinery at the TGN is discussed.

  13. Control of Autophagosome Axonal Retrograde Flux by Presynaptic Activity Unveiled Using Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Martin, Sally; Papadopulos, Andreas; Harper, Callista B.; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Niranjan, Dhevahi; Glass, Nick R.; Cooper-White, Justin J.; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Daniel; Davletov, Bazbek; Meunier, Frédéric A.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that elicits flaccid paralysis by enzymatic cleavage of the exocytic machinery component SNAP25 in motor nerve terminals. However, recent evidence suggests that the neurotoxic activity of BoNT/A is not restricted to the periphery, but also reaches the CNS after retrograde axonal transport. Because BoNT/A is internalized in recycling synaptic vesicles, it is unclear which compartment facilitates this transport. Using live-cell confocal and single-molecule imaging of rat hippocampal neurons cultured in microfluidic devices, we show that the activity-dependent uptake of the binding domain of the BoNT/A heavy chain (BoNT/A-Hc) is followed by a delayed increase in retrograde axonal transport of BoNT/A-Hc carriers. Consistent with a role of presynaptic activity in initiating transport of the active toxin, activity-dependent uptake of BoNT/A in the terminal led to a significant increase in SNAP25 cleavage detected in the soma chamber compared with nonstimulated neurons. Surprisingly, most endocytosed BoNT/A-Hc was incorporated into LC3-positive autophagosomes generated in the nerve terminals, which then underwent retrograde transport to the cell soma, where they fused with lysosomes both in vitro and in vivo. Blocking autophagosome formation or acidification with wortmannin or bafilomycin A1, respectively, inhibited the activity-dependent retrograde trafficking of BoNT/A-Hc. Our data demonstrate that both the presynaptic formation of autophagosomes and the initiation of their retrograde trafficking are tightly regulated by presynaptic activity. PMID:25878289

  14. Control of autophagosome axonal retrograde flux by presynaptic activity unveiled using botulinum neurotoxin type a.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Martin, Sally; Papadopulos, Andreas; Harper, Callista B; Mavlyutov, Timur A; Niranjan, Dhevahi; Glass, Nick R; Cooper-White, Justin J; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Daniel; Davletov, Bazbek; Meunier, Frédéric A

    2015-04-15

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that elicits flaccid paralysis by enzymatic cleavage of the exocytic machinery component SNAP25 in motor nerve terminals. However, recent evidence suggests that the neurotoxic activity of BoNT/A is not restricted to the periphery, but also reaches the CNS after retrograde axonal transport. Because BoNT/A is internalized in recycling synaptic vesicles, it is unclear which compartment facilitates this transport. Using live-cell confocal and single-molecule imaging of rat hippocampal neurons cultured in microfluidic devices, we show that the activity-dependent uptake of the binding domain of the BoNT/A heavy chain (BoNT/A-Hc) is followed by a delayed increase in retrograde axonal transport of BoNT/A-Hc carriers. Consistent with a role of presynaptic activity in initiating transport of the active toxin, activity-dependent uptake of BoNT/A in the terminal led to a significant increase in SNAP25 cleavage detected in the soma chamber compared with nonstimulated neurons. Surprisingly, most endocytosed BoNT/A-Hc was incorporated into LC3-positive autophagosomes generated in the nerve terminals, which then underwent retrograde transport to the cell soma, where they fused with lysosomes both in vitro and in vivo. Blocking autophagosome formation or acidification with wortmannin or bafilomycin A1, respectively, inhibited the activity-dependent retrograde trafficking of BoNT/A-Hc. Our data demonstrate that both the presynaptic formation of autophagosomes and the initiation of their retrograde trafficking are tightly regulated by presynaptic activity. PMID:25878289

  15. A Common Signal Patch Drives AP-1 Protein-dependent Golgi Export of Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangming; Ortega, Bernardo; Kim, Boyoung; Welling, Paul A

    2016-07-15

    Nearly all members of the inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel family share a cytoplasmic domain structure that serves as an unusual AP-1 clathrin adaptor-dependent Golgi export signal in one Kir channel, Kir2.1 (KCNJ2), raising the question whether Kir channels share a common Golgi export mechanism. Here we explore this idea, focusing on two structurally and functionally divergent Kir family members, Kir2.3 (KCNJ4) and Kir4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16), which have ∼50% amino identity. We found that Golgi export of both channels is blocked upon siRNA-mediated knockdown of the AP-1 γ subunit, as predicted for the common AP-1-dependent trafficking process. A comprehensive mutagenic analysis, guided by homology mapping in atomic resolution models of Kir2.1, Kir2.3, and Kir4.1/5.1, identified a common structure that serves as a recognition site for AP-1 binding and governs Golgi export. Larger than realized from previous studies with Kir2.1, the signal is created by a patch of residues distributed at the confluence of cytoplasmic N and C termini. The signal involves a stretch of hydrophobic residues from the C-terminal region that form a hydrophobic cleft, an adjacent cluster of basic residues within the N terminus, and a potential network of salt bridges that join the N- and C-terminal poles together. Because patch formation and AP-1 binding are dependent on proper folding of the cytoplasmic domains, the signal provides a common quality control mechanism at the Golgi for Kir channels. These findings identify a new proteostatic mechanism that couples protein folding of channels to forward trafficking in the secretory pathway. PMID:27226616

  16. Intracellular mannose binding lectin mediates subcellular trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in neurons.

    PubMed

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, C L; Kaul, M; Singh, K K

    2014-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons. PMID:24825317

  17. Intracellular Mannose Binding Lectin Mediates Subcellular Trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, CL; Kaul, M; Singh, KK

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus -1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons. PMID:24825317

  18. Functional link between Rab GTPase-mediated membrane trafficking and PI4,5P2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuifang; Kita, Ayako; Hashimoto, Yuuka; Ihara, Misako; Kato, Ayaka; Ogura, Naoya; Doi, Akira; Oku, Masahide; Itoh, Toshiki; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Sugiura, Reiko

    2014-03-01

    Fission yeast its3(+) encodes an essential phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P5K) that regulates cell integrity and cytokinesis. We performed a genetic screen to identify genes that function in PI4P5K-mediated signaling, and identified gyp10(+) encoding a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP), a negative regulator for Rab GTPase signaling. Its3 overproduction caused growth defects and abnormal cytoplasmic accumulation of the Its3 protein, which can be stained by calcofluor. Notably, Its3 overproducing cells displayed abnormal membranous structures, multilamella Golgi and fragmented vacuoles showed by Electron microscopy. Furthermore, the excess cytoplasmic Its3 structure partly colocalized with the fluorescence of FM4-64. Gyp10 rescued both growth defects and abnormal Its3 localization when it was over-expressed. Gyp10 functionally interacted with the Rab GTPases Ypt3 and Ryh1, both of which regulate Golgi membrane trafficking. Consistently, mutation or deletion of Ypt3 and Ryh1 suppressed phenotypes associated with Its3 overproduction. Importantly, the plasma membrane localization of Its3 was also affected by the impairment of the Ypt3/Ryh1 Rab membrane trafficking, thus suggesting that membrane trafficking events regulated by two Rab GTPases functionally interacts with PI4,5P2 signaling. These results suggest a mechanism whereby PI4P5K signaling/localization is affected by Golgi membrane trafficking, thus provide a functional link between the PI4,5P2 signaling and Rab-mediated trafficking. PMID:24350606

  19. The centrosome–Golgi apparatus nexus

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Rosa M.

    2014-01-01

    A shared feature among all microtubule (MT)-dependent processes is the requirement for MTs to be organized in arrays of defined geometry. At a fundamental level, this is achieved by precisely controlling the timing and localization of the nucleation events that give rise to new MTs. To this end, MT nucleation is restricted to specific subcellular sites called MT-organizing centres. The primary MT-organizing centre in proliferating animal cells is the centrosome. However, the discovery of MT nucleation capacity of the Golgi apparatus (GA) has substantially changed our understanding of MT network organization in interphase cells. Interestingly, MT nucleation at the Golgi apparently relies on multiprotein complexes, similar to those present at the centrosome, that assemble at the cis-face of the organelle. In this process, AKAP450 plays a central role, acting as a scaffold to recruit other centrosomal proteins important for MT generation. MT arrays derived from either the centrosome or the GA differ in their geometry, probably reflecting their different, yet complementary, functions. Here, I review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MT nucleation at the GA and how Golgi- and centrosome-based MT arrays work in concert to ensure the formation of a pericentrosomal polarized continuous Golgi ribbon structure, a critical feature for cell polarity in mammalian cells. In addition, I comment on the important role of the Golgi-nucleated MTs in organizing specialized MT arrays that serve specific functions in terminally differentiated cells. PMID:25047616

  20. Sphingomyelin is sorted at the trans Golgi network into a distinct class of secretory vesicle.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongqiang; Rivera-Molina, Felix E; Toomre, Derek K; Burd, Christopher G

    2016-06-14

    One of the principal functions of the trans Golgi network (TGN) is the sorting of proteins into distinct vesicular transport carriers that mediate secretion and interorganelle trafficking. Are lipids also sorted into distinct TGN-derived carriers? The Golgi is the principal site of the synthesis of sphingomyelin (SM), an abundant sphingolipid that is transported. To address the specificity of SM transport to the plasma membrane, we engineered a natural SM-binding pore-forming toxin, equinatoxin II (Eqt), into a nontoxic reporter termed Eqt-SM and used it to monitor intracellular trafficking of SM. Using quantitative live cell imaging, we found that Eqt-SM is enriched in a subset of TGN-derived secretory vesicles that are also enriched in a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. In contrast, an integral membrane secretory protein (CD8α) is not enriched in these carriers. Our results demonstrate the sorting of native SM at the TGN and its transport to the plasma membrane by specific carriers. PMID:27247384

  1. Structural basis of dynamic membrane recognition by trans-Golgi network specific FAPP proteins.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Marc; Grzybek, Michał; Majkowski, Michał; Rajesh, Sandya; Kaur, Jaswant; Whittaker, Sara B-M; Coskun, Ünal; Overduin, Michael

    2015-02-27

    Glycosphingolipid metabolism relies on selective recruitment of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of FAPP proteins to the trans-Golgi network. The mechanism involved is unclear but requires recognition of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) within the Golgi membrane. We investigated the molecular basis of FAPP1-PH domain interactions with PI4P bilayers in liposome sedimentation and membrane partitioning assays. Our data reveals a mechanism in which FAPP-PH proteins preferentially target PI4P-containing liquid disordered membranes, while liquid ordered membranes were disfavored. Additionally, NMR spectroscopy was used to identify the binding determinants responsible for recognizing trans-Golgi network-like bicelles including phosphoinositide and neighboring lipid molecules. Membrane penetration by the FAPP1-PH domain was mediated by an exposed, conserved hydrophobic wedge next to the PI4P recognition site and ringed by a network of complementary polar residues and basic charges. Our data illuminates how insertion of a structured loop provides selectivity for sensing membrane fluidity and targeting to defined membrane zones and organelles. The determinants of this membrane sensing process are conserved across the CERT, OSBP and FAPP family. Hence, lipid gradients not only result in differential membrane ordering along the secretory pathway but also specifically localize diverse proteins through recognition of ensembles of lipid ligands in dynamic and deformable bilayers in order to promote anterograde trafficking. PMID:25579996

  2. Golgi glycosylation and human inherited diseases.

    PubMed

    Freeze, Hudson H; Ng, Bobby G

    2011-09-01

    The Golgi factory receives custom glycosylates and dispatches its cargo to the correct cellular locations. The process requires importing donor substrates, moving the cargo, and recycling machinery. Correctly glycosylated cargo reflects the Golgi's quality and efficiency. Genetic disorders in the specific equipment (enzymes), donors (nucleotide sugar transporters), or equipment recycling/reorganization components (COG, SEC, golgins) can all affect glycosylation. Dozens of human glycosylation disorders fit these categories. Many other genes, with or without familiar names, well-annotated pedigrees, or likely homologies will join the ranks of glycosylation disorders. Their broad and unpredictable case-by-case phenotypes cross the traditional medical specialty boundaries. The gene functions in patients may be elusive, but their common feature may include altered glycosylation that provide clues to Golgi function. This article focuses on a group of human disorders that affect protein or lipid glycosylation. Readers may find it useful to generalize some of these patient-based, translational observations to their own research. PMID:21709180

  3. Golgi Glycosylation and Human Inherited Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.; Ng, Bobby G.

    2011-01-01

    The Golgi factory receives custom glycosylates and dispatches its cargo to the correct cellular locations. The process requires importing donor substrates, moving the cargo, and recycling machinery. Correctly glycosylated cargo reflects the Golgi's quality and efficiency. Genetic disorders in the specific equipment (enzymes), donors (nucleotide sugar transporters), or equipment recycling/reorganization components (COG, SEC, golgins) can all affect glycosylation. Dozens of human glycosylation disorders fit these categories. Many other genes, with or without familiar names, well-annotated pedigrees, or likely homologies will join the ranks of glycosylation disorders. Their broad and unpredictable case-by-case phenotypes cross the traditional medical specialty boundaries. The gene functions in patients may be elusive, but their common feature may include altered glycosylation that provide clues to Golgi function. This article focuses on a group of human disorders that affect protein or lipid glycosylation. Readers may find it useful to generalize some of these patient-based, translational observations to their own research. PMID:21709180

  4. COPI Budding within the Golgi Stack

    PubMed Central

    Popoff, Vincent; Adolf, Frank; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The Golgi serves as a hub for intracellular membrane traffic in the eukaryotic cell. Transport within the early secretory pathway, that is within the Golgi and from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum, is mediated by COPI-coated vesicles. The COPI coat shares structural features with the clathrin coat, but differs in the mechanisms of cargo sorting and vesicle formation. The small GTPase Arf1 initiates coating on activation and recruits en bloc the stable heptameric protein complex coatomer that resembles the inner and the outer shells of clathrin-coated vesicles. Different binding sites exist in coatomer for membrane machinery and for the sorting of various classes of cargo proteins. During the budding of a COPI vesicle, lipids are sorted to give a liquid-disordered phase composition. For the release of a COPI-coated vesicle, coatomer and Arf cooperate to mediate membrane separation. PMID:21844168

  5. Golgi protein FAPP2 tubulates membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xinwang; Coskun, Ünal; Rössle, Manfred; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Grzybek, Michal; Dafforn, Timothy R.; Lenoir, Marc; Overduin, Michael; Simons, Kai

    2009-01-01

    The Golgi-associated four-phosphate adaptor protein 2 (FAPP2) has been shown to possess transfer activity for glucosylceramide both in vitro and in cells. We have previously shown that FAPP2 is involved in apical transport from the Golgi complex in epithelial MDCK cells. In this paper we assign an unknown activity for the protein as well as providing structural insight into protein assembly and a low-resolution envelope structure. By applying analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle x-ray scattering, we show that FAPP2 is a dimeric protein in solution, having a curved shape 30 nm in length. The purified FAPP2 protein has the capability to form tubules from membrane sheets in vitro. This activity is dependent on the phosphoinositide-binding activity of the PH domain of FAPP2. These data suggest that FAPP2 functions directly in the formation of apical carriers in the trans-Golgi network. PMID:19940249

  6. Non-conventional trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin-San; Moyer, Bryan D; Bannykh, Sergei; Yoo, Hyeon-Mi; Riordan, John R; Balch, William E

    2002-03-29

    The mechanism(s) of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi apparatus, the step impaired in individuals afflicted with the prevalent CFTR-DeltaF508 mutation leading to cystic fibrosis, is largely unknown. Recent morphological observations suggested that CFTR is largely absent from the Golgi in situ (Bannykh, S. I., Bannykh, G. I., Fish, K. N., Moyer, B. D., Riordan, J. R., and Balch, W. E. (2000) Traffic 1, 852-870), raising the possibility of a novel trafficking pathway through the early secretory pathway. We now report that export of CFTR from the ER is regulated by the conventional coat protein complex II (COPII) in all cell types tested. Remarkably, in a cell type-specific manner, processing of CFTR from the core-glycosylated (band B) ER form to the complex-glycosylated (band C) isoform followed a non-conventional pathway that was insensitive to dominant negative Arf1, Rab1a/Rab2 GTPases, or the SNAp REceptor (SNARE) component syntaxin 5, all of which block the conventional trafficking pathway from the ER to the Golgi. Moreover, CFTR transport through the non-conventional pathway was potently blocked by overexpression of the late endosomal target-SNARE syntaxin 13, suggesting that recycling through a late Golgi/endosomal system was a prerequisite for CFTR maturation. We conclude that CFTR transport in the early secretory pathway can involve a novel pathway between the ER and late Golgi/endosomal compartments that may influence developmental expression of CFTR on the cell surface in polarized epithelial cells. PMID:11799116

  7. Phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 mediates ER-Golgi transit of a family of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Kunduri, Govind; Yuan, Changqing; Parthibane, Velayoudame; Nyswaner, Katherine M; Kanwar, Ritu; Nagashima, Kunio; Britt, Steven G; Mehta, Nickita; Kotu, Varshika; Porterfield, Mindy; Tiemeyer, Michael; Dolph, Patrick J; Acharya, Usha; Acharya, Jairaj K

    2014-07-01

    The coat protein II (COPII)-coated vesicular system transports newly synthesized secretory and membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Recruitment of cargo into COPII vesicles requires an interaction of COPII proteins either with the cargo molecules directly or with cargo receptors for anterograde trafficking. We show that cytosolic phosphatidic acid phospholipase A1 (PAPLA1) interacts with COPII protein family members and is required for the transport of Rh1 (rhodopsin 1), an N-glycosylated G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), from the ER to the Golgi complex. In papla1 mutants, in the absence of transport to the Golgi, Rh1 is aberrantly glycosylated and is mislocalized. These defects lead to decreased levels of the protein and decreased sensitivity of the photoreceptors to light. Several GPCRs, including other rhodopsins and Bride of sevenless, are similarly affected. Our findings show that a cytosolic protein is necessary for transit of selective transmembrane receptor cargo by the COPII coat for anterograde trafficking. PMID:25002678

  8. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J.; Austin, Jotham; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2015-12-28

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generatemore » partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins.« less

  9. OSBP-related protein 11 (ORP11) dimerizes with ORP9 and localizes at the Golgi-late endosome interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, You; Maeyraenpaeae, Mikko I.; Zhong, Wenbin; Baeck, Nils; Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2010-11-15

    We characterize here ORP11, a member of the oxysterol-binding protein family. ORP11 is present at highest levels in human ovary, testis, kidney, liver, stomach, brain, and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates abundant ORP11 in the epithelial cells of kidney tubules, testicular tubules, caecum, and skin. ORP11 in HEK293 cells resides on Golgi complex and LE, co-localizing with GFP-Rab9, TGN46, GFP-Rab7, and a fluorescent medial-trans-Golgi marker. Under electron microscopic observation, cells overexpressing ORP11 displayed lamellar lipid bodies associated with vacuolar structures or the Golgi complex, indicating a disturbance of lipid trafficking. N-terminal fragment of ORP11 (aa 1-292) localized partially to Golgi, but displayed enhanced localization on Rab7- and Rab9-positive LE, while the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (aa 273-747) was cytosolic, demonstrating that the membrane targeting determinants are N-terminal. Yeast two-hybrid screen revealed interaction of ORP11 with the related ORP9. The interacting region was delineated within aa 98-372 of ORP9 and aa 154-292 of ORP11. Overexpressed ORP9 was able to recruit EGFP-ORP11 to membranes, and ORP9 silencing inhibited ORP11 Golgi association. The results identify ORP11 as an OSBP homologue distributing at the Golgi-LE interface and define the ORP9-ORP11 dimer as a functional unit that may act as an intracellular lipid sensor or transporter.

  10. Regulation of intracellular heme trafficking revealed by subcellular reporters.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Rietzschel, Nicole; Kwon, Hanna; Walter Nuno, Ana Beatriz; Hanna, David A; Phillips, John D; Raven, Emma L; Reddi, Amit R; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-08-30

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group in proteins that reside in virtually every subcellular compartment performing diverse biological functions. Irrespective of whether heme is synthesized in the mitochondria or imported from the environment, this hydrophobic and potentially toxic metalloporphyrin has to be trafficked across membrane barriers, a concept heretofore poorly understood. Here we show, using subcellular-targeted, genetically encoded hemoprotein peroxidase reporters, that both extracellular and endogenous heme contribute to cellular labile heme and that extracellular heme can be transported and used in toto by hemoproteins in all six subcellular compartments examined. The reporters are robust, show large signal-to-background ratio, and provide sufficient range to detect changes in intracellular labile heme. Restoration of reporter activity by heme is organelle-specific, with the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum being important sites for both exogenous and endogenous heme trafficking. Expression of peroxidase reporters in Caenorhabditis elegans shows that environmental heme influences labile heme in a tissue-dependent manner; reporter activity in the intestine shows a linear increase compared with muscle or hypodermis, with the lowest heme threshold in neurons. Our results demonstrate that the trafficking pathways for exogenous and endogenous heme are distinct, with intrinsic preference for specific subcellular compartments. We anticipate our results will serve as a heuristic paradigm for more sophisticated studies on heme trafficking in cellular and whole-animal models. PMID:27528661

  11. Alternative splicing results in RET isoforms with distinct trafficking properties

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Douglas S.; Rodrigues, David M.; Hyndman, Brandy D.; Crupi, Mathieu J. F.; Nicolescu, Adrian C.; Mulligan, Lois M.

    2012-01-01

    RET encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for spermatogenesis, development of the sensory, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems and the kidneys, as well as for maintenance of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. RET is alternatively spliced to encode multiple isoforms that differ in their C-terminal amino acids. The RET9 and RET51 isoforms display unique levels of autophosphorylation and have differential interactions with adaptor proteins. They induce distinct gene expression patterns, promote different levels of cell differentiation and transformation, and play unique roles in development. Here we present a comprehensive study of the subcellular localization and trafficking of RET isoforms. We show that immature RET9 accumulates intracellularly in the Golgi, whereas RET51 is efficiently matured and present in relatively higher amounts on the plasma membrane. RET51 is internalized faster after ligand binding and undergoes recycling back to the plasma membrane. This differential trafficking of RET isoforms produces a more rapid and longer duration of signaling through the extracellular-signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway downstream of RET51 relative to RET9. Together these differences in trafficking properties contribute to some of the functional differences previously observed between RET9 and RET51 and establish the important role of intracellular trafficking in modulating and maintaining RET signaling. PMID:22875993

  12. Synchronous intra-Golgi transport induces the release of Ca{sup 2+} from the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Micaroni, Massimo; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Bianchi, Katiuscia; Spaar, Alexander; Mironov, Alexander A.

    2010-08-01

    The mechanisms of secretory transport through the Golgi apparatus remain an issue of debate. The precise functional importance of calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) for intra-Golgi transport has also been poorly studied. Here, using different approaches to measure free Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in the cell cytosol ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub cyt}) and inside the lumen of the Golgi apparatus ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub GA}), we have revealed transient increases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub cyt} during the late phase of intra-Golgi transport that are concomitant with a decline in the maximal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub GA} restoration ability. Thus, this redistribution of Ca{sup 2+} from the Golgi apparatus into the cytosol during the movement of cargo through the Golgi apparatus appears to have a role in intra-Golgi transport, and mainly in the late Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phase of SNARE-regulated fusion of Golgi compartments.

  13. Auditory Golgi cells are interconnected predominantly by electrical synapses.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, Daniel B; Trussell, Laurence O

    2016-08-01

    The mossy fiber-granule cell-parallel fiber system conveys proprioceptive and corollary discharge information to principal cells in cerebellum-like systems. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), Golgi cells inhibit granule cells and thus regulate information transfer along the mossy fiber-granule cell-parallel fiber pathway. Whereas excitatory synaptic inputs to Golgi cells are well understood, inhibitory and electrical synaptic inputs to Golgi cells have not been examined. Using paired recordings in a mouse brain slice preparation, we find that Golgi cells of the cochlear nucleus reliably form electrical synapses onto one another. Golgi cells were only rarely electrically coupled to superficial stellate cells, which form a separate network of electrically coupled interneurons in the DCN. Spikelets had a biphasic effect on the excitability of postjunctional Golgi cells, with a brief excitatory phase and a prolonged inhibitory phase due to the propagation of the prejunctional afterhyperpolarization through gap junctions. Golgi cells and stellate cells made weak inhibitory chemical synapses onto Golgi cells with low probability. Electrical synapses are therefore the predominant form of synaptic communication between auditory Golgi cells. We propose that electrical synapses between Golgi cells may function to regulate the synchrony of Golgi cell firing when electrically coupled Golgi cells receive temporally correlated excitatory synaptic input. PMID:27121584

  14. Functional requirements for fukutin-related protein in the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Esapa, Chris T; Benson, Matthew A; Schröder, Jörn E; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Brockington, Martin; Brown, Susan C; Muntoni, Francesco; Kröger, Stephan; Blake, Derek J

    2002-12-15

    Two forms of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), Fukuyama CMD and CMD type 1C (MDC1C) are caused by mutations in the genes encoding two putative glycosyltransferases, fukutin and fukutin-related protein (FKRP). Additionally, mutations in the FKRP gene also cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I), a considerably milder allelic variant than MDC1C. All of these diseases are associated with secondary changes in muscle alpha-dystroglycan expression. To elucidate the function of FKRP and fukutin and examine the effects of MDC1C patient mutations, we have determined the mechanism for the subcellular location of each protein. FKRP and fukutin are targeted to the medial-Golgi apparatus through their N-termini and transmembrane domains. Overexpression of FKRP in CHO cells alters the post-translational processing of alpha- and beta-dystroglycan inhibiting maturation of the two isoforms. Mutations in the DxD motif in the putative active site of the protein or in the Golgi-targeting sequence, which cause FKRP to be inefficiently trafficked to the Golgi apparatus, did not alter dystroglycan processing in vitro. The P448L mutation in FKRP that causes congenital muscular dystrophy changes a conserved amino acid resulting in the mislocalization of the mutant protein in the cell that is unable to alter dystroglycan processing. Our data show that FKRP and fukutin are Golgi-resident proteins and that FKRP is required for the post-translational modification of dystroglycan. Aberrant processing of dystroglycan caused by a mislocalized FKRP mutant could be a novel mechanism that causes congenital muscular dystrophy. PMID:12471058

  15. Nongenomic STAT5-dependent effects on Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum structure and function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason E; Yang, Yang-Ming; Liang, Feng-Xia; Gough, Daniel J; Levy, David E; Sehgal, Pravin B

    2012-03-01

    We report unexpected nongenomic functions of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 species in the cytoplasm aimed at preserving the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in vascular cells. Immunoimaging and green fluorescent protein-tagged-STAT5a protein localization studies showed the constitutive association of nonphosphorylated STAT5a, and to a lesser extent STAT5b, with the Golgi apparatus and of STAT5a with centrosomes in human pulmonary arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Acute knockdown of STAT5a/b species using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), including in the presence of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor (5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole), produced a dramatic phenotype within 1 day, consisting of dilatation and fragmentation of Golgi cisternae, a marked tubule-to-cyst change in the ER, increased accumulation of reticulon-4 (RTN4)/Nogo-B and atlastin-3 (ATL3) at cyst-zone boundaries, cystic separation of the outer and inner nuclear membranes, accompanied by scalloped/lunate distortion of the nucleus, with accumulation of RTN4 on convex sides of distorted nuclei. These cells showed inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein glycoprotein trafficking, mitochondrial fragmentation, and reduced mitochondrial function. STAT5a/b(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts also showed altered ER/Golgi dynamics. RTN4 knockdown using siRNA did not affect development of the cystic phenotype; ATL3 siRNA led to effacement of cyst-zone boundaries. In magnetic-bead cross-immunopanning assays, ATL3 bound both STAT5a and STAT5b. Remarkably, this novel cystic ER/lunate nucleus phenotype was characteristic of vascular cells in arterial lesions of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, an unrelentingly fatal human disease. These data provide evidence of a STAT-family protein regulating the structure of a cytoplasmic organelle and implicate this mechanism in the pathogenesis of a human disease. PMID

  16. Organelle proteomics reveals cargo maturation mechanisms associated with Golgi-like encystation vesicles in the early-diverged protozoan Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Sasa; Palm, Daniel; Svärd, Staffan G; Hehl, Adrian B

    2006-03-17

    During encystation Giardia trophozoites secrete a fibrillar extracellular matrix of glycans and cyst wall proteins on the cell surface. The cyst wall material is accumulated in encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs), specialized Golgi-like compartments generated de novo, after export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and before secretion. These large post-ER vesicles neither have the morphological characteristics of Golgi cisternae nor sorting functions, but may represent an evolutionary early form of the Golgi-like maturation compartment. Because little is known about the genesis and maturation of ESVs, we used a limited proteomics approach to discover novel proteins that are specific for developing ESVs or associated peripherally with these organelles. Unexpectedly, we identified cytoplasmic and luminal factors of the ER quality control system on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, i.e. several proteasome subunits and HSP70-BiP. We show that BiP is exported to ESVs and retrieved via its C-terminal KDEL signal from ESVs. In contrast, cytoplasmic proteasome complexes undergo a developmentally regulated re-localization to ESVs during encystation. This suggests that maturation of bulk exported cyst wall material in the Golgi-like ESVs involves both continuous activity of ER-associated quality control mechanisms and retrograde Golgi to ER transport. PMID:16407213

  17. The Compartmental Organization of the Golgi Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between structure and function of the Golgi apparatus are emerging from recent laboratory work on this cellular organelle which modifies proteins, sorts them, and packages them for delivery. The structure's three specialized compartments are explained through discussions of the glycosylation pathway, density-gradient experiments,…

  18. Protein Kinase D and Gβγ Subunits Mediate Agonist-evoked Translocation of Protease-activated Receptor-2 from the Golgi Apparatus to the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane D; Zhao, Peishen; Jimenez-Vargas, Nestor N; Lieu, TinaMarie; Gerges, Marina; Yeatman, Holly R; Canals, Meritxell; Vanner, Stephen J; Poole, Daniel P; Bunnett, Nigel W

    2016-05-20

    Agonist-evoked endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors has been extensively studied. The mechanisms by which agonists stimulate mobilization and plasma membrane translocation of G protein-coupled receptors from intracellular stores are unexplored. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) traffics to lysosomes, and sustained protease signaling requires mobilization and plasma membrane trafficking of PAR2 from Golgi stores. We evaluated the contribution of protein kinase D (PKD) and Gβγ to this process. In HEK293 and KNRK cells, the PAR2 agonists trypsin and 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 activated PKD in the Golgi apparatus, where PKD regulates protein trafficking. PAR2 activation induced translocation of Gβγ, a PKD activator, to the Golgi apparatus, determined by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer between Gγ-Venus and giantin-Rluc8. Inhibitors of PKD (CRT0066101) and Gβγ (gallein) prevented PAR2-stimulated activation of PKD. CRT0066101, PKD1 siRNA, and gallein all inhibited recovery of PAR2-evoked Ca(2+) signaling. PAR2 with a photoconvertible Kaede tag was expressed in KNRK cells to examine receptor translocation from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Irradiation of the Golgi region (405 nm) induced green-red photo-conversion of PAR2-Kaede. Trypsin depleted PAR2-Kaede from the Golgi apparatus and repleted PAR2-Kaede at the plasma membrane. CRT0066101 inhibited PAR2-Kaede translocation to the plasma membrane. CRT0066101 also inhibited sustained protease signaling to colonocytes and nociceptive neurons that naturally express PAR2 and mediate protease-evoked inflammation and nociception. Our results reveal a major role for PKD and Gβγ in agonist-evoked mobilization of intracellular PAR2 stores that is required for sustained signaling by extracellular proteases. PMID:27030010

  19. Identification and characterization of a novel group of legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized WRKY and Exo70 proteins from soybean.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Li, Guiping; Wang, Fei; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Many plant genes belong to families that arise from extensive proliferation and diversification allowing the evolution of functionally new proteins. Here we report the characterization of a group of proteins evolved from WRKY and exocyst complex subunit Exo70 proteins through fusion with a novel transmembrane (TM) domain in soybean (Glycine max). From the soybean genome, we identified a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) that contains a WRKY domain with no binding activity for W-box sequences. GFP fusion revealed that GmWRP1 was targeted to the Golgi apparatus through its N-terminal TM domain. Similar Golgi-targeting TM domains were also identified in members of a new subfamily of Exo70J proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. The novel TM domains are structurally most similar to the endosomal cytochrome b561 from birds and close homologues of GmWRP1 and GmEx070J proteins with the novel TM domain have only been identified in legumes. Transient expression of some GmExo70J proteins or the Golgi-targeting TM domain in tobacco altered the subcellular structures labelled by a fluorescent Golgi marker. GmWRP1 transcripts were detected at high levels in roots, flowers, pods, and seeds, and the expression levels of GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes were elevated with increased age in leaves. The legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized GmWRP1 and GmExo70J proteins are probably involved in Golgi-mediated vesicle trafficking of biological molecules that are uniquely important to legumes. PMID:25805717

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel group of legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized WRKY and Exo70 proteins from soybean

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Li, Guiping; Wang, Fei; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Many plant genes belong to families that arise from extensive proliferation and diversification allowing the evolution of functionally new proteins. Here we report the characterization of a group of proteins evolved from WRKY and exocyst complex subunit Exo70 proteins through fusion with a novel transmembrane (TM) domain in soybean (Glycine max). From the soybean genome, we identified a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) that contains a WRKY domain with no binding activity for W-box sequences. GFP fusion revealed that GmWRP1 was targeted to the Golgi apparatus through its N-terminal TM domain. Similar Golgi-targeting TM domains were also identified in members of a new subfamily of Exo70J proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. The novel TM domains are structurally most similar to the endosomal cytochrome b561 from birds and close homologues of GmWRP1 and GmEx070J proteins with the novel TM domain have only been identified in legumes. Transient expression of some GmExo70J proteins or the Golgi-targeting TM domain in tobacco altered the subcellular structures labelled by a fluorescent Golgi marker. GmWRP1 transcripts were detected at high levels in roots, flowers, pods, and seeds, and the expression levels of GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes were elevated with increased age in leaves. The legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized GmWRP1 and GmExo70J proteins are probably involved in Golgi-mediated vesicle trafficking of biological molecules that are uniquely important to legumes. PMID:25805717

  1. Unconventional pathways of secretory plant proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the vacuole bypassing the Golgi complex

    PubMed Central

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele; Pompa, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the basic mechanisms that regulate vacuolar delivering of proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have a great importance in plant cell biology. Indeed, many aspects of plant physiology are affected by this intracellular traffic, for example, germination or reaction to biotic stresses due to the accumulation of storage proteins in seeds or enzymes in vegetative tissues, respectively. Up to now, the Golgi complex has been considered the main hub in the sorting of vacuolar secretory proteins; those polypeptides able to reach their final destination without the aid of this organelle are regarded as exceptions to an established route. This mini-review aims to emphasize the existence of several Golgi-independent pathways involved in the trafficking of different types of vacuolar proteins. PMID:23733072

  2. Unconventional pathways of secretory plant proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the vacuole bypassing the Golgi complex.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele; Pompa, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Studies on the basic mechanisms that regulate vacuolar delivering of proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have a great importance in plant cell biology. Indeed, many aspects of plant physiology are affected by this intracellular traffic, for example, germination or reaction to biotic stresses due to the accumulation of storage proteins in seeds or enzymes in vegetative tissues, respectively. Up to now, the Golgi complex has been considered the main hub in the sorting of vacuolar secretory proteins; those polypeptides able to reach their final destination without the aid of this organelle are regarded as exceptions to an established route. This mini-review aims to emphasize the existence of several Golgi-independent pathways involved in the trafficking of different types of vacuolar proteins. PMID:23733072

  3. Ceapins inhibit ATF6α signaling by selectively preventing transport of ATF6α to the Golgi apparatus during ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Ciara M; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The membrane-bound transcription factor ATF6α is activated by proteolysis during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ATF6α target genes encode foldases, chaperones, and lipid biosynthesis enzymes that increase protein-folding capacity in response to demand. The off-state of ATF6α is maintained by its spatial separation in the ER from Golgi-resident proteases that activate it. ER stress induces trafficking of ATF6α. We discovered Ceapins, a class of pyrazole amides, as selective inhibitors of ATF6α signaling that do not inhibit the Golgi proteases or other UPR branches. We show that Ceapins block ATF6α signaling by trapping it in ER-resident foci that are excluded from ER exit sites. Removing the requirement for trafficking by pharmacological elimination of the spatial separation of the ER and Golgi apparatus restored cleavage of ATF6α in the presence of Ceapins. Washout of Ceapins resensitized ATF6α to ER stress. These results suggest that trafficking of ATF6α is regulated by its oligomeric state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11880.001 PMID:27435962

  4. Ceapins inhibit ATF6α signaling by selectively preventing transport of ATF6α to the Golgi apparatus during ER stress.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Ciara M; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The membrane-bound transcription factor ATF6α is activated by proteolysis during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ATF6α target genes encode foldases, chaperones, and lipid biosynthesis enzymes that increase protein-folding capacity in response to demand. The off-state of ATF6α is maintained by its spatial separation in the ER from Golgi-resident proteases that activate it. ER stress induces trafficking of ATF6α. We discovered Ceapins, a class of pyrazole amides, as selective inhibitors of ATF6α signaling that do not inhibit the Golgi proteases or other UPR branches. We show that Ceapins block ATF6α signaling by trapping it in ER-resident foci that are excluded from ER exit sites. Removing the requirement for trafficking by pharmacological elimination of the spatial separation of the ER and Golgi apparatus restored cleavage of ATF6α in the presence of Ceapins. Washout of Ceapins resensitized ATF6α to ER stress. These results suggest that trafficking of ATF6α is regulated by its oligomeric state. PMID:27435962

  5. α-Synuclein-induced lysosomal dysfunction occurs through disruptions in protein trafficking in human midbrain synucleinopathy models.

    PubMed

    Mazzulli, Joseph R; Zunke, Friederike; Isacson, Ole; Studer, Lorenz; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-02-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates comprised of α-synuclein (α-syn). A major barrier in treatment discovery for PD is the lack of identifiable therapeutic pathways capable of reducing aggregates in human neuronal model systems. Mutations in key components of protein trafficking and cellular degradation machinery represent important risk factors for PD; however, their precise role in disease progression and interaction with α-syn remains unclear. Here, we find that α-syn accumulation reduced lysosomal degradation capacity in human midbrain dopamine models of synucleinopathies through disrupting hydrolase trafficking. Accumulation of α-syn at the cell body resulted in aberrant association with cis-Golgi-tethering factor GM130 and disrupted the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi localization of rab1a, a key mediator of vesicular transport. Overexpression of rab1a restored Golgi structure, improved hydrolase trafficking and activity, and reduced pathological α-syn in patient neurons. Our work suggests that enhancement of lysosomal hydrolase trafficking may prove beneficial in synucleinopathies and indicates that human midbrain disease models may be useful for identifying critical therapeutic pathways in PD and related disorders. PMID:26839413

  6. Onco-Golgi: Is Fragmentation a Gate to Cancer Progression?

    PubMed Central

    Petrosyan, Armen

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus-complex is a highly dynamic organelle which is considered the “heart” of intracellular transportation. Since its discovery by Camillo Golgi in 1873, who described it as the “black reaction,” and despite the enormous volume of publications about Golgi, this apparatus remains one of the most enigmatic of the cytoplasmic organelles. A typical mammalian Golgi consists of a parallel series of flattened, disk-shaped cisternae which align into stacks. The tremendous volume of Golgi-related incoming and outgoing traffic is mediated by different motor proteins, including members of the dynein, kinesin, and myosin families. Yet in spite of the strenuous work it performs, Golgi contrives to maintain its monolithic morphology and orchestration of matrix and residential proteins. However, in response to stress, alcohol, and treatment with many pharmacological drugs over time, Golgi undergoes a kind of disorganization which ranges from mild enlargement to critical scattering. While fragmentation of the Golgi was confirmed in cancer by electron microscopy almost fifty years ago, it is only in recent years that we have begun to understand the significance of Golgi fragmentation in the biology of tumors. Below author would like to focus on how Golgi fragmentation opens the doors for cascades of fatal pathways which may facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. Among the issues addressed will be the most important cancer-specific hallmarks of Golgi fragmentation, including aberrant glycosylation, abnormal expression of the Ras GTPases, dysregulation of kinases, and hyperactivity of myosin motor proteins. PMID:27064441

  7. S. pombe btn1, the orthologue of the Batten disease gene CLN3, is required for vacuole protein sorting of Cpy1p and Golgi exit of Vps10p

    PubMed Central

    Codlin, Sandra; Mole, Sara E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Batten disease is characterised by lysosomal dysfunction. The most common type of the disease is caused by mutations in the membrane protein CLN3, whose function is unknown. We show that the fission yeast orthologue Btn1p, previously implicated in vacuole function, is required for correct sorting of the vacuole hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y (Cpy1p). This is, in part, due to a defect in trafficking of Vps10p, the sorting receptor for Cpy1p, from the Golgi to the trans-Golgi network in btn1Δ cells. Our data also implicate btn1 in other Vps10-independent Cpy1-sorting pathways. Furthermore, btn1 affects the number, intracellular location and structure of Golgi compartments. We show that the prevacuole location of Btn1p is at the Golgi, because Btn1p colocalises predominantly with the Golgi marker Gms1p in compartments that are sensitive to Brefeldin A. Btn1p function might be linked to that of Vps34p, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, because Btn1p acts as a multicopy suppressor of the severe Cpy1p vacuole protein-sorting defect of vps34Δ cells. Together, these results indicate an important role for Btn1p in the Golgi complex, which affects Golgi homeostasis and vacuole protein sorting. We propose a similar role for CLN3 in mammalian cells. PMID:19299465

  8. In situ structural analysis of Golgi intracisternal protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Engel, Benjamin D; Schaffer, Miroslava; Albert, Sahradha; Asano, Shoh; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    We acquired molecular-resolution structures of the Golgi within its native cellular environment. Vitreous Chlamydomonas cells were thinned by cryo-focused ion beam milling and then visualized by cryo-electron tomography. These tomograms revealed structures within the Golgi cisternae that have not been seen before. Narrow trans-Golgi lumina were spanned by asymmetric membrane-associated protein arrays that had ∼6-nm lateral periodicity. Subtomogram averaging showed that the arrays may determine the narrow central spacing of the trans-Golgi cisternae through zipper-like interactions, thereby forcing cargo to the trans-Golgi periphery. Additionally, we observed dense granular aggregates within cisternae and intracisternal filament bundles associated with trans-Golgi buds. These native in situ structures provide new molecular insights into Golgi architecture and function. PMID:26311849

  9. In situ structural analysis of Golgi intracisternal protein arrays

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Benjamin D.; Schaffer, Miroslava; Albert, Sahradha; Asano, Shoh; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    We acquired molecular-resolution structures of the Golgi within its native cellular environment. Vitreous Chlamydomonas cells were thinned by cryo-focused ion beam milling and then visualized by cryo-electron tomography. These tomograms revealed structures within the Golgi cisternae that have not been seen before. Narrow trans-Golgi lumina were spanned by asymmetric membrane-associated protein arrays that had ∼6-nm lateral periodicity. Subtomogram averaging showed that the arrays may determine the narrow central spacing of the trans-Golgi cisternae through zipper-like interactions, thereby forcing cargo to the trans-Golgi periphery. Additionally, we observed dense granular aggregates within cisternae and intracisternal filament bundles associated with trans-Golgi buds. These native in situ structures provide new molecular insights into Golgi architecture and function. PMID:26311849

  10. Gravitropism and Lateral Root Emergence are Dependent on the Trans-Golgi Network Protein TNO1

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rahul; Bassham, Diane C.

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is a dynamic organelle that functions as a relay station for receiving endocytosed cargo, directing secretory cargo, and trafficking to the vacuole. TGN-localized SYP41-interacting protein (TNO1) is a large, TGN-localized, coiled-coil protein that associates with the membrane fusion protein SYP41, a target SNARE, and is required for efficient protein trafficking to the vacuole. Here, we show that a tno1 mutant has auxin transport-related defects. Mutant roots have delayed lateral root emergence, decreased gravitropic bending of plant organs and increased sensitivity to the auxin analog 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the natural auxin 3-indoleacetic acid. Auxin asymmetry at the tips of elongating stage II lateral roots was reduced in the tno1 mutant, suggesting a role for TNO1 in cellular auxin transport during lateral root emergence. During gravistimulation, tno1 roots exhibited delayed auxin transport from the columella to the basal epidermal cells. Endocytosis to the TGN was unaffected in the mutant, indicating that bulk endocytic defects are not responsible for the observed phenotypes. Together these studies demonstrate a role for TNO1 in mediating auxin responses during root development and gravistimulation, potentially through trafficking of auxin transport proteins. PMID:26617617

  11. Protein Traffic to the Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast: evidence for a sorting branch point at the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Heiny, Sabrina R; Pautz, Sabine; Recker, Mario; Przyborski, Jude M

    2014-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, similar to many other apicomplexan parasites, contains an apicoplast, a plastid organelle of secondary endosymbiotic origin. Nuclear-encoded proteins are targeted to the apicoplast by a bipartite topogenic signal consisting of (i) an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-type N-terminal secretory signal peptide, followed by (ii) a plant-like transit peptide. Although the signals responsible for transport of most proteins to the apicoplast are well described, the route of trafficking from the ER to the outermost apicoplast membrane is still a matter of debate. Current models of trafficking to the apicoplast suggest that proteins destined for this organelle are, on entry into the lumen of the ER, diverted from the default secretory pathway to a specialized vesicular system which carries proteins directly from the ER to the outer apicoplast membrane. Here, we have re-examined this trafficking pathway. By titrating wild-type and mutant apicoplast transit peptides against different ER retrieval sequences and studying protein transport in a brefeldin A-resistant parasite line, we generated data which suggest a direct involvement of the Golgi in traffic of soluble proteins to the P. falciparum apicoplast. PMID:25264207

  12. ER Import Sites and Their Relationship to ER Exit Sites: A New Model for Bidirectional ER-Golgi Transport in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Lerich, Alexander; Hillmer, Stefan; Langhans, Markus; Scheuring, David; van Bentum, Paulien; Robinson, David G

    2012-01-01

    Per definition, ER exit sites are COPII vesiculation events at the surface of the ER and in higher plants are only visualizable in the electron microscope through cryofixation techniques. Fluorescent COPII labeling moves with Golgi stacks and locates to the interface between the ER and the Golgi. In contrast, the domain of the ER where retrograde COPI vesicles fuse, i.e., ER import sites (ERIS), has remained unclear. To identify ERIS we have employed ER-located SNAREs and tethering factors. We screened several SNAREs (SYP81, the SYP7 family, and USE1) to find a SNARE whose overexpression did not disrupt ER-Golgi traffic and which gave rise to discrete fluorescent punctae when expressed with an XFP tag. Only the Qc-SNARE SYP72 fulfilled these criteria. When coexpressed with SYP72-YFP, both the type I-membrane protein RFP-p24δ5 and the luminal marker CFP-HDEL whose ER localization are due to an efficient COPI-mediated recycling, form nodules along the tubular ER network. SYP72-YFP colocalizes with these nodules which are not seen when RFP-p24δ5 or CFP-HDEL is expressed alone or when SYP72-YFP is coexpressed with a mutant form of RFP-p24δ5 that cannot exit the ER. SYP72-YFP does not colocalize with Golgi markers, except when the Golgi stacks are immobilized through actin depolymerization. Endogenous SYP7 SNAREs, also colocalize with immobilized COPII/Golgi. In contrast, XFP-tagged versions of plant homologs to TIP20 of the Dsl1 COPI-tethering factor complex, and the COPII-tethering factor p115 colocalize perfectly with Golgi stacks irrespective of the motile status. These data suggest that COPI vesicle fusion with the ER is restricted to periods when Golgi stacks are stationary, but that when moving both COPII and COPI vesicles are tethered and collect in the ER-Golgi interface. Thus, the Golgi stack and an associated domain of the ER thereby constitute a mobile secretory and recycling unit: a unique feature in eukaryotic cells. PMID:22876251

  13. Ciliopathies: The Trafficking Connection

    PubMed Central

    Madhivanan, Kayalvizhi; Aguilar, R. Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium (PC) is a very dynamic hair-like membrane structure that assembles/disassembles in a cell-cycle dependent manner and is present in almost every cell type. Despite being continuous with the plasma membrane, a diffusion barrier located at the ciliary base confers the PC properties of a separate organelle with very specific characteristics and membrane composition. Therefore, vesicle trafficking is the major process by which components are acquired for cilium formation and maintenance. In fact, a system of specific sorting signals controls the right of cargo admission into the cilia. Disruption to the ciliary structure or its function leads to multi-organ diseases known as ciliopathies. These illnesses arise from a spectrum of mutations in any of the more than 50 loci linked to these conditions. Therefore, it is not surprising that symptom variability (specific manifestations and severity) among and within ciliopathies seems to be an emerging characteristic. Nevertheless, one can speculate that mutations occurring in genes whose products contribute to the overall vesicle trafficking to the PC (i.e., affecting cilia assembly) will lead to more severe symptoms, while those involved in the transport of specific cargoes will result in milder phenotypes. In this review, we summarize the trafficking mechanisms to the cilia and also provide a description of the trafficking defects observed in some ciliopathies which can be correlated to the severity of the pathology. PMID:25040720

  14. Environment and drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bryson, L O

    1992-01-01

    Illicit drug trafficking is a very complex matter, not only because it causes serious and pernicious problems in the socio-economic sphere, but because drug-taking can lead to personal degradation. To this situation, lamentable enough in itself, must be added the immense ecological and environmental damage, which presents grave and serious dangers for the planet. PMID:1302599

  15. The rise and fall of Golgi's school.

    PubMed

    Mazzarello, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The Camillo Golgi's school of Histology and General Pathology in Pavia played an important role in the development of medical-biological studies in Italy in the period after Unification of the state. Founded around 1880 when Golgi (1843-1926) began to wield power at the University of Pavia, the school soon became famous for the distinctive morphological basis of its studies. Many of its staff members made important discoveries and won international acclaim. The school however went into decline after 1910 because of its rigid adherence to the morphological approach that had characterized its golden years at a time when the international scientific world was developing other fundamental methodological criteria for medical-biological studies. PMID:20594993

  16. Protein Recycling from the Golgi Apparatus to the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Plants and Its Minor Contribution to Calreticulin Retention

    PubMed Central

    Pagny, Sophie; Cabanes-Macheteau, Marion; Gillikin, Jeffrey W.; Leborgne-Castel, Nathalie; Lerouge, Patrice; Boston, Rebecca S.; Faye, Loïc; Gomord, Véronique

    2000-01-01

    Using pulse–chase experiments combined with immunoprecipitation and N-glycan structural analysis, we showed that the retrieval mechanism of proteins from post–endoplasmic reticulum (post-ER) compartments is active in plant cells at levels similar to those described previously for animal cells. For instance, recycling from the Golgi apparatus back to the ER is sufficient to block the secretion of as much as 90% of an extracellular protein such as the cell wall invertase fused with an HDEL C-terminal tetrapeptide. Likewise, recycling can sustain fast retrograde transport of Golgi enzymes into the ER in the presence of brefeldin A. However, on the basis of our data, we propose that this retrieval mechanism in plants has little impact on the ER retention of a soluble ER protein such as calreticulin. Indeed, the latter is retained in the ER without any N-glycan–related evidence for a recycling through the Golgi apparatus. Taken together, these results indicate that calreticulin and perhaps other plant reticuloplasmins are possibly largely excluded from vesicles exported from the ER. Instead, they are probably retained in the ER by mechanisms that rely primarily on signals other than H/KDEL motifs. PMID:10810147

  17. LKB1/AMPK and PKA control ABCB11 trafficking and polarization in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Homolya, László; Fu, Dong; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Jarnik, Michal; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Gutkind, J Silvio; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Arias, Irwin M

    2014-01-01

    Polarization of hepatocytes is manifested by bile canalicular network formation and activation of LKB1 and AMPK, which control cellular energy metabolism. The bile acid, taurocholate, also regulates development of the canalicular network through activation of AMPK. In the present study, we used collagen sandwich hepatocyte cultures from control and liver-specific LKB1 knockout mice to examine the role of LKB1 in trafficking of ABCB11, the canalicular bile acid transporter. In polarized hepatocytes, ABCB11 traffics from Golgi to the apical plasma membrane and endogenously cycles through the rab 11a-myosin Vb recycling endosomal system. LKB1 knockout mice were jaundiced, lost weight and manifested impaired bile canalicular formation and intracellular trafficking of ABCB11, and died within three weeks. Using live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), particle tracking, and biochemistry, we found that LKB1 activity is required for microtubule-dependent trafficking of ABCB11 to the canalicular membrane. In control hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking was accelerated by taurocholate and cAMP; however, in LKB1 knockout hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking to the apical membrane was greatly reduced and restored only by cAMP, but not taurocholate. cAMP acted through a PKA-mediated pathway which did not activate AMPK. Our studies establish a regulatory role for LKB1 in ABCB11 trafficking to the canalicular membrane, hepatocyte polarization, and canalicular network formation. PMID:24643070

  18. Functional rescue of a kidney anion exchanger 1 trafficking mutant in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carmen Y S; King, Jennifer C; Berrini, Mattia; Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC4A1 gene encoding the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) can cause distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease often due to mis-trafficking of the mutant protein. In this study, we investigated whether trafficking of a Golgi-retained dRTA mutant, G701D kAE1, or two dRTA mutants retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, C479W and R589H kAE1, could be functionally rescued to the plasma membrane of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Treatments with DMSO, glycerol, the corrector VX-809, or low temperature incubations restored the basolateral trafficking of G701D kAE1 mutant. These treatments had no significant rescuing effect on trafficking of the mis-folded C479W or R589H kAE1 mutants. DMSO was the only treatment that partially restored G701D kAE1 function in the plasma membrane of MDCK cells. Our experiments show that trafficking of intracellularly retained dRTA kAE1 mutants can be partially restored, and that one chemical treatment rescued both trafficking and function of a dRTA mutant. These studies provide an opportunity to develop alternative therapeutic solutions for dRTA patients. PMID:23460825

  19. Functional Rescue of a Kidney Anion Exchanger 1 Trafficking Mutant in Renal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Carmen Y. S.; King, Jennifer C.; Berrini, Mattia; Alexander, R. Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC4A1 gene encoding the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) can cause distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease often due to mis-trafficking of the mutant protein. In this study, we investigated whether trafficking of a Golgi-retained dRTA mutant, G701D kAE1, or two dRTA mutants retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, C479W and R589H kAE1, could be functionally rescued to the plasma membrane of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Treatments with DMSO, glycerol, the corrector VX-809, or low temperature incubations restored the basolateral trafficking of G701D kAE1 mutant. These treatments had no significant rescuing effect on trafficking of the mis-folded C479W or R589H kAE1 mutants. DMSO was the only treatment that partially restored G701D kAE1 function in the plasma membrane of MDCK cells. Our experiments show that trafficking of intracellularly retained dRTA kAE1 mutants can be partially restored, and that one chemical treatment rescued both trafficking and function of a dRTA mutant. These studies provide an opportunity to develop alternative therapeutic solutions for dRTA patients. PMID:23460825

  20. LKB1/AMPK and PKA Control ABCB11 Trafficking and Polarization in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Homolya, László; Fu, Dong; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Jarnik, Michal; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Arias, Irwin M.

    2014-01-01

    Polarization of hepatocytes is manifested by bile canalicular network formation and activation of LKB1 and AMPK, which control cellular energy metabolism. The bile acid, taurocholate, also regulates development of the canalicular network through activation of AMPK. In the present study, we used collagen sandwich hepatocyte cultures from control and liver-specific LKB1 knockout mice to examine the role of LKB1 in trafficking of ABCB11, the canalicular bile acid transporter. In polarized hepatocytes, ABCB11 traffics from Golgi to the apical plasma membrane and endogenously cycles through the rab 11a-myosin Vb recycling endosomal system. LKB1 knockout mice were jaundiced, lost weight and manifested impaired bile canalicular formation and intracellular trafficking of ABCB11, and died within three weeks. Using live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), particle tracking, and biochemistry, we found that LKB1 activity is required for microtubule-dependent trafficking of ABCB11 to the canalicular membrane. In control hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking was accelerated by taurocholate and cAMP; however, in LKB1 knockout hepatocytes, ABCB11 trafficking to the apical membrane was greatly reduced and restored only by cAMP, but not taurocholate. cAMP acted through a PKA-mediated pathway which did not activate AMPK. Our studies establish a regulatory role for LKB1 in ABCB11 trafficking to the canalicular membrane, hepatocyte polarization, and canalicular network formation. PMID:24643070

  1. Syntabulin regulates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyu; Wang, Na; Luo, Jian-hong; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons. However, how PICK1 affects vesicle-trafficking dynamics remains unexplored. Here, we show that PICK1 mediates vesicle trafficking by interacting with syntabulin, a kinesin-binding protein that mediates the trafficking of both synaptic vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Syntabulin recruits PICK1 onto microtubule structures and mediates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles along microtubules. In neurons, syntabulin alters PICK1 expression by recruiting PICK1 into axons and regulates the trafficking dynamics of PICK1-containing vesicles. Furthermore, we show that syntabulin forms a complex with PICK1 and ASICs, regulates ASIC protein expression in neurons, and participates in ASIC-induced acidotoxicity. PMID:26868290

  2. Syntabulin regulates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles in neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyu; Wang, Na; Luo, Jian-Hong; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons. However, how PICK1 affects vesicle-trafficking dynamics remains unexplored. Here, we show that PICK1 mediates vesicle trafficking by interacting with syntabulin, a kinesin-binding protein that mediates the trafficking of both synaptic vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Syntabulin recruits PICK1 onto microtubule structures and mediates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles along microtubules. In neurons, syntabulin alters PICK1 expression by recruiting PICK1 into axons and regulates the trafficking dynamics of PICK1-containing vesicles. Furthermore, we show that syntabulin forms a complex with PICK1 and ASICs, regulates ASIC protein expression in neurons, and participates in ASIC-induced acidotoxicity. PMID:26868290

  3. The trafficking of the cellulose synthase complex in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellulose is an important constituent of plant cell walls in a biological context, and is also a material commonly utilized by mankind in the pulp and paper, timber, textile and biofuel industries. The biosynthesis of cellulose in higher plants is a function of the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). The CSC, a large transmembrane complex containing multiple cellulose synthase proteins, is believed to be assembled in the Golgi apparatus, but is thought only to synthesize cellulose when it is localized at the plasma membrane, where CSCs synthesize and extrude cellulose directly into the plant cell wall. Therefore, the delivery and endocytosis of CSCs to and from the plasma membrane are important aspects for the regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. Scope Recent progress in the visualization of CSC dynamics in living plant cells has begun to reveal some of the routes and factors involved in CSC trafficking. This review highlights the most recent major findings related to CSC trafficking, provides novel perspectives on how CSC trafficking can influence the cell wall, and proposes potential avenues for future exploration. PMID:24651373

  4. Lysosomal Trafficking of TGFBIp via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-il; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-im; Lee, Yangsin; Kim, Yong-Sun; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues and cell lines. Progressive accumulation of mutant TGFBIp is directly involved in the pathogenesis of TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. Recent studies reported that mutant TGFBIp accumulates in cells; however, the trafficking of TGFBIp is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated TGFBIp trafficking to determine the route of its internalization and secretion and to elucidate its roles in the pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Our data indicate that newly synthesized TGFBIp was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway, and this secretion was delayed in the corneal fibroblasts of patients with GCD2. We also found that TGFBIp was internalized by caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the internalized TGFBIp accumulated after treatment with bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of lysosomal degradation. In addition, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits the endocytosis of TGFBIp. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that TGFBIp interacted with integrin αVβ3. Moreover, treatment with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide suppressed the internalization of TGFBIp. These insights on TGFBIp trafficking could lead to the identification of novel targets and the development of new therapies for TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. PMID:25853243

  5. Retrogradation enthalpy does not always reflect the retrogradation behavior of gelatinized starch

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujun; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiu; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Starch retrogradation is a term used to define the process in which gelatinized starch undergoes a disorder-to-order transition. A thorough understanding of starch retrogradation behavior plays an important role in maintaining the quality of starchy foods during storage. By means of DSC, we have demonstrated for the first time that at low water contents, the enthalpy change of retrograded starch is higher than that of native starch. In terms of FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results, we showed that the molecular order of reheated retrograded starch samples is lower than that of DSC gelatinized starch. These findings have led us to conclude that enthalpy change of retrograded starch at low water contents involves the melting of recrystallized starch during storage and residual starch crystallites after DSC gelatinization, and that the endothermic transition of retrograded starch gels at low water contents does not fully represent the retrogradation behavior of starch. Very low or high water contents do not favor the occurrence of starch retrogradation. PMID:26860788

  6. ArfGAP3 regulates the Transport of Cation-Independent Mannose 6-phosphate Receptor in the post-Golgi compartment

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Yoko; Kametaka, Satoshi; Waguri, Satoshi; Presley, John F.; Randazzo, Paul Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Summary ArfGAPs are known to be involved in cargo sorting in COPI transport. However, the role of ArfGAPs in post-Golgi membrane traffic has not been defined. To determine the function of ArfGAPs in post-Golgi traffic, we used siRNA to examine each of 25 ArfGAPs for effects on cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR) localization. We found that down-regulation of ArfGAP3 resulted in the peripheral localization of CIMPR. The effect was specific for ArfGAP3 and dependent on its GAP activity, because the phenotype was rescued by ArfGAP3 but not by ArfGAP1, ArfGAP2 or the GAP domain mutants of ArfGAP3. ArfGAP3 localized to the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. In cells with reduced expression of ArfGAP3, Cathepsin D maturation was slowed and its secretion was accelerated. Also retrograde transport from the endosomes to the trans-Golgi network of endogenous CIMPR, but not truncated CIMPR lacking the luminal domain, was perturbed in cells with reduced expression of ArfGAP3. Furthermore the exit of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) from the early endosomes and degradation of EGFR after EGF stimulation was slowed in cells with reduced expression of ArfGAP3. ArfGAP3 associates with Golgi-localized, γ-ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor binding proteins (GGAs), and ArfGAP3 knockdown reduces membrane association of GGAs. A possible mechanism explaining our results is that ArfGAP3 regulates transport from early endosomes to late endosomes. We suggest a model in which ArfGAP3 regulates Golgi association of GGA clathrin adaptors. PMID:24076238

  7. Nitric oxide scavenging causes remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason E.; Yuan, Huijuan; Liang, Feng-Xia; Sehgal, Pravin B.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of the structure and function of cytoplasmic organelles in endothelial cells on constitutively produced intracellular nitric oxide (NO) remains largely unexplored. We previously reported fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus in cells exposed to NO scavengers or after siRNA-mediated knockdown of eNOS. Others have reported increased mitochondrial fission in response to an NO donor. Functionally, we previously reported that bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) exposed to the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5- tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) developed a prosecretory phenotype characterized by prolonged secretion of soluble proteins. In the present study, we investigated whether NO scavenging led to remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Live-cell DAF-2DA imaging confirmed the presence of intracellular NO in association with the BODIPY C5- ceramide-labelled Golgi apparatus. Untreated human PAECs displayed a pattern of peripheral tubulo-reticular ER with a juxtanuclear accumulation of ER sheets. Cells exposed to c-PTIO showed a dramatic increase in ER sheets as assayed using immunofluoresence for the ER structural protein reticulon-4b/Nogo-B and the ER-resident GTPase atlastin-3, live-cell fluorescence assays using RTN4-GFP and KDEL-mCherry, and electron microscopy methods. These ER changes were inhibited by the NO donor diethylamine NONOate, and also produced by L-NAME, but not D-NAME or 8-br-cGMP. This ER remodeling was accompanied by Golgi fragmentation and increased fibrillarity and function of mitochondria (uptake of tetramethyl- rhodamine, TMRE). Despite Golgi fragmentation the functional ER/Golgi trafficking unit was preserved as seen by the accumulation of Sec31A ER exit sites adjacent to the dispersed Golgi elements and a 1.8-fold increase in secretion of soluble cargo. Western blotting and immunopanning data showed that RTN4b was increasingly ubiquitinated following c-PTIO exposure, especially in the

  8. Lysosomal Trafficking Regulator (LYST).

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaojie; Chang, Bo; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of vesicle trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) as well as regulation of the size of these organelles are critical to maintain their functions. Disruption of the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) results in Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, prolonged bleeding, severe immunodeficiency, recurrent bacterial infection, neurologic dysfunction and hemophagocytic lympohistiocytosis (HLH). The classic diagnostic feature of the syndrome is enlarged LROs in all cell types, including lysosomes, melanosomes, cytolytic granules and platelet dense bodies. The most striking CHS ocular pathology observed is an enlargement of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which leads to aberrant distribution of eye pigmentation, and results in photophobia and decreased visual acuity. Understanding the molecular function of LYST and identification of its interacting partners may provide therapeutic targets for CHS and other diseases associated with the regulation of LRO size and/or vesicle trafficking, such as asthma, urticaria and Leishmania amazonensis infections. PMID:26427484

  9. New insights on the Golgi complex of Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    De Andrade Rosa, Ivone; Caruso, Marjolly Brigido; Rodrigues, Silas Pessini; Geraldo, Reinaldo Barros; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Gonzaga, Luiz; DE Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Morgado-Díaz, Jose Andres; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Benchimol, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a protist that causes bovine trichomoniasis and presents a well-developed Golgi. There are very few studies concerning the Golgi in trichomonads. In this work, monoclonal antibodies were raised against Golgi of T. foetus and used as a tool on morphologic and biochemical studies of this organelle. Among the antibodies produced, one was named mAb anti-Golgi 20.3, which recognized specifically the Golgi complex by fluorescence and electron microscopy. By immunoblotting this antibody recognized two proteins with 60 and 66 kDa that were identified as putative beta-tubulin and adenosine triphosphatase, respectively. The mAb 20.3 also recognized the Golgi complex of the Trichomonas vaginalis, a human parasite. In addition, the nucleotide coding sequences of these proteins were identified and included in the T. foetus database, and the 3D structure of the proteins was predicted. In conclusion, this study indicated: (1) adenosine triphosphatase is present in the Golgi, (2) ATPase is conserved between T. foetus and T. vaginalis, (3) there is new information concerning the nucleic acid sequences and protein structures of adenosine triphosphatase and beta-tubulin from T. foetus and (4) the mAb anti-Golgi 20.3 is a good Golgi marker and can be used in future studies. PMID:24135238

  10. RORγt+ cells selectively express redundant cation channels linked to the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Drujont, Lucile; Lemoine, Aurélie; Moreau, Aurélie; Bienvenu, Géraldine; Lancien, Mélanie; Cens, Thierry; Guillot, Flora; Bériou, Gaëlle; Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Chiffoleau, Elise; Nicot, Arnaud B; Charnet, Pierre; Martin, Jérôme C; Josien, Régis; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) is a master transcription factor central to type 17 immunity involving cells such as T helper 17, group 3 innate lymphoid cells or IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Here we show that the intracellular ion channel TMEM176B and its homologue TMEM176A are strongly expressed in these RORγt(+) cells. We demonstrate that TMEM176A and B exhibit a similar cation channel activity and mainly colocalise in close proximity to the trans-Golgi network. Strikingly, in the mouse, the loss of Tmem176b is systematically associated with a strong upregulation of Tmem176a. While Tmem176b single-deficiency has no effect on the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, T cell or DSS-induced colitis, it significantly reduces imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. These findings shed light on a potentially novel specific process linked to post-Golgi trafficking for modulating the function of RORγt(+) cells and indicate that both homologues should be simultaneously targeted to clearly elucidate the role of this intracellular ion flow. PMID:27009467

  11. Geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of the prenyltransferase UBIAD1 between membranes of the ER and Golgi.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Marc M; Jun, Dong-Jae; Jo, Youngah; Seemann, Joachim; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A

    2016-07-01

    UbiA prenyltransferase domain-containing protein-1 (UBIAD1) utilizes geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) to synthesize the vitamin K2 subtype menaquinone-4. Previously, we found that sterols trigger binding of UBIAD1 to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, including GGpp. This binding inhibits sterol-accelerated degradation of reductase, which contributes to feedback regulation of the enzyme. The addition to cells of geranylgeraniol (GGOH), which can become converted to GGpp, triggers release of UBIAD1 from reductase, allowing for its maximal degradation and permitting ER-to-Golgi transport of UBIAD1. Here, we further characterize geranylgeranyl-regulated transport of UBIAD1. Results of this characterization support a model in which UBIAD1 continuously cycles between the ER and medial-trans Golgi of isoprenoid-replete cells. Upon sensing a decline of GGpp in ER membranes, UBIAD1 becomes trapped in the organelle where it inhibits reductase degradation. Mutant forms of UBIAD1 associated with Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD), a human eye disease characterized by corneal accumulation of cholesterol, are sequestered in the ER and block reductase degradation. Collectively, these findings disclose a novel sensing mechanism that allows for stringent metabolic control of intracellular trafficking of UBIAD1, which directly modulates reductase degradation and becomes disrupted in SCD. PMID:27121042

  12. RORγt+ cells selectively express redundant cation channels linked to the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Drujont, Lucile; Lemoine, Aurélie; Moreau, Aurélie; Bienvenu, Géraldine; Lancien, Mélanie; Cens, Thierry; Guillot, Flora; Bériou, Gaëlle; Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Chiffoleau, Elise; Nicot, Arnaud B.; Charnet, Pierre; Martin, Jérôme C.; Josien, Régis; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) is a master transcription factor central to type 17 immunity involving cells such as T helper 17, group 3 innate lymphoid cells or IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Here we show that the intracellular ion channel TMEM176B and its homologue TMEM176A are strongly expressed in these RORγt+ cells. We demonstrate that TMEM176A and B exhibit a similar cation channel activity and mainly colocalise in close proximity to the trans-Golgi network. Strikingly, in the mouse, the loss of Tmem176b is systematically associated with a strong upregulation of Tmem176a. While Tmem176b single-deficiency has no effect on the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, T cell or DSS-induced colitis, it significantly reduces imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. These findings shed light on a potentially novel specific process linked to post-Golgi trafficking for modulating the function of RORγt+ cells and indicate that both homologues should be simultaneously targeted to clearly elucidate the role of this intracellular ion flow. PMID:27009467

  13. The Clathrin Adaptor Gga2p Is a Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate Effector at the Golgi Exit

    PubMed Central

    Demmel, Lars; Gravert, Maike; Ercan, Ebru; Habermann, Bianca; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Kukhtina, Viktoria; Haucke, Volker; Baust, Thorsten; Sohrmann, Marc; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Klose, Christian; Beck, Mike; Peter, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) is a key regulator of membrane transport required for the formation of transport carriers from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The molecular mechanisms of PI(4)P signaling in this process are still poorly understood. In a search for PI(4)P effector molecules, we performed a screen for synthetic lethals in a background of reduced PI(4)P and found the gene GGA2. Our analysis uncovered a PI(4)P-dependent recruitment of the clathrin adaptor Gga2p to the TGN during Golgi-to-endosome trafficking. Gga2p recruitment to liposomes is stimulated both by PI(4)P and the small GTPase Arf1p in its active conformation, implicating these two molecules in the recruitment of Gga2p to the TGN, which ultimately controls the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles. PI(4)P binding occurs through a phosphoinositide-binding signature within the N-terminal VHS domain of Gga2p resembling a motif found in other clathrin interacting proteins. These data provide an explanation for the TGN-specific membrane recruitment of Gga2p. PMID:18287542

  14. WD60/FAP163 is a dynein intermediate chain required for retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia.

    PubMed

    Patel-King, Ramila S; Gilberti, Renée M; Hom, Erik F Y; King, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    Retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is required for assembly of cilia. We identify a Chlamydomonas flagellar protein (flagellar-associated protein 163 [FAP163]) as being closely related to the D1bIC(FAP133) intermediate chain (IC) of the dynein that powers this movement. Biochemical analysis revealed that FAP163 is present in the flagellar matrix and is actively trafficked by IFT. Furthermore, FAP163 copurified with D1bIC(FAP133) and the LC8 dynein light chain, indicating that it is an integral component of the retrograde IFT dynein. To assess the functional role of FAP163, we generated an RNA interference knockdown of the orthologous protein (WD60) in planaria. The Smed-wd60(RNAi) animals had a severe ciliary assembly defect that dramatically compromised whole-organism motility. Most cilia were present as short stubs that had accumulated large quantities of IFT particle-like material between the doublet microtubules and the membrane. The few remaining approximately full-length cilia had a chaotic beat with a frequency reduced from 24 to ∼10 Hz. Thus WD60/FAP163 is a dynein IC that is absolutely required for retrograde IFT and ciliary assembly. PMID:23864713

  15. Specificity of Cytoplasmic Dynein Subunits in Discrete Membrane-trafficking Steps

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Krysten J.; Hughes, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein motor complex is known to exist in multiple forms, but few specific functions have been assigned to individual subunits. A key limitation in the analysis of dynein in intact mammalian cells has been the reliance on gross perturbation of dynein function, e.g., inhibitory antibodies, depolymerization of the entire microtubule network, or the use of expression of dominant negative proteins that inhibit dynein indirectly. Here, we have used RNAi and automated image analysis to define roles for dynein subunits in distinct membrane-trafficking processes. Depletion of a specific subset of dynein subunits, notably LIC1 (DYNC1LI1) but not LIC2 (DYNC1LI2), recapitulates a direct block of ER export, revealing that dynein is required to maintain the steady-state composition of the Golgi, through ongoing ER-to-Golgi transport. Suppression of LIC2 but not of LIC1 results in a defect in recycling endosome distribution and cytokinesis. Biochemical analyses also define the role of each subunit in stabilization of the dynein complex; notably, suppression of DHC1 or IC2 results in concomitant loss of Tctex1. Our data demonstrate that LIC1 and LIC2 define distinct dynein complexes that function at the Golgi versus recycling endosomes, respectively, suggesting that functional populations of dynein mediate discrete intracellular trafficking pathways. PMID:19386764

  16. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. PMID:24750655

  17. Disturbed Neuronal ER-Golgi Sorting of Unassembled Glycine Receptors Suggests Altered Subcellular Processing Is a Cause of Human Hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Natascha; Kluck, Christoph J.; Price, Kerry L.; Meiselbach, Heike; Vornberger, Nadine; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Hartmann, Stephanie; Langlhofer, Georg; Schulz, Solveig; Schlegel, Nadja; Brockmann, Knut; Lynch, Bryan; Becker, Cord-Michael; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the pathogenic mechanisms of recessive hyperekplexia indicate disturbances in glycine receptor (GlyR) α1 biogenesis. Here, we examine the properties of a range of novel glycine receptor mutants identified in human hyperekplexia patients using expression in transfected cell lines and primary neurons. All of the novel mutants localized in the large extracellular domain of the GlyR α1 have reduced cell surface expression with a high proportion of receptors being retained in the ER, although there is forward trafficking of glycosylated subpopulations into the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi compartment. CD spectroscopy revealed that the mutant receptors have proportions of secondary structural elements similar to wild-type receptors. Two mutants in loop B (G160R, T162M) were functional, but none of those in loop D/β2–3 were. One nonfunctional truncated mutant (R316X) could be rescued by coexpression with the lacking C-terminal domain. We conclude that a proportion of GlyR α1 mutants can be transported to the plasma membrane but do not necessarily form functional ion channels. We suggest that loop D/β2–3 is an important determinant for GlyR trafficking and functionality, whereas alterations to loop B alter agonist potencies, indicating that residues here are critical elements in ligand binding. PMID:25568133

  18. Receptor-mediated sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins ends at the trans-Golgi network/early endosome.

    PubMed

    Künzl, Fabian; Früholz, Simone; Fäßler, Florian; Li, Beibei; Pimpl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The sorting of soluble proteins for degradation in the vacuole is of vital importance in plant cells, and relies on the activity of vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs). In the plant endomembrane system, VSRs bind vacuole-targeted proteins and facilitate their transport to the vacuole. Where exactly these interactions take place has remained controversial, however. Here, we examine the potential for VSR-ligand interactions in all compartments of the vacuolar transport system in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. To do this, we developed compartment-specific VSR sensors that assemble as a result of a nanobody-epitope interaction, and monitored the degree of ligand binding by analysing Förster resonance energy transfer using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FRET-FLIM). We show that VSRs bind ligands in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the Golgi, but not in the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) or multivesicular late endosomes, suggesting that the post-TGN/EE trafficking of ligands towards the vacuole is VSR independent. We verify this by showing that non-VSR-ligands are also delivered to the vacuole from the TGN/EE after endocytic uptake. We conclude that VSRs are required for the transport of ligands from the ER and the Golgi to the TGN/EE, and suggest that the onward transport to the vacuole occurs by default. PMID:27249560

  19. Ferlins Show Tissue-Specific Expression and Segregate as Plasma Membrane/Late Endosomal or Trans-Golgi/Recycling Ferlins.

    PubMed

    Redpath, Gregory M I; Sophocleous, Reece A; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Cooper, Sandra T

    2016-03-01

    Ferlins are a family of transmembrane-anchored vesicle fusion proteins uniquely characterized by 5-7 tandem cytoplasmic C2 domains, Ca(2+) -regulated phospholipid-binding domains that regulate vesicle fusion in the synaptotagmin family. In humans, dysferlin mutations cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) due to defective Ca(2+) -dependent, vesicle-mediated membrane repair and otoferlin mutations cause non-syndromic deafness due to defective Ca(2+) -triggered auditory neurotransmission. In this study, we describe the tissue-specific expression, subcellular localization and endocytic trafficking of the ferlin family. Studies of endosomal transit together with 3D-structured illumination microscopy reveals dysferlin and myoferlin are abundantly expressed at the PM and cycle to Rab7-positive late endosomes, supporting potential roles in the late-endosomal pathway. In contrast, Fer1L6 shows concentrated localization to a specific compartment of the trans-Golgi/recycling endosome, cycling rapidly between this compartment and the PM via Rab11 recycling endosomes. Otoferlin also shows trans-Golgi to PM cycling, with very low levels of PM otoferlin suggesting either brief PM residence, or rare incorporation of otoferlin molecules into the PM. Thus, type-I and type-II ferlins segregate as PM/late-endosomal or trans-Golgi/recycling ferlins, consistent with different ferlins mediating vesicle fusion events in specific subcellular locations. PMID:26707827

  20. Kinesin-5/Eg5 is important for transport of CARTS from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Julien; van Galen, Josse; Cruz-Garcia, David; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Here we report that the kinesin-5 motor Klp61F, which is known for its role in bipolar spindle formation in mitosis, is required for protein transport from the Golgi complex to the cell surface in Drosophila S2 cells. Disrupting the function of its mammalian orthologue, Eg5, in HeLa cells inhibited secretion of a protein called pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) but, surprisingly, not the trafficking of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) to the cell surface. We have previously reported that PAUF is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface in specific carriers called CARTS that exclude VSV-G. Inhibition of Eg5 function did not affect the biogenesis of CARTS; however, their migration was delayed and they accumulated near the Golgi complex. Altogether, our findings reveal a surprising new role of Eg5 in nonmitotic cells in the facilitation of the transport of specific carriers, CARTS, from the TGN to the cell surface. PMID:23857769

  1. Impaired ATP6V0A2 expression contributes to Golgi dispersion and glycosylation changes in senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Udono, Miyako; Fujii, Kaoru; Harada, Gakuro; Tsuzuki, Yumi; Kadooka, Keishi; Zhang, Pingbo; Fujii, Hiroshi; Amano, Maho; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Many genes and signaling pathways have been found to be involved in cellular senescence program. In the present study, we have identified 16 senescence-associated genes by differential proteomic analysis of the normal human diploid fibroblast cell line, TIG-1, and focused on ATP6V0A2. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of ATP6V0A2, the causal gene for ARCL2, a syndrome of abnormal glycosylation and impaired Golgi trafficking, in cellular senescence program. Here we showed that ATP6V0A2 is critical for cellular senescence; impaired expression of ATP6V0A2 disperses the Golgi structure and triggers senescence, suggesting that ATP6V0A2 mediates these processes. FITC-lectin staining and glycoblotting revealed significantly different glycosylation structures in presenescent (young) and senescent (old) TIG-1 cells; reducing ATP6V0A2 expression in young TIG-1 cells yielded structures similar to those in old TIG-1 cells. Our results suggest that senescence-associated impaired expression of ATP6V0A2 triggers changes in Golgi structure and glycosylation in old TIG-1 cells, which demonstrates a role of ATP6V0A2 in cellular senescence program. PMID:26611489

  2. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  3. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1996-10-15

    A process is disclosed for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  4. Causes of retrograde flow in fish keratocytes.

    PubMed

    Fuhs, Thomas; Goegler, Michael; Brunner, Claudia A; Wolgemuth, Charles W; Kaes, Josef A

    2014-01-01

    Confronting motile cells with obstacles doubling as force sensors we tested the limits of the driving actin and myosin machinery. We could directly measure the force necessary to stop actin polymerization as well as the force present in the retrograde actin flow. Combined with detailed measurements of the retrograde flow velocity and specific manipulation of actin and myosin we found that actin polymerization and myosin contractility are not enough to explain the cells behavior. We show that ever-present depolymerization forces, a direct entropic consequence of actin filament recycling, are sufficient to fill this gap, even under heavy loads. PMID:24127260

  5. External security stitch for retrograde cardioplegia cannula.

    PubMed

    Gabbieri, Davide; Pedulli, Marco; Bianchi, Tiziano; Ghidoni, Italo

    2009-01-01

    Retrograde cardioplegia catheter displacement represents a troublesome complication, frequently forcing the surgeon to interrupt the operative procedure and cannulate newly the coronary sinus. However, this maneuver is time consuming, often implies the loss of surgical exposure, and exposes again the coronary sinus to the risk of iatrogenic injuries. We describe the use of an external security stitch through the muscular right atrial wall to avoid the displacement of a retrograde cardioplegia catheter and analyze the anatomic conditions which predispose to this complication. PMID:19583611

  6. Characterization of Trans-Neuronal Trafficking of Cbln1

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peng; Rong, Yongqi; Li, Leyi; Bao, Dashi; Morgan, James I

    2009-01-01

    Cbln1, a glycoprotein secreted from granule cells and GluRδ2 in the postsynaptic densities of Purkinje cells are components of an incompletely understood pathway essential for integrity and plasticity of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. We show that Cbln1 undergoes anterograde transport from granule cells to Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia, and enters the endolysosomal trafficking system, raising the possibility that Cbln1 exerts its activity on or within Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia. Cbln1 is absent in Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia of GluRδ2-null mice, suggesting a mechanistic convergence on Cbln1 trafficking. Ectopic expression of Cbln1 in Purkinje cells of L7-cbln1 transgenic mice reveals Cbln1 undergoes anterograde and retrograde transneuronal trafficking even across synapses that lack GluRδ2, indicating it is not universally essential for Cbln1 transport. The L7-cbln1 transgene also ameliorates the locomotor deficits of cbln1-null mice, indicating the presence and/or release of Cbln1 from the postsynaptic neuron has functional consequences. PMID:19344768

  7. Functions of kinesin superfamily proteins in neuroreceptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Xu, Junyu

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is widely regarded as the cellular basis of learning and memory. Understanding the molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity has been one of center pieces of neuroscience research for more than three decades. It has been well known that the trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazoloe-4-propionic acid- (AMPA-) type, N-methyl-D-aspartate- (NMDA-) type glutamate receptors to and from synapses is a key molecular event underlying many forms of synaptic plasticity. Kainate receptors are another type of glutamate receptors playing important roles in synaptic transmission. In addition, GABA receptors also play important roles in modulating the synaptic plasticity. Kinesin superfamily proteins (also known as KIFs) transport various cargos in both anterograde and retrograde directions through the interaction with different adaptor proteins. Recent studies indicate that KIFs regulate the trafficking of NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, kainate receptors, and GABA receptors and thus play important roles in neuronal activity. Here we review the essential functions of KIFs in the trafficking of neuroreceptor and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26075252

  8. Functions of Kinesin Superfamily Proteins in Neuroreceptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is widely regarded as the cellular basis of learning and memory. Understanding the molecular mechanism of synaptic plasticity has been one of center pieces of neuroscience research for more than three decades. It has been well known that the trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazoloe-4-propionic acid- (AMPA-) type, N-methyl-D-aspartate- (NMDA-) type glutamate receptors to and from synapses is a key molecular event underlying many forms of synaptic plasticity. Kainate receptors are another type of glutamate receptors playing important roles in synaptic transmission. In addition, GABA receptors also play important roles in modulating the synaptic plasticity. Kinesin superfamily proteins (also known as KIFs) transport various cargos in both anterograde and retrograde directions through the interaction with different adaptor proteins. Recent studies indicate that KIFs regulate the trafficking of NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, kainate receptors, and GABA receptors and thus play important roles in neuronal activity. Here we review the essential functions of KIFs in the trafficking of neuroreceptor and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26075252

  9. Identification of Rab41/6d Effectors Provides an Explanation for the Differential Effects of Rab41/6d and Rab6a/a' on Golgi Organization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Majeed, Waqar; Kudlyk, Tetyana; Lupashin, Vladimir; Storrie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Unexpectedly, members of the Rab VI subfamily exhibit considerable variation in their effects on Golgi organization and trafficking. By fluorescence microscopy, neither depletion nor overexpression of the GDP-locked form of Rab6a/a', the first trans Golgi-associated Rab protein discovered, affects Golgi ribbon organization while, on the other hand, both Rab41/6d depletion and overexpression of GDP-locked form cause Golgi fragmentation into a cluster of punctate elements, suggesting that Rab41/6d has an active role in maintenance of Golgi ribbon organization. To establish a molecular basis for these differences, we screened for Rab41/6d interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid assay. 155 non-repetitive hits were isolated and sequenced, and after searching in NCBI database, 102 different proteins and protein fragments were identified. None of these hits overlapped with any published Rab6a/a' effector. Eight putative Rab41 interactors involved in membrane trafficking were found. Significantly, these exhibited a preferential interaction with GTP- vs. GDP-locked Rab41/6d. Of the 8 hits, the dynactin 6, syntaxin 8, and Kif18A plasmids were the only ones expressing the full-length protein. Hence, these 3 proteins were selected for further study. We found that depletion of dynactin 6 or syntaxin 8, but not Kif18A, resulted in a fragmented Golgi apparatus that displayed a Rab41/6d knockdown phenotype, i.e., the Golgi apparatus was disrupted into a cluster of punctate Golgi elements. Co-immunoprecipation experiments verified that the interaction of dynactin 6 and syntaxin 8 with GTP-locked Rab41/6d was stronger than that with wild type Rab41/6d and least with the GDP-locked form. In contrast, co-immunoprecipitation interaction with Rab6a was greatest with the GDP-locked Rab6a, suggestive of a non-physiological interaction. In conclusion, we suggest that dynactin 6, a subunit of dynactin complex, the minus-end-directed, dynein motor, provides a sufficient molecular basis to

  10. Identification of Rab41/6d Effectors Provides an Explanation for the Differential Effects of Rab41/6d and Rab6a/a' on Golgi Organization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shijie; Majeed, Waqar; Kudlyk, Tetyana; Lupashin, Vladimir; Storrie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Unexpectedly, members of the Rab VI subfamily exhibit considerable variation in their effects on Golgi organization and trafficking. By fluorescence microscopy, neither depletion nor overexpression of the GDP-locked form of Rab6a/a', the first trans Golgi-associated Rab protein discovered, affects Golgi ribbon organization while, on the other hand, both Rab41/6d depletion and overexpression of GDP-locked form cause Golgi fragmentation into a cluster of punctate elements, suggesting that Rab41/6d has an active role in maintenance of Golgi ribbon organization. To establish a molecular basis for these differences, we screened for Rab41/6d interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid assay. 155 non-repetitive hits were isolated and sequenced, and after searching in NCBI database, 102 different proteins and protein fragments were identified. None of these hits overlapped with any published Rab6a/a' effector. Eight putative Rab41 interactors involved in membrane trafficking were found. Significantly, these exhibited a preferential interaction with GTP- vs. GDP-locked Rab41/6d. Of the 8 hits, the dynactin 6, syntaxin 8, and Kif18A plasmids were the only ones expressing the full-length protein. Hence, these 3 proteins were selected for further study. We found that depletion of dynactin 6 or syntaxin 8, but not Kif18A, resulted in a fragmented Golgi apparatus that displayed a Rab41/6d knockdown phenotype, i.e., the Golgi apparatus was disrupted into a cluster of punctate Golgi elements. Co-immunoprecipation experiments verified that the interaction of dynactin 6 and syntaxin 8 with GTP-locked Rab41/6d was stronger than that with wild type Rab41/6d and least with the GDP-locked form. In contrast, co-immunoprecipitation interaction with Rab6a was greatest with the GDP-locked Rab6a, suggestive of a non-physiological interaction. In conclusion, we suggest that dynactin 6, a subunit of dynactin complex, the minus-end-directed, dynein motor, provides a sufficient molecular basis to

  11. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J; Austin, Jotham; Glick, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generate partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13232.001 PMID:26709839

  12. Golgi Localization of Glycosyltransferases Requires a Vps74p Oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Karl R.; Liu, Jingxuan; Li, Shiqing; Setty, Thanuja Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Burd, Christopher G.; Ferguson, Kathryn M.

    2010-02-19

    The mechanism of glycosyltransferase localization to the Golgi apparatus is a long-standing question in secretory cell biology. All Golgi glycosyltransferases are type II membrane proteins with small cytosolic domains that contribute to Golgi localization. To date, no protein has been identified that recognizes the cytosolic domains of Golgi enzymes and contributes to their localization. Here, we report that yeast Vps74p directly binds to the cytosolic domains of cis and medial Golgi mannosyltransferases and that loss of this interaction correlates with loss of Golgi localization of these enzymes. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of Vps74p and find that it forms a tetramer, which we also observe in solution. Deletion of a critical structural motif disrupts tetramer formation and results in loss of Vps74p localization and function. Vps74p is highly homologous to the human GMx33 Golgi matrix proteins, suggesting a conserved function for these proteins in the Golgi enzyme localization machinery.

  13. Distinct Biochemical Pools of Golgi Phosphoprotein 3 in the Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, María J; Ross, Breyan H; Luchsinger, Charlotte; Rivera-Dictter, Andrés; Arriagada, Cecilia; Acuña, Diego; Aguilar, Marcelo; Cavieres, Viviana; Burgos, Patricia V; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Mardones, Gonzalo A

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been implicated in the development of carcinomas in many human tissues, and is currently considered a bona fide oncoprotein. Importantly, several tumor types show overexpression of GOLPH3, which is associated with tumor progress and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that connect GOLPH3 function with tumorigenicity are poorly understood. Experimental evidence shows that depletion of GOLPH3 abolishes transformation and proliferation of tumor cells in GOLPH3-overexpressing cell lines. Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpression drives transformation of primary cell lines and enhances mouse xenograft tumor growth in vivo. This evidence suggests that overexpression of GOLPH3 could result in distinct features of GOLPH3 in tumor cells compared to that of non-tumorigenic cells. GOLPH3 is a peripheral membrane protein mostly localized at the trans-Golgi network, and its association with Golgi membranes depends on binding to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. GOLPH3 is also contained in a large cytosolic pool that rapidly exchanges with Golgi-associated pools. GOLPH3 has also been observed associated with vesicles and tubules arising from the Golgi, as well as other cellular compartments, and hence it has been implicated in several membrane trafficking events. Whether these and other features are typical to all different types of cells is unknown. Moreover, it remains undetermined how GOLPH3 acts as an oncoprotein at the Golgi. Therefore, to better understand the roles of GOLPH3 in cancer cells, we sought to compare some of its biochemical and cellular properties in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 with that of the non-tumorigenic breast human cell line MCF 10A. We found unexpected differences that support the notion that in different cancer cells, overexpression of GOLPH3 functions in diverse fashions, which may influence specific tumorigenic phenotypes. PMID:27123979

  14. Distinct Biochemical Pools of Golgi Phosphoprotein 3 in the Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Charlotte; Rivera-Dictter, Andrés; Arriagada, Cecilia; Acuña, Diego; Aguilar, Marcelo; Cavieres, Viviana; Burgos, Patricia V.; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Mardones, Gonzalo A.

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been implicated in the development of carcinomas in many human tissues, and is currently considered a bona fide oncoprotein. Importantly, several tumor types show overexpression of GOLPH3, which is associated with tumor progress and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that connect GOLPH3 function with tumorigenicity are poorly understood. Experimental evidence shows that depletion of GOLPH3 abolishes transformation and proliferation of tumor cells in GOLPH3-overexpressing cell lines. Conversely, GOLPH3 overexpression drives transformation of primary cell lines and enhances mouse xenograft tumor growth in vivo. This evidence suggests that overexpression of GOLPH3 could result in distinct features of GOLPH3 in tumor cells compared to that of non-tumorigenic cells. GOLPH3 is a peripheral membrane protein mostly localized at the trans-Golgi network, and its association with Golgi membranes depends on binding to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. GOLPH3 is also contained in a large cytosolic pool that rapidly exchanges with Golgi-associated pools. GOLPH3 has also been observed associated with vesicles and tubules arising from the Golgi, as well as other cellular compartments, and hence it has been implicated in several membrane trafficking events. Whether these and other features are typical to all different types of cells is unknown. Moreover, it remains undetermined how GOLPH3 acts as an oncoprotein at the Golgi. Therefore, to better understand the roles of GOLPH3 in cancer cells, we sought to compare some of its biochemical and cellular properties in the human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 with that of the non-tumorigenic breast human cell line MCF 10A. We found unexpected differences that support the notion that in different cancer cells, overexpression of GOLPH3 functions in diverse fashions, which may influence specific tumorigenic phenotypes. PMID:27123979

  15. A Novel Pulse-Chase Paradigm to Visualize the Trafficking of Transport Vesicles in Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bassam, Sarmad

    In neurons transmembrane proteins are targeted to dendrites in vesicles that traffic solely within the somatodendritic compartment. How these vesicles are retained within the somatodendritic domain is unknown. Here we adapt a novel pulse chase system that allows synchronous release of exogenous transmembrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum using FKBP12 and Rapamycin. We demonstrate proof-of-concept and establish protein trafficking controls in incremental steps. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in studying protein trafficking and establish parameters for analysis of time-lapse images. We implement this novel pulse-chase strategy to track the movements of post-Golgi transport vesicles. Surprisingly, we found that post-Golgi vesicles carrying dendritic proteins were equally likely to enter axons and dendrites. However, once such vesicles entered the axon they very rarely moved beyond the axon initial segment, but instead either halted or reversed direction in an actin and Myosin Va-dependent manner. In contrast, vesicles carrying either an axonal or a nonspecifically localized protein only rarely halted or reversed and instead generally proceeded to the distal axon. Thus, our results are consistent with the axon initial segment behaving as a vesicle filter that mediates the differential trafficking of transport vesicles.

  16. Small cargoes pass through synthetically glued Golgi stacks.

    PubMed

    Dancourt, Julia; Zheng, Hong; Bottanelli, Francesca; Allgeyer, Edward S; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Graham, Morven; Liu, Xinran; Rothman, James E; Lavieu, Grégory

    2016-06-01

    How are proteins transported across the stacked cisternae of the Golgi apparatus? Do they stay within the cisterna while the latter matures and progresses in an anterograde manner, or do they navigate between the cisternae via vesicles? Using synthetic biology, we engineered new tools designed to stabilize intercisternal adhesion such that Golgi cisternae are literally glued together, thus preventing any possible cisternal progression. Using bulk secretory assays and single-cell live imaging, we observed that small cargoes (but not large aggregated cargoes including collagen) still transited through glued Golgi, although the rate of transport was moderately reduced. ARF1, whose membrane recruitment is required for budding COPI vesicles, continues to cycle on and off glued Golgi. Numerous COPI-size vesicles were intercalated among the glued Golgi cisternae. These results suggest that cisternal progression is not required for anterograde transport, but do not address the possibility of cisternal maturation in situ. PMID:27174538

  17. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) - series URL of this ...

  18. Retrograde Lymphatic Spread of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Osaka, Yoshiaki; Tachibana, Shingo; Aoki, Takaya; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Nagao, Toshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of the retrograde lymphatic spread of cancer cells appears to account for a subset of the essential mechanisms of cancer metastasis in various organs. However, no adequate data currently exist to illustrate the pathology of the retrograde lymphatic metastasis of cancer cells in human bodies. To shed light on this phenomenon, we report a case of a 63-year-old Japanese man who underwent an esophagectomy and lymph node dissection for early-stage esophageal cancer. The patient's clinical information was evaluated by board-certified surgeons and internists. Surgically excised materials were histopathologically evaluated by attending pathologists. Postoperative pathological examination revealed that the patient's tumor was a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with negative surgical margins (T1N0M0, stage I). Apart from the primary lesion, a single lymphatic vessel invasion was found between the lamina propria and lamina muscularis of the esophagus where intralymphatic cancer cells had spread against the direction of backflow prevention valves and skipped beyond these valves without destroying them. The present case demonstrated that the retrograde lymphatic spread of cancer cells can occur in valve-equipped lymphatic vessels. Our study may not only provide a scientific basis for the concept of retrograde lymphatic metastasis but also explain a portion of the complexities associated with the lymphogenous metastasis of esophageal cancer. PMID:26166121

  19. Active Trafficking of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin across the Lung Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Angelia D.; Brown, Mary Beth; Santos-Falcon, Nieves; Rush, Natalia I.; Oueini, Houssam; Oberle, Amber J.; Bolanis, Esther; Fragoso, Miryam A.; Petrusca, Daniela N.; Serban, Karina A.; Schweitzer, Kelly S.; Presson Jr., Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The homeostatic lung protective effects of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) may require the transport of circulating proteinase inhibitor across an intact lung endothelial barrier. We hypothesized that uninjured pulmonary endothelial cells transport A1AT to lung epithelial cells. Purified human A1AT was rapidly taken up by confluent primary rat pulmonary endothelial cell monolayers, was secreted extracellularly, both apically and basolaterally, and was taken up by adjacent rat lung epithelial cells co-cultured on polarized transwells. Similarly, polarized primary human lung epithelial cells took up basolaterally-, but not apically-supplied A1AT, followed by apical secretion. Evidence of A1AT transcytosis across lung microcirculation was confirmed in vivo by two-photon intravital microscopy in mice. Time-lapse confocal microscopy indicated that A1AT co-localized with Golgi in the endothelium whilst inhibition of the classical secretory pathway with tunicamycin significantly increased intracellular retention of A1AT. However, inhibition of Golgi secretion promoted non-classical A1AT secretion, associated with microparticle release. Polymerized A1AT or A1AT supplied to endothelial cells exposed to soluble cigarette smoke extract had decreased transcytosis. These results suggest previously unappreciated pathways of A1AT bidirectional uptake and secretion from lung endothelial cells towards the alveolar epithelium and airspaces. A1AT trafficking may determine its functional bioavailablity in the lung, which could be impaired in individuals exposed to smoking or in those with A1AT deficiency. PMID:24743137

  20. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor export trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chunmin; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Duvernay, Matthew T.; Wu, Guangyu

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a superfamily of cell-surface receptors which share a common topology of seven transmembrane domains and modulate a variety of cell functions through coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins by responding to a vast array of stimuli. The magnitude of cellular response elicited by a given signal is dictated by the level of GPCR expression at the plasma membrane, which is the balance of elaborately regulated endocytic and exocytic trafficking. This review will cover recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying anterograde transport of the newly synthesized GPCRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. We will focus on recently identified motifs involved in GPCR exit from the ER and the Golgi, GPCR folding in the ER and the rescue of misfolded receptors from within, GPCR-interacting proteins that modulate receptor cell-surface targeting, pathways that mediate GPCR traffic, and the functional role of export in controlling GPCR signaling. PMID:17074298

  1. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Maekitie, Laura T.; Baeck, Nils; Andersson, Leif C.

    2010-07-01

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2) are proteins that activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Both AZINs release ODC from its inactive complex with antizyme (AZ), leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC. The ubiquitously expressed AZIN1 is involved in cell proliferation and transformation whereas the role of the recently found AZIN2 in cellular functions is unknown. Here we report the intracellular localization of AZIN2 and present novel evidence indicating that it acts as a regulator of vesicle trafficking. We used immunostaining to demonstrate that both endogenous and FLAG-tagged AZIN2 localize to post-Golgi vesicles of the secretory pathway. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that the vesicles associate mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). RNAi-mediated knockdown of AZIN2 or depletion of cellular polyamines caused selective fragmentation of the TGN and retarded the exocytotic release of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Exogenous addition of polyamines normalized the morphological changes and reversed the inhibition of protein secretion. Our findings demonstrate that AZIN2 regulates the transport of secretory vesicles by locally activating ODC and polyamine biosynthesis.

  2. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. PMID:24252381

  3. Maturation of late Golgi cisternae into RabE(RAB11) exocytic post-Golgi carriers visualized in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulou, Areti; Pinar, Mario; Xiang, Xin; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2014-08-15

    The mechanism(s) by which proteins traverse and exit the Golgi are incompletely understood. Using Aspergillus nidulans hyphae, we show that late Golgi cisternae undergo changes in composition to gradually lose Golgi identity while acquiring post-Golgi RabE(RAB11) identity. This behavior of late Golgi cisternae is consistent with the cisternal maturation model. Post-Golgi RabE(RAB11) carriers travel to, and accumulate at, the apex, indicating that fusion is rate limiting for exocytosis. These carriers, which are loaded with kinesin, dynein, and MyoE(MYO5), move on a microtubule-based bidirectional conveyor belt relaying them to actin, which ultimately focuses exocytosis at the apex. Dynein drags RabE(RAB11) carriers away if engagement of MyoE(MYO5) to actin cables fails. Microtubules seemingly cooperating with F-actin capture can sustain secretion if MyoE(MYO5) is absent. Thus, filamentous fungal secretion involving post-Golgi carriers is remarkably similar, mechanistically, to the transport of melanosomes in melanocyte dendrites, even though melanosome biogenesis involves lysosomes rather than Golgi. PMID:24943841

  4. Imp2, the PSTPIP homolog in fission yeast, affects sensitivity to the immunosuppressant FK506 and membrane trafficking in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Ayako; Higa, Mari; Doi, Akira; Satoh, Ryosuke; Sugiura, Reiko

    2015-02-13

    Cytokinesis is a highly ordered process that divides one cell into two cells, which is functionally linked to the dynamic remodeling of the plasma membrane coordinately with various events such as membrane trafficking. Calcineurin is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein phosphatase, which regulates multiple biological functions, such as membrane trafficking and cytokinesis. Here, we isolated imp2-c3, a mutant allele of the imp2{sup +} gene, encoding a homolog of the mouse PSTPIP1 (proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1), using a genetic screen for mutations that are synthetically lethal with calcineurin deletion in fission yeast. The imp2-c3 mutants showed a defect in cytokinesis with multi-septated phenotypes, which was further enhanced upon treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506. Notably, electron micrographs revealed that the imp2-c3 mutant cells accumulated aberrant multi-lamella Golgi structures and putative post-Golgi secretory vesicles, and exhibited fragmented vacuoles in addition to thickened septa. Consistently, imp2-c3 mutants showed a reduced secretion of acid phosphatase and defects in vacuole fusion. The imp2-c3 mutant cells exhibited a weakened cell wall, similar to the membrane trafficking mutants identified in the same genetic screen such as ypt3-i5. These findings implicate the PSTPIP1 homolog Imp2 in Golgi/vacuole function, thereby affecting various cellular processes, including cytokinesis and cell integrity. - Highlights: • We isolated imp2-c3, in a synthetic lethal screen with calcineurin in fission yeast. • The imp2{sup +} gene encodes a component of the actin contractile ring similar to Cdc15. • The imp2-c3 mutants showed defects in cytokinesis, which were exacerbated by FK506. • The imp2-c3 mutants were defective in membrane trafficking and cell wall integrity. • Our study revealed a novel role for Imp2 in the Golgi/vacuolar membrane trafficking.

  5. Alteration of Golgi Structure by Stress: A Link to Neurodegeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Miranda, Eduardo A.; Sinnl, Markus; Farhan, Hesso

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is well-known for its role as a sorting station in the secretory pathway as well as for its role in regulating post-translational protein modification. Another role for the Golgi is the regulation of cellular signaling by spatially regulating kinases, phosphatases, and GTPases. All these roles make it clear that the Golgi is a central regulator of cellular homeostasis. The response to stress and the initiation of adaptive responses to cope with it are fundamental abilities of all living cells. It was shown previously that the Golgi undergoes structural rearrangements under various stress conditions such as oxidative or osmotic stress. Neurodegenerative diseases are also frequently associated with alterations of Golgi morphology and many stress factors have been described to play an etiopathological role in neurodegeneration. It is however unclear whether the stress-Golgi connection plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases. Using a combination of bioinformatics modeling and literature mining, we will investigate evidence for such a tripartite link and we ask whether stress-induced Golgi arrangements are cause or consequence in neurodegeneration. PMID:26617486

  6. The FTLD risk factor TMEM106B and MAP6 control dendritic trafficking of lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Benjamin M; Lang, Christina M; Hogl, Sebastian; Tahirovic, Sabina; Orozco, Denise; Rentzsch, Kristin; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Capell, Anja; Haass, Christian; Edbauer, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    TMEM106B is a major risk factor for frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology. TMEM106B localizes to lysosomes, but its function remains unclear. We show that TMEM106B knockdown in primary neurons affects lysosomal trafficking and blunts dendritic arborization. We identify microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6) as novel interacting protein for TMEM106B. MAP6 over-expression inhibits dendritic branching similar to TMEM106B knockdown. MAP6 knockdown fully rescues the dendritic phenotype of TMEM106B knockdown, supporting a functional interaction between TMEM106B and MAP6. Live imaging reveals that TMEM106B knockdown and MAP6 overexpression strongly increase retrograde transport of lysosomes in dendrites. Downregulation of MAP6 in TMEM106B knockdown neurons restores the balance of anterograde and retrograde lysosomal transport and thereby prevents loss of dendrites. To strengthen the link, we enhanced anterograde lysosomal transport by expressing dominant-negative Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), which also rescues the dendrite loss in TMEM106B knockdown neurons. Thus, TMEM106B/MAP6 interaction is crucial for controlling dendritic trafficking of lysosomes, presumably by acting as a molecular brake for retrograde transport. Lysosomal misrouting may promote neurodegeneration in patients with TMEM106B risk variants. PMID:24357581

  7. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  8. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  9. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  10. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  11. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  12. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers. PMID:23862261

  13. UNC93B1 mediates differential trafficking of endosomal TLRs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bettina L; Moon, Joanne E; Shu, Jeffrey H; Yuan, Lin; Newman, Zachary R; Schekman, Randy; Barton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    UNC93B1, a multipass transmembrane protein required for TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 function, controls trafficking of TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endolysosomes. The mechanisms by which UNC93B1 mediates these regulatory effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that UNC93B1 enters the secretory pathway and directly controls the packaging of TLRs into COPII vesicles that bud from the ER. Unlike other COPII loading factors, UNC93B1 remains associated with the TLRs through post-Golgi sorting steps. Unexpectedly, these steps are different among endosomal TLRs. TLR9 requires UNC93B1-mediated recruitment of adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) for delivery to endolysosomes while TLR7, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 utilize alternative trafficking pathways. Thus, our study describes a mechanism for differential sorting of endosomal TLRs by UNC93B1, which may explain the distinct roles played by these receptors in certain autoimmune diseases.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00291.001. PMID:23426999

  14. UNC93B1 mediates differential trafficking of endosomal TLRs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bettina L; Moon, Joanne E; Shu, Jeffrey H; Yuan, Lin; Newman, Zachary R; Schekman, Randy; Barton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    UNC93B1, a multipass transmembrane protein required for TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 function, controls trafficking of TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endolysosomes. The mechanisms by which UNC93B1 mediates these regulatory effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that UNC93B1 enters the secretory pathway and directly controls the packaging of TLRs into COPII vesicles that bud from the ER. Unlike other COPII loading factors, UNC93B1 remains associated with the TLRs through post-Golgi sorting steps. Unexpectedly, these steps are different among endosomal TLRs. TLR9 requires UNC93B1-mediated recruitment of adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) for delivery to endolysosomes while TLR7, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 utilize alternative trafficking pathways. Thus, our study describes a mechanism for differential sorting of endosomal TLRs by UNC93B1, which may explain the distinct roles played by these receptors in certain autoimmune diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00291.001 PMID:23426999

  15. GM130 is required for compartmental organization of dendritic Golgi outposts

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Chang, Jin; Wang, Xin; Savelieff, Masha G.; Zhao, Yinyin; Ke, Shanshan; Ye, Bing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Golgi complexes (Golgi) play important roles in the development and function of neurons [1–3]. Not only are Golgi present in the neuronal soma (somal Golgi) but they also exist in the dendrites as Golgi outposts [4–7]. Previous studies have shown that Golgi outposts serve as local microtubule organizing centers [8] and secretory stations in dendrites [6, 9]. It is unknown whether the structure and function of Golgi outposts differ from those of somal Golgi. Here we show in Drosophila that, unlike somal Golgi, the biochemically distinct cis, medial, and trans compartments of Golgi are often disconnected in dendrites in vivo. The Golgi structural protein GM130 is responsible for connecting distinct Golgi compartments in soma and dendritic branch points, and specific distribution of GM130 determines the compartmental organization of dendritic Golgi in dendritic shafts. We further show that compartmental organization regulates the role of Golgi in acentrosomal microtubule growth in dendrites and in dendritic branching. Our study provides insights into the structure and function of dendritic Golgi outposts as well as the regulation of compartmental organization of Golgi in general. PMID:24835455

  16. Effect of vinpocetine on retrograde axoplasmic transport.

    PubMed

    Knyihar-Csillik, Elizabeth; Vecsei, Laszlo; Mihaly, Andras; Fenyo, Robert; Farkas, Ibolya; Krisztin-Peva, Beata; Csillik, Bertalan

    2007-01-01

    Vinpocetine, a derivate of vincamine, is widely used in the clinical pharmacotherapy of cerebral circulatory diseases. Herewith we report on a novel effect of vinpocetine: inhibition of retrograde axoplasmic transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the peripheral nerve. Blockade of retrograde transport of NGF results in transganglionic degenerative atrophy (TDA) in the segmentally related ipsilateral superficial spinal dorsal horn, which is characterized by depletion of the marker enzymes fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) and thiamine monophosphatase (TMP). At the same time, pain-related neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), are depleted from lamina I-III from the segmentally related, ipsitateral Rolando substance of the spinal cord. On the basis of these experiments it is suggested that vinpocetine may result in a locally restricted decrease of nociception, that might be useful in clinical treatment of intractable pain. Pilot self-experiments support this assumption. PMID:17319607

  17. Clathrin Light Chains Regulate Clathrin-Mediated Trafficking, Auxin Signaling, and Development in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yan, Xu; Chen, Qian; Jiang, Nan; Fu, Wei; Ma, Bojun; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Chuanyou; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Pan, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Plant clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking is involved in many developmental processes as well as in responses to environmental cues. Previous studies have shown that clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the plasma membrane (PM) auxin transporter PIN-FORMED1 is regulated by the extracellular auxin receptor AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1). However, the mechanisms by which ABP1 and other factors regulate clathrin-mediated trafficking are poorly understood. Here, we applied a genetic strategy and time-resolved imaging to dissect the role of clathrin light chains (CLCs) and ABP1 in auxin regulation of clathrin-mediated trafficking in Arabidopsis thaliana. Auxin was found to differentially regulate the PM and trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) association of CLCs and heavy chains (CHCs) in an ABP1-dependent but TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN-BINDING F-BOX PROTEIN (TIR1/AFB)-independent manner. Loss of CLC2 and CLC3 affected CHC membrane association, decreased both internalization and intracellular trafficking of PM proteins, and impaired auxin-regulated endocytosis. Consistent with these results, basipetal auxin transport, auxin sensitivity and distribution, and root gravitropism were also found to be dramatically altered in clc2 clc3 double mutants, resulting in pleiotropic defects in plant development. These results suggest that CLCs are key regulators in clathrin-mediated trafficking downstream of ABP1-mediated signaling and thus play a critical role in membrane trafficking from the TGN/EE and PM during plant development. PMID:23424247

  18. Differential regulation of AMPA receptor subunit trafficking by palmitoylation of two distinct sites.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takashi; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Huganir, Richard L

    2005-09-01

    Modification of AMPA receptor function is a major mechanism for the regulation of synaptic transmission and underlies several forms of synaptic plasticity. Post-translational palmitoylation is a reversible modification that regulates localization of many proteins. Here, we report that palmitoylation of the AMPA receptor regulates receptor trafficking. All AMPA receptor subunits are palmitoylated on two cysteine residues in their transmembrane domain (TMD) 2 and in their C-terminal region. Palmitoylation on TMD 2 is upregulated by the palmitoyl acyl transferase GODZ and leads to an accumulation of the receptor in the Golgi and a reduction of receptor surface expression. C-terminal palmitoylation decreases interaction of the AMPA receptor with the 4.1N protein and regulates AMPA- and NMDA-induced AMPA receptor internalization. Moreover, depalmitoylation of the receptor is regulated by activation of glutamate receptors. These data suggest that regulated palmitoylation of AMPA receptor subunits modulates receptor trafficking and may be important for synaptic plasticity. PMID:16129400

  19. The Amyloid Precursor Protein is rapidly transported from the Golgi apparatus to the lysosome and where it is processed into beta-amyloid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by cerebral deposition of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Aβ is produced by sequential cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. Many studies have demonstrated that the internalization of APP from the cell surface can regulate Aβ production, although the exact organelle in which Aβ is produced remains contentious. A number of recent studies suggest that intracellular trafficking also plays a role in regulating Aβ production, but these pathways are relatively under-studied. The goal of this study was to elucidate the intracellular trafficking of APP, and to examine the site of intracellular APP processing. Results We have tagged APP on its C-terminal cytoplasmic tail with photoactivatable Green Fluorescent Protein (paGFP). By photoactivating APP-paGFP in the Golgi, using the Golgi marker Galactosyltranferase fused to Cyan Fluorescent Protein (GalT-CFP) as a target, we are able to follow a population of nascent APP molecules from the Golgi to downstream compartments identified with compartment markers tagged with red fluorescent protein (mRFP or mCherry); including rab5 (early endosomes) rab9 (late endosomes) and LAMP1 (lysosomes). Because γ-cleavage of APP releases the cytoplasmic tail of APP including the photoactivated GFP, resulting in loss of fluorescence, we are able to visualize the cleavage of APP in these compartments. Using APP-paGFP, we show that APP is rapidly trafficked from the Golgi apparatus to the lysosome; where it is rapidly cleared. Chloroquine and the highly selective γ-secretase inhibitor, L685, 458, cause the accumulation of APP in lysosomes implying that APP is being cleaved by secretases in the lysosome. The Swedish mutation dramatically increases the rate of lysosomal APP processing, which is also inhibited by chloroquine and L685, 458. By knocking down adaptor protein 3 (AP-3; a heterotetrameric protein complex required for trafficking many proteins to

  20. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  1. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of Sar/Arf GTPases in vesicular trafficking in yeast and plants

    PubMed Central

    Yorimitsu, Tomohiro; Sato, Ken; Takeuchi, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Small GTPase proteins play essential roles in the regulation of vesicular trafficking systems in eukaryotic cells. Two types of small GTPases, secretion-associated Ras-related protein (Sar) and ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf), act in the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Sar/Arf GTPases function as molecular switches by cycling between active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound forms, catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, respectively. Activated Sar/Arf GTPases undergo a conformational change, exposing the N-terminal amphipathic α-helix for insertion into membranes. The process triggers the recruitment and assembly of coat proteins to the membranes, followed by coated vesicle formation and scission. In higher plants, Sar/Arf GTPases also play pivotal roles in maintaining the dynamic identity of organelles in the secretory pathway. Sar1 protein strictly controls anterograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the recruitment of plant COPII coat components onto membranes. COPII vesicle transport is responsible for the organization of highly conserved polygonal ER networks. In contrast, Arf proteins contribute to the regulation of multiple trafficking routes, including transport through the Golgi complex and endocytic transport. These transport systems have diversified in the plant kingdom independently and exhibit several plant-specific features with respect to Golgi organization, endocytic cycling, cell polarity and cytokinesis. The functional diversification of vesicular trafficking systems ensures the multicellular development of higher plants. This review focuses on the current knowledge of Sar/Arf GTPases, highlighting the molecular details of GTPase regulation in vesicle formation in yeast and advances in knowledge of the characteristics of vesicle trafficking in plants. PMID:25191334

  3. Arabidopsis SNAREs SYP61 and SYP121 coordinate the trafficking of plasma membrane aquaporin PIP2;7 to modulate the cell membrane water permeability.

    PubMed

    Hachez, Charles; Laloux, Timothée; Reinhardt, Hagen; Cavez, Damien; Degand, Hervé; Grefen, Christopher; De Rycke, Riet; Inzé, Dirk; Blatt, Michael R; Russinova, Eugenia; Chaumont, François

    2014-07-01

    Plant plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are aquaporins that facilitate the passive movement of water and small neutral solutes through biological membranes. Here, we report that post-Golgi trafficking of PIP2;7 in Arabidopsis thaliana involves specific interactions with two syntaxin proteins, namely, the Qc-SNARE SYP61 and the Qa-SNARE SYP121, that the proper delivery of PIP2;7 to the plasma membrane depends on the activity of the two SNAREs, and that the SNAREs colocalize and physically interact. These findings are indicative of an important role for SYP61 and SYP121, possibly forming a SNARE complex. Our data support a model in which direct interactions between specific SNARE proteins and PIP aquaporins modulate their post-Golgi trafficking and thus contribute to the fine-tuning of the water permeability of the plasma membrane. PMID:25082856

  4. A role for the Golgi matrix protein giantin in ciliogenesis through control of the localization of dynein-2

    PubMed Central

    Asante, David; MacCarthy-Morrogh, Lucy; Townley, Anna K.; Weiss, Matthew A.; Katayama, Kentaro; Palmer, Krysten J.; Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Westlake, Chris J.; Stephens, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The correct formation of primary cilia is central to the development and function of nearly all cells and tissues. Cilia grow from the mother centriole by extension of a microtubule core, the axoneme, which is then surrounded with a specialized ciliary membrane that is continuous with the plasma membrane. Intraflagellar transport moves particles along the length of the axoneme to direct assembly of the cilium and is also required for proper cilia function. The microtubule motor, cytoplasmic dynein-2 mediates retrograde transport along the axoneme from the tip to the base; dynein-2 is also required for some aspects of cilia formation. In most cells, the Golgi lies adjacent to the centrioles and key components of the cilia machinery localize to this organelle. Golgi-localized proteins have also been implicated in ciliogenesis and in intraflagellar transport. Here, we show that the transmembrane Golgi matrix protein giantin (GOLGB1) is required for ciliogenesis. We show that giantin is not required for the Rab11–Rabin8–Rab8 pathway that has been implicated in the early stages of ciliary membrane formation. Instead we find that suppression of giantin results in mis-localization of WDR34, the intermediate chain of dynein-2. Highly effective depletion of giantin or WDR34 leads to an inability of cells to form primary cilia. Partial depletion of giantin or of WDR34 leads to an increase in cilia length consistent with the concept that giantin acts through dynein-2. Our data implicate giantin in ciliogenesis through control of dynein-2 localization. PMID:24046448

  5. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions. PMID:16846602

  6. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  7. Induced oligomerization targets Golgi proteins for degradation in lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Ritika; Bachert, Collin; Linstedt, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Manganese protects cells against forms of Shiga toxin by down-regulating the cycling Golgi protein GPP130. Down-regulation occurs when Mn binding causes GPP130 to oligomerize and traffic to lysosomes. To determine how GPP130 is redirected to lysosomes, we tested the role of GGA1 and clathrin, which mediate sorting in the canonical Golgi-to-lysosome pathway. GPP130 oligomerization was induced using either Mn or a self-interacting version of the FKBP domain. Inhibition of GGA1 or clathrin specifically blocked GPP130 redistribution, suggesting recognition of the aggregated GPP130 by the GGA1/clathrin-sorting complex. Unexpectedly, however, GPP130’s cytoplasmic domain was not required, and redistribution also occurred after removal of GPP130 sequences needed for its normal cycling. Therefore, to test whether aggregate recognition might be a general phenomenon rather than one involving a specific GPP130 determinant, we induced homo-oligomerization of two unrelated Golgi-targeted constructs using the FKBP strategy. These were targeted to the cis- and trans-Golgi, respectively, using domains from mannosidase-1 and galactosyltransferase. Significantly, upon oligomerization, each redistributed to peripheral punctae and was degraded. This occurred in the absence of detectable UPR activation. These findings suggest the unexpected presence of quality control in the Golgi that recognizes aggregated Golgi proteins and targets them for degradation in lysosomes. PMID:26446839

  8. Induced oligomerization targets Golgi proteins for degradation in lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Ritika; Bachert, Collin; Linstedt, Adam D

    2015-12-01

    Manganese protects cells against forms of Shiga toxin by down-regulating the cycling Golgi protein GPP130. Down-regulation occurs when Mn binding causes GPP130 to oligomerize and traffic to lysosomes. To determine how GPP130 is redirected to lysosomes, we tested the role of GGA1 and clathrin, which mediate sorting in the canonical Golgi-to-lysosome pathway. GPP130 oligomerization was induced using either Mn or a self-interacting version of the FKBP domain. Inhibition of GGA1 or clathrin specifically blocked GPP130 redistribution, suggesting recognition of the aggregated GPP130 by the GGA1/clathrin-sorting complex. Unexpectedly, however, GPP130's cytoplasmic domain was not required, and redistribution also occurred after removal of GPP130 sequences needed for its normal cycling. Therefore, to test whether aggregate recognition might be a general phenomenon rather than one involving a specific GPP130 determinant, we induced homo-oligomerization of two unrelated Golgi-targeted constructs using the FKBP strategy. These were targeted to the cis- and trans-Golgi, respectively, using domains from mannosidase-1 and galactosyltransferase. Significantly, upon oligomerization, each redistributed to peripheral punctae and was degraded. This occurred in the absence of detectable UPR activation. These findings suggest the unexpected presence of quality control in the Golgi that recognizes aggregated Golgi proteins and targets them for degradation in lysosomes. PMID:26446839

  9. Manganese redistribution by calcium-stimulated vesicle trafficking bypasses the need for P-type ATPase function.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Manzano-López, Javier; Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel; Fernández-García, Elisabet; Muñiz, Manuel; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-04-10

    Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn(2+)/Ca(2+) transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn(2+) transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn(2+) transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment. PMID:25713143

  10. Manganese Redistribution by Calcium-stimulated Vesicle Trafficking Bypasses the Need for P-type ATPase Function*

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Manzano-López, Javier; Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel; Fernández-García, Elisabet; Muñiz, Manuel; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn2+/Ca2+ transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn2+ transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn2+ transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment. PMID:25713143

  11. KCNC3R420H, a K+ Channel Mutation Causative in Spinocerebellar Ataxia 13 Displays Aberrant Intracellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Iradi, Carolina; Bickford, Justin S.; Khare, Swati; Hall, Alexis; Nick, Jerelyn A.; Salmasinia, Donya; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Bannykh, Serguei; Huynh, Duong P.; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.; Pulst, Stefan M.; Nick, Harry S.; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Waters, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 13 (SCA13) is an autosomal dominant disease resulting from mutations in KCNC3 (Kv3.3), a voltage-gated potassium channel. The KCNC3R420H mutation was first identified as causative for SCA13 in a four-generation Filipino kindred with over 20 affected individuals. Electrophysiological analyses in oocytes previously showed that this mutation did not lead to a functional channel and displayed a dominant negative phenotype. In an effort to identify the molecular basis of this allelic form of SCA13, we first determined that human KCNC3WT and KCNC3R420H display disparate posttranslational modifications, and the mutant protein has reduced complex glycan adducts. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that KCNC3R420H was not properly trafficking to the plasma membrane and surface biotinylation demonstrated that KCNC3R420H exhibited only 24% as much surface expression as KCNC3WT. KCNC3R420H trafficked through the ER but was retained in the Golgi. KCNC3R420H expression results in altered Golgi and cellular morphology. Electron microscopy of KCNC3R420H localization further supports retention in the Golgi. These results are specific to the KCNC3R420H allele and provide new insight into the molecular basis of disease manifestation in SCA13. PMID:25152487

  12. Signals Governing the Trafficking and Mistrafficking of a Ciliary GPCR, Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Lodowski, Kerrie H.; Lee, Richard; Ropelewski, Philip; Nemet, Ina; Tian, Guilian

    2013-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a cilia-specific GPCR essential for vision. Rhodopsin mislocalization is associated with blinding diseases called retinal ciliopathies. The mechanism by which rhodopsin mislocalizes in rod photoreceptor neurons is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the roles of trafficking signals in rhodopsin mislocalization. Rhodopsin and its truncation mutants were fused to a photoconvertible fluorescent protein, Dendra2, and expressed in Xenopus laevis rod photoreceptors. Photoconversion of Dendra2 causes a color change from green to red, enabling visualization of the dynamic events associated with rhodopsin trafficking and renewal. We found that rhodopsin mislocalization is a facilitated process for which a signal located within 322–326 aa (CCGKN) is essential. An additional signal within 327–336 aa further facilitated the mislocalization. This collective mistrafficking signal confers toxicity to rhodopsin and causes mislocalization when the VXPX cilia-targeting motif is absent. We also determined that the VXPX motif neutralizes this mistrafficking signal, enhances ciliary targeting at least 10-fold, and accelerates trafficking of post-Golgi vesicular structures. In the absence of the VXPX motif, mislocalized rhodopsin is actively cleared through secretion of vesicles into the extracellular milieu. Therefore, this study unveiled the multiple roles of trafficking signals in rhodopsin localization and renewal. PMID:23966685

  13. Proteolytic cleavage, trafficking, and functions of nuclear receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Kuang; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular localization has been reported for over three-quarters of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) families in response to environmental stimuli. Internalized RTK may bind to non-canonical substrates and affect various cellular processes. Many of the intracellular RTKs exist as fragmented forms that are generated by γ-secretase cleavage of the full-length receptor, shedding, alternative splicing, or alternative translation initiation. Soluble RTK fragments are stabilized and intracellularly transported into subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, by binding to chaperone or transcription factors, while membrane-bound RTKs (full-length or truncated) are transported from the plasma membrane to the ER through the well-established Rab- or clathrin adaptor protein-coated vesicle retrograde trafficking pathways. Subsequent nuclear transport of membrane-bound RTK may occur via two pathways, INFS or INTERNET, with the former characterized by release of receptors from the ER into the cytosol and the latter characterized by release of membrane-bound receptor from the ER into the nucleoplasm through the inner nuclear membrane. Although most non-canonical intracellular RTK signaling is related to transcriptional regulation, there may be other functions that have yet to be discovered. In this review, we summarize the proteolytic processing, intracellular trafficking and nuclear functions of RTKs, and discuss how they promote cancer progression, and their clinical implications. PMID:26096795

  14. Transmembrane protein OSTA-1 shapes sensory cilia morphology via regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Olivier-Mason, Anique; Wojtyniak, Martin; Bowie, Rachel V.; Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Blacque, Oliver E.; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-01-01

    The structure and function of primary cilia are critically dependent on intracellular trafficking pathways that transport ciliary membrane and protein components. The mechanisms by which these trafficking pathways are regulated are not fully characterized. Here we identify the transmembrane protein OSTA-1 as a new regulator of the trafficking pathways that shape the morphology and protein composition of sensory cilia in C. elegans. osta-1 encodes an organic solute transporter alpha-like protein, mammalian homologs of which have been implicated in membrane trafficking and solute transport, although a role in regulating cilia structure has not previously been demonstrated. We show that mutations in osta-1 result in altered ciliary membrane volume, branch length and complexity, as well as defects in localization of a subset of ciliary transmembrane proteins in different sensory cilia types. OSTA-1 is associated with transport vesicles, localizes to a ciliary compartment shown to house trafficking proteins, and regulates both retrograde and anterograde flux of the endosome-associated RAB-5 small GTPase. Genetic epistasis experiments with sensory signaling, exocytic and endocytic proteins further implicate OSTA-1 as a crucial regulator of ciliary architecture via regulation of cilia-destined trafficking. Our findings suggest that regulation of transport pathways in a cell type-specific manner contributes to diversity in sensory cilia structure and might allow dynamic remodeling of ciliary architecture via multiple inputs. PMID:23482491

  15. pH Regulation by NHX-Type Antiporters Is Required for Receptor-Mediated Protein Trafficking to the Vacuole in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Maria; Bassil, Elias; Tajima, Hiromi; Wimmer, Monika; Chanoca, Alexandra; Otegui, Marisa S.; Paris, Nadine; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Protein trafficking requires proper ion and pH homeostasis of the endomembrane system. The NHX-type Na+/H+ antiporters NHX5 and NHX6 localize to the Golgi, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments and are required for growth and trafficking to the vacuole. In the nhx5 nhx6 T-DNA insertional knockouts, the precursors of the 2S albumin and 12S globulin storage proteins accumulated and were missorted to the apoplast. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of vesicle clusters containing storage protein precursors and vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs). Isolation and identification of complexes of VSRs with unprocessed 12S globulin by 2D blue-native PAGE/SDS-PAGE indicated that the nhx5 nhx6 knockouts showed compromised receptor-cargo association. In vivo interaction studies using bimolecular fluorescence complementation between VSR2;1, aleurain, and 12S globulin suggested that nhx5 nhx6 knockouts showed a significant reduction of VSR binding to both cargoes. In vivo pH measurements indicated that the lumens of VSR compartments containing aleurain, as well as the trans-Golgi network and prevacuolar compartments, were significantly more acidic in nhx5 nhx6 knockouts. This work demonstrates the importance of NHX5 and NHX6 in maintaining endomembrane luminal pH and supports the notion that proper vacuolar trafficking and proteolytic processing of storage proteins require endomembrane pH homeostasis. PMID:25829439

  16. Mitochondrial emitted electromagnetic signals mediate retrograde signaling.

    PubMed

    Bagkos, Georgios; Koufopoulos, Kostas; Piperi, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence shows that mitochondria regulate nuclear transcriptional activity both in normal and cell stress conditions, known as retrograde signaling. Under normal mitochondrial function, retrograde signaling is associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, normal cell phenotype and metabolic profile. In contrast, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to abnormal (oncogenic) cell phenotype and altered bio-energetic profile (nucleus reprogramming). Despite intense research efforts, a concrete mechanism through which mitochondria determine the group of genes expressed by the nucleus is still missing. The present paper proposes a novel hypothesis regarding retrograde signaling. More specifically, it reveals the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the accompanied strong electromagnetic field (EF) as key regulatory factors of nuclear activity. Mitochondrial emitted EFs extend in long distance and affect the function of nuclear membrane receptors. Depending on their frequencies, EFs can directly activate or deactivate different groups of nuclear receptors and so determine nuclear gene expression. One of the key features of the above hypothesis is that nuclear membrane receptors, besides their own endogenous or chemical ligands (hormones, lipids, etc.), can also be activated by electromagnetic signals. Moreover, normal MMP values (about -140 mV) are associated with the production of high ATP quantities and small levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while the hyperpolarization observed in all cancer cell types leads to a dramatic fall in ATP production and an analogous increase in ROS. The diminished ATP and increased ROS production negatively affect the function of all cellular systems including nucleus. Restoration of mitochondrial function, which is characterized by the fluctuation of MMP and EF values within a certain (normal) range, is proposed as a necessary condition for normal nuclear function and cancer therapy. PMID:26474928

  17. Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling: Triggers, Pathways, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Fernanda Marques; Torelli, Nicole Quesada; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles for eukaryotic homeostasis. Although these organelles possess their own DNA, the vast majority (>99%) of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. This situation makes systems that allow the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus a requirement not only to coordinate mitochondrial protein synthesis during biogenesis but also to communicate eventual mitochondrial malfunctions, triggering compensatory responses in the nucleus. Mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling has been described in various organisms, albeit with differences in effector pathways, molecules, and outcomes, as discussed in this review. PMID:26583058

  18. α-Synuclein Blocks ER-Golgi Traffic and Rab1 Rescues Neuron Loss in Parkinson’s Models

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Antony A.; Gitler, Aaron D.; Cashikar, Anil; Haynes, Cole M.; Hill, Kathryn J.; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Liu, Kangning; Xu, Kexiang; Strathearn, Katherine E.; Liu, Fang; Cao, Songsong; Caldwell, Kim A.; Caldwell, Guy A.; Marsischky, Gerald; Kolodner, Richard D.; LaBaer, Joshua; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Bonini, Nancy M.; Lindquist, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) misfolding is associated with several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). In yeast cells and in neurons αSyn accumulation is cytotoxic, but little is known about its normal function or pathobiology. The earliest defect following αSyn expression in yeast was a block in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–to–Golgi vesicular trafficking. In a genomewide screen, the largest class of toxicity modifiers were proteins functioning at this same step, including the Rab guanosine triphosphatase Ypt1p, which associated with cytoplasmic αSyn inclusions. Elevated expression of Rab1, the mammalian YPT1 homolog, protected against αSyn-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in animal models of PD. Thus, synucleinopathies may result from disruptions in basic cellular functions that interface with the unique biology of particular neurons to make them especially vulnerable. PMID:16794039

  19. Trafficking in persons: a health concern?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Houssain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Human trafficking is a phenomenon that has now been documented in most regions in the world. Although trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is the most commonly recognised form of trafficking, it is widely acknowledged that human trafficking also involves men, women and children who are trafficked for various forms of labour exploitation and into other abusive circumstances. Despite the violence and harm inherent in most trafficking situations, there remains extremely little evidence on the individual and public health implications of any form of human trafficking. The Brazilian government has recently launched a national plan to combat human trafficking. However, because the health risks associated with human trafficking have not been well-recognised or documented, there is extremely limited reliable data on the health needs of trafficked persons to inform policy and practices.. Brazilian policy-makers and service providers should be encouraged to learn about the likely range of health impacts of trafficking, and incorporate this into anti-trafficking protection and response strategies. As well as prevention activities, the government, international and local organisations should work together with the public health research community to study the health needs of trafficked persons and explore opportunities to provide safe and appropriate services to victims in need of care. PMID:19721944

  20. Apoptosis-linked Gene-2 (ALG-2)/Sec31 Interactions Regulate Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi Transport

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Jared R.; Bentley, Marvin; Thorsen, Kevin D.; Wang, Ting; Foltz, Lauren; Oorschot, Viola; Klumperman, Judith; Hay, Jesse C.

    2014-01-01

    Luminal calcium released from secretory organelles has been suggested to play a regulatory role in vesicle transport at several steps in the secretory pathway; however, its functional roles and effector pathways have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate for the first time that specific luminal calcium depletion leads to a significant decrease in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport rates in intact cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that luminal calcium depletion is accompanied by increased accumulation of intermediate compartment proteins in COPII buds and clusters of unfused COPII vesicles at ER exit sites. Furthermore, we present several lines of evidence suggesting that luminal calcium affected transport at least in part through calcium-dependent interactions between apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2) and the Sec31A proline-rich region: 1) targeted disruption of ALG-2/Sec31A interactions caused severe defects in ER-to-Golgi transport in intact cells; 2) effects of luminal calcium and ALG-2/Sec31A interactions on transport mutually required each other; and 3) Sec31A function in transport required luminal calcium. Morphological phenotypes of disrupted ALG-2/Sec31A interactions were characterized. We found that ALG-2/Sec31A interactions were not required for the localization of Sec31A to ER exit sites per se but appeared to acutely regulate the stability and trafficking of the cargo receptor p24 and the distribution of the vesicle tether protein p115. These results represent the first outline of a mechanism that connects luminal calcium to specific protein interactions regulating vesicle trafficking machinery. PMID:25006245

  1. Release of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus from Huh7 Cells Occurs via a trans-Golgi Network-to-Endosome Pathway Independent of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Mankouri, Jamel; Walter, Cheryl; Stewart, Hazel; Bentham, Matthew; Park, Wei Sun; Heo, Won Do; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The release of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles from infected cells remains poorly characterized. We previously demonstrated that virus release is dependent on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). Here, we show a critical role of trans-Golgi network (TGN)-endosome trafficking during the assembly, but principally the secretion, of infectious virus. This was demonstrated by both small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of TGN-associated adaptor proteins and a panel of dominant negative (DN) Rab GTPases involved in TGN-endosome trafficking steps. Importantly, interfering with factors critical for HCV release did not have a concomitant effect on secretion of triglycerides, ApoB, or ApoE, indicating that particles are likely released from Huh7 cells via pathways distinct from that of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Finally, we show that HCV NS2 perturbs TGN architecture, redistributing TGN membranes to closely associate with HCV core protein residing on lipid droplets. These findings support the notion that HCV hijacks TGN-endosome trafficking to facilitate particle assembly and release. Moreover, although essential for assembly and infectivity, the trafficking of mature virions is seemingly independent of host lipoproteins. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which infectious hepatitis C virus particles are assembled and released from the cell are poorly understood. We show that the virus subverts host cell trafficking pathways to effect the release of virus particles and disrupts the structure of the Golgi apparatus, a key cellular organelle involved in secretion. In addition, we demonstrate that the mechanisms used by the virus to exit the cell are distinct from those used by the cell to release lipoproteins, suggesting that the virus effects a unique modification to cellular trafficking pathways. PMID:27226379

  2. Distinct localization of two closely related Ypt3/Rab11 proteins on the trafficking pathway in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takehito; Nagano, Yukio; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yukiko

    2002-03-15

    Ypt/Rab proteins are Ras-related small GTPases that act on the intracellular membrane through the trafficking pathway, and their function depends on their localization. Approximately 25 genes encoding Ypt3/Rab11-related proteins exist in Arabidopsis, but the reason for the presence of many genes in plants remains unclear. Pea Pra2 and Pra3, members of Ypt3/Rab11, are closely related proteins. Because possible orthologs are conserved among dicots, they can be studied to determine their possible localization. Biochemical analysis revealed that these proteins were localized on distinct membranes in pea. Furthermore, using green fluorescent protein-Pra2 and green fluorescent protein-Pra3 fusion proteins, we demonstrated that these proteins are distinctively localized on the trafficking pathway in tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells. Pra2 was predominantly localized on Golgi stacks and endosomes, which did not support the localization of Pra2 on the endoplasmic reticulum (Kang, J. G., Yun, J., Kim, D. H., Chung, K. S., Fujioka, S., Kim, J. I., Dae, H. W., Yoshida, S., Takatsuto, S., Song, P. S., and Park, C. M. (2001) Cell 105, 625--636). In contrast, Pra3 was likely to be localized on the trans-Golgi network and/or the prevacuolar compartment. We concluded that Pra2 and Pra3 proteins are distinctively localized on the trafficking pathway. This finding suggests that functional diversification takes place in the plant Ypt3/Rab11 family. PMID:11756458

  3. Glucolipotoxicity impairs ceramide flow from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus in INS-1 β-cells.

    PubMed

    Gjoni, Enida; Brioschi, Loredana; Cinque, Alessandra; Coant, Nicolas; Islam, M Nurul; Ng, Carl K-Y; Verderio, Claudia; Magnan, Christophe; Riboni, Laura; Viani, Paola; Le Stunff, Hervé; Giussani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that glucolipotoxicity, arising from the combined actions of elevated glucose and free fatty acid levels, acts as a key pathogenic component in type II diabetes, contributing to β-cell dysfunction and death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is among the molecular pathways and regulators involved in these negative effects, and ceramide accumulation due to glucolipotoxicity can be associated with the induction of ER stress. Increased levels of ceramide in ER may be due to enhanced ceramide biosynthesis and/or decreased ceramide utilization. Here, we studied the effect of glucolipotoxic conditions on ceramide traffic in INS-1 cells in order to gain insights into the molecular mechanism(s) of glucolipotoxicity. We showed that glucolipotoxicity inhibited ceramide utilization for complex sphingolipid biosynthesis, thereby reducing the flow of ceramide from the ER to Golgi. Glucolipotoxicity impaired both vesicular- and CERT-mediated ceramide transport through (1) the decreasing of phospho-Akt levels which in turn possibly inhibits vesicular traffic, and (2) the reducing of the amount of active CERT mainly due to a lower protein levels and increased protein phosphorylation to prevent its localization to the Golgi. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that glucolipotoxicity-induced ceramide overload in the ER, arising from a defect in ceramide trafficking may be a mechanism that contributes to dysfunction and/or death of β-cells exposed to glucolipotoxicity. PMID:25350564

  4. Glucolipotoxicity Impairs Ceramide Flow from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Golgi Apparatus in INS-1 β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gjoni, Enida; Brioschi, Loredana; Cinque, Alessandra; Coant, Nicolas; Islam, M. Nurul; Ng, Carl K. -Y.; Verderio, Claudia; Magnan, Christophe; Riboni, Laura; Viani, Paola; Le Stunff, Hervé; Giussani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that glucolipotoxicity, arising from the combined actions of elevated glucose and free fatty acid levels, acts as a key pathogenic component in type II diabetes, contributing to β-cell dysfunction and death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is among the molecular pathways and regulators involved in these negative effects, and ceramide accumulation due to glucolipotoxicity can be associated with the induction of ER stress. Increased levels of ceramide in ER may be due to enhanced ceramide biosynthesis and/or decreased ceramide utilization. Here, we studied the effect of glucolipotoxic conditions on ceramide traffic in INS-1 cells in order to gain insights into the molecular mechanism(s) of glucolipotoxicity. We showed that glucolipotoxicity inhibited ceramide utilization for complex sphingolipid biosynthesis, thereby reducing the flow of ceramide from the ER to Golgi. Glucolipotoxicity impaired both vesicular- and CERT-mediated ceramide transport through (1) the decreasing of phospho-Akt levels which in turn possibly inhibits vesicular traffic, and (2) the reducing of the amount of active CERT mainly due to a lower protein levels and increased protein phosphorylation to prevent its localization to the Golgi. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that glucolipotoxicity-induced ceramide overload in the ER, arising from a defect in ceramide trafficking may be a mechanism that contributes to dysfunction and/or death of β-cells exposed to glucolipotoxicity. PMID:25350564

  5. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Berkan; Sancak, Eyup Burak; Resorlu, Mustafa; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Adam, Gurhan; Akbas, Alpaslan; Ozdemir, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    Urinary tract stone disease is seen at a level of 1%-2% in childhood (< 18 years). In recent years, however, there has been a marked increased in pediatric stone disease, particularly in adolescence. A carbohydrate- and salt-heavy diet and a more sedentary lifestyle are implicated in this increase. Although stone disease is rare in childhood, its presence is frequently associated with metabolic or anatomical disorders or infectious conditions, for which reason there is a high possibility of post-therapeutic recurrence. Factors such as a high possibility of recurrence and increasing incidence further enhance the importance of minimally invasive therapeutic options in children, with their expectations of a long life. In children in whom active stone removal is decided on, the way to achieve the highest level of success with the least morbidity is to select the most appropriate treatment modality. Thanks to today's advanced technology, renal stones that were once treated only by surgery can now be treated with minimally invasive techniques, from invasion of the urinary system in an antegrade (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) or retrograde (retrograde intrarenal surgery) manner or shock wave lithotripsy to laparoscopic stone surgery. This compilation study examined studies involving the RIRS procedure, the latest minimally invasive technique, in children and compared the results of those studies with those from other techniques. PMID:25374812

  6. Terminal retrograde turn of rolling rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Sarebangholi, Milad S.; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-09-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks rotate in the same direction of their initial spin until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a kinematics similar to disks, i.e., moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass later develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  7. Terminal retrograde turn of rolling rings.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Sarebangholi, Milad S; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-09-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks rotate in the same direction of their initial spin until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a kinematics similar to disks, i.e., moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass later develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers. PMID:26465546

  8. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-10-18

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  9. Composition, Assembly, and Trafficking of a Wheat Xylan Synthase Complex1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Wiemels, Richard E.; Soya, Aaron; Whitley, Rebekah; Held, Michael; Faik, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Xylans play an important role in plant cell wall integrity and have many industrial applications. Characterization of xylan synthase (XS) complexes responsible for the synthesis of these polymers is currently lacking. We recently purified XS activity from etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. To further characterize this purified activity, we analyzed its protein composition and assembly. Proteomic analysis identified six main proteins: two glycosyltransferases (GTs) TaGT43-4 and TaGT47-13; two putative mutases (TaGT75-3 and TaGT75-4) and two non-GTs; a germin-like protein (TaGLP); and a vernalization related protein (TaVER2). Coexpression of TaGT43-4, TaGT47-13, TaGT75-3, and TaGT75-4 in Pichia pastoris confirmed that these proteins form a complex. Confocal microscopy showed that all these proteins interact in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but the complexes accumulate in Golgi, and TaGT43-4 acts as a scaffold protein that holds the other proteins. Furthermore, ER export of the complexes is dependent of the interaction between TaGT43-4 and TaGT47-13. Immunogold electron microscopy data support the conclusion that complex assembly occurs at specific areas of the ER before export to the Golgi. A di-Arg motif and a long sequence motif within the transmembrane domains were found conserved at the NH2-terminal ends of TaGT43-4 and homologous proteins from diverse taxa. These conserved motifs may control the forward trafficking of the complexes and their accumulation in the Golgi. Our findings indicate that xylan synthesis in grasses may involve a new regulatory mechanism linking complex assembly with forward trafficking and provide new insights that advance our understanding of xylan biosynthesis and regulation in plants. PMID:26917684

  10. Coordination of Golgi functions by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Todd R.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) regulate vesicle-mediated export from the Golgi apparatus via phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) binding effector proteins that control vesicle budding reactions and regulate membrane dynamics. From the characterization of Golgi PI4K effectors emerges evidence that vesicle budding and lipid dynamics are tightly coupled via a regulatory network that ensures that the appropriate membrane composition is established before a transport vesicle buds from the Golgi. An important hub of this network is protein kinase D, which regulates the activity of PI4K and several PtdIns4P effectors that control sphingolipid and sterol content of Golgi membranes. Other newly identified PtdIns4P effectors include Vps74/GOLPH3, a phospholipid flippase and a Rab GEF that orchestrate membrane transformation events facilitating vesicle formation and targeting. Here, we discuss how PtdIns4P signaling is integrated with membrane biosynthetic and vesicle budding machineries to potentially coordinate these critical functions of the Golgi apparatus. PMID:21282087

  11. Coupled ER to Golgi Transport Reconstituted with Purified Cytosolic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barlowe, Charles

    1997-01-01

    A cell-free vesicle fusion assay that reproduces a subreaction in transport of pro-α-factor from the ER to the Golgi complex has been used to fractionate yeast cytosol. Purified Sec18p, Uso1p, and LMA1 in the presence of ATP and GTP satisfies the requirement for cytosol in fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes. Although these purified factors are sufficient for vesicle docking and fusion, overall ER to Golgi transport in yeast semi-intact cells depends on COPII proteins (components of a membrane coat that drive vesicle budding from the ER). Thus, membrane fusion is coupled to vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport even in the presence of saturating levels of purified fusion factors. Manipulation of the semi-intact cell assay is used to distinguish freely diffusible ER- derived vesicles containing pro-α-factor from docked vesicles and from fused vesicles. Uso1p mediates vesicle docking and produces a dilution resistant intermediate. Sec18p and LMA1 are not required for the docking phase, but are required for efficient fusion of ER- derived vesicles with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, elevated levels of Sec23p complex (a subunit of the COPII coat) prevent vesicle fusion in a reversible manner, but do not interfere with vesicle docking. Ordering experiments using the dilution resistant intermediate and reversible Sec23p complex inhibition indicate Sec18p action is required before LMA1 function. PMID:9382859

  12. Phosphoproteins and protein kinases of the Golgi apparatus membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, J.M.; Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1985-11-25

    Incubation of a highly purified fraction derived from rat liver Golgi apparatus with (gamma-TSP)ATP results in phosphorylation of several endogenous phosphoproteins. One phosphoprotein with an apparent Mr of 48,300 is radiolabeled to an apparent extent at least 5-fold higher than any other phosphoprotein as part of either the Golgi apparatus or highly purified rat liver fractions derived from the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plasma membrane, coated vesicles, cytosol, and total homogenate. Approximately 70% of the 48.3-kDa phosphoprotein appears to be a specific extrinsic Golgi membrane protein with the phosphorylated amino acid being threonine. The protein kinase which phosphorylates the 48.3-kDa protein is an intrinsic Golgi membrane protein and is dependent on MgS , independent of CaS , calmodulin, and cAMP, and is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. Preliminary evidence suggests that there are also intrinsic membrane protein kinases in the Golgi apparatus which are dependent on CaS and cAMP. The physiological role of the above phosphoproteins and protein kinases is not known.

  13. Lessons from tomographic studies of the mammalian Golgi.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Brad J

    2005-07-10

    Basic structure studies of the biosynthetic machinery of the cell by electron microscopy (EM) have underpinned much of our fundamental knowledge in the areas of molecular cell biology and membrane traffic. Driven by our collective desire to understand how changes in the complex and dynamic structure of this enigmatic organelle relate to its pivotal roles in the cell, the comparatively high-resolution glimpses of the Golgi and other compartments of the secretory pathway offered to us through EM have helped to inspire the development and application of some of our most informative, complimentary (molecular, biochemical and genetic) approaches. Even so, no one has yet even come close to relating the basic molecular mechanisms of transport, through and from the Golgi, to its ultrastructure, to everybody's satisfaction. Over the past decade, EM tomography has afforded new insights into structure-function relationships of the Golgi and provoked a re-evaluation of older paradigms. By providing a set of tools for structurally dissecting cells at high-resolution in three-dimensions (3D), EM tomography has emerged as a method for studying molecular cell biology in situ. As we move rapidly toward the establishment of molecular atlases of organelles through advances in proteomics and genomics, tomographic studies of the Golgi offer the tantalizing possibility that one day, we will be able to map the spatio-temporal coordinates of Golgi-related proteins and lipids accurately in the context of 4D cellular space. PMID:15896857

  14. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

  15. Brain Region-Specific Trafficking of the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Block, Ethan R.; Nuttle, Jacob; Balcita-Pedicino, Judith Joyce; Caltagarone, John; Watkins, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) controls dopaminergic neurotransmission by removing extracellular DA. Although DA reuptake is proposed to be regulated by DAT traffic to and from the cell surface, the membrane trafficking system involved in the endocytic cycling of DAT in the intact mammalian brain has not been characterized. Hence, we performed immunolabeling and quantitative analysis of the subcellular and regional distribution of DAT using the transgenic knock-in mouse expressing hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged DAT (HA-DAT) and by using a combination of electron microscopy and a novel method for immunofluorescence labeling of HA-DAT in acute sagittal brain slices. Both approaches demonstrated that, in midbrain somatodendritic regions, HA-DAT was present in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complex, with a small fraction in early and recycling endosomes and an even smaller fraction in late endosomes and lysosomes. In the striatum and in axonal tracts between the midbrain and striatum, HA-DAT was detected predominantly in the plasma membrane, and quantitative analysis revealed increased DAT density in striatal compared with midbrain plasma membranes. Endosomes were strikingly rare and lysosomes were absent in striatal axons, in which there was little intracellular HA-DAT. Acute administration of amphetamine in vivo (60 min) or to slices ex vivo (10–60 min) did not result in detectable changes in DAT distribution. Altogether, these data provide evidence for regional differences in DAT plasma membrane targeting and retention and suggest a surprisingly low level of endocytic trafficking of DAT in the striatum along with limited DAT endocytic activity in somatodendritic areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dopamine transporter (DAT) is the key regulator of the dopamine neurotransmission in the CNS. In the present study, we developed a new approach for studying DAT localization and dynamics in intact neurons in acute sagittal brain slices from

  16. Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie M; Garrity, Stacy E

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking affects a surprisingly large number of adolescents around the globe. Women and girls make up the majority of sex trafficking victims. Nurses must be aware of sex trafficking as a form of sexual violence in the adolescent population. Nurses can play a role in identifying, intervening, and advocating for victims of human trafficking as they currently do for patients that are the victims of other types of violent crimes. PMID:21284727

  17. Specific and Nonspecific Membrane-binding Determinants Cooperate in Targeting Phosphatidylinositol Transfer Protein β-Isoform to the Mammalian Trans-Golgi Network

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Scott E.; Ile, Kristina E.; Boukhelifa, Malika; Huijbregts, Richard P.H.; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate the interface between lipid metabolism and specific steps in membrane trafficking through the secretory pathway in eukaryotes. Herein, we describe the cis-acting information that controls PITPβ localization in mammalian cells. We demonstrate PITPβ localizes predominantly to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and that this localization is independent of the phospholipid-bound state of PITPβ. Domain mapping analyses show the targeting information within PITPβ consists of three short C-terminal specificity elements and a nonspecific membrane-binding element defined by a small motif consisting of adjacent tryptophan residues (the W202W203 motif). Combination of the specificity elements with the W202W203 motif is necessary and sufficient to generate an efficient TGN-targeting module. Finally, we demonstrate that PITPβ association with the TGN is tolerant to a range of missense mutations at residue serine 262, we describe the TGN localization of a novel PITPβ isoform with a naturally occurring S262Q polymorphism, and we find no other genetic or pharmacological evidence to support the concept that PITPβ localization to the TGN is obligately regulated by conventional protein kinase C (PKC) or the Golgi-localized PKC isoforms δ or ε. These latter findings are at odds with a previous report that conventional PKC-mediated phosphorylation of residue Ser262 is required for PITPβ targeting to Golgi membranes. PMID:16540520

  18. Phytochrome and retrograde signalling pathways coverage to antogonistically regulate a light-induced transcription network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde and photosensory-receptor signaling has remained undefined. Here, we show that the phytochrome (phy) and retrograde signaling pathways converge a...

  19. Using Kinesthetic Activities to Teach Ptolemaic and Copernican Retrograde Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Ted

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for teaching planetary retrograde motion, and the Ptolemaic and Copernican accounts of retrograde motion, by means of a series kinesthetic learning activities (KLAs). In the KLAs described, the students literally walk through the motions of the planets in both systems. A retrospective statistical analysis shows that…

  20. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  1. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  2. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  3. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  4. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  5. Alternative Splicing in CaV2.2 Regulates Neuronal Trafficking via Adaptor Protein Complex-1 Adaptor Protein Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Macabuag, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channels are expressed in neurons and targeted to the plasma membrane of presynaptic terminals, facilitating neurotransmitter release. Here, we find that the adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) mediates trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. Examination of splice variants of CaV2.2, containing either exon 37a (selectively expressed in nociceptors) or 37b in the proximal C terminus, reveal that canonical AP-1 binding motifs, YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI], present only in exon 37a, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to the axons and plasma membrane of rat DRG neurons. Finally, we identify differential effects of dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) and its agonist-induced activation on trafficking of CaV2.2 isoforms. D2R slowed the endocytosis of CaV2.2 containing exon 37b, but not exon 37a, and activation by the agonist quinpirole reversed the effect of the D2R. Our work thus reveals key mechanisms involved in the trafficking of N-type calcium channels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CaV2.2 channels are important for neurotransmitter release, but how they are trafficked is still poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mechanism for trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface which is mediated by the adaptor protein AP-1. Alternative splicing of exon 37 produces CaV2.2-exon 37a, selectively expressed in nociceptors, or CaV2.2-exon 37b, which is the major splice isoform. Our study reveals that canonical AP-1 binding motifs (YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI]), present in exon 37a, but not 37b, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to axons and plasma membrane of DRG neurons. Interaction of APs with CaV2.2 channels may also be key underlying mechanisms for differential effects of the dopamine D2 receptor on trafficking of CaV2.2 splice variants. PMID:26511252

  6. A Dendritic Golgi Satellite between ERGIC and Retromer.

    PubMed

    Mikhaylova, Marina; Bera, Sujoy; Kobler, Oliver; Frischknecht, Renato; Kreutz, Michael R

    2016-01-12

    The local synthesis of transmembrane proteins underlies functional specialization of dendritic microdomains in neuronal plasticity. It is unclear whether these proteins have access to the complete machinery of the secretory pathway following local synthesis. In this study, we describe a probe called pGolt that allows visualization of Golgi-related organelles for live imaging in neurons. We show that pGolt labels a widespread microsecretory Golgi satellite (GS) system that is, in contrast to Golgi outposts, present throughout basal and apical dendrites of all pyramidal neurons. The GS system contains glycosylation machinery and is localized between ERGIC and retromer. Synaptic activity restrains lateral movement of ERGIC, GS, and retromer close to one another, allowing confined processing of secretory cargo. Several synaptic transmembrane proteins pass through and recycle back to the GS system. Thus, the presence of an ER-ERGIC-GS-retromer microsecretory system in all neuronal dendrites enables autonomous local control of transmembrane protein synthesis and processing. PMID:26748700

  7. Transition of Galactosyltransferase 1 from Trans-Golgi Cisterna to the Trans-Golgi Network Is Signal Mediated

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Beat E.; Berger, Bea; Berger, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus (GA) is the organelle where complex glycan formation takes place. In addition, it is a major sorting site for proteins destined for various subcellular compartments or for secretion. Here we investigate β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (galT) and α2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (siaT), two trans-Golgi glycosyltransferases, with respect to their different pathways in monensin-treated cells. Upon addition of monensin galT dissociates from siaT and the GA and accumulates in swollen vesicles derived from the trans-Golgi network (TGN), as shown by colocalization with TGN46, a specific TGN marker. We analyzed various chimeric constructs of galT and siaT by confocal fluorescence microscopy and time-lapse videomicroscopy as well as Optiprep density gradient fractionation. We show that the first 13 amino acids of the cytoplasmic tail of galT are necessary for its localization to swollen vesicles induced by monensin. We also show that the monensin sensitivity resulting from the cytoplasmic tail can be conferred to siaT, which leads to the rapid accumulation of the galT–siaT chimera in swollen vesicles upon monensin treatment. On the basis of these data, we suggest that cycling between the trans-Golgi cisterna and the trans-Golgi network of galT is signal mediated. PMID:17021253

  8. Chondroitin Sulfate Accelerates Trans-Golgi-to-Surface Transport of Proteoglycan Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    PubMed

    Mihov, Deyan; Raja, Eva; Spiess, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a membrane protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. APP is a part-time proteoglycan, as splice variants lacking exon 15 are modified by a chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. Investigating the effect of the GAG chain on the trafficking of APP in non-polarized cells, we found it to increase the steady-state surface-to-intracellular distribution, to reduce the rate of endocytosis and to accelerate transport kinetics from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane. Deletion of the cytosolic domain resulted in delayed surface arrival of GAG-free APP, but did not affect the rapid export kinetics of the proteoglycan form. Protein-free GAG chains showed the same TGN-to-cell surface transport kinetics as proteoglycan APP. Endosome ablation experiments were performed to distinguish between indirect endosomal and direct pathways to the cell surface. Surprisingly, TGN-to-cell surface transport of both GAG-free and proteoglycan APP was found to be indirect via transferrin-positive endosomes. Our results show that GAGs act as alternative sorting determinants in cellular APP transport that are dominant over cytoplasmic signals and involve distinct sorting mechanisms. PMID:25951880

  9. Multivesicular Bodies Mature from the Trans-Golgi Network/Early Endosome in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Scheuring, David; Viotti, Corrado; Krüger, Falco; Künzl, Fabian; Sturm, Silke; Bubeck, Julia; Hillmer, Stefan; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Robinson, David G.; Pimpl, Peter; Schumacher, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The plant trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) is a major hub for secretory and endocytic trafficking with complex molecular mechanisms controlling sorting and transport of cargo. Vacuolar transport from the TGN/EE to multivesicular bodies/late endosomes (MVBs/LEs) is assumed to occur via clathrin-coated vesicles, although direct proof for their participation is missing. Here, we present evidence that post-TGN transport toward lytic vacuoles occurs independently of clathrin and that MVBs/LEs are derived from the TGN/EE through maturation. We show that the V-ATPase inhibitor concanamycin A significantly reduces the number of MVBs and causes TGN and MVB markers to colocalize in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Ultrastructural analysis reveals the formation of MVBs from the TGN/EE and their fusion with the vacuole. The localization of the ESCRT components VPS28, VPS22, and VPS2 at the TGN/EE and MVBs/LEs indicates that the formation of intraluminal vesicles starts already at the TGN/EE. Accordingly, a dominant-negative mutant of VPS2 causes TGN and MVB markers to colocalize and blocks vacuolar transport. RNA interference–mediated knockdown of the annexin ANNAT3 also yields the same phenotype. Together, these data indicate that MVBs originate from the TGN/EE in a process that requires the action of ESCRT for the formation of intraluminal vesicles and annexins for the final step of releasing MVBs as a transport carrier to the vacuole. PMID:21934143

  10. Structural basis for recruitment of Rab6-interacting protein 1 to Golgi via a RUN domain.

    PubMed

    Recacha, Rosario; Boulet, Annick; Jollivet, Florence; Monier, Solange; Houdusse, Anne; Goud, Bruno; Khan, Amir R

    2009-01-14

    Small GTPase Rab6 regulates vesicle trafficking at the level of Golgi via recruitment of numerous and unrelated effectors. The crystal structure of Rab6a(GTP) in complex with a 378-residue internal fragment of the effector Rab6IP1 was solved at 3.2 angstroms resolution. This Rab6IP1 region encompasses an all alpha-helical RUN domain followed in tandem by a PLAT domain that adopts a beta sandwich fold. The structure reveals that the first and last alpha helices of the RUN domain mediate binding to switch I, switch II, and the interswitch region of Rab6. It represents the largest Rab-effector complex determined to date. Comparisons with the recent structure of Rab6 in complex with an unrelated effector, human golgin GCC185, reveals significant conformational changes in the conserved hydrophobic triad of Rab6. Flexibility in the switch and interswitch regions of Rab6 mediates recognition of compositionally distinct alpha-helical coiled coils, thereby contributing to Rab6 promiscuity in effector recruitment. PMID:19141279

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and 4-kinase have distinct roles in intracellular trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masaru; Suda, Yasuyuki; Vernhettes, Samantha; Nakano, Akihiko; Ueda, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    The oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils in the plant cell wall plays a crucial role in various plant functions such as cell growth, organ formation and defense responses. Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) embedded in the plasma membrane (PM), which comprise the cellulose synthases (CESAs). The abundance and localization of CSCs at the PM should be strictly controlled for precise regulation of cellulose deposition, which strongly depends on the membrane trafficking system. However, the mechanism of the intracellular transport of CSCs is still poorly understood. In this study, we explored requirements for phosphoinositides (PIs) in CESA trafficking by analyzing the effects of inhibitors of PI synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA3 (GFP-CESA3). We found that a shift to a sucrose-free condition accelerated re-localization of PM-localized GFP-CESA3 into the periphery of the Golgi apparatus via the clathrin-enriched trans-Golgi network (TGN). Treatment with wortmannin (Wm), an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3- (PI3K) and 4- (PI4K) kinases, and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a more specific inhibitor for PI4K, inhibited internalization of GFP-CESA3 from the PM. In contrast, treatment with LY294002, which impairs the PI3K activity, did not exert such an inhibitory effect on the sequestration of GFP-CESA3, but caused a predominant accumulation of GFP-CESA3 at the ring-shaped periphery of the Golgi apparatus, resulting in the removal of GFP-CESA3 from the PM. These results indicate that PIs are essential elements for localization and intracellular transport of CESA3 and that PI4K and PI3K are required for distinct steps in secretory and/or endocytic trafficking of CESA3. PMID:25516570

  12. Defects in optineurin- and myosin VI-mediated cellular trafficking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Walker, Adam K; Tan, Vanessa; Fifita, Jennifer A; Mccann, Emily P; Williams, Kelly L; Blair, Ian P; Guillemin, Gilles J; Farg, Manal A; Atkin, Julie D

    2015-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting motor neurons. Mutations in optineurin cause a small proportion of familial ALS cases, and wild-type (WT) optineurin is misfolded and forms inclusions in sporadic ALS patient motor neurons. However, it is unknown how optineurin mutation or misfolding leads to ALS. Optineurin acts an adaptor protein connecting the molecular motor myosin VI to secretory vesicles and autophagosomes. Here, we demonstrate that ALS-linked mutations p.Q398X and p.E478G disrupt the association of optineurin with myosin VI, leading to an abnormal diffuse cytoplasmic distribution, inhibition of secretory protein trafficking, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and Golgi fragmentation in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells. We also provide further insight into the role of optineurin as an autophagy receptor. WT optineurin associated with lysosomes and promoted autophagosome fusion to lysosomes in neuronal cells, implying that it mediates trafficking of lysosomes during autophagy in association with myosin VI. However, either expression of ALS mutant optineurin or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous optineurin blocked lysosome fusion to autophagosomes, resulting in autophagosome accumulation. Together these results indicate that ALS-linked mutations in optineurin disrupt myosin VI-mediated intracellular trafficking processes. In addition, in control human patient tissues, optineurin displayed its normal vesicular localization, but in sporadic ALS patient tissues, vesicles were present in a significantly decreased proportion of motor neurons. Optineurin binding to myosin VI was also decreased in tissue lysates from sporadic ALS spinal cords. This study therefore links several previously described pathological mechanisms in ALS, including defects in autophagy, fragmentation of the Golgi and induction of ER stress, to disruption of optineurin function. These findings also indicate that

  13. Role of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 in forward trafficking of the type IIa Na+-Pi cotransporter

    PubMed Central

    Ketchem, Corey J.; Khundmiri, Syed J.; Gaweda, Adam E.; Murray, Rebecca; Clark, Barbara J.; Weinman, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF1) plays a critical role in the renal transport of phosphate by binding to Na+-Pi cotransporter (NpT2a) in the proximal tubule. While the association between NpT2a and NHERF1 in the apical membrane is known, the role of NHERF1 to regulate the trafficking of NpT2a has not been studied. To address this question, we performed cell fractionation by sucrose gradient centrifugation in opossum kidney (OK) cells placed in low-Pi medium to stimulate forward trafficking of NpT2a. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated expression of NpT2a and NHERF1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated a NpT2a-NHERF1 interaction in the ER/Golgi. Low-Pi medium for 4 and 8 h triggered a decrease in NHERF1 in the plasma membrane with a corresponding increase in the ER/Golgi. Time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence imaging of OK cells placed in low-Pi medium, paired with particle tracking and mean square displacement analysis, indicated active directed movement of NHERF1 at early and late time points, whereas NpT2a showed active movement only at later times. Silence of NHERF1 in OK cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NpT2a resulted in an intracellular accumulation of GFP-NpT2a. Transfection with GFP-labeled COOH-terminal (TRL) PDZ-binding motif deleted or wild-type NpT2a in OK cells followed by cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation confirmed that the interaction between NpT2a and NHERF1 was dependent on the TRL motif of NpT2a. We conclude that appropriate trafficking of NpT2a to the plasma membrane is dependent on the initial association between NpT2a and NHERF1 through the COOH-terminal TRL motif of NpT2a in the ER/Golgi and requires redistribution of NHERF1 to the ER/Golgi. PMID:25995109

  14. Role of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 in forward trafficking of the type IIa Na+-Pi cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Ketchem, Corey J; Khundmiri, Syed J; Gaweda, Adam E; Murray, Rebecca; Clark, Barbara J; Weinman, Edward J; Lederer, Eleanor D

    2015-07-15

    Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF1) plays a critical role in the renal transport of phosphate by binding to Na+-Pi cotransporter (NpT2a) in the proximal tubule. While the association between NpT2a and NHERF1 in the apical membrane is known, the role of NHERF1 to regulate the trafficking of NpT2a has not been studied. To address this question, we performed cell fractionation by sucrose gradient centrifugation in opossum kidney (OK) cells placed in low-Pi medium to stimulate forward trafficking of NpT2a. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated expression of NpT2a and NHERF1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated a NpT2a-NHERF1 interaction in the ER/Golgi. Low-Pi medium for 4 and 8 h triggered a decrease in NHERF1 in the plasma membrane with a corresponding increase in the ER/Golgi. Time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence imaging of OK cells placed in low-Pi medium, paired with particle tracking and mean square displacement analysis, indicated active directed movement of NHERF1 at early and late time points, whereas NpT2a showed active movement only at later times. Silence of NHERF1 in OK cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NpT2a resulted in an intracellular accumulation of GFP-NpT2a. Transfection with GFP-labeled COOH-terminal (TRL) PDZ-binding motif deleted or wild-type NpT2a in OK cells followed by cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation confirmed that the interaction between NpT2a and NHERF1 was dependent on the TRL motif of NpT2a. We conclude that appropriate trafficking of NpT2a to the plasma membrane is dependent on the initial association between NpT2a and NHERF1 through the COOH-terminal TRL motif of NpT2a in the ER/Golgi and requires redistribution of NHERF1 to the ER/Golgi. PMID:25995109

  15. Mena–GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. PMID:26538023

  16. RNAi screening reveals a large signaling network controlling the Golgi apparatus in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Joanne; Goh, Germaine; Racine, Victor; Ng, Susanne; Kumar, Pankaj; Bard, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus has many important physiological functions, including sorting of secretory cargo and biosynthesis of complex glycans. These functions depend on the intricate and compartmentalized organization of the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate Golgi architecture, we developed a quantitative morphological assay using three different Golgi compartment markers and quantitative image analysis, and performed a kinome- and phosphatome-wide RNAi screen in HeLa cells. Depletion of 159 signaling genes, nearly 20% of genes assayed, induced strong and varied perturbations in Golgi morphology. Using bioinformatics data, a large regulatory network could be constructed. Specific subnetworks are involved in phosphoinositides regulation, acto-myosin dynamics and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Most gene depletion also affected Golgi functions, in particular glycan biosynthesis, suggesting that signaling cascades can control glycosylation directly at the Golgi level. Our results provide a genetic overview of the signaling pathways that control the Golgi apparatus in human cells. PMID:23212246

  17. Distant retrograde orbits for the Moon's exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Vladislav

    We discuss the properties of the distant retrograde orbits (which are called quasi-satellite orbits also) around Moon. For the first time the distant retrograde orbits were described by J.Jackson in studies on restricted three body problem at the beginning of 20th century [1]. In the synodic (rotating) reference frame distant retrograde orbit looks like an ellipse whose center is slowly drifting in the vicinity of minor primary body while in the inertial reference frame the third body is orbiting the major primary body. Although being away the Hill sphere the third body permanently stays close enough to the minor primary. Due to this reason the distant retrograde orbits are called “quasi-satellite” orbits (QS-orbits) too. Several asteroids in solar system are in a QS-orbit with respect to one of the planet. As an example we can mention the asteroid 2002VE68 which circumnavigates Venus [2]. Attention of specialists in space flight mechanics was attracted to QS-orbits after the publications of NASA technical reports devoted to periodic moon orbits [3,4]. Moving in QS-orbit the SC remains permanently (or at least for long enough time) in the vicinity of small celestial body even in the case when the Hill sphere lies beneath the surface of the body. The properties of the QS-orbit can be studied using the averaging of the motion equations [5,6,7]. From the theoretical point of view it is a specific case of 1:1 mean motion resonance. The integrals of the averaged equations become the parameters defining the secular evolution of the QS-orbit. If the trajectory is robust enough to small perturbations in the simplified problem (i.e., restricted three body problem) it may correspond to long-term stability of the real-world orbit. Our investigations demonstrate that under the proper choice of the initial conditions the QS-orbits don’t escape from Moon or don’t impact Moon for long enough time. These orbits can be recommended as a convenient technique for the large

  18. Asteroids in Retrograde Orbits: Interesting Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, Paweł; Włodarczyk, Ireneusz

    2014-12-01

    We present the most interesting examples of the orbital evolution of asteroids in retrograde orbits (i > 90°). First, we used the latest observational data to determine nominal and averaged orbital elements of these objects. Next, the equations of motion of these asteroids were integrated backward 1 My, taking into account the propagation of observational errors. We used so-called 'cloning' procedure to reproduce the reliability of initial data. We obtained some possible scenarios of the orbit inversion in the past, what is often caused by the long-term influence of outer planets. For two most interesting cases (Apollo and Amor type) we did additional calculations: 100 My in the future. Additionally, we investigated the potential influence of Yarkovski/YORP effects on the long-time orbital evolution.

  19. Retrograde Epidural Catheter Relieves Intractable Sacral Pain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchir; Shodhan, Shivam; Hosny, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Pain caused by tumor infiltration of the sacral area remains a major clinical challenge. Patients with poor pain control despite comprehensive medical management may be treated with neuraxial techniques such as continuous epidural or spinal anesthetic. We report a case in which a patient with metastatic breast cancer experienced inadequate pain relief after multiple intravenous pain management regimens as well as intrathecal (IT) drug delivery. The concentration of local anesthetics delivered via the IT catheter was limited due to the patient's baseline motor weakness which would be exacerbated with higher concentrations of local anesthetics. Thus, a decision was made to insert an epidural catheter via a retrograde technique to provide the patient with a "band of anesthesia" which would provide profound sensory blockade without concomitant motor weakness. Pain refractory to other modalities of pain control was successfully treated with the epidural technique. PMID:27162431

  20. Retrograde Epidural Catheter Relieves Intractable Sacral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ruchir; Shodhan, Shivam; Hosny, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Pain caused by tumor infiltration of the sacral area remains a major clinical challenge. Patients with poor pain control despite comprehensive medical management may be treated with neuraxial techniques such as continuous epidural or spinal anesthetic. We report a case in which a patient with metastatic breast cancer experienced inadequate pain relief after multiple intravenous pain management regimens as well as intrathecal (IT) drug delivery. The concentration of local anesthetics delivered via the IT catheter was limited due to the patient's baseline motor weakness which would be exacerbated with higher concentrations of local anesthetics. Thus, a decision was made to insert an epidural catheter via a retrograde technique to provide the patient with a “band of anesthesia” which would provide profound sensory blockade without concomitant motor weakness. Pain refractory to other modalities of pain control was successfully treated with the epidural technique. PMID:27162431

  1. Select Rab GTPases Regulate the Pulmonary Endothelium via Endosomal Trafficking of Vascular Endothelial-Cadherin.

    PubMed

    Chichger, Havovi; Braza, Julie; Duong, Huetran; Boni, Geraldine; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary edema occurs in settings of acute lung injury, in diseases, such as pneumonia, and in acute respiratory distress syndrome. The lung interendothelial junctions are maintained in part by vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, an adherens junction protein, and its surface expression is regulated by endocytic trafficking. The Rab family of small GTPases are regulators of endocytic trafficking. The key trafficking pathways are regulated by Rab4, -7, and -9. Rab4 regulates the recycling of endosomes to the cell surface through a rapid-shuttle process, whereas Rab7 and -9 regulate trafficking to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation or from the trans-Golgi network to the late endosome, respectively. We recently demonstrated a role for the endosomal adaptor protein, p18, in regulation of the pulmonary endothelium through enhanced recycling of VE-cadherin to adherens junction. Thus, we hypothesized that Rab4, -7, and -9 regulate pulmonary endothelial barrier function through modulating trafficking of VE-cadherin-positive endosomes. We used Rab mutants with varying activities and associations to the endosome to study endothelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo. Our study demonstrates a key role for Rab4 activation and Rab9 inhibition in regulation of vascular permeability through enhanced VE-cadherin expression at the interendothelial junction. We further showed that endothelial barrier function mediated through Rab4 is dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and activity. Thus, we demonstrate that Rab4 and -9 regulate VE-cadherin levels at the cell surface to modulate the pulmonary endothelium through extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. We propose that regulating select Rab GTPases represents novel therapeutic strategies for patients suffering with acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:26551054

  2. Three-dimensional shape of the Golgi apparatus in different cell types: serial section scanning electron microscopy of the osmium-impregnated Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    Although many studies of the Golgi apparatus structure have been performed by light and electron microscopy, the full shape of the Golgi apparatus remained unclear due to the technical limitations of the previously applied microscopy techniques. In this study, we used serial section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the morphological study of the Golgi apparatus. This method is useful for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cellular structures without requiring specialized instruments, unlike focused ion beam SEM (FIB-SEM) and serial block face SEM (SBF-SEM). Using the serial section SEM method developed by our laboratory, we investigate the 3D shape of the osmium-impregnated Golgi apparatus in rat epididymal cells, pancreatic acinar cells and gonadotropes. The combination of serial section SEM and a 3D reconstruction technique enabled us to elucidate the entire shape of the Golgi apparatus in these cells. The full shape of the Golgi apparatus in epididymal cells formed a basket-like structure with oval-shaped cisterns, while the Golgi apparatus in an acinar cell from the pancreas was composed of elongated ribbon-like structures that were connected to each other, making a coarse network. The overall image of the Golgi apparatus cisterns from a gonadotrope looked like a spherical cage. This study has clearly shown that entire 3D shape of the Golgi apparatus varies depending on the cell type and that the Golgi cisterns network appears as a single mass located in the large region of the cytoplasm. PMID:26609075

  3. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Jeffrey; Finger, Reginald

    2008-05-01

    Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs. PMID:18414161

  4. The trans-Golgi Proteins SCLIP and SCG10 Interact with Chromogranin A To Regulate Neuroendocrine Secretion†

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Nitish R.; Taupenot, Laurent; Courel, Maite; Mahata, Sushil K.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    Secretion of proteins and peptides from eukaryotic cells takes place by both constitutive and regulated pathways. Regulated secretion may involve interplay of proteins that are currently unknown. Recent studies suggest an important role of chromogranin A (CHGA) in the regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells, but the mechanism by which CHGA enters the regulated pathway, or even triggers the formation of the pathway, remains unclear. In this study, we used a transcriptome/proteome-wide approach, to discover binding partners for CHGA, by employing a phage display cDNA library method. Several proteins within or adjacent to the secretory pathway were initially detected as binding partners of recombinant human CHGA. We then focused on the trans-Golgi protein SCLIP (STMN3) and its stathmin paralog SCG10 (STMN2) for functional study. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the interaction of each of these two proteins with CHGA in vitro. SCLIP and SCG10 were colocalized to the Golgi apparatus of chromaffin cells in vivo and shared localization with CHGA as it transited the Golgi. Downregulation of either SCLIP or SCG10 by synthetic siRNAs virtually abolished chromaffin cell secretion of a transfected CHGA–EAP chimera (expressing CHGA fused to an enzymatic reporter, and trafficked to the regulated pathway). SCLIP siRNA also decreased the level of secretion of endogenous CHGA and SCG2, as well as transfected human growth hormone, while SCG10 siRNA decreased the level of regulated secretion of endogenous CHGB. Moreover, a dominant negative mutant of SCG10 (Cys22,Cys24→Ala22,Ala24) significantly blocked secretion of the transfected CHGA–EAP chimera. A decrease in the buoyant density of chromaffin granules was observed after downregulation of SCG10 by siRNA, suggesting participation of these stathmins in granule formation or maturation. We conclude that SCLIP and SCG10 interact with CHGA, share partial colocalization in the Golgi apparatus, and may be

  5. Efficient Trafficking of MDR1/P-Glycoprotein to Apical Canalicular Plasma Membranes in HepG2 Cells Requires PKA-RIIα Anchoring and Glucosylceramide

    PubMed Central

    Wojtal, Kacper A.; de Vries, Erik; Hoekstra, Dick

    2006-01-01

    In hepatocytes, cAMP/PKA activity stimulates the exocytic insertion of apical proteins and lipids and the biogenesis of bile canalicular plasma membranes. Here, we show that the displacement of PKA-RIIα from the Golgi apparatus severely delays the trafficking of the bile canalicular protein MDR1 (P-glycoprotein), but not that of MRP2 (cMOAT), DPP IV and 5′NT, to newly formed apical surfaces. In addition, the direct trafficking of de novo synthesized glycosphingolipid analogues from the Golgi apparatus to the apical surface is inhibited. Instead, newly synthesized glucosylceramide analogues are rerouted to the basolateral surface via a vesicular pathway, from where they are subsequently endocytosed and delivered to the apical surface via transcytosis. Treatment of HepG2 cells with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor PDMP delays the appearance of MDR1, but not MRP2, DPP IV, and 5′NT at newly formed apical surfaces, implicating glucosylceramide synthesis as an important parameter for the efficient Golgi-to-apical surface transport of MDR1. Neither PKA-RIIα displacement nor PDMP inhibited (cAMP-stimulated) apical plasma membrane biogenesis per se, suggesting that other cAMP effectors may play a role in canalicular development. Taken together, our data implicate the involvement of PKA-RIIα anchoring in the efficient direct apical targeting of distinct proteins and glycosphingolipids to newly formed apical plasma membrane domains and suggest that rerouting of Golgi-derived glycosphingolipids may underlie the delayed Golgi-to-apical surface transport of MDR1. PMID:16723498

  6. Trafficking modulator TENin1 inhibits endocytosis, causes endomembrane protein accumulation at the pre-vacuolar compartment and impairs gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Rupesh; Jamaluddin, Adam; Warren, James P; Doyle, Siamsa M; Robert, Stéphanie; Warriner, Stuart L; Baker, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Auxin gradients are established and maintained by polarized distribution of auxin transporters that undergo constitutive endocytic recycling from the PM (plasma membrane) and are essential for the gravitropic response in plants. The present study characterizes an inhibitor of endomembrane protein trafficking, TE1 (trafficking and endocytosis inhibitor 1/TENin1) that reduces gravitropic root bending in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Short-term TE1 treatment causes accumulation of PM proteins, including the BR (brassinosteroid) receptor BRI1 (BR insensitive 1), PIP2a (PM intrinsic protein 2a) and the auxin transporter PIN2 (PIN-FORMED 2) in a PVC (pre-vacuolar related compartment), which is sensitive to BFA (Brefeldin A). This compound inhibits endocytosis from the PM and promotes trafficking to the vacuole, consistent with inhibition of retrieval of proteins to the TGN (trans-Golgi network) from the PVC and the PM. However, trafficking of newly synthesized proteins to the PM is unaffected. The short-term protein trafficking inhibition and long-term effect on plant growth and survival caused by TE1 were fully reversible upon drug washout. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that only minor modifications were possible without loss of biological activity. Diversity in Arabidopsis ecotypes was also exploited to identify two Arabidopsis accessions that display reduced sensitivity to TE1. This compound and the resistant Arabidopsis accessions may be used as a resource in future studies to better understand endomembrane trafficking in plants. PMID:24654932

  7. Trafficking modulator TENin1 inhibits endocytosis, causes endomembrane protein accumulation at the pre-vacuolar compartment and impairs gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Rupesh; Jamaluddin, Adam; Warren, James P.; Doyle, Siamsa M.; Robert, Stéphanie; Warriner, Stuart L.; Baker, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Auxin gradients are established and maintained by polarized distribution of auxin transporters that undergo constitutive endocytic recycling from the PM (plasma membrane) and are essential for the gravitropic response in plants. The present study characterizes an inhibitor of endomembrane protein trafficking, TE1 (trafficking and endocytosis inhibitor 1/TENin1) that reduces gravitropic root bending in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Short-term TE1 treatment causes accumulation of PM proteins, including the BR (brassinosteroid) receptor BRI1 (BR insensitive 1), PIP2a (PM intrinsic protein 2a) and the auxin transporter PIN2 (PIN-FORMED 2) in a PVC (pre-vacuolar related compartment), which is sensitive to BFA (Brefeldin A). This compound inhibits endocytosis from the PM and promotes trafficking to the vacuole, consistent with inhibition of retrieval of proteins to the TGN (trans-Golgi network) from the PVC and the PM. However, trafficking of newly synthesized proteins to the PM is unaffected. The short-term protein trafficking inhibition and long-term effect on plant growth and survival caused by TE1 were fully reversible upon drug washout. Structure–activity relationship studies revealed that only minor modifications were possible without loss of biological activity. Diversity in Arabidopsis ecotypes was also exploited to identify two Arabidopsis accessions that display reduced sensitivity to TE1. This compound and the resistant Arabidopsis accessions may be used as a resource in future studies to better understand endomembrane trafficking in plants. PMID:24654932

  8. Biomechanical performance of retrograde nail for supracondylar fractures stabilization.

    PubMed

    Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Siribodhi, Pongwit

    2016-06-01

    The study compared the biomechanical performance of retrograde nail used to stabilize supracondylar fracture (three different levels) by means of finite element analysis. Three different nail lengths (200, 260, and 300 mm) of stainless steel and titanium nails were under consideration. Intact femur model was reconstructed from Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images of Thai cadaveric femur scanned by computed tomography spiral scanner, whereas geometry of retrograde nail was reconstructed with the data obtained from three-dimensional laser scanner. The retrograde nail was virtually attached to the femur before nodes and elements were generated for finite element model. The finite element models were analyzed in two stages, the early stage of fracture healing and the stage after fracture healing. The finding indicated that purchasing proximal locking screw in the bowing region of the femur may be at risk due to the high stresses at the implant and bone. There were no differences in stress level, elastic strain at a fracture gap, and bone stress between stainless steel and titanium implant. Since the intramedullary canal requires reaming to accommodate the retrograde nail, the length of retrograde nail should be as long as necessary. However, in case that the retrograde nail can be accommodated into the intramedullary canal without reaming, the longer retrograde nail can be used. PMID:27032932

  9. PRODUCTION OF NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS ON RETROGRADE ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstreet, S.; Gladman, B.; Ngo, H.; Granvik, M.; Larson, S.

    2012-04-20

    While computing an improved near-Earth object (NEO) steady-state orbital distribution model, we discovered in the numerical integrations the unexpected production of retrograde orbits for asteroids that had originally exited from the accepted main-belt source regions. Our model indicates that {approx}0.1% (a factor of two uncertainty) of the steady-state NEO population (perihelion q < 1.3 AU) is on retrograde orbits. These rare outcomes typically happen when asteroid orbits flip to a retrograde configuration while in the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and then live for {approx}0.001 to 100 Myr. The model predicts, given the estimated near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population, that a few retrograde 0.1-1 km NEAs should exist. Currently, there are two known MPC NEOs with asteroidal designations on retrograde orbits which we therefore claim could be escaped asteroids instead of devolatilized comets. This retrograde NEA population may also answer a long-standing question in the meteoritical literature regarding the origin of high-strength, high-velocity meteoroids on retrograde orbits.

  10. Protein flexibility is required for vesicle tethering at the Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Pak-yan Patricia; Limouse, Charles; Mabuchi, Hideo; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi is decorated with coiled-coil proteins that may extend long distances to help vesicles find their targets. GCC185 is a trans Golgi-associated protein that captures vesicles inbound from late endosomes. Although predicted to be relatively rigid and highly extended, we show that flexibility in a central region is required for GCC185’s ability to function in a vesicle tethering cycle. Proximity ligation experiments show that that GCC185’s N-and C-termini are within <40 nm of each other on the Golgi. In physiological buffers without fixatives, atomic force microscopy reveals that GCC185 is shorter than predicted, and its flexibility is due to a central bubble that represents local unwinding of specific sequences. Moreover, 85% of the N-termini are splayed, and the splayed N-terminus can capture transport vesicles in vitro. These unexpected features support a model in which GCC185 collapses onto the Golgi surface, perhaps by binding to Rab GTPases, to mediate vesicle tethering. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12790.001 PMID:26653856

  11. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  12. HAPLESS13-Mediated Trafficking of STRUBBELIG Is Critical for Ovule Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Gang; Feng, Chong; Liu, Hai-Hong; Ge, Fu-Rong; Li, Sha; Li, Hong-Ju; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Planar morphogenesis, a distinct feature of multicellular organisms, is crucial for the development of ovule, progenitor of seeds. Both receptor-like kinases (RLKs) such as STRUBBELIG (SUB) and auxin gradient mediated by PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) play instructive roles in this process. Fine-tuned intercellular communications between different cell layers during ovule development demands dynamic membrane distribution of these cell-surface proteins, presumably through vesicle-mediated sorting. However, the way it's achieved and the trafficking routes involved are obscure. We report that HAPLESS13 (HAP13)-mediated trafficking of SUB is critical for ovule development. HAP13 encodes the μ subunit of adaptor protein 1 (AP1) that mediates protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE). The HAP13 mutant, hap13-1, is defective in outer integument growth, resulting in exposed nucellus accompanied with impaired pollen tube guidance and reception. SUB is mis-targeted in hap13-1. However, unlike that of PIN2, the distribution of PIN1 is independent of HAP13. Genetic interference of exocytic trafficking at the TGN/EE by specifically downregulating HAP13 phenocopied the defects of hap13-1 in SUB targeting and ovule development, supporting a key role of sporophytically expressed SUB in instructing female gametogenesis. PMID:27541731

  13. HAPLESS13-Mediated Trafficking of STRUBBELIG Is Critical for Ovule Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Gang; Feng, Chong; Liu, Hai-Hong; Ge, Fu-Rong; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Planar morphogenesis, a distinct feature of multicellular organisms, is crucial for the development of ovule, progenitor of seeds. Both receptor-like kinases (RLKs) such as STRUBBELIG (SUB) and auxin gradient mediated by PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) play instructive roles in this process. Fine-tuned intercellular communications between different cell layers during ovule development demands dynamic membrane distribution of these cell-surface proteins, presumably through vesicle-mediated sorting. However, the way it’s achieved and the trafficking routes involved are obscure. We report that HAPLESS13 (HAP13)-mediated trafficking of SUB is critical for ovule development. HAP13 encodes the μ subunit of adaptor protein 1 (AP1) that mediates protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE). The HAP13 mutant, hap13-1, is defective in outer integument growth, resulting in exposed nucellus accompanied with impaired pollen tube guidance and reception. SUB is mis-targeted in hap13-1. However, unlike that of PIN2, the distribution of PIN1 is independent of HAP13. Genetic interference of exocytic trafficking at the TGN/EE by specifically downregulating HAP13 phenocopied the defects of hap13-1 in SUB targeting and ovule development, supporting a key role of sporophytically expressed SUB in instructing female gametogenesis. PMID:27541731

  14. P120-Catenin Regulates Early Trafficking Stages of the N-Cadherin Precursor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wehrendt, Diana P.; Carmona, Fernando; González Wusener, Ana E.; González, Ángela; Martínez, Juan M. Lázaro; Arregui, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that binding of p120 catenin to the cytoplasmic domain of surface cadherin prevents cadherin endocytosis and degradation, contributing to cell-cell adhesion. In the present work we show that p120 catenin bound to the N-cadherin precursor, contributes to its anterograde movement from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. In HeLa cells, depletion of p120 expression, or blocking its binding to N-cadherin, increased the accumulation of the precursor in the ER, while it decreased the localization of mature N-cadherin at intercellular junctions. Reconstitution experiments in p120-deficient SW48 cells with all three major isoforms of p120 (1, 3 and 4) had similar capacity to promote the processing of the N-cadherin precursor to the mature form, and its localization at cell-cell junctions. P120 catenin and protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B facilitated the recruitment of the N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), an ATPase involved in vesicular trafficking, to the N-cadherin precursor complex. Dominant negative NSF E329Q impaired N-cadherin trafficking, maturation and localization at cell-cell junctions. Our results uncover a new role for p120 catenin bound to the N-cadherin precursor ensuring its trafficking through the biosynthetic pathway towards the cell surface. PMID:27254316

  15. Using Kinesthetic Activities to Teach Ptolemaic and Copernican Retrograde Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Ted

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a method for teaching planetary retrograde motion, and the Ptolemaic and Copernican accounts of retrograde motion, by means of a series kinesthetic learning activities (KLAs). In the KLAs described, the students literally walk through the motions of the planets in both systems. A retrospective statistical analysis shows that students who participated in these activities performed better on examination questions pertaining to retrograde motion than students who did not. Potential explanations for this result, including the breaking of classroom routine, the effect of body movement on conceptual memory, and egocentric spatial proprioception, are considered.

  16. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport.

    PubMed

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species. PMID:25486417

  17. Golgi Localized Barley MTP8 Proteins Facilitate Mn Transport

    PubMed Central

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species. PMID:25486417

  18. Multisite tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-terminus of Mint1/X11α by Src kinase regulates the trafficking of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Christopher J R; Black, Hannah L; Andrews, Katie L; Davenport, Elizabeth C; Conboy, Michael; Chawla, Sangeeta; Dowle, Adam A; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry R; Evans, Gareth J O

    2016-05-01

    Mint/X11 is one of the four neuronal trafficking adaptors that interact with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and are linked with its cleavage to generate β-amyloid peptide, a key player in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. How APP switches between adaptors at different stages of the secretory pathway is poorly understood. Here, we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of Mint1 regulates the destination of APP. A canonical SH2-binding motif ((202) YEEI) was identified in the N-terminus of Mint1 that is phosphorylated on tyrosine by C-Src and recruits the active kinase for sequential phosphorylation of further tyrosines (Y191 and Y187). A single Y202F mutation in the Mint1 N-terminus inhibits C-Src binding and tyrosine phosphorylation. Previous studies observed that co-expression of wild-type Mint1 and APP causes accumulation of APP in the trans-Golgi. Unphosphorylatable Mint1 (Y202F) or pharmacological inhibition of Src reduced the accumulation of APP in the trans-Golgi of heterologous cells. A similar result was observed in cultured rat hippocampal neurons where Mint1(Y202F) permitted the trafficking of APP to more distal neurites than the wild-type protein. These data underline the importance of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Mint1 as a critical switch for determining the destination of APP. The regulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking is poorly understood. We have discovered that the APP adapter, Mint1, is phosphorylated by C-Src kinase. Mint1 causes APP accumulation in the trans-Golgi network, whereas inhibition of Src or mutation of Mint1-Y202 permits APP recycling. The phosphorylation status of Mint1 could impact on the pathological trafficking of APP in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26865271

  19. Trafficking of the Follitropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Dias, James A.; Bousfield, George; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Reiter, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The follitropin or follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is mainly expressed in specific cells in the gonads. As any other GPCR, the newly synthesized FSHR has to be correctly folded and processed in order to traffic to the cell surface plasma membrane and interact with its cognate ligand. In this chapter, we describe in detail the conditions and procedures used to study outward trafficking of the FSHR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We also describe some methods to analyze phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, internalization, and recycling of this particular receptor, which have proved useful in our hands for dissecting its downward trafficking and fate following agonist stimulation. PMID:23351732

  20. Biopolitical management, economic calculation and "trafficked women".

    PubMed

    Berman, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Narratives surrounding human trafficking, especially trafficking in women for sex work, employ gendered and racialized tropes that have among their effects, a shrouding of women's economic decision-making and state collusion in benefiting from their labour. This paper explores the operation of these narratives in order to understand the ways in which they mask the economics of trafficking by sensationalizing the sexual and criminal aspects of it, which in turn allows the state to pursue political projects under the guise of a benevolent concern for trafficked women and/or protection of its own citizens. This paper will explore one national example: Article 18 of Italian Law 40 (1998). I argue that its passage has led to an increase in cooperation with criminal prosecution of traffickers largely because it approaches trafficked women as capable of making decisions about how and what they themselves want to do. This paper will also consider a more global approach to trafficking embedded in the concept of "migration management", an International Organization for Migration (IOM) framework that is now shaping EU, US and other national immigration laws and policies that impact trafficking. It will also examine the inherent limitations of both the national and global approach as an occasion to unpack how Article 18 and Migration Management function as forms of biopolitical management that participate in the production of "trafficking victims" into a massified population to be managed, rather than engender a more engaged discussion of what constitutes trafficking and how to redress it. PMID:20645471

  1. Protein kinase C epsilon is localized to the Golgi via its zinc-finger domain and modulates Golgi function.

    PubMed Central

    Lehel, C; Olah, Z; Jakab, G; Anderson, W B

    1995-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of serine/threonine kinases that are central to many signal transduction pathways. Among the PKC isozymes, only PKC epsilon has been reported to exhibit full oncogenic potential. PKC epsilon also displays unique substrate specificity and intracellular localization. To examine the interrelationship between the biological effects and domain structure of PKC epsilon, NIH 3T3 cells were stably transfected to overexpress different epitope-tagged fragments of PKC epsilon. The overexpressed proteins each contain the epsilon-tag peptide at the C terminus to allow ready detection with an antibody specific for the tag. The holo-PKC epsilon was found to localize with the Golgi network and other compartments, whereas the zinc-finger domain localized exclusively at the Golgi. Golgi-specific glycosaminoglycan sulfation was strongly inhibited in cells overexpressing either holo-PKC epsilon or its zinc-finger domain, while the secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans into the medium was impaired in cells expressing the PKC epsilon zinc-finger domain. Thus, these results suggest that PKC epsilon may be involved in specifically regulating Golgi-related processes. Further, the results indicate that PKC epsilon domains other than the kinase domain may also have biological activity and that the zinc-finger domain may function as a subcellular localization signal. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7877991

  2. Agonist-trafficking and hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    González-Maeso, Javier; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2009-01-01

    Seven transmembrane domain receptors, also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), represent the most common molecular target for therapeutic drugs. The generally accepted pharmacological model for GPCR activation is the ternary complex model, in which GPCRs exist in a dynamic equilibrium between the active and inactive conformational states. However, the demonstration that different agonists sometimes elicit a different relative activation of two signaling pathways downstream of the same receptor has led to a revision of the ternary complex model. According to this agonist- trafficking model, agonists stabilize distinct activated receptor conformations that preferentially activate specific signaling pathways. Hallucinogenic drugs and non-hallucinogenic drugs represent an attractive experimental system with which to study agonist-trafficking of receptor signaling. Thus many of the behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin or mescaline, depend on activation of serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT2ARs). In contrast, this neuropsychological state in humans is not induced by closely related chemicals, such as lisuride or ergotamine, despite their similar in vitro activity at the 5-HT2AR. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, as well as unresolved questions, regarding agonist-trafficking and the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. PMID:19275609

  3. Viral Subversion of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Melanie L.; Mata, Miguel A.; Sakthivel, Ramanavelan; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking of proteins and RNA into and out of the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to its critical function in many cellular processes, the NPC and transport factors are common targets of several viruses that disrupt key constituents of the machinery to facilitate viral replication. Many viruses such as poliovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus inhibit protein import into the nucleus, while viruses such as influenza A virus target and disrupt host mRNA nuclear export. Current evidence indicates that these viruses may employ such strategies to avert the host immune response. Conversely, many viruses co-opt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to facilitate transport of viral RNAs. Since viral proteins interact with key regulators of the host nuclear transport machinery, viruses have served as invaluable tools of discovery that led to the identification of novel constituents of nuclear transport pathways. In addition, this review explores the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis as these studies revealed new antiviral therapeutic strategies and exposed previously unknown cellular mechanisms. Further understanding of nuclear transport pathways will determine whether such therapeutics will be useful treatments for important human pathogens. PMID:24289861

  4. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. PMID:20550943

  5. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, C; Häusler, T; Blattner, J

    1995-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoa infect hosts ranging from invertebrates to plants and mammals, causing diseases of medical and economic importance. They are the earliest-branching organisms in eucaryotic evolution to have either mitochondria or peroxisome-like microbodies. Investigation of their protein trafficking enables us to identify characteristics that have been conserved throughout eucaryotic evolution and also reveals how far variations, or alternative mechanisms, are possible. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastids is in many respects similar to that in higher eucaryotes, including mammals and yeasts. Differences in signal sequence specificities exist, however, for all subcellular locations so far examined in detail--microbodies, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum--with signals being more degenerate, or shorter, than those of their higher eucaryotic counterparts. Some components of the normal array of trafficking mechanisms may be missing in most (if not all) kinetoplastids: examples are clathrin-coated vesicles, recycling receptors, and mannose 6-phosphate-mediated lysosomal targeting. Other aspects and structures are unique to the kinetoplastids or are as yet unexplained. Some of these peculiarities may eventually prove to be weak points that can be used as targets for chemotherapy; others may turn out to be much more widespread than currently suspected. PMID:7565409

  6. Implication of mouse Vps26b-Vps29-Vps35 retromer complex in sortilin trafficking.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ekyune; Lee, Youngjeon; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ji Su; Song, Bong-Seok; Huh, Jae-Won; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hong, Yonggeun; Shim, Insop; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2010-12-10

    The retromer complex, which mediates retrograde transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network, is a heteropentameric complex that contains a multifunctional cargo recognition heterotrimer consisted of the vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) subunits Vps26, Vps29, and Vps35. In mammals, there are two different isoforms of Vps26, Vps26a and Vps26b, that localize to the endosome, and to the plasma membrane, respectively. To elucidate the biological significance of the Vps26b isoform, we generated Vps26b knockout mice and studied their molecular, histological, and behavioral phenotypes. We found that the loss of Vps26b results in no significant defects in the behavior, body size, and health of the mice. Vps26b-deficient mice showed a severe reduction of Vps35 protein at cellular level and lacked the Vps26b-Vps29-Vps35 retromer complex, despite the normal presence of the Vps26a-Vps29-Vps35 retromer complex. Relatively, the amount of sortilin was increased approximately 20% in the Vps26b-deficient mice, whereas the sorLA was normal. These results suggest that mouse Vps26b-Vps29-Vps35 retromer complex is implicated in the transport of sortilin from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). PMID:21040701

  7. Partitioning of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis in living HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Shima, D T; Haldar, K; Pepperkok, R; Watson, R; Warren, G

    1997-06-16

    The Golgi apparatus of HeLa cells was fluorescently tagged with a green fluorescent protein (GFP), localized by attachment to the NH2-terminal retention signal of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (NAGT I). The location was confirmed by immunogold and immunofluorescence microscopy using a variety of Golgi markers. The behavior of the fluorescent Golgi marker was observed in fixed and living mitotic cells using confocal microscopy. By metaphase, cells contained a constant number of Golgi fragments dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Conventional and cryoimmunoelectron microscopy showed that the NAGT I-GFP chimera (NAGFP)-positive fragments were tubulo-vesicular mitotic Golgi clusters. Mitotic conversion of Golgi stacks into mitotic clusters had surprisingly little effect on the polarity of Golgi membrane markers at the level of fluorescence microscopy. In living cells, there was little self-directed movement of the clusters in the period from metaphase to early telophase. In late telophase, the Golgi ribbon began to be reformed by a dynamic process of congregation and tubulation of the newly inherited Golgi fragments. The accuracy of partitioning the NAGFP-tagged Golgi was found to exceed that expected for a stochastic partitioning process. The results provide direct evidence for mitotic clusters as the unit of partitioning and suggest that precise regulation of the number, position, and compartmentation of mitotic membranes is a critical feature for the ordered inheritance of the Golgi apparatus. PMID:9182657

  8. The ubiquitin ligase HACE1 regulates Golgi membrane dynamics during the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Danming; Xiang, Yi; De Renzis, Stefano; Rink, Jochen; Zheng, Gen; Zerial, Marino; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning of the Golgi membrane into daughter cells during mammalian cell division occurs through a unique disassembly and reassembly process that is regulated by ubiquitination. However, the identity of the ubiquitin ligase is unknown. Here we show that the Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus (HECT) domain containing ubiquitin ligase HACE1 is targeted to the Golgi membrane through interactions with Rab proteins. The ubiquitin ligase activity of HACE1 in mitotic Golgi disassembly is required for subsequent postmitotic Golgi membrane fusion. Depletion of HACE1 using small interfering RNAs or expression of an inactive HACE1 mutant protein in cells impaired postmitotic Golgi membrane fusion. The identification of HACE1 as a Golgi-localized ubiquitin ligase provides evidence that ubiquitin has a critical role in Golgi biogenesis during the cell cycle. PMID:21988917

  9. Retrograde crossing for chronic total occlusion lesions: the Japanese way.

    PubMed

    Takano, Masamichi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions remains one of the major challenges in the field of interventional cardiology. Crossing guidewires through the CTO lesions has been conventionally performed from the proximal arteries to the lesions as an antegrade approach. To date, a retrograde approach, to penetrate PCI devices including guidewires and balloons into the distal end of CTO lesions via collateral vessels or coronary artery bypass grafts, has been attempted in order to achieve procedural success. With introduction of the retrograde approach for treatments of CTO lesions, several kinds of devices, techniques, and strategies have been developed. Although the techniques and strategies for the retrograde approach have not been worldwide accepted to interventional cardiologists, we introduce a way to obtain recanalization of the CTO lesions using the retrograde approach in this article. PMID:19276488

  10. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Kun Da; Tan, Seck Guan; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  11. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Bassilakis, R.; Kroo, E.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the proposed processing schemes for improving liquefaction yields involve favoring bond-breaking and radical stabilization reactions over the retrograde reactions. The retrograde reactions are often encountered before liquefaction temperatures are reached. The objective of this program is to elucidate and model the retrograde reaction chemistry in direct coal liquefaction through the application of experimental techniques and theoretical models which have been successfully employed at Advanced Fuel Research (AFR) and SRI International (a subcontractor) to understand and predict coal reaction behavior. The study of retrograde reactions is being done using an integrated approach using extensive characterization of the liquefaction chemistry of three kinds of systems: (1) model polymers; (2) coal; and (3) modified coals.

  12. Retrograde Melting and Internal Liquid Gettering in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hudelson, Steve; Newman, Bonna K.; Bernardis, Sarah; Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-07-01

    Retrograde melting (melting upon cooling) is observed in silicon doped with 3d transition metals, via synchrotron-based temperature-dependent X-ray microprobe measurements. Liquid metal-silicon droplets formed via retrograde melting act as efficient sinks for metal impurities dissolved within the silicon matrix. Cooling results in decomposition of the homogeneous liquid phase into solid multiple-metal alloy precipitates. These phenomena represent a novel pathway for engineering impurities in semiconductor-based systems.

  13. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in cross-fused ectopic kidney.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Resorlu, Berkan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are fused and located on the same side. We report a case of right-to-left cross-fused renal ectopia and nephrolithiasis, in whom retrograde intrarenal surgery was used to treat the stone disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case of retrograde intrarenal surgery of a crossed-fused ectopic kidney. PMID:25481231

  14. PAQR3 regulates Golgi vesicle fission and transport via the Gβγ-PKD signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hewavitharana, Thamara; Wedegaertner, Philip B

    2015-12-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins function at diverse subcellular locations, in addition to canonical signaling at the plasma membrane (PM). Gβγ signals at the Golgi, via protein kinase D (PKD), to regulate fission of PM-destined vesicles. However, the mechanism by which Gβγ is regulated at the Golgi in this process remains elusive. Recent studies have revealed that PAQR3 (Progestin and AdipoQ Receptor 3), also called RKTG (Raf Kinase Trapping to the Golgi), interacts with the Gβ subunit and localizes Gβ to the Golgi thereby inhibiting Gβγ signaling at the PM. Herein we show that, in contrast to this inhibition of canonical Gβγ signaling at the PM, PAQR3 promotes Gβγ signaling at the Golgi. Expression of PAQR3 causes fragmentation of the Golgi, while a Gβ binding-deficient mutant of PAQR3 does not cause Golgi fragmentation. Also, a C-terminal fragment of GRK2 (GRK2ct), which interacts with Gβγ and inhibits Gβγ signaling, and gallein, a small molecule inhibitor of Gβγ, are both able to inhibit PAQR3-mediated Golgi fragmentation. Furthermore, a dominant negative form of PKD (PKD-DN) and a pharmacological inhibitor of PKD, Gö6976, also inhibit PAQR3-mediated fragmentation of the Golgi. Importantly, expression of the Gβ binding-deficient mutant of PAQR3 inhibits the constitutive transport of the model cargo protein VSV-G from the Golgi to the PM, indicating the involvement of PAQR3 in Golgi-to PM vesicle transport and a dominant negative role for this mutant. Collectively, these results reveal a novel role for the newly characterized, Golgi-localized PAQR3 in regulating Gβγ at the non-canonical subcellular location of the Golgi and thus for controlling Golgi-to-PM protein transport via the Gβγ-PKD signaling pathway. PMID:26327583

  15. Analysis of GPCR Localization and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, James N.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Localization and trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is increasingly recognized to play a fundamental role in receptor-mediated signaling and its regulation. Individual receptors, including closely homologous subtypes with otherwise similar functional properties, can differ considerably in their membrane trafficking properties. In this chapter, we describe several approaches for experimentally assessing the subcellular localization and trafficking of selected GPCRs. Firstly, we describe a flexible method for receptor localization using fluorescence microscopy. We then describe two complementary approaches, using fluorescence flow cytometry and surface biotinylation, for examining receptor internalization and trafficking in the endocytic pathway. PMID:21607873

  16. The ER-Membrane Transport System Is Critical for Intercellular Trafficking of the NSm Movement Protein and Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhike; Xue, Fan; Xu, Min; Chen, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Wenyang; Garcia-Murria, Maria J; Mingarro, Ismael; Liu, Yong; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Zhu, Min; Tao, Xiaorong

    2016-02-01

    Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata to infect new cells. The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is interconnected among cells via the ER desmotubule in the plasmodesma across the cell wall, forming a continuous ER network throughout the entire plant. This ER continuity is unique to plants and has been postulated to serve as a platform for the intercellular trafficking of macromolecules. In the present study, the contribution of the plant ER membrane transport system to the intercellular trafficking of the NSm movement protein and Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is investigated. We showed that TSWV NSm is physically associated with the ER membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. An NSm-GFP fusion protein transiently expressed in single leaf cells was trafficked into neighboring cells. Mutations in NSm that impaired its association with the ER or caused its mis-localization to other subcellular sites inhibited cell-to-cell trafficking. Pharmacological disruption of the ER network severely inhibited NSm-GFP trafficking but not GFP diffusion. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant rhd3 with an impaired ER network, NSm-GFP trafficking was significantly reduced, whereas GFP diffusion was not affected. We also showed that the ER-to-Golgi secretion pathway and the cytoskeleton transport systems were not involved in the intercellular trafficking of TSWV NSm. Importantly, TSWV cell-to-cell spread was delayed in the ER-defective rhd3 mutant, and this reduced viral infection was not due to reduced replication. On the basis of robust biochemical, cellular and genetic analysis, we established that the ER membrane transport system serves as an important direct route for intercellular trafficking of NSm and TSWV. PMID:26863622

  17. The ER-Membrane Transport System Is Critical for Intercellular Trafficking of the NSm Movement Protein and Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhike; Xue, Fan; Xu, Min; Chen, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Wenyang; Garcia-Murria, Maria J.; Mingarro, Ismael; Liu, Yong; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Zhu, Min; Tao, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata to infect new cells. The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is interconnected among cells via the ER desmotubule in the plasmodesma across the cell wall, forming a continuous ER network throughout the entire plant. This ER continuity is unique to plants and has been postulated to serve as a platform for the intercellular trafficking of macromolecules. In the present study, the contribution of the plant ER membrane transport system to the intercellular trafficking of the NSm movement protein and Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is investigated. We showed that TSWV NSm is physically associated with the ER membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. An NSm-GFP fusion protein transiently expressed in single leaf cells was trafficked into neighboring cells. Mutations in NSm that impaired its association with the ER or caused its mis-localization to other subcellular sites inhibited cell-to-cell trafficking. Pharmacological disruption of the ER network severely inhibited NSm-GFP trafficking but not GFP diffusion. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant rhd3 with an impaired ER network, NSm-GFP trafficking was significantly reduced, whereas GFP diffusion was not affected. We also showed that the ER-to-Golgi secretion pathway and the cytoskeleton transport systems were not involved in the intercellular trafficking of TSWV NSm. Importantly, TSWV cell-to-cell spread was delayed in the ER-defective rhd3 mutant, and this reduced viral infection was not due to reduced replication. On the basis of robust biochemical, cellular and genetic analysis, we established that the ER membrane transport system serves as an important direct route for intercellular trafficking of NSm and TSWV. PMID:26863622

  18. Camillo Golgi on the structure of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Swanson, L W

    1999-08-01

    Golgi's only paper on the pes Hippocampi major was published in 1883 and then reprinted and translated a number of times. In it he stated that the fascia dentata provided the best information available to date on how nerve fibers and nerve cells are related. Based on the revolutionary silver chromate method he had introduced a decade earlier, Golgi described two sources of axons from the fascia dentata: one consisted of direct axons from the granule cells, and the other coonsisted of indirect axons from a diffuse neural net or reticulum that was generated from collaterals of the direct axons. The same basic arrangement was described for Ammon's horn, but neither was illustrated, and it is important to bear in mind that this work was published before the "neuron doctrine" and "law of functional polarity" were elaborated in the 1890's. PMID:11624297

  19. Rac Regulates Giardia lamblia Encystation by Coordinating Cyst Wall Protein Trafficking and Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Krtková, Jana; Thomas, Elizabeth B.; Alas, Germain C. M.; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Behjatnia, Habib R.; Hehl, Adrian B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Encystation of the common intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia involves the production, trafficking, and secretion of cyst wall material (CWM). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of these sequential processes remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of GlRac, Giardia’s sole Rho family GTPase, in the regulation of endomembrane organization and cyst wall protein (CWP) trafficking. Localization studies indicated that GlRac is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus-like encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs). Constitutive GlRac signaling increased levels of the ER marker PDI2, induced ER swelling, reduced overall CWP1 production, and promoted the early maturation of ESVs. Quantitative analysis of cells expressing constitutively active hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged GlRac (HA-RacCA) revealed fewer but larger ESVs than control cells. Consistent with the phenotype of premature maturation of ESVs in HA-RacCA-expressing cells, constitutive GlRac signaling resulted in increased CWP1 secretion and, conversely, morpholino depletion of GlRac blocked CWP1 secretion. Wild-type cells unexpectedly secreted large quantities of CWP1 into the medium, and free CWP1 was used cooperatively during cyst formation. These results, in part, could account for the previously reported observation that G. lamblia encysts more efficiently at high cell densities. These studies of GlRac show that it regulates encystation at several levels, and our findings support its coordinating role as a regulator of CWP trafficking and secretion. The central role of GlRac in regulating membrane trafficking and the cytoskeleton, both of which are essential to Giardia parasitism, further suggests its potential as a novel target for drug development to treat giardiasis. PMID:27555307

  20. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography during pregnancy without radiation

    PubMed Central

    Akcakaya, Adem; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Okan, Ismail; Kocaman, Orhan; Sahin, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To present our experience with pregnant patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) without using radiation, and to evaluate the acceptability of this alternative therapeutic pathway for ERCP during pregnancy. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2008, six pregnant women underwent seven ERCP procedures. ERCP was performed under mild sedoanalgesia induced with pethidine HCl and midazolam. The bile duct was cannulated with a guidewire through the papilla. A catheter was slid over the guidewire and bile aspiration and/or visualization of the bile oozing around the guidewire was used to confirm correct cannulation. Following sphincterotomy, the bile duct was cleared by balloon sweeping. When indicated, stents were placed. Confirmation of successful biliary cannulation and stone extraction was made by laboratory, radiological and clinical improvement. Neither fluoroscopy nor spot radiography was used during the procedure. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 28 years (range, 21-33 years). The mean gestational age for the fetus was 23 wk (range, 14-34 wk). Five patients underwent ERCP because of choledocholithiasis and/or choledocholithiasis-induced acute cholangitis. In one case, a stone was extracted after precut papillotomy with a needle-knife, since the stone was impacted. One patient had ERCP because of persistent biliary fistula after hepatic hydatid disease surgery. Following sphincterotomy, scoleces were removed from the common bile duct. Two weeks later, because of the absence of fistula closure, repeat ERCP was performed and a stent was placed. The fistula was closed after stent placement. Neither post-ERCP complications nor premature birth or abortion was seen. CONCLUSION: Non-radiation ERCP in experienced hands can be performed during pregnancy. Stent placement should be considered in cases for which complete common bile duct clearance is dubious because of a lack of visualization of the biliary tree. PMID:19653343

  1. Yeast Golgi-localized, gamma-Ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins are but adaptor protein-1 is not required for cell-free transport of membrane proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the prevacuolar compartment.

    PubMed

    Abazeed, Mohamed E; Fuller, Robert S

    2008-11-01

    Golgi-localized, gamma-Ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN-PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the beta subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Delta membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Delta mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  2. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN–PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the β subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Δ membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Δ mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  3. Serum- and Glucocorticoid-Inducible Kinase-1 (SGK-1) Plays a Role in Membrane Trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ming; Wu, Gang; Li, Yu-Xin; Stevens, Julia Kathrin; Fan, Chao-Xuan; Spang, Anne; Dong, Meng-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1 regulates the endocytosis of ion channels. Here we report that in C. elegans sgk-1 null mutants, GFP-tagged MIG-14/Wntless, the sorting receptor of Wnt, failed to localize to the basolateral membrane of intestinal cells; instead, it was mis-sorted to lysosomes. This effect can be explained in part by altered sphingolipid levels, because reducing glucosylceramide biosynthesis restored the localization of MIG-14::GFP. Membrane traffic was not perturbed in general, as no obvious morphological defects were detected for early endosomes, the Golgi apparatus, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in sgk-1 null animals. The recycling of MIG-14/Wntless through the Golgi might be partially responsible for the observed phenotype because the subcellular distribution of two plasma membrane cargoes that do not recycle through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) was affected to a lesser degree. Consistently, knockdown of the ArfGEF gbf-1 altered the distribution of SGK-1 at the basolateral membrane of intestinal cells. In addition, we found that sgk-1(RNAi) induced unfolded protein response in the ER, suggesting at least an indirect role of SGK-1 early in the secretory pathway. We propose that SGK-1 function is required for lipid homeostasis and that it acts at different intracellular trafficking steps. PMID:26115433

  4. The Fragile Fiber1 Kinesin Contributes to Cortical Microtubule-Mediated Trafficking of Cell Wall Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I.; McClosky, Daniel D.; Anderson, Charles T.; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A.; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  5. Cellular trafficking of quantum dot-ligand bioconjugates and their induction of changes in normal routing of unconjugated ligands.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Christina; Deurs, Bo van; Sandvig, Kirsten; Iversen, Tore-Geir

    2008-07-01

    Can quantum dots (Qdots) act as relevant intracellular probes to investigate routing of ligands in live cells? The intracellular trafficking of Qdots that were coupled to the plant toxin ricin, Shiga toxin, or the ligand transferrin (Tf) was studied by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The Tf:Qdots were internalized by clathrin-dependent endocytosis as fast as Tf, but their recycling was blocked. Unlike Shiga toxin, the Shiga:Qdot bioconjugate was not routed to the Golgi apparatus. The internalized ricin:Qdot bioconjugates localized to the same endosomes as ricin itself but could not be visualized in the Golgi apparatus. Importantly, we find that the endosomal accumulation of ricin:Qdots affects endosome-to-Golgi transport of both ricin and Shiga toxin: Transport of ricin was reduced whereas transport of Shiga toxin was increased. In conclusion, the data reveal that, although coupling of Qdots to a ligand does not necessarily change the endocytic pathway normally used by the ligands studied, it appears that the ligand-coupled Qdot nanoparticles can be arrested within endosomes and somehow perturb the normal endosomal sorting in cells. Thus, the results demonstrate that Qdots may have severe consequences on cell physiology. PMID:18570482

  6. Coordinated Lipid Transfer between the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Complex Requires the VAP Proteins and Is Essential for Golgi-mediated Transport

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Diego; Dahan, Nili; Shimoni, Eyal; Hirschberg, Koret

    2008-01-01

    Lipid transport between intracellular organelles is mediated by vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms and is critical for maintaining the identities of different cellular membranes. Nonvesicular lipid transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex has been proposed to affect the lipid composition of the Golgi membranes. Here, we show that the integral ER–membrane proteins VAP-A and VAP-B affect the structural and functional integrity of the Golgi complex. Depletion of VAPs by RNA interference reduces the levels of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), diacylglycerol, and sphingomyelin in the Golgi membranes, and it leads to substantial inhibition of Golgi-mediated transport events. These effects are coordinately mediated by the lipid-transfer/binding proteins Nir2, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), and ceramide-transfer protein (CERT), which interact with VAPs via their FFAT motif. The effect of VAPs on PI4P levels is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein Nir2, which is required for Golgi targeting of OSBP and CERT and the subsequent production of diacylglycerol and sphingomyelin. We propose that Nir2, OSBP, and CERT function coordinately at the ER–Golgi membrane contact sites, thereby affecting the lipid composition of the Golgi membranes and consequently their structural and functional identities. PMID:18614794

  7. Mechanisms and Regulation of the Mitotic Inheritance of the Golgi Complex

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Carmen; Colanzi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi complex is structured in the form of a continuous membranous system composed of stacks connected by tubular bridges: the “Golgi ribbon.” At the onset of mitosis, the Golgi complex undergoes a multi-step fragmentation process that is required for its correct partition into the dividing cells. Importantly, inhibition of Golgi disassembly results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2 stage, which indicates that accurate inheritance of the Golgi complex is monitored by a “Golgi mitotic checkpoint.” Moreover, mitotic Golgi disassembly correlates with the release of a set of Golgi-localized proteins that acquire specific functions during mitosis, such as mitotic spindle formation and regulation of the spindle checkpoint. Most of these events are regulated by small GTPases of the Arf and Rab families. Here, we review recent studies that are revealing the fundamental mechanisms, the molecular players, and the biological significance of mitotic inheritance of the Golgi complex in mammalian cells. We also briefly comment on how Golgi partitioning is coordinated with mitotic progression. PMID:26734607

  8. Endogenous and monoclonal antibodies to the rat pancreatic acinar cell Golgi complex

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Normal, unimmunized mouse serum from several strains (BALB/c, C57/b, DBA/2, NZB, SJL, CD/1) contains an endogenous IgG antibody that localizes to the Golgi complex of rat pancreatic acinar cells. Treatment of pancreatic acini with 5 microM monensin resulted in the swelling and vacuolization of the Golgi cisternae, and in a corresponding annular staining by the mouse serum as observed by immunofluorescence, suggesting that the antigen recognized is on the Golgi complex cisternal membrane. The antiserum did not react with pancreatic secretory proteins, and its binding to smooth microsomal membranes was retained following sodium carbonate washing, supporting a Golgi membrane localization. Advantage was taken of the existence of the endogenous murine antibody for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies directed to the Golgi complex of the rat pancreas. Two antibodies, antiGolgi 1 and antiGolgi 2, are described. Both antibodies are IgMs that recognize integral membrane proteins of the trans-Golgi cisternae, with lighter and patchy staining of the pancreatic lumen membrane, as observed both by light and electron microscopy. AntiGolgi 1 recognizes predominately a protein of molecular weight 103,000- 108,000, whereas antiGolgi 2 shows a strong reaction to a 180-kd band as well as the 103-108-kd protein. PMID:6373788

  9. Golgi Fragmentation in ALS Motor Neurons. New Mechanisms Targeting Microtubules, Tethers, and Transport Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Georg; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Pathological alterations of the Golgi apparatus, such as its fragmentation represent an early pre-clinical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases and have been widely studied in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained cryptic. In principle, Golgi fragmentation may result from defects in three major classes of proteins: structural Golgi proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and molecular motors, as well as proteins mediating transport to and through the Golgi. Here, we present the different mechanisms that may underlie Golgi fragmentation in animal and cellular models of ALS linked to mutations in SOD1, TARDBP (TDP-43), VAPB, and C9Orf72 and we propose a novel one based on findings in progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mice. These mice are mutated in the TBCE gene encoding the cis-Golgi localized tubulin-binding cofactor E, one of five chaperones that assist in tubulin folding and microtubule polymerization. Loss of TBCE leads to alterations in Golgi microtubules, which in turn impedes on the maintenance of the Golgi architecture. This is due to down-regulation of COPI coat components, dispersion of Golgi tethers and strong accumulation of ER-Golgi SNAREs. These effects are partially rescued by the GTPase ARF1 through recruitment of TBCE to the Golgi. We hypothesize that defects in COPI vesicles, microtubules and their interaction may also underlie Golgi fragmentation in human ALS linked to other mutations, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and related motor neuron diseases. We also discuss the functional relevance of pathological Golgi alterations, in particular their potential causative, contributory, or compensatory role in the degeneration of motor neuron cell bodies, axons and synapses. PMID:26696811

  10. p24 family proteins: key players in the regulation of trafficking along the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Cantizano, Noelia; Montesinos, Juan Carlos; Bernat-Silvestre, César; Marcote, María Jesús; Aniento, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    p24 family proteins have been known for a long time, but their functions have remained elusive. However, they are emerging as essential regulators of protein trafficking along the secretory pathway, influencing the composition, structure, and function of different organelles in the pathway, especially the ER and the Golgi apparatus. In addition, they appear to modulate the transport of specific cargos, including GPI-anchored proteins, G-protein-coupled receptors, or K/HDEL ligands. As a consequence, they have been shown to play specific roles in signaling, development, insulin secretion, and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The search of new putative ligands may open the way to discover new functions for this fascinating family of proteins. PMID:26224213

  11. A Role for Phospholipase A2 Activity in Membrane Tubule Formation and TGN Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, John A.; Kalkofen, Danielle N.; Donovan, Kirk W.; Brown, William J.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in generating membrane tubules at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Constitutive TGN membrane tubules and those induced by over-expressing kinase dead protein kinase D were inhibited by the PLA2 inhibitors ONO-RS-082 (ONO) and bromoenol lactone. These antagonists also inhibited secretory delivery of both soluble and transmembrane cargoes. Finally, use of the reversible antagonist ONO and time-lapse imaging revealed for the first time that PLA2 antagonists inhibit the initiation of membrane tubule formation at the TGN. Thus, PLA2 enzymes appear to have an important role in the earliest steps of membrane tubule formation at the TGN, which are utilized for membrane trafficking. PMID:20874826

  12. Vesicular transport and the Golgi apparatus in yeast.

    PubMed

    Yoda, K; Noda, Y

    2001-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have developed a complex intracellular membrane system to divide the cell into various compartments where specific biochemical reactions are efficiently conducted locally. They also have developed systems to deliver appropriate materials to each specific compartment. Vesicular transport is a delivery system that also links most of the main organelles in the cell. The Golgi apparatus occupies the central position of the traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum and the endosome/vacuole/plasma membrane by maturating and sorting delivery of materials. Every important feature of vesicular transport has been identified by studying the Golgi apparatus, and the unicellular microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an extremely excellent material for this study. Cycles of production and consumption of the transport vesicles by sorting the cargo, budding from the donor, tethering, docking and fusion to the target can now be explained to a large extent at the molecular level. The functional and structural aspects of the Golgi have also been well studied in the last decade. PMID:16232937

  13. Optical Control of Peroxisomal Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Spiltoir, Jessica I; Strickland, Devin; Glotzer, Michael; Tucker, Chandra L

    2016-07-15

    The blue-light-responsive LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin1 (AsLOV2) has been used to regulate activity and binding of diverse protein targets with light. Here, we used AsLOV2 to photocage a peroxisomal targeting sequence, allowing light regulation of peroxisomal protein import. We generated a protein tag, LOV-PTS1, that can be appended to proteins of interest to direct their import to the peroxisome with light. This method provides a means to inducibly trigger peroxisomal protein trafficking in specific cells at user-defined times. PMID:26513473

  14. Mitigation of nociception via transganglionic degenerative atrophy: possible mechanism of vinpocetine-induced blockade of retrograde axoplasmic transport.

    PubMed

    Csillik, Bertalan; Mihály, András; Krisztin-Péva, Beata; Farkas, Ibolya; Knyihár-Csillik, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Vinpocetine, a derivative of vincamine, widely used in the clinical pharmacotherapy of cerebral circulatory diseases, inhibits retrograde axoplasmic transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the peripheral nerve, resulting in transganglionic degenerative atrophy (TDA) in the related ipsilateral superficial spinal dorsal horn, as shown in our previous publications. TDA induced by vinpocetine has been demonstrated to be followed by depletion of the marker enzyme fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) and its isoenzyme thiamine monophosphatase (TMP), and by the decrease in the pain-related neuropeptide substance P from laminae I-II-(III) from the segmentally related, ipsilateral substance of Rolando of the spinal cord. In the present paper, we report on the behavioral effects of perineurally administered vinpocetine. Nociception, induced by intraplantar injection of formalin, was mitigated by vinpocetine; increased expression of c-fos in the ipsilateral, segmentally related upper dorsal horn was also prevented. Since vinpocetine is not a microtubule inhibitor, and its chemical structure differs from that of vincristin and vinblastin (used formerly by us in the therapy of intractable, chronic neuropathic pain), its mode of action is enigmatic. We assume that the effect of vinpocetine in blocking retrograde axoplasmic transport of NGF might be related to its interaction with membrane trafficking proteins, such as signalling endosomes and the endocytosis-mediating "pincher" protein. Temporary, locally restricted decrease of nociception, induced by vinpocetine, might be useful in the clinical treatment of intractable, chronic neuropathic pain, since vinpocetine can successfully be applied by transcutaneous iontophoresis. PMID:18413267

  15. Simultaneous visualization of extrinsic and intrinsic axon collaterals in Golgi-like detail for mouse corticothalamic and corticocortical cells: a double viral infection method

    PubMed Central

    Watakabe, Akiya; Takaji, Masafumi; Kato, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Keiya; Ohsawa, Sonoko; Matsui, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Dai; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a novel tracing technique to stain projection neurons in Golgi-like detail by double viral infection. We used retrograde lentiviral vectors and adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) to drive “TET-ON/TET-OFF system” in neurons connecting two regions. Using this method, we successfully labeled the corticothalamic (CT) cells of the mouse somatosensory barrel field (S1BF) and motor cortex (M1) in their entirety. We also labeled contra- and ipsilaterally-projecting corticocortical (CC) cells of M1 by targeting contralateral M1 or ipsilateral S1 for retrograde infection. The strength of this method is that we can observe the morphology of specific projection neuron subtypes en masse. We found that the group of CT cells extends their dendrites and intrinsic axons extensively below but not within the thalamorecipient layer in both S1BF and M1, suggesting that the primary target of this cell type is not layer 4. We also found that both ipsi- and contralateral targeting CC cells in M1 commonly exhibit widespread collateral extensions to contralateral M1 (layers 1–6), bilateral S1 and S2 (layers 1, 5 and 6), perirhinal cortex (layers 1, 2/3, 5, and 6), striatum and claustrum. These findings not only strengthened the previous findings of single cell tracings but also extended them by enabling cross-area comparison of CT cells or comparison of CC cells of two different labeling. PMID:25278843

  16. Association of γ-Secretase with Lipid Rafts in Post-Golgi and Endosome Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Vetrivel, Kulandaivelu S.; Cheng, Haipeng; Lin, William; Sakurai, Takashi; Li, Tong; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Wong, Philip C.; Xu, Huaxi; Thinakaran, Gopal

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease-associated β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are generated by the sequential proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. There is growing evidence that cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains are involved in regulating trafficking and processing of APP. BACE1, the major γ-secretase in neurons is a palmi-toylated transmembrane protein that resides in lipid rafts. A subset of APP is subject to amyloidogenic processing by BACE1 in lipid rafts, and this process depends on the integrity of lipid rafts. Here we describe the association of all four components of the γ-secretase complex, namely presenilin 1 (PS1)-derived fragments, mature nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2, with cholesterol-rich detergent insoluble membrane (DIM) domains of non-neuronal cells and neurons that fulfill the criteria of lipid rafts. In PS1−/−/PS2−/− and NCT−/− fibroblasts, γ-secretase components that still remain fail to become detergent-resistant, suggesting that raft association requires γ-secretase complex assembly. Biochemical evidence shows that subunits of the γ-secretase complex and three TGN/endosome-resident SNAREs cofractionate in sucrose density gradients, and show similar solubility or insolubility characteristics in distinct non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents, indicative of their co-residence in membrane microdomains with similar protein-lipid composition. This notion is confirmed using magnetic immunoisolation of PS1- or syntaxin 6-positive membrane patches from a mixture of membranes with similar buoyant densities following Lubrol WX extraction or sonication, and gradient centrifugation. These findings are consistent with the localization of γ-secretase in lipid raft microdomains of post-Golgi and endosomes, organelles previously implicated in amyloidogenic processing of APP. PMID:15322084

  17. AtVPS45 complex formation at the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Bassham, D C; Sanderfoot, A A; Kovaleva, V; Zheng, H; Raikhel, N V

    2000-07-01

    The Sec1p family of proteins are thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle fusion reactions through interaction with t-SNAREs (target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) at the target membrane. AtVPS45 is a member of this family from Arabidopsis thaliana that we now demonstrate to be present on the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where it colocalizes with the vacuolar cargo receptor AtELP. Unlike yeast Vps45p, AtVPS45 does not interact with, or colocalize with, the prevacuolar t-SNARE AtPEP12. Instead, AtVPS45 interacts with two t-SNAREs, AtTLG2a and AtTLG2b, that show similarity to the yeast t-SNARE Tlg2p. AtTLG2a and -b each colocalize with AtVPS45 at the TGN; however, AtTLG2a is in a different region of the TGN than AtTLG2b by immunogold electron microscopy. Therefore, we propose that complexes containing AtVPS45 and either AtTLG2a or -b define functional subdomains of the TGN and may be required for different trafficking events. Among other Arabidopsis SNAREs, AtVPS45 antibodies preferentially coprecipitate AtVTI1b over the closely related isoform AtVTI1a, implying that AtVTI1a and AtVTI1b also have distinct functions within the cell. These data point to a functional complexity within the plant secretory pathway, where proteins encoded by gene families have specialized functions, rather than functional redundancy. PMID:10888666

  18. Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale.

    PubMed

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R; Wilson, Midge

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors. PMID:26834147

  19. Extracellular trafficking of a wheat cold-responsive protein, WLT10.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Ryoko; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-02-01

    A cold-responsive wheat gene, WLT10, encodes a member of the cereal-specific low temperature-responsive/cold-responsive protein family, which contains a hydrophobic N-terminal 20 amino acid sequence that corresponds to signal peptides associated with extracellular trafficking. To verify the subcellular localization of WLT10 and the function of its putative signal peptide, we constructed three chimeric genes in which either the WLT10 signal peptide, a signal peptide with only 6 additional amino acids, or the full-length WLT10 polypeptide was fused to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP). These fusion constructs were transiently introduced into onion epidermal cells by particle bombardment. GFP signals were observed not only in the extracellular space (ECS) but also in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. The time course of GFP signal localization suggests the movement of WLT10 through the ER/Golgi pathway and into the ECS. Thus, WLT10 is a cold-responsive secreted protein, and its N-terminal 20 amino acid region is important for transport to the ECS. PMID:25462969

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Membrane Trafficking in Regulation of Cdc42 Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Leah J.; Rossi, Guendalina; Brennwald, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle delivery of Cdc42 has been proposed as an important mechanism for generating and maintaining Cdc42 polarity at the plasma membrane. This mechanism requires the density of Cdc42 on secretory vesicles to be equal to or higher than the plasma membrane polarity cap. Using a novel method to estimate Cdc42 levels on post-Golgi secretory vesicles in intact yeast cells, we: 1) determined that endocytosis plays an important role in Cdc42’s association with secretory vesicles 2) found that a GFP-tag placed on the N-terminus of Cdc42 negatively impacts this vesicle association and 3) quantified the surface densities of Cdc42 on post-Golgi vesicles which revealed that the vesicle density of Cdc42 is three times more dilute than that at the polarity cap. This work suggests that the immediate consequence of secretory vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane polarity cap is to dilute the local Cdc42 surface density. This provides strong support for the model in which vesicle trafficking acts to negatively regulate Cdc42 polarity on the cell surface while also providing a means to recycle Cdc42 between the cell surface and internal membrane locations. PMID:25158298

  1. Membrane trafficking and organelle biogenesis in Giardia lamblia: use it or lose it.

    PubMed

    Faso, Carmen; Hehl, Adrian B

    2011-04-01

    The secretory transport capacity of Giardia trophozoites is perfectly adapted to the changing environment in the small intestine of the host and is able to deploy essential protective surface coats as well as molecules which act on epithelia. These lumen-dwelling parasites take up nutrients by bulk endocytosis through peripheral vesicles or by receptor-mediated transport. The environmentally-resistant cyst form is quiescent but poised for activation following stomach passage. Its versatility and fidelity notwithstanding, the giardial trafficking systems appear to be the product of a general secondary reduction process geared towards minimization of all components and machineries identified to date. Since membrane transport is directly linked to organelle biogenesis and maintenance, less complexity also means loss of organelle structures and functions. A case in point is the Golgi apparatus which is missing as a steady-state organelle system. Only a few basic Golgi functions have been experimentally demonstrated in trophozoites undergoing encystation. Similarly, mitochondrial remnants have reached a terminally minimized state and appear to be functionally restricted to essential iron-sulfur protein maturation processes. Giardia's minimized organization combined with its genetic tractability provides unique opportunities to study basic principles of secretory transport in an uncluttered cellular environment. Not surprisingly, Giardia is gaining increasing attention as a model for the investigation of gene regulation, organelle biogenesis, and export of simple but highly protective cell wall biopolymers, a hallmark of all perorally transmitted protozoan and metazoan parasites. PMID:21296082

  2. Endocytosis and trafficking of BMP receptors: Regulatory mechanisms for fine-tuning the signaling response in different cellular contexts.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2016-02-01

    Signaling by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors is regulated at multiple levels in order to ensure proper interpretation of BMP stimuli in different cellular settings. As with other signaling receptors, regulation of the amount of exposed and signaling-competent BMP receptors at the plasma-membrane is predicted to be a key mechanism in governing their signaling output. Currently, the endocytosis of BMP receptors is thought to resemble that of the structurally related transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors, as BMP receptors are constitutively internalized (independently of ligand binding), with moderate kinetics, and mostly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Also similar to TGF-β receptors, BMP receptors are able to signal from the plasma membrane, while internalization to endosomes may have a signal modulating effect. When at the plasma membrane, BMP receptors localize to different membrane domains including cholesterol rich domains and caveolae, suggesting a complex interplay between membrane distribution and internalization. An additional layer of complexity stems from the putative regulatory influence on the signaling and trafficking of BMP receptors exerted by ligand traps and/or co-receptors. Furthermore, the trafficking and signaling of BMP receptors are subject to alterations in cellular context. For example, genetic diseases involving changes in the expression of auxiliary factors of endocytic pathways hamper retrograde BMP signals in neurons, and perturb the regulation of synapse formation. This review summarizes current understanding of the trafficking of BMP receptors and discusses the role of trafficking in regulation of BMP signals. PMID:26776724

  3. Examining the Risk of Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya; Severe, William R; Schoeneck, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The need to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials around the world is undeniable and urgent. This issue is particularly evident due to the highly dangerous consequences of the risks involved, the known interest of terrorist groups in acquiring such materials and the vulnerability of theft and diversion of such materials. Yet the phenomenon of nuclear trafficking remains a subject where the unknown dominates what is known on the subject. The trafficking panel at the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Workshop on Reducing the Risk of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials that took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 10-11, 2009, dealt with some of the issues associated with nuclear trafficking. Different points of view on how to better address trafficking and thwart perpetrator efforts were discussed. This paper presents some of these views and addresses practical measures that should be considered to improve the situation.

  4. Immunocytochemical Evidence for Golgi Vesicle Involvement in Milk Fat Globule Secretion.

    PubMed

    Wooding, F B Peter; Sargeant, Timothy J

    2015-12-01

    The exact mechanism of secretion of the milk fat globule (MFG) from the mammary secretory cell is still controversial. We have previously suggested close involvement of Golgi vesicles in this process. This paper provides direct immunocytochemical evidence that butyrophilin is present in the Golgi stack and vesicles in ovine and caprine mammary glands. We suggest that it is the butyrophilin in the Golgi vesicle membrane that forms the specific association with the adipophilin on the lipid surface in the cytoplasm. Exocytosis of the associated Golgi vesicle will then initiate the process of MFG secretion. Further exocytosis of associated Golgi vesicles will continue and complete the process. Areas of the plasmalemma that have butyrophilin delivered by previous non-lipid associated Golgi exocytoses may also contribute to the process of forming the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). PMID:26374828

  5. Localization of LHCP II in the Golgi of synchronized Euglena cells by immuno-electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Osafune, Tetsuaki ); Schiff, J.A. ); Hase, E. )

    1990-05-01

    We have previously localized LHCP II apoprotein in the Golgi thylakoids of Euglena gracilis (bacillaris Z strain) using specific antibody protein A-gold, during plastid development induction of LHCP II synthesis by increased light intensity. Using light/dark synchronized cells we now show that thylakoids are always immunoreactive. There is no reaction in the Golgi at 0 h. (beginning of light period), but immunoreaction appears in the Golgi soon thereafter, rises to a peak at 8 h. declines again to zero by 16 h. (2 h. into the dark period). The peak in immunoreaction in the Golgi immediately precedes the peak in {sup 14}C-labeling of cellular LHCP, supporting our suggestion that processing in the Golgi precedes deposition of LHCP II apoprotein in the thylakoids. Synchronized mutant Gr{sub 1} which lacks LHCP apoprotein fails to show immunoreaction in the Golgi or thylakoids at any stage.

  6. Modulation of Golgi-associated microtubule nucleation throughout the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Ana Rita; Zhu, Xiaodong; Miller, Paul; Gu, Guoqiang; Maiato, Helder; Kaverina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    A microtubule (MT) sub-population that emanates from Golgi membrane has been recently shown to comprise a significant part of MT network in interphase cells. In this study, we address whether Golgi membrane, which is being extensively remodeled throughout the cell cycle, retains its ability to nucleate MTs at diverse cell cycle stages. Live cell imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that Golgi-derived MTs form at multiple stages of the cell cycle, including G1, G2 and distinct phases of mitosis. However, the capacity of Golgi to nucleate MTs in mitosis is strongly down-regulated as compared to interphase, indicating that this property is cell-cycle regulated. We demonstrate that Golgi-derived MTs are indispensable for efficient Golgi assembly in telophase, and speculate that these non-centrosomal MTs may hold specific functions at other cell cycle stages. PMID:23027431

  7. A novel Sec18p/NSF-dependent complex required for Golgi-to-endosome transport in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, C G; Peterson, M; Cowles, C R; Emr, S D

    1997-01-01

    The vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates localization of proteins from the trans-Golgi to the vacuole via a prevacuolar endosome compartment. Mutations in class D vacuolar protein-sorting (vps) genes affect vesicle-mediated Golgi-to-endosome transport and result in secretion of vacuolar proteins. Temperature-sensitive-for-function (tsf) and dominant negative mutations in PEP12, encoding a putative SNARE vesicle receptor on the endosome, and tsf mutations in VAC1, a gene implicated in vacuole inheritance and vacuolar protein sorting, were constructed and used to demonstrate that Pep12p and Vac1p are components of the VPS pathway. The sequence of Vac1p contains two putative zinc-binding RING motifs, a zinc finger motif, and a coiled-coil motif. Site-directed mutations in the carboxyl-terminal RING motif strongly affected vacuolar protein sorting. Vac1p was found to be tightly associated with membranes as a monomer and in a large SDS-resistant complex. By using Pep12p affinity chromatography, we found that Vac1p, Vps45p (SEC1 family member), and Sec18p (yeast N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive factor, NSF) bind Pep12p. Consistent with a functional role for this complex in vacuolar protein sorting, double pep12tsfvac1tsf and pep12tsf vps45tsf mutants exhibited synthetic Vps- phenotypes, the tsf phenotype of the vac1tsf mutant was rescued by overexpression of VPS45 or PEP12, overexpression of a dominant pep12 allele in a sec18-1 strain resulted in a severe synthetic growth defect that was rescued by deletion of PEP12 or VAC1, and subcellular fractionation of vac1 delta cells revealed a striking change in the fractionation of Pep12p and Vps21p, a rab family GTPase required for vacuolar protein sorting. The functions of Pep12p, Vps45p, and Vps21p indicate that key aspects of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking are similar to other vesicle-mediated transport steps, although the role of Vac1p suggests that there are also novel components of the VPS

  8. Use of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 2A Peptide Co-Expression System to Study Intracellular Protein Trafficking in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ötvös, Krisztina; Samuelsson, Göran; Bakó, László

    2012-01-01

    Background A tool for stoichiometric co-expression of effector and target proteins to study intracellular protein trafficking processes has been provided by the so called 2A peptide technology. In this system, the 16–20 amino acid 2A peptide from RNA viruses allows synthesis of multiple gene products from single transcripts. However, so far the use of the 2A technology in plant systems has been limited. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of the 2A peptide technology to study the effects exerted by dominant mutant forms of three small GTPase proteins, RABD2a, SAR1, and ARF1 on intracellular protein trafficking in plant cells. Special emphasis was given to CAH1 protein from Arabidopsis, which is trafficking to the chloroplast via a poorly characterized endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi pathway. Dominant negative mutants for these GTPases were co-expressed with fluorescent marker proteins as polyproteins separated by a 20 residue self-cleaving 2A peptide. Cleavage efficiency analysis of the generated polyproteins showed that functionality of the 2A peptide was influenced by several factors. This enabled us to design constructs with greatly increased cleavage efficiency compared to previous studies. The dominant negative GTPase variants resulting from cleavage of these 2A peptide constructs were found to be stable and active, and were successfully used to study the inhibitory effect on trafficking of the N-glycosylated CAH1 protein through the endomembrane system. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that the 2A peptide is a suitable tool when studying plant intracellular protein trafficking and that transient protoplast and in planta expression of mutant forms of SAR1 and RABD2a disrupts CAH1 trafficking. Similarly, expression of dominant ARF1 mutants also caused inhibition of CAH1 trafficking to a different extent. These results indicate that early trafficking of the plastid glycoprotein CAH1 depends on canonical

  9. Reduction in Golgi apparatus dimension in the absence of a residential protein, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhizhong; Zuber, Christian; Pierce, Michael; Stanley, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Various proteins are involved in the generation and maintenance of the membrane complex known as the Golgi apparatus. We have used mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines Lec4 and Lec4A lacking N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V, MGAT5) activity and protein in the Golgi apparatus to study the effects of the absence of a single glycosyltransferase on the Golgi apparatus dimension. Quantification of immunofluorescence in serial confocal sections for Golgi α-mannosidase II and electron microscopic morphometry revealed a reduction in Golgi volume density up to 49 % in CHO Lec4 and CHO Lec4A cells compared to parental CHO cells. This reduction in Golgi volume density could be reversed by stable transfection of Lec4 cells with a cDNA encoding Mgat5. Inhibition of the synthesis of β1,6-branched N-glycans by swainsonine had no effect on Golgi volume density. In addition, no effect on Golgi volume density was observed in CHO Lec1 cells that contain enzymatically active Glc-NAcT-V, but cannot synthesize β1,6-branched glycans due to an inactive GlcNAcT-I in their Golgi apparatus. These results indicate that it may be the absence of the GlcNAcTV protein that is the determining factor in reducing Golgi volume density. No dimensional differences existed in cross-sectioned cisternal stacks between Lec4 and control CHO cells, but significantly reduced Golgi stack hits were observed in cross-sectioned Lec4 cells. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus dimensional change in Lec4 and Lec4A cells may be due to a compaction of the organelle. PMID:24078077

  10. TMF/ARA160 Governs the Dynamic Spatial Orientation of the Golgi Apparatus during Sperm Development

    PubMed Central

    Elkis, Yoav; Bel, Shai; Rahimi, Roni; Lerer-Goldstein, Tali; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Babushkin, Tatiana; Shpungin, Sally; Nir, Uri

    2015-01-01

    TMF/ARA160 is known to be a TATA element Modulatory Factor (TMF). It was initially identified as a DNA-binding factor and a coactivator of the Androgen receptor. It was also characterized as a Golgi-associated protein, which is essential for acrosome formation during functional sperm development. However, the molecular roles of TMF in this intricate process have not been revealed. Here, we show that during spermiogenesis, TMF undergoes a dynamic change of localization throughout the Golgi apparatus. Specifically, TMF translocates from the cis-Golgi to the trans-Golgi network and to the emerging vesicles surface, as the round spermatids develop. Notably, lack of TMF led to an abnormal spatial orientation of the Golgi and to the deviation of the trans-Golgi surface away from the nucleus of the developing round spermatids. Concomitantly, pro-acrosomal vesicles derived from the TMF-/- Golgi lacked targeting properties and did not tether to the spermatid nuclear membrane thereby failing to form the acrosome anchoring scaffold, the acroplaxome, around the cell-nucleus. Absence of TMF also perturbed the positioning of microtubules, which normally lie in proximity to the Golgi and are important for maintaining Golgi spatial orientation and dynamics and for chromatoid body formation, which is impaired in TMF-/- spermatids. In-silico evaluation combined with molecular and electron microscopic analyses revealed the presence of a microtubule interacting domain (MIT) in TMF, and confirmed the association of TMF with microtubules in spermatogenic cells. Furthermore, the MIT domain in TMF, along with microtubules integrity, are required for stable association of TMF with the Golgi apparatus. Collectively, we show here for the first time that a Golgi and microtubules associated protein is crucial for maintaining proper Golgi orientation during a cell developmental process. PMID:26701263

  11. Study of the prograde and retrograde Chandler excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, , L.; Bizouard, , C.

    2014-12-01

    Observed motion of the Earth's rotation axis consists of components at both positive and negative frequencies. New generalized equations of Bizouard, which takes into account triaxiality of the Earth and asymmetry of the ocean tide, show that retrograde and prograde excitations are coupled. In this work using designed narrow-band filter and inversion we reconstruct geodetic excitation at the prograde and retrograde Chandler frequencies. Then we compare it with geophysical excitation, filtered out from the series of the oceanic angular momentum (OAM) and atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) for 1960-2000 yrs. Their sum coincides well with geodetic excitation only in the prograde Chandler band. The retrograde excitation coincides worse, probably in result of amplification of observational noises.

  12. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-12-17

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the understanding of retrograde reactions and their dependencies on coal rank and structure, and/or coal modifications and reaction conditions. Because retrograde reactions are competitive with bond breaking reactions, an understanding of both is required to shift the competition in favor of the latter. Related objectives were to clarify the conflicting observations reported in literature on such major topics as the role of oxygen groups in retrograde reactions and to provide a bridge from very fundamental studies on pure compounds to phenomenological studies on actual coal. This information was integrated into the FG-DVC model, which was improved and extended to the liquefaction context.

  13. The Ubiquitin Ligase CBLC Maintains the Network Organization of the Golgi Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Joanne; Boey, Adrian; Gunko, Natalia V.; Bard, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the sorting and post-translational modifications of secreted and membrane proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi is organized in stacks of cisternae linked together to form a network with a ribbon shape. Regulation of Golgi ribbon formation is poorly understood. Here we find in an image-based RNAi screen that depletion of the ubiquitin-ligase CBLC induces Golgi fragmentation. Depletions of the close homologues CBL and CBLB do not induce any visible defects. In CBLC-depleted cells, Golgi stacks appear relatively unperturbed at both the light and electron microscopy levels, suggesting that CBLC controls mostly network organization. CBLC partially localizes on Golgi membranes and this localization is enhanced after activation of the SRC kinase. Inhibition of SRC reverts CBLC depletion effects, suggesting interplay between the two. CBLC’s regulation of Golgi network requires its ubiquitin ligase activity. However, SRC levels are not significantly affected by CBLC, and CBLC knockdown does not phenocopy SRC activation, suggesting that CBLC’s action at the Golgi is not direct downregulation of SRC. Altogether, our results demonstrate a role of CBLC in regulating Golgi ribbon by antagonizing the SRC tyrosine kinase. PMID:26393512

  14. The First Transmembrane Domain of Lipid Phosphatase SAC1 Promotes Golgi Localization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinzhi; Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A.; Mayinger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The lipid phosphatase Sac1 cycles between endoplasmic reticulum and cisternal Golgi compartments. In proliferating mammalian cells, a canonical dilysine motif at the C-terminus of Sac1 is required for coatomer complex-I (COP-I)-binding and continuous retrieval to the ER. Starvation triggers accumulation of Sac1 at the Golgi. The mechanism responsible for Golgi retention of Sac1 is unknown. Here we show that the first of the two transmembrane regions in human SAC1 (TM1) functions in Golgi localization. A minimal construct containing only TM1 and the adjacent flanking sequences is concentrated at the Golgi. Transplanting TM1 into transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) induces Golgi accumulation of this normally plasma membrane and endosomal protein, indicating that TM1 is sufficient for Golgi localization. In addition, we determined that the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of SAC1 also promotes Golgi localization, even when TM1 is mutated or absent. We conclude that the distribution of SAC1 within the Golgi is controlled via both passive membrane thickness-dependent partitioning of TM1 and a retention mechanism that requires the N-terminal cytoplasmic region. PMID:23936490

  15. Identification and characterization of GSRP-56, a novel Golgi-localized spectrin repeat-containing protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Yuko . E-mail: yu-kobayashi@kinran.ac.jp; Katanosaka, Yuki; Iwata, Yuko; Matsuoka, Masayuki; Shigekawa, Munekazu; Wakabayashi, Shigeo . E-mail: wak@ri.ncvc.go.jp

    2006-10-01

    Spectrin repeat (SR)-containing proteins are important for regulation of integrity of biomembranes, not only the plasma membrane but also those of intracellular organelles, such as the Golgi, nucleus, endo/lysosomes, and synaptic vesicles. We identified a novel SR-containing protein, named GSRP-56 (Golgi-localized SR-containing protein-56), by a yeast two-hybrid method, using a member of the transient receptor potential channel family, TRPV2, as bait. GSRP-56 is an isoform derived from a giant SR-containing protein, Syne-1 (synaptic nuclear envelope protein-1, also referred to as Nesprin-1 or Enaptin), predicted to be produced by alternative splicing. Immunological analysis demonstrated that this isoform is a 56-kDa protein, which is localized predominantly in the Golgi apparatus in cardiomyocytes and C2C12 myoblasts/myotubes, and we found that two SR domains were required both for Golgi targeting and for interaction with TRPV2. Interestingly, overexpression of GSRP-56 resulted in a morphological change in the Golgi structure, characterized by its enlargement of cis-Golgi marker antibody-staining area, which would result partly from fragmentation of Golgi membranes. Our findings indicate that GSRP-56 is a novel, particularly small Golgi-localized member of the spectrin family, which possibly play a role in maintenance of the Golgi structure.

  16. A role for Arf1 in mitotic Golgi disassembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Phair, Robert D.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Weigert, Roberto; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    In mitosis, chromosome, cytoskeleton, and organelle dynamics must be coordinated for successful cell division. Here, we present evidence for a role for Arf1, a small GTPase associated with the Golgi apparatus, in the orchestration of mitotic Golgi breakdown, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. We show that early in mitosis Arf1 becomes inactive and dissociates from Golgi membranes. This is followed by the dispersal of numerous Arf1-dependent peripheral Golgi proteins and subsequent Golgi disassembly. If Arf1 is kept in an active state by treatment with the small molecule H89 or expression of its GTP-locked form, intact Golgi membranes with bound peripheral proteins persist throughout mitosis. These cells enter mitosis but exhibit gross defects in chromosome segregation and cytokinetic furrow ingression. These findings suggest that mitotic Golgi disassembly depends on Arf1 inactivation and is used by the cell to disperse numerous peripheral Golgi proteins for coordinating the behavior of Golgi membranes, chromosomes, and cytoskeleton during mitosis. PMID:14585930

  17. Rous-Whipple Award Lecture. Contributions to the physiology and pathology of the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Gonatas, N. K.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of the Golgi apparatus in the transport, processing, and targeting of proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes, and lysosomes has emerged from numerous studies. In this paper we review studies from our laboratory dealing with 1) the Golgi apparatus during mitosis and the role of microtubules in maintaining the structure of the organelle, 2) the endocytosis of antibodies, exogenous lectins, and toxins into the Golgi apparatus of several cells including neurons in vivo and in vitro, 3) the traffic of MG-160, a membrane sialoglycoprotein of the medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, from the trans-Golgi network to the Golgi cisternae, and 4) the involvement of the Golgi apparatus of motor neurons in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conclude with a summary of ongoing work on the primary structure of MG-160 and introduce evidence suggesting that this intrinsic membrane protein of the Golgi apparatus may be involved in the regulation of endogenous, autocrine, basic fibroblast growth factor. We hope that this review will stimulate studies on the Golgi apparatus of neurons, which may lead to the discovery of neuron-specific properties of this important organelle and its involvement in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:7943166

  18. Apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2)/Sec31 interactions regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport: a potential effector pathway for luminal calcium.

    PubMed

    Helm, Jared R; Bentley, Marvin; Thorsen, Kevin D; Wang, Ting; Foltz, Lauren; Oorschot, Viola; Klumperman, Judith; Hay, Jesse C

    2014-08-22

    Luminal calcium released from secretory organelles has been suggested to play a regulatory role in vesicle transport at several steps in the secretory pathway; however, its functional roles and effector pathways have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate for the first time that specific luminal calcium depletion leads to a significant decrease in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport rates in intact cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that luminal calcium depletion is accompanied by increased accumulation of intermediate compartment proteins in COPII buds and clusters of unfused COPII vesicles at ER exit sites. Furthermore, we present several lines of evidence suggesting that luminal calcium affected transport at least in part through calcium-dependent interactions between apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2) and the Sec31A proline-rich region: 1) targeted disruption of ALG-2/Sec31A interactions caused severe defects in ER-to-Golgi transport in intact cells; 2) effects of luminal calcium and ALG-2/Sec31A interactions on transport mutually required each other; and 3) Sec31A function in transport required luminal calcium. Morphological phenotypes of disrupted ALG-2/Sec31A interactions were characterized. We found that ALG-2/Sec31A interactions were not required for the localization of Sec31A to ER exit sites per se but appeared to acutely regulate the stability and trafficking of the cargo receptor p24 and the distribution of the vesicle tether protein p115. These results represent the first outline of a mechanism that connects luminal calcium to specific protein interactions regulating vesicle trafficking machinery. PMID:25006245

  19. The Golgi-associated PDZ Domain Protein PIST/GOPC Stabilizes the β1-Adrenergic Receptor in Intracellular Compartments after Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Koliwer, Judith; Park, Minjong; Bauch, Carola; von Zastrow, Mark; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Many G-protein-coupled receptors carry C-terminal ligand motifs for PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains; via interaction with PDZ domain-containing scaffold proteins, this allows for integration of receptors into signaling complexes. However, the presence of PDZ domain proteins attached to intracellular membranes suggests that PDZ-type interactions may also contribute to subcellular sorting of receptors. The protein interacting specifically with Tc10 (PIST; also known as GOPC) is a trans-Golgi-associated protein that interacts through its single PDZ domain with a variety of cell surface receptors. Here we show that PIST controls trafficking of the interacting β1-adrenergic receptor both in the anterograde, biosynthetic pathway and during postendocytic recycling. Overexpression and knockdown experiments show that PIST leads to retention of the receptor in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), to the effect that overexpressed PIST reduces activation of the MAPK pathway by β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) agonists. Receptors can be released from retention in the TGN by coexpression of the plasma membrane-associated scaffold PSD-95, which allows for transport of receptors to the plasma membrane. Stimulation of β1 receptors and activation of the cAMP pathway lead to relocation of PIST from the TGN to an endosome-like compartment. Here PIST colocalizes with SNX1 and the internalized β1AR and protects endocytosed receptors from lysosomal degradation. In agreement, β1AR levels are decreased in hippocampi of PIST-deficient mice. Our data suggest that PIST contributes to the fine-tuning of β1AR sorting both during biosynthetic and postendocytic trafficking. PMID:25614626

  20. Large retrograde Centaurs: visitors from the Oort cloud?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2014-08-01

    Among all the asteroid dynamical groups, Centaurs have the highest fraction of objects moving in retrograde orbits. The distribution in absolute magnitude, H, of known retrograde Centaurs with semi-major axes in the range 6-34 AU exhibits a remarkable trend: 10 % have H<10 mag, the rest have H>12 mag. The largest objects, namely (342842) 2008 YB3, 2011 MM4 and 2013 LU28, move in almost polar, very eccentric paths; their nodal points are currently located near perihelion and aphelion. In the group of retrograde Centaurs, they are obvious outliers both in terms of dynamics and size. Here, we show that these objects are also trapped in retrograde resonances that make them unstable. Asteroid 2013 LU28, the largest, is a candidate transient co-orbital to Uranus and it may be a recent visitor from the trans-Neptunian region. Asteroids 342842 and 2011 MM4 are temporarily submitted to various high-order retrograde resonances with the Jovian planets but 342842 may be ejected towards the trans-Neptunian region within the next few hundred kyr. Asteroid 2011 MM4 is far more stable. Our analysis shows that the large retrograde Centaurs form an heterogeneous group that may include objects from various sources. Asteroid 2011 MM4 could be a visitor from the Oort cloud but an origin in a relatively stable closer reservoir cannot be ruled out. Minor bodies like 2011 MM4 may represent the remnants of the primordial planetesimals and signal the size threshold for catastrophic collisions in the early Solar System.

  1. Dynein is the motor for retrograde axonal transport of organelles

    SciTech Connect

    Schnapp, B.J.; Reese, T.S.

    1989-03-01

    Vesicular organelles in axons of nerve cells are transported along microtubules either toward their plus ends (fast anterograde transport) or toward their minus ends (retrograde transport). Two microtubule-based motors were previously identified by examining plastic beads induced to move along microtubules by cytosol fractions from the squid giant axon: (i) an anterograde motor, kinesin, and (ii) a retrograde motor, which is characterized here. The retrograde motor, a cytosolic protein previously termed HMW1, was purified from optic lobes and extruded axoplasm by nucleotide-dependent microtubule affinity and release; microtubule gliding was used as the assay of motor activity. The following properties of the retrograde motor suggest that it is cytoplasmic dynein: (i) sedimentation at 20-22 S with a heavy chain of Mr greater than 200,000 that coelectrophoreses with the alpha and beta subunits of axonemal dynein, (ii) cleavage by UV irradiation in the presence of ATP and vanadate, and (iii) a molecular structure resembling two-headed dynein from axonemes. Furthermore, bead movement toward the minus end of microtubules was blocked when axoplasmic supernatants were treated with UV/vanadate. Treatment of axoplasmic supernatant with UV/vanadate also blocks the retrograde movement of purified organelles in vitro without changing the number of anterograde moving organelles, indicating that dynein interacts specifically with a subgroup of organelles programmed to move toward the cell body. However, purified optic lobe dynein, like purified kinesin, does not by itself promote the movement of purified organelles along microtubules, suggesting that additional axoplasmic factors are necessary for retrograde as well as anterograde transport.

  2. The TRAPP Subunit Trs130p Interacts with the GAP Gyp6p to Mediate Ypt6p Dynamics at the Late Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Stephanie; Saint-Dic, Djenann; Milev, Miroslav P.; Nilsson, Tommy; Sacher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Small GTPases of the Rab superfamily participate in virtually all vesicle-mediated trafficking events. Cycling between an active GTP-bound form and an inactive GDP-bound form is accomplished in conjunction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), respectively. Rab cascades have been described in which an effector of an activated Rab is a GEF for a downstream Rab, thus ensuring activation of a pathway in an ordered fashion. Much less is known concerning crosstalk between GEFs and GAPs although regulation between these factors could also contribute to the overall physiology of a cell. Here we demonstrate that a subunit of the TRAPP II multisubunit tethering factor, a Rab GEF, participates in the recruitment of Gyp6p, a GAP for the GTPase Ypt6p, to Golgi membranes. The extreme carboxy-terminal portion of the TRAPP II subunit Trs130p is required for the interaction between TRAPP II and Gyp6p. We further demonstrate that TRAPP II mutants, but not a TRAPP III mutant, display a defect in Gyp6p interaction. A consequence of this defective interaction is the enhanced localization of Ypt6p at late Golgi membranes. Although a ypt31/32 mutant also resulted in an enhanced localization of Gyp6p at the late Golgi, the effect was not as dramatic as that seen for TRAPP II mutants, nor was Ypt31/32 detected in the same TRAPP II purification that detected Gyp6p. We propose that the interaction between TRAPP II and Gyp6p represents a parallel mechanism in addition to that mediated by Ypt31/32 for the recruitment of a GAP to the appropriate membrane, and is a novel example of crosstalk between a Rab GAP and GEF. PMID:27252941

  3. Trans-Golgi network localized ECHIDNA/Ypt interacting protein complex is required for the secretion of cell wall polysaccharides in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Delphine; McFarlane, Heather E; Johnson, Errin; Mouille, Gregory; Sjödin, Andreas; Oh, Jaesung; Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Samuels, Lacey; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2013-07-01

    The secretion of cell wall polysaccharides through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is required for plant cell elongation. However, the components mediating the post-Golgi secretion of pectin and hemicellulose, the two major cell wall polysaccharides, are largely unknown. We identified evolutionarily conserved YPT/RAB GTPase Interacting Protein 4a (YIP4a) and YIP4b (formerly YIP2), which form a TGN-localized complex with ECHIDNA (ECH) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The localization of YIP4 and ECH proteins at the TGN is interdependent and influences the localization of VHA-a1 and SYP61, which are key components of the TGN. YIP4a and YIP4b act redundantly, and the yip4a yip4b double mutants have a cell elongation defect. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological analyses demonstrate that the ECH/YIP4 complex plays a key role in TGN-mediated secretion of pectin and hemicellulose to the cell wall in dark-grown hypocotyls and in secretory cells of the seed coat. In keeping with these observations, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis revealed that the ech and yip4a yip4b mutants exhibit changes in their cell wall composition. Overall, our results reveal a TGN subdomain defined by ECH/YIP4 that is required for the secretion of pectin and hemicellulose and distinguishes the role of the TGN in secretion from its roles in endocytic and vacuolar trafficking. PMID:23832588

  4. Transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm with retrograde approach.

    PubMed

    Narin, Nazmi; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Baykan, Ali; Uzüm, Kazım

    2014-04-01

    A three-year-old girl with multiple heart malformations admitted to the pediatric cardiology unit because of excessive sweating and fatigue. Abnormal color Doppler flow was detected into the right atrium from the dilated coronary sinus on the echocardiographic examination, and ruptured sinus Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) was diagnosed. Although in most such cases, an antegrade transcatheter approach has been used, a retrograde approach can be used as a cost-effective treatment modality in those cases with selective high-risk surgery. In this report, we present a patient with ruptured SVA, which was closed via Amplatzer vascular plug-4 by retrograde approach. PMID:24769826

  5. Orbital Evolution and Impact Hazard of Asteroids on Retrograde Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Włodarczyk, I.

    2014-07-01

    We present the past evolutional scenarios of known group of asteroids in retrograde orbits. Applying the latest observational data, we determined their nominal and averaged orbital elements. Next, we studied the behaviour of their orbital motion 1~My in the past (100~My in the future for two NEAs) taking into account the limitations of observational errors. It has been shown that the influence of outer planets perturbations in many cases can import small bodies on high inclination or retrograde orbits into the inner Solar System.

  6. Populus euphratica APYRASE2 Enhances Cold Tolerance by Modulating Vesicular Trafficking and Extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis Plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Rui; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Yinan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Wei; Tan, Yeqing; Liu, Dandan; Ma, Xujun; Hou, Peichen; Wang, Meijuan; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-09-01

    Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. In the cold-tolerant poplar, Populus euphratica, low temperatures up-regulate APYRASE2 (PeAPY2) expression in callus cells. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of PeAPY2 and its role in cold tolerance. We found that PeAPY2 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but punctate signals also appeared in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PeAPY2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, but it most efficiently hydrolyzed purine nucleotides, particularly ATP. PeAPY2 preferred Mg(2+) as a cofactor, and it was insensitive to various, specific ATPase inhibitors. When PeAPY2 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), cold tolerance was enhanced, based on root growth measurements and survival rates. Moreover, under cold stress, PeAPY2-transgenic plants maintained plasma membrane integrity and showed reduced cold-elicited electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. These responses probably resulted from efficient plasma membrane repair via vesicular trafficking. Indeed, transgenic plants showed accelerated endocytosis and exocytosis during cold stress and recovery. We found that low doses of extracellular ATP accelerated vesicular trafficking, but high extracellular ATP inhibited trafficking and reduced cell viability. Cold stress caused significant increases in root medium extracellular ATP. However, under these conditions, PeAPY2-transgenic lines showed greater control of extracellular ATP levels than wild-type plants. We conclude that Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed PeAPY2 could increase membrane repair by accelerating vesicular trafficking and hydrolyzing extracellular ATP to avoid excessive, cold-elicited ATP accumulation in the root medium and, thus, reduced ATP-induced inhibition of vesicular trafficking. PMID:26224801

  7. Distinct phenotype of a Wilson disease mutation reveals a novel trafficking determinant in the copper transporter ATP7B

    PubMed Central

    Braiterman, Lelita T.; Murthy, Amrutha; Jayakanthan, Samuel; Nyasae, Lydia; Tzeng, Eric; Gromadzka, Grazyna; Woolf, Thomas B.; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Hubbard, Ann L.

    2014-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is a monogenic autosomal-recessive disorder of copper accumulation that leads to liver failure and/or neurological deficits. WD is caused by mutations in ATP7B, a transporter that loads Cu(I) onto newly synthesized cupro-enzymes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and exports excess copper out of cells by trafficking from the TGN to the plasma membrane. To date, most WD mutations have been shown to disrupt ATP7B activity and/or stability. Using a multidisciplinary approach, including clinical analysis of patients, cell-based assays, and computational studies, we characterized a patient mutation, ATP7BS653Y, which is stable, does not disrupt Cu(I) transport, yet renders the protein unable to exit the TGN. Bulky or charged substitutions at position 653 mimic the phenotype of the patient mutation. Molecular modeling and dynamic simulation suggest that the S653Y mutation induces local distortions within the transmembrane (TM) domain 1 and alter TM1 interaction with TM2. S653Y abolishes the trafficking-stimulating effects of a secondary mutation in the N-terminal apical targeting domain. This result indicates a role for TM1/TM2 in regulating conformations of cytosolic domains involved in ATP7B trafficking. Taken together, our experiments revealed an unexpected role for TM1/TM2 in copper-regulated trafficking of ATP7B and defined a unique class of WD mutants that are transport-competent but trafficking-defective. Understanding the precise consequences of WD-causing mutations will facilitate the development of advanced mutation-specific therapies. PMID:24706876

  8. Populus euphratica APYRASE2 Enhances Cold Tolerance by Modulating Vesicular Trafficking and Extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Rui; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Yinan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Wei; Tan, Yeqing; Liu, Dandan; Ma, Xujun; Hou, Peichen; Wang, Meijuan; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. In the cold-tolerant poplar, Populus euphratica, low temperatures up-regulate APYRASE2 (PeAPY2) expression in callus cells. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of PeAPY2 and its role in cold tolerance. We found that PeAPY2 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but punctate signals also appeared in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PeAPY2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, but it most efficiently hydrolyzed purine nucleotides, particularly ATP. PeAPY2 preferred Mg2+ as a cofactor, and it was insensitive to various, specific ATPase inhibitors. When PeAPY2 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), cold tolerance was enhanced, based on root growth measurements and survival rates. Moreover, under cold stress, PeAPY2-transgenic plants maintained plasma membrane integrity and showed reduced cold-elicited electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. These responses probably resulted from efficient plasma membrane repair via vesicular trafficking. Indeed, transgenic plants showed accelerated endocytosis and exocytosis during cold stress and recovery. We found that low doses of extracellular ATP accelerated vesicular trafficking, but high extracellular ATP inhibited trafficking and reduced cell viability. Cold stress caused significant increases in root medium extracellular ATP. However, under these conditions, PeAPY2-transgenic lines showed greater control of extracellular ATP levels than wild-type plants. We conclude that Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed PeAPY2 could increase membrane repair by accelerating vesicular trafficking and hydrolyzing extracellular ATP to avoid excessive, cold-elicited ATP accumulation in the root medium and, thus, reduced ATP-induced inhibition of vesicular trafficking. PMID:26224801

  9. Intracellular zinc distribution in mitochondria, ER and the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiping; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Slepchenko, Kira G; Stork, Christian; Li, Yang V

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn2+) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as organelle storage for zinc. To identify free zinc within the organelles, live cells were co-stained with Zinpyr-1, a zinc fluorescent dye, and organelle-specific fluorescent dyes (MitoFluor Red 589: mitochondria; ER Tracker Red: endoplasmic reticulum; BODIPY TR ceramide: Golgi apparatus; Syto Red 64: nucleus). We examined organelles that represent potential storing sites for intracellular zinc. We showed that zinc fluorescence staining was co-localized with MitoFluor Red 589, ER Tracker Red, and BODIPY TR ceramide respectively, suggesting the presence of free zinc in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus. On the other hand, cytosol and nucleus had nearly no detectable zinc fluorescence. It is known that nucleus contains high amount of zinc binding proteins that have high zinc binding affinity. The absence of zinc fluorescence suggests that there is little free zinc in these two regions. It also indicates that the zinc fluorescence detected in mitochondria, ER and Golgi apparatus represents free chelatable zinc. Taken together, our results support that these organelles are potential zinc storing organelles during cellular zinc homeostasis. PMID:27186321

  10. Gallocyanin-chrome alum counterstaining of Golgi-Kopsch impregnations.

    PubMed

    Tieman, S B

    1983-05-01

    A simple technique is described for counterstaining Golgi-Kopsch impregnations. The sections are first stabilized by the method of Geisert and Updyke and then stained in 0.15% gallocyanin and 5% chromium potassium sulfate for 45 minutes at 55-60 C. The sections are then rinsed, dehydrated to 70% ethanol, cleared in terpineol, mounted and coverslipped. This procedure results in a light to medium blue stain of those cells not impregnated by the silver chromate. The major advantages of this procedure over earlier methods are: (1) the counterstain does not fade and (2) since no differentiation is required, many sections may be stained simultaneously. PMID:6195778

  11. Signaling at the Golgi: sensing and controlling the membrane fluxes.

    PubMed

    Luini, Alberto; Parashuraman, Seetharaman

    2016-04-01

    Over the past few decades, it has emerged that the Golgi (and other secretory stations) is host to a variety of signaling molecules and can act as a signaling hub that receives, emits and elaborates signals. This endomembrane-based signaling apparatus appears to have more than one purpose. Its most fundamental function appears to be the auto-regulation of the biosynthetic apparatus to maintain and/or optimize its own activities and to coordinate such activities with those of other cellular modules.(1) This is achieved by dedicated control devices that provide stability, robustness, precision, sensitivity and complexity to cellular behaviors. PMID:26908115

  12. Chemokine receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Neel, Nicole F; Schutyser, Evemie; Sai, Jiqing; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2005-12-01

    The internalization and intracellular trafficking of chemokine receptors have important implications for the cellular responses elicited by chemokine receptors. The major pathway by which chemokine receptors internalize is the clathrin-mediated pathway, but some receptors may utilize lipid rafts/caveolae-dependent internalization routes. This review discusses the current knowledge and controversies regarding these two different routes of endocytosis. The functional consequences of internalization and the regulation of chemokine receptor recycling will also be addressed. Modifications of chemokine receptors, such as palmitoylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, and sulfation, may also impact trafficking, chemotaxis and signaling. Finally, this review will cover the internalization and trafficking of viral and decoy chemokine receptors. PMID:15998596

  13. Regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking and cell dynamics by syntaxin-6

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Joon; Inamdar, Shivangi M.; Tiwari, Ajit; Choudhury, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and secretory transport pathways plays a critical role in diverse cellular functions including both developmental and pathological processes. Briefly, proteins and lipids destined for transport to distinct locations are collectively assembled into vesicles and delivered to their target site by vesicular fusion. SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor) proteins are required for these events, during which v-SNAREs (vesicle SNAREs) interact with t-SNAREs (target SNAREs) to allow transfer of cargo from donor vesicle to target membrane. Recently, the t-SNARE family member, syntaxin-6, has been shown to play an important role in the transport of proteins that are key to diverse cellular dynamic processes. In this paper, we briefly discuss the specific role of SNAREs in various mammalian cell types and comprehensively review the various roles of the Golgi- and endosome-localized t-SNARE, syntaxin-6, in membrane trafficking during physiological as well as pathological conditions. PMID:22489884

  14. Regulation of Cell Migration and β1 Integrin Trafficking by the Endosomal Adaptor GGA3.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Colin D H; Sahgal, Pranshu; Parachoniak, Christine A; Ivaska, Johanna; Park, Morag

    2016-06-01

    The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors link extracellular matrices to intracellular signaling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton; and regulate cell migration, proliferation and survival in normal and diseased tissues. The subcellular location of integrin receptors is critical for their function and deregulated trafficking is implicated in various human diseases. Here we identify a role for Golgi-localized gamma-ear containing Arf-binding protein 3 (GGA3), in regulating trafficking of β1 integrin. GGA3 knockdown reduces cell surface and total levels of α2, α5 and β1 integrin subunits, inhibits cell spreading, reduces focal adhesion number, as well as cell migration. In the absence of GGA3, integrins are increasingly retained inside the cell, traffic toward the perinuclear lysosomal compartment and their degradation is enhanced. Integrin traffic and maintenance of integrin levels are dependent on the integrity of the Arf binding site of GGA3. Furthermore, sorting nexin 17 (SNX17), a critical regulator of integrin recycling, becomes mislocalized to enlarged late endosomes upon GGA3 depletion. These data support a model whereby GGA3, through its ability to regulate SNX17 endosomal localization and through interaction with Arf6 diverts integrins from the degradative pathway supporting cell migration. PMID:26935970

  15. Transport along the dendritic endoplasmic reticulum mediates the trafficking of GABAB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, José I.; Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Matías; Salas, Daniela A.; Ramírez, Omar A.; Cornejo, Víctor H.; Lu, Hsiangmin E.; Blanpied, Thomas A.; Couve, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In neurons, secretory organelles within the cell body are complemented by the dendritic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi outposts (GOPs), whose role in neurotransmitter receptor trafficking is poorly understood. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B metabotropic receptors (GABABRs) regulate the efficacy of synaptic transmission throughout the brain. Their plasma membrane availability is controlled by mechanisms involving an ER retention motif and assembly-dependent ER export. Thus, they constitute an ideal molecular model to study ER trafficking, but the extent to which the dendritic ER participates in GABABR biosynthesis has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we show that GABAB1 localizes preferentially to the ER in dendrites and moves long distances within this compartment. Not only diffusion but also microtubule and dynein-dependent mechanisms control dendritic ER transport. GABABRs insert throughout the somatodendritic plasma membrane but dendritic post-ER carriers containing GABABRs do not fuse selectively with GOPs. This study furthers our understanding of the spatial selectivity of neurotransmitter receptors for dendritic organelles. PMID:24895402

  16. Arf-like Protein 3 (ARL3) Regulates Protein Trafficking and Ciliogenesis in Mouse Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Hanke-Gogokhia, Christin; Wu, Zhijian; Gerstner, Cecilia D; Frederick, Jeanne M; Zhang, Houbin; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2016-03-25

    Arf-like protein 3 (ARL3) is a ubiquitous small GTPase expressed in ciliated cells of plants and animals. Germline deletion ofArl3in mice causes multiorgan ciliopathy reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl or Joubert syndromes. As photoreceptors are elegantly compartmentalized and have cilia, we probed the function of ARL3 (ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)-like 3 protein) by generating rod photoreceptor-specific (prefix(rod)) and retina-specific (prefix(ret))Arl3deletions. In predegenerate(rod)Arl3(-/-)mice, lipidated phototransduction proteins showed trafficking deficiencies, consistent with the role of ARL3 as a cargo displacement factor for lipid-binding proteins. By contrast,(ret)Arl3(-/-)rods and cones expressing Cre recombinase during embryonic development formed neither connecting cilia nor outer segments and degenerated rapidly. Absence of cilia infers participation of ARL3 in ciliogenesis and axoneme formation. Ciliogenesis was rescued, and degeneration was reversed in part by subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus particles expressing ARL3-EGFP. The conditional knock-out phenotypes permitted identification of two ARL3 functions, both in the GTP-bound form as follows: one as a regulator of intraflagellar transport participating in photoreceptor ciliogenesis and the other as a cargo displacement factor transporting lipidated protein to the outer segment. Surprisingly, a farnesylated inositol polyphosphate phosphatase only trafficked from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, thereby excluding it from a role in photoreceptor cilia physiology. PMID:26814127

  17. Different motifs regulate trafficking of SorCS1 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten S; Keat, Sady J; Hamati, Jida W; Madsen, Peder; Gutzmann, Jakob J; Engelsberg, Arne; Pedersen, Karen M; Gustafsen, Camilla; Nykjaer, Anders; Gliemann, Jørgen; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Kuhl, Dietmar; Petersen, Claus M; Hermey, Guido

    2008-06-01

    The type I transmembrane protein SorCS1 is a member of the Vps10p-domain receptor family comprised of Sortilin, SorLA and SorCS1, -2 and -3. Current information indicates that Sortilin and SorLA mediate intracellular protein trafficking and sorting, but little is known about the cellular functions of the SorCS subgroup. SorCS1 binds platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and is expressed in isoforms differing only in their cytoplasmic domains. Here, we identify two novel isoforms of mouse SorCS1 designated m-SorCS1c and -d. In situ hybridization revealed a combinatorial expression pattern of the variants in brain and embryonic tissues. We demonstrate that among the mouse variants, only SorCS1c mediates internalization and that the highly conserved SorCS1c is internalized through a canonical tyrosine-based motif. In contrast, human SorCS1a, whose cytoplasmic domain is completely different from mouse SorCS1a, is internalized through a DXXLL motif. We report that the human SorCS1a cytoplasmic domain interacts with the alphaC/sigma2 subunits of the adaptor protein (AP)-2 complex, and internalization of human SorCS1a and -c is mediated by AP-2. Our results suggest that the endocytic isoforms target internalized cargo to lysosomes but are not engaged in Golgi-endosomal transport to a significant degree. PMID:18315530

  18. Redistribution of Golgi Stacks and Other Organelles during Mitosis and Cytokinesis in Plant Cells1[w

    PubMed Central

    Nebenführ, Andreas; Frohlick, Jennifer A.; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We have followed the redistribution of Golgi stacks during mitosis and cytokinesis in living tobacco BY-2 suspension culture cells by means of a green fluorescent protein-tagged soybean α-1,2 mannosidase, and correlated the findings to cytoskeletal rearrangements and to the redistribution of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and plastids. In preparation for cell division, when the general streaming of Golgi stacks stops, about one-third of the peripheral Golgi stacks redistributes to the perinuclear cytoplasm, the phragmosome, thereby reversing the ratio of interior to cortical Golgi from 2:3 to 3:2. During metaphase, approximately 20% of all Golgi stacks aggregate in the immediate vicinity of the mitotic spindle and a similar number becomes concentrated in an equatorial region under the plasma membrane. This latter localization, the “Golgi belt,” accurately predicts the future site of cell division, and thus forms a novel marker for this region after the disassembly of the preprophase band. During telophase and cytokinesis, many Golgi stacks redistribute around the phragmoplast where the cell plate is formed. At the end of cytokinesis, the daughter cells have very similar Golgi stack densities. The sites of preferential Golgi stack localization are specific for this organelle and largely exclude mitochondria and plastids, although some mitochondria can approach the phragmoplast. This segregation of organelles is first observed in metaphase and persists until completion of cytokinesis. Maintenance of the distinct localizations does not depend on intact actin filaments or microtubules, although the mitotic spindle appears to play a major role in organizing the organelle distribution patterns. The redistribution of Golgi stacks during mitosis and cytokinesis is consistent with the hypothesis that Golgi stacks are repositioned to ensure equal partitioning between daughter cells as well as rapid cell plate assembly. PMID:10982429

  19. The role of ARF1 and rab GTPases in polarization of the Golgi stack.

    PubMed

    Bannykh, Serguei I; Plutner, Helen; Matteson, Jeanne; Balch, William E

    2005-09-01

    The organization and sorting of proteins within the Golgi stack to establish and maintain its cis to trans polarization remains an enigma. The function of Golgi compartments involves coat assemblages that facilitate vesicle traffic, Rab-tether-SNAP receptor (SNARE) machineries that dictate membrane identity, as well as matrix components that maintain structure. We have investigated how the Golgi complex achieves compartmentalization in response to a key component of the coat complex I (COPI) coat assembly pathway, the ARF1 GTPase, in relationship to GTPases-regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit (Sar1) and targeting fusion (Rab1). Following collapse of the Golgi into the ER in response to inhibition of activation of ARF1 by Brefeldin A, we found that Sar1- and Rab1-dependent Golgi reformation took place at multiple peripheral and perinuclear ER exit sites. These rapidly converged into immature Golgi that appeared as onion-like structures composed of multiple concentrically arrayed cisternae of mixed enzyme composition. During clustering to the perinuclear region, Golgi enzymes were sorted to achieve the degree of polarization within the stack found in mature Golgi. Surprisingly, we found that sorting of Golgi enzymes into their subcompartments was insensitive to the dominant negative GTP-restricted ARF1 mutant, a potent inhibitor of COPI coat disassembly and vesicular traffic. We suggest that a COPI-independent, Rab-dependent mechanism is involved in the rapid reorganization of resident enzymes within the Golgi stack following synchronized release from the ER, suggesting an important role for Rab hubs in directing Golgi polarization. PMID:16101683

  20. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  1. NDE1 and GSK3β Associate with TRAK1 and Regulate Axonal Mitochondrial Motility: Identification of Cyclic AMP as a Novel Modulator of Axonal Mitochondrial Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Fumiaki; Murphy, Laura C; Malavasi, Elise L V; O'Sullivan, Shane T; Torrance, Helen S; Porteous, David J; Millar, J Kirsty

    2016-05-18

    Mitochondria are essential for neuronal function, providing the energy required to power neurotransmission, and fulfilling many important additional roles. In neurons, mitochondria must be efficiently transported to sites, including synapses, where their functions are required. Neurons, with their highly elongated morphology, are consequently extremely sensitive to defective mitochondrial trafficking which can lead to neuronal ill-health/death. We recently demonstrated that DISC1 associates with mitochondrial trafficking complexes where it associates with the core kinesin and dynein adaptor molecule TRAK1. We now show that the DISC1 interactors NDE1 and GSK3β also associate robustly with TRAK1 and demonstrate that NDE1 promotes retrograde axonal mitochondrial movement. GSK3β is known to modulate axonal mitochondrial motility, although reports of its actual effect are conflicting. We show that, in our system, GSK3β promotes anterograde mitochondrial transport. Finally, we investigated the influence of cAMP elevation upon mitochondrial motility, and found a striking increase in mitochondrial motility and retrograde movement. DISC1, NDE1, and GSK3β are implicated as risk factors for major mental illness. Our demonstration that they function together within mitochondrial trafficking complexes suggests that defective mitochondrial transport may be a contributory disease mechanism in some cases of psychiatric disorder. PMID:26815013

  2. OCRL1 engages with the F-BAR protein pacsin 2 to promote biogenesis of membrane-trafficking intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Billcliff, Peter G.; Noakes, Christopher J.; Mehta, Zenobia B.; Yan, Guanhua; Mak, LokHang; Woscholski, Rudiger; Lowe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL1 causes Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease. Loss of OCRL1 function perturbs several cellular processes, including membrane traffic, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we show that OCRL1 is part of the membrane-trafficking machinery operating at the trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosome interface. OCRL1 interacts via IPIP27A with the F-BAR protein pacsin 2. OCRL1 and IPIP27A localize to mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR)–containing trafficking intermediates, and loss of either protein leads to defective MPR carrier biogenesis at the TGN and endosomes. OCRL1 5-phosphatase activity, which is membrane curvature sensitive, is stimulated by IPIP27A-mediated engagement of OCRL1 with pacsin 2 and promotes scission of MPR-containing carriers. Our data indicate a role for OCRL1, via IPIP27A, in regulating the formation of pacsin 2–dependent trafficking intermediates and reveal a mechanism for coupling PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis with carrier biogenesis on endomembranes. PMID:26510499

  3. RABA Members Act in Distinct Steps of Subcellular Trafficking of the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 Receptor[W

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-won; Tamaki, Takayuki; Ebine, Kazuo; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface proteins play critical roles in the perception of environmental stimuli at the plasma membrane (PM) and ensuing signal transduction. Intracellular localization of such proteins must be strictly regulated, which requires elaborate integration of exocytic and endocytic trafficking pathways. Subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), a receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, also depends on membrane trafficking. However, our understanding about the mechanisms involved is still limited. In this study, we visualized ligand-induced endocytosis of FLS2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged FLS2 expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Upon treatment with the flg22 peptide, internalized FLS2-GFP from the PM was transported to a compartment with properties intermediate between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the multivesicular endosome. This compartment gradually discarded the TGN characteristics as it continued along the trafficking pathway. We further found that FLS2 endocytosis involves distinct RABA/RAB11 subgroups at different steps. Moreover, we demonstrated that transport of de novo–synthesized FLS2 to the PM also involves a distinct RABA/RAB11 subgroup. Our results demonstrate the complex regulatory system for properly localizing FLS2 and functional differentiation in RABA members in endo- and exocytosis. PMID:23532067

  4. Isolation and proteomic analysis of the SYP61 compartment reveal its role in exocytic trafficking in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Drakakaki, Georgia; van de Ven, Wilhelmina; Pan, Songqin; Miao, Yansong; Wang, Junqi; Keinath, Nana F; Weatherly, Brent; Jiang, Liwen; Schumacher, Karin; Hicks, Glenn; Raikhel, Natasha

    2012-02-01

    The endomembrane system is a complex and dynamic intracellular trafficking network. It is very challenging to track individual vesicles and their cargos in real time; however, affinity purification allows vesicles to be isolated in their natural state so that their constituent proteins can be identified. Pioneering this approach in plants, we isolated the SYP61 trans-Golgi network compartment and carried out a comprehensive proteomic analysis of its contents with only minimal interference from other organelles. The proteome of SYP61 revealed the association of proteins of unknown function that have previously not been ascribed to this compartment. We identified a complete SYP61 SNARE complex, including regulatory proteins and validated the proteome data by showing that several of these proteins associated with SYP61 in planta. We further identified the SYP121-complex and cellulose synthases, suggesting that SYP61 plays a role in the exocytic trafficking and the transport of cell wall components to the plasma membrane. The presence of proteins of unknown function in the SYP61 proteome including ECHIDNA offers the opportunity to identify novel trafficking components and cargos. The affinity purification of plant vesicles in their natural state provides a basis for further analysis and dissection of complex endomembrane networks. The approach is widely applicable and can afford the study of several vesicle populations in plants, which can be compared with the SYP61 vesicle proteome. PMID:21826108

  5. Isolation and proteomic analysis of the SYP61 compartment reveal its role in exocytic trafficking in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Drakakaki, Georgia; van de Ven, Wilhelmina; Pan, Songqin; Miao, Yansong; Wang, Junqi; Keinath, Nana F; Weatherly, Brent; Jiang, Liwen; Schumacher, Karin; Hicks, Glenn; Raikhel, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    The endomembrane system is a complex and dynamic intracellular trafficking network. It is very challenging to track individual vesicles and their cargos in real time; however, affinity purification allows vesicles to be isolated in their natural state so that their constituent proteins can be identified. Pioneering this approach in plants, we isolated the SYP61 trans-Golgi network compartment and carried out a comprehensive proteomic analysis of its contents with only minimal interference from other organelles. The proteome of SYP61 revealed the association of proteins of unknown function that have previously not been ascribed to this compartment. We identified a complete SYP61 SNARE complex, including regulatory proteins and validated the proteome data by showing that several of these proteins associated with SYP61 in planta. We further identified the SYP121-complex and cellulose synthases, suggesting that SYP61 plays a role in the exocytic trafficking and the transport of cell wall components to the plasma membrane. The presence of proteins of unknown function in the SYP61 proteome including ECHIDNA offers the opportunity to identify novel trafficking components and cargos. The affinity purification of plant vesicles in their natural state provides a basis for further analysis and dissection of complex endomembrane networks. The approach is widely applicable and can afford the study of several vesicle populations in plants, which can be compared with the SYP61 vesicle proteome. PMID:21826108

  6. Fundamental Roles of the Golgi-Associated Toxoplasma Aspartyl Protease, ASP5, at the Host-Parasite Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudi, Pierre-Mehdi; Jacot, Damien; Mueller, Christina; Di Cristina, Manlio; Dogga, Sunil Kumar; Marq, Jean-Baptiste; Romano, Julia; Tosetti, Nicolò; Dubrot, Juan; Emre, Yalin; Lunghi, Matteo; Coppens, Isabelle; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sojka, Daniel; Pino, Paco; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii possesses sets of dense granule proteins (GRAs) that either assemble at, or cross the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) and exhibit motifs resembling the HT/PEXEL previously identified in a repertoire of exported Plasmodium proteins. Within Plasmodium spp., cleavage of the HT/PEXEL motif by the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protease Plasmepsin V precedes trafficking to and export across the PVM of proteins involved in pathogenicity and host cell remodelling. Here, we have functionally characterized the T. gondii aspartyl protease 5 (ASP5), a Golgi-resident protease that is phylogenetically related to Plasmepsin V. We show that deletion of ASP5 causes a significant loss in parasite fitness in vitro and an altered virulence in vivo. Furthermore, we reveal that ASP5 is necessary for the cleavage of GRA16, GRA19 and GRA20 at the PEXEL-like motif. In the absence of ASP5, the intravacuolar nanotubular network disappears and several GRAs fail to localize to the PVM, while GRA16 and GRA24, both known to be targeted to the host cell nucleus, are retained within the vacuolar space. Additionally, hypermigration of dendritic cells and bradyzoite cyst wall formation are impaired, critically impacting on parasite dissemination and persistence. Overall, the absence of ASP5 dramatically compromises the parasite’s ability to modulate host signalling pathways and immune responses. PMID:26473595

  7. Recruitment of arfaptins to the trans-Golgi network by PI(4)P and their involvement in cargo export

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Garcia, David; Ortega-Bellido, Maria; Scarpa, Margherita; Villeneuve, Julien; Jovic, Marko; Porzner, Marc; Balla, Tamas; Seufferlein, Thomas; Malhotra, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    The BAR (Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs) domain proteins arfaptin1 and arfaptin2 are localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and, by virtue of their ability to sense and/or generate membrane curvature, could play an important role in the biogenesis of transport carriers. We report that arfaptins contain an amphipathic helix (AH) preceding the BAR domain, which is essential for their binding to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P)-containing liposomes and the TGN of mammalian cells. The binding of arfaptin1, but not arfaptin2, to PI(4)P is regulated by protein kinase D (PKD) mediated phosphorylation at Ser100 within the AH. We also found that only arfaptin1 is required for the PKD-dependent trafficking of chromogranin A by the regulated secretory pathway. Altogether, these findings reveal the importance of PI(4)P and PKD in the recruitment of arfaptins at the TGN and their requirement in the events leading to the biogenesis of secretory storage granules. PMID:23695357

  8. Tracking the Subcellular Fate of 20(S)-Hydroxycholesterol with Click Chemistry Reveals a Transport Pathway to the Golgi*

    PubMed Central

    Peyrot, Sara M.; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Luchetti, Giovanni; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel K.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Scherrer, David; Jallouk, Andrew; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Ory, Daniel S.; Covey, Douglas F.; Rohatgi, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    Oxysterols, oxidized metabolites of cholesterol, are endogenous small molecules that regulate lipid metabolism, immune function, and developmental signaling. Although the cell biology of cholesterol has been intensively studied, fundamental questions about oxysterols, such as their subcellular distribution and trafficking pathways, remain unanswered. We have therefore developed a useful method to image intracellular 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol with both high sensitivity and spatial resolution using click chemistry and fluorescence microscopy. The metabolic labeling of cells with an alkynyl derivative of 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol has allowed us to directly visualize this oxysterol by attaching an azide fluorophore through cyclo-addition. Unexpectedly, we found that this oxysterol selectively accumulates in the Golgi membrane using a pathway that is sensitive to ATP levels, temperature, and lysosome function. Although previous models have proposed nonvesicular pathways for the rapid equilibration of oxysterols between membranes, direct imaging of oxysterols suggests that a vesicular pathway is responsible for differential accumulation of oxysterols in organelle membranes. More broadly, clickable alkynyl sterols may represent useful tools for sterol cell biology, both to investigate the functions of these important lipids and to decipher the pathways that determine their cellular itineraries. PMID:24596093

  9. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  10. A systematic review of in vitro retrograde obturation materials.

    PubMed

    Theodosopoulou, Joanna N; Niederman, Richard

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this review was two-fold: (a) to determine which retrograde obturation material(s) best prevents dye/ink penetration in vitro; and (b) to determine whether in vitro results agree with in vivo results. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify in vitro studies published between January 1966 and October, week 4, 2003, conducted on human teeth, and published in English, German, or French language, testing the resistance to retrograde penetration of retrograde filling materials. The MEDLINE search identified 278 published articles. Of those, 115 studies examined the resistance to penetration of various retrograde filling materials, in vitro. Thirty-four studies met all the inclusion and validity criteria. The results indicate that, beyond 10 days in vitro, the most effective retrofilling materials, when measured by dye/ink penetration are: composites>glass ionomer cement>amalgam>orthograde gutta-percha>EBA. The results of these in vitro studies are not congruent with in vivo study results, suggesting a need to re-evaluate the clinical validity and importance of in vitro studies. PMID:15851926

  11. Water dynamics and retrogradation of ultrahigh pressurized wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2006-09-01

    The water dynamics and retrogradation kinetics behavior of gelatinized wheat starch by either ultrahigh pressure (UHP) processing or heat are investigated. Wheat starch completely gelatinized in the condition of 90, 000 psi at 25 degrees C for 30 min (pressurized gel) or 100 degrees C for 30 min (heated gel). The physical properties of the wheat starches were characterized in terms of proton relaxation times (T2 times) measured using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and evaluated using commercially available continuous distribution modeling software. Different T2 distributions in both micro- and millisecond ranges between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels suggest distinctively different water dynamics between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels. Smaller water self-diffusion coefficients were observed for pressurized wheat starch gels and are indicative of more restricted translational proton mobility than is observed with heated wheat starch gels. The physical characteristics associated with changes taking place during retrogradation were evaluated using melting curves obtained with differential scanning calorimetry. Less retrogradation was observed in pressurized wheat starch, and it may be related to a smaller quantity of freezable water in pressurized wheat starch. Starches comprise a major constituent of many foods proposed for commercial potential using UHP, and the present results furnish insight into the effect of UHP on starch gelatinization and the mechanism of retrogradation during storage. PMID:16939331

  12. The kinematics of turnaround and retrograde axonal transport.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R E

    1986-11-01

    Rapid axonal transport of a pulse of 35S-methionine-labelled material was studied in vitro in the sensory neurons of amphibian sciatic nerve using a position-sensitive detector. For 10 nerves studied at 23.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C it was found that a pulse moved in the anterograde direction characterized by front edge, peak, and trailing edge transport rates of (mm/d) 180.8 +/- 2.2 (+/- SEM), 176.6 +/- 2.3, and 153.7 +/- 3.0, respectively. Following its arrival at a distal ligature, a smaller pulse was observed to move in the retrograde direction characterized by front edge and peak transport rates of 158.0 +/- 7.3 and 110.3 +/- 3.5, respectively, indicating that retrograde transport proceeds at a rate of 0.88 +/- 0.04 that of anterograde. The retrograde pulse was observed to disperse at a rate greater than the anterograde. Reversal of radiolabel at the distal ligature began 1.49 +/- 0.15 h following arrival of the first radiolabel. Considerable variation was seen between preparations in the way radiolabel accumulated in the end (ligature) regions of the nerve. Although a retrograde pulse was seen in all preparations, in 7 of 10 preparations there was no evidence of this pulse accumulating within less than 2-3 mm of a proximal ligature; however, accumulation was observed within less than 5 mm in all preparations. PMID:2432169

  13. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  14. Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women’s rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  15. Committee opinion no. 507: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Human trafficking is a widespread problem with estimates ranging from 14,000 to 50,000 individuals trafficked into the United States annually. This hidden population involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic workers, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms. Because 80% of trafficked individuals are women and girls, women’s health care providers may better serve their diverse patient population by increasing their awareness of this problem. The exploitation of people of any race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity is unacceptable at any time, in any place. The members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should be aware of this problem and strive to recognize and assist their patients who are victims or who have been victims of human trafficking. PMID:21860320

  16. Ovarian Cystadenoma in a Trafficked Patient.

    PubMed

    Titchen, Kanani E; Katz, Douglas; Martinez, Kidian; White, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    The topic of child sex trafficking is receiving increased attention both in the lay press and in research articles. Recently, a number of physician organizations have issued policy statements calling for the education and involvement of physicians in combating this form of "modern-day slavery." Primary care and emergency medicine physicians have led these efforts, but a number of these victims may present to surgeons. Surgeons are in a unique position to identify trafficked patients; during the process of undraping, intubation, and surgical preparation, signs of trafficking such as tattoos, scars, dental injuries, and bruising may be evident. In addition, these patients may have specific needs in terms of anesthesia and postoperative care due to substance abuse. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of sexual exploitation who presents for cystadenoma excision. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a sex-trafficked pediatric patient presenting for surgery. PMID:27244785

  17. Human trafficking law and social structures.

    PubMed

    Wooditch, Alese

    2012-08-01

    Human trafficking has only recently emerged at the forefront of policy reform, even in developed nations. Yet, heightened awareness of the issue has not translated into effective policy as the majority of nations have ineffective antitrafficking practices; many countries have failed to criminalize human trafficking, whereas others do not actively enforce statutes in place. By applying Black's theory of law, this study offers a preliminary understanding into the variation of global prosecutorial efforts in human trafficking and adequacy of antitrafficking law. To isolate this relationship, the effects of trafficking markets are controlled. As with prior research, the study finds limited support for the theory. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of the quantity of antitrafficking law and morphology association for policy development. PMID:21948250

  18. Sex trafficking of women and girls.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  19. Functional Properties of Dendritic Gap Junctions in Cerebellar Golgi Cells.

    PubMed

    Szoboszlay, Miklos; Lőrincz, Andrea; Lanore, Frederic; Vervaeke, Koen; Silver, R Angus; Nusser, Zoltan

    2016-06-01

    The strength and variability of electrical synaptic connections between GABAergic interneurons are key determinants of spike synchrony within neuronal networks. However, little is known about how electrical coupling strength is determined due to the inaccessibility of gap junctions on the dendritic tree. We investigated the properties of gap junctions in cerebellar interneurons by combining paired somato-somatic and somato-dendritic recordings, anatomical reconstructions, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and modeling. By fitting detailed compartmental models of Golgi cells to their somato-dendritic voltage responses, we determined their passive electrical properties and the mean gap junction conductance (0.9 nS). Connexin36 immunofluorescence and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling revealed a large variability in gap junction size and that only 18% of the 340 channels are open in each plaque. Our results establish that the number of gap junctions per connection is the main determinant of both the strength and variability in electrical coupling between Golgi cells. PMID:27133465

  20. Golgi protein ACBD3 mediates neurotoxicity associated with Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sbodio, Juan I.; Paul, Bindu D.; Machamer, Carolyn E.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the gene for huntingtin (Htt). In HD the corpus striatum selectively degenerates despite uniform expression of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) throughout the brain and body. Striatal selectivity reflects the binding of the striatal-selective protein Rhes to mHtt to augment cytotoxicity, but molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity have been elusive. Here we report that the Golgi protein ACBD3 (Acyl-CoA binding Domain Containing 3) mediates mHtt cytotoxicity via a Rhes/mHtt/ACBD3 complex. ACBD3 levels are markedly elevated in the striatum of HD patients, in a striatal cell line harboring polyglutamine repeats, and in the brains of HD mice. Moreover, ACBD3 deletion abolishes HD neurotoxicity, which is increased by ACBD3 overexpression. Enhanced levels of ACBD3 elicited by ER, mitochondrial and Golgi stresses may account for HD associated augmentation of ACBD3 and neurodegeneration. PMID:24012756

  1. Degradation of tyrosinase induced by phenylthiourea occurs following Golgi maturation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrea M; Orlow, Seth J

    2005-04-01

    Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin synthesis, is a di-copper metalloprotein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPAquinone. Phenylthiourea (PTU) is a well-known inhibitor of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis and is known to interact with sweet potato catechol oxidase, an enzyme possessing copper binding domain homology to tyrosinase. While PTU is frequently used to induce hypopigmentation in biological systems, little is known about its effects on tyrosinase and other melanogenic proteins. We have found that PTU induces degradation of tyrosinase but not of other melanogenic proteins including the tyrosinase-related metalloproteins tyrosinase-related protein (Tyrp)1 and Tyrp2. Using pulse-chase analysis coupled with glycosidase digestion, we observed that tyrosinase degradation occurs following complete maturation of the protein and that degradation was reversed by cysteine protease inhibitor E64 but not proteasome inhibitor N-acetyl-L-leucinyl-L-leucinyl-L-norleucinal. We conclude that PTU specifically induces tyrosinse degradation following Golgi maturation. Our data suggest that in addition to well-known ER-directed quality control, tyrosinase is also subject to post-Golgi quality control. PMID:15760341

  2. Gβ1γ2 activates phospholipase A2-dependent Golgi membrane tubule formation

    PubMed Central

    Bechler, Marie E.; Brown, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins transduce the ligand binding of transmembrane G protein coupled receptors into a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. Recently, heterotrimeric Gβγ subunit signaling at the Golgi complex has been shown to regulate the formation of vesicular transport carriers that deliver cargo from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. In addition to vesicles, membrane tubules have also been shown to mediate export from the Golgi complex, which requires the activity of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme activity. Through the use of an in vitro reconstitution assay with isolated Golgi complexes, we provide evidence that Gβ1γ2 signaling also stimulates Golgi membrane tubule formation. In addition, we show that an inhibitor of Gβγ activation of PLA2 enzymes inhibits in vitro Golgi membrane tubule formation. Additionally, purified Gβγ protein stimulates membrane tubules in the presence of low (sub-threshold) cytosol concentrations. Importantly, this Gβγ stimulation of Golgi membrane tubule formation was inhibited by treatment with the PLA2 antagonist ONO-RS-082. These studies indicate that Gβ1γ2 signaling activates PLA2 enzymes required for Golgi membrane tubule formation, thus establishing a new layer of regulation for this process. PMID:25019068

  3. Cytoplasmic dynein and its regulatory proteins in Golgi pathology in nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Dick; Hoogenraad, Casper C.

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a dynamic organelle involved in processing and sorting of lipids and proteins. In neurons, the Golgi apparatus is important for the development of axons and dendrites and maintenance of their highly complex polarized morphology. The motor protein complex cytoplasmic dynein has an important role in Golgi apparatus positioning and function. Together, with dynactin and other regulatory factors it drives microtubule minus-end directed motility of Golgi membranes. Inhibition of dynein results in fragmentation and dispersion of the Golgi ribbon in the neuronal cell body, resembling the Golgi abnormalities observed in some neurodegenerative disorders, in particular motor neuron diseases. Mutations in dynein and its regulatory factors, including the dynactin subunit p150Glued, BICD2 and Lis-1, are associated with several human nervous system disorders, including cortical malformation and motor neuropathy. Here we review the role of dynein and its regulatory factors in Golgi function and positioning, and the potential role of dynein malfunction in causing Golgi apparatus abnormalities in nervous system disorders. PMID:26578860

  4. Characterization of the Golgi Complex Cleared of Proteins in Transit and Examination of Calcium Uptake Activities

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Randall S.; Jones, Steven M.; Dahl, Rolf H.; Nordeen, Mark H.; Howell, Kathryn E.

    1997-01-01

    To characterize endogenous molecules and activities of the Golgi complex, proteins in transit were >99% cleared from rat hepatocytes by using cycloheximide (CHX) treatment. The loss of proteins in transit resulted in condensation of the Golgi cisternae and stacks. Isolation of a stacked Golgi fraction is equally efficient with or without proteins in transit [control (CTL SGF1) and cycloheximide (CHX SGF1)]. Electron microscopy and morphometric analysis showed that >90% of the elements could be positively identified as Golgi stacks or cisternae. Biochemical analysis showed that the cis-, medial-, trans-, and TGN Golgi markers were enriched over the postnuclear supernatant 200- to 400-fold with and 400- to 700-fold without proteins in transit. To provide information on a mechanism for import of calcium required at the later stages of the secretory pathway, calcium uptake into CTL SGF1 and CHX SGF1 was examined. All calcium uptake into CTL SGF1 was dependent on a thapsigargin-resistant pump not resident to the Golgi complex and a thapsigargin-sensitive pump resident to the Golgi. Experiments using CHX SGF1 showed that the thapsigargin-resistant activity was a plasma membrane calcium ATP