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Sample records for gong xin shen

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine Shuang Shen Ning Xin Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Preserving of Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueli; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Li; Guo, Yujie; Lin, Chengren; Zhang, Cuixiang; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of Shuang Shen Ning Xin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wistar rats were treated with trimetazidine (10 mg/kg/day, ig), Shuang Shen Ning Xin (22.5, 45 mg/kg/day, ig), or saline for 5 consecutive days. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min and reperfusion for 120 min on the last day of administration. It is found that Shuang Shen Ning Xin pretreatment markedly decreased infarct size and serum LDH levels, and this observed protection was associated with reduced myocardial oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, further studies on mitochondrial function showed that rats treated with Shuang Shen Ning Xin displayed decreased mitochondrial swelling and cytosolic cytochrome c levels, which were accompanied by a preservation of complex I activities and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition. In conclusion, the mitochondrial protective effect of Shuang Shen Ning Xin could be a new mechanism, by which Shuang Shen Ning Xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25031602

  2. Traditional chinese medicine shuang shen ning xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by preserving of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueli; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Li; Guo, Yujie; Lin, Chengren; Zhang, Cuixiang; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of Shuang Shen Ning Xin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Wistar rats were treated with trimetazidine (10 mg/kg/day, ig), Shuang Shen Ning Xin (22.5, 45 mg/kg/day, ig), or saline for 5 consecutive days. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min and reperfusion for 120 min on the last day of administration. It is found that Shuang Shen Ning Xin pretreatment markedly decreased infarct size and serum LDH levels, and this observed protection was associated with reduced myocardial oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, further studies on mitochondrial function showed that rats treated with Shuang Shen Ning Xin displayed decreased mitochondrial swelling and cytosolic cytochrome c levels, which were accompanied by a preservation of complex I activities and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition. In conclusion, the mitochondrial protective effect of Shuang Shen Ning Xin could be a new mechanism, by which Shuang Shen Ning Xin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25031602

  3. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction suppresses osteoclastogenesis via increasing dehydroepiandrosterone to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yuyan; Qiu, Xuemin; Xu, Yingping; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to prevent and treat age-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) for decades. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of BSNXD in terms of receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro because of the critical roles of bone resorption in the development and progression of osteoporosis. In mice, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated with an enzyme immunoassay kit after ovariectomy. Levels of DHEA and DHEAS increased significantly following administration of BSNXD while the level of E2 did not. In addition, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining showed that DHEA profoundly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner via estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not via estrogen receptor β or androgen receptors. Cytotoxicity was not detected in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These data suggest that BSNXD prevents PMO by increasing DHEA via the ERαpathway to suppress osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26166370

  4. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Qiu, Xue-Min; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported. Purpose We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX) mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula. Materials and methods Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay. Results BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus. Conclusion These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice. PMID:26357466

  5. Identification of Proteins Implicated in the Increased Heart Rate in ShenSongYangXin-Treated Bradycardia Rabbits by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhouying; Huang, Jian; Huo, Youping; Gong, Jing; Zhang, Yinhui; Wei, Cong; Pu, Jielin

    2015-01-01

    The present study tries to identify proteins implicated in bradycardia rabbits in hearts after ShenSongYangXin (SSYX, a traditional Chinese medicine) treatment. Eighteen adult rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups: sham, model, and SSYX treatment groups. Heart rate was recorded in rabbits and proteins were isolated from ventricular muscle. We used isobaric tags for elative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify altered proteins after SSYX treatment. The heart rate decreased after six weeks due to the injury of the sinoatrial node in the model group. This effect was partially reversed by 4-week SSYX treatment. A total of a2988 proteins were quantified by performing the iTRAQ-based experiments. Of these, 86 proteins were differentially expressed according to our criteria (42 upregulated and 44 downregulated). The identification of key proteins implicated in the treatment of bradycardia could serve as a foundation to better understand and further explore the molecular mechanism of SSYX treatment. PMID:26770253

  6. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction: inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by abrogation of the RANKL-induced NFATc1 and NF-κB signaling pathways via selective estrogen receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Qiu, Xue-Min; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal composition that has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the mechanisms affecting bone metabolism are not fully understood. Purpose We investigated the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway underlying the effect of BSNXD on osteoclastogenesis. Materials and methods A postmenopausal osteoporosis animal model generated by ovariectomy was administered BSNXD and drug-derived serum was prepared. An enzyme immunoassay was conducted to measure the 17-β-estradiol (E2) concentration in the drug-derived serum. Bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells were treated with drug-derived serum, and tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining was conducted to observe osteoclastogenesis. A bone resorption assay was performed to analyze the effect on osteoclastic resorptive function. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, Western blotting, transfection, and luciferase assays were conducted to explore the related mechanism. Results E2 was not elevated in BSNXD-derived serum. BSNXD-derived serum suppressed receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-activated osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner; this effect could be reversed by estrogen receptor α antagonist methyl-piperidino-pyrazole. The serum suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB transcription and inhibited the accumulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 in osteoclast precursor cells; the inhibitory effect was abolished by methyl-piperidino-pyrazole but not the estrogen receptor β antagonist or androgen receptor antagonist. Conclusion These results collectively suggest that administration of BSNXD presents inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation by abrogating the RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 and NF-κB signaling pathways downstream of estrogen receptor α, thereby contributing to the inhibitory effect on bone resorption. PMID

  7. The GONG Farside Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibacher, J. W.; Braun, D.; González Hernández, I.; Goodrich, J.; Kholikov, S.; Lindsey, C.; Malanushenko, A.; Scherrer, P.

    2005-05-01

    The GONG program is currently providing near-real-time helioseismic images of the farside of the Sun. The continuous stream of low resolution images, obtained from the 6 earth based GONG stations, are merged into a single data series that are the input to the farside pipeline. In order to validate the farside images, it is crucial to compare the results obtained from different instruments. We show comparisons between the farside images provided by the MDI instrument and the GONG ones. New aditions to the pipeline will allow us to create full-hemisphere farside images, examples of the latest are shown in this poster. Our efforts are now concentrated in calibrating the farside signal so it became a reliable solar activity forecasting tool. We are also testing single-skip acoustic power holography at 5-7 mHz as a prospective means of reinforcing the signatures of active regions crossing the the east and west limb and monitoring acoustic emission in the neighborhoods of Sun's the poles. This work utilizes data obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Program, managed by the National Solar Observatory, which is operated by AURA, Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The data were acquired by instruments operated by the Big Bear Solar Observatory, High Altitude Observatory, Learmonth Solar Observatory, Udaipur Solar Observatory, Instituto de Astrofisico de Canarias, and Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, as well as the Michaelson Doppler Imager on SoHO, a mission of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. This work has been supported by the NASA Living with a Star - Targeted Research and Technology program.

  8. Operating the GONG worldwide network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, Patricia A.

    2008-07-01

    At the instigation of the international scientific community, the US National Solar Observatory (NSO) began to develop the six-site, semi-autonomously operating, helioseismology Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) in 1984 and the network was officially established in 1995 when the sixth, and last, station was completed. Funded by the US National Science Foundation and enjoying in-kind support from numerous institutions, the project has become a notable international collaboration. The network provides essentially continuous, extremely sensitive observations of the velocity, intensity, and magnetic field of the Sun's surface every minute. Quick-look data are available in near-real-time for science and for diagnostics (http://gong.nso.edu), and the full data set is shipped to project headquarters weekly where the processed data and science-grade analyses are made available to the international community. As originally proposed, GONG was to have a three-year observing run. Over a number of years of operation however, both GONG and its space-borne sister the ESA/NASA SOHO MDI instrument clearly demonstrated the reality of internal solar-cycle structural changes, and in addition, local helioseismology programs were successfully developed. In 2003, NSO made a decision to add GONG to its Flagship facilities and extended the duration of the observing run indefinitely.

  9. Space Weather with GONG+ Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.; Komm, R.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, I.; Petrie, G.; Harvey, J. W.

    2008-05-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is now routinely producing several data products that are useful for space weather predictions. These products are one-minute cadence full-disk magnetograms obtained continually; ten-miniute averages of these magnetograms; one-hour cadence synoptic magnetic field maps and potential field source-surface extrapolations; and twelve-hour far-side maps that show the presence of large active regions. Most of these these products are made available over the Internet in near-real time. In addition, we are developing flare predictors based on subsurface vorticity obtained from helioseismic ring diagrams in conjunction with surface magnetic field observations. We find that, when both the subsurface vorticity and the surface magnetic field are above certain thresholds for a specific active region, then that active region has a very high probability of producing vigorous flare activity. We will present the quantitative results for this predictor and also report on progress developing a predictor based on the temporal evolution of the vorticity.

  10. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Project

    PubMed

    Harvey; Hill; Hubbard; Kennedy; Leibacher; Pintar; Gilman; Noyes; Title; Toomre; Ulrich; Bhatnagar; Kennewell; Marquette; Patron; Saa; Yasukawa

    1996-05-31

    Helioseismology requires nearly continuous observations of the oscillations of the solar surface for long periods of time in order to obtain precise measurements of the sun's normal modes of oscillation. The GONG project acquires velocity images from a network of six identical instruments distributed around the world. The GONG network began full operation in October 1995. It has achieved a duty cycle of 89 percent and reduced the magnitude of spectral artifacts by a factor of 280 in power, compared with single-site observations. The instrumental noise is less than the observed solar background. PMID:8662455

  11. Resilience Linguistics, Orthography and the Gong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, David

    2011-01-01

    The Gong are a minority group of western Thailand whose language has been in decline for over a century. In the 1920s, the first report of the language predicted its imminent demise. Since then, it has contacted to two villages outside its traditional territory. The language there is under threat, particularly since the 1970s with roads, schools,…

  12. Tai Chi, Qi Gong and Reiki.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dennis A

    2004-11-01

    Tai Chi, Qi Gong, and Reiki are complementary therapies that are gaining popularity with patients. Although these therapies seem simple and attractive in their philosophy and are easy to apply,more objective, well-designed research is needed to prove their efficacy and to gain acceptance from the medical community. PMID:15458751

  13. Brief History of Using GONG for Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arge, Nick; Henney, Carl; Hill, Frank

    2015-04-01

    In 2006 the National Solar Observatory’s (NSO) Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) completed the upgrade of their magnetographs with new polarization modulators permitting, for the first time, proper inter-calibration of the magnetic field data from a global network of six different instruments. This development was ground breaking for at least three reasons. First, it allowed the magnetograms from the different magnetographs to be merged together into global maps of the photospheric magnetic field. Second, it was the first ground based system that could monitor the full-disk solar magnetic field 24/7 at moderate spatial resolution (2 arcsec) and high temporal cadence (60 seconds). Third, techniques for merging magnetic field data from the six (technically identical but practically) different instruments were developed, which can now be applied to future ground based networks. Approximately one year after the GONG upgrade, NOAA/SWPC began routinely using the new GONG maps as input to the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal and solar wind model. Since this time, use of GONG data for space weather applications has grown rapidly. For example, GONG photospheric field maps are now the primary data driving the operational WSA+Enlil model at NOAA/SWPC. In addition, GONG magnetograph and helioseismic farside data are beginning to be used as input to the ADAPT flux transport model to generate synchronic maps and forecast F10.7 and EUV. This talk provides a brief history of the use of GONG for practical space weather forecasting purposes.

  14. GONG Observations of Solar Surface Flows

    PubMed

    Hathaway; Gilman; Harvey; Hill; Howard; Jones; Kasher; Leibacher; Pintar; Simon

    1996-05-31

    Doppler velocity observations obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) instruments directly measure the nearly steady flows in the solar photosphere. The sun's differential rotation is accurately determined from single observations. The rotation profile with respect to latitude agrees well with previous measures, but it also shows a slight north-south asymmetry. Rotation profiles averaged over 27-day rotations of the sun reveal the torsional oscillation signal-weak, jetlike features, with amplitudes of 5 meters per second, that are associated with the sunspot latitude activity belts. A meridional circulation with a poleward flow of about 20 meters per second is also evident. Several characteristics of the surface flows suggest the presence of large convection cells. PMID:8662460

  15. Nearly steady flows in GONG prototype data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1993-01-01

    Doppler velocity images obtained with the GONG prototype instrument were analyzed to measure the nearly steady photospheric flows. The data consists of 88 images each of velocity, intensity, and modulation obtained at 20:00 UT on 88 days from July 1992 to February 1994. Each velocity image was temporally filtered to remove the p-mode oscillations, masked to exclude active regions, and then analyzed using spherical harmonics and orthogonal functions as described by Hathaway (1992). The spectral coefficients show very consistent results for the entire time interval with some evidence of year-to-year variations. The rotation profile agrees well with previous results and exhibits a north-south asymmetry that reverses sign during the 20 month interval. The residual rotation velocities exhibit structures with amplitudes of approximately 5 m/s that may be related to torsional oscillations. The meridional circulation is directed from the equator toward the poles with a peak velocity in the photosphere of approximately 50 m/s. The higher order components are very weak but indicate a divergent flow from the mid-latitudes (opposite that found for the June 1989 data). The convective limb shift is well fit by a 3rd order polynomial. The convection spectrum has a prominent peak at spherical harmonic degrees of l approximately 150 with very little signal in the low degree modes. Analysis of this signal shows that there is no evidence for giant cell convection at the level of approximately 10 m/s for all modes up to l = 32.

  16. GONG Magnetogram Zero-Point Correction Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R.; Harvey, J.; Hill, F.; Toner, C.

    2003-05-01

    Line-of-sight component magnetograms from GONG+ are produced every minute at every site. The noise level is about 3 G per pixel but the zero point is incorrect by as much as 10 G. This zero point error varies across the solar image and with time. This error precludes using the magnetograms for meaningful extrapolations of weak photospheric fields into the corona. Experiments show the cause is slow, asymmetric, locally varying switching of the LCD modulator from one retardation state to the other, generating a false magnetic field pattern (zero error). The mirrors directing sunlight into the instrument produce slight ( 1 varying during the day which interacts with modulator imperfections to make a complicated correction problem. Atmospheric variations during the one-minute integration period can also cause trouble. The zero point error should affect the daily calibration in virtually the same way as a regular magnetogram taken at the same time. The daily calibration is used to create a 'magnetic flat field' to correct a nearly simultaneous regular magnetogram. The result should be a nearly rror-free magnetogram that can then be used to determine the zero point error during the rest of the day by subtracting suitably rotated and masked versions of the data. This error is then fit with a suitable function (e.g. Zernike polynomials) and the coefficients used to synthesize a correction at any time. The coefficients are smoothed and averaged over several days to reduce instrumental and atmospheric noise, and real solar changes that might leak through the masks. Present performance, determined by comparison among different sites, is good to about 1 G. A limitation appears to be seeing effects causing rapidly changing, small fluctuations of the zero point error. This is being investigated.

  17. The Role of GONG observations in Global MHD Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, Jon; Downs, Cooper; Lionello, Roberto; Caplan, Ronald M.; Riley, Pete; Mikić, Zoran; Arge, Nick; Henney, Carl

    2015-04-01

    The solar magnetic field is an essential aspect of any predictive model of the solar corona. For many years, the magnetic field has been measured most reliably in the photosphere. So-called ``synoptic'' maps of the photospheric field (actually built up from magnetograms acquired over the course of the solar rotation) are or have been available from a number of ground- and space-based observatories, including the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG). MHD models of the solar corona have typically used these maps to develop boundary conditions. GONG data is unique among the ground-based observatories in (1) providing magnetogams at a high-cadence (2) providing 24 hour coverage and (3) supplying helioseismic data that can be used to provide estimates of new active regions that have emerged on the far side of the Sun. These three elements are especially important as MHD models attempt to address the time-dependent nature of the corona. In this talk we describe how the combination of flux transport models driven by GONG data, along with estimates of far side active region emergence, can be used in coronal MHD modeling and the advantages gained from this approach. Work supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  18. The GONG Data Reduction and Analysis System. [solar oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pintar, James A.; Andersen, Bo Nyborg; Andersen, Edwin R.; Armet, David B.; Brown, Timothy M.; Hathaway, David H.; Hill, Frank; Jones, Harrison P.

    1988-01-01

    Each of the six GONG observing stations will produce three, 16-bit, 256X256 images of the Sun every 60 sec of sunlight. These data will be transferred from the observing sites to the GONG Data Management and Analysis Center (DMAC), in Tucson, on high-density tapes at a combined rate of over 1 gibabyte per day. The contemporaneous processing of these data will produce several standard data products and will require a sustained throughput in excess of 7 megaflops. Peak rates may exceed 50 megaflops. Archives will accumulate at the rate of approximately 1 terabyte per year, reaching nearly 3 terabytes in 3 yr of observing. Researchers will access the data products with a machine-independent GONG Reduction and Analysis Software Package (GRASP). Based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility, this package will include database facilities and helioseismic analysis tools. Users may access the data as visitors in Tucson, or may access DMAC remotely through networks, or may process subsets of the data at their local institutions using GRASP or other systems of their choice. Elements of the system will reach the prototype stage by the end of 1988. Full operation is expected in 1992 when data acquisition begins.

  19. Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinard, Alysha; Marble, Andrew R.; Berger, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction.NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data available to NSO and the public via the

  20. Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinard, A.; Marble, A.; Hill, F.; Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction. NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via public internet connections for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical magnetogram data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data

  1. New Insights into the Roles of Xin Repeat-Containing Proteins in Cardiac Development, Function, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinchuan; Lin, Jenny Li-Chun; Erives, Albert J.; Lin, Cheng-I; Lin, Jim Jung-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of Xin repeat-containing proteins in 1996, the importance of Xin proteins in muscle development, function, regeneration, and disease has been continuously implicated. Most Xin proteins are localized to myotendinous junctions of the skeletal muscle and also to intercalated discs (ICDs) of the heart. The Xin gene is only found in vertebrates, which are characterized by a true chambered heart. This suggests that the evolutionary origin of the Xin gene may have played a key role in vertebrate origins. Diverse vertebrates including mammals possess two paralogous genes, Xinα (or Xirp1) and Xinβ (or Xirp2), and this review focuses on the role of their encoded proteins in cardiac muscles. Complete loss of mouse Xinβ (mXinβ) results in the failure of forming ICD, severe growth retardation, and early postnatal lethality. Deletion of mouse Xinα (mXinα) leads to late-onset cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. Molecular studies have identified three classes of mXinα-interacting proteins: catenins, actin regulators/modulators, and ion-channel subunits. Thus, mXinα acts as a scaffolding protein modulating the N-cadherin-mediated adhesion and ion-channel surface expression. Xin expression is significantly upregulated in early stages of stressed hearts, whereas Xin expression is downregulated in failing hearts from various human cardiomyopathies. Thus, mutations in these Xin loci may lead to diverse cardiomyopathies and heart failure. PMID:24725425

  2. Doing Ideology amid a Crisis: Collective Actions and Discourses of the Chinese Falun Gong Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Cheris Shun-ching

    2013-01-01

    Based on an interactionist framework, this article examines how followers of a contemporary Chinese religious movement, Falun Gong, deal with a crisis situation and sustain their conviction in the absence of their charismatic leader. Data were collected during a yearlong ethnography of the Falun Gong in Chicago and Hong Kong. The findings reveal…

  3. Full-disk Solar H-alpha Images From GONG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.; Bolding, J.; Clark, R.; Hauth, D.; Hill, F.; Kroll, R.; Luis, G.; Mills, N.; Purdy, T.; Henney, C.; Holland, D.; Winter, J.

    2011-05-01

    Since mid-2010 the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) has collected H-alpha images at six sites around the world. These images provide a near real-time solar activity patrol for use in space weather applications and also an archive for research purposes. Images are collected once per minute, dark, smear, and flat corrected, compressed and then sent via the Internet to a 'cloud' server where reduction is completed. Various reduced images are usually available within a minute after exposure. The H-alpha system is an add-on to the normal GONG helioseismology instrument and does not interfere with regular observations. A polarizing beamsplitter sends otherwise unused 656 nm light through two lenses to a Daystar 0.04 nm mica etalon filter. The filter is matched to an image of the GONG light feed entrance pupil and sees an image of the Sun at infinity. Two lenses behind the filter form the solar image on a DVC-4000 2k x 2k interline transfer CCD camera. Exposure times are automatically adjusted to maintain the quiet disk center at 20% of full dynamic range to avoid saturation by bright flares. Image resolution is limited by diffraction, seeing and some high-order wavefront errors in the filters. A unique dual-heater system was developed by Daystar to homogenize the passband characteristics of the mica etalons. The data are in regular use for space weather forecasting by the U.S. Air Force Weather Agency, which funded construction and installation of the instruments. Operational and reduction improvements are underway and archived data are already being used for research projects. The Web site URL is http://halpha.nso.edu.

  4. Antioxidant and antitumor effects of ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Lu, Jun; Zhou, Longlong; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Mingxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor effects of the extract fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen. Methods: Four different fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen were obtained by the extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol, respectively, which were used to treat the HCT116, Caco-2, HepG2, and MFC cells. Free radical scavenging effects of the ferula fractions were deteced with the DPPH assay. Effects of the ferula fractions on the peroliferatoin of the tumor cells were assessed with the SRB assay. Apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Results: The DPPH assay showed that the petroleum ether fraction hardly showed any antioxidant activity, while the ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and methanol fractions exhibited free radical-scavenging capacities, in a dose dependent manner. The SRB assay showed that, the proliferation of the tumor cells could be inhibited by the ferula fractions, in a dose dependent manner. However, differential effects were observed for the different fractions in different model cells. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fraction exerted the most efficient inhibiting effects on the tumor cell proliferation. In addition, the flow cytometry showed that, all the ferula fractions significantly enhanced the apoptotic process in the tumor cells, with differential enhancing capacities in different model cells. Conclusion: Extract fractions of the Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen could exert antioxidant, proliferation-inhibiting, and apoptosis-enhancing effects in tumor cells. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibits the most potent antioxidant and antitumor effects. PMID:26885009

  5. Preliminary discussion on the origin of Lei-gong-mo (tektites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baoyin, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The specimens of lei-gong-mo (tektites) were collected from Hainan Island and Leizhow Peninsula during the period from 1963 to 1975. The distribution, forms, sculpture, abration surface (bald spot), internal structure and chemical composition of lei-gong-mo are discussed. Studies of these materials lead to the following conclusions: (1) the specimens of lei-gong-mo can be morphologically divided into eight types; (2) the sculptures on the surface of lei-gong-mo are probably due to the corrosion effect of volcanic gas, and the abration surface due to the aerodynamic corrosion; (3) the folded structures in the layered lei-gong-mo (Muong Nong-type tektite) seem hardly to be formed by an impact of meteorites, but they might be produced in the magma flow process when the lei-gong-mo was melting within the crater vent; and (4) the comparison of its chemical composition with that of basalt from Hainan Island does not show that lei-gong-mo came from the local volcano. The hypothesis of the lunar volcanic origin of tektites is examined.

  6. Novel chinmedomics strategy for discovering effective constituents from ShenQiWan acting on ShenYangXu syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Hang; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Liang; Tan, Yun-Long; Guan, Yu; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xi-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Elucidation of the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is of importance for scientists of modern medicine to understand the value of TCM clinical experience, and it is necessary to have a biological language to scientifically describe the efficacy of TCM. With this background?Chinmedomics has been proposed by our team, which includes integrating serum pharmacochemistry and metabolomics technology, defining theory and research methods for expressing the efficacy of TCMs based on the biomarkers discovery of TCM syndrome and elucidating the efficacy of TCM formulae, discovering effective constituents, and finally elucidating the scientific value of TCM. In the present study, the innovative chinmedomics strategy was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of ShenQiWan (SQW) acting on ShenYangXu (kidney-yang deficiency syndrome, KYDS). We analyzed the urine metabolic trajectory between the model and control groups, and identified the biomarkers by the multivariate analysis. We found that SQW caused significant restoration of abnormal metabolism of KYDs. Using the method of metabolomics, 17 potential urine biomarkers were analyzed through 4 repeated tests in our serial studies on SQW and KYDS. Under the premise of therapeutic efficacy, a total of 56 peaks were tentatively characterized in vivo by the use of serum pharmacochemistry. Correlation analysis between marker metabolites and in vivo constituents of SQW showed that 28 compositions had a close relationship with urine biomarkers of therapeutic effects, whichmight play a key role in the therapeutic effect of SQW. These compounds were imported into an online database to predict their targets. Twenty-three important potential targets were identified, which were related to the metabolism of steroid hormone, tryptophan utilization, and thyroid hormone. In conclusion, chinmedomics is a useful strategy for discovery of potentially effective constituents from complex TCM formulae. PMID:27608946

  7. [The cultural and medical significance of Xin an mingzuzhi(History of Famous Family in Xin'an)].

    PubMed

    Hu, A H; Wan, S M

    2016-01-28

    History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes abundant information and important value of the medical cultural history, including the medical family, medical ethics and the number of the famous doctors and its distribution, the medical books and its outline the medical ethics, the diseases. As for the 115 famous doctors recorded in this book, Shexian county owns the most while Jixi county owns the least, and of the average number of famous doctors among the 10, 000 local people, Yixian county owns the most while Xiuning county owns the least. History of Famous Family in Xin'an includes 26 medical books, ranging from medical literature study, gynecological treatment, external medical treatment, diagnosis and treatment of pediatric diseases, ancient medical case records, medical education, acu-moxibustion and summary of other medical experiences. The book also demonstrates the noble morality of doctors, development of doctor' family, and records of paralytic stroke, epistaxis, tuberculous consumptive diseases, furunculosis, dystocia and some infectious diseases. PMID:27049748

  8. Analyzing a Social Movement's Use of Internet: Resource Mobilization, New Social Movement Theories and the Case of Falun Gong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bi Yun

    2009-01-01

    Falun Gong emerged as spiritual social movement after being outlawed by the Chinese Communist Party authorities in 1999. Since then, Falun Gong practitioners have made heavy use of information and communication technologies, particularly the Internet, to further their movement's activities. This dissertation systematically examines the role of…

  9. Qi Gong exercises and Feldenkrais method from the perspective of Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Stöckl, Andrea; Mucha, Dariusz

    2010-07-01

    This study describes two similar approaches to human movement: Qi Gong exercises and the Feldenkrais method. These systems are investigated in terms of Gestalt concepts and humanistic psychology. Moshe Feldenkrais created the concept known as Awareness Through Movement. This concept assumes that by becoming more aware of one's movements, one functions at a higher level. In similar ways to those using the Feldenkrais method, individuals may become more aware of their own movements by performing Qi Gong exercises: A therapeutic modality that facilitates mind-body integration. Qi Gong exercises commonly lead to increased personal awareness accompained by enhanced quality, fluency and smoothness of movement. These two methods of movement therapies are explored in terms of their relations with Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology. PMID:20538219

  10. Comparison of Time-Distance Local Helioseismology on GONG and MDI Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Zhao, J.; Rajaguru, S. P.; Toner, C. G.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Thompson, M. J.; Hughes, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    We show first results derived from one rotation of GONG++ and MDI data analyzed independently by different groups with time-distance techniques. We focus on observations obtained during spring 2002 and especially on Carrington rotation 1988 (2002/3/30 - 2002/4/26) and measure flow components and wave speed inhomogeneities over a range of depths for different active regions.

  11. COMPARISON OF SEISMIC SIGNATURES OF FLARES OBTAINED BY SOHO/MICHELSON DOPPLER IMAGER AND GONG INSTRUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkov, S.; Matthews, S. A.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The first observations of seismic responses to solar flares were carried out using time-distance (TD) and holography techniques applied to SOHO/Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) Dopplergrams obtained from space and unaffected by terrestrial atmospheric disturbances. However, the ground-based network GONG is potentially a very valuable source of sunquake observations, especially in cases where space observations are unavailable. In this paper, we present an updated technique for pre-processing of GONG observations for the application of subjacent vantage holography. Using this method and TD diagrams, we investigate several sunquakes observed in association with M- and X-class solar flares and compare the outcomes with those reported earlier using MDI data. In both GONG and MDI data sets, for the first time, we also detect the TD ridge associated with the 2001 September 9 flare. Our results show reassuringly positive identification of sunquakes from GONG data that can provide further information about the physics of seismic processes associated with solar flares.

  12. Effect of Xin Mai Jia on atherosclerosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Pan, G P; Jia, M; Wang, Q Q; Guo, Z G; Zhao, F R; Lei, G L; Wan, G R; Wan, G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effect of Xin Mai Jia (XMJ) on atherosclerosis (AS) in rats. Rat models of AS were established by peritoneally injecting vitamin D, feeding a high-fat diet, and inducing balloon injuries in rats. The stomachs of the rats were irrigated continuously for 10 weeks with XMJ. Blood lipid- and hemorheology-related indices of blood samples were detected. Pathological changes in the right common carotid arterial tissues were also determined. The protein expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angio-tensin-1, and endothelin-1 were determined by western blotting. XMJ reduced cholesterol, trigylecride, and low-density lipoprotein levels as well as blood viscosity, sedimentation, and hematocrit. Furthermore, XMJ alleviated vascular endothelial injury and reduced/eliminated atherosclerotic plaques. In contrast, XMJ significantly increased the endothelium-dependent relaxing response of the AS rat models. The western blotting results showed that XMJ upregulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase but downregulated angiotensin-1 and endothelin-1. XMJ prevented the development of AS by regulating blood lipid levels, hemorheology, and vascular function. PMID:26125801

  13. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun. PMID:21029711

  14. LC-MS-Based Quality Assessment of a Traditional Chinese Medicine YANG XIN Formulation.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Ahmad J; Zaher, Ahmed; Simithy, Johayra; Keller, William J; Tripp, Matt; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-08-01

    YANG XIN is a traditional Chinese medicine formulation used for nervous fatigue and consists of a proprietary blend of concentrated extracts from 18 plant ingredients. The 18 constituent plant ingredients, YANG XIN capsules, and formulations 2014-005_1 A and 1B were extracted by consecutive 24-hour macerations with dichloromethane followed by methanol. Metabolite separation was carried out through LC-MS in 40 minutes. Data acquisitions for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were collected under (±) ESI modes and (+) APCI mode using full spectrum scan analysis.A total of 18 analytical markers were identified by LC-MS for YANG XIN formulations based on accurate mass measurements, molecular formula, double bond equivalent, MFG score, and error (ppm) of the measurement. Aditionally, a comparison of the data with previously reported results for the compounds, followed by identity confirmation with standard compounds, was performed. Seventeen analytical markers representing 17 plant ingredients in the different YANG XIN formulations were quantified for the first time. The YANG XIN capsules and the 2014-005_1B formulation were similar to each other and different from the 2014-005_1 A formulation based on the fact that both YANG XIN capsules and the 2014-005_1B formulation contain the same analytical markers. This method provides good linearity (r(2) > 0.9945), intraday precision (R. S. D. < 3.9 %), interday precision (R. S. D. < 5.6 %), accuracy (99.2-101 %), recovery (145.7 %), limit of detection (0.0011-0.0732 µg/mL), and limit of quantitation (0.0038-0.2441 µg/mL). PMID:27124240

  15. The tentative exploration of Shen Kuo's circle method and proper method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shengchi

    In this paper, the circle method and proper method established by Shen Kuo, a famous scientist of Northern Song Dynasty, are discussed tentatively. This is a new approach for calculating the position of the sun on the ecliptic. The velocity of sun's annual apparent motion is regarded as the sum of a constant and a variation.

  16. [Development of Zhu Gong' thought on cold pathogenic diseases from Shanghan Baiwen to Huorenshu].

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingxin

    2011-05-01

    Huorenshu (The Book of Huoren) is a famous work by physician Zhu Gong in Song Dynasty. Its early edition named Shanghan Baiwen (One Hundred Questions on Cold Pathogenic Diseases). It was reedited and printed for many times. The two early editions now exist are Shanghan Baiwen Jingluotu (One Hundred Questions on Cold Pathogenic Diseases and Meridian-collateral Diagram) printed in Yuan Dynasty and Chongjiaozheng Huorenshu (Corrected edition of Huorenshu) printed in Song Dynasty. Compared with the two editions, there are plenty of additions and deletions. These changes consider the convenience of searching, and reflect the development of Zhu Gong' thought on cold pathogenic diseases, though which implies the trend of development on Cold Pathogenic Diseases study during later Northern Song Dynasty. PMID:21781547

  17. Effect of Yi Gong San Decoction on Iron Homeostasis in a Mouse Model of Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qin; Guan, Yu; Xia, Lemin; Wang, Zhicheng; Jiang, Yiling; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Guohua; Pu, Yiqiong; Xia, Jing; Luo, Meihong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Yi Gong San (YGS) decoction on iron homeostasis and the possible underlying mechanisms in a mouse model of acute inflammation in this study. Our findings suggest that YGS regulates iron homeostasis by downregulating the level of HAMP mRNA, which may depend on regulation of the IL-6/STAT3 or BMP/HJV/SMAD pathway during acute inflammation. PMID:27143982

  18. Meridional Flow in the Solar Convection Zone. II. Helioseismic Inversions of GONG Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackiewicz, J.; Serebryanskiy, A.; Kholikov, S.

    2015-06-01

    Meridional flow is thought to play a very important role in the dynamics of the solar convection zone; however, because of its relatively small amplitude, precisely measuring it poses a significant challenge. Here we present a complete time-distance helioseismic analysis of about 2 years of ground-based Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Doppler data to retrieve the meridional circulation profile for modest latitudes in an attempt to corroborate results from other studies. We use an empirical correction to the travel times due to an unknown center-to-limb systematic effect. The helioseismic inversion procedure is first tested and reasonably validated on artificial data from a large-scale numerical simulation followed by a test to broadly recover the solar differential rotation found from global seismology. From GONG data, we measure poleward photospheric flows at all latitudes with properties that are comparable with earlier studies and a shallow equatorward flow about 65 Mm beneath the surface, in agreement with recent findings from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. No strong evidence of multiple circulation cells in depth or latitude is found, yet the whole phase space has not yet been explored. Tests of mass flux conservation are then carried out on the inferred GONG and HMI flows and compared to a fiducial numerical baseline from models, and we find that the continuity equation is poorly satisfied. While the two disparate data sets do give similar results for about the outer 15% of the interior radius, the total inverted circulation pattern appears to be unphysical in terms of mass conservation when interpreted over modest time scales. We can likely attribute this to both the influence of realization noise and subtle effects in the data and measurement procedure.

  19. SOLAR ROTATION: A Laboratory Exercise from Project CLEA and the GONG Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, L. A.; Sudol, J. J.; Snyder, G. A.

    2002-12-01

    Digital images from the GONG Project provide a nearly continuous record of sunspots that are ideal for determining the rate of rotation of the Sun. A new laboratory exercise from Project CLEA provides students with the capability to access an archive of 368 images of the Sun obtained at GONG solar telescopes between January 1, 2002 and April 30, 2002, during a period near solar maximum when large numbers of spots were daily visible on the sun. The resolution of each image is about 2.5 arcsec per pixel (or about 0.25 degree in longitude and latitude at the center of the solar disk). Because these images have such exquisite spatial and temporal resolution, they are the best images to date from which students can determine the solar rotation rate. CLEA software for this exercise allows students to select images by date and time, to overlay a coordinate grid on the image, and to record the latitudes and longitudes of sunspots. This data can be tabulated and analyzed with the software to determine solar rotation rates. The expected precision in the solar rotation rates is +/- 3 hours. Students will also have the ability to combine their chosen images into a digital movie showing the solar rotation. The exercise includes a student workbook and a technical manual, as well as a CD-rom of the data and the software. This exercise was produced with funding from the National Science Foundation and Gettysburg College and with the support of the GONG Project at the National Solar Observatory.

  20. Observing large-scale solar surface flows with GONG: Investigation of a key element in solar activity buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, John G.; Simon, George W.; Hathaway, David H.

    1996-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) solar telescope network has begun regular operations, and will provide continuous Doppler images of large-scale nearly-steady motions at the solar surface, primarily those due to supergranulation. Not only the Sun's well-known magnetic network, but also flux diffusion, dispersal, and concentration at the surface appear to be controlled by supergranulation. Through such magnetoconvective interactions, magnetic stresses develop, leading to solar activity. We show a Doppler movie made from a 45.5 hr time series obtained 1995 May 9-10 using data from three of the six GONG sites (Learmonth, Tenerife, Tucson), to demonstrate the capability of this system.

  1. Lanthanum ruthenium indide, La21Ru9+xIn5-x (x = 1.2)

    PubMed Central

    Tursina, Anna I.; Cherviakov, Sergei G.; Noël, Henri; Chernyshev, Vladimir V.; Seropegin, Yuri D.

    2010-01-01

    La21Ru9+xIn5-x (Pearson symbol tI140) is isotypic to the filled Y3Rh2-type structure, from which it can be derived through an ordered substitution at two sites. One of the square-prismatic sites (site symmetry ..m) is occupied by a mixture of Ru and In atoms and one of the square-antiprismatic sites (4/m..) is fully occupied by In atoms. PMID:21578987

  2. Undersea safety mining of the large gold deposit in Xinli District of Sanshandao Gold Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-xiang; Dang, Wen-gang; He, Xian-qun

    2012-07-01

    The exploration of undersea resources becomes popular as land resources decrease. Researches were conducted with emphasis on the safety and efficiency of undersea mining of the large gold deposit in Xinli District of Sanshandao Gold Mine. A series of tests for the physical and mechanical characteristics of rock mass were carried out, and the three-dimensional geo-stress distribution was tested in the mining area. Further, a similar experimental simulation platform, which revealed the mechanism of water inrush and ascertained the reasonable thickness of the safety isolate layer, was established for the undersea mining. Meanwhile, the feasibility of cancelling the ore pillars and the safety conditions was checked by numerical simulation. The simulation results show that it is safe to exploit the ore body below the -85 m level (presently, the exploitation level is below -160 m in Xinli District), and the ore pillars can be cancelled below the -560 m level. Furthermore, a novel backfill method was designed to reduce the rock strata disturbance and settlement, and the settlement of roof strata was monitored during the mining process. Engineering practice shows that the settlement of roof strata was small and that no disaster happened. This indicates that the undersea safety mining technology of the large gold deposit is achieved in Xinli District.

  3. Solar-Cycle Changes in GONG P-Mode Widths and Amplitudes 1995-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm R. W.; Howe, R.; Hill, F.

    1999-01-01

    We search for a solar cycle variation in mode widths and amplitudes derived from 3-month GONG time series. The variation of mode width and amplitude observed in GONG data are the combined effects of fill factor, temporal variation, and measurement uncertainties. The largest variation is caused by the fill factor resulting in modes with increased width and reduced amplitude when fill is lower. We assume that the solar cycle variation is the only other systematic variation beside the temporal window function effect. We correct all currently available data sets for the fill factor and simultaneously derive the solar cycle variation. We find an increase of about 3% on average in mode width from the previous minimum to Oct. 1998 and a decrease of about 7% and 6% in mode amplitude and mode area (width x amplitude). We find no l dependence of the solar-cycle changes. As a function of frequency, these changes show a maximum between 2.7 and 3.3 mHz with about 47% higher than average values for mode width and about 29% and 36% higher ones for mode amplitude and area. We estimate the significance of these rather small changes by a pre-whitening method and find that the results are significant at or above the 99.9% level with mode area showing the highest level of significance and mode width the lowest. The variation in background amplitude is most likely not significant and is consistent with a zero change.

  4. Flares, Magnetic Fields, and Subsurface Vorticity: A Survey of GONG and MDI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, D.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.; Howe, R.; Haber, D.; Hindman, B. W.

    2006-07-01

    We search for a relation between flows below active regions and flare events occurring in those active regions. For this purpose, we determine the subsurface flows from high-resolution Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) Dynamics Program data using the ring-diagram technique. We then calculate the vorticity of the flows associated with active regions and compare it with a proxy of the total X-ray flare intensity of these regions using data from the Geostationary Operation Environmental Satellite (GOES). We have analyzed 408 active regions with X-ray flare activity from GONG and 159 active regions from MDI data. Both data sets lead to similar results. The maximum unsigned zonal and meridional vorticity components of active regions are correlated with the total flare intensity; this behavior is most apparent at values greater than 3.2×10-5 W m-2. These vorticity components show a linear relation with the logarithm of the flare intensity that is dependent on the maximum unsigned magnetic flux; vorticity values are proportional to the product of total flare intensity and maximum unsigned magnetic flux for flux values greater than about 36 G. Active regions with strong flare intensity show a dipolar pattern in the zonal and meridional vorticity component that reverses at depths between ~2 and 5 Mm. A measure of this pattern shows the same kind of relation with total flare intensity as the vorticity components. The vertical vorticity component shows no clear relation to flare activity.

  5. Tuning natural modes of vibration by prestress in the design of a harmonic gong.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Neil; Adams, Ryan; Burvill, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Prestresses are purposefully added to an object to improve its performance, such as tuning a guitar string by adding tension. This paper reports how the normal modes of a sheet metal component can be tuned through the prestresses generated by cold-forging small dimples. Finite element analysis showed that the frequencies of specific mode shapes were differentially affected by the location of residual stress fields due to dimple formation in relation to modal stress fields. The frequencies of overtones were most sensitive to the depth of the dimples located near the maxima of modal stresses. Using this approach a series of musical gongs were designed with up to the first five overtones tuned to within 5% of the harmonic series. The balance of harmonic and inharmonic overtones in these gongs that are well resolved by the human cochlea may constitute a set of recognizable musical timbres with sufficient harmonicity to produce an unambiguous pitch for most listeners. Since many other mechanical properties of sheet metal components are affected by residual stresses this manufacturing technique may have broader application in design engineering. PMID:22280715

  6. Exploring a Conceptual Model-Based Approach to Teaching Situated Word Problems: A Rejoinder to Jitendra's Response to Yan Ping Xin and Dake Zhang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Yan Ping; Zhang, Dake

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Asha K. Jitendra's Response to Xin and Zhang ("The Journal of Educational Research," 2009, Vol. 102, No. 6). The claim of "factual errors, including inappropriate quotes, misrepresentation of information, and inadequate scholarship in Xin and Zhang's text" are not justified. In this rejoinder, the…

  7. Comparison of cardioprotective effects using ramipril and DanShen for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, XinYan; Tan, Benny K-H; Zhu, Yi Chun; Linz, Wolfgang; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2003-08-01

    In the present study, we compared cardioprotective effects of DanShen (an extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, in rats. With both treatment regimens, DanShen- and ramipril similar effects were observed: (1) a higher survival rate, (2) a significant reduction of infarct size, (3) significantly lower ratios of heart weight to the body weight as well as the left and right ventricular weights to body weight. DanShen showed some unique effects in the following aspects: (1) higher activities of antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutatione perioxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver of rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), (2) lower myocardial and hepatic TBARS values; (3) augmented VEGF mRNA expressions in the non-ischemic parts of rat hearts with AMI. These results were consistent with the findings of a slight increase in myocardial capillary density and the special distribution pattern of coronary blood vessels in DanShen-treated rats. PMID:12850502

  8. [Professor Sun Shen-tian's experience in treatment of mental diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-lin; Zhang, Rui

    2009-08-01

    Professor SUN Shen-tian is an expert in acupuncture and moxibustion science of TCM and neurology, especially in the treatment of neurology difficult diseases by using the therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion and combination of TCM with western medicine, showing his ingenuity and obvious therapeutic effect. In treating mental diseases, professor SUN considers that the morbidity of mental diseases is mainly related to the malfunction of brain, therefore regulating mind is the key to treat this kind of disease, Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (EX-HN 3), emotional area and Zone 1 of SUN's abdominal acupoints are often selected. This present article introduces the principle of treatment based on syndrome differentiation and routine selecting acupoints, attached with four effective cases in treating mental diseases by professor SUN applying "the methods of regulating vitality and increasing intelligence". PMID:19947269

  9. The Protective Effects of Shen-Fu Injection on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Cao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Shen-Fu injection (SFI) on a caerulein-induced rat pancreatitis (AP) model. Methods. SFI was given to rats in the SFI treated group through intraperitoneal injection. Blood and pancreas samples were collected for serological and histopathological studies. Results. Our results showed that AP caused significant decrease in tissue glutathione (GSH) and serum IL-4 and IL-10, while pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were increased. Furthermore, TNF-α, IL-1β, amylase, and lipase levels were also significantly increased. On the other hand, SFI treatment reserved all these biochemical indices as well as histopathologic alterations that were induced by caerulein. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that the SFI protects against caerulein-induced AP in rats via modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress, and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. PMID:24738018

  10. The effects of dan-shen root on cardiomyogenic differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun; Li, Shi-zheng; Zhang, Yun-li; Wang, Xue-zhe

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional medium and dan-shen root were used for cardiomyogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They all could induce hPDMSCs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induction effect of the latter was slightly higher compared to that of the former. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dan-shen root could be a good inducer for cardiomyogenic differentiation. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to search for a good inducer agent using for cardiomyogenic differentiation of stem cells. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) were isolated and incubated in enriched medium. Fourth passaged cells were treated with 10 mg/L dan-shen root for 20 days. Morphologic characteristics were analyzed by confocal and electron microscopy. Expression of {alpha}-sarcomeric actin was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of cardiac troponin-I (TnI) was analyzed by immunohistofluorescence. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and beta-myocin heavy chain ({beta}-MHC) were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). hPDMSCs treated with dan-shen root gradually formed a stick-like morphology and connected with adjoining cells. On the 20th day, most of the induced cells stained positive with {alpha}-sarcomeric actin and TnI antibody. ANF and {beta}-MHC were also detected in the induced cells. Approximately 80% of the cells were successfully transdifferentiated into cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, dan-shen root is a good inducer agent used for cardiomyogenic differentiation of hPDMSCs.

  11. The Efficacy of Shen Shuaining Capsule on Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Zhang, Jinfeng; Guo, Ming; Lian, Xiaobo; Sun, Miaomiao; Guo, Lizhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Shen shuaining capsule on treating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Shen shuaining capsule in treating CKD were collected from CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane library clinical controlled trials database. Two reviewers independently performed analysis of the included trials according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The risk of bias tool was from the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0. The Review Manager 5.2 software was employed for data analysis. Funnel plot and Egger's test were applied to evaluate publication bias. Results. 20 studies including 1606 participants met the inclusion criteria, most of which were of low quality. Meta-analysis indicated that Shen shuaining capsule was effective for CKD in terms of SCR, BUN, Hb, and response rate and with less adverse effects, of which SCR and BUN decreased significantly (MD = −84.72, 95% CI: −107.36, −62.07, P < 0.00001) (MD = −4.30, 95% CI: −5.71, −2.89, P < 0.00001); Hb and response rate increased significantly (MD = 9.94, 95% CI: 9.24, 10.64, P < 0.00001) (OR = 4.25, 95% CI (3.32, 5.42), P < 0.00001). Conclusion. Shen shuaining capsule significantly reduced SCR and BUN, increased HB, and improved total efficiency of the symptoms and signs in patients with CKD. Subgroup analysis found that Shen shuaining capsule group was better than control group. Due to low quality of the methodology of included studies, further high-quality researches were needed to study its efficacy and safety. PMID:26981141

  12. Serum metabolomics strategy for understanding pharmacological effects of ShenQi pill acting on kidney yang deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yang; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Aihua; Guan, Yu; Lin, Shanhua; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2016-07-15

    Kidney yang deficiency syndrome, a diagnostic pattern in Chinese medicine, is similar with clinical features of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. The aim of this present study was to explore low molecular mass differentiating metabolites between control group and model group of kidney yang deficiency rats induced with corticosterone as well as the therapeutic effect of Shen Qi Pill, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula for treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome in China. This study utilized ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization synapt quadrupole time-of-flight high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-SYNAPT-QTOF-HDMS) to identify the underlying biomarkers for clarifying mechanism of Shen Qi Pill in treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome based on metabolite profiling of the serum samples and in conjunction with multivariate and pathway analysis. Meanwhile, blood biochemistry assay and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes in the model group rats. Distinct changes in the pattern of metabolites were observed by UPLC-HDMS. The changes in metabolic profiling were restored to their baseline values after treatment with Shen Qi Pill according to the combined with a principal component analysis (PCA) score plots. Altogether, the current metabolomics approach based on UPLC-HDMS and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) demonstrated 27 ions (18 in the negative mode, 9 in the positive mode, 17 ions restored by Shen Qi Pill). These results indicated that effectiveness of Shen Qi Pill in Kidney yang deficiency syndrome rats induced a substantial change in the metabolic profiles by regulating the biomarkers and adjusting the metabolic disorder. It suggested that the metabolomics approach was a powerful approach for elucidation of pathologic changes of Chinese medicine syndrome and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26747643

  13. Solar Flares, Magnetic Fields, and Subsurface Vorticity. A survey of GONG data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, D.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.; Howe, R.

    2005-12-01

    We search for a relation between flows below active regions on the Sun and flare events in those active regions. For this purpose, we determine the solar subsurface flows from high-resolution Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) data using the ring-diagram technique. We then calculate the vorticity of the flows associated with active regions and compare it with the X-ray flare intensity of these regions from the Geostationary Operation Environmental Satellite (GOES). The maximum unsigned vorticity of an active region is correlated with its maximum magnetic flux and the maximum unsigned zonal and meridional vorticity component are also correlated with flare intensity greater than 3.2 × 10-5 W/m2. Above this threshold, large vorticity values will accompany large magnetic flux for a given flare intensity and larger flare activity will accompany lower magnetic field for a given vorticity value. Active regions with strong flare intensity additionally show a dipolar pattern in the zonal and meridional vorticity component. We define a structure component as a measure of this dipolar pattern and find that it can be represented as a linear function of the logarithm of flare intensity where the slope is linearly dependent on the unsigned flux. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU Program. Travel is funded by the University of Southern California.

  14. Using SDO and GONG as Calibration References for a New Telescope Pointing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, J.

    2013-12-01

    Long duration observations are a basic requirement for most types of helioseismic measurements. Pointing stability and the quality of guiding is thus an important issue with respect to the spatio-temporal analysis of any velocity datasets. Existing pointing tools and correlation-tracking devices will help to remove most of the spatial deviations building up during an observation with time. Yet most ground- and space-based high-resolution solar telescopes may be subject to slow image-plane drift that cannot be compensated for by guiding and which may accumulate to displacements of 10″ or more during a 10-hour recording. We have developed a new pointing model for solar telescopes that may overcome these inherent guiding-limitations. We have tested the model at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife. We are using SDO and GONG full-disk imaging as a calibration reference. We describe the algorithms developed and used during the tests. We present our first results. We describe possible future applications as to be implemented at the VTT. So far, improvements over classical limb-guider systems by a factor of 10 or more seem possible.

  15. North South Asymmetry of Zonal and Meridional Flows Determined From Ring Diagram Analysis of Gong ++ Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaatri, A.; Komm, R.; González Hernández, I.; Howe, R.; Corbard, T.

    2006-07-01

    We study the North South asymmetry of zonal and meridional components of horizontal, solar subsurface flows during the years 2001 2004, which cover the declining phase of solar cycle 23. We measure the horizontal flows from the near-surface layers to 16 Mm depth by analyzing 44 consecutive Carrington rotations of Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Doppler images with a ring-diagram analysis technique. The meridional flow and the errors of both flow components show an annual variation related to the B 0-angle variation, while the zonal flow is less affected by the B 0-angle variation. After correcting for this effect, the meridional flow is mainly poleward but it shows a counter cell close to the surface at high latitudes in both hemispheres. During the declining phase of the solar cycle, the meridional flow mainly increases with time at latitudes poleward of about 20˚, while it mainly decreases at more equatorward latitudes. The temporal variation of the zonal flow in both hemispheres is significantly correlated at latitudes less than about 20˚. The zonal flow is larger in the southern hemisphere than the northern one, and this North South asymmetry increases with depth. Details of the North South asymmetry of zonal and meridional flow reflect the North South asymmetry of the magnetic flux. The North South asymmetries of the flows show hints of a variation with the solar cycle.

  16. Growth of InAs/Ga 1-xIn xSb infrared superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, D. H.; Miles, R. H.; Nieh, C. W.; McGill, T. C.

    1991-05-01

    A set of InAs/Ga 1-xIn xSb superlattices has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The superlattices are deposited on thick, stress-relaxed buffer layers of GaSb on (100)-oriented GaAs substrates. A short-period, heavily strained superlattice has been inserted at the GaAs/GaSb interface. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images reveal that a dense network of dislocations forms at this interface, with the vast majority of threading dislocations propagating no further than the first 1000 Å of the GaSb buffer layer. Planar superlattice layers are observed, with ni evidence of stress relaxation between the layers or between the InAs/Ga 1- x In xSb superlattice and GaSb buffer. Analysis of X-ray diffraction satellites reveals that cross-incorporation of As in GaSb and Ga 1-xIn xSb layers is virtually eliminated at low growth temperatures. Photoconductivity spectra from the superlattices display sharp photocurrent threshold energies, in agreement with previously published energy gaps derived from calculations and photoluminescence data. Thresholds in the 8-14 μm range are obtained from superlattices with very thin layers ( ≈ 40 Å), which are necessary for strong optical absorption in a type II superlattice. Finally, an absorption coefficient of ≈ 2000 cm -1 is measured at 10 μm from a superlattice with an energy gap of 11.4 μm. This value is comparable to that of bulk Hg 1-xCd xTe, the current industry standard for infrared detectors in the 8-14 μm range.

  17. Shen-Zhi-Ling Oral Liquid Improves Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiudong; Kwak, Shin; Song, Yu; Qin, Baofeng; Wang, Mingzhe; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Shen-Zhi-Ling oral liquid (SZL) on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among 98 patients with AD and BPSD enrolled (mean age, 57.2 ± 8.9 years old), 91 (M = 55, F = 36; mean age, 57.2 ± 9.7 years old) completed the study. Patients took either SZL (n = 45) or placebo granules (n = 46) in a double-blind manner for 20 weeks while maintaining other anticognitive medications unchanged. Changes in BPSD between week 0, week 10, week 20, and week 25 were assessed using the behavioral pathology in Alzheimer's disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale and the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) represented by diurnal activity (DA), evening activity (EA), and nocturnal activity (NA) according to actigraphic recordings. SZL but not placebo oral liquid delayed the development of BPSD significantly according to the changes in some of the clinical scores and the EA and NA parameters of DFA at week 20 compared with week 0. No side effects were observed in laboratory tests. The results indicate that SZL might delay the development of BPSD in AD patients and thus is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use. PMID:24959193

  18. Tests of a simple data merging algorithm for the GONG project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. E.; Hill, F.

    1992-01-01

    The GONG (Global Oscillation Network Group) project proposes to reduce the impact of diurnal variations on helioseismic measurements by making long-term observations of solar images from six sites placed around the globe. The sun will be observed nearly constantly for three years, resulting in the acquisition of l+ terabyte of image data. To use the solar network to maximum advantage, the images from the sites must be combined into a single time series to determine mode frequencies, amplitudes, and line widths. Initial versions of combined, i.e., merged, time series were made using a simple weighted average of data from different sites taken simultaneously. In order to accurately assess the impact of the data merge on the helioseismic measurements, a set of artificial solar disk images was made using a standard solar model and containing a well known set of oscillation modes and frequencies. This undegraded data set and data products computed from it were used to judge the relative merits of various data merging schemes. The artificial solar disk images were subjected to various instrumental and atmospheric degradations, dependent on site and time, in order to create a set of images simulating those likely to be taken at the site. The degraded artificial solar disk images for the six observing sites were combined in various ways to form merged time series of images and mode coefficients. Various forms of a weighted average were used, including an equally-weighted average, an average with weights dependent upon air mass and averages with weights dependent on various quality assurance parameters. Both the undegraded solar disk image time series and several time series made up of various combinations of the degraded solar disk images from the six sites were subjected to standard helioseismic measurement processing. This processing consisted of coordinate remapping, detrending, spherical harmonic transformation, computation of power series for the oscillation mode

  19. [Remote sensing estimation of total suspended matter concentration in Xin'anjiang Reservoir using Landsat 8 data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-bo; Zhang, Yun-lin; Zha, Yong; Shi, Kun; Zhou, Yong-qiang; Wang, Ming-zhu

    2015-01-01

    Total suspended matter (TSM) plays an important role in determining the underwater light climate, which then affects the lake primary production. Therefore, TSM concentration is an important parameter for lake water quality and water environment assessment. This study developed an empirical estimation model and presented the spatial distribution of TSM concentration for the relatively clear Xin'anjiang Reservoir based on the in situ ground data and the matching Landsat 8 data. The results showed that Band 2, Band 3 and Band 8 of Landsat 8 data were the sensitive bands of TSM estimation in Xin'anjiang Reservoir with the linear determination coefficients of 0.37, 0.51 and 0.42, respectively. However, the linear models using Band 2, Band 3 and Band 8 could not give a reasonable and satisfying estimation accuracy. Therefore, a three-band combination estimation model of TSM concentration using Band 2, Band 3 and Band. 8 was calibrated and validated to improve the TSM concentration estimation accuracy. The determination coefficient, mean relative error and root mean square error were 0.92, 11% and 0.16 mg x L(-1), respectively for the three-band combination model. Overall, the TSM concentration was relatively low in Xin'anjiang Reservoir, ranging from 0. 04 to 24. 54 mg x L(-1) with a mean value of 2.19 mg x L(-1). Higher TSM concentrations were distributed in the nearshore zones and small bays such as Fengshuling bay, Fenkou bay, Weiping bay, Anyang bay, Dashu bay and Linqi bay, which were affected by input rivers rainfall and human dredging activity. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the combination of three bands using Landsat 8 data could be used to estimate the TSM concentration in the relatively clear Xin'anjiang Reservoir. PMID:25898647

  20. Effects of Dao De Xin Xi Exercise on Balance and Quality of Life in Thai Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Chintanaprawasee, Pantipa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week Dao De Xin Xi exercise, modified short forms of Tai Chi, on balance and quality of life in Thai elderly population. Quasi-Experimental research, pretest-posttest one group design was done at Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Phramongkutklao Hospital. Thai healthy elderly women over the age of 60, requiring regular Dao De Xin Xi exercise were recruited from either patients or workers in the hospital. A 60-minute Dao De Xin Xi exercise class was set as 3 times per week for 12 weeks. At baseline and 12 weeks, participants were tested in their static balance (Single-Leg Stance Timed Test with eyes open and close), dynamic balance (Expanded Timed Up and Go (ETUG) Test). Quality of life was measured by the abbreviated Thai version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Fourteen females were studied with mean age of 62.8±4.3 years old. The Single-Leg Stance Timed Test with eyes open and close, Expanded Timed Up and Go (ETUG) Test improved significantly (before versus after exercises p <0.001). Significant improvement in quality of life were also found in each 4 domains, including physical health, psychological, social relationship, and environment (before versus after exercises p =0.001, 0.001, 0.004 and 0.005 respectively). No significant improvement was found only in the right Single-Leg Stance Timed Test with eyes close (p =0.091). A three times per week for 12-week Dao De Xin Xi exercise may help Thai elderly women improve both static, dynamic balance and quality of life. PMID:22980114

  1. Effects of Dao De Xin Xi exercise on balance and quality of life in Thai elderly women.

    PubMed

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Chintanaprawasee, Pantipa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week Dao De Xin Xi exercise, modified short forms of Tai Chi, on balance and quality of life in Thai elderly population. Quasi-Experimental research, pretest-posttest one group design was done at Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Phramongkutklao Hospital. Thai healthy elderly women over the age of 60, requiring regular Dao De Xin Xi exercise were recruited from either patients or workers in the hospital. A 60-minute Dao De Xin Xi exercise class was set as 3 times per week for 12 weeks. At baseline and 12 weeks, participants were tested in their static balance (Single-Leg Stance Timed Test with eyes open and close), dynamic balance (Expanded Timed Up and Go (ETUG) Test). Quality of life was measured by the abbreviated Thai version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Fourteen females were studied with mean age of 62.8±4.3 years old. The Single-Leg Stance Timed Test with eyes open and close, Expanded Timed Up and Go (ETUG) Test improved significantly (before versus after exercises p <0.001). Significant improvement in quality of life were also found in each 4 domains, including physical health, psychological, social relationship, and environment (before versus after exercises p =0.001, 0.001, 0.004 and 0.005 respectively). No significant improvement was found only in the right Single-Leg Stance Timed Test with eyes close (p =0.091). A three times per week for 12-week Dao De Xin Xi exercise may help Thai elderly women improve both static, dynamic balance and quality of life. PMID:22980114

  2. Seasonal-Spatial Distribution and Long-Term Variation of Transparency in Xin'anjiang Reservoir: Implications for Reservoir Management.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhixu; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Liu, Mingliang; Shi, Kun; Yu, Zuoming

    2015-08-01

    Water transparency is a useful indicator of water quality or productivity and is widely used to detect long-term changes in the water quality and eutrophication of lake ecosystems. Based on short-term spatial observations in the spring, summer, and winter and on long-term site-specific observation from 1988 to 2013, the spatial, seasonal, long-term variations, and the factors affecting transparency are presented for Xin'anjiang Reservoir (China). Spatially, transparency was high in the open water but low in the bays and the inflowing river mouths, reflecting the effect of river runoff. The seasonal effects were distinct, with lower values in the summer than in the winter, most likely due to river runoff and phytoplankton biomass increases. The transparency decreased significantly with a linear slope of 0.079 m/year, indicating a 2.05 m decrease and a marked decrease in water quality. A marked increase occurred in chlorophyll a (Chla) concentration, and a significant correlation was found between the transparency and Chla concentration, indicating that phytoplankton biomass can partially explain the long-term trend of transparency in Xin'anjiang Reservoir. The river input and phytoplankton biomass increase were associated with soil erosion and nutrient loss in the catchment. Our study will support future management of water quality in Xin'anjiang Reservoir. PMID:26274970

  3. Effect and Mechanism of QiShenYiQi Pill on Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shichao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Background To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Material/methods Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were randomized into 3 groups: model, valsartan, and QSYQ groups. Rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were used as the control group. Rats were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks, and we weighed rat body mass, heart mass, and left ventricular mass. Myocardium sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome. Myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. Results QSYQ reduced HMI and LVMI, as well as the histological score of hearts and CVF, which further decreased over time, and its effect was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, QSYQ inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF, and its effect on lowering CTGF was significantly greater than that of valsartan. In addition, after 8 weeks, QSYQ also inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of CTGF, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial TGF-β1. Conclusions This study provides evidence that QSYQ can improve cardiac remodeling of experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of TGF-β1 CTGF. PMID:26946470

  4. Automatic Recognition of Complex Magnetic Regions on the Sun using GONG Magnetogram Images and Their Usefulness in Predicting Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, G.; Lobzin, V.; Wilkinson, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) magnetograms can be used to automatically identify active regions associated with sunspots and flares by thresholding of line-of-sight component of the solar magnetic field. Once these regions are identified, they can be useful in predicting flare potential by locating strong-gradient polarity inversion lines (SPILs). To a trained eye, the inversion line analysis of an active region can be drawn on to estimate the flare probability. With this aim in mind, a well-known pixel shifting technique is used to automatically find the SPILs. Then a measure of curvature along the SPIL is calculated. By this means, a steepness of the gradient value is obtained and used as a proxy for the expected strength of the flare, while the curvature measured along the SPILs is related to the flare potential. The GONG magnetograms are produced 24 hours a day seven days a week providing an opportunity for near real-time flare warning capability. The techniques used to locate active regions are uncomplicated to implement and can also be used to identify regions of interest for an automatic analysis of H-alpha images.

  5. Effects and mechanism of Xin Mai Jia in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, FAN-RONG; LU, JUN-XIU; JIA, MEI; YIN, YA-LING; QI, HENG-TIAN; ZHU, MO-LI; MA, LI-JUAN; QIU, LE-LE; WAN, GUANG-MING; WAN, GUANG-RUI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xin Mai Jia (XMJ) on atherosclerosis (AS) in rabbits and to explore the underlying mechanisms in order to provide experimental evidence for the clinical application of XMJ. An intraperitoneal injection of vitamin D3, combined with a high-fat diet and sacculus injury, was utilized to establish the AS rabbit model. Following the oral administration of lovastatin, Zhibituo and different dosages of XMJ, respectively, blood was drawn from each rabbit for the detection of blood rheological indicators, such as serum lipids. The pathological changes in the right common carotid artery were observed. Vascular function experiments and the expression detection of common carotid artery-related proteins by immunohistochemistry were conducted. XMJ was observed to decrease the blood lipid levels of the AS rabbits; increase the concentration of high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A; decrease blood viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and hematocrit; elevate the levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Na+/H+ exchanger 1 in vascular tissues and decrease the levels of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). In conclusion, XMJ was shown to lower the blood lipid levels of the experimental AS rabbits, improve the abnormal changes in hemorheology, increase the eNOS content in the vascular tissue, decrease the AT-1 and ET-1 levels and increase the endothelium-dependent vasodilation reaction. XMJ therefore has an anti-AS effect. PMID:26640529

  6. Parameter identification and calibration of the Xin'anjiang model using the surrogate modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yan; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Jianyun; Kong, Fanzhe; Ma, Guangwen

    2014-06-01

    Practical experience has demonstrated that single objective functions, no matter how carefully chosen, prove to be inadequate in providing proper measurements for all of the characteristics of the observed data. One strategy to circumvent this problem is to define multiple fitting criteria that measure different aspects of system behavior, and to use multi-criteria optimization to identify non-dominated optimal solutions. Unfortunately, these analyses require running original simulation models thousands of times. As such, they demand prohibitively large computational budgets. As a result, surrogate models have been used in combination with a variety of multi-objective optimization algorithms to approximate the true Pareto-front within limited evaluations for the original model. In this study, multi-objective optimization based on surrogate modeling (multivariate adaptive regression splines, MARS) for a conceptual rainfall-runoff model (Xin'anjiang model, XAJ) was proposed. Taking the Yanduhe basin of Three Gorges in the upper stream of the Yangtze River in China as a case study, three evaluation criteria were selected to quantify the goodness-of-fit of observations against calculated values from the simulation model. The three criteria chosen were the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient, the relative error of peak flow, and runoff volume (REPF and RERV). The efficacy of this method is demonstrated on the calibration of the XAJ model. Compared to the single objective optimization results, it was indicated that the multi-objective optimization method can infer the most probable parameter set. The results also demonstrate that the use of surrogate-modeling enables optimization that is much more efficient; and the total computational cost is reduced by about 92.5%, compared to optimization without using surrogate modeling. The results obtained with the proposed method support the feasibility of applying parameter optimization to computationally intensive simulation

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of red deer subspecies in XinJiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bin; Li, Ren-Yan; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Yan, Gen-Qiang; Xi, Ji-Feng; Blair, Hugh T; Li, Da-Quan; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhao, Xi-Tang

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphisms for seven microsatellite loci in three red deer subspecies (9 populations) found in XinJiang were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 12% nondenaturation polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Sanguinetti silver staining method. Numbers of alleles, average effective numbers of alleles (E) and the average rate of homozygosity, allelic frequencies of seven microsatellite loci, polymorphism information content (PIC), mean heterozygosity (H) and genetic distances among the populations were calculated for each population. Dendrograms were constructed based on genetic distances by the neighbor-joining method (NJ), utilizing molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software PHYLIP (3.6). The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies using maximum likelihood (ML); the bootstrap value was estimated by bootstrap test in the tree. Lastly, phylogenesis was analyzed. The results showed that four of the seven microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, but BMS2508 and Celjp0023 showed no polymorphism and BM5004 was a neutral polymorphism. It is our conclusion that the four microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the three red deer subspecies. The mean PIC, H and E-values across the microsatellite loci were 0.5393, 0.5736 and 2.64, which showed that these microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the genetic analysis of red deer. C.e. songaricus populations from Regiment 104, 151 and Hami are clustered together. C.e. yarkandensis populations from Regiment 35, Xaya and Alaer are clustered together. These two clusters also cluster together. Lastly, C.e. sibiricus populations from Burqin, Regiment 188 and the first two clusters were clustered together. The phylogenetic relationship among different red deer populations is consistent with the known origin, history of breeding and geographic distributions of populations. PMID:21794008

  8. Characteristics of nitrogen retention along the river network of upper Xin'anjiang catchment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Yang, D.; Tang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) originates mainly from the non-point source (NPS) in the headwaters of many rivers. Understanding the nitrogen retention characteristics along the river network is important for land management in order to implement water resources protection. This study employs a geomorphology based non-point source pollution (GBNP) model to simulate the hillslope hydrological processes, sediment and pollutants transportation in the upper Xin'anjiang catchment in recent 10 years from 2001 to 2010. Calibration and validation of the GBNP model are carried out carefully using the observed discharge, sediment and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations at several hydrological gauges, and then the simulated results of the whole catchment are used to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of nitrogen along the river networks with emphasis on its retention characteristics. The simulated results indicate that annual TN loaded from the hillslopes in the study catchment ranges from nearly 4000 ton to 11,000 ton and relatively higher TN load occurred in spring and summer. Average TN loads from hillslopes have significant positive correlation with the irrigated-cropland area (correlation coefficient =0.820), and significant negative correlation with the area of forest and grassland (correlation coefficient =-0.427 and -0.246). Seasonal nitrogen retention ratio in the river networks of study catchment in last 10 years varies from 0%-81%, and the streams of order 1 in the Horton-Strahler ordering system has the highest retention ratio and is followed by order 2, order 3 and order 4. The results also indicate that nitrogen retention ratio has positive correlation with river length and negative correlation with discharge and velocity. Scenario analysis of fertilizer application demonstrates that the nitrogen retention ratio increases logarithmically with the TN load and reach a maximum value rapidly.

  9. Characterization of multiple constituents in Kai-Xin-San prescription and rat plasma after oral administration by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Qing; Lv, Chunxiao; Xu, Huarong; Liu, Xujia; Sui, Zhenyu; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Kai-Xin-San prescription, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula that plays an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The detection was performed on an Agilent 6520 Accurate-Mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 54 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Out of the 54 compounds, six compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing mass spectrometry data and retrieving the literature data. Results indicated ginsenosides, polygala saponins, terpenoids, and oligosaccharide esters were the major effective constituents in Kai-Xin-San prescription. There were 26 prototype ingredients that were assigned for identification in rat plasma. It is also concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Kai-Xin-San prescription, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Kai-Xin-San prescription and the clinical diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25845859

  10. Tectonic controls for transverse drainage and timing of the Xin-Ding paleolake breach in the upper reach of the Hutuo River, north China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin; Meigs, Andrew J.; Yeats, Robert S.; Ding, Rui; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-02-01

    The upper reach of the Hutuo River flows along the Xin-Ding basin and cuts a transverse drainage through the Xizhou Mountain and the Taihang Range into the North China Plain. Previous studies showed that the Xin-Ding basin was occupied by a lake during the early-middle Pleistocene. However, the timing of the paleolake breach and the mechanism for the creation of the transverse drainage are unknown. We constructed the fluvial terrace sequence in the upper reach of the Hutuo drainage combined with thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, as well as the timescale of the overlying loess-paleosol sequence. Our results reveal that (1) five terraces (T5-T1) developed along the upper reach of the Hutuo River, amongst which terraces T4-T1 were formed synchronously at ~ 600, ~ 120-130, ~ 20-26 and ~ 6-7 ka, respectively; (2) the creation of the transverse drainage and breach of the Xin-Ding paleolake occurred between ~ 600 and ~ 130 ka; and (3) the mechanism for the creation of the transverse drainage is via river piracy of paleostreams on both sides of the drainage divide. Localized differential uplift and associated tilting of the Xizhou Mountain block during the middle Pleistocene result in the formation of the transverse drainage and breach of the Xin-Ding paleolake.

  11. Exploring a Conceptual Model-Based Approach to Teaching Situated Word Problems: A Response to Yan Ping Xin and Dake Zhang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Yan Ping Xin and Dake Zhang's recent critical evaluation of her and colleagues' work in "Exploring a Conceptual Model-Based Approach to Teaching Situated Word Problems," published in "The Journal of Educational Research" in 2009 (Vol. 102, No. 6). Most critiques of prior research are written in a fair…

  12. Effects of traditional Chinese herbal medicine San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang on gastrointestinal motility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Min Woo; Ahn, Tae Seok; Hong, Noo Ri; Jeong, Han-Sol; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXXT), a herbal product used in traditional Chinese medicine, on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The in vivo effects of SHXXT on GI motility were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) using Evans blue in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). RESULTS: In normal ICR mice, ITRs were significantly and dose-dependently increased by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). GMD was induced by injecting acetic acid or streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The ITRs of GMD mice were significantly reduced compared to normal mice, and these reductions were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SHXXT (0.1-1 g/kg). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SHXXT is a novel candidate for the development of a prokinetic agent that may prevent or alleviate GMD. PMID:25632184

  13. Modal approach for nonlinear vibrations of damped impacted plates: Application to sound synthesis of gongs and cymbals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducceschi, M.; Touzé, C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a modal, time-domain scheme for the nonlinear vibrations of perfect and imperfect plates. The scheme can take into account a large number of degrees-of-freedom and is energy-conserving. The targeted application is the sound synthesis of cymbals and gong-like musical instruments, which are known for displaying a strongly nonlinear vibrating behaviour. This behaviour is typical of a wave turbulence regime, in which the wide-band spectrum of excited modes is observable in the form of an energy cascade. The modal method is selected for its versatility in handling complex damping laws that can be implemented easily by selecting appropriate damping values in each one of the modal equations. In the first part of the paper, the modal method is explained in its generality, and it will be seen that the method is valid for plates with arbitrary geometry and boundary conditions as long as the eigenmodes are known. Secondly, a time-integration, energy-conserving scheme for perfect and imperfect plates is presented, and implementation comments are given in order to treat efficiently the high-dimensionality of the resulting dynamical system. The scheme is run with appropriate parameters in order to produce sound samples. A simple impact law is considered for the excitation, whereas the flexibility of the method is highlighted by showing simulations for free-edge circular plates and simply-supported rectangular plates, together with various damping laws.

  14. U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry, and H-O-S-Pb isotopic compositions of the Leqingla and Xin'gaguo skarn Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liqiang; Cheng, Wenbin; Tang, Juxing; Kang, Haoran; Zhang, Yan; Li, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    The Leqingla and Xin'gaguo deposits are two representative skarn Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits of the Gangdese Pb-Zn polymetallic belt, Tibet, China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of the mineralization-related biotite granites from both the Leqingla and Xin'gaguo deposits yielded weighted mean ages of 60.8 Ma and 56.5 Ma, respectively, which can be inferred as their mineralization ages. The Leqingla biotite granite is characterized by high Al2O3, total Fe, Na2O, and low K2O. In comparison, the Xin'gaguo biotite granite is characterized by relative higher K2O but lower Al2O3, total Fe, and Na2O. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics indicate that the Leqingla and Xin'gaguo biotite granites are calc-alkaline I-type granite and High K calc-alkaline I-type granite, respectively. Both the Leqingla and Xin'gaguo biotite granites are enrichment in LREE and LILEs and depletion in HFSEs, and they were formed at the India-Asia collision stage. δ18O and δD values for the Leqingla and Xin'gaguo deposits are -8.8‰ to 5.3‰ and -140.4‰ to -90.1‰, -4.5‰ to 7.0‰ and -117.3‰ to -81.0‰, respectively, indicating magma fluids mixed with meteoric water in ore-forming fluids. δ34S values (-11.6‰ to -0.3‰) of ore sulfides from the Leqingla deposit show characteristics of biogenetic sulfur isotope compositions, suggesting sulfur for the Leqingla deposit were sourced from wall rocks of the Mengla and Luobadui Formation, which are rich in organic materials. δ34S values of ore sulfides from the Xin'gaguo deposits show bimodal distribution (-5.0‰ to -1.6‰ and 1.6-2.1‰), indicating sulfur in the Xin'gaguo deposit were derived from both wall rocks and magma. In the Leqingla deposit, most ore sulfides have the similar Pb isotopic compositions with that of the mineralization-related biotite granite, suggesting the biotite granite supplied most of the ore-forming metals. Pb isotopic compositions of ore sulfides and Hf isotopic compositions of biotite granite show

  15. Effects of Compound Dan-shen Root Dropping Pill on hemorheology in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Yuhui; Zeng, Zhu; Sun, Dagong; Ka, Weibo; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Zhixin; Wen, Zongyao

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Compound Dan-shen Root Dropping Pill (CDRDP) (Tasly Group, Tianjing, China) on hemorheology and biorheology of dogs suffering from hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet. Eighteen dogs were randomly divided into two groups: the high-fat diet group (H group); the control group (C group), fed with a standard laboratory diet. Six month later, six dogs in the H group were chosen as the drug-taking group (D group), to which CDRDP was administered, fed with the same diet as H group. In the 4th month, blood was taken from the veins of the dogs, and blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), RBC hemorheological indexes as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione transferase (GSH-ST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in plasma and erythrocytes were measured. Compared with H group, TC, TG, plasma MDA levels, the whole blood viscosity, RBC osmotic fragility and the value of CHOL (cholesterol)/PL (phospholipid) of the membrane of D group decreased, however, erythrocyte GSH-ST, histopathological changes in liver, deformation index (DI), orientation index (DI)or, small deformation index (DI)d, electrophoresis ratio and microfluidity of the membrane lipid bilayer of RBCs, increased distinctly. CDRDP can improve micro-hemorheological characteristics, therefore has a significant therapy application of hyperlipidemia. PMID:15665423

  16. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills for the Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Zhang, Junhua; Yao, Chen; Liu, Baoyan; Gao, Xiumei; Ren, Ming; Cao, Hongbao; Dai, Guohua; Weng, Weiliang; Zhu, Sainan; Wang, Hui; Xu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Boli

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several types of drugs have been recommended for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). However, these conventional strategies have several limitations, such as low adherence, high cost, and side effects during long time use. Novel approaches to this problem are still needed. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness and safety of Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ), a multi-ingredient Chinese patent medicine, for the secondary prevention of MI. Methods and Findings. A total of 3505 eligible patients were randomly assigned to QSYQ group (1746 patients) or aspirin group (1759). Patients took their treatments for 12 months. The final follow-up visit took place 6 months after the end of the trial drugs. The 12-month and 18-month estimated incidences of the primary outcome were 2.98% and 3.67%, respectively, in the QSYQ group. The figures were 2.96% and 3.81% in the aspirin group. No significant difference was identified between the groups. Conclusions. This trial did not show significant difference of primary and secondary outcomes between aspirin and QSYQ in patients who have had an MI. Though inconclusive, the result suggests that QSYQ has similar effects to aspirin in the secondary prevention of MI. PMID:23935677

  17. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity potential of cinnabar-containing An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan, a patent traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Wu, Qin; Liang, Shi-Xia; Miao, Jia-Wei; Shi, Jing-Shan; Liu, Jie

    2011-07-01

    An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) is a patent traditional Chinese medicine for brain disorders. It contains 10% cinnabar (HgS). Hg is known to produce toxicity to the kidney, brain and liver. Is AGNH safe? Liver is a major organ for drug metabolism, whether the long-term use of AGNH would affect hepatic P450 enzymes is unknown. To address these concerns, mice were given orally cinnabar (300mg/kg), cinnabar-containing AGNH daily for 44days, and liver toxicity was examined and compared with that of methylmercury (MeHg, 2.6mg/kg) and mercuric chloride (HgCl(2), 32mg/kg). Serum aminotransferases were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2) only. Histopathology showed more severe liver damage in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice than in the cinnabar and AGNH groups. Accumulation of Hg in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice was 96- and 71-fold higher than controls, respectively, but was only 2-fold after cinnabar and AGNH administration. Expressions of metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, biomarkers for Hg toxicity, were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2,) but were not altered in cinnabar- and AGNH-treated mice. Expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 genes, such as Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp4a10 was increased only after MeHg and HgCl(2), and the expressions of Cyp3a11and Cyp3a25 were increased by all treatments, indicating the potential Hg-drug interactions after long-term use of cinnabar-containing traditional medicines. Taken together, the results demonstrate that AGNH is much less hepatotoxic than common mercurials, and that the use of total Hg content to evaluate the toxicity of cinnabar-containing traditional Chinese medicines appears to be inappropriate. PMID:21435368

  18. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  19. Growth improvement and characterization of AgGa xIn 1- xSe 2 chalcopyrite crystals using the horizontal Bridgman technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Ortiz, R.; Tupitsyn, E.; Nieves, I.; Bhattacharya, P.; Burger, A.

    2011-01-01

    AgGa xIn 1- xSe 2 single crystals with x=0.4 have been grown by the horizontal Bridgman technique for nonlinear optical application requires phase matching. High purity polycrystalline synthesis of AgGa xIn 1- xSe 2 was carried out at 850 °C, which is a relatively lower temperature compared to those in earlier reports, thus reducing secondary phase formation. An average Ga:In ratio of 62:38 (±3%) was measured using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). As grown, a single crystal shows very high IR transmission of ˜65% in the spectral range of 4000-600 cm -1. There was no significant change in its IR transmission after annealing it at 500 °C for 20 days in vacuum in the presence of AgGa xIn 1- xSe 2 powder. This indicates a low concentration of defects in the crystal. The results demonstrate that the improved new synthesis method for crystal growth was promising and that the quality of the crystal was good.

  20. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  1. Ren Shen Yangrong Tang for Fatigue in Cancer Survivors: A Phase I/II Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yichen; Chen, Yanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This open-label, prospective, phase I/II trial was performed to establish the safety and efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal products for treating non–anemia-related fatigue in patients with cancer. Although this practice is widespread in China, it has not been confirmed in a prospective clinical study. Design: Thirty-three patients who had completed cancer treatment, had stable disease and no anemia, and reported moderate to severe fatigue (rated ≥4 on a 0–10 scale) were enrolled in a TCM outpatient clinic. Patients took Ren Shen Yangrong Tang (RSYRT) decoction, a soup containing 12 TCM herbs, twice a day for 6 weeks. RSYRT aims to correct qi deficiency. Fatigue was assessed before and after RSYRT therapy, which all patients completed. Results: No discomfort or toxicity was observed. Before the study, all patients had had fatigue for at least 4 months. Fatigue severity decreased significantly from before therapy to 6 weeks after therapy: from 7.06 to 3.30 on a 0–10 scale (p<0.001). Fatigue category (mild, moderate, severe) shifted significantly (p=0.024): Of 22 patients with severe fatigue (rated ≥7) before therapy, 11 had mild fatigue and 11 had moderate fatigue after TCM treatment. The time-to-fatigue-alleviation was 2–3 weeks. Conclusion: RSYRT therapy was safe and was associated with fatigue improvement in nonanemic cancer survivors, consistent with historical TCM clinical practice experience. Because of a possible placebo effect in this open-label study, decoction RSYRT warrants further study in randomized clinical trials to confirm its effectiveness for managing moderate to severe fatigue. PMID:25918996

  2. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; 沙參麥冬湯 shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; 中草藥 zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  3. Satellite-derived land use changes along the Xin'an River watershed for supporting water quality investigation for potential fishing grounds in Qiandao Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, Athos; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Papoutsa, Christiana; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that more than 20,000 natural lakes are found across China. Most of these lakes are undergoing eutrophication or other severe environmental nuisances owing to natural and/or anthropogenic processes. In order to prevent or to minimize such damaging impacts, and to ascertain a proper quality management of the lake water and the associated fish resources, it is required to have access to up-to-date, accurate, and relevant data and information on the aquatic ecosystem in a timely manner. The "Dragon 3" project, supported by the European Space Agency, is focusing on Xin'an river watershed and investigates the impact of water quality and land cover/use change on the spatio-temporal distribution of the fishing grounds in Qiandao Lake. In this paper, the land use changes derived from satellite images is presented. Initially, Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 LDCM have been analyzed for the last 20 years in the vicinity of the Xin'an river watershed. Following the radiometric calibration of the images, several pixel-base classification algorithms have been evaluated including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Support Vector Machine (SVM) as well Neural Network (NN). As it was found using the multi-temporal satellite imagery, the SVM algorithm was able to give high kappa accuracy estimated at around 0.90. In addition EO-Hyperion images over the western part of the Xin'an River were evaluated using hyperspectral vegetation indices as well using linear spectral un-mixing techniques. In addition, ENVISAT radar images have been evaluated in terms of land use change. The final outcomes indicate a significant urban expansion in the surrounding area of the Xin'an River which impacts the water quality investigation. Finally, a Landsat image was processed in order to estimate the Trophic State Index (TSI) values over the water bodies and the highest values were observed over the Xin'an river watershed and more specifically for the urban sites.

  4. Behavioral and biochemical effects of a formulation of the traditional Chinese medicine, Kai-Xin-San, in fatigued rats

    PubMed Central

    HU, YUAN; CAO, YIN; LIU, MING; LIU, PING; CUI, HONG; DAI-HONG, GUO

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity and the behavioral and biochemical effects of Kai-Xin-San (KXS) extracts on fatigued rats. The rats were randomly divided into six groups: untreated control (UC), running control (RC), RC treated with 13 mg/kg/day modafinil and RC treated with KXS at dosages of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, respectively. The treatments were administered orally. Anti-fatigue activity was assessed using the treadmill running test and serum biochemical parameters were determined using an autoanalyzer and commercially available kits. Furthermore, the standardization of the KXS extracts was ensured using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fingerprint. The extracts were shown to increase exhaustive running time in the treadmill running test and reverse the fatigue-induced reduction in hepatic/muscle glycogen and testosterone, in addition to reducing the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and β-endorphin levels in the serum of the fatigued rats. Moreover, the extracts enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum of the fatigued rats. The results of this preliminary study indicated that KXS exhibits anti-fatigue activity. This was reflected in the effects on the biochemical markers for fatigue. PMID:24137300

  5. NaoXinTong Inhibits the Advanced Atherosclerosis and Enhances the Plaque Stability in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Lei; Li, Yan; Ma, Chuanrui; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Duan, Yajun; Han, Jihong; Li, Xiaoju; Chen, Yuanli

    2016-03-01

    Buchang NaoXinTong (NXT), a Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat patients with coronary heart disease in China. However, the underlying mechanisms need more elucidations. In this study, we investigated if NXT can inhibit the progression of the established lesions while stabilizing plaques. Apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE) mice in 3 groups received following treatment: group 1 was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks; group 2 was prefed HFD for 12 weeks followed by HFD containing NXT for additional 6 weeks; group 3 was prefed HFD for 8 weeks followed by HFD containing NXT for additional 10 weeks. After treatment, serum and aorta samples were collected and determined lipid profiles, lesions, collagen content, mineralization, and macrophage accumulation in aortic root, respectively. NXT had slight effect on serum lipid profiles but significantly reduced progression of the advanced lesions. In aortic wall, NXT increased smooth muscle cell/collagen content in lesion cap while reducing buried fibrous caps, mineralization, and macrophage accumulation within lesions, which suggests that NXT can stabilize plaques. In addition, NXT increased expression of smooth muscle 22α mRNA while inhibiting expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tumor necrosis factor α mRNA in aortas. Our study demonstrates that NXT can reduce advanced atherosclerosis and enhance the plaque stability in apoE mice. PMID:26485209

  6. Effect of Shen-Fu Injection Pretreatment to Myocardial Metabolism During Untreated Ventricular Fibrillation in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei; Wu, Jun-Yuan; Wang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Qian; Li, Chun-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shen-Fu injection (SFI) can attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury, protect cardiac function, and improve microcirculation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We hypothesized that SFI may also have an influence on myocardial metabolism during ventricular fibrillation (VF). In this study, we used SFI pretreatment prior to VF to discuss the changes of myocardial metabolism and catecholamine (CA) levels during untreated VF, trying to provide new evidence to the protection of SFI to myocardium. Methods: Twenty-four pigs were divided into three groups: Saline group (SA group), SFI group, and SHAM operation group (SHAM group). Thirty minutes prior to the induction of VF, the SFI group received 0.24 mg/ml SFI through an intravenous injection; the SA group received an equal amount of sodium chloride solution. The interstitial fluid from the left ventricle (LV) wall was collected through the microdialysis tubes during VF. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and Na+ -K+ -ATPase and Ca2+ -ATPase enzyme activities were measured after untreated VF. Peak-to-trough VF amplitude and median frequency were analyzed for each of these 5-s intervals. Results: The levels of glucose and glutamate were lower after VF in both the SA and SFI groups, compared with baseline, and the levels in the SFI group were higher than those in the SA group. Compared with baseline, the levels of lactate and the lactate/pyruvate ratio increased after VF in both SA and SFI groups, and the levels in the SFI group were lower than those in the SA group. In both the SA and SFI groups, the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine increased significantly. There were no statistical differences between the two groups. The content of ATP, ADP, and phosphocreatine in the SFI group was higher than those in the SA group. The activity of LV Na+ -K+ -ATPase was significantly higher in the SFI group than in the SA group. Amplitude mean spectrum area (AMSA) was significantly

  7. [Isolation and characterization of petroleum catabolic broad-host-range plasmids from Shen-Fu wastewater irrigation zone].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Fei; Wang, Ya-Fei; Li, Hui; Li, Xiao-Bin

    2013-11-01

    Based on triparental mating, we isolated a total of eight broad host range (BHR) petroleum hydrocarbon catabolic plasmids from the soils, sediments, and wastewater samples in the Shen-Fu irrigation zone. The antibiotic resistance of the plasmids was tested, and then, the plasmids were transferred to Escherichia coli EC100. The plasmids carrying no antibiotic resistance were tagged by miniTn5 transposon consisting of antibiotic resistant genes. The PCR-based incompatibility test revealed that the pS3-2C and pS4-6G belonged to Inc P group, the pS3-2G, pW22-3G, and pA15-7G belonged to Inc N group, the pS7-2G was identified as Inc W plasmid, and the pA23-1G and pA10-1C were placed into Inc Q group. By adopting the reported PCR amplification methods of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading catabolic genes, the petroleum-degrading capability of these BHR plasmids were preliminarily analyzed. The plasmids pS3-2G, pS7-2G, pA23-1G, pW22-3G, and pA10-1C carried aromatic ring- hydroxylating dioxygenase gene phdA and toluene monooxygenase gene touA; the plasmid pA15-7G carried touA and toluene dioxygenase gene tod; the plasmid pS3-2C carried ben, phdA, and tod; whereas the pS4-6G only carried ben. The host range test showed that all the isolated plasmids except pS3-2C could be transferred and maintained stably in the representative strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, Cupriavidus necator JMP228, and E. coli EC100 of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, respectively. PMID:24564162

  8. Impacts of climate change on streamflows under RCP scenarios: A case study in Xin River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqing; You, Qinglong; Chen, Changchun; Ge, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Researchers often examine hydro-climatological processes via Global Circulation Model (GCM) and hydrological model, which have been shown to benefit water resources management and prediction, especially at the basin scale. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Statistical Downscaling Method (SDSM) were integrated and applied to estimate streamflows in the Xin River Basin, China, based on climate change scenarios downscaled from different GCMs (BCC-CSM1.1, CanESM2, and NorESM1-M) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results confirmed that the calibrated SWAT model accurately depicts hydrological processes features at daily, monthly, and yearly scales. Three GCMs based on the calibrated SDSM showed that temperature is continually increasing in the region, however, future precipitation is highly complex and uncertain; there were significant differences among various GCM RCP scenarios. The average of the precipitation in three models showed slight and steady increase trends under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, but a significant increase under the RCP8.5 scenario. The ensemble average of streamflow in GCMs demonstrated that many RCPs significantly decrease from May to June but increase from August to September relative to the baseline period. The ensemble mean of the multi-GCM indicated that future streamflows under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios will be closer to the current streamflow volume. Many RCPs also revealed a significant increase in monthly streamflow dispersion coefficient in October, reflecting a tendency for drought and flood events in that month. The BCC-CSM1.1 and NorESM1-M models showed that streamflows are higher than the baseline with median probability in the future. The low monthly streamflow (10th percentile) processes for each GCM were altogether similar to the baseline, whereas the high monthly streamflows (90th percentile) showed various levels of disparity compared to the baseline.

  9. Effects of Bu-Shen-An-Tai recipe and its two components on endometrial morphology during peri-implantation in superovulated mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dan-Dan; Zheng, Cui-Hong; Gong, Ping; Wen, Lu; Ma, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Shun-Chang; Zhang, Ming-Min

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Bu-Shen-An-Tai recipe (BSATR) and its two components (Bushen recipe, and Huoxue recipe) on endometrial morphology during peri-implantation in superovulated mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups, including the normal (N), model (M), Bushen (BS), Huoxue (HX) and Bu-Shen-An-Tai (BH) groups. The uteri were collected on day 4 of pregnancy, and the endometrium thickness, microvessel density (MVD) and number of pinopodes observed. Compared with the M group, the endometrial thickness in the BS, HX and BH groups was significantly increased and there was a significant difference in endometrial thickness between the BS and the BH groups. The mean MVD was significantly lower in the M group than in the N group, and there was a significant increase in MVD in the BS, HX and BH groups as compared with the M group. Compared with the M group, the pinopode scores in the endometrium were significantly increased in the HX and BH groups; and the BS group had significantly higher pinipode scores than the HX and BH groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that the recipes (Bushen, Huoxue and BSATR) could improve the endometrial environment by regulating the endometrial thickness, MVD and the number of pinopodes at the window of implantation. Moreover, the Huoxue recipe and the BSATR were more efficient than the Bushen recipe, with the BSATR tending to have the most beneficial effects. PMID:25318891

  10. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Scutellarin and Paeoniflorin in Sham-Operated and Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Rats after Intravenous Administration of Xin-Shao Formula.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueting; Lu, Yuan; Hu, Jianchun; Gong, Zipeng; Yang, Wu; Wang, Aimin; Zheng, Jiang; Liu, Ting; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Jie; Mi, Ling; Li, Yongjun; Lan, Yanyu; Wang, Yonglin

    2016-01-01

    Xin-Shao formula is a folk remedy widely used in China to prevent and cure stroke. Cerebral ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury often takes place during the treatment of stroke. Information about the pharmacokinetic behavior of the remedy under cerebral I/R injury conditions is lacking. The present study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of scutellarin and paeoniflorin, two major bioactive components of Xin-Shao formula, under physiological state in cerebral I/R injury rats. Neurobehavioral dysfunction was evaluated and cerebral infarcted volume was measured in middle cerebral artery occlusion I/R injury (MCAO) rats. Plasma samples were collected at various time points after a single dose (intravenous, i.v.) of Xin-Shao formula. The levels of plasma scutellarin and paeoniflorin at the designed time points were determined by a UPLC-MS/MS method, and drug concentration versus time plots were constructed to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Increase in terminal elimination half-life (t1/2z) and mean residence time (MRT(0-t)) of scutellarin as well as elevation in area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve from 0 h to the terminal time point (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) of paeoniflorin, along with decreased clearance of paeoniflorin and scutellarin as well as reduced apparent volume of distribution (Vz) of paeoniflorin, were observed in MCAO rats, compared with those in sham-operated animals. The elimination of scutellarin and paeoniflorin were reduced in cerebral I/R injury reduced rats. PMID:27617986

  11. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4

  12. [Ecosystem service and economic valuation in the upper reaches of Xin' an River, Anhui, China for mitigating phosphorus nonpoint source pollution].

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Wu, Nan; Fang, Xiang-long; Gao, Ji-xi; Zhou, Xiao-tie; Feng, Chao-yang

    2015-04-01

    A model of phosphorus purification in a watershed was established based on the export coefficient and purification index of phosphorus in different types of land cover. The model was employed to simulate the economic value of the ecosystem service with the expected water quality standard and marginal cost of pollutant purification of the upper reaches of Xin' an River of Anhui, China. The results revealed that from 2000 to 2010, some farmland outside the Tunxi, Jixi, Shexian, Yixian and Xiuning was converted to built-up land. The total amount of phosphorus exported to the upper Xin' an River decreased a little, and the main source of phosphorus pollution was farmland and built-up land. More than half of the exported phosphorus was efficiently purified by different types of land cover via flow accumulation. The pattern of purification and export of highly concentrated phosphorus showed the same trend which occurred in the northern part of the watershed including the Yangzhi River, Fengle River and Hengjiang River. Forestland and grassland did not efficiently purify phosphorus in the watershed owing to the irrational distribution of existing land cover. The total service value was 3.80 and 3.31 million Yuan in 2000 and 2010, respectively. PMID:26259471

  13. Effects of “Bu Shen Huo Xue Decoction” on the Endometrial Morphology and Expression of Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor in the Rat Uterus during the Oestrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanyan; Tong, Qing; Ren, Ying; Jin, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Bu Shen Huo Xue Decoction (BSHXF) on assisted reproduction. The study aimed to evaluate whether BSHXD could improve endometrial morphology and increase the expression of LIF in a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) long protocol-induced rat model during metestrus, diestrus, proestrus, and oestrus. The BSHXD group presented significantly increased endometrium thickness and decreased MVD compared with the GnRHa long protocol group. In addition, the expression of LIF was significantly higher in the BSHXD group. There were no significant differences between the control group and the BSHXD group in terms of MVD and LIF expression. These results suggested that BSHXD can improve the endometrium development, reduce the abnormal angiogenesis, and increase the expression of receptivity markers in a GnRHa long protocol-induced rat model during the oestrous cycle, which might result in an endometrial environment better suited for female reproduction. PMID:23710223

  14. Dynamics of the Gong windstorm (Jan 2013) in the context of a 20-year high-resolution simulation of Iberian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Pedro M. A.; João Chinita, Maria; Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro; Viterbo, Pedro; Pinto, Paulo; Mendes, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, Portugal was affected by a number of windstorms associated with mid-latitude cyclones, some with significant impact on built infrastructures, namely on the electric grid. Two of those storms were particularly violent, the Oeste storm on the 23 December 2009, and the Gong storm on 19 January 2013. The Klaus storm, on the 23 January 2009, had some impact but only in the northern edge of Iberia, but the Xinthia storm, on the 27 February 2010, had extensive impact in the Portuguese territory. Considering impacts on the electric grid, these 4 storms are part of a set of about 10 storms per decade, although earlier storms didn't get a name. The relevance of these extreme events in recent climate motivated a case study analysis of the more relevant storms and its analysis in a continuous regional climate simulation of the Iberian climate. The RCM simulation used WRF at 9km resolution, with ERA-Interim boundary conditions initially for the period 1989-2008, here extended until 28 Feb 2013. The former simulations were extensively validated against Iberian gridded temperature and precipitation datasets (Soares et al 2012), and against Portuguese station data (Cardoso et al 2013). Results are here validated, in the extended 24 year period, also against standard 10-m wind observations. Case study analysis used the same boundary conditions and model (WRF), but at both 9 and 3 km horizontal resolutions, and also included sensitivity experiments to different parametrizations. While the WRF RCM simulation, forced by ERA-Interim, presents an overall excellent performance in the representation of both the mean climate (temperature, precipitation and wind), and also in the representation of high-rank precipitation quantiles, the two most extreme windstorm events are not well represented. However, the Gong storm is very well represented in the case study simulation, even at 9km resolution with exactly the same boundary conditions, but a somewhat different initial

  15. Photoelectrical properties and the electronic structure of Tl(1-x)In(1-x)Sn(x)Se2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25) single crystalline alloys.

    PubMed

    Davydyuk, G E; Khyzhun, O Y; Reshak, A H; Kamarudin, H; Myronchuk, G L; Danylchuk, S P; Fedorchuk, A O; Piskach, L V; Mozolyuk, M Yu; Parasyuk, O V

    2013-05-14

    Photoelectrical properties of Tl1-xIn1-xSnxSe2 single crystalline alloys (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25) grown using the Bridgman-Stockbarger method were studied. The temperature dependence of electrical and photoconductivity for the Tl1-xIn1-xSnxSe2 single crystals was explored. It has been established that photosensitivity of the Tl1-xIn1-xSnxSe2 single crystals increases with x. The spectral distribution of photocurrent in the wavelength spectral range 400-1000 nm has been investigated at various temperatures. Photoconductivity increases in all the studied crystals with temperature. Therefore, thermal activation of photoconductivity is caused by re-charging of the photoactive centers as the samples are heated. Based on our investigations, a model of center re-charging is proposed that explains the observed phenomena. X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectra for pristine and Ar(+)-ion irradiated surfaces of the Tl1-xIn1-xSnxSe2 single crystals have been measured. These results reveal that the Tl1-xIn1-xSnxSe2 single-crystal surface is sensitive to the Ar(+) ion irradiation that induced structural modification in the top surface layers. Comparison on a common energy scale of the X-ray emission Se Kβ2 bands representing energy distribution of the Se 4p-like states and the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectra was done. PMID:23552559

  16. First-principles investigation of possible martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of Heusler-type Pt2-xMn1+xIn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lin; Zhang, Wenxing; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-06-01

    The phase stability, electronic structure and magnetism of Pt2-xMn1+xIn (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) alloys are studied by first-principles calculations. The possible magnetic martensitic transformation in this series has been investigated. For all the five compounds, the energy minimums occur around c/a = 1.30, and the energy differences between the austenitic and martensitic phases are large enough to overcome the resistance of phase transformation. By comparing the electronic structures of austenitic and martensitic phases, we can find that the phase stability is enhanced by the martensitic transformation. The magnetic structures of the austenitic and martensitic phases are also discussed.

  17. Low-field remanent magnetization in the disordered antiferromagnet Cs 2Fe 1- xIn xCl 5·H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, C. H.; Carvalho, Z. V.; Paduan-Filho, A.; Becerra, C. C.; Palacio, F.

    2001-05-01

    Magnetization measurements on single crystals of the site-diluted antiferromagnet A 2Fe 1- xIn xCl 5·H 2O (A=Cs) were carried out at low magnetic fields ( H) applied along the easy axis. The data revealed that a remanent magnetization Mr develops below the Néel temperature TN. This Mr ( T) is parallel to the easy axis, saturates for H˜1 Oe and it increases with decreasing T. It has also the same temperature dependence as other diluted systems of the same family (A=K, Rb). For all these systems the normalized Mr( t)/ Mr( t=0.3), where t= T/ TN is the reduced temperature, is independent of x and follows a universal curve.

  18. Protective Effects of Shen-Yuan-Dan, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongxu; Shang, Juju; Chu, Fuyong; Li, Aiyong; Wu, Bao; Xie, Xinran; Liu, Weihong; Yang, Hongzhi; Tong, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Shen-Yuan-Dan (SYD) pharmacological postconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods. In the in vivo experiment, myocardial injury markers and histopathology staining were examined. In the in vitro experiment, cell viability and cell apoptosis were, respectively, detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and Hoechst 33342 fluorochrome staining. The protein expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by immunocytochemistry assay. Results. Both low and high doses of SYD protected myocardium against I/R injury in rat model by reducing lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and attenuating histopathology injury. Meanwhile, in the in vitro experiment, SYD promoted cell viability and inhibited the cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The level of Bcl-2 protein was restored to the normal level by SYD pharmacological postconditioning. In contrast, the Bax protein level was markedly reduced by SYD pharmacological postconditioning. These effects of SYD were inhibited by LY294002. Conclusions. The results of this study suggested that SYD pharmacological postconditioning has protective effects against myocardial I/R injury in both in vivo and in vitro models, which are related to activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway. PMID:24454518

  19. Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang Decoction Reduces Fatty Liver by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Kang; Hung, Tzu-Min; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, I-Jung; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and associated conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are currently a worldwide health problem. In Asian traditional medicine, Bai-Hu-Jia-Ren-Shen-Tang (BHJRST) is widely used in diabetes patients to reduce thirst. However, whether it has a therapeutic effect on T2DM or NAFLD is not known. The aim of this study was to examine whether BHJRST had a lipid-lowering effect using a HuS-E/2 cell model of fatty liver induced by palmitate and in a db/db mouse model of dyslipidemia. Incubation of HuS-E/2 cells with palmitate markedly increased lipid accumulation and expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is involved in lipolysis. BHJRST significantly decreased lipid accumulation and increased ATGL levels and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are involved in fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, after twice daily oral administration for six weeks, BHJRST significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation in db/db mice, as demonstrated by increased hepatic AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, reduced serum triglyceride levels, and reduced hepatic total lipid content. The results show that BHJRST has a lipid-lowering effect in the liver that is mediated by activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. PMID:26508982

  20. Cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury by QiShenYiQi Pill® via ameliorate of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing Rui; Wei, Jing; Wang, Ling Yan; Zhu, Yan; Li, Lan; Olunga, Mary Akinyi; Gao, Xiu Mei; Fan, Guan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of QiShenYiQi Pill® (QSYQ) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through antioxidative stress and mitochondrial protection. Methods and results Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with QSYQ or saline for 7 days and subjected to ischemia (30 minutes occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery) and reperfusion (120 minutes). Cardiac functions were evaluated by echocardiogram and hemodynamics. Myocardial mitochondria were obtained to evaluate changes in mitochondrial structure and function, immediately after 120 minutes reperfusion. Pretreatment with QSYQ protected against I/R-induced myocardial structural injury and improved cardiac hemodynamics, as demonstrated by normalized serum creatine kinase and suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, the impaired myocardial mitochondrial structure and function decreased level of ATP (accompanied by reduction of ATP5D and increase in the expression of cytochrome C). Myocardial fiber rupture, interstitial edema, and infiltrated leukocytes were all significantly ameliorated by pretreatment with QSYQ. Conclusion Pretreatment of QSYQ in Sprague Dawley rats improves ventricular function and energy metabolism and reduces oxidative stress via ameliorating multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions during I/R injury. PMID:26109848

  1. [Clinical and experimental study on effects of man-shen-ling oral liquid in the treatment of 100 cases of chronic nephritis].

    PubMed

    Su, Z Z; He, Y Y; Chen, G

    1993-05-01

    A new Chinese herbal preparation, Man-Shen-Ling (MSL, consisted of medicinal herbs such as Astragalus and Rehmannia) in treating 100 cases of chronic nephritis. The effective rate was 91% in comparing to 66.7% in the control group, P < 0.001. It was markedly effective for proteinuria, hematuria, improvement and recovery of renal functions, edema, anemia, anorexia etc in comparing with the control group. It showed no adverse effects on functions of liver, kidney, heart and GI tract. Animal model of chronic nephritis was established and the effects of MSL were observed. The laboratory findings and histopathological investigation on kidney revealed and confirmed that MSL has therapeutic effects on chronic nephritis. Pharmacodynamically, MSL exhibited effects of anti-allergy, its immuno-suppressive effect corresponded to that of cyclophosphamide, with diuretic, hypotensive, proteinuria eliminating, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulatory, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration enhancing, the excretion of urea-nitrogen, potassium and sodium promoting function; in addition, it also could promote and modulate the immunity. Acute and chronic toxicity tests on animal models neither showed toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic nor carcinogenic effects. It is a new preparation of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating chronic nephritis, it is safe and effective. PMID:8219675

  2. Si Shen Wan Inhibits mRNA Expression of Apoptosis-Related Molecules in p38 MAPK Signal Pathway in Mice with Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Feng; Tong, Wen-Ting; Wan, Pan-Ting; Huang, Min-Fang; Ye, Qing; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Si Shen Wan (SSW) is used to effectively treat ulcerative colitis (UC) as a formula of traditional Chinese medicine. To explore the mechanism of SSW-inhibited apoptosis of colonic epithelial cell, the study observed mRNA expression of apoptosis-related molecules in p38 MAPK signal pathway in colonic mucosa in colitis mice treated with SSW. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice; meanwhile, the mice were administrated daily either SSW (5 g/kg) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (2 mg/kg) or vehicle (physiological saline) for 10 days. While microscopical evaluation was observed, apoptosis rate of colonic epithelial cell and mRNA expression of apoptosis-related molecules were tested. Compared with colitis mice without treatment, SSW alleviated colonic mucosal injuries and decreased apoptosis rate of colonic epithelial cell, while the mRNA expressions of p38 MAPK, p53, caspase-3, c-jun, c-fos, Bax, and TNF-α were decreased in the colonic mucosa in colitis mice treated with SSW, and Bcl-2 mRNA and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased. The present study demonstrated that SSW inhibited mRNA expression of apoptosis-related molecules in p38 MAPK signal pathway to downregulate colonic epithelial cells apoptosis in colonic mucosa in mice with colitis. PMID:24223057

  3. Jia-Shen decoction-medicated serum inhibits angiotensin-II induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation via the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lin; Wang, Youping; Yu, Rui; Li, Bin; Xie, Shiyang; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Jia-Shen decoction (JSD) is a traditional Chinese medicine, which is used widely to treat chronic heart failure. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of JSD on cardiac fibroblast (CF) proliferation and differentiation. The CFs were obtained from the hearts of neonatal (1-3-day old) Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with JSD-medicated serum (JSDS) with or without angiotensin II (Ang II). Cell proliferation was assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8 reagent. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylated small mothers against decapentaplegic (p-Smad)2/3 and their protein expression levels were analyzed. CF proliferation was significantly increased in the Ang II-treated group, compared with the control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, TGF-β1 and p-Smad2/3 were also increased in the Ang II-treated group (P<0.05). Following JSDS treatment, the increased levels of collagen and cell proliferation were inhibited, and the increased expression levels of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 were also inhibited (P<0.05). These data suggested that JSDS may inhibit CF proliferation via attenuating the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. PMID:27315199

  4. Automatic recognition of complex magnetic regions on the Sun in GONG magnetogram images and prediction of flares: Techniques for the flare warning program Flarecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, Graham A.; Lobzin, Vasili V.; Wilkinson, Phil J.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2011-11-01

    In the present paper, Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) solar magnetograms are used to automatically identify active regions by thresholding the line-of-sight component of the solar magnetic field. The flare potential of the regions is predicted by locating strong-gradient polarity inversion lines (SPILs) and estimating their parameters. The parameters of interest are the length of the SPIL, a proxy for its curvature; the maximum west-east and south-north gradients of the magnetic field in its vicinity; and a sum of the magnetic field gradients, the summation being performed along the SPIL. Analysis for thresholding of one, two, and three parameters and the corresponding probabilities for correct prediction of flares are presented and compared. The probability for correct prediction of X-ray flares of class C or greater in a 24 h window exceeds 88%, while the probability of false alarms is less than 10% if the decision rule involves thresholding of three specific parameters. These parameters are the steepest south-north gradient of the magnetic field, the maximum curvature of the SPILs, and the length of the longest SPIL, all being calculated for the entire region rather than for a particular SPIL. The steepest south-north gradient of the magnetic field is also used to estimate the probabilities for a flare to belong to classes C, M, or X. These techniques are now implemented in the flare warning program Flarecast. The first automatically predicted M- and X-class flares are presented, and Flarecast is found to predict well the observed X-ray flares.

  5. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes. PMID

  6. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes. PMID

  7. A Network Pharmacology Study of Chinese Medicine QiShenYiQi to Reveal Its Underlying Multi-Compound, Multi-Target, Multi-Pathway Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Wu, Leihong; Liu, Wei; Jin, Yecheng; Chen, Qian; Wang, Linli; Fan, Xiaohui; Li, Zheng; Cheng, Yiyu

    2014-01-01

    Chinese medicine is a complex system guided by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theories, which has proven to be especially effective in treating chronic and complex diseases. However, the underlying modes of action (MOA) are not always systematically investigated. Herein, a systematic study was designed to elucidate the multi-compound, multi-target and multi-pathway MOA of a Chinese medicine, QiShenYiQi (QSYQ), on myocardial infarction. QSYQ is composed of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi), Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), Panax notoginseng (Sanqi), and Dalbergia odorifera (Jiangxiang). Male Sprague Dawley rat model of myocardial infarction were administered QSYQ intragastrically for 7 days while the control group was not treated. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from myocardial infarction rat model treated with QSYQ, followed by constructing a cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related multilevel compound-target-pathway network connecting main compounds to those DEGs supported by literature evidences and the pathways that are functionally enriched in ArrayTrack. 55 potential targets of QSYQ were identified, of which 14 were confirmed in CVD-related literatures with experimental supporting evidences. Furthermore, three sesquiterpene components of QSYQ, Trans-nerolidol, (3S,6S,7R)-3,7,11-trimethyl-3,6-epoxy-1,10-dodecadien-7-ol and (3S,6R,7R)-3,7,11-trimethyl-3,6-epoxy-1,10-dodecadien-7-ol from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen, were validated experimentally in this study. Their anti-inflammatory effects and potential targets including extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and heme oxygenase-1 were identified. Finally, through a three-level compound-target-pathway network with experimental analysis, our study depicts a complex MOA of QSYQ on myocardial infarction. PMID:24817581

  8. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills Promote Angiogenesis of Ischemic Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Regulating MicroRNA-223-3p Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Guo-Hua; Liu, Ning; Zhu, Jing-Wei; Yao, Jing; Yang, Chun; Ma, Pei-Ze; Song, Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research shows that Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ) can promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis. Studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are the key component of gene regulation networks, which play a vital role in angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms involving miRNA by which TCM promotes ischemic cardiac angiogenesis have not been reported. We found that microRNA-223-3p (mir-223-3p) was the core miRNA of angiogenesis of rats ischemic cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) and inhibited angiogenesis by affecting RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signal pathway in previous study. Based on the results, we observed biological characteristics and optimal dosage for QSYQ intervening in rats ischemic CMECs angiogenesis and concluded that QSYQ low-dose group had the strongest ability to promote angiogenesis of ischemic myocardium. Using miRNA chip and real-time PCR techniques in this study, we identified mir-223-3p as the pivotal miRNA in QSYQ that regulated angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. From real-time PCR and western blot analysis, research showed that gene and protein expression of factors located RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signaling pathway, including HIF-1α, VEGF, MAPK, PI3K, and AKT, were significantly upregulated by QSYQ to regulate angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. This study showed that QSYQ promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis by downregulating mir-223-3p expression in rats ischemic CMECs. PMID:27057198

  9. Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang has antidepressant effects in a rodent model of postpartum depression by regulating the immune organs and subsets of T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Miao; Tang, Qisheng; Li, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ruizhen; Li, Jingya; Xu, Hong; Gao, Yushan; Mao, Yingqiu

    2015-01-01

    Background Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang (SJ Fang) is a herbal preparation used in traditional Chinese medicine, and is a potentially important new therapeutic agent in postpartum depression (PPD). Previously, we have elucidated the effects of SJ Fang on hormone receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes in PPD rats. However, the immune-modulating effects of SJ Fang in PPD are still unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of SJ Fang on the immune organs and subsets of T lymphocytes in PPD rats. Methods PPD was created in Sprague-Dawley rats by inducing hormone-simulated pregnancy followed by hormone withdrawal. After hormone withdrawal, the PPD rats were then treated with fluoxetine at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and the SJ Fang rats were also treated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Depressive behavior in the rats was evaluated by the forced swim test, sucrose consumption test, and open field test. The thymus index and spleen index were calculated. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to identify pathological features in the thymus and spleen. CD3, CD4, and CD8 lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Both fluoxetine and SJ Fang decreased immobility time, increased sucrose consumption, an horizontal and vertical movement. After 4 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine or SJ Fang, the thymus index and spleen index were significantly higher than at baseline, and the morphology of the thymus and spleen were returning to normal. Two weeks after hormone withdrawal, subsets of T lymphocytes indicated a shift from immune activation to immune suppression, which was reversed by 4 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine or SJ Fang. Conclusion It is suggested that T-cell mediate immune responses which may play a role in the etiopathology of postpartum depression. SJ Fang had an antidepressant effect on the immune system in rats with PPD. PMID:26203247

  10. Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang exerts effects on a rat model of postpartum depression by regulating inflammatory cytokines and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingya; Zhao, Ruizhen; Li, Xiaoli; Sun, Wenjun; Qu, Miao; Tang, Qisheng; Yang, Xinke; Zhang, Shujing

    2016-01-01

    Background Shen-Qi-Jie-Yu-Fang (SJF) is composed of eight Chinese medicinal herbs. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating postpartum depression (PPD). Previous studies have shown that SJF treats PPD through the neuroendocrine mechanism. Aim To further investigate the effect of SJF on the immune system, including the inflammatory response system and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Materials and methods Sprague Dawley rats were used to create an animal model of PPD by inducing hormone-simulated pregnancy followed by hormone withdrawal. After hormone withdrawal, the PPD rats were treated with SJF or fluoxetine for 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Levels of Treg cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry analysis. Serum interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gene and protein expressions of IL-1RI, IL-6Rα, and gp130 in the hippocampus were observed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Results Serum IL-1β in PPD rats increased at 2 weeks and declined from then on, while serum IL-6 increased at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Both IL-1β and IL-6 were downregulated by SJF and fluoxetine. Changes in gene and protein expressions of IL-1RI and gp130 in PPD rats were consistent with changes in serum IL-1β, and were able to be regulated by SJF and fluoxetine. The levels of Treg cells were negatively correlated with serum IL-1β and IL-6, and were decreased in PPD rats. The levels of Treg cells were increased by SJF and fluoxetine. Conclusion Dysfunction of proinflammatory cytokines and Tregs in different stages of PPD was attenuated by SJF and fluoxetine through the modulation of serum concentrations of IL-1β and IL-6, expressions of IL-1RI, and gp130 in the hippocampus, and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in peripheral blood. PMID:27143890

  11. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  12. A Chinese herbal decoction, reformulated from Kai-Xin-San, relieves the depression-like symptoms in stressed rats and induces neurogenesis in cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Mak, Marvin S. H.; Lou, Jianshu; Xu, Sherry L.; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Huaiyou; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction for anti-depression, is a combination of paired-herbs, i.e. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The make-up of the paired-herbs has been commonly revised according to syndrome differentiation and treatment variation of individual. Currently, an optimized KXS (KXS2012) was prepared by functional screening different combination of GR-PR and ATR-PO. The aim of this study was to verify the effect and underlying mechanism of KXS2012 against depression in chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depressive rats and in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. In rat model, the CMS-induced depressive symptoms were markedly alleviated by the treatment with KXS2012. The CMS-suppressed neurotransmitter amounts were restored in the presence of KXS2012. And the expressions of neurotropic factors and its corresponding receptors were increased under KXS2012 administration. In cultured neurons, application of KXS2012 could promote neurogenesis by inducing the expression of synaptotagmin and dendritic spine density. Moreover, application of KXS2012 in cultured astrocytes, or in H2O2-stressed astrocytes, induced the expressions of neurotrophic factors: the increase might be associated with the modification of Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. Our current results fully support the therapeutic efficacy of KXS2012 against depression in cell and animal models. PMID:27444820

  13. Protective effects of a compound herbal extract (Tong Xin Luo) on free fatty acid induced endothelial injury: Implications of antioxidant system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Wu, Yiling; Jia, Zhenhua; Zhang, Yun; Shen, Hu Ying; Li Wang, Xing

    2008-01-01

    Background Tong-Xin-Luo (TXL) – a mixture of herbal extracts, has been used in Chinese medicine with established therapeutic efficacy in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods We investigated the protective role of TXL extracts on endothelial cells injured by a known risk factor – palmitic acid (PA), which is elevated in metabolic syndrome and associated with cardiovascular complications. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were preconditioned with TXL extracts before exposed to PA for 24 hours. Results We found that PA (0.5 mM) exposure induced 73% apoptosis in endothelial cells. However, when HAECs were preconditioned with ethanol extracted TXL (100 μg/ml), PA induced only 7% of the endothelial cells into apoptosis. Using antibody-based protein microarray, we found that TXL attenuated PA-induced activation of p38-MAPK stress pathway. To investigate the mechanisms involved in TXL's protective effects, we found that TXL reduced PA-induced intracellular oxidative stress. Through AMPK pathway, TXL restored the intracellular antioxidant system, which was depressed by the PA treatment, with an increased expression of thioredoxin and a decreased expression of the thioredoxin interacting protein. Conclusion In summary, our study demonstrates that TXL protects endothelial cells from PA-induced injury. This protection is likely mediated by boosting intracellular antioxidant capacity through AMPK pathway, which may account for the therapeutic efficacy in TXL-mediated cardiovascular protection. PMID:18625049

  14. Single crystals growth and absorption spectra of Cr 3+-doped Al 2-xIn x(WO 4) 3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, D.; Nikolov, V.; Todorov, R.

    2009-06-01

    The growth conditions of pure and Cr 3+-doped Al 2-xIn x(WO 4) 3 single crystals, using top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) technique, have been studied. A series of experiments have been performed at different In concentrations, x=0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0, as well as at different concentrations of Cr 3+ (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0) in at% with respect to the initial total concentration of Al and In in the starting solutions. The basic parameters of the crystal growth are varied over a wide range: seed orientation, speed of rotation, axial and radial temperature differences in the solution and the solution cooling rate. The investigated relations between the basic defects in the crystals and these parameters result in determination of the optimal conditions for growth of defect-free crystals. Distribution coefficients of Al, In and Cr have been determined, so the growth of crystals with given compositions is possible. Values of Dq/ B (crystal field strength) for the various crystal compositions are calculated from the optical absorption spectra. The calculated values show that the discussed solid solutions have weak crystal field and are suitable for media with broadband emission spectra.

  15. A Chinese herbal decoction, reformulated from Kai-Xin-San, relieves the depression-like symptoms in stressed rats and induces neurogenesis in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lu; Hu, Qinghua; Mak, Marvin S H; Lou, Jianshu; Xu, Sherry L; Bi, Cathy W C; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Huaiyou; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction for anti-depression, is a combination of paired-herbs, i.e. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (GR)-Polygalae Radix (PR) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR)-Poria (PO). The make-up of the paired-herbs has been commonly revised according to syndrome differentiation and treatment variation of individual. Currently, an optimized KXS (KXS2012) was prepared by functional screening different combination of GR-PR and ATR-PO. The aim of this study was to verify the effect and underlying mechanism of KXS2012 against depression in chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depressive rats and in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. In rat model, the CMS-induced depressive symptoms were markedly alleviated by the treatment with KXS2012. The CMS-suppressed neurotransmitter amounts were restored in the presence of KXS2012. And the expressions of neurotropic factors and its corresponding receptors were increased under KXS2012 administration. In cultured neurons, application of KXS2012 could promote neurogenesis by inducing the expression of synaptotagmin and dendritic spine density. Moreover, application of KXS2012 in cultured astrocytes, or in H2O2-stressed astrocytes, induced the expressions of neurotrophic factors: the increase might be associated with the modification of Erk1/2 and CREB phosphorylation. Our current results fully support the therapeutic efficacy of KXS2012 against depression in cell and animal models. PMID:27444820

  16. Identification of the chemical constituents of Chinese medicine Yi-Xin-Shu capsule by molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-ping; Chen, Chang; Liu, Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun; Wu, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    The incomplete identification of the chemical components of traditional Chinese medicinal formula has been one of the bottlenecks in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Tandem mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of chemical substances. Current automatic tandem mass spectrometry acquisition, where precursor ions were selected according to their signal intensity, encounters a drawback in chemical substances identification when samples contain many overlapping signals. Compounds in minor or trace amounts could not be identified because most tandem mass spectrometry information was lost. Herein, a molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation method for complex Chinese medicine chemical constituent analysis was developed. The precursor ions were selected according to their two-dimensional characteristics of retention times and mass-to-charge ratio ranges from herbal compounds, so that all precursor ions from herbal compounds were included and more minor chemical constituents in Chinese medicine were identified. Compared to the conventional automatic tandem mass spectrometry setups, the approach is novel and can overcome the drawback for chemical substances identification. As an example, 276 compounds from the Chinese Medicine of Yi-Xin-Shu capsule were identified. PMID:26311399

  17. Standardized Chinese Formula Xin-Ke-Shu inhibits the myocardium Ca2+ overloading and metabolic alternations in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue-Tao; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hong-Mei; Chang, Xing; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Xin-Ke-Shu (XKS) is a traditional Chinese patent medicine used for treatment of coronary heart diseases in China. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this paper, the mediation of XKS on the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) rat were evaluated based on a tissue-targeted metabonomics in vitro/vivo. The result indicated that twelve metabolic pathways were involved in the therapeutic effect of XKS in vivo, where seven pathways were associated with the Ca2+ overloading mechanism. In agreement with regulation on metabolic variations, XKS markedly reversed the over-expressions of three involved proteins including phospholipase A2 IIA (PLA2 IIA), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) and Pro-Caspase-3. The metabolic regulations of XKS on H9c2 cell also partially confirmed its metabolic effect. These metabolic characteristics in vitro/vivo and western blotting analysis suggested that XKS protected from MI metabolic perturbation major via inhibition of Ca2+ overloading mechanism. Furthermore, 11 active ingredients of XKS exerted steady affinity with the three proteins through the molecular docking study. Our findings indicate that the metabonomics in vitro/vivo combined with western blotting analysis offers the opportunity to gain insight into the comprehensive efficacy of TCMs on the whole metabolic network. PMID:27457884

  18. Electronic structure of (Ge2Sb2Te5)1-x(In3SbTe2)x investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benayad, Anass; Kang, YounSeon; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Kihong; Suh, Dong-Seok; Kim, KiJoon; Kim, CheolKyu; Lee, Tae-Yon; Noh, Jin-Seo; Lee, JaeCheol; Khang, YoonHo

    2009-08-01

    We have investigated the core levels and the valence band of (Ge2Sb2Te5)1-x(In3Sb1Te2)x quaternary phase system (IGST) by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A systematic shift of Sb 3d and Ge 2p core-level peaks toward lower binding energies side was observed with increasing indium amount, whereas the In 3d and Te 3d core peaks showed less change. The Sb 3d and Ge 2p core-level shift is attributed to an increase in the electronic charge of p-electrons dependent of indium amount. The valence band spectra show a distinct change in the sp configuration with indium concentration change. The change in the local bonding as the indium amount increase has a profound impact on both local atomic arrangement and amorphous-to-crystalline transformation temperature. The difference in the photoemission spectra have been discussed according to a simple structural model suggesting that the Na site in IGST can be occupied by Te, Sb, In, and vacancy, whereas in GST it is occupied only by Te.

  19. Standardized Chinese Formula Xin-Ke-Shu inhibits the myocardium Ca(2+) overloading and metabolic alternations in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Tao; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hong-Mei; Chang, Xing; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Xin-Ke-Shu (XKS) is a traditional Chinese patent medicine used for treatment of coronary heart diseases in China. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this paper, the mediation of XKS on the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) rat were evaluated based on a tissue-targeted metabonomics in vitro/vivo. The result indicated that twelve metabolic pathways were involved in the therapeutic effect of XKS in vivo, where seven pathways were associated with the Ca(2+) overloading mechanism. In agreement with regulation on metabolic variations, XKS markedly reversed the over-expressions of three involved proteins including phospholipase A2 IIA (PLA2 IIA), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) and Pro-Caspase-3. The metabolic regulations of XKS on H9c2 cell also partially confirmed its metabolic effect. These metabolic characteristics in vitro/vivo and western blotting analysis suggested that XKS protected from MI metabolic perturbation major via inhibition of Ca(2+) overloading mechanism. Furthermore, 11 active ingredients of XKS exerted steady affinity with the three proteins through the molecular docking study. Our findings indicate that the metabonomics in vitro/vivo combined with western blotting analysis offers the opportunity to gain insight into the comprehensive efficacy of TCMs on the whole metabolic network. PMID:27457884

  20. Shen-Kang protects 5/6 nephrectomized rats against renal injury by reducing oxidative stress through the MAPK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    LIU, MEIYOU; PARK, JISOO; WU, XIAOXIAO; LI, YUWEN; TRAN, QUANGDON; MUN, KISUN; LEE, YONGJIN; HUR, GANG MIN; WEN, AIDONG; PARK, JONGSUN

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health concern with limited treatment options. The incidence of CDK is increasing and the disease is associated with a poor quality of life and a high financial cost of treatment. Shen-Kang (SK), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used clinically in the treatment of renal diseases for decades. This study was carried out to validate the therapeutic effects of SK on renal injury induced by 5/6 nephrectomy, as well as its effects on the apoptosis of proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2 cells), in an aim to elucidate its mechanisms of action. For this purpose, an animal model of renal injury was created by subjecting rats to a 5/6 nephrectomy. The rats in the sham-operated and model groups received distilled water, while the rats in the SK and enalapril (EN) groups were treated with SK or EN. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were measured. Kidney tissues obtained from the rats were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. HK-2 cells were employed to investigate the effects of SK on the apoptosis of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic events were monitored by western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis and nuclear morphological anlaysis. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometric analysis with dihydroethidium staining. The results revealed that the administration of SK to 5/6 nephrectomized rats for 1 week significantly decreased the levels of SCr and BUN. The morphological observations of the kidneys also indicated the amelioration of damage to renal tissue. Treatment of the HK-2 cells with SK significantly protected the cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis, as indicated by an increase in cell viability, the decrease in the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and fewer condensed nuclei. H2O2-induced

  1. Up-Regulation of CYP2C19 Expression by BuChang NaoXinTong via PXR Activation in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Huan; Qu, Qiang; Tan, Shen-Lan; Ruan, Jun-Shan; Qu, Jian; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME), which is responsible for the biotransformation of several kinds of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors, platelet aggregation inhibitors and antidepressants. Previous studies showed that Buchang NaoXinTong capsules (NXT) increased the CYP2C19 metabolic activity in vitro and enhanced the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remained unclear. In the present study, we examined whether Pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a role in NXT-mediated regulation of CYP2C19 expression. Methods We applied luciferase assays, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting and cell-based analysis of metabolic activity experiments to investigate the NXT regulatory effects on the CYP2C19 promoter activity, the mRNA/ protein expression and the metabolic activity. Results Our results demonstrated that NXT significantly increased the CYP2C19 promoter activity when co-transfected with PXR in HepG2 cells. Mutations in PXR responsive element abolished the NXT inductive effects on the CYP2C19 promoter transcription. Additionally, NXT incubation (150 and 250μg/mL) also markedly up-regulated endogenous CYP2C19 mRNA and protein levels in PXR-transfected HepG2 cells. Correspondingly, NXT leaded to a significant enhancement of the CYP2C19 catalytic activity in PXR-transfected HepG2 cells. Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to suggest that NXT could induce CYP2C19 expression via PXR activation. PMID:27467078

  2. Application of Stable Isotope in Hydrologic Analysis of a Rainfall-Runoff Event in the Xin'an Jiang River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Yi, P.; Chen, L.; Aldahan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Stable isotopes abundance of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) are very sensitive to environmental changes and can help understand the complex recharges between surface water and groundwater. However, details of variability in the different components of water supply to watersheds are generally missing. We present here evaluation of isotopic changes in small watershed (0.19 km2) in the upstream of Xin'an River, Anhui province, China based on daily sampling of rainfall events and runoff (river and soil water). The δ2H and δ18O of different water sources in the watershed were aimed in order explore interactions between different parts of the hydrological processes. The collected water samples were analyzed for δ2H and δ18O using Picarro L-2120i analyzer at a precision of 1.0 and 0.1 ‰, respectively. The results indicated higher abundance of 2H and 18O in precipitation than those in river. Additionally, the content of the heavy isotopes also decreases in soil water with depth, while surface soil water was enriched because of evaporation. The response of the watershed to the changes in δ2H and δ18O varied, where water in upstream gained more heavy isotopes rapidly, while in the downstream part the enrichment happened after a few days. This feature suggests a different but still strong hydraulic connection between surface water and groundwater in the small watershed tested here. Accordingly, variability of δ2H and δ18O should be carefully evaluated on a local scale before application in transport system of large rivers and exchange with groundwater.

  3. Identification and determination of the major constituents in Kai-Xin-San by UPLC-Q/TOF MS and UFLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunxiao; He, Bosai; Sui, Zhenyu; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-07-01

    In order to have overall chemical material information of Kai-Xin-San (KXS), the reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and ultra-fast liquid chromatography mass spectrometer (UFLC-MS/MS) methods were developed for the identification and determination of the major constituents in KXS. Moreover, the UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was also applied to screen for multiple absorbed components in rat plasma after oral administration of KXS. The UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was achieved on Agilent 6520 Q-TOF mass and operated in the negative ion mode. Good separation was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min. A total of 92 compounds in KXS were identified or tentatively characterized based on their exact molecular weights, fragmentation patterns, and literature data. A total of 26 compounds including 23 prototype components and three metabolites were identified in rat plasma after oral administration of KXS. Then, 16 major bioactive constituents were chosen as the benchmark substances to evaluate the quality of KXS. Their quantitative analyses were performed by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) operating in multiple-reaction monitoring mode(MRM). The analysis was completed with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min within 35 min. The simple and fast method was validated and showed good linearity, precision, and recovery. Furthermore, the method was successful applied for the determination of 16 compounds in KXS. All results would provide essential data for identification and quality control of active chemical constituents in KXS. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27434806

  4. Tai Chi and Qi Gong

    MedlinePlus

    ... results are mixed. Tai chi also may improve reasoning ability in older people. What do we know ... that tai chi may boost brain function and reasoning ability in older people. NCCIH-supported research suggests ...

  5. RETRACTION of "Immune memory responses to HBV vaccine 13-18 years after primary vaccination" by L. Hou, W. Li, X. Wei, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhuo, H. Wu, B. Shen. Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (3): 8466-8472 (2015).

    PubMed

    Hou, L; Li, W; Wei, X; Zhou, Y; Zhuo, Y; Wu, H; Shen, B

    2016-01-01

    The article "Immune memory responses to HBV vaccine 13-18 years after primary vaccination" by L. Hou, W. Li, X. Wei, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhuo, H. Wu, B. Shen published in 2015 in Genetics and Molecular Research 14(3): 8466-8472 (http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/2015.July.28.14) has been found to be substantially equal to the article "Immune memory response induced in vitro by recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen challenge 13-18 years after primary vaccination" published in the Journal of Medical Virology 86:1700-1704 (2014) from Andrea do Livramento et al. (DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24012). The corresponding author of the article published in Genetics and Molecular Research, Baosheng Shen, alerted our editorial staff about this situation and requested the retraction of the article. The Publisher and Editor retract this article in Accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). After a thorough investigation, we have strong reasons to believe que the peer review process was failure and after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research have decided to retract the article. The authors and their institutions have been advised of this serious breach of ethics. PMID:26985925

  6. Shen-Kang protects 5/6 nephrectomized rats against renal injury by reducing oxidative stress through the MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiyou; Park, Jisoo; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Yuwen; Tran, Quangdon; Mun, Kisun; Lee, Yongjin; Hur, Gang Min; Wen, Aidong; Park, Jongsun

    2015-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health concern with limited treatment options. The incidence of CDK is increasing and the disease is associated with a poor quality of life and a high financial cost of treatment. Shen-Kang (SK), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used clinically in the treatment of renal diseases for decades. This study was carried out to validate the therapeutic effects of SK on renal injury induced by 5/6 nephrectomy, as well as its effects on the apoptosis of proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2 cells), in an aim to elucidate its mechanisms of action. For this purpose, an animal model of renal injury was created by subjecting rats to a 5/6 nephrectomy. The rats in the sham-operated and model groups received distilled water, while the rats in the SK and enalapril (EN) groups were treated with SK or EN. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were measured. Kidney tissues obtained from the rats were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. HK-2 cells were employed to investigate the effects of SK on the apoptosis of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptotic events were monitored by western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis and nuclear morphological anlaysis. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometric analysis with dihydroethidium staining. The results revealed that the administration of SK to 5/6 nephrectomized rats for 1 week significantly decreased the levels of SCr and BUN. The morphological observations of the kidneys also indicated the amelioration of damage to renal tissue. Treatment of the HK-2 cells with SK significantly protected the cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis, as indicated by an increase in cell viability, the decrease in the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and fewer condensed nuclei. H2O

  7. Metabolomics approach to explore the effects of Kai-Xin-San on Alzheimer's disease using UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hang; Zhang, Aihua; Han, Ying; Lu, Shengwen; Kong, Ling; Han, Jinwei; Liu, Zhidong; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2016-03-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that influences elderly populations, with no effective method for its treatment so far. To improve its diagnosis and treatment, changes of small molecule metabolite during AD should be elucidated. Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is an herbal formulae that has been widely used to treat mental disorders, especially amnesia and depression in China. Experimental AD was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of d-galactose (d-gal) and administered intragastrically with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) simultaneously for 105 days. Morris water maze task as a behavior test was used for testing the effects of KXS on AD model and pathological changes to the brain were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. The levels of Bcl-2 and ChAT in hippocampus were evaluated by western-blot. Furthermore, metabolite profiling of AD was performed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadruple time-of- flight-high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/HDMS) combined with pattern recognition approaches and pathway analysis. d-gal and AlCl3-treated caused a decline in spatial learning and memory, hippocampal histopathological abnormalities and increased Aβ1-40 levels in the brain cortex and hippocampus along with decreased Bcl-2 and ChAT expression in the hippocampus. KXS significantly improved the cognitive impairment induced by d-gal and AlCl3, attenuated hippocampal histopathological abnormalities, reduced Aβ1-40 levels and increased Bcl-2 and ChAT expression in the hippocampus. A total of 48 metabolites were considered as potential biomarkers of AD, and 36 metabolites may correlate with the regulation of KXS treatment on AD. Changes in AD metabolic profiling were close to normal states through regulating multiple perturbed pathways after KXS treatment. This study has revealed the potential biomarkers and metabolic networks of AD, illuminated the biochemistry

  8. Rare earth metal-rich indides RE14Rh 3-xIn 3 ( RE=Y, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaremba, Roman; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2007-09-01

    The rare earth ( RE) metal-rich indides RE14Rh 3-xIn 3 ( RE=Y, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu) can be synthesized from the elements by arc-melting or induction melting in tantalum crucibles. They were investigated by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals: Lu 14Co 3In 3 type, space group P4 2/ nmc, Z=4, a=961.7(1), c=2335.5(5) pm, w R2=0.052, 2047 F2 values, 62 variables for Y 14Rh 3In 3, a=956.8(1), c=2322.5(5) pm, w R2=0.068, 1730 F2 values, 63 variables for Dy 14Rh 2.89(1)In 3, a=952.4(1), c=2309.2(5) pm, w R2=0.041, 1706 F2 values, 63 variables for Ho 14Rh 2.85(1)In 3, a=948.6(1), c=2302.8(5) pm, w R2=0.053, 1977 F2 values, 63 variables for Er 14Rh 2.86(1)In 3, a=943.8(1), c=2291.5(5) pm, w R2=0.065, 1936 F2 values, 63 variables for Tm 14Rh 2.89(1)In 3, and a=937.8(1), c=2276.5(5) pm, w R2=0.050, 1637 F2 values, 63 variables for Lu 14Rh 2.74(1)In 3. Except Yb 14Rh 3In 3, the 8 g Rh1 sites show small defects. Striking structural motifs are rhodium-centered trigonal prisms formed by the RE atoms with comparatively short Rh- RE distances (271-284 pm in Y 14Rh 3In 3). These prisms are condensed via common corners and edges building two-dimensional polyhedral units. Both crystallographically independent indium sites show distorted icosahedral coordination. The icosahedra around In2 are interpenetrating, leading to In2-In2 pairs (309 pm in Y 14Rh 3In 3).

  9. Long-term effects of three Tiao-Bu Fei-Shen therapies on NF-κB/TGF-β1/smad2 signaling in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The three Tiao-Bu Fei-Shen (Bufei Jianpi, Bufei Yishen, Yiqi Zishen) granules have been confirmed for their beneficial clinical efficacy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients on reducing frequency and duration of acute exacerbation, improving syndromes, pulmonary function and exercise capacity. But the short- or long-term mechanism of them is not fully clear. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB/transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/smad2 signaling pathway is involved in the progress of inflammation and remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. This study aimed to explore the long-term effects mechanism of Tiao-Bu Fei-Shen granules by regulating NF-κB/TGF-β/Smads signaling in rats with COPD. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into control, model, Bufei Jianpi, Bufei Yishen, Yiqi Zishen and aminophylline groups. COPD rats, induced by cigarette smoke and bacterial infections exposures, were administrated intragastricly by normal saline, Bufei Jianpi, Bufei Yishen, Yiqi Zishen granules or aminophylline from week 9 through 20, respectively. At week 20 and 32, lung tissues were harvested. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used for TGF-β1 and Smad2 mRNA analysis, western blotting was used to determine the phosphorylation of NF-κB (p-NF-κB) and IκBα (p-IκBα). Results COPD rats had marked airway injury, such as chronic airway inflammation and remodeling, emphysema, which were improved in the three traditional Chinese medicines (TCM)-treated animals. The levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, p-NF-κB, p-IκBα, TGF-β1 and Smad2 were significantly higher in COPD rats than in controls, while they were dramatically reduced in the three TCM- and aminophylline-treated groups. At the meantime, all these endpoints were significantly lower in three TCM-treated groups than in aminophylline group, especially in Bufei

  10. Effect of on band alignment of compressively strained Ga 1- xIn xN y As 1- y- zSb z/GaAs quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissat, A.; Nacer, S.; Seghilani, M.; Vilcot, J. P.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we provide a systematic investigation of the band alignment of quinary GaInNAsSb alloy based quantum wells, starting from the simplest ternary GaInAs compound to the new quinary GaInNAsSb one. We calculate the band gap and the band discontinuities of Ga 1- xIn xN y As 1- y- zSb z structures, using band anticrossing (BAC) models applied simultaneously to conduction and valence band. Nitrogen and antimony concentrations leading to an emission wavelength of 1.6 μm have been determined ( x=38%, y=2%, z=4%). This structure shows a good electron confinement resulting in a high characteristic temperature. GaInNAsSb has been found to be a potentially superior material to both InGaAsP and GaInNAs for communication wavelength laser applications.

  11. QiShenYiQi Pills, a compound in Chinese medicine, protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy through a multi-component and multi-target mode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Quan; Pan, Chun-Shui; Yan, Li; Fan, Jing-Yu; He, Ke; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Chen, Qing-Fang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Chuan-She; He, Bing; Lv, Ai-Ping; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the holistic mechanism for the antihypertrophic effect of a compound in Chinese medicine, QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ) and the contributions of its components to the effect in rats with cardiac hypertrophy (CH). After induction of CH by ascending aortic stenosis, rats were treated with QSYQ, each identified active ingredient (astragaloside IV, 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid or notoginsenoside R1) from its 3 major herb components or dalbergia odorifera, either alone or combinations, for 1 month. QSYQ markedly attenuated CH, as evidenced by echocardiography, morphology and biochemistry. Proteomic analysis and western blot showed that the majority of differentially expressed proteins in the heart of QSYQ-treated rats were associated with energy metabolism or oxidative stress. Each ingredient alone or their combinations exhibited similar effects as QSYQ but to a lesser extent and differently with astragaloside IV and notoginsenoside R1 being more effective for enhancing energy metabolism, 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid more effective for counteracting oxidative stress while dalbergia odorifera having little effect on the variables evaluated. In conclusion, QSYQ exerts a more potent antihypertrophic effect than any of its ingredients or their combinations, due to the interaction of its active components through a multi-component and multi-target mode. PMID:26136154

  12. QiShenYiQi Pills, a compound in Chinese medicine, protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy through a multi-component and multi-target mode

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Quan; Pan, Chun-Shui; Yan, Li; Fan, Jing-Yu; He, Ke; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Chen, Qing-Fang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Chuan-She; He, Bing; Lv, Ai-Ping; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the holistic mechanism for the antihypertrophic effect of a compound in Chinese medicine, QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ) and the contributions of its components to the effect in rats with cardiac hypertrophy (CH). After induction of CH by ascending aortic stenosis, rats were treated with QSYQ, each identified active ingredient (astragaloside IV, 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid or notoginsenoside R1) from its 3 major herb components or dalbergia odorifera, either alone or combinations, for 1 month. QSYQ markedly attenuated CH, as evidenced by echocardiography, morphology and biochemistry. Proteomic analysis and western blot showed that the majority of differentially expressed proteins in the heart of QSYQ-treated rats were associated with energy metabolism or oxidative stress. Each ingredient alone or their combinations exhibited similar effects as QSYQ but to a lesser extent and differently with astragaloside IV and notoginsenoside R1 being more effective for enhancing energy metabolism, 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl lactic acid more effective for counteracting oxidative stress while dalbergia odorifera having little effect on the variables evaluated. In conclusion, QSYQ exerts a more potent antihypertrophic effect than any of its ingredients or their combinations, due to the interaction of its active components through a multi-component and multi-target mode. PMID:26136154

  13. Crystal structures of the Ln4-xIn 5-yS 13 ( Ln=La, Ce, Pr and Nd; x=0.08-0.12, y=0.21-0.24), La 3In 1.67S 7, Gd 3InS 6 and La 4Ag 2In 4S 13 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulay, L. D.; Daszkiewicz, M.; Huch, M. R.

    2008-10-01

    The orthorhombic crystal structures of the series of Ln 4-xIn 5-yS 13 ( Ln=La, Ce, Pr and Nd; x=0.08-0.12, y=0.21-0.24) compounds were investigated by means of X-ray crystal diffraction. The crystals of La 3In 1.67S 7 and Gd 3InS 6 were also obtained unexpectedly from the La-In-S and Gd-In-S systems and no respective Gd 4-xIn 5-yS 13 was obtained. In the structures of the orthorhombic Ln4-xIn 5-yS 13 series and hexagonal La 3In 1.67S 7 indium atoms occupy disordered positions in the octahedral and trigonal antiprismatic arrangement of the sulphur atoms. The crystal structure of the La 4Ag 2In 4S 13 is also given and discussed as an example of quaternary sulphide related to a ternary La-In sulphide.

  14. [The influence of ZHU Gong's Huo ren shu (A Book for Savings Life)in the Southern Song Dynasty and its Influence on the discipline of Cold Pathogenic Disease].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Xin

    2012-11-01

    ZHU Gong's Huo ren shu (A Book for Saving Life) is a famous work in the history of research on Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases. It has great influence on the study of cold pathogenic disease, especially that of the Song dynasty. Many authors reedited or annotated this book to inherit and developed the idea of the Huo ren shu. Thus, a lot of new books, including annotations, revisions, citations, or discussions, appeared. WANG Su's Zeng shi nan yang huo ren shu (Amplified Annotated Huorenshu), for example, is one of them. Those compiled as rhymes or knacks include XU Shu-wei's Shang han bai zheng ge (The Rhymes of Hundred Kinds of Cold Damage Disease), LI Zhi-xian's Huo ren shu kuo (Introduction to Huorenshu), QIAN Wen-li's Shang han bai wen ge (Hundred Questions on Cold Damage Disease), YANG Shi-ying's Shang han lei shu huo ren zong kuo (A General Introduction to Huorenshu, a Classified Book of Cold Damage Disease), and TANG Yin-cai's Shang han jie huo lun (Essay to Answering Suspicions on Cold Damage Disease). Those cited or inherited the book include LI Cheng's Shang han yao zhi (Gist of Cold Damage Disease), GUO Yong's Shang han bu wang lun (Supplements to Cold Damage Disease), SUN Zhi-ning's Shang han jian yao shi shuo (Ten Simple Discourses on Cold Damage Disease), and CHEN Zi-ming's Guan jian da quan liang fang (A Complete Effective Formulary with my Own Opinions). Those differentiating the essentials of the Huorenshu including CHENG Jiong's Huo ren shu bian (Differentiation for Huorenshu), and LU Zu-chang's Ni jin huo ren can tong yu yi (An Elaboration on Huorenshu to be Presented). All the above books indicate the impact of the Huorenshu, and show its influence on later ages as well. PMID:23363846

  15. YiXin-Shu, a ShengMai-San-based traditional Chinese medicine formula, attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and upregulating liver-X-receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yichao; Xu, Longwei; Qiao, Zhiqing; Gao, Lingchen; Ding, Song; Ying, Xiaoying; Su, Yuanyuan; Lin, Nan; He, Ben; Pu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Positive evidence from clinical trials has fueled growing acceptance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cardiac diseases; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the nature and underlying mechanisms of the effects of YiXin-Shu (YXS), an antioxidant-enriched TCM formula, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. YXS pretreatment significantly reduced infarct size and improved viable myocardium metabolism and cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic mice. Mechanistically, YXS attenuated myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis pathway (as reflected by inhibition of mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activity, and normalization of Bcl-2 and Bax levels) without altering the death receptor and endoplasmic reticulum-stress death pathways. Moreover, YXS reduced oxidative/nitrative stress (as reflected by decreased superoxide and nitrotyrosine content and normalized pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme levels). Interestingly, YXS upregulated endogenous nuclear receptors including LXRα, PPARα, PPARβ and ERα, and in-vivo knockdown of cardiac-specific LXRα significantly blunted the cardio-protective effects of YXS. Collectively, these data show that YXS is effective in mitigating MI/R injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and oxidative stress and by upregulating LXRα, thereby providing a rationale for future clinical trials and clinical applications. PMID:26964694

  16. Magnetic properties of the In-doped MnWO4-type solid solutions Mn1-3xIn2x□xWO4 [□=vacancy; 0≤x≤0.11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattermann, U.; Benka, G.; Bauer, A.; Senyshyn, A.; Park, S.-H.

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline Mn1-3xIn2x□xWO4 (□=vacancy; 0≤x≤0.11) solid solutions synthesized via solid state reactions were characterized by means of magnetic ac susceptibility (χAC) and specific heat (C). The effect of this substitution on the magnetic transition temperatures give rise to three consequences: (1) the disappearance of the basic antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase AF1 when exceeding the doping concentration x=0.03; (2) the phase transition of the paramagnetic phase (PM) to the sinusoidal AFM phase AF3 at the Neel temperature (TN) is shifted toward lower temperatures with respect to pure MnWO4. This is valid also for the transition of AF3 to the cycloidal AFM phase AF2; (3) a systematic lowering of the effective magnetic moment with increasing In-doping. These substantial changes are attributed to the weakened overall magnetic interaction and a strong spin-lattice coupling due to the static disorder of Mn2+ with the nonmagnetic species, i.e. In3+ and vacancy.

  17. Kai-Xin-San, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria, Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  18. Valence Fluctuations Revealed by Magnetic Field and Pressure Scans: Comparison with Experiments in YbXCu4 (X=In, Ag, Cd) and CeYIn5 (Y=Ir, Rh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Flouquet, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    The mechanism of how critical end points of the first-order valence transition (FOVT) are controlled by a magnetic field is discussed. We demonstrate that critical temperature is suppressed to be a quantum critical point (QCP) by a magnetic field. This results explain the field dependence of the isostructural FOVT observed in Ce metal and YbInCu4. Magnetic field scan can make the system reenter in a critical valence fluctuation region. Even in intermediate-valence materials, the QCP is induced by applying a magnetic field, at which magnetic susceptibility also diverges. The driving force of the field-induced QCP is shown to be a cooperative phenomenon of the Zeeman effect and the Kondo effect, which creates a distinct energy scale from the Kondo temperature. The key concept is that the closeness to the QCP of the FOVT is vital in understanding Ce- and Yb-based heavy-fermions. This explains the peculiar magnetic and transport responses in CeYIn5 (Y=Ir, Rh) and metamagnetic transition in YbXCu4 for X=In as well as the sharp contrast between X=Ag and Cd.

  19. Kai-xin-san, a chinese herbal decoction containing ginseng radix et rhizoma, polygalae radix, acori tatarinowii rhizoma, and poria, stimulates the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  20. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with automated MetaboLynx analysis approach to screen the bioactive components and their metabolites in Wen-Xin-Formula.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Fang-mei; Wang, Qin-qin; Zhang, He; Song, Yan-hua; Zhou, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang-li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2014-12-01

    Wen-Xin-Formula (WXF), a famous traditional prescription, has been widely used to treat myocardial ischemia syndrome for thousands of years. However, the constituents absorbed into blood after oral administration of WXF remain unknown. Here, an integrative ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) combined with the MetaboLynx approach was established to investigate the absorbed constituents in rats after oral administration of WXF. A hyphenated electrospray ionization and quadrupole-time-of-flight analyzer was used for the determination of accurate mass of the molecule and fragment ions. With this rapid and automated analysis method, a total of 32 peaks were tentatively characterized in vivo based on MS and MS/MS data and comparison with available databasess, 26 of which were parent components and six metabolites. These components mainly were ginsenosides, paeoniflorin, galloyl glucose, berberis alkaloids, phenolic, phenolic glycosides and unsaturated fatty acids, glucuronide products of original berberis alkaloids. The present study demonstrates that integrative UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS technique and MetaboLynx data processing method were successfully applied for the rapid discovery of potentially bioactive components and metabolites from WXF, and proved that the established method could help to explore the effective substances for further research into WXF. PMID:24853889

  1. The Effect of ShenQi FuZheng Injection in Combination with Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy Alone on the Improvement of Efficacy and Immune Function in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    dedong, Cao; huilin, Xu; Anbing, He; Ximing, Xu; wei, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of ShenQi FuZheng Injection (SFI) on cellular immunity and clinical efficacy in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) when combined with chemotherapy. Methods Electronic databases including EMBASE, PUBMED, the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Cochrane, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biological Medical disc(CBM) were searched, until July, 2015. The randomized controlled clinical studies reporting results of efficacy and immune function were collected according to the inclusion criteria. Cochrane handbook 5.1.0 was applied to assess the quality of included trials and Revman 5 software was used for data analysis. Results Fifteen studies including 1006 cases of advanced NSCLC were included based on the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences in percentages of CD3+ cells (SMD = 13.48; 95%CI: 8.11–18.85; p<0.01), CD4+ cells (SMD = 10.78; 95%CI, 6.38–15.18; p<0.01), NK [WMD = 8.59, 95% CI(3.97, 13.21), p = 0.003], and ratio of CD4+/ CD8+ (SMD = 0.32; 95%: 0.28–0.36; p<0.01) between SFI combination group and control group, whereas the difference was not significant in CD8+ (SMD = -1.44; 95%CI, -4.53–1.65; p = 0.36). Funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation test and Egger's linear regression analysis indicated that there was significant publication bias across studies. Conclusion SFI is effective to improve the efficacy of chemotherpay and function of cellular immunity in NSCLC patients, however, high quality RCTs are needed to further confirm the findings. PMID:27015629

  2. News & Information President Chen Yiyu Meets with Omi Professor Wang Jie Meets with NSF Assistant Director Vice President Sun Jiaguang Visited Japan and Germany on International Evaluation Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets JST Delegation Vice President Wang Jie Meets with Vice President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research Held Further Implement the Scientific Outlook for Development and Open up a New Prospect for Science Funding Panel Meeting for A3 Foresight Program 2008 held in Hangzhou Department Director's Fund for Earthquake Relief Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets IRRI Officials President Chen Yiyu Visits Taiwan Province NSFC VIP Attends the NSFC-JST Workshop 1st NSFC-JST Joint Evaluation for Funded Projects Ends Successfully NSFC Delegation Visits the U.S. Top Heads Meet at China-US Computer Science Leadership Summit President Chen Yiyu Met with Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chari Sirindhorn of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    President Chen Yiyu Meets with Omi Professor Wang Jie Meets with NSF Assistant Director Vice President Sun Jiaguang Visited Japan and Germany on International Evaluation Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets JST Delegation Vice President Wang Jie Meets with Vice President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 12th Meeting of China-Korea Joint Committee for Basic Scientific Research Held Further Implement the Scientific Outlook for Development and Open up a New Prospect for Science Funding Panel Meeting for A3 Foresight Program 2008 held in Hangzhou Department Director's Fund for Earthquake Relief Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets IRRI Officials President Chen Yiyu Visits Taiwan Province NSFC VIP Attends the NSFC-JST Workshop 1st NSFC-JST Joint Evaluation for Funded Projects Ends Successfully NSFC Delegation Visits the U.S. Top Heads Meet at China-US Computer Science Leadership Summit President Chen Yiyu Met with Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chari Sirindhorn of Thailand

  3. First description of the male of Draconarius jiangyongensis (Peng et al., 1996) (Araneae, Agelenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuoer; Yin, Haiqiang; Xu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The male of Draconarius jiangyongensis (Peng, Gong & Kim, 1996) is described for the first time from Xinning County, Hunan Province, China. Morphological descriptions and illustrations of both sexes of this species are given in this study. The placement of this species in Draconarius is doubted. PMID:27551186

  4. First description of the male of Draconarius jiangyongensis (Peng et al., 1996) (Araneae, Agelenidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuoer; Yin, Haiqiang; Xu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The male of Draconarius jiangyongensis (Peng, Gong & Kim, 1996) is described for the first time from Xinning County, Hunan Province, China. Morphological descriptions and illustrations of both sexes of this species are given in this study. The placement of this species in Draconarius is doubted. PMID:27551186

  5. Disorder, frustration and lattice volume effects in YMnIn, Th 0.8R 0.2MnAl (R=Sc, Lu and Y), ThMn 1.3Al 0.7 and ThMnAl 1- xIn x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, S. K.; Manfrinetti, P.; Palenzona, A.

    2002-12-01

    The antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Mn ions in the cubic Laves-phase alloys Th 0.8R 0.2MnAl, ThMnAl 1- xIn x ( x≤0.2), ThMn 1.3Al 0.7 and the hexagonal Laves-phase YMnIn is inherently geometrically frustrated due to the tetrahedral co-ordination of the Mn ions. Together with disorder on the Mn-sublattice due to the partial replacement of Mn by Al and/or In, it leads to spin-glass-type freezing of the Mn magnetic moments in these alloys when the average Mn-Mn bond length is 2.850 Å or less. For alloys with greater bond lengths ( x>0.2), the data corroborate the suggestion made earlier [J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 231 (2000) 404] that the exchange becomes ferromagnetic.

  6. Electron-poor SrAu xIn 4-x (0.5⩽ x⩽1.2) and SrAu xSn 4-x (1.3⩽ x⩽2.2) phases with the BaAl 4-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachuk, Andriy V.; Mar, Arthur

    2007-08-01

    Solid solutions SrAu xIn 4-x (0.5⩽ x⩽1.2) and SrAu xSn 4-x (1.3⩽ x⩽2.2) have been prepared at 700 °C and their structures characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They adopt the tetragonal BaAl 4-type structure (space group I4/ mmm, Z=2; SrAu 1.1(1)In 2.9(1), a=4.5841(2) Å, c=12.3725(5) Å; SrAu 1.4(1)Sn 2.6(1), a=4.6447(7) Å, c=11.403(2) Å), with Au atoms preferentially substituting into the apical over basal sites within the anionic network. The phase width inherent in these solid solutions implies that the BaAl 4-type structure can be stabilized over a range of valence electron counts (vec), 13.0-11.6 for SrAu xIn 4-x and 14.1-11.4 for SrAu xSn 4-x. They represent new examples of electron-poor BaAl 4-type compounds, which generally have a vec of 14. Band structure calculations confirm that substitution of Au, with its smaller size and fewer number of valence electrons, for In or Sn atoms enables the BaAl 4-type structure to be stabilized in the parent binaries SrIn 4 and SrSn 4, which adopt different structure types.

  7. Investigation on Qiong yao shen shu (Qiongyao's Magical Book).

    PubMed

    Huang, L

    1999-01-01

    Written in about the period of late Yuan to early Ming dynasties, Qiongyao's Magical Book is attributed to a Taoist who was also conversant with acupunture art. By investigation, it is found that there are, at least, three books carrying the same title of Qiongyao's Magical Book, including a 3 volume Qiongyao's Magical Book now lost; a 3 - volume Qiongyao's Magical Book of Discovery (also called The Acupuncture Classic of Qiongyao the Immortal printed in the Ming dynasty, which is entirely different from the previous one and is an apocrypha; and a 4 - volume Qiongyao's Magical Book printed in the Qing dynasty also called Qiongyao's Great Collections of Magical Books wiich is a mixture of authentic and apocryphal texts in which 2 medical books irrelevant to the original are attached to the end of volume 3, with supplements by later writers intermingled in other volumes. PMID:11623790

  8. Construction of the vessel-collateral theory and its guidance for prevention and treatment of vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiling

    2011-06-01

    According to the self-discipline of traditional Chinese medicine, vessel-collateral theory was constructed systematically, which was important to improving prevention and treatment level of vasculopathy. The hypothesis of "homeostasis (Cheng), compensatory auto-adaptation (Zhi), regulation (Tiao) and equilibrium (Ping)" based on the "qi-yin-yang-five elements" coupled with the ying (nutrients)-wei (defense) theory, has become the core content of the vessel-collateral theory. Clinical and laboratory trials have been developed to further confirm the scientific connotations of the hypothesis, such as Tong Xin Luo capsule, as the representative drugs of vessel collateral theory, showed good efficacy in protecting the vascular endothelium, stabilizing the vulnerable plaque and reducing the blood vessel spasm. "Sou, ti, shu, tong" was the characteristics of Tong Xin Luo capsule in treating "microvascular damage" as the core mechanism of acute myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction and microvascular complications of diabetes. Shen Song Yang Xin capsules in the treatment of arrhythmia have made integrated adjustment advantage. Qi Li Qiang Xin capsules have been made treating both manifestation and root cause of chronic heart failure. These research have improved prevention and treatment level of major vascular system diseases. PMID:21695614

  9. [Textual research on the literature sources, its related names and medicinal part of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The "jin yin hua" (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) used in the clinic nowadays is the flower of honeysuckle, excluding its stem, leave, branch, vine or the whole plant. In the early time, the name of "ren dong" (honeysuckle) or "ren dong teng" (Caulis lonicerae) didn't refer exclusively to the flower of honeysuckle. A few early literature, such as Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) recorded briefly the flower, yet only mentions its time of blossom and shape without mentioning the medicinal use of its flower, nor the title of "jin yin hua", as the identification for this plant. Therefore, it cannot be regarded as the primary source of "jin yin hua". This research points out that the first appearance of the name of "jin yin hua" should be in Su shen liang fang (Su-Shen's Effective Prescriptions) of the Song Dynasty, and the first usage of the flower "jin yin hua" as a single drug was in Wai ke jing yao (Essence of External Diseases) of the Song Dynasty. Thus, the conclusion that "jin yin hua" is first seen in Xin xiu ben cao or lv chan yan ben cao (Mountainous Materia Medica) quoted in the ninth edition of teaching material of Traditional Chinese Pharmacology, and Chinese Materia Medica are all wrong and should be corrected accordingly. PMID:24060026

  10. Meridional flow in the solar convection zone. I. Measurements from gong data

    SciTech Connect

    Kholikov, S.; Serebryanskiy, A.; Jackiewicz, J.

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale plasma flows in the Sun's convection zone likely play a major role in solar dynamics on decadal timescales. In particular, quantifying meridional motions is a critical ingredient for understanding the solar cycle and the transport of magnetic flux. Because the signal of such features can be quite small in deep solar layers and be buried in systematics or noise, the true meridional velocity profile has remained elusive. We perform time-distance helioseismology measurements on several years worth of Global Oscillation Network Group Doppler data. A spherical harmonic decomposition technique is applied to a subset of acoustic modes to measure travel-time differences to try to obtain signatures of meridional flows throughout the solar convection zone. Center-to-limb systematics are taken into account in an intuitive yet ad hoc manner. Travel-time differences near the surface that are consistent with a poleward flow in each hemisphere and are similar to previous work are measured. Additionally, measurements in deep layers near the base of the convection zone suggest a possible equatorward flow, as well as partial evidence of a sign change in the travel-time differences at mid-convection zone depths. This analysis on an independent data set using different measurement techniques strengthens recent conclusions that the convection zone may have multiple 'cells' of meridional flow. The results may challenge the common understanding of one large conveyor belt operating in the solar convection zone. Further work with helioseismic inversions and a careful study of systematic effects are needed before firm conclusions of these large-scale flow structures can be made.

  11. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Health? Safety Information Know the Science For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews All Health ... These exercise therapies are generally considered safe, self-care approaches used to promote a healthy lifestyle. As ...

  12. Magnetoseismology of Active Regions using Multi-wavelength Observations from GONG and SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Jain, Kiran; Kholikov, Shukur; Hill, Frank; Cally, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The structure and dynamics of active regions beneath the surface show significant uncertainties due to our limited understanding of the wave interaction with magnetic field. Recent numerical simulations further demonstrate that the atmosphere above the photospheric levels also modifies the seismic observables at the surface. Thus the key to improve helioseismic interpretation beneath the active regions requires a synergy between models and helioseismic inferences from observations. In this context, using data from Global Oscillation Network Group and from Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory, we characterize the spatio-temporal power distribution in and around active regions. Specifically, we focus on the power enhancements seen around active regions as a function of wave frequencies, strength, inclination of magnetic field and observation height as well as the relative phases of the observables and their cross-coherence functions. It is expected that these effects will help us to comprehend the interaction of acoustic waves with magnetic field in the solar photosphere.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Molecular clouds and star formation (Gong+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Mao, R. Q.; Fang, M.; Zhang, S. B.; Su, Y.; Yang, J.; Jiang, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Lu, D. R.; Sun, J. X.

    2016-02-01

    We include three FITS files containing the data-cubes (position-position-velocity) of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O emission lines. We used the Galactic coordinates for the spatial dimensions and V_lsr for the spectral dimension. The pixel size is 30" in spatial dimension and the channel width is about 0.17km/s. All the intensities have been converted to a scale of main beam temperatures in units of K. (3 data files).

  14. Shao Nian Gong--A Children's Palace: Ideas for Teaching About China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoresman, Michele; Gumport, Roberta

    Children throughout the world enjoy similar activities. By experiencing the same games, foods, and activities that Chinese children enjoy, children in the United States can learn about Chinese culture. A variety of experiences are suggested to encourage active learning and involvement on the part of students with the aim of incorporating the study…

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS-RM project: technical overview (Shen+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Brandt, W. N.; Dawson, K. S.; Hall, P. B.; McGreer, I. D.; Anderson, S. F.; Chen, Y.; Denney, K. D.; Eftekharzadeh, S.; Fan, X.; Gao, Y.; Green, P. J.; Greene, J. E.; Ho, L. C.; Horne, K.; Jiang, L.; Kelly, B. C.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kochanek, C. S.; Paris, I.; Peters, C. M.; Peterson, B. M.; Petitjean, P.; Ponder, K.; Richards, G. T.; Schneider, D. P.; Seth, A.; Smith, R. N.; Strauss, M. A.; Tao, C.; Trump, J. R.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Zu, Y.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Malanushenko, V.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D.

    2015-02-01

    Our reverberation mapping (RM) field is the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) Medium Deep Field (MDF) MD07 (RAJ2000=213.704, DEJ2000=+53.083), which is a 7deg2 field within the CFHT-LS W3 field. This field is fully covered in the SDSS-I/II and SDSS-III BOSS footprints. The final RM sample contains 849 quasars, each of which was assigned a fiber on the RM plates. The remaining fibers were allocated to calibration sources, including 70 spectrophotometric standard stars, 80 sky fibers, and 1 LRG target (enforced by the BOSS tiling algorithm, but actually not tiled on any existing object in SDSS imaging). The BOSS spectroscopic observations were acquired during 7 dark/gray runs from 2014 January 1 to 2014 July 3. The separation between epochs in a given run is roughly 3-4 days, but varies from run to run under different weather conditions. Typically five epochs were taken for each run when weather permitted, totaling 32 epochs. The main portion of the RM imaging of our program is obtained with the CFHT/MegaCam and the Steward Observatory Bok 2.3m/90Prime. Given that our RM sample covers a wide redshift range, the photometric monitoring is performed in the SDSS g band and i band to sample the quasar continuum at low and high redshifts, respectively. We also had six nights of KPNO-4m (Mayall)/MOSAIC-1.1 observation to perform multi-band (Ugriz) imaging of the RM field. (4 data files).

  16. Lidar observations of wind over Xin Jiang, China: general characteristics and variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yan; Sun, Dong-song; Weng, Ning-quan; Wang, Jian-guo; Dou, Xian-kang; Zhang, Yan-hong; Guan, Jun; Miao, Qingjian; Chen, Xin

    2016-08-01

    The mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar based on a Fabry-Perot etalon is developed for wind measurement. The structure and technical parameters of this lidar system are described in brief. The 1740 wind profiles from 8 to 40 km altitudes by the lidar in Xinjiang, China, were obtained in 2010 and 2011, and were used to analyze the characteristics and variations of wind. The results shown that the wind velocity is within a three-layer structure: westerly jet layer (9-14 km), quasi-zero velocity layer (18-22 km) and gale layer (22-40 km). In August and September, the wind direction is within a three-layer structure: zonal westerly wind layer (5-18 km) where wind direction is west, zonal wind reverse layer (18-22 km) where wind direction is unstable and easterly wind layer (22-40 km) where wind direction is east. In October, wind direction is west (8-40 km). Wind observations by lidar are a realistic offset to the rawins.

  17. [Biodiversity of halophilic archaea isolated from two salt lakes in Xin-Jiang region of China].

    PubMed

    Cui, Heng-Lin; Yang, Yong; Dilbr, Tohty; Zhou, Pei-Jin; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2006-04-01

    There are more than 1000 salt lakes situated in northern and western regions of China and 790 of these salt lakes are in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region and Qinghai, Tibet, Inner Mongolia. To better understand halophilic archaeal diversity of salt lakes in Xinjiang, water and sediment samples were collected from two salt lakes, namely Aibi salt lake and Aiding salt lake, and the halophilic archaeal diversity of these samples was determined. Totally eighty-six halophilic archeal strains, of which 56 isolated from Aibi salt lake and 30 isolated from Aiding salt lake, were isolated respectively using CM agar medium. All the strains were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Similarity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of all these strains indicated that the isolates from Aibi salt lake belong to 11 different species of genera Haloarcula, Halobacterium, Halorubrum, Haloterrigena, Natrinema and Natronorubrum, and that the isolates from Aiding salt lake belong to 8 different species of genera Haloarcula, Halobiforma, Halorubrum, Haloterrigena, Natrinema. Among the 86 strains, members of Natronorubrum Natrinema, Halorubrum and Haloterrigena, are dominant groups in Aibi salt lake. However, the dominant group in Aibi salt lake are the members of Natrinema, Halorubrum and Haloterrigena. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains ABH13, ABH 14, ABH 15, ABH 18, ABH 31 and ABH 33 may represent a novel species of Natronorubrum; ABH12, ABH32 and AD30 two novel species of Halorubrum; ABH17 and ABH25, ABH51, ABH52, ABH56 two novel species of Haloterrigena respectively; strain ABH19 a novel species of Haloarcula; strain ABHO7 a novel species of Halobacterium. The Shannon-Wiener's index of Aibi salt lake is 1.899, the same index of Aiding salt lake is 1.317, which indicated that the biodiversity of halophilic archaea from Aibi salt lake was slightly higher than that of Aiding salt lake. Different characteristics in pH of salt concentrations, average annual precipitation, annual evaporation and mankind's impact on two salt lakes might play important roles on halophilic archaeal diversity of two salt lakes. PMID:16736571

  18. Heterologous Expression of Aspergillus Niger --beta--D-Xylosidase (XInD): Characterization on Lignocellulosic Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. J.; Knoshaug, E. P.; Decker, S. R.; Baker, J. O.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    The gene encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 10864. The recombinant product was expressed in Aspergillus awamori, purified by column chromatography, and verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests. The T{sub max} was determined using differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) to be 78.2 C; the K{sub m} and k{sub cat} were found to be 255 {micro}M and 13.7 s{sup -1}, respectively, using {rho}NP-{Beta}-d-xylopyranoside as substrate. End-product inhibition by d-xylose was also verified and shown to be competitive; the K{sub i} for this inhibition was estimated to be 3.3 mM. XlnD was shown to efficiently hydrolyze small xylo-oligomers to monomeric xylose, making it a critical hydrolytic activity in cases where xylose is to be recovered from biomass conversion processes. In addition, the presence of the XlnD was shown to synergistically enhance the ability of an endoxylanase, XynA from Thermomyces lanuginosus, to convert xylan present in selected pretreated lignocellulosic substrates. Furthermore, the addition of the XynA/XlnD complex was effective in enhancing the ability of a simplified cellulase complex to convert glucan present in the substrates.

  19. Lidar observations of wind over Xin Jiang, China: general characteristics and variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yan; Sun, Dong-song; Weng, Ning-quan; Wang, Jian-guo; Dou, Xian-kang; Zhang, Yan-hong; Guan, Jun; Miao, Qingjian; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    The mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar based on a Fabry-Perot etalon is developed for wind measurement. The structure and technical parameters of this lidar system are described in brief. The 1740 wind profiles from 8 to 40 km altitudes by the lidar in Xinjiang, China, were obtained in 2010 and 2011, and were used to analyze the characteristics and variations of wind. The results shown that the wind velocity is within a three-layer structure: westerly jet layer (9-14 km), quasi-zero velocity layer (18-22 km) and gale layer (22-40 km). In August and September, the wind direction is within a three-layer structure: zonal westerly wind layer (5-18 km) where wind direction is west, zonal wind reverse layer (18-22 km) where wind direction is unstable and easterly wind layer (22-40 km) where wind direction is east. In October, wind direction is west (8-40 km). Wind observations by lidar are a realistic offset to the rawins.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Luminous X-ray candidates within D25 of galaxies (Gong+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, H.; Liu, J.; Maccarone, T.

    2016-02-01

    Using Chandra archive data we conduct a thorough survey of luminous X-ray sources. We directly analyze about 9400 ACIS Observations and cross-correlate the X-ray sources with 77000 galaxies within 250Mpc. The final catalog includes 119 unique luminous X-ray source candidates with LX>3x1040erg/s from 93 galaxies or 41 HLX candidates with LX>1x1041erg/s from 35 galaxies. We derive a moderate contamination rate due to foreground or background sources. We also cross-correlate the catalog with FIRST, perform variability and periodicity tests, and analyze one HLX candidate in particular. Our catalog could be a starting point to perform follow-up observations. (2 data files).

  1. Salinity and Temperature Constraints on Microbial Methanogenesis in the Lei-Gong-Huo Mud Volcano of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcano is thought to be one of the most important natural sources of methane emission. Previous studies have shown that methane cycling in terrestrial mud volcanoes involves a complex reaction network driven by the interactions between subsurface and surface abiotic and microbial processes. In situ methanogenesis appears to produce methane at quantities exceeding those of deeply-sourced thermogenic methane and the capacities of anaerobic methanotrophy at shallow depth levels, thereby contributing significantly to the methane emission. Various degrees of evaporation at surface also lead to the enhancement of chloride concentrations in pore water, favoring the proliferation of halo-tolerant and/or halophilic methanogens. The goal of this study is to investigate the extent of methanogenesis in terrestrial mud volcanoes by incubating mud slurries with various precursors (H2/CO2, acetate, methanol, and methylamine) at different salinities (up to 2000 mM) and temperatures (up to 50 oC). Methane concentrations were monitored through time and molecular analyses were applied to investigate the changes of methanogenic communities. Methanogenesis was stimulated by any investigated precursor at room temperature. However, the methanogenic response to salinity varied. Of the investigated precursors, H2/CO2 and methyl-compounds (methanol and methylamine) stimulated methanogenesis at all investigated salinities. The rates and yields of hydrogen- and methyl-utilizing methanogenesis declined significantly at salinities greater than 1500 mM. Acetate-utilizing methanogenesis proceeded at salinities less than 700 mM. At 40 oC, methanogenesis was stimulated by all investigated precursors at the in situ salinity (~400 mM). At 50 oC, only H2-utilizing methanogenesis was stimulated. Analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) for 16S rRNA genes revealed various patterns upon different precursors and salinities. The TRFLP results combined with clone library analyses indicated that major RFs recovered from incubations with methyl-compounds at room temperature and 40 oC were represented by sequences affiliated with Methanococcoides spp., Methanosarcina spp., and Methanolobus spp. In particular, only Methanosarcina- and Methanococcoides-related members were detected at salinities greater than 1000 mM or at 40 oC. RFs recovered from incubations with H2/CO2 at room temperature and 40 oC were represented by sequences related to different Methanococcus spp. Overall, methanogens utilizing H2/CO2 and methyl-compounds appear to be capable of actively producing methane at salinities greater than acetate-utilizing methanogens could tolerate. These methanogens might adapt better to the fluctuation of salinity or extremely high salinity induced by the surface evaporation in terrestrial mud volcanoes. When considering the overall methane emission from terrestrial mud volcanoes, these halo-tolerant methanogens become a significant factor. Key words: mud volcano, Methane, Methanogenesis, Salinity

  2. A resolution recognizing the continued persecution of Falun Gong practitioners in China on the 12th anniversary of the campaign by the Chinese Communist Party to suppress the Falun Gong movement, recognizing the Tuidang movement whereby Chinese citizens renounce their ties to the Chinese Communist Party and its affiliates, and calling for an immediate end to the campaign to persecute Falun Gong practitioners.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2011-07-13

    07/13/2011 Referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4561) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Traditional Chinese medical comprehensive therapy for cancer-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Li, Tian-Tian; Chu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ke; Tian, Shao-Dan; Chen, Xin-Yi; Yang, Guo-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and one of the most severe symptom in the period of onset, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation process of cancer. But there are no confirmed measures to relieve this problem at present. Traditional Chinese medical comprehensive therapy has its advantages in dealing with this condition. Based on the research status of CRF, the following problems have been analyzed and solved: the term of CRF has been defined and recommended, and the definition has been made clear; the disease mechanism is proposed, i.e. healthy qi has been impaired in the long-term disease duration, in the process of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and biology disturbing; it is clear that the clinical manifestations are related to six Chinese medicine patterns: decreased functioning of the Pi (Spleen) and Wei (Stomach), deficiency of the Pi with dampness retention, deficiency of the Xin (Heart) and Pi, disharmony between the Gan (Liver) and Pi, deficiency of the Pi and Shen (Kidney), and deficiency of the Fei (Lung) and Shen. Based on its severity, the mild patients are advised to have non-drug psychological intervention and sleep treatment in cooperation with appropriate exercise; diet therapy are recommended to moderate patients together with sleep treatment and acupuncture, severe patients are recommended to have herbal treatment based on pattern differentiation together with physiological sleep therapy. PMID:26108523

  4. Real time flood forecasting in the Nan Basin, Thailand, by using a distributed Xin'anjiang Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Xiaobin

    2015-04-01

    Taking Nan basin in Thailand as a research case, on the basis of DEM, this paper extracts the digital information of Nan basin and divides it into ten sub-basins, considering the land usage and terrain distribution, to construct the distributed Xinanjiang model. Before the model simulation, various digital basin information is established involving elevation matrix, river net matrix, direction matrix and so on. The three-water-source Xinanjiang model is adopted in the grids to calculate the runoff yield under a specific precipitation in grids, and then all the water flows of the grids are convoluted to the sub-basin's outlet to synthesize the runoff process of a subbasin. Eventually the subbasin runoff is routed to the basin outlet to obtain runoff process of the whole basin with real-time correction. The model parameters are calibrated by using the trial and error method. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the parameters are analyzed. The main achievements of this paper are as follows. (1) The basin information is extracted and the digital NAN basin is constructed on the basis of DEM data. As a result, a series of basin information matrix and digital Nan basin are generated. (2) The constant flow in grids and isochrones concept are used to replace the unit hydrograph of sub-basins. The basin discharge process is obtained through calculating the grid runoff yield and subbasin runoff convolution and routing the subbasin runoffs to the basin outlet. (3) The model is calibrated on more than 50 historical flood processes. The sensitivity and uncertainty of model parameters are analyzed by the perturbation analysis method, showing that some parameters, including KC, KKG, KKSS, WUM, KG, WLM, KSS and WDM are more sensitive. At the same time, the model uncertainty is analyed by the GLUE method and the results illustrate that the simulation effect depends on the values of parameter group while the observed runoff is in the uncertainty range. (4) The calculated discharge process is adaptively corrected by Attenuation memory least squares method to obtain final forecasting flood process. Verifications of this real-time flood forecasting model show high precision and the model system has been practically used in Thailand.

  5. Nuclear Structure in China 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Meng, Jie; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2011-08-01

    Personal view on nuclear physics research / Jie Meng -- High-spin level structures in [symbol]Zr / X. P. Cao ... [et al.] -- Constraining the symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of tin isotopes / Lie-Wen Chen ... [et al.] -- Wobbling rotation in atomic nuclei / Y. S. Chen and Zao-Chun Gao -- The mixing of scalar mesons and the possible nonstrange dibaryons / L. R. Dai ... [et al.] -- Net baryon productions and gluon saturation in the SPS, RHIC and LHC energy regions / Sheng-Qin Feng -- Production of heavy isotopes with collisions between two actinide nuclides / Z. Q. Feng ... [et al.] -- The projected configuration interaction method / Zao-Chun Gao and Yong-Shou Chen -- Applications of Nilsson mean-field plus extended pairing model to rare-earth nuclei / Xin Guan ... [et al.] -- Complex scaling method and the resonant states / Jian-You Guo ... [et al.] -- Probing the equation of state by deep sub-barrier fusion reactions / Hong-Jun Hao and Jun-Long Tian -- Doublet structure study in A[symbol]105 mass region / C. Y. He ... [et al.] -- Rotational bands in transfermium nuclei / X. T. He -- Shape coexistence and shape evolution [symbol]Yb / H. Hua ... [et al.] -- Multistep shell model method in the complex energy plane / R. J. Liotta -- The evolution of protoneutron stars with kaon condensate / Ang Li -- High spin structures in the [symbol]Lu nucleus / Li Cong-Bo ... [et al.] -- Nuclear stopping and equation of state / QingFeng Li and Ying Yuan -- Covariant description of the low-lying states in neutron-deficient Kr isotopes / Z. X. Li ... [et al.] -- Isospin corrections for superallowed [symbol] transitions / HaoZhao Liang ... [et al.] -- The positive-parity band structures in [symbol]Ag / C. Liu ... [et al.] -- New band structures in odd-odd [symbol]I and [symbol]I / Liu GongYe ... [et al.] -- The sd-pair shell model and interacting boson model / Yan-An Luo ... [et al.] -- Cross-section distributions of fragments in the calcium isotopes projectile

  6. Nuclear Structure in China 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Meng, Jie; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2011-08-01

    Personal view on nuclear physics research / Jie Meng -- High-spin level structures in [symbol]Zr / X. P. Cao ... [et al.] -- Constraining the symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of tin isotopes / Lie-Wen Chen ... [et al.] -- Wobbling rotation in atomic nuclei / Y. S. Chen and Zao-Chun Gao -- The mixing of scalar mesons and the possible nonstrange dibaryons / L. R. Dai ... [et al.] -- Net baryon productions and gluon saturation in the SPS, RHIC and LHC energy regions / Sheng-Qin Feng -- Production of heavy isotopes with collisions between two actinide nuclides / Z. Q. Feng ... [et al.] -- The projected configuration interaction method / Zao-Chun Gao and Yong-Shou Chen -- Applications of Nilsson mean-field plus extended pairing model to rare-earth nuclei / Xin Guan ... [et al.] -- Complex scaling method and the resonant states / Jian-You Guo ... [et al.] -- Probing the equation of state by deep sub-barrier fusion reactions / Hong-Jun Hao and Jun-Long Tian -- Doublet structure study in A[symbol]105 mass region / C. Y. He ... [et al.] -- Rotational bands in transfermium nuclei / X. T. He -- Shape coexistence and shape evolution [symbol]Yb / H. Hua ... [et al.] -- Multistep shell model method in the complex energy plane / R. J. Liotta -- The evolution of protoneutron stars with kaon condensate / Ang Li -- High spin structures in the [symbol]Lu nucleus / Li Cong-Bo ... [et al.] -- Nuclear stopping and equation of state / QingFeng Li and Ying Yuan -- Covariant description of the low-lying states in neutron-deficient Kr isotopes / Z. X. Li ... [et al.] -- Isospin corrections for superallowed [symbol] transitions / HaoZhao Liang ... [et al.] -- The positive-parity band structures in [symbol]Ag / C. Liu ... [et al.] -- New band structures in odd-odd [symbol]I and [symbol]I / Liu GongYe ... [et al.] -- The sd-pair shell model and interacting boson model / Yan-An Luo ... [et al.] -- Cross-section distributions of fragments in the calcium isotopes projectile

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Lag measurements for 15 z<0.8 QSOs from the SDSS-RM (Shen+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Horne, K.; Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Denney, K. D.; Trump, J. R.; Sun, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Kochanek, C. S.; Dawson, K. S.; Green, P. J.; Greene, J. E.; Hall, P. B.; Ho, L. C.; Jiang, L.; Kinemuchi, K.; McGreer, I. D.; Petitjean, P.; Richards, G. T.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.; Tao, C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Zu, Y.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Ge, J.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.

    2016-04-01

    The spectroscopic data were taken during seven dark/gray runs from 2014 January to July and consist of a total of 32 epochs with an average cadence of ~4 days; each epoch had a typical exposure time of 2hr. The spectroscopic data were pipeline-processed as part of the SDSS-III Data Release 12 (Alam et al. 2015ApJS..219...12A). The wavelength coverage of BOSS spectroscopy is ~3650-10400Å, with a spectral resolution of R~2000. (2 data files).

  8. On the record in the night of April 5, 687B.C.: stars were not seen and stars fell like rain at midnight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    A long time insoluble mystery is why the night stars were not seen; in a paragraph recorded in Chun Qiu which was one night during the ``Xin Mao'' in April in the seventh year of Lu Zhuang-gong (687.B.C) in night, the stars were not seen and in midnight the stars fell like rain. '' Historically, most of the scholars had considered that ``stars not seen '' and ``stars fell like rain ''as two phenomena not related. On the basis of the brightness in the sky when Leonids appeared in 1533 researched in 1994, collating the relative date ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign, the author found the reason that the stars were not seen in fact was the brightness in sky given by meteor shower. The phenomenon that the stars were not seen and the stars fell like rain at the same period, in midnight are proved concisely. The density of the meteor shower appeared, the sum total of the meteor, the mass of the meteor eclipsing the light of the stars and the area of the concealed stars are also estimated.

  9. Triomicrus Sharp of Eastern China (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia-Wei; Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Twelve species of the genus Triomicrus Sharp are here recognized in eastern China, with eleven of them described as new: T. Inaequalis Shen & Yin, sp. n. and T. mirus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Anhui, T. abhorridus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. aculeus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. damingensis Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. frondosus Shen & Yin, sp. n., T. gutianensis Shen & Yin, sp. n. and T. tibialis Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Zhejiang, T. anfractus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Anhui and Zhejiang, T. Hamus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Jiangxi, and T. contus Shen & Yin, sp. n. from Jiangxi and Zhejiang. New distributional data for T. rougemonti Löbl, Kurbatov &Nomura is given. A key for the identification of the Triomicrus species in eastern China is presented. PMID:26623829

  10. "The Cow Loves To Learn": The Hao-Xue-Xin Learning Model as a Reflection of the Cultural Relevance of "Zhima Jie," China's "Sesame Street."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Li, Jimei

    2002-01-01

    Examined the cultural basis and relevance of "Zhima Jie," a Chinese adaptation of "Sesame Street." Found that most of 3- to 6-year-olds in the sample desired books and learning materials, with disadvantaged children more likely than more advantaged children to desire books and learning materials. Older children showed a greater tendency for such…

  11. Drastic change in density of states upon martensitic phase transition for metamagnetic shape memory alloy Ni2Mn(1+x)In(1-x).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siyuan; Ye, Mao; Shirai, Kaito; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ueda, Shigenori; Miura, Yoshio; Shirai, Masafumi; Umetsu, Rie Yamauchi; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kimura, Akio

    2015-09-16

    We have unravelled the electronic structure of a class of metamagnetic shape memory alloy Ni2Mn1+x In1-x by combining bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles density-functional calculations. A sharp drop in the Ni 3d e(g) density of states forming a pseudogap in the martensitic phase transition (MPT) for x   =   0.36 has been observed near the Fermi level. As a feature of MPT, hysteretic behaviour of this drop has been confirmed in both cooling and warming. This pseudogap is responsible for the giant negative magnetoresistance. The experimental result is well reproduced by the first principle calculation. We have also clarified theoretically that the MPT is linked to a competition of ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic coupling between ordinary and anti-site Mn atoms. PMID:26289060

  12. Electronic and Optic Properties of Cubic Spinel CdX2O4 (X=In, Ga, Al) through Modified Becke—Johnson Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzar, A.; Murtaza, G.; Khenata, R.; Masood, Yousaf; S., Muhammad; Hayatullah

    2014-06-01

    A new potential approximation known as modified Becke—Johnson based on density functional theory is applied to compute the electronic band profile and optical response of CdIn2O4, CdGa2O4 and CdAl2O4 compounds. The direct band gap with common LDA, GGA and EV-GGA is drastically underestimated compared with modified Becke—Johnson approximation, whose results are significantly closer to the experimental findings. The optical properties like dielectric constant, refractive index, reflectivity, optical conductivity and absorption coefficient are also computed. A unique characteristic associated with cation replacement is studied; the replacement of cation In by Ga and Ga by Al significantly reduces the direct energy band gap in these compounds. This variation is of crucial importance for band gap dependent optical properties of these compounds, which is also proof for applications of these compounds in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Di'ao Xin Xue Kang Capsule and Compound Danshen Tablet in Patients With Symptomatic Chronic Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanan; Hu, Siyuan; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Jie; Li, Zhuoming; Liu, Xiangling; Yang, Xiyan; Dong, Bo; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shurong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Bingwei; Wang, Liying; Liu, Songshan; Chen, Qiguang; Shen, Chunti; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

    2014-01-01

    A high proportion of patients with stable angina remains symptomatic despite multiple treatment options. Di'ao Xinxuekang (XXK) capsule and Compound Danshen (CDS) tablet have been approved for treating angina pectoris for more than 20 years in China. We compare the anti-anginal effectiveness of XXK capsule and CDS tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, superiority trial was conducted in 4 study sites. 733 patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina were included in the full analysis set. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients who were angina-free and the proportion of patients with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during 20 weeks treatment. Compared with CDS, XXK significantly increased the proportion of angina-free patients, but no significant difference was noted in the proportion of patients with normal ECG recordings. Weekly angina frequency and nitroglycerin use were significantly reduced with XXK versus CDS at week 20. Moreover, XXK also improved the quality of life of angina patients as measured by the SAQ score and Xueyu Zheng (a type of TCM syndrome) score. We demonstrate that XXK capsule is more effective for attenuating anginal symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina, compared with CDS tablet. PMID:25394847

  14. [Avoidance of feudal taboo on emperors' names in perused versions of Yi jin jing (Classic of Changing Tendon) and the time of its transcription and blockprinting].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    By studying the avoidance of feudal taboo on emperors' names in the perusal of 48 extant versions of Yi jin jing (Classic of Changing Tendon), together with their contents, it is found that these versions are of valuable editions and 15 of them can be viewed as the early representative works of Yi jin jing, including 8 hand copied versions, and 7 blockprinted versions. No version of the Ming Dynasty can be found. The earliest versions are all transcribed ones, while the earliest extant blockprinted version appeared until the Daoguang reign of the Qing Dynasty. The preface of Shen's checked version doesn't avoid the emperor's name, saying that it was written in the "xin chou" year of Shunzhi, hence, it should be copied in the early Kangxi reign, and is the earliest hand copied version. The hand copied version of Yongzheng reign avoids the word "xuan", yet doesn't avoid the word "hong", also with a preface written in Yongzheng reign, indicating that this one is the earliest next to the previous one. Since the Xidi version avoids both the words "xuan" and "hong", it should be copied during or after the Qianlong reign. The earliest extant blockprinted edition is the one checked and printed by Fu Jin-quan in the third year of Daoguang which might also be the earliest blockprinted edition. That collection by Zhu Wenlan and Laizhangshi might be all later editions. PMID:24524641

  15. Six new species of Triomicrus Sharp from southern China (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia-Wei; Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Seven species of the genus Triomicrus Sharp are recognized in southern China, six of them are described as new: T. acutus  and T. nanlingensis Shen & Yin, sp. n. (Guangdong), T. pinnatus Shen & Yin, sp. n. (Guangdong and Hunan), T. cochlis Shen & Yin, sp. n. (Guangdong, Hunan and Guangxi), and T. cavus Shen & Yin, sp. n. and T. longus Shen & Yin, sp. n. (Guangxi). A key for the identification of Triomicrus in southern China is presented. PMID:26624728

  16. 33 CFR 86.21 - Intensity of signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Bell or Gong § 86.21 Intensity of signal. A bell or gong, or other device having similar sound characteristics shall produce a...

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of a Chinese herbal medicine in atherosclerosis via estrogen receptor β mediating nitric oxide production and NF-κB suppression in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Qiu, X-M; Hao, Q; Li, D-J

    2013-01-01

    Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD) administration has alleviated the early pathologic damage of atherosclerosis by inhibiting the adhesion molecule expression and upregulating the estrogen receptor (ER) β expression in endothelial cells, and increasing the serum nitric oxide (NO) level without any effect on serum lipid status, endometrium and fat deposition in liver in ovariectomized rabbits. The BSNXD-derived serum increases ER β expression in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and decreases malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and upregulates eNOS expression then increases NO synthesis through ERβ-dependent pathway. NO not only suppresses the LPS-induced NF-κB transcription in HUVECs, but also decreases apoptosis of endothelial cells. The BSNXD-derived serum decreases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production, and suppresses cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin) expression in HUVECs injured by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and these effects can be abolished by ERβ antagonist (R,RTHC) and NO synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). The BSNXD-derived serum-treated HUVECs supernatant reduces CCR2, LFA-1 and VLA-4 expression in monocytes cell line U937 cells, which in turn inhibits adherence of U937 to injured endothelial cells. NO synthesis increases, and MDA production decreases through ERβ-mediated pathway that suppresses apoptosis and NF-κB activity in endothelial cells that downregulates adhesion molecules expression on endothelial cells via ERβ/NO/NF-κB pathway, and in turn leukocyte adhesion, which suggests BSNXD potential value in prophylaxis atherosclerosis. PMID:23519120

  20. BSNXD modulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts in a postmenopausal osteoporotic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xue-Min; Wang, Ling; Gui, Yu-Yan; Xu, Ying-Ping; Li, Da-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of stem cell that has multidirectional differentiation abilities. Under certain inducing factors, MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from MSCs, and decreased osteoblastogenesis and increased adipocytes may be a primary cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). The present study aimed to elucidate whether BuShen NingXin Decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicinal compound, regulates MSC differentiation into both osteoblasts and adipocytes. The effects of BSNXD on bone morphometry were measured using micro-CT and its effects on the proportion of immune cells in the spleen were measured using flow cytometry (FCM). BSNXD-mediated regulation of MSC differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes was verified in vitro using ALP and Oil Red O staining. In addition, osteoblastogenesis-related genes and adipocyte transcription factors were measured using real-time PCR. We found that BSNXD increased bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone trabecular number, but decreased bone trabecular spacing. BSNXD treatment also increased regulatory T cell (Treg) function in vivo. In vitro, BSNXD serum increased ALP activity as well as collagen type I, osteocalcin, Runx2, and osterix mRNA expression. Moreover, BSNXD decreased adipocyte numbers and PPARγ mRNA expression, whereas in Tregs, BSNXD enhanced ALP activity. In conclusion, BSNXD promotes the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts and inhibits differentiation into adipocytes. BSNXD enhanced expression of osteoblastogenesis-related genes and decreased adipocyte transcription factor expression. We propose that BSNXD may be effective for the prevention of PMO. PMID:26191132

  1. Effects of acupuncture treatment on depression insomnia: a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 70% of patients with depression who see their doctors experience insomnia. Insomnia treatment is a very important link for depression treatment. Furthermore, antidepression treatment is also important for depression insomnia. In acupuncture, LU-7 (Lie Que) and KID-6 (Zhao Hai), which are two of the eight confluence points in meridian theory, are used as main points. An embedded needle technique is used, alternately, at two groups of points to consolidate the treatment effect. These two groups of points are BL-15 (Xin Shu) with BL-23 (Shen Shu) and BL-19 (Dan Shu) with N-HN-54 (An Mian). The effectiveness of these optimized acupuncture formulas is well proven in the practice by our senior acupuncturists in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM. This study has been designed to examine whether this set of optimized clinical formulas is able to increase the clinical efficacy of depression insomnia treatment. Methods/design In this randomized controlled multicenter trial, all the eligible participants are diagnosed with depression insomnia. All participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups in a ratio of 1:1 and receive either conventional acupuncture treatment or optimized acupuncture treatment. Patients are evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI)and the Hamilton rating scale(HAMD) for depression. The use of antidepression and hypnotics drugs is also considered. Results are obtained at the start of treatment, 1 and 2 months after treatment has begun, and at the end of treatment. The entire duration of the study will be approximately 36 months. Discussion A high quality of trial methodologies is utilized in the study, and the results may provide better evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for depression insomnia. The optimized acupuncture formula has potential benefits in increasing the efficacy of treating depression insomnia. Trial registration The trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial

  2. Diskectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... foraminotomy , or spinal fusion . Diskectomy in your neck (cervical spine) is most often done along with laminectomy, ... 42. Wilson AS, Samartzis D, Shen FH. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. In: Shen FH, Samartzis D, ...

  3. 76 FR 56759 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., President/Treasurer, Application Type: QI Change. Global Cargo Connection, Inc. (OFF), 2775 W. Okeechobee..., Corona, CA 92880. Officers: Xiaosong M. Liu, Operation Manager (Qualifying Individual), Xin S....

  4. 7 CFR 905.5 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND... oranges and other types commonly called “round oranges,” except Navel oranges and except Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and similar late maturing oranges of the Valencia type; (b) Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and...

  5. 7 CFR 905.5 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND... oranges and other types commonly called “round oranges,” except Navel oranges and except Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and similar late maturing oranges of the Valencia type; (b) Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and...

  6. 7 CFR 905.5 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND... oranges and other types commonly called “round oranges,” except Navel oranges and except Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and similar late maturing oranges of the Valencia type; (b) Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and...

  7. 7 CFR 905.5 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND... oranges and other types commonly called “round oranges,” except Navel oranges and except Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and similar late maturing oranges of the Valencia type; (b) Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and...

  8. 7 CFR 905.5 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND... oranges and other types commonly called “round oranges,” except Navel oranges and except Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and similar late maturing oranges of the Valencia type; (b) Valencia, Lue Gim Gong, and...

  9. News in Brief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets with Ecuadorian Guests For the First Time a Chinese Researcher Gives the Plenary Lecture at the International Symposium on Combustion Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets with NSERC Executive Vice-President Vice President Sun Jiaguang Meets with CONICYT President Ten-Year Anniversary Workshop of NSFC-IIASA Young Scientists Summer Program Held in Beijing Vice President Shen Wenqing Meets Guest from K.T. Li Foundation The 6th ASIAHORCs General Meeting in Beijing President Chen Yiyu Meets with DFG Delegation Vice President Shen Yan Visited International Organizations in Italy and France Vice President Wang Jie Meets with CEO of Academy of Malaysia

  10. Effects of air velocity on broiler production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent improvements in poultry genetics have resulted in increased growth rates (Havenstein et al., 2003) and total heat production (Chepete and Xin, 2001; Xin et al., 2001). In addition, market weights have also increased with white the meat demand of the U.S. resulting in birds being marketed at ...

  11. The Effect of Radical-Based Grouping in Character Learning in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The logographic nature of the Chinese writing system creates a huge hurdle for Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) learners. Existing literature (e.g., Shen, [Shen, H. H., 2010]; Taft & Chung, [Taft, M., 1999]) suggests that radical knowledge facilitates character learning. In this project, we selected 48 compound characters in eight radical…

  12. Paper Highlight: Biomarker Identified for Predicting Early Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness — Site

    Cancer.gov

    A team led by Cory Abate-Shen, Michael Shen, and Andrea Califano at Columbia University found that measuring the expression levels of three genes associated with aging can be used to predict the aggressiveness of seemingly low-risk prostate cancer.

  13. A Summary of Proceedings and Participant Recommendations from a National Workshop on Institutionalizing Progress in Agricultural Extension and Education in Taiwan (Taichung, Taiwan, April 22-24, 1991) = Cejin Wo Guo Nongye Tuiguang Jiaoyu Xin Tizhi Yantaohui Zhuanji. Zhonghua Minguao Bashi Nian Siyue 22 zhi 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Taipei (Taiwan).

    These proceedings contain four presentations from a workshop at which leaders in agriculture and education contributed suggestions for developing policies and plans for the new Agricultural Extension Education Graduate Institute (AEEGI) in Taiwan. Introductory materials include a list of members of the planning committee, workshop rationale,…

  14. Accuracy Sampling Design Bias on Coarse Spatial Resolution Land Cover Data in the Great Lakes Region (United States and Canada)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of articles have investigated the impact of sampling design on remotely sensed landcover accuracy estimates. Gong and Howarth (1990) found significant differences for Kappa accuracy values when comparing purepixel sampling, stratified random sampling, and stratified sys...

  15. Asian American Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Diseases Behavioral and Mental Health Issues Cancer Diabetes Flu (Influenza) New* Heart Diseases Domestic Violence Mental Health Substance Abuse Complementary/Alternative Medicine Health Organizations Acupuncture Herbal Medicine Tai Chi/Qi Gong National U.S. ...

  16. Fibromyalgia: A Puzzling and Painful Condition | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... approach. Practices such as tai chi, qi gong, yoga, massage therapy, and acupuncture may help relieve some ... medications. In addition, therapies such as tai chi, yoga, and cognitive behavior therapy can also help to ...

  17. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE)

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Rajesh; Sellaturay, Senthy; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China's mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE). Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ‘Shen Nung Benchau Jing’, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung's contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ‘Shen Nung Benchau Jing’ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung), archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ‘crystal-like belly’ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung's contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng's resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on. PMID:22557711

  18. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    Seiichi Uemura, Japan Local Organizing Committee Professor Changchun Ge (Chairman) Professor Xuanhui Qu Professor Jingfeng Li Professor Wei Pan Professor Lianmeng Zhang; Professor Qingjie Zhang Professor Qiang Shen Professor Jianghong Gong Dr Xianhui Li Dr Min Xia

  19. Peering through the fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Scientists in China have revealed ambitious plans to construct a huge smog chamber to help combat the nation's worsening air quality. But as Ling Xin reports, some are unconvinced that it will make a difference.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3. Citation on PubMed Liu TT, Chiang SH, Wu SJ, Hsiao KJ. Tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia in the ... Citation on PubMed Wang L, Yu WM, He C, Chang M, Shen M, Zhou Z, Zhang Z, ...

  1. E-Cigs May Damage Cells in Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... for our planned studies," said study author Shen Hu, an associate professor of oral biology and medicine ... products, so that consumers are better informed," explained Hu in a university news release. The study was ...

  2. A laser rangefinder path selection system for Martian rover using logarithmic scanning scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C. N.; Kim, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a laser rangefinder path selection scheme for an autonomous Martian roving vehicle. The overall scheme consists of the following interrelated sub-systems; logarithmic scanning sub-system, obstacle detection scheme (Sonalkar and Shen (1975); Kim and Shen (1978)), terrain modeling and estimation (Shen and Stare (1977); Pawlowski (1978)), and path selection algorithm (Netch and Shen (1977)). Independent and separate studies for the last three sub-systems were performed previously. With the introduction of the logarithmic scanning, an integrated study is completed in this paper. This study serves as a possible alternate choice other than TV cameras for navigating the Martian surface. Moreover, if hybrid TV and laser systems are used, a laser-only standby system can be put to work in case the TV part of the hybrid system fails to operate.

  3. 76 FR 2705 - Notice of Continuation of Visitor Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... National Historical Park. SHEN001-85 ARAMARK Sports & Shenandoah National Park. Entertainment Services, Inc... National Recreation Area. OLYM001-78 ARAMARK Sports & Olympic National Park. Entertainment, Inc....

  4. Note on coefficient matrices from stochastic Galerkin methods for random diffusion equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Tao; Tang Tao

    2010-11-01

    In a recent work by Xiu and Shen [D. Xiu, J. Shen, Efficient stochastic Galerkin methods for random diffusion equations, J. Comput. Phys. 228 (2009) 266-281], the Galerkin methods are used to solve stochastic diffusion equations in random media, where some properties for the coefficient matrix of the resulting system are provided. They also posed an open question on the properties of the coefficient matrix. In this work, we will provide some results related to the open question.

  5. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Luan, Da-Peng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol.

  6. Hardened Lava Meets Wind on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its microscopic imager to capture this spectacular, jagged mini-landscape on a rock called 'GongGong.' Measuring only 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across, this surface records two of the most important and violent forces in the history of Mars -- volcanoes and wind.

    GongGong formed billions of years ago in a seething, stirring mass of molten rock. It captured bubbles of gases that were trapped at great depth but had separated from the main body of lava as it rose to the surface. Like taffy being stretched and tumbled, the molten rock was deformed as it moved across an ancient Martian landscape. The tiny bubbles of gas were deformed as well, becoming elongated. When the molten lava solidified, the rock looked like a frozen sponge.

    Far from finished with its life, the rock then withstood billions of years of pelting by small sand grains carried by Martian dust storms that sometimes blanketed the planet. The sand wore away the surface until, little by little, the delicate strands that enclosed the bubbles of gas were breached and the spiny texture we see today emerged.

    Even now, wind continues to deposit sand and dust in the holes and crevices of the rock.

    Similar rocks can be found on Earth where the same complex interplay of volcanoes and weathering occur, whether it be the pelting of rocks by sand grains in the Mojave desert or by ice crystals in the frigid Antarctic.

    GongGong is one of a group of rocks studied by Spirit and informally named by the Athena Science Team to honor the Chinese New Year (the Year of the Dog). In Chinese mythology, GongGong was the god-king of water in the North Land. When he sacrificed his life to knock down Mount BuZhou, he defeated the bad Emperor in Heaven, freed the sun, moon and stars to go from east to west, and caused all the rivers in China to flow from west to east.

    Spirit's microscopic imager took this image during on the rover's 736th day, or sol, of

  7. Boundedness in a quasilinear chemotaxis-haptotaxis system with logistic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji; Zheng, Jiashan; Wang, Yifu

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the quasilinear chemotaxis-haptotaxis system u_t=nabla\\cdot(D(u)nabla u)-nabla\\cdot(S_1(u)nabla v)-nabla\\cdot(S_2(u)nabla w)+uf(u,w),quad xinΩ, t > 0,v_t=Δ v-v+u,quad xinΩ, t > 0,w_t=-vw,quad xinΩ, t > 0 in a bounded smooth domain {Ωsubset R^n (n≥1)} under zero-flux boundary conditions, where the nonlinearities {D, S_1} and {S_2} are assumed to generalize the prototypes D(u)=CD(u+1)^{m-1}, S_1(u)=C_{S_1}u(u+1)^{q_1-1} quad {and} quad S_2(u)=C_{S_2}u(u+1)^{q_2-1} with {C_D,C_{S_1},C_{S_2} > 0, m,q_1,q_2in R} and {f(u,w)in C^1([0,+infty)×[0,+∞))} fulfills f(u,w)≤ r-buquad {for all} ~u≥ 0quad {and} quad w≥ 0, where {r > 0, b > 0.} Assuming nonnegative initial data {u_0(x)in W^{1,∞}(Ω),v_0(x)in W^{1,∞}(Ω)} and {w_0(x)in C^{2,α}(barΩ)} for some {αin(0,1),} we prove that (i) for {n≤2,} if q_1,q_2\\ < m+2/n-1,} then {(star)} has a unique nonnegative classical solution which is globally bounded, (ii) for {n > 2,} if {max{q_1,q_2} < m+2/n-1} and {m > 2-2/n} or {max{q_1,q_2} < m+2/n-1} and {m≤ 1,} then {(star)} has a unique nonnegative classical solution which is globally bounded.

  8. IQs Predict Differences in the Technological Development of Nations from 1000 BC through 2000 AD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    National IQs and measures of technological development given by Comin, Easterly and Gong (2010) are presented for 133 nations for the year 1000 BC, for 134 nations for 0 AD, for 120 nations for 1500 AD and for 133 nations for 2000 AD. It is shown that national IQs are significantly correlated with national differences in technological development…

  9. Harbor in the Storm: Institutional Research in the Age of Accountability. NEAIR 36th Annual Conference Proceedings (Baltimore, Maryland, November 7-10, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alessandro, Michael, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The NEAIR 2009 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Baltimore, Maryland conference. Papers in this document include: (1) A Principle Components Analysis of The Determinants of Student Satisfaction at a Historically Black Institution (Tao Gong and Jacqueline V. Parham); (2) Assessing and Enhancing Graduates'…

  10. 33 CFR 86.23 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Construction. 86.23 Section 86.23 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Bell or Gong § 86.23 Construction. Bells and...

  11. 33 CFR 86.23 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Construction. 86.23 Section 86.23 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Bell or Gong § 86.23 Construction. Bells and...

  12. 33 CFR 86.23 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Construction. 86.23 Section 86.23 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Bell or Gong § 86.23 Construction. Bells and...

  13. 33 CFR 86.23 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Construction. 86.23 Section 86.23 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Bell or Gong § 86.23 Construction. Bells and...

  14. 33 CFR 86.23 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction. 86.23 Section 86.23 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX III: TECHNICAL DETAILS OF SOUND SIGNAL APPLIANCES Bell or Gong § 86.23 Construction. Bells and...

  15. Teaching Counselors Self-Care through Mindfulness Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Sandy; Christopher, John Chambers; Dahlen, Penny; Christopher, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Few counseling programs directly address the importance of self-care in reducing stress and burnout in their curricula. A course entitled Mind/Body Medicine and the Art of Self-Care was created to address personal and professional growth opportunities through self-care and mindfulness practices (meditation, yoga, gong, and conscious relaxation…

  16. Solar Active Region Morphologies Selected From Near-Side Helioseismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, G. A.; Henney, C. J.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, I. E.; Arge, C. N.; Mcateer, R.

    2013-12-01

    Global estimates for the solar photospheric magnetic flux distribution are essential for determining the magnetic structure of the corona and surrounding heliosphere. The reliability of these estimates is an important issue as they serve as input to solar wind models. In recent years, the Air Force has been using the Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) model to provide the photospheric flux distribution. ADAPT began including Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) helioseismic data to track active regions on the far-side of the sun, improving its capabilities. We present efforts to further improve these capabilities by establishing whether far-side active region morphology can be selected from GONG data. Using near-side GONG and ADAPT synoptic maps, we show this is feasible. We conclude morphological features - namely active region size, tilt angle, and polarity distribution - may be culled from far-side GONG maps. In addition, we independently confirm the phase-field calibration found by González Hernández et al. (2007).

  17. UNUSUAL TRENDS IN SOLAR P-MODE FREQUENCIES DURING THE CURRENT EXTENDED MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Hill, F.; Leibacher, J. W.

    2010-03-10

    We investigate the behavior of the intermediate-degree mode frequencies of the Sun during the current extended minimum phase to explore the time-varying conditions in the solar interior. Using contemporaneous helioseismic data from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), we find that the changes in resonant mode frequencies during the activity minimum period are significantly greater than the changes in solar activity as measured by different proxies. We detect a seismic minimum in MDI p-mode frequency shifts during 2008 July-August but no such signature is seen in mean shifts computed from GONG frequencies. We also analyze the frequencies of individual oscillation modes from GONG data as a function of latitude and observe a signature of the onset of the solar cycle 24 in early 2009. Thus, the intermediate-degree modes do not confirm the onset of the cycle 24 during late 2007 as reported from the analysis of the low-degree Global Oscillations at Low Frequency frequencies. Further, both the GONG and MDI frequencies show a surprising anti-correlation between frequencies and activity proxies during the current minimum, in contrast to the behavior during the minimum between cycles 22 and 23.

  18. 33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a... gong, the tone and sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The whistle, bell and...

  19. 33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a... gong, the tone and sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The whistle, bell and...

  20. 33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a... gong, the tone and sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The whistle, bell and...

  1. 33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a... gong, the tone and sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The whistle, bell and...

  2. 33 CFR 83.33 - Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment for sound signals (Rule... INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Sound and Light Signals § 83.33 Equipment for sound signals (Rule 33). (a... gong, the tone and sound of which cannot be confused with that of the bell. The whistle, bell and...

  3. Defining Traditional Forms of Communication in Nigerian Culture within the Context of Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbondah, Chris; Siddens, Paul J., III

    Drum language, gong language, masquerades, and puppet theater, the traditional forms of communication found in Nigerian culture, reflect tensions that exist between oral and literate cultures. Drum language ranges from simple signals to elaborately coded messages and is learned through both formal and informal educational processes. Formal…

  4. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, October 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Newtown, PA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of October 2000, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Top stories include: Chinese authorities detain Falun Gong protesters on Tiananmen Square…

  5. Acceptance test report, plutonium finishing plant life safety upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-12-02

    This acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that modifications to the Fir Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door By Pass Switches.

  6. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  7. The hepatic Igf2/H19 locus is not altered in 1-day old pups born to obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low protein diet containing adequate folic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gong et al. (Epigenetics, 2010) found, using diets low in folic acid, that compared to an 18% protein diet a 9% protein diet fed to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in increased Igf2 and H19 gene expression in the liver of day 0 male offspring. In addition DNA methylation in the Imprinting Cont...

  8. Mindfulness Group Work: Preventing Stress and Increasing Self-Compassion among Helping Professionals in Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Sandy; Waldo, Michael; Gruszka, Clare

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects a 6-week mindfulness group had on 31 college students who were intending to enter helping professions (e.g., nursing, social work, counseling, psychology, and teaching). Group activities included meditation, yoga, a body scan exercise, and qi gong. The group members completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the…

  9. Remarkable Low Temperature Emission of the 4 November 2003 Limb Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibacher, J. W.; Harvey, J. W.; Kopp, G.; Hudson, H.; GONG Team

    2004-05-01

    Strong (> 1.5 times normal intensity) continuum and photospheric line emission of the 4 November 2003 X28 flare was recorded simultaneously by three widely separated GONG instruments. Emission was seen from on the disk to > 20" above the limb for nearly one hour, likely making this event the longest duration white light flare observed to date. GONG observations are one-minute duration integrations of intensity averaged across a Lyot filter bandpass of about 90 pm FWHM centered on the Ni I line at 676.8 nm with 2.5" instrument pixel size. Spatial resolution is limited by diffraction and seeing to greater than 5". Additional measurements include the Doppler shift and strength of the spectrum line. These latter measurements indicate that continuum and line emission contributed about equally to the observed intensity signal. Light curves and images of the flare show a notable two-kernel disk event starting at about 19:33 UTC followed by a much stronger event that peaked at about 19:44. Rare, white-light prominences were visible above the limb after 19:34. Comparison of total solar irradiance measurements from the TIM instrument on board the SORCE spacecraft with full-disk integrated GONG intensities shows the global five-minute oscillation and the white light flare. The latter is much weaker in the GONG data, suggesting that most of the TIM flare signal arises from other, most likely shorter, wavelengths. This work utilizes data obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Program, managed by the National Solar Observatory, which is operated by AURA, Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. SORCE is supported by NASA NAS5-97045

  10. Man-in-the-Middle Attack on "Quantum Dialogue with Authentication Based on Bell States"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Han; Lin, Ching-Ying; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Shen et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. doi: 10.1007/s10773-012-1276-6, 2012) proposed a quantum dialogue with authentication protocol based on Bell states. This study points out that Shen et al.'s protocol suffers from a man-in-the-middle attack. By manipulating the photons and classical information transmitted between two communicants, an attacker can not only pass the mutual identity authentication, but also obtain their secret messages and new authentication keys without being detected.

  11. Obituary: Clifford G. Toner (1959-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Cliff Toner passed away unexpectedly at home in Tucson, Arizona on March 29, 2009. For most of his career, Cliff was involved with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), a facility of the National Solar Observatory in Tucson, Arizona. GONG is a set of instruments around the world to observe the inside of the sun using the sound that is trapped below the solar surface. This science is called helioseismology. Cliff Toner was born on December 8, 1959 in New Westminster, British Columbia near the western coast of Canada. After receiving his B.Sc. in Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver in 1981, he headed east to the University of Western Ontario in London. His graduate school period was spent in collaboration with David F. Gray, with whom he received both an M.Sc. in Astronomy in 1984, and a Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1988. Toner actually wrote two theses at UWO, one on "Line Asymmetries in F, G, and K Supergiants and Bright Giants" for his M.Sc., and the other on "The Time Variability of Spectral Line Asymmetries and Equivalent Widths for the G8 Dwarf ? Boo A: Evidence for a Starpatch" for his Ph.D. After graduate school, Cliff Toner left the cool climate of Canada in 1988 and accepted a postdoctoral position in the warmer temperatures of Hawai'i at the Institute for Astronomy located at the University of Hawai'i in Honolulu. There he worked primarily with Barry LaBonte. At first, he continued his work on ? Boo A, but he became interested in the sun and helioseismology. This led to the discovery of halos of enhanced high-frequency acoustic power surrounding solar active regions (Ap.J. 415, 847). At the end of his post-doc, Cliff Toner was hired by the GONG project as a Data Scientist in 1991. He quickly tackled the problem of merging the data from the six GONG sites, which was the major data reduction challenge facing GONG at the time. In parallel, he and Stuart Jefferies developed an algorithm to measure the radii of full-disk solar

  12. Investigating a Case of Hidden Misinterpretations of an Additive Word Problem: Structural Substitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polotskaia, Elena; Savard, Annie; Freiman, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    According to numerous studies (Barrouillet & Camos 2002; Brousseau 1988; Chevallard 1988; Riley et al. 1984; Schubauer-Leoni & Ntamakiliro, "Revue Des Sciences de L'éducation," 20(1): 87-113, 1994; Vergnaud 1982; Xin, "The Journal of Educational Research," 100(6):347-360, 2007), a combination of many factors, including…

  13. The Relationship of Goldberg's Big Five Personality Trait Measures of Mid-Level Leaders at Midwest State-Supported Colleges and Universities to the Cameron and Quinn Competing Values Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempke Eppler, Michelle R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation expands previous work of Giberson, Resick, Dickson, Mitchelson, Randall, and Clark (2009), Zhang, Tsui, Song, & Jia (2008), and Tsui, Zhang, Wang, Xin, and Wu (2006) by examining higher education organizational culture and leadership. There is a paucity of research in examining the relationships between university mid-level…

  14. Herm Choppers, the Adonia, and Rhetorical Action in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredal, James

    2002-01-01

    Presents a debate between traditionalist ideas from Xin Lin Gale and postmodern ideas from Cheryl Glenn and Susan Jarratt. Quotes Gale who says that you cannot have it both ways, foundational and antifoundational: using the historical evidence to champion Aspasia while at the same time "reclaiming" her from the biases of those very documents.…

  15. Stability of Transition Front Solutions in Multidimensional Cahn-Hilliard Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We consider nonlinear stability for planar transition front solutions bar{u} (x_1) arising in multidimensional (i.e., xin R^n) Cahn-Hilliard systems. In previous work, the author has established conditions under which such waves are spectrally and linearly stable, and in this analysis, it is shown that spectral stability implies nonlinear stability for such systems.

  16. A Follow-Up Meta-Analysis for Word-Problem-Solving Interventions for Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dake; Xin, Yan Ping

    2012-01-01

    Following a meta-analysis study conducted by Y. P. Xin and A. Jitendra (1999), the authors carried out a follow-up meta-analysis of word problem-solving interventions published from 1996 to 2009 for students with learning problems in mathematics. The authors examined the influence of education reforms as moderator variables on intervention…

  17. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  18. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  19. Provision of Auricular Acupuncture and Acupressure in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyola-Santiago, Tamara; Knopf, Rachel; Robin, Tracy; Harvey, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture using the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol stimulates 5 points in each ear--the Shen Men, sympathetic nervous system, liver, kidney, and lung. This protocol is also known as Acu Detox, and has been used for recovery in community-based settings and drug use treatment programs. It has also been…

  20. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  1. Lifelong Learning for Social Development: A Review of Global Perspectives. Papers Presented at the International Conference on Lifelong Learning for Social Development (Kerala, India, August 13-15, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains 67 papers from an international conference on lifelong learning for social development. The following papers are among those included: "Lifelong Learning for Social Development" (John Dewar Wilson); "Building Networks of Lifelong Learning for Social Development outside the Center" (Shen-Tzay Huang, Chi chuan Li, An-Chi Li);…

  2. SIMULATION OF OZONE EFFECTS ON EIGHT TREE SPECIES AT SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an assessment of potential effects of air pollutants on the vegetation of Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), we simulated the growth of eight important tree species using TREGRO, a mechanistic model of individual tree growth. Published TREGRO parameters for black cherry...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances of 47 Tuc turn-off stars (Dobrovolskas+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kucinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Korotin, S. A.; Steffen, M.; Sbordone, L.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Royer, F.; Prakapavicius, D.

    2014-07-01

    Spectra of the TO stars in 47 Tuc investigated in this work were obtained with the GIRAFFE spectrograph in August-September, 2008, under the programme 081.D-0287(A) (PI: Shen). The same data set was independently analysed by D'Orazi et al. (2010ApJ...713L...1D, Cat. J/ApJ/713/L1). (1 data file).

  4. 75 FR 77884 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... cells and/or cancer cells. Inventors: Matthew Boxer (NHGRI-NCGC); Min Shen (NHGRI-NCGC); Doug Auld... various cancers. Diagnostic assays for various cancers. Regulation of embryonic stem cell proliferation... metabolic intermediates inside the cell. Tumor cells require a buildup of metabolic intermediates in...

  5. Taking Charge of Choice: How Charter School Policy Contexts Matter. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Against the backdrop of urban school politics, in which mayors play increasingly powerful and pivotal roles, the current study examines the origins and implications of mayoral control of charter school authorization and accountability in Indianapolis (see Henig & Rich, 2004; Wong & Shen, 2007). In contrast to analyses of mayoral takeovers of urban…

  6. Metasearch Accuracy for Letters and Symbols: Do Our Intuitions Match Empirical Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sean R.; Redford, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The "familiarity effect" (Shen and Reingold, "Perception & Psychophysics" 63(3):464-475, 2001) is a phenomenon in which unfamiliar symbols perceptually "pop-out" when placed among familiar symbols (e.g., letters). In contrast, searching for familiar symbols among unfamiliar symbols is more challenging. Failure to…

  7. Anticancer Therapy: Light-Activated Hypoxia-Responsive Nanocarriers for Enhanced Anticancer Therapy (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Qian, Chenggen; Yu, Jicheng; Chen, Yulei; Hu, Quanyin; Xiao, Xuanzhong; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Feng, Peijian; Shen, Qun-Dong; Gu, Zhen

    2016-05-01

    A light-activated hypoxia-responsive drug-delivery vehicle is described by Q.-D. Shen, Z. Gu, and co-workers on page 3313. This conjugated-polymer-based nanocarrier can be activated by photoirradiation, producing singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) and inducing hypoxia to promote release of its cargo inside tumor cells for enhanced anticancer efficacy. PMID:27122110

  8. Writing Prozāk Diaries in Tehran: Generational Anomie and Psychiatric Subjectivities.

    PubMed

    Behrouzan, Orkideh

    2015-09-01

    I explore the historical and cultural shifts that underlie the normalization of the term dépréshen and the emergence of public psychiatric discourses in 1990s Iran. I do this by investigating the cultural sensibilities of a particular generation, the self-identified 1980s generation, and the ways they situate what is perceived as dépréshen in social anomie and the memories of the Iran-Iraq war. I argue that psychiatrization of psychological distress in Iran was not simply a de-politicizing hegemonic biomedical discourse, but that the contemporary Iranian discourses of psychological pathology and social loss evolved in public, hand-in-hand, through the medicalization of post-war loss. Psychiatric subjectivity describes conditions where individuals internalize psychiatry as a mode of thinking, and performatively articulate not only their desires, hopes, and anxieties, but also historical losses as embodied in individual and collective brains. I underscore my interlocutors' simultaneous historicization and medicalization of their dépréshen, arguing that psychiatrically medicalized individuals are performative actors in the discursive formation of both biomedical and social truth. Dépréshen, in the larger sense of the word, has become one way to navigate ruptured pasts, slippery presents, and uncertain futures. PMID:25749738

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Advertising Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising section of the proceedings contains the following 14 selected papers: "Preparing the Entry-level Advertising Portfolio: Pointing Creative Students in the Right Direction" (Sheri J. Broyles); "Effects of Issue Ads on Candidate Evaluation and Voting Preference: Does Sponsorship Matter?" (Fuyuan Shen and H. Denis Wu); "Selling the…

  10. Release the hounds: virotherapy with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Tapan M

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Blood, Shen et al demonstrate that the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-murine interferon β (IFNβ)-sodium iodide symporter (NIS) (VSV-mIFNβ-NIS) oncolytic virus has significant antileukemia activity, which is enhanced when combined with an anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody. PMID:26989187

  11. Psychological Reactance and Persuasive Health Communication: A Test and Extension of the Intertwined Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Stephen A.; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports 2 experiments that were conducted to test and extend the work of J. P. Dillard and L. Shen (2005) examining the cognitive and affective processes involved in psychological reactance. In particular, the studies reported here (a) examined the best-fitting model of reactance processes and (b) tested 3 factors that may affect…

  12. Wavelet methods for Black-Scholes model of one and two assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Lawatia, M.

    2012-07-01

    A review of application of wavelet methods to Black-Scholes model of option pricing technology along wih some new results is presented. This paper is essentially based on interesting papers; Bouchouev and Isakov [8], Bouchouev, Isakov and Valadivia [9] and Shen and Strang [40].

  13. Visible ozone injury on mature black cherry in two Class I wilderness areas

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelka, A.; Skelly, J.; Hildebrand, E.; Renfro, J.

    1995-12-31

    During the summer of 1991--1993, the incidence and severity of foliar symptoms due to ambient ozone exposures were documented on mature black cherry (Prunus serotina) in two Class 1 areas in the Appalachian mountains of the eastern US: Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and Shenandoah National Park (SHEN). Three plots in each park containing 30 trees each (Big Meadows in SHEN had 60 trees evaluated each year) with 90 and 120 trees evaluated per GRSM and SHEN, respectively. Plots were established adjacent to ozone monitoring stations at different elevations. Samples of foliage from trees were collected by tree climbers and three exposed branches from the upper crown and three branches form the mid-to-lower crown were evaluated for symptoms of foliar injury due to ozone. Incidence was the greatest in 1991 at both locations; 45% and 60% for SHEN and GRSM, respectively. In 1992 and 1993, incidence was very similar in both parks, with approximately 33% of the trees affected. Black cherry at the highest elevations exhibited the greatest amount of symptoms in both parks all three years of investigation. These sites also exhibited the highest levels of ozone. The results indicate that visible injury due to ambient ozone is prevalent in Class 1 areas in the eastern US, indicative of the nature of this regional phytotoxicant.

  14. 1H and 13C Solid-state NMR of Gossypium barbadense (Pima) Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction of water with cellulose and its influence on the nuclear spin dynamics in G. barbadense (Pima) cotton were investigated by 1H and 13C solid-state NMR techniques. 1H spin diffusion results from a Goldman-Shen experiment indicate that the water is multilayered. 1H MAS experiments pro...

  15. A Study of Effective Teachers' Knowledge and Use of Intersectional Data to Improve Student Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Raychellet

    2012-01-01

    The discussion on how to improve students' academic performance has a long and rich history in the U.S. Although it has been a national priority, the debate has centered on the best method to accomplish this goal. Bernhardt (2003) and Shen and Cooley (2008) recognized the importance of teachers, principals, and data, deployed together, as…

  16. 1H and 13C Solid-state NMR of G. barbadense (Pima) Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interaction of water with cellulose and its influence on the nuclear spin dynamics in G. barbadense (Pima) cotton were investigated with 1H and 13C solid-state NMR techniques. 1H spin diffusion results from a Goldman-Shen experiment indicate that the water is multilayered. 1H MAS experiment...

  17. New Nuclear Equation of State for Core-Collapse Supernovae with the Variational Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, H.; Yamamuro, S.; Nakazato, K.; Takano, M.; Suzuki, H.; Sumiyoshi, K.

    2014-03-01

    We report the current status of our project to construct a new nuclear equation of state (EOS) with the variational method for core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations. Starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian, the EOS for uniform nuclear matter is constructed with the cluster variational method: For non-uniform nuclear matter, the EOS is calculated with the Thomas-Fermi method. The obtained thermodynamic quantities of uniform matter are in good agreement with those with more sophisticated Fermi Hypernetted Chain variational calculations, and phase diagrams constructed so far are close to those of the Shen-EOS. The structure of neutron stars calculated with this EOS at zero temperature is consistent with recent observational data, and the maximum mass of the neutron star is slightly larger than that with the Shen-EOS. Using the present EOS of uniform nuclear matter, we also perform the 1D simulation of the core-collapse supernovae by a simplified prescription of adiabatic hydrodynamics. The stellar core with the present EOS is more compact than that with the Shen-EOS, and correspondingly, the explosion energy in this simulation with the present EOS is larger than that with the Shen-EOS.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Kawasaki disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juo SH, Liang CD, Chen WC, Wang YS, Lee CH, Hsi E, Yu HR, Woon PY, Lin IC, Huang CF, Hwang DY, Lee CP, Lin LY, Chang WP, Chang WC. ITPKC ... Sun LC, Chen PL, Wu JF, Chang CC, Lee WL, Shen CT, Wang NK, Wu CS, Yeh ...

  19. 75 FR 25294 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-DVD Copy Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on August 3, 2001 (66 FR 40727). The last notification was filed with... 6(b) of the Act on January 19, 2010 (75 FR 2890). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations... NETHERLANDS; MIT Technology Co., Ltd., Dongguan, Guangdong, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA; ShenZhen Sea...

  20. Fitting Multidimensional Amotivation into the Self-Determination Theory Nomological Network: Application in School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Katartzi, Ermioni S.; Kontou, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the nomological validity of the Amotivation Inventory-Physical Education (Shen, Wingert, Li, Sun, & Rukavina, 2010b) scores by examining the associations of ability, effort, value, and task characteristics amotivation beliefs with self-determination theory variables. Data were collected from 401 fifth- and…

  1. 75 FR 5952 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... New Shipper Review, 74 FR 48905 (September 25, 2009). Shenzhen Shen Long Hang Industry Co., Ltd... Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR... FR 265 (January 5, 2009). In January 2009, the American Furniture Manufacturers Committee for...

  2. 76 FR 6135 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... (Qualifying Individual), Application Type: License Transfer. CBM Global Freight Corporation (NVO), 223 South...., Dongmen Nan Road, ShenZhen, GuangDong Province, China 518002, Officers: DeFang Kong, Secretary (Qualifying... Individual), Application Type: License Transfer. Missouri Sea and Air Services, Inc. (NVO & OFF), 500...

  3. Obituary: Clifford G. Toner (1959-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Cliff Toner passed away unexpectedly at home in Tucson, Arizona on March 29, 2009. For most of his career, Cliff was involved with the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), a facility of the National Solar Observatory in Tucson, Arizona. GONG is a set of instruments around the world to observe the inside of the sun using the sound that is trapped below the solar surface. This science is called helioseismology. Cliff Toner was born on December 8, 1959 in New Westminster, British Columbia near the western coast of Canada. After receiving his B.Sc. in Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia at Vancouver in 1981, he headed east to the University of Western Ontario in London. His graduate school period was spent in collaboration with David F. Gray, with whom he received both an M.Sc. in Astronomy in 1984, and a Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1988. Toner actually wrote two theses at UWO, one on "Line Asymmetries in F, G, and K Supergiants and Bright Giants" for his M.Sc., and the other on "The Time Variability of Spectral Line Asymmetries and Equivalent Widths for the G8 Dwarf ? Boo A: Evidence for a Starpatch" for his Ph.D. After graduate school, Cliff Toner left the cool climate of Canada in 1988 and accepted a postdoctoral position in the warmer temperatures of Hawai'i at the Institute for Astronomy located at the University of Hawai'i in Honolulu. There he worked primarily with Barry LaBonte. At first, he continued his work on ? Boo A, but he became interested in the sun and helioseismology. This led to the discovery of halos of enhanced high-frequency acoustic power surrounding solar active regions (Ap.J. 415, 847). At the end of his post-doc, Cliff Toner was hired by the GONG project as a Data Scientist in 1991. He quickly tackled the problem of merging the data from the six GONG sites, which was the major data reduction challenge facing GONG at the time. In parallel, he and Stuart Jefferies developed an algorithm to measure the radii of full-disk solar

  4. Temporal and spatial analysis of vegetation coverage changes in Ordos area based on time series GIMMS-NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ruimei; Zou, Youfeng; Ma, Chao; Liu, Pei

    2014-11-01

    Ordos area is the desert-wind erosion desertification steppe transition zone and the complex ecological zone. As the research area, Ordos City has the similar natural geographic environment to ShenDong coalfield. To research its ecological patterns and natural evolution law, it has instructive to reveal temporal and spatial changes of ecological environment with artificial disturbance in western mining. In this paper, a time series of AVHRR-NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data was used to monitor the change of vegetation temporal and spatial dynamics from 1981 to 2006 in Ordos City and ShenDong coalfield, where were as the research area. The MVC (Maximum Value Composites) method, average operation, linear regression, and gradation for NDVI change trend were used to obtained some results, as follows: ¬vegetation coverage had obvious characteristics with periodic change in research area for 26 years, and vegetation growth peak appeared on August, while the lowest appeared on January. The extreme values in Ordos City were 0.2351 and 0.1176, while they were 0.2657 and 0.1272 in ShenDong coalfield. The NDVI value fluctuation was a modest rise trend overall in research area. The extreme values were 0.3071 and 0.1861 in Ordos City, while they were 0.3454 and 0.1904 in ShenDong coalfield. In spatial distribution, slight improvement area and slight degradation area were accounting for 42.49% and 8.37% in Ordos City, while slight improvement area moderate improvement area were accounting for 70.59% and 29.41% in ShenDong coalfield. Above of results indicated there was less vegetation coverage in research area, which reflected the characteristics of fragile natural geographical environment. In addition, vegetation coverage was with a modest rise on the whole, which reflected the natural environment change.

  5. Electrophysiological Rotor Ablation in In-Silico Modeling of Atrial Fibrillation: Comparisons with Dominant Frequency, Shannon Entropy, and Phase Singularity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Minki; Song, Jun-Seop; Lee, Young-Seon; Li, Changyong; Shim, Eun Bo; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Background Although rotors have been considered among the drivers of atrial fibrillation (AF), the rotor definition is inconsistent. We evaluated the nature of rotors in 2D and 3D in- silico models of persistent AF (PeAF) by analyzing phase singularity (PS), dominant frequency (DF), Shannon entropy (ShEn), and complex fractionated atrial electrogram cycle length (CFAE-CL) and their ablation. Methods Mother rotor was spatiotemporally defined as stationary reentries with a meandering tip remaining within half the wavelength and lasting longer than 5 s. We generated 2D- and 3D-maps of the PS, DF, ShEn, and CFAE-CL during AF. The spatial correlations and ablation outcomes targeting each parameter were analyzed. Results 1. In the 2D PeAF model, we observed a mother rotor that matched relatively well with DF (>9 Hz, 71.0%, p<0.001), ShEn (upper 2.5%, 33.2%, p<0.001), and CFAE-CL (lower 2.5%, 23.7%, p<0.001). 2. The 3D-PeAF model also showed mother rotors that had spatial correlations with DF (>5.5 Hz, 39.7%, p<0.001), ShEn (upper 8.5%, 15.1%, p <0.001), and CFAE (lower 8.5%, 8.0%, p = 0.002). 3. In both the 2D and 3D models, virtual ablation targeting the upper 5% of the DF terminated AF within 20 s, but not the ablations based on long-lasting PS, high ShEn area, or lower CFAE-CL area. Conclusion Mother rotors were observed in both 2D and 3D human AF models. Rotor locations were well represented by DF, and their virtual ablation altered wave dynamics and terminated AF. PMID:26909492

  6. Differential Rotation and Dynamics of the Solar Interior

    PubMed

    Thompson; Toomre; Anderson; Antia; Berthomieu; Burtonclay; Chitre; Christensen-Dalsgaard; Corbard; DeRosa; Genovese; Gough; Haber; Harvey; Hill; Howe; Korzennik; Kosovichev; Leibacher; Pijpers; Provost; Rhodes; Schou; Sekii; Stark; Wilson

    1996-05-31

    Splitting of the sun's global oscillation frequencies by large-scale flows can be used to investigate how rotation varies with radius and latitude within the solar interior. The nearly uninterrupted observations by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) yield oscillation power spectra with high duty cycles and high signal-to-noise ratios. Frequency splittings derived from GONG observations confirm that the variation of rotation rate with latitude seen at the surface carries through much of the convection zone, at the base of which is an adjustment layer leading to latitudinally independent rotation at greater depths. A distinctive shear layer just below the surface is discernible at low to mid-latitudes. PMID:8662459

  7. Communication at the quantum speed limit along a spin chain

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Calarco, Tommaso

    2010-08-15

    Spin chains have long been considered as candidates for quantum channels to facilitate quantum communication. We consider the transfer of a single excitation along a spin-1/2 chain governed by Heisenberg-type interactions. We build on the work of Balachandran and Gong [V. Balachandran and J. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012303 (2008)] and show that by applying optimal control to an external parabolic magnetic field, one can drastically increase the propagation rate by two orders of magnitude. In particular, we show that the theoretical maximum propagation rate can be reached, where the propagation of the excitation takes the form of a dispersed wave. We conclude that optimal control is not only a useful tool for experimental application, but also for theoretical inquiry into the physical limits and dynamics of many-body quantum systems.

  8. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...°56.8′ N. longitude 75°55.1′ W. (North Chesapeake Entrance Lighted Gong Buoy “NCD”); thence to latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence to latitude 36°55.0′ N. longitude 75°58.0′ W. (Cape Henry Buoy “1”); thence to Cape Henry Light....

  9. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...°56.8′ N. longitude 75°55.1′ W. (North Chesapeake Entrance Lighted Gong Buoy “NCD”); thence to latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence to latitude 36°55.0′ N. longitude 75°58.0′ W. (Cape Henry Buoy “1”); thence to Cape Henry Light....

  10. Exosomes expand the sphere of influence of Eph receptors and ephrins.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, Elena B

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-anchored Eph receptors and ephrins represent a ubiquitous intercellular communication system that typically engages at sites of cell-cell contact to initiate bidirectional signaling. Gong et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201601085) show that cells can deploy the EphB2 receptor on exosomes to activate ephrinB signaling and collapse the growth cones of distant neurons. PMID:27354377

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Ground-based Helioseismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    I summarize the current status of ground-based helioseismic observations, in particular the two operational networks GONG and BiSON. I then discuss requirements for continued and future ground-based observations based on key science drivers, finishing with a discussion of SPRING, a proposed future high-spatial-resolution network that would provide helioseismic data and a broad range of synoptic data products.

  12. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...°56.8′ N. longitude 75°55.1′ W. (North Chesapeake Entrance Lighted Gong Buoy “NCD”); thence to latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence to latitude 36°55.0′ N. longitude 75°58.0′ W. (Cape Henry Buoy “1”); thence to Cape Henry Light....

  13. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...°56.8′ N. longitude 75°55.1′ W. (North Chesapeake Entrance Lighted Gong Buoy “NCD”); thence to latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence to latitude 36°55.0′ N. longitude 75°58.0′ W. (Cape Henry Buoy “1”); thence to Cape Henry Light....

  14. Lensless ghost imaging of a phase object with pseudo-thermal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Jian; Tang, Qiang; Wu, Teng-Fei; Qiu, Hao-Chuan; Xu, De-Qin; Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jun; Wang, Kaige

    2014-03-01

    We report an experimental realization of lensless ghost imaging for a phase-only object with pseudo-thermal light, which was proposed by W. Gong and S. Han [Phys. Rev. A 82, 023828 (2010)]. In contrast with conventional ghost imaging, the scheme involves the interference of two correlated fields and the phase information of the object can be retrieved. This imaging technique completes the nonlocally lensless spatial reconstruction of both amplitude and phase distributions in ghost imaging with thermal light.

  15. 46 CFR 7.50 - Chesapeake Bay and tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...°56.8′ N. longitude 75°55.1′ W. (North Chesapeake Entrance Lighted Gong Buoy “NCD”); thence to latitude 36°54.8′ N. longitude 75°55.6′ W. (Chesapeake Bay Entrance Lighted Bell Buoy “CBC”); thence to latitude 36°55.0′ N. longitude 75°58.0′ W. (Cape Henry Buoy “1”); thence to Cape Henry Light....

  16. On the Temporal Changes of Helioseismic Properties Derived with Different Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    2016-05-01

    I present a detailed comparison of the temporal changes of the characteristics of the low and intermediate p-modes oscillations derived from nearly 20 years of observations acquired from three instruments (GONG, MDI and HMI) and computed using three quite different data reduction pipe-lines. The comparisons are both at the level of mode characteristics (frequency, linewidth, amplitude and asymmetry) and at the level of inferred properties of the solar interior (i.e., changes in the solar internal rotation).

  17. 46 CFR 7.45 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to latitude 38°36.5′ N. longitude 75°02.8′ W. (Indian River Inlet Lighted Gong Buoy “1”); thence to Indian River Inlet South Jetty Light. (b) A line drawn from Ocean City Inlet Light “6” to latitude 38°19.4′ N. longitude 75°05.0′ W. (Ocean City Inlet...

  18. 46 CFR 7.45 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to latitude 38°36.5′ N. longitude 75°02.8′ W. (Indian River Inlet Lighted Gong Buoy “1”); thence to Indian River Inlet South Jetty Light. (b) A line drawn from Ocean City Inlet Light “6” to latitude 38°19.4′ N. longitude 75°05.0′ W. (Ocean City Inlet...

  19. Are Resonant Helioseimic Modes Excited by Solar Flares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibacher, John W.; Baudin, Frédéric; Rabello Soares, Maria Cristina

    2016-05-01

    We critically examine reports that flares have been observed to excite resonant p-modes by:-looking in detail at the results of the ring-diagram analysis in terms of duty cycle and center-to-limb variation of ring-diagram power.-applying the same analysis to the Halloween flare using GONG and MDI data.-assessing the stability in terms of oscillation power of both instruments.

  20. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  1. Magnetic Polarity Streams and Subsurface Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.; Baker, D.; Harra, L.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.; González Hernández, I.

    2013-12-01

    An important feature of the solar cycle is the transport of unbalanced magnetic flux from active regions towards the poles, which eventually results in polarity reversal. This transport takes the form of distinct “polarity streams” that are visible in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We compare the poleward migration rate estimated from such streams to that derived from the subsurface meridional flows measured in helioseismic data from the GONG network since 2001, and find that the results are in reasonable agreement.

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    Chisholm, J D Budai and D P Norton Role of charge carriers for ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped rutile TiO2 T Fukumura, H Toyosaki, K Ueno, M Nakano and M Kawasaki Ab-initio study of exchange constants and electronic structure in diluted magnetic group-IV semiconductors Silvia Picozzi and Marjana Ležaić Phase coherent transport in (Ga,Mn)As D Neumaier, K Wagner, U Wurstbauer, M Reinwald, W Wegscheider and D Weiss Hydrogen interstitials-mediated ferromagnetism in MnxGe1-x magnetic semiconductors Xin-Xin Yao, Shi-Shen Yan, Shu-Jun Hu, Xue-Ling Lin, Chong Han, Yan-Xue Chen, Guo-Lei Liu and Liang-Mo Mei Electronic structures of magnetic semiconductors FeCr2Se4 and Fe0.5Cu0.5Cr2Se4 B I Min, Seung Su Baik, H C Choi, S K Kwon and J-S Kang Investigation of pure and Co2+-doped ZnO quantum dot electronic structures using the density functional theory: choosing the right functional Ekaterina Badaeva, Yong Feng, Daniel R Gamelin and Xiaosong Li Magnetic properties of sol-gel-derived doped ZnO as a potential ferromagnetic semiconductor: a synchrotron-based study N R S Farley, K W Edmonds, A A Freeman, G van der Laan, C R Staddon, D H Gregory and B L Gallagher Local electronic structure of Cr in the II-VI diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Zn1-xCrxTe M Kobayashi, Y Ishida, J I Hwang, G S Song, A Fujimori, C S Yang, L Lee, H-J Lin, D J Huang, C T Chen, Y Takeda, K Terai, S-I Fujimori, T Okane, Y Saitoh, H Yamagami, K Kobayashi, A Tanaka, H Saito and K Ando Lack of ferromagnetism in n-type cobalt-doped ZnO epitaxial thin films T C Kaspar, T Droubay, S M Heald, P Nachimuthu, C M Wang, V Shutthanandan, C A Johnson, D R Gamelin and S A Chambers XMCD studies on Co and Li doped ZnO magnetic semiconductors Thomas Tietze, Milan Gacic, Gisela Schütz, Gerhard Jakob, Sebastian Brück and Eberhard Goering Ferromagnetic semiconductors and the role of disorder B W Wessels An extensive comparison of anisotropies in MBE grown (Ga,Mn)As material C Gould, S Mark, K Pappert, R G Dengel, J Wenisch, R P

  3. Paramagnetic reentrant effect in high purity mesoscopic AgNb proximity structures

    PubMed

    Muller-Allinger; Mota

    2000-04-01

    We discuss the magnetic response of clean Ag coated Nb proximity cylinders in the temperature range 150 &mgr;Kxi(N) = n L, with xi(N) = Planck's over 2piv(F)/2pik(B)T, the thermal coherence length and n = 1,2,4. At the lowest temperatures, chi(para) compensates the diamagnetic susceptibility of the whole AgNb structure. PMID:11019037

  4. Global solutions to a chemotaxis model with consumption of chemoattractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangchen; Mu, Chunlai; Hu, Xuegang

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the following chemotaxis system u_t=nabla\\cdot(D(u)nabla u)-nabla\\cdot(S(u)nabla v),quad &xin Ω,quad t>0, v_t=Δ v-uv,quad &xinΩ,quad t>0, under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a smooth bounded domain {Ωsubset {R}^n} ({n≥2}), not necessarily being convex. There are some constants {c_D > 0}, {c_S > 0}, {min{R}} and {qin{R}} such that D(u) ≥ c_D(u+1)^{m-1} quad{and} quad S(u)≤ c_S(u+1)^{q-1}quad for all u≥0. If {q < m+n+2/2n}, it is shown that the model possesses a unique global classical solution which is uniformly bounded; if {q < m/2+n+2/2n}, the global existence of solution is established.

  5. How does the anthropogenic activity affect the spring discharge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yonghong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Li, Ruifang; Hao, Pengmei; Zhan, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    Karst hydrological process has largely been altered by climate change and human activity. In many places throughout the world, human activity (e.g. groundwater pumping and dewatering from mining) has intensified and surpassed climate change, where human activity becomes the primary factor that affects groundwater system. But it is still largely unclear how the human activity affects spring discharge in magnitude and periodicity. This study investigates the effects of anthropogenic activity on spring discharge, using the Xin'an Springs of China as an example. The Xin'an Spring discharge were divided into two time periods: the pre-development period from 1956 to 1971 and the post-development period from 1972 to 2013. We confirm the dividing time (i.e. 1971) of these two periods using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Then the wavelet transform and wavelet coherence were used to analyze the karst hydrological processes for the two periods respectively. We analyze the correlations of precipitation and the Xin'an spring discharge with the monsoons including the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the West North Pacific Monsoon (WNPM) and the climate teleconnections including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), respectively. The results indicated that the spring discharge was attenuated about 19.63% under the influence of human activity in the Xin'an Springs basin. However, human activity did not alter the size of the resonance frequencies between the spring discharge and the monsoons. In contrast, it reinforced the periodicities of the monsoons-driven spring discharge. It suggested that human has adapted to the major climate periodicities, and human activity had the same rhyme with the primary climate periodicity. In return, human activity enhances the correlation between the monsoons and the spring discharge.

  6. A generalization of Gudder-Nagy's theorem with numerical ranges of operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hong-Ke; Dou, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Shen, Ling-Min

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we prove that, for A, B, C, which are bounded linear operators on a separable complex Hilbert space H, (Ax, x)(Bx, x) = (Cx, x) for all xin H with ∥x∥ = 1, if and only if there exists a complex number cin {C}, such that A = cI and C = cB or B = cI and C = cA.

  7. The exact asymptotic behavior of boundary blow-up solutions to infinity Laplacian equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Haitao

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of viscosity solutions to boundary blow-up elliptic problem {Δ_{∞}u=b(x)f(u), xinΩ, u|_{partialΩ}=+∞,} where {Ω} is a bounded domain with C 2-boundary in {{R}N}, {bin C(bar{Ω})} is positive in {Ω}, which may be vanishing on the boundary, {fin C1([0, ∞))} is regularly varying or is rapidly varying at infinity.

  8. Global existence and boundedness in a higher-dimensional quasilinear chemotaxis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yilong; Xiang, Zhaoyin

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the boundedness of global solutions to the quasilinear Keller-Segel system u_t=nabla\\cdotbig(D(u)nabla u-unabla vbig), &quad xinΩ, t>0, v_t=Δ v-uf(v),&quad xinΩ, t>0, nabla u\\cdot ν=0, nabla v\\cdotν=0,&quad xin partialΩ, t>0 in a bounded domain {Ωsubset Rn(n≥ 3)} with smooth boundary, where D( u) is supposed to satisfy D( u) ≥ D 0 u m-1 with some positive constant D 0. It is proved that when {m>2-n+2/2n}, the system possesses global bounded weak solutions for any sufficiently smooth nonnegative initial data. In particular, we improved the recent result by Wang et al. (Z Angew Math Phys, 2015. doi: 10.1007/s00033-014-0491-9 ) in the sense that we established the global boundedness of weak solutions. We also removed the convexity assumption on the domain used by Wang et al. (Z Angew Math Phys 65:1137-1152, 2014, 2015).

  9. Viscous Flow in Heavy-Ion Collisions from RHIC to LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chun; Heinz, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    We present a systematic hydrodynamic study of the evolution of hadron spectra and their azimuthal anisotropy from the lowest collision energy studied at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), s=7.7A GeV, to the highest energy reachable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), s=5500A GeV [C. Shen and U. Heinz, Phys. Rev. C 85, 054902 (2012) [arXiv:1202.6620 [nucl-th

  10. Compact surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature in Randers manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ningwei

    2016-08-01

    The flag curvature of a Finsler surface is called the Gaussian curvature in Finsler geometry. In this paper, we characterize the surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature (CGC) in the Randers 3-manifold. Then we give a classification of the orientable closed CGC surfaces in two Randers space forms, which are the non-Euclidean Minkowski-Randers 3-space (K = 0) and the Bao-Shen sphere (K = 1).

  11. Review of the leafhopper genus Oniella Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), with description of a new species from China.

    PubMed

    Min, Gao; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    The genus Oniella Matsumura 1912 is reviewed and seven species from China are recognized, including a new species, O. shaanxiana sp. nov., a new synonym, O. flavomarginata, syn. nov. and a new combination, O. albula (Cai & Shen, 1998) n. comb. transferred from Sophonia. O. excelsa (Melichar) is removed from this genus. The seven species are described and illustrated in detail, and a key to all species of the genus is provided. PMID:26185832

  12. Using the Homotopy Method to Find Periodic Solutions of Forced Nonlinear Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Lott, P. Aaron

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a result of Li and Shen which proves the existence of a unique periodic solution for the differential equation x[dots above] + kx[dot above] + g(x,t) = [epsilon](t) where k is a constant; g is continuous, continuously differentiable with respect to x , and is periodic of period P in the variable t; [epsilon](t) is continuous…

  13. Variational study of the supernova equation of state with realistic nuclear forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Hajime; Takehara, Yuta; Yamamuro, Sachiko; Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Takano, Masatoshi

    2014-09-01

    We construct a new nuclear equation of state (EOS) for numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) with the realistic nuclear forces. For this purpose, we first constructed the EOS for uniform matter based on the Argonne v18 two-body potential and the Urbana IX three-body potential with the cluster variational method. The obtained free energies agree well with those by the more sophisticated Fermi Hypernetted Chain variational method. The symmetry energy of our EOS is smaller than that of the Shen EOS, and masses and radii of neutron stars with the present EOS are consistent with the observational data. In order to complete the SN-EOS, we are constructing an EOS for non-uniform matter in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The thermodynamic quantities obtained so far are quite reasonable, and the phase diagrams of nuclear matter are similar to those of the Shen EOS. To our knowledge, this is the first SN-EOS based on the bare nuclear forces. In this talk, we systematically compare the thermodynamic quantities of the present EOS with those of the Shen EOS. Furthermore, as the first step of the application to SN simulations, we will examine the properties of central core from the collapse of a progenitor with our EOS.

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Improving Quality of Life Among Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyin; Chung, Vincent C.H.; Lu, Ping; Poon, Simon K.; Hui, Edwin P.; Lau, Alexander Y.L.; Balneaves, Lynda G.; Wong, Samuel Y.S.; Wu, Justin C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy, current clinical evidence has indicated add-on benefit of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in improving quality of life (QoL). However, the relative performance among different CHM is unknown. The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) and network meta-analyses (NMA) is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of different CHM. Seven electronic databases including both international databases and Chinese databases were searched. SRs focus on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with comparison of CHM plus chemotherapy against chemotherapy alone on QoL among NSCLC patients were considered eligible. Data from RCTs were extracted for random effect pairwise meta-analyses. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the impact of CHM on QoL. NMA was used to explore the most effective CHM for improving QoL when used with chemotherapy. From 14 SRs, 61 RCTs (n = 4247) assessing 11 different CHM were included. Result from pairwise meta-analyses showed 6 CHM (Kang-lai-te injection, Shei-qi-fu-zheng injection, Compound ku-shen injection, Kang-ai injection, Zi-jin-long tablet, and Shen-fu injection) has significant beneficial effect on QoL among NSCLC patients when used with chemotherapy, even after adjustment for publication bias. Pooled RR varied from 1.38 (95% CI: 1.11–1.72, I2 = 0.0%, Kang-lai-te injection) to 3.36 (95% CI: 1.30–8.66, I2 = 0.0%, Zi-jin-long tablet). One trial comparing Hai-shen-su (a protein extract from Tegillarca granosa L.) plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy also demonstrated beneficial effect of combined treatment (RR = 3.13, 95% CI: 1.41–6.98). Results from NMA showed no differences on the comparative effectiveness among CHM, but Hai-shen-su plus chemotherapy has the highest probability (62.3%) of being the best option for improving QoL. Use of CHM on top of chemotherapy can significantly improve Qo

  15. Multitaper Spectral Analysis and Wavelet Denoising Applied to Helioseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komm, R. W.; Gu, Y.; Hill, F.; Stark, P. B.; Fodor, I. K.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of solar normal mode frequencies from helioseismic observations can be improved by using Multitaper Spectral Analysis (MTSA) to estimate spectra from the time series, then using wavelet denoising of the log spectra. MTSA leads to a power spectrum estimate with reduced variance and better leakage properties than the conventional periodogram. Under the assumption of stationarity and mild regularity conditions, the log multitaper spectrum has a statistical distribution that is approximately Gaussian, so wavelet denoising is asymptotically an optimal method to reduce the noise in the estimated spectra. We find that a single m-upsilon spectrum benefits greatly from MTSA followed by wavelet denoising, and that wavelet denoising by itself can be used to improve m-averaged spectra. We compare estimates using two different 5-taper estimates (Stepian and sine tapers) and the periodogram estimate, for GONG time series at selected angular degrees l. We compare those three spectra with and without wavelet-denoising, both visually, and in terms of the mode parameters estimated from the pre-processed spectra using the GONG peak-fitting algorithm. The two multitaper estimates give equivalent results. The number of modes fitted well by the GONG algorithm is 20% to 60% larger (depending on l and the temporal frequency) when applied to the multitaper estimates than when applied to the periodogram. The estimated mode parameters (frequency, amplitude and width) are comparable for the three power spectrum estimates, except for modes with very small mode widths (a few frequency bins), where the multitaper spectra broadened the modest compared with the periodogram. We tested the influence of the number of tapers used and found that narrow modes at low n values are broadened to the extent that they can no longer be fit if the number of tapers is too large. For helioseismic time series of this length and temporal resolution, the optimal number of tapers is less than 10.

  16. A New Multi-Wavelength Synoptic Network for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Continuous solar observations are important for many research topics in solar physics, such as magnetic field evolution, flare and CME characteristics, and p-mode oscillation measurements. In addition, space weather operations require constant streams of solar data as input. The deployment of a number of identical instruments around the world in a network has proven to be a very effective strategy for obtaining nearly continuous solar observations. The financial costs of a network are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than space-based platforms; network instrumentation can be easily accessed for maintenance and upgrades; and telemetry bandwidth is readily available. Currently, there are two solar observing networks with consistent instruments: BiSON and GONG, both designed primarily for helioseismology. In addition, GONG has been augmented with continual magnetic field measurements and H-alpha imagery, with both being used for space weather operational purposes. However, GONG is now 18 years old and getting increasingly more challenging to maintain. There are also at least three scientific motivations for a multi-wavelength network: Recent advances in helioseismology have demonstrated the need for multi-wavelength observations to allow more accurate interpretation of the structure and dynamics below sunspots. Vector magnetometry would greatly benefit from multi-wavelength observations to provide height information and resolve the azimuthal ambiguity. Finally, space weather operations always need a consistent reliable source of continual solar data. This presentation will outline the scientific need for a multi-wavelength network, and discuss some concepts for the design of the instrumentation. A workshop on the topic will be held in Boulder this April.

  17. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages as potential ecological proxies for environmental monitoring in coastal sediment of the Port Klang, Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Ravindran; Omar, Ramlan; Leman, Mohd Shafeea; Faiz, Noraswana Nor

    2015-09-01

    This study represents the benthic foraminiferal assemblages, distribution and its composition along the coastal water of Port Klang, Malaysia. A total of 60 samples were collected bimonthly between Jun 2013 and July 2013 at four sites (i.e. West Port, North Port, South Port, Telok Gong and Klang River). There were 20 genera of foraminifera identified from this study sites namely: Acupeina, Ammobaculites, Ammonia, Ammotium, Arenoparella, Asterorotalia, Bolivina, Cibicides,Discorbis, Elphidium, Haplophragmoides, Haynesina, Lagena, Miliammina, Nonion, Pseudorotalia, Quinqueloculina, Spiroloculina, Textularia and Trochammina. The foraminiferal assemblages at West Port was low in diversity (H'=0.58)compared to other sites and low in abundance (804 individuals). Stress tolerant taxa, Ammonia (317 individuals) dominated the distribution in West Port. However, in North Port, high foraminifera diversity (H'=0.67) was noted compared to West Port but lower than Telok Gong and Klang river. Foraminifera at North Port very low in abundance (213 individuals). High Ammonia-Elphidium Index (AEI) value (95) and low FORAM Index (FI=1.04) recorded at South Port indicating the sediments impacted by anthropogenic stressor and therefore the sediments were in hypoxic condition. Higher FORAM Index (F1=2.34) at North Port indicated less human induced activities in the area. There were high density of foraminifera (8918 individuals) and high AEI index value (83) with high Foram Index (F1=1.11) at Telok Gong compared to other sites except North Port. The same results were recorded at Klang River locations which covered 15 sampling stations with high abundance of Ammonia spp indicating disturbed environments. Lower abundance of Elphidium spp in contrast to Ammonia spp suggests that the sediments in all the sampling sites are in hypoxic condition and less oxygen concentrations.

  18. Giant Goos-Hänchen shift via spontaneous generated coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziauddin

    2015-11-01

    The influence of spontaneous generated coherence (SGC) on the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in the reflected light is presented. A weak probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level gaseous atomic medium consist of 85Rb atoms. The atom-field interaction follows electromagnetically induced transparency configuration, and the SGC modifies the dispersion and absorption properties of a system [Y. Niu and S. Gong, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053811 (2006)]. The SGC enhances the Kerr nonlinearity which leads to giant negative and positive GH shifts in the reflected light. Further, the control of negative and positive GH shifts is achieved via manipulation of probe field detuning.

  19. Comparison of Contributions of Wind-blown and Anthropogenic Fugitive Dust Particles to Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Gong, S.

    2010-12-01

    A new wind-blown-dust emissions module was recently implemented into AURAMS, a Canadian regional air quality model (Park et al., 2009; Park et al., 2007), to investigate the relative impact of wind-blown dust vs. anthropogenic fugitive dust on air quality in North America. In order to apply the wind-blown dust emissions module to the entire North American continent, a soil-grain-size-distribution map was developed using the outputs of four monthly runs of AURAMS for 2002 and available PM2.5 dust-content observations. The simulation results using the new soil-grain-size-distribution map showed that inclusion of wind-blown dust emissions is essential to predict the impact of dust aerosols on air quality in North America, especially in the western U.S.. The wind-blown dust emissions varied widely by season, whereas the anthropogenic fugitive dust emissions did not change significantly. In the spring (April), the continental monthly average emissions rate of wind-blown dust was much higher than that of anthropogenic fugitive dust. The total amount of wind-blown dust emissions in North America predicted by the model for 2002 was comparable to that of anthropogenic fugitive dust emissions. Even with the inclusion of wind-blown dust emissions, however, the model still had difficulty simulating dust concentrations. Further improvements are needed, in terms of both limitations of the wind-blown-dust emission module and uncertainties in the anthropogenic fugitive dust emissions inventories, for improved dust modelling. References Park, S.H., S.L. Gong, W. Gong, P.A. Makar, M.D. Moran, C.A. Stroud, and J. Zhang, Sensitivity of surface characteristics on the simulation of wind-blown dust source in North America, Atmospheric Environment, 43 (19), 3122-3129, 2009. Park, S.H., S.L. Gong, T.L. Zhao, R.J. Vet, V.S. Bouchet, W. Gong, P.A. Makar, M.D. Moran, C. Stroud, and J. Zhang, Simulation of entrainment and transport of dust particles within North America in April 2001 ("Red

  20. Preparation of the entanglement states with distant atoms trapped in separate cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yong-Cheng; Yuan, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    We present an experimental scheme of preparing the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and the W state with distant atoms trapped in spatially separate cavities by detecting cavity decay through single-photon detectors, based on the original ideas of photon-interference-induced entanglement between bipartite (Feng X L, Zhang Z M, Li X D, Li S D, Gong S Q and Xu Z Z 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 217902). The scheme can be generalized to prepare the general n-qubit GHZ state and W state.

  1. Solar particle event of January 1 to 5, 1978

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, V. G.; Logachev, Iu. I.; Stolpovskii, V. G.; Pisarenko, N. F.; Gros, M.; Treger, L.

    1981-04-01

    The paper examines data, acquired by Prognoz 6, on flare protons and electrons with energies of 0.5-150 MeV and 0.03-3 MeV respectively which were produced by the 2N-magnitude solar flare of January 1, 1978. The spectra from this event are compared with those obtained for the flares of December 27, 1977 and December 12, 1977. The results do not contradict Zhang Gong-Liang's (1979) model of anisotropic convective proton diffusion; but it is suggested that a better description would be achieved by a model taking into account the time variations of protons and electrons, with allowance for coronal propagation.

  2. Drexhage's Experiment for Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langguth, Lutz; Fleury, Romain; Alò, Andrea; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2016-06-01

    Drexhage's seminal observation that spontaneous emission rates of fluorophores vary with distance from a mirror uncovered the fundamental notion that a source's environment determines radiative linewidths and shifts. Further, this observation established a powerful tool to determine fluorescence quantum yields. We present the direct analogue for sound. We demonstrate that a Chinese gong at a hard wall experiences radiative corrections to linewidth and line shift, and extract its intrinsic radiation efficiency. Beyond acoustics, our experiment opens new ideas to extend the Drexhage experiment to metamaterials, nanoantennas, and multipolar transitions.

  3. Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.

  4. Computer Music Synthesis and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, Lydia

    What is computer music composition? Composers are using the computer for everything from MIDI instruments communicating with computer sequencers, pitch trackers analyzing the sounds of acoustic instruments and converting them to pitch information, live performers with recorded music, performers with interactive computer programs, computer music produced by dancers using sensors, automatic music composition with the computer programs composing the music, composing with sounds or parts of sounds rather than notes, how to structure the use of time, composing with timbres, or the colors of sounds, and timbre morphing, such as a gong morphing to a voice, composing with textures and texture morphing, such as fluttertonguing morphing to pitch, granular synthesis, trills and convolution.

  5. Drexhage's Experiment for Sound.

    PubMed

    Langguth, Lutz; Fleury, Romain; Alù, Andrea; Koenderink, A Femius

    2016-06-01

    Drexhage's seminal observation that spontaneous emission rates of fluorophores vary with distance from a mirror uncovered the fundamental notion that a source's environment determines radiative linewidths and shifts. Further, this observation established a powerful tool to determine fluorescence quantum yields. We present the direct analogue for sound. We demonstrate that a Chinese gong at a hard wall experiences radiative corrections to linewidth and line shift, and extract its intrinsic radiation efficiency. Beyond acoustics, our experiment opens new ideas to extend the Drexhage experiment to metamaterials, nanoantennas, and multipolar transitions. PMID:27314719

  6. Tropospheric Modeling Studies of TRACE-P Data: Investigations of the HO(x)/NO(x)/O3 Photochemical System and Its Coupling to Sulfur/Aerosol Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Douglas D.

    2003-01-01

    During the duration of the NASA Grant NCC1-01-24, members of research team consisted of: D. Davis, G. Chen, S. Liu, C. Song, B. DiNunno, J. Nowak, and X. Gong. The major goal of our group effort was that of analyzing data from several NASA field studies and then preparing manuscripts for publication reflecting these analyses. Many of the papers so published were initiated by members of the Davis group; however, for a great many others one or more group members assisted other PI'S in writing their manuscripts. Both types of manuscripts are listed below as representing the final product from this grant.

  7. Falungong: recent developments in Chinese notions of healing.

    PubMed

    Gale, Deborah Dysart; Gorman-Yao, W M

    2003-01-01

    Transcultural nursing literature provides a rich picture of prominent Chinese health-related beliefs derived from the traditions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. However, these traditional beliefs are being challenged and modified in response to public discussion of a new spiritual movement, Falungong (also spelled Falun Gong). This movement calling for personal and social renewal has arisen in reaction to significant political and economic upheavals in Chinese society. This paper presents an overview of the Falungong movement and the health beliefs it advances. Implications for U.S. nursing practice are discussed. PMID:15000055

  8. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-Effective, and Simultaneous Detection of Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA Antibodies by Use of Very Small Serum Volumes.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Swinburne A J

    2016-07-01

    Rapid, cost-effective, and early determination of the serological status of potentially infected individuals, particularly pregnant women, can be critical in preventing life-threatening infections and subsequent fetal congenital abnormalities. An article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (X. Li, C. Pomares, G. Gonfrier, B. Koh, S. Zhu, M. Gong, J. G. Montoya, and H. Dai, J Clin Microbiol 54:1726-1733, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03371-15) describes an innovative multiplexed immunoassay that offers a path toward universal screening. PMID:27170019

  9. Timing signatures of large scale solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Hock-Mysliwiec, Rachel; Henry, Timothy; Kirk, Michael S.

    2016-05-01

    We examine the timing signatures of large solar eruptions resulting in flares, CMEs and Solar Energetic Particle events. We probe solar active regions from the chromosphere through the corona, using data from space and ground-based observations, including ISOON, SDO, GONG, and GOES. Our studies include a number of flares and CMEs of mostly the M- and X-strengths as categorized by GOES. We find that the chromospheric signatures of these large eruptions occur 5-30 minutes in advance of coronal high temperature signatures. These timing measurements are then used as inputs to models and reconstruct the eruptive nature of these systems, and explore their utility in forecasts.

  10. The flexibility of context-specific control: evidence for context-driven generalization of item-specific control settings.

    PubMed

    Crump, Matthew J C; Milliken, Bruce

    2009-08-01

    In two experiments we address an ongoing debate concerning the processes driving context-driven modulations to the Stroop effect (Crump, Gong, & Milliken, 2006). In particular, we demonstrate that context-driven processes can modulate the size of the Stroop effect for frequency-unbiased item types. We also clarify the role of item frequency in producing context-driven modulations to the Stroop effect. Taken together, our results provide unambiguous support for the claim that contextual processing can impart fast and flexible control over the operation of selective attention processes during online performance. PMID:19370487

  11. The Features of Condensate Water and Its Guide on Gas Proudction in upper Triassic Gas Reservoir of Western Sichuan Depression, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, C.; Lou, Z.

    2012-12-01

    In upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation of western Sichuan depression, China, there developed ultrathight sandstones reservoirs, of which the mean porosity is 4.02% and the permeability mode is less than 0.1×10-3μm2. Because of the ultrathight sandstones, thick gaseous- liquid phase transition develops in the upper Trassic Xujiahe Formation. The absolute quantity of gaseous water is lager. Due to the change of temperature and pressure at the wellhead, the gaseous water in gas reservoir becomes condensate water. Therefore, the condensate water of low salinity can be widely found at the original productive process in the Xujiahe Formation reservoir, such as wells named Lian 150, Xin 851, Xin 853, Xin 856, Dayi 101, Dayi 103. The main cations are K++Na+, while the anions are HCO3- and Cl-. The main water type is CaCl2, followed by NaHCO3, Na2SO4 and MgCl2. The PH of condensate water is 5.28-8.20 with mean value 6.40. The salinity of condensate water is lower than that of formation water. The milligram equivalent (mEq) percent of ion is used to study the features of condensate water. The anions (mEq) distribution of condensate water are scattered in ternary diagram, while that of formation water concentrate upon the SO42- and Cl- endpoints. The percent of HCO3-(mEq) in condensate water is higher than that of formation water. There is no obvious difference of cations mEq percent between condensate water and formation water, which indicates that condensate water strongly affected by formation water. Through this study, condensate water may originate from formation water and then be affected by complicated physical and chemical interactions. The condensate water is affected by gas and formation water. The relationship between condensate water and gas yield is very close. The variations of water yield, salinity and ions composition can reflect the change of gas yield. Taking well Xin 856 for example, which is located in Xinchang gas felid, there exist a relationship between

  12. Ozone production efficiency calculated for different cities in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min; Ma, Jianzhong

    2014-05-01

    North China, or Huabei in Chinese, is one of the most severely polluted regions in China. There are many large, complex and strong emission sources in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan (together called Jing-Jin-Tang in Chinese) and other urban and industrial centers in Huabei. We applied a regional chemical transport model including the tracer-tagging technique to investigate the chemical characteristics of air masses from different pollution hotspots in Huabei during the IPAC-NC campaign in spring 2006. We calculated the ozone production efficiency of NOx (OPEx) using selected data points of Ox and NOz corresponding to a large number of model grids, which have a good representation of the chemical characteristics of air masses for an entire investigated region. The estimated OPEx for Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, and Shijiazhuang general plumes is 3.35, 2.75, 1.43 and 2.33 mole/mole, respectively. We also calculated the OPEx using selected data points of Ox and NOz corresponding to different air masses arriving at Xin'an (one model grid), a rural station located in the center part of Jing-Jin-Tang. The estimated OPEx in Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan air masses arriving at Xin'an is 2.98, 2.52, and 1.42 mole/mole, respectively. The difference in estimated OPEx can be attributed to the difference in the emission source types and strength between these regions. The estimated OPEx in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan air masses arriving at Xin'an are comparable to those in their general pollution plumes. This indicates that air masses from different urban and industrial centers in Huabei can also maintain their different chemical characteristics while being transported to the rural areas.

  13. Above-threshold ionization of negative hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.; Lambropoulos, P.

    1997-10-01

    We present detailed calculations for two-and three-photon above-threshold ionization of the negative hydrogen ion. In addition to calculated values for partial wave amplitudes and phase shifts pertaining to recent experimental results [Xin Miao Zhao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1656 (1997)], we also address the question of the asymmetry of photoelectron angular distributions in ionization under elliptically polarized radiation, which has been studied experimentally in other negative ions [C. Blondel and C. Delsart, Laser Phys. 3, 3 (1993); Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 79, 156 (1993); F. Dulieu, C. Blondel, and C. Delsart, J. Phys. B 28, 3861 (1995)].

  14. [Textual research on Huang shinüke (Huang's Obstetrics and Gynecology)].

    PubMed

    Wen, Jianfang; Wu, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Huang shi nü ke (Huang's Obstetrics and Gynecology), a handwritten copy of the Ming Dynasty passed on by Huang Xiaoyou, Yuanyi and Huang Dongjiu, and sorted out by Huang Yanrong, was a family medical book of Huang's obstetrics and gynecology in Xin'an, being a summary of their clinical experience.There were altogether 44 chapters divided into 4 parts, including general introduction, general principle of treatment, discussions on prenatal conditions and qi acquired from the mother, and gynecological diseases in sequence, with the appendixes of pulse diagnostics for differentiating male and female, and the 10-month methods of protecting the fetus. PMID:26815029

  15. [An introduction to literature on infantile asthmatic coughing in the period of Sui - Tang to Song dynasties].

    PubMed

    Wan, F; Liu, Y

    2000-07-01

    Records in Zhu bing yuan hou lun are the primary accumulation of materials on infantile asthmatic coughing. The material from Bei ji qian jin yao fang and Qian jin yi fang were based on the author's life - long practical experience and applied by later generations. The guideline based on differential diagnosis of zheng for treating this ailment was established by Xiao er yao zheng zhi jue. While You you xin shu contains the most rich and detailed materials for this ailment before the Song dynasty, which, exerting profound influence on later generations in this field, is a milestone in the history of academic development of infantile asthmatic coughing. PMID:11624690

  16. Application of quantitative precipitation forecasting and precipitation ensemble prediction for hydrological forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, P.; Tie-Yuan, S.; Zhi-Yuan, Y.; Jun-Chao, W.

    2015-05-01

    The precipitation in the forecast period influences flood forecasting precision, due to the uncertainty of the input to the hydrological model. Taking the ZhangHe basin as the example, the research adopts the precipitation forecast and ensemble precipitation forecast product of the AREM model, uses the Xin Anjiang hydrological model, and tests the flood forecasts. The results show that the flood forecast result can be clearly improved when considering precipitation during the forecast period. Hydrological forecast based on Ensemble Precipitation prediction gives better hydrological forecast information, better satisfying the need for risk information for flood prevention and disaster reduction, and has broad development opportunities.

  17. Determination of silicon in meteoritic chondrules and its significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, W.-X.; Ouyang, Z.-Y.; Hu, G.-H.; Zhong, H.-H.; Xu, H.-Q.

    1984-04-01

    The silicon abundances in 20 chondrules from the Jilin, Xin Yang, Boxian, and Dontai meteorites and their whole rock samples were determined by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis. The silicon abundances were enriched in chondrules compared to whole chondrites. A systematic increase in the silicon abundance of whole chondrites with E, H, L, LL was observed, as was a systematic increase in the silicon abundance of nonmagnetic chondrules from ordinary chondrites with H, L, LL. The results indicate indirectly that chondrule formation occurred earlier than matrix formation.

  18. The concentration of solutions to a fractional Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qihan; Long, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we study the following fractional Schrödinger equation left\\{begin{array}{ll}({-} {Δ} )^su +V(x)u=a|u|^{4s/N} u,& quad xin {R}^N, \\ u > 0,& quad uin H^s({R}^N),right. where {N ≥ 1, s in (0,1)}, {a in {R}} and V(x) is a measurable function. We prove the existence or nonexistence of ground states for the above equation under {L2}-constraint and some assumptions on {V(x)} and a. Besides, we also analyze the behavior of ground states as a tends to some fixed constant.

  19. Bound state eigenfunctions need to vanish faster than | x{| }^{-3/2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar

    2016-07-01

    In quantum mechanics, students are taught to practice that the eigenfunction of a physical bound state must be continuous and vanishing asymptotically so that it is normalizable in x\\in (-∞ ,∞ ). Here we caution that such states may also give rise to infinite uncertainty in the position ({{Δ }}x=∞ ), whereas {{Δ }}p remains finite. Such states may be called loosely bound and spatially extended states, and may be avoided by an additional condition that the eigenfunction vanishes asymptotically faster than | x{| }-3/2.

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Tegel, Inga Schellenberg, Falko M Schappacher, Rainer Pöttgen, Joachim Deisenhofer, Axel Günther, Florian Schrettle, Alois Loidl and Dirk Johrendt The superconductor KxSr1-xFe2As2: normal state and superconducting properties B Lv, M Gooch, B Lorenz, F Chen, A M Guloy and C W Chu Effect of 3d transition metal doping on the superconductivity in quaternary fluoroarsenide CaFeAsF Satoru Matsuishi, Yasunori Inoue, Takatoshi Nomura, Youichi Kamihara, Masahiro Hirano and Hideo Hosono Influence of the rare-earth element on the effects of the structural and magnetic phase transitions in CeFeAsO, PrFeAsO and NdFeAsO Michael A McGuire, Raphaël P Hermann, Athena S Sefat, Brian C Sales, Rongying Jin, David Mandrus, Fernande Grandjean and Gary J Long Heat capacity measurements on FeAs-based compounds: a thermodynamic probe of electronic and magnetic states P J Baker, S R Giblin, F L Pratt, R H Liu, G Wu, X H Chen, M J Pitcher, D R Parker, S J Clarke and S J Blundell Spin fluctuations, interband coupling and unconventional pairing in iron-based superconductors Zi-Jian Yao, Jian-Xin Li and Z D Wang Superconductivity induced by Ni doping in BaFe2As2 single crystals L J Li, Y K Luo, Q B Wang, H Chen, Z Ren, Q Tao, Y K Li, X Lin, M He, Z W Zhu, G H Cao and Z A Xu Metamagnetic transition in EuFe2As2 single crystals Shuai Jiang, Yongkang Luo, Zhi Ren, Zengwei Zhu, Cao Wang, Xiangfan Xu, Qian Tao, Guanghan Cao and Zhu'an Xu Pressure dependence of the thermoelectric power of the iron-based high-Tc superconductor SmFeAsO0.85 N Kang, P Auban-Senzier, C R Pasquier, Z A Ren, J Yang, G C Che and Z X Zhao Superconductivity in some heavy rare-earth iron arsenide REFeAsO1-δ (RE = Ho, Y, Dy and Tb) compounds Jie Yang, Xiao-Li Shen, Wei Lu, Wei Yi, Zheng-Cai Li, Zhi-An Ren, Guang-Can Che, Xiao-Li Dong, Li-Ling Sun, Fang Zhou and Zhong-Xian Zhao The delicate electronic and magnetic structure of the LaFePnO system (Pn = pnicogen) S Lebègue, Z P Yin and W E Pickett

  1. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. PMID:23775386

  2. Testing the Constancy of the Gravitational Constant Using Helioseismology

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, D.B.; Krauss, L.M.; Demarque, P.

    1998-05-01

    We compare the {ital p}-mode oscillation spectra of solar models, constructed under the assumption that the universal gravitation constant {ital G} varied monotonically over the course of the solar lifetime, to the most recent solar {ital p}-mode frequency observations from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) instrument and Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network (BiSON). The GONG instrument consists of six telescopes spread over different longitude around the Earth, each recording, once every minute, Doppler shift images of the Sun`s surface. BiSON also consists of a network of six telescopes specifically designed to observe low-{ital l} {ital p}-modes. We find that only those solar models constructed with (1/{ital G}){ital dG}/{ital dt} {le} {approximately}1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} yr{sup {minus}1} are consistent with the observations. This constraint not only probes {ital G} over cosmic time, it is stronger by almost one order of magnitude than constraints on the current maximum time variation coming from radar ranging and binary pulsar timing measurements. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  3. Diffusion of tungsten on stepped tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. S.; Kim, S. K.; Gomer, R.

    1990-08-01

    Self-diffusion of thermally generated tungsten atoms near (123) and (257), on the zone (011)-(112) and on (023), on the zone (011)-(001) of a tungsten field emitter has been investigated by the field-emission fluctuation method, using a rectangular probe in order to investigate diffusion anisotropy. In agreement with earlier findings of Gong and Gomer [J. Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] diffusion of single W atoms along and across (011) terraces separated by (011) steps, i.e. step edges running along [111] is essentially isotropic with Ed = 16 kcal, D0 ≈ 10 -4 cm 2 s -1, while atoms can cross (001) oriented steps only with much activation energy: Ed ≈ 35 kcal, D0 = 10 -2 cm -2 s -1. Slow diffusion parallel to steps attributed previously by Gong Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] to kink motion was also seen along the zone (011)-(112) but seems more complicated than previously assumed, with several regimes, which may correspond to motions of different kink configurations. Distinct dips in the slow regime diffusion coefficients occurred at 910 K, somewhat higher than the previously seen onset of dips, 875 K, and may indicate roughening, as previously hypothesized. Slow diffusion perpendicular to steps was also seen in this zone and is not fully understood. It may arise from some step components always perpendicular to the short slit dimensions, or may correspond to more complicated surface configurations than the step and terrace pattern on an ideal emitter surface.

  4. A measurement of summertime dry deposition of ambient air particulates and associated metallic pollutants in Central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chiang, Hung-Che; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Xiao, You-Fu; Wu, Chia-Ming; Kuo, Yu-Chen

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in the dry deposition plate, total suspended particulate, fine particles, and coarse particles at Taichung Harbor and Gong Ming Junior High School (airport) in central Taiwan at a sampling site from June 2013 to August 2013. The results indicated that: (1) the average concentrations of the metallic elements Cr and Cd were highest at the Gong Ming Junior High School (airport), and the average concentrations of the metallic elements Ni, Cu, and Pb were highest at the Taichung Harbor sampling site. (2) The high smelting industry density and export/import rate of heavily loaded cargos were the main reasons leading to these findings. (3) The average metallic element dry deposition and metallic element PM(2.5-10) all followed the order of Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd at the two sampling sites. However, the average metallic elements Cu and Pb were found to have the highest dry deposition velocities and concentrations in PM(2.5) for the two sampling sites in this study. (4) The correlation coefficients of ambient air particle dry deposition and concentration with wind speed at the airport were higher than those from the harbor sampling site. The wind and broad open spaces at Taichung Airport were the possible reasons for the increasing correlation coefficients for ambient air particle concentration and dry deposition with wind speed at the Taichung Airport sampling site. PMID:25185928

  5. Transient Artifacts in a Flare Observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Oliveros, J. C.; Lindsey, C.; Hudson, H. S.; Buitrago Casas, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provides a new tool for the systematic observation of white-light flares, including Doppler and magnetic information as well as continuum. In our initial analysis of the highly impulsive -ray flare SOL2010-06-12T00:57 (Martínez Oliveros et al., Solar Phys. 269, 269, 2011), we reported the signature of a strong blueshift in the two footpoint sources. Concerned that this might be an artifact due to aliasing peculiar to the HMI instrument, we undertook a comparative analysis of Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG++) observations of the same flare, using the PArametric Smearing Correction ALgorithm (PASCAL) algorithm to correct for artifacts caused by variations in atmospheric smearing. This analysis confirms the artifactual nature of the apparent blueshift in the HMI observations, finding weak redshifts at the footpoints instead. We describe the use of PASCAL with GONG++ observations as a complement to the SDO observations and discuss constraints imposed by the use of HMI far from its design conditions. With proper precautions, these data provide rich information on flares and transients.

  6. Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii. PMID:23355699

  7. Art, class and gender in Joseon dynasty Korea: representations of lower-class women by the scholar-painter Yun Duseo.

    PubMed

    Chung, Saehyang P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines several pioneering genre paintings by the important scholar painter Yun Duseo (1668-1715), with its focus on their artistic sources which have not yet been explored so far. Painted on ramie, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is one of the most intriguing examples among Yun Duseo's oeuvre, which encompasses a broad variety of themes, including genre imagery, landscapes, portraits, dragons, and horses. Even among Yun Duseo's genre paintings, 'Women Picking Potherbs' is extraordinary, as recent scholarship regards it as the earliest independent representation of lower-class women in the history of Korean art. In particular, Yun Duseo painted two women who were working ourdoors to gather spring potherbs. In a conservative Confucian society, it was extraordinary women who were working outdoors. Hence, Yun Duseo occupies a highly important place in Korean painting. Furthermore, even though Yun Duseo came from the upper-class, he often painted images of lower class people working. It is possible that Yun Duseo was familiar with the book titled "Tian gong kai wu" (Exploitation of the Works of Nature) which was published in the 17th century. By identifying the probable body of his artistic sources in the book known as "Tian gong kai wu," it will be possible to assess the innovations and limitations found in 'Women Picking Potherbs'. PMID:22171413

  8. Solar Tiling And Tracking Extraction Service Using The VSO API As The Backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Alisdair R.; Suarez Sola, I.; Gonzalez Suarez, E.; Gonzalez Hernandez, I.; Hill, F.; Hourcle, J.; VSO Team

    2012-05-01

    In solar research it is often necessary to isolate areas of the Sun for further studies. Most scientists develop their own set of tools to extract the areas in which they are interested and build temporal series that include selected solar phenomena, however the overwhelming amount of available solar data, especially since the launch of SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory), makes it difficult for researchers to access selected sets of data without downloading very large images. With the help of one of the modules of the GONG (Global Oscillation Network Group) "ring-diagram'"pipeline and the VSO (Virtual Solar Observatory) API (Application Programming Interface), we build an asynchronous Solar data cube extraction service for GONG, SOLIS (Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun) and SDO data. The service has a simple ad-hoc HTML front end for researchers to access it. The data cube extraction service takes as input as set of solar coordinates, a period of time, the size of the requested area, the spatial resolution needed, projection to use (cylindrical or postel) and the images to work on. The service then tracks the sun and corrects for standard solar rotation effects. The extracted files are saved to a staging area and the user is notified via email or a SOAP callback function that the processed images are available for download.

  9. Measurement Scale of the SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Harvey, John W.; Henney, Carl J.; Keller, Christoph U.; Malanushenko, Olena M.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal magnetograms obtained with thc SOLIS Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) during a cross-calibration period are compared with similar data from the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM) at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope as well as with SOHO/MDI and GONG magnetogram. The VSM began observation at the University of Arizona agricultural test site and collaborative observations were obtained with both the VSM and SPM from 2003 Aug 05 through 2003 Sep 21 where the SPM was officially retired. The VSM replaces the SPM and continues the 3O-year NSO/Kitt Peak synoptic magnetogram record. Magnetograms are compared by equating histograms and, for selected examples, by pixel-by-pixel comparison of co-registered images. The VSM was not corrected for polarization crosstalk and was operated without hast guiding. Solar activity was at best moderate during this period. Over the range of observed fields, the VSM magnetograms show greatly improved sensitivity but are otherwise virtually identical with "raw" SPM magnetogram. GONG magnetograms are also closely comparable with the SPM while MDI flux values tend to be stronger by a factor of 1.2 - 1.4. Dependence of the results on seeing will be discussed. Partial funding for this work was provided through Solar and Heliospheric Research Supporting Research and Technology grants from NASA's Office of Space Sciences.

  10. Comparison of potential field solutions for Carrington Rotation 2144

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Yang, Shangbin; Deng, Yuagyong

    2016-02-01

    We examined differences among the coronal magnetic field structures derived with the potential field source surface (PFSS) model for Carrington Rotation 2144, from 21 November to 19 December 2013. We used the synoptic maps of solar photospheric magnetic field from four observatories, the Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS), Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG), Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI), and Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO). We tested two smoothing methods, Gaussian and boxcar averaging, and correction of unbalanced net magnetic flux. The solutions of three-dimensional coronal magnetic field are significantly different each other. An open-field region derived with HSOS data agrees best with the corresponding coronal hole observed by Solar Dynamics Observatories/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, while HMI data yielded best agreements with the near-Earth OMNI database. The GONG data overall gave agreements as good as the HMI. The PFSS calculations using WSO data were least sensitive to the choices we examined in this work. Differences in PFSS solutions using different choices and parameters in smoothing imply that the photospheric magnetic field distributions with size of several degrees at midlatitude and low-latitude regions can be decisive, at least, in the examined period. To better determine the global solar corona, therefore, further evaluation of influences from compact bipolar magnetic field is needed.

  11. Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

  12. A Chinese Mind-Body Exercise Improves Self-Control of Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Siu, Nicolson Y.; Lau, Eliza M.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2013-01-01

    Self-control problems commonly manifest as temper outbursts and repetitive/rigid/impulsive behaviors, in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which often contributes to learning difficulties and caregiver burden. The present study aims to compare the effect of a traditional Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercise, Nei Yang Gong, with that of the conventional Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) technique in enhancing the self-control of children with ASD. Forty-six age- and IQ-matched ASD children were randomly assigned to receive group training in Nei Yang Gong (experimental group) or PMR (control group) twice per week for four weeks. The participants’ self-control was measured by three neuropsychological tests and parental rating on standardized questionnaires, and the underlying neural mechanism was assessed by the participants’ brain EEG activity during an inhibitory-control task before and after intervention. The results show that the experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in self-control than the control group, which concurs with the parental reports of reduced autistic symptoms and increased control of temper and behaviors. In addition, the experimental group showed enhanced EEG activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that mediates self-control, whereas the PMR group did not. The present findings support the potential application of Chinese Chan-based mind-body exercises as a form of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with self-control problems. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; Registration No.: ChiCTR-TRC-12002561; URL: www.chictr.org. PMID:23874533

  13. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES AND ULTRAVIOLET EMISSIONS ACCOMPANYING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, B. M.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2012-11-20

    We have used Transition Region and Coronal Explorer 1600 A images and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) magnetograms to compare ultraviolet (UV) emissions from the chromosphere to longitudinal magnetic field changes in the photosphere during four X-class solar flares. An abrupt, significant, and persistent change in the magnetic field occurred across more than 10 pixels in the GONG magnetograms for each flare. These magnetic changes lagged the GOES flare start times in all cases, showing that they were consequences and not causes of the flares. Ultraviolet emissions were spatially coincident with the field changes. The UV emissions tended to lag the GOES start times for the flares and led the changes in the magnetic field in all pixels except one. The UV emissions led the photospheric field changes by 4 minutes on average with the longest lead being 9 minutes; however, the UV emissions continued for tens of minutes, and more than an hour in some cases, after the field changes were complete. The observations are consistent with the picture in which an Alfven wave from the field reconnection site in the corona propagates field changes outward in all directions near the onset of the impulsive phase, including downward through the chromosphere and into the photosphere, causing the photospheric field changes, whereas the chromosphere emits in the UV in the form of flare kernels, ribbons, and sequential chromospheric brightenings during all phases of the flare.

  14. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    , Song L, Zhang W, Norm C, Cao W, Wilfred H T, Liu H, Wang S, Du J, Xin H and Chang Li 2011 Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades Environ. Res. Lett. 6 045404 Qian Y, Flanner M G, Leung L R and Wang W 2011 Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 1929-48 Ramanathan V, Li F, Ramana M V, Praveen P S, Kim D, Corrigan C E, Nguyen H, Stone E A, Schauer J J, Carmichael G R, Adhikary B and Yoon S C 2007 Atmospheric brown clouds: Hemispherical and regional variations in long-range transport, absorption, and radiative forcing J. Geophys. Res. 112 D22S21 Sakai A, Nakawo M and Fujita K 1998 Melt rate of ice cliffs on the Lirung Glacier, Nepal Himalayas, 1996 Bull. Glaciol. Res. 16 57-66 Sakai A, Nishimura K, Kadota T and Takeuchi N 2009 Onset of calving at supraglacial lakes on debris covered glaciers of the Nepal Himalayas J. Glaciol. 55 909-17 Scherler D, Bookhagen B and Strecker M R 2011 Spatially variable response of Himalayan glaciers to climate change affected by debris cover Nature Geosci. 4 156-9 Takeuchi N, Kohshima S and Seko K 2001 Structure, formation, darkening process of albedo reducing material (cryoconite) on a Himalayan glacier: a granular algal mat growing on the glacier Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. 33 115-22 Warren S G and Wiscombe W J 1980 A model for the spectral albedo of snow. II: Snow containing atmospheric aerosols J. Atmos. Sci. 37 2734-45 Wiscombe W J and Warren S G 1980 A model for the spectral albedo of snow. I: Pure snow J. Atmos. Sci. 37 2712-3 Yao T D, Wang Y, Liu S, Pu J, Shen Y and Lu A 2004 Recent glacial retreat in high Asia in China and its impact on water resource in Northwest China Sci. China Ser. D 47 1065-75 Yasunari T J, Bonasoni P, Laj P, Fujita K, Vuillermoz E, Marinoni A, Cristofanelli P, Duchi R, Tartari G and Lau K M 2010 Estimated impact of black carbon deposition during pre-monsoon season

  15. FOREWORD Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appourchaux, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Volume 271 (2011) of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series provides a record of the invited and contributed talks, and of the posters presented at the GONG2010-SoHO24 conference entitled 'A new era of seismology of the Sun and solar-like stars'. The conference was held from 27 June 2010 to 2 July 2010 in Aix-en-Provence, France. More than 120 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. I would like to express my gratitude for the the financial support from the following organisations: Université Paris-Sud; the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES); the Programme National des Relations Soleil-Terre (PNST) and the Programme National de Physique Stellaire (PNPS) (both programmes under the umbrella of the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers, INSU); INSU of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); the SoHO project of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Science Programme of ESA; the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG); and finally the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS). The Scientific Organizing Committee comprised Thierry Appourchaux (chairman, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France), Frank Hill (co-chairman, GONG / National Solar Observatory, Tucson, Arizona, United States), Annie Baglin (Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France), William Chaplin (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom), Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard (Aarhus Universitet, Denmark), Thierry Corbard (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Nice, France), Bernhard Fleck (European Space Agency), Laurent Gizon (Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Lindau, Germany), Travis Metcalfe (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, United States), Michael Thompson (Sheffied University, United Kingdom; High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, Colorado, United States) and Jesper Schou (Stanford University, California, United States). The Editorial Committee of these proceedings was composed of Thierry Appourchaux

  16. Thai group set to invest in Chinese petchem complex

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-06

    A $5-billion refinery and petrochemical complex is planned by Thailand's Charoen Pokphand (Bangkok) at the seaport of Nimpoh, near Shanghai. The company has discussed the project with the central government of China, and state oil and petrochemicals company Sinopec (Beijing) is due to complete a feasibility study within the next two months. Charoen's plastics processing subsidiary, Kuo Shen (Hong Kong), is expected to hold 70% in the venture, Sinopec 20%, and the Chinese government the remaining 10%. Western companies have been invited to participate. Solvay (Brussels), a 49% partner with Charoen Pokphand in the Vinythai polyvinyl chloride (PVC) joint venture at Map Ta Pud, Thailand, has not yet made a commitment. The 5-million m.t./year oil refinery would feed the complex, which will be based on a 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant, downstream aromatics units, and a range of derivatives plants. The complex, which falls outside the many announced for Thailand's current five-year economic plan, is expcted to be implemented in stages. To begin with, a 120,000-m.t./year PVC plant will be built that will be fed on imported vinyl chloride monomer. Charoen is in discussions with process licensers, including Solvay, European Vinyl Corp., BFGoodrich, and Shinetsu. Half the PVC output will be consumed by Kuo Shen in China, where Charoen has several plastics processing units, including one in Shanghai and one in Nimpoh. Meanwhile, Sinopec's Hong Kong subsidiary is seeking partners to invest in joint venture projects in China. Sinopec president Liu Xuemin says the company is willing to cooperate with overseas companies to establish small petrochemical projects. In addition, Sinopec is negotiating with officials of Dayang in Jiangsu province and the special economic zone of Shen Zhen, near Hong Kong, on joint ventures for plastics and food additives.

  17. Open forum: Question and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation).

  18. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution obtained from the structural damage indentification process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Mo-How H.

    1990-01-01

    An identification procedure proposed by Shen and Taylor to determine the crack characteristics (location and size of the crack) from dynamic measurements is tested. This procedure was based on minimization of either the 'mean-square' measure of difference between measurement data (natural frequencies and mode shapes) and the corresponding predictions obtained from the computational model. The procedure is tested for simulated damage in the form of symmetric cracks in a simply-supported Bernoulli-Euler beam. The sensitivity of the solution of damage identification problems to the values of parameters that characterize damage is discussed. A sensitivity formula is derived.

  19. Finite difference identification of noisy distributed systems using scanning measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the present-day literature concerned with identification theory and techniques is directed toward lumped parameter systems, and many comprehensive surveys of the field are available. Relatively little has appeared in the literature concerning distributed identification, and even more noticeable is the scarcity of papers dealing with systems described by the one-dimensional wave equation. Perdeauville and Goodson were perhaps the first researchers with a workable but time consuming method for the identification of coefficients of the wave equation. Fairman and Shen, also considering the wave equation, used the technique of finite differencing to approximate spatial derivatives, and Poisson filter chains to approximate temporal derivatives.

  20. Provision of auricular acupuncture and acupressure in a university setting.

    PubMed

    Oyola-Santiago, Tamara; Knopf, Rachel; Robin, Tracy; Harvey, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture using the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol stimulates 5 points in each ear--the Shen Men, sympathetic nervous system, liver, kidney, and lung. This protocol is also known as Acu Detox, and has been used for recovery in community-based settings and drug use treatment programs. It has also been proven to be effective in alleviating stress and enhancing a general sense of well-being. This article describes the auricular acupuncture and acupressure program developed for a university setting and its use as a tool to enhance harm reduction and mental health services. PMID:24010498

  1. Pharmacogenomics: mapping monogenic mutations to direct therapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Palmer

    2012-07-01

    The molecular mapping of mutations that underlie congenital disorders of monogenic origin can result in both a broader understanding of the molecular basis of the disorder and novel therapeutic insights. Indeed, genotyping patients and then replicating the behavior of the mutant gene products in well-defined biochemical or electrophysiological systems will allow tailoring of therapy to be mutation- and protein sequence-dependent. In this issue of the JCI, Shen and colleagues describe such an approach that identified novel mutations in the α subunit of the nicotinic receptor linked to myasthenia gravis. PMID:22728931

  2. Fast Multigrid Techniques in Total Variation-Based Image Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Mary Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Existing multigrid techniques are used to effect an efficient method for reconstructing an image from noisy, blurred data. Total Variation minimization yields a nonlinear integro-differential equation which, when discretized using cell-centered finite differences, yields a full matrix equation. A fixed point iteration is applied with the intermediate matrix equations solved via a preconditioned conjugate gradient method which utilizes multi-level quadrature (due to Brandt and Lubrecht) to apply the integral operator and a multigrid scheme (due to Ewing and Shen) to invert the differential operator. With effective preconditioning, the method presented seems to require Omicron(n) operations. Numerical results are given for a two-dimensional example.

  3. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  4. [Herbal textual research on origin and development of traditional Chinese medicine "duhuo" and "qianghuo"].

    PubMed

    Shan, Feng; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the origin and development of the traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo" with medicinal literatures. Medical literatures of past dynasties were analysed and combined with the modern material. The "Duhuo" in Herbal writing Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing include traditional Chinese medicine "Duhuo" and "Qianghuo", "Qianghuo" was separated from "Duhuo" due to the distinguish of clinical application. The origin of "Qianghuo" is Notopterygium incisum and N. forbesii, However, The origin of "Duhuo" is very complex, Angelica pubescens f. biserrata as authentic "Duhuo" was used from Song Dynasty. "Qianghuo" was originated from "Duhuo". PMID:25522638

  5. A simple method to prevent hard X-ray-induced preheating effects inside the cone tip in indirect-drive fast ignition implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongxiao; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Feng; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shui, Min; He, Yingling; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Li; Chen, Ming; Yang, Yimeng; Yuan, Yongteng; Wang, Peng; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan

    2016-06-01

    During fast-ignition implosions, preheating of inside the cone tip caused by hard X-rays can strongly affect the generation and transport of hot electrons in the cone. Although indirect-drive implosions have a higher implosion symmetry, they cause stronger preheating effects than direct-drive implosions. To control the preheating of the cone tip, we propose the use of indirect-drive fast-ignition targets with thicker tips. Experiments carried out at the ShenGuang-III prototype laser facility confirmed that thicker tips are effective for controlling preheating. Moreover, these results were consistent with those of 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  6. On the Importance of the Equation of State for the Neutrino-driven Supernova Explosion Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei; Fischer, Tobias; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    By implementing the widely used equations of state (EOS) from Lattimer & Swesty (LS) and H. Shen et al. (SHEN) in core-collapse supernova simulations, we explore possible impacts of these EOS on the post-bounce dynamics prior to the onset of neutrino-driven explosions. Our spherically symmetric (1D) and axially symmetric (2D) models are based on neutrino radiation hydrodynamics including spectral transport, which is solved by the isotropic diffusion source approximation. We confirm that in 1D simulations neutrino-driven explosions cannot be obtained for any of the employed EOS. Impacts of the EOS on the post-bounce hydrodynamics are more clearly visible in 2D simulations. In 2D models of a 15 M ⊙ progenitor using the LS EOS, the stalled bounce shock expands to increasingly larger radii, which is not the case when using the SHEN EOS. Keeping in mind that the omission of the energy drain by heavy-lepton neutrinos in the present scheme could facilitate explosions, we find that 2D models of an 11.2 M ⊙ progenitor produce neutrino-driven explosions for all the EOS under investigation. Models using the LS EOS are slightly more energetic compared with those with the SHEN EOS. The more efficient neutrino heating in the LS models coincides with a higher electron antineutrino luminosity and a larger mass that is enclosed within the gain region. The models based on the LS EOS also show a more vigorous and aspherical downflow of accreting matter to the surface of the protoneutron star (PNS). The accretion pattern is essential for the production and strength of outgoing pressure waves, which can push in turn the shock to larger radii and provide more favorable conditions for the explosion. Based on our models, we investigate several diagnostic indicators of the explosion that have been suggested in the literature, e.g., the amplitude of the standing accretion shock instability mode, the mass-weighted average entropy in the gain region, the PNS radius, the antesonic

  7. Response to Comment on "Cycling Li-O₂ batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition".

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Kim, Gunwoo; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Grey, Clare P

    2016-05-01

    We described a lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery comprising a graphene electrode, a dimethoxyethane-based electrolyte, and H2O and lithium iodide (LiI) additives, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) being the predominant discharge product. We demonstrate, in contrast to the work of Shen et al., that the chemical reactivity between LiOH and the triiodide ion (I3 (-)) to form IO3 (-) indicates that LiOH can be removed on charging; the electrodes do not clog, even after multiple cycles, confirming that solid products are reversibly removed. PMID:27151859

  8. Effects of comprehensive therapy based on traditional Chinese medicine patterns in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a four-center, open-label, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for many years. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the comprehensive therapy based on the three common TCM patterns in stable COPD patients. Methods A four-center, open-label randomized controlled method was conducted. A total of 352 patients were divided into the trial group (n = 176, treated with conventional Western medicine and Bu-Fei Jian-Pi granules, Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granules, and Yi-Qi Zi-Shen granules based on the TCM patterns respectively) and the control group (n = 176, treated with conventional Western medicine). The frequency and duration of acute exacerbation, lung function, clinical symptoms, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), dyspnea scale and quality of life were observed during a 6-month treatment period and at a further 12-month follow-up. Results A total of 306 patients completed the study fully. The full analysis set (FAS) population was 350 and the per-protocol analysis set (PPS) population was 306. After the 6-month treatment and 12-month follow-up, there were significant differences between the trial and control group in the following: frequency of acute exacerbation (FAS: P = 0.000; PPS: P = 0.000); duration of acute exacerbation (FAS: P = 0.000; PPS: P = 0.001); FEV1 (FAS: P = 0.007; PPS: P = 0.008); symptoms (FAS: P = 0.001; PPS: P = 0.001); 6MWD (FAS: P = 0.045; PPS: P = 0.042); dyspnea scale (FAS: P = 0.002; PPS: P = 0.004); and physical domain (FAS: P = 0.000; PPS: P = 0.000), psychological domain (FAS: P = 0.008; PPS: P = 0.011), social domain (FAS: P = 0.001; PPS: P = 0.000) and environment domain (FAS: P = 0.015; PPS: P = 0.009) of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. There were no differences between the trial and control group in FVC, FEV1% and adverse events. Conclusions Based on the TCM patterns, Bu-Fei Jian-Pi granules, Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granules and Yi-Qi Zi-Shen granules have beneficial effects on measured

  9. Ultracompact plasmonic switch based on graphene-silica metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Longzhi; Pei, Chongyang; Shen, Ao; Zhao, Changyun; Li, Yan; Dai, Tingge; Yu, Hui; Li, Yubo; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jianyi

    2014-05-01

    Controlling the light transmission in the epsilon-near-zero channel, which is covered by the perfect-electric-conductor (PEC) walls, has been demonstrated in [L. Yang, T. Hu, A. Shen, C. Pei, B. Yang, T. Dai, H. Yu, Y. Li, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, Opt. Lett. 39, 1909 (2014)]. In this work, we investigate the possibility of replacing the PEC by some practical metal materials. Based on it, an ultracompact plasmonic switch with the length of 15 nm is presented. Its highest extinction ratio is more than 13 dB, while the 3-dB extinction ratio is obtained with a 0.41 V gate voltage.

  10. Investigation of turbulent processes in magnetospheric boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotko, William; Sonnerup, B. U. O.

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent non-evolving two dimensional slab model of a viscous low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) coupled to the ionosphere was developed by Phan, et al., (1989). Numerical results from the model and possible use of observations to determine the model parameters are discussed. The dynamical model developed by Lotko, et al., (1987) was used by Lotko and Shen (1991) to examine dynamical processes relevant to the LLBL with particular application to post-noon auroral shear layers. Initial results from a magnetohydrodynamic study of flank-side mangetopause boundary configuration are described. Effects of compressibility, scalar viscosity, and electrical resistivity are included in the MHD equations.

  11. The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov,, D.D.

    2010-12-07

    A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues, not the design features.

  12. Nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three rural southeast United States national parks: A model sensitivity analysis and comparison to measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Ray, John D.

    2003-10-01

    A detailed modeling analysis is conducted focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (14-29 July 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. The three national parks are Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), Big Meadows. A base emission scenario and eight variant predictions are analyzed, and predictions are compared with data observed at the three locations for the same time period. Model-predicted concentrations are higher than observed values for O3 (with a cutoff of 40 ppbv) by 3.0% at GRSM, 19.1% at MACA, and 9.0% at SHEN (mean normalized bias error). They are very similar to observations for overall mean ozone concentrations at GRSM and SHEN. They generally agree (the same order of magnitude) with observed values for lumped paraffin compounds but are an order of magnitude lower for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene). Model sensitivity analyses here indicate that each location differs in terms of volatile organic compound (VOC) capacity to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from net production to production suppression. Analysis of individual model processes shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at the high-elevation rural locations (GRSM and SHEN) are transported from other areas; local chemistry is the second largest O3 contributor. At the low-elevation location (MACA), about 80% of daytime O3 is produced by local chemistry and 20% is transported from other areas. Local emissions (67-95%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, the rest coming from transport. Chemistry processes are responsible for about 50% removal of VOCs for all locations; less than 10% are lost to surface deposition and the rest are exported to other areas

  13. [Fang Chengpei and Zheng's laryngology].

    PubMed

    Zheng, R

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between Fang Chengpei, a famous physician of the Xin'an school of traditional Chinese medicine and a master of traditional Chinese folk arts of the Qing Dynasty, and successors of Zheng's laryngology of Xin'an was even closer than that between his close relatives and friends. Zheng Meijian imparted laryngological medical skills to Fang, made a preface to Shou Yi Mi Lu (Secret Records of Medical Skills)--a secret document handed down in Fang-family, gave directions to and held discussions with Fang on the doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors. Fang participated in naming, prefacing, and revising Chong Lou Yu Yue (A Jade Key to Laryngeal Diseases) in which three secret recipes for laryngeal diseases that had been handed down in Fang's family were included. Together with Zheng Shufu, he wrote Chong Lou Yu Yue Xu Pian (Continuation of A Jade Key to Laryngeal Diseases). After Fang had passed away, many of his belongings were left in Zhengs' house, including medical documents, calligraphy, music scores, medical instruments, etc. Fang made a great contribution to the academic development of Zheng's Laryngology. PMID:11639354

  14. Ground-state phase diagram and magnetization process of the exactly solved mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising diamond chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisnyi, Bohdan; Strečka, Jozef

    2013-11-01

    The ground state and magnetization process of the mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising diamond chain are exactly solved by employing the generalized decoration-iteration mapping transformation and the transfer-matrix method. The decoration-iteration transformation is first used in order to establish a rigorous mapping equivalence with the corresponding spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths chain in a non-zero magnetic field, which is subsequently exactly treated within the framework of the transfer-matrix technique. It is shown that the ground-state phase diagram includes just four different ground states and the low-temperature magnetization curve may exhibit an intermediate plateau precisely at one half of the saturation magnetization. Our rigorous results disprove recent Monte Carlo simulations of Xin et al. [Z. Xin, S. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 324 (2012) 3704], which imply an existence of the other magnetization plateaus at 0.283 and 0.426 of the saturation magnetization.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermodynamic Properties in Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Li, Xin; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Akinlalu, Ademola V.; Liu, L.

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide (UO2) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As for solid UO2, the lattice parameter, density, and enthalpy obtained by MD simulations were in good agreement with existing experimental data and previous theoretical predictions. The calculated thermal conductivities matched the experiment results at the midtemperature range but were underestimated at very low and very high temperatures. The calculation results of mean square displacement represented the stability of uranium at all temperatures and the high mobility of oxygen toward 3000 K. By fitting the diffusivity constant of oxygen with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman law, we noticed a secondary phase transition near 2006.4 K, which can be identified as a ‘‘strong’’ to ‘‘fragile’’ supercooled liquid or glass phase transition in UO2. By fitting the oxygen diffusion constant with the Arrhenius equation, activation energies of 2.0 and 2.7 eV that we obtained were fairly close to the recommended values of 2.3 to 2.6 eV. Xiangyu Wang, Bin Wu, Fei Gao, Xin Li, Xin Sun, Mohammed A. Khaleel, Ademola V. Akinlalu and Li Liu

  16. Ground state sign-changing solutions for a class of Schrödinger-Poisson type problems in R3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sitong; Tang, Xianhua

    2016-08-01

    This paper is dedicated to studying the following Schrödinger-Poisson system -triangle u+V(x)u+λφ u=K(x)f(u),& quad xin R3,-triangleφ= u^2,quad xin R3, where V, K are positive continuous potentials, f is a continuous function and {λ} is a positive parameter. We develop a direct approach to establish the existence of one ground state sign-changing solution {u_λ} with precisely two nodal domains, by introducing a weaker condition that there exists {θ_0in (0,1)} such that K(x)[f(τ)/τ^3-f(tτ)/(tτ)^3 ]sign(1-t)+θ_0V(x)|1-t^2|/(tτ)^2 ≥ 0, quad forall x in R^3, t > 0, τ≠ 0 than the usual increasing condition on {f(t)/|t|^3}. Under the above condition, we also prove that the energy of any sign-changing solution is strictly larger than two times the least energy, and give a convergence property of {u_λ} as {λsearrow 0}.

  17. Triple-goal estimates for disease mapping.

    PubMed

    Shen, W; Louis, T A

    Maps of regional morbidity and mortality rates play an important role in assessing environmental equity. They provide effective tools for identifying areas with potentially elevated risk, determining spatial trend, and formulating and validating aetiological hypotheses about disease. Bayes and empirical Bayes methods produce stable small-area rate estimates that retain geographic and demographic resolution. The beauty of the Bayesian approach lies in its ability to structure complicated models, inferential goals and analyses. Three inferential goals are relevant to disease mapping and risk assessment: (i) computing accurate estimates of disease rates in small geographic areas; (ii) estimating the distribution of disease rates over the region; (iii) ranking the disease rates so that environmental investigation can be prioritized. No single set of estimates can simultaneously optimize these three goals, and Shen and Louis propose a set of estimates that perform well on all three goals. These are optimal for estimating the distribution of rates and for ranking, and maintain a high accuracy in estimating area-specific rates. However, the Shen/Louis method is sensitive to choice of priors. To address this issue we introduce a robustified version of the method based on a smoothed non-parametric estimate of the prior. We evaluate the performance of this method through a simulation study, and illustrate it using a data set of county-specific lung cancer rates in Ohio. PMID:10960854

  18. News in Brief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Vice President Shen Meets with CIP Guests Vice President Shen visits Finland, the Netherlands and Germany NSFC-JST Workshop on Energy Saving Held in Beijing NSFC President Meets with Guests from K.T. Li Foundation Northeastern Asian Symposium on Network Held in Xi'an Pilot Program of China-US Collaborative Research on Biomedical Research Announced Program of China-US Collaborative Research in Advanced Sensors and Bio-inspired Technology (ASBIT) Announced The Eighth A-HORCs Meeting Held in Xi'an Prof. Chen Yiyu, NSFC President meets with NRF President, South Africa NSFC-CIHR MoU Renewed in Ottawa NSFC and NIH Signs Collaborative MoU in Biomedical Research 10th Anniversary of the Sino-German Center Celebrated International Symposium on Internet-based Science Grants Management System Held in NSFC MOU between NSFC and UNEP signed in Beijing Plenary Meeting of the International Committee for the Evaluation of NSFC's Funding and Management Performance Held in Beijing

  19. Resolving Multiscale Processes in Tropical Cyclogenesis Using Parallel EEMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Shen, B. W.; Cheung, S.; Li, J. L. F.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The recent advance in high-resolution global models has suggested that improved multiscale simulations of tropical waves may help extend the lead time of tropical cyclone (TC) formation prediction (e.g., Shen et al., 2010ab, 2012, 2013a). In previous efforts in the multiscale analysis of tropical waves , the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) has been successfully parallelized and used to detect atmospheric wave signals on different spatial scales (e.g. Shen et al., 2013b) that include Mixed Rossby Gravity (MRG) waves, Western Wind Belt (WWB), African Easterly Waves (AEWs), etc. We now extend the related studies to examine the evolution of the large scale waves and their association with the formation of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic for an extensive time period spanning multiple years. Our goal is to analyze the multiscale interaction in the initiation and early intensification stage of an AEW and its subsequent impact on TC genesis that involves mainly the large scale downscaling processes. Specific focus is on the impact of barotropic instability and critical level (CL, or steering level) that may appear in association with the AEW. The presence of the CL is believed to play an important role in providing a favorable environment in the early TC-genesis stage in the marsupial paradigm scenario. Preliminary analysis of the satellite data obtained from the newly launched Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission linked to the TC genesis processes will be included.

  20. Investigation of load prediction on the Mexico rotor using the technique of determination of the angle of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Wenzhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Zhu, Weijun

    2012-05-01

    Blade element moment (BEM) is a widely used technique for prediction of wind turbine aerodynamics performance, the reliability of airfoil data is an important factor to improve the prediction accuracy of aerodynamic loads and power using a BEM code. The method of determination of angle of attack on rotor blades developed by SHEN, et al is successfully used to extract airfoil data from experimental characteristics on the MEXICO (Model experiments in controlled conditions) rotor. Detailed surface pressure and particle image velocimetry (PIV) flow fields at different rotor azimuth positions are examined to determine the sectional airfoil data. The present technique uses simultaneously both PIV data and blade pressure data that include the actual flow conditions (for example, tunnel effects), therefore it is more advantageous than other techniques which only use the blade loading (pressure data). The extracted airfoil data are put into a BEM code, and the calculated axial and tangential forces are compared to both computations using BEM with Glauert's and SHEN's tip loss correction models and experimental data. The comparisons show that the present method of determination of angle of attack is correct, and the re-calculated forces have good agreements with the experiment.

  1. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjögren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Mao; Chu, Hsueh-Ting; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chen, Fang-Pey; Wang, Shengwen; Wu, Po-Chang; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chang, Hen-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This large-scale survey aimed to evaluate frequencies and patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in Taiwan by analyzing the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) for cases in which CHM was used as an alternative therapy to Western medicine for improving patients' discomforts. We analyzed cases of SS principal diagnosis (ICD-9:710.2) with a catastrophic illness certificate (CIC) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient clinics from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in the NHIRD between 2002 and 2011. CHM prescription patterns for SS were evaluated from claimed visitation files and corresponding prescription files. There were 15,914 SS patients with CIC (SS/CIC), and we found only 130 SS/CIC cases visiting TCM clinics in LHID2000, 133 in LHID2005, and 126 in LHID2010. After removing duplicate data, 366 SS/CIC and 4,867 visits were analyzed. The 50-59 year age group showed the highest ratio (29.51%) in both women and men. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan" and "Xuan-Shen" (Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.) was the most commonly used formula and single herb, respectively. "Qi-Ju-Di-Huang-Wan, Gan-Lu-Yin, Xuan-Shen, Mai-Men-Dong (Ophiopogon japonicus (L. f.) Ker-Gawl.), and Sheng-Di-Huang (raw Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch)" were the core pattern prescriptions in treating SS/CIC. PMID:25923413

  2. The Dependence of the Neutrino Mechanism of Core-collapse Supernovae on the Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, Sean M.

    2013-03-01

    We study the dependence of the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism for core-collapse supernovae on the equation of state (EOS). Using a simplified treatment of the neutrino physics with a parameterized neutrino luminosity, we explore the relationship between explosion time, mass accretion rate, and neutrino luminosity for a 15 M ⊙ progenitor in 1D and 2D. We test the EOS most commonly used in core-collapse simulations: the models of Lattimer & Swesty and the model of Shen et al. We find that for a given neutrino luminosity, "stiffer" EOS, where stiffness is determined by a combination of nuclear matter properties not just incompressibility, K, explode later than "softer" EOS. The EOS of Shen et al., being the stiffest EOS, by virtue of larger incompressibility and symmetry energy slope, L, explodes later than any of the Lattimer & Swesty EOS models. Amongst the Lattimer & Swesty EOS that all share the same value of L, the explosion time increases with increasing nuclear incompressibility, K. We find that this holds in both 1D and 2D, while for all of the models, explosions are obtained more easily in 2D than in 1D. We argue that this EOS dependence is due in part to a greater amount of acoustic flux from denser proto-neutron star atmospheres that result from a softer EOS. We also discuss the relevance of approximate instability criteria to realistic simulations.

  3. Text mining of the classical medical literature for medicines that show potential in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie C L; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808

  4. Text Mining of the Classical Medical Literature for Medicines That Show Potential in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H.; Xue, Charlie C. L.; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808

  5. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE NEUTRINO MECHANISM OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE ON THE EQUATION OF STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, Sean M.

    2013-03-01

    We study the dependence of the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism for core-collapse supernovae on the equation of state (EOS). Using a simplified treatment of the neutrino physics with a parameterized neutrino luminosity, we explore the relationship between explosion time, mass accretion rate, and neutrino luminosity for a 15 M {sub Sun} progenitor in 1D and 2D. We test the EOS most commonly used in core-collapse simulations: the models of Lattimer and Swesty and the model of Shen et al. We find that for a given neutrino luminosity, 'stiffer' EOS, where stiffness is determined by a combination of nuclear matter properties not just incompressibility, K, explode later than 'softer' EOS. The EOS of Shen et al., being the stiffest EOS, by virtue of larger incompressibility and symmetry energy slope, L, explodes later than any of the Lattimer and Swesty EOS models. Amongst the Lattimer and Swesty EOS that all share the same value of L, the explosion time increases with increasing nuclear incompressibility, K. We find that this holds in both 1D and 2D, while for all of the models, explosions are obtained more easily in 2D than in 1D. We argue that this EOS dependence is due in part to a greater amount of acoustic flux from denser proto-neutron star atmospheres that result from a softer EOS. We also discuss the relevance of approximate instability criteria to realistic simulations.

  6. Progress of the equation of state table for supernova simulations and its influence

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke

    2012-11-12

    We describe recent progress of the EOS tables for numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae and related astrophysical phenomena. Based on the Shen EOS table, which has been widely used in supernova simulations, there is systematic progress by extending the degrees of freedom such as hyperons and quarks. These extended EOS tables have been used, for example, to study the neutrino bursts from the gravitational collapse of massive stars leading to the black hole formation. Observations of such neutrinos from galactic events in future will provide us with the information on the EOS. Recently, studies of the supernova EOS with the multi-composition of nuclei under the nuclear statistical equilibrium have been made beyond the single nucleus approximation as used in the Shen EOS. It has been found that light elements including deuterons are abundant in wide regions of the supernova cores. We discuss that neutrino-deuteron reactions may have a possible influence on the explosion mechanism through modifications of neutrino heating rates.

  7. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

  8. An integrated chinmedomics strategy for discovery of effective constituents from traditional herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Nan, Yang; Guan, Yu; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guangli

    2016-01-01

    Traditional natural product discovery affords no information about compound structure or pharmacological activities until late in the discovery process, and leads to low probabilities of finding compounds with unique biological properties. By integrating serum pharmacochemistry-based screening with high-resolution metabolomics analysis, we have developed a new platform, termed chinmedomics which is capable of directly discovering the bioactive constituents. In this work, the focus is on ShenQiWan (SQW) treatment of ShenYangXu (SYX, kidney-yang deficiency syndrome) as a case study, as determined by chinmedomics. With serum pharmacochemistry, a total of 34 peaks were tentatively characterised in vivo, 24 of which were parent components and 10 metabolites were detected. The metabolic profiling and potential biomarkers of SYX were also investigated and 23 differential metabolites were found. 20 highly correlated components were screened by the plotting of correlation between marker metabolites and serum constituents and considered as the main active components of SQW. These compounds are imported into a database to predict the action targets: 14 importantly potential targets were found and related to aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption and adrenergic signaling pathways. Our study showed that integrated chinmedomics is a powerful strategy for discovery and screening of effective constituents from herbal medicines. PMID:26750403

  9. ON THE FLARE-INDUCED SEISMICITY IN THE ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930 AND RELATED ENHANCEMENT OF GLOBAL WAVES IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Brajesh; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Mathur, Savita; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Garcia, R. A. E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in E-mail: tiwari@mps.mpg.de

    2011-12-10

    A major flare (of class X3.4) occurred on 2006 December 13 in the active region NOAA 10930. This flare event has remained interesting to solar researchers for studies related to particle acceleration during the flare process and the reconfiguration of magnetic fields as well as fine-scale features in the active region. The energy released during flares is also known to induce acoustic oscillations in the Sun. Here, we analyze the line-of-sight velocity patterns in this active region during the X3.4 flare using the Dopplergrams obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) instrument. We have also analyzed the disk-integrated velocity observations of the Sun obtained by the Global Oscillation at Low Frequency (GOLF) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft as well as full-disk collapsed velocity signals from GONG observations during this flare to study any possible connection between the flare-related changes seen in the local and global velocity oscillations in the Sun. We apply wavelet transform to the time series of the localized velocity oscillations as well as the global velocity oscillations in the Sun spanning the flare event. The line-of-sight velocity shows significant enhancement in some localized regions of the penumbra of this active region during the flare. The affected region is seen to be away from the locations of the flare ribbons and the hard X-ray footpoints. The sudden enhancement of this velocity seems to be caused by the Lorentz force driven by the 'magnetic jerk' in the localized penumbral region. Application of wavelet analysis to these flare-induced localized seismic signals shows significant enhancement in the high-frequency domain (5 <{nu} < 8 mHz) and a feeble enhancement in the p-mode oscillations (2 <{nu} < 5 mHz) during the flare. On the other hand, the wavelet analysis of GOLF velocity data and the full-disk collapsed GONG velocity data spanning the flare event indicates significant post

  10. Magnetic flux cancellation and Doppler shifts in flaring active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Olga; Petrie, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    Flux cancellation plays an important role in some theories of solar eruptions. The mechanism of flux cancellation is suggested by many models to be a necessary condition of flare initiation as a part of slow reconnection processes in the lower atmosphere. In our earlier work we analyzed flux cancellation events during major flares using GONG line-of-sight magnetograms. In this work we use vector magnetic field data from SDO/HMI for better interpretation of the longitudinal field changes. We also compute Doppler velocity shifts at the cancellation sites in attempt to distinguish between the three physical processes that could stand behind flux removal from the photosphere: submergence of U-shaped loops, emergence of Ω-shaped loops and magnetic reconnection.

  11. [Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information. PMID:21322217

  12. Generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum in a class of driven SU(2) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jiao; Gong Jiangbin

    2010-02-15

    A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A 77, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A class of driven systems without a link with the Harper-model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hofstadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, and coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  13. Solar Internal Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, J.; SOE Internal Rotation Team

    With the flood of high quality helioseismic data from the instruments on the SOHO spacecraft (MDI/VIRGO/GOLF) and ground based instruments (eg. GONG and LOWL) we have been able to get increasingly detailed information on the rotation and other large scale flows in the solar interior. In this talk I will discuss some of the highlights of what we have learned so far and what we may expect to learn in the near future. Among the recent advances have been tighter constraints on the tachocline at the bottom of the convection zone, detection of details in the surface rotation rate similar to the torsional oscillations found in the surface Doppler shift and helioseismic evidence for meridional flows. The MDI project is supported by NASA contract NAG5-3077 at Stanford University.

  14. The nonlinear physics of musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N. H.

    1999-05-01

    Musical instruments are often thought of as linear harmonic systems, and a first-order description of their operation can indeed be given on this basis, once we recognise a few inharmonic exceptions such as drums and bells. A closer examination, however, shows that the reality is very different from this. Sustained-tone instruments, such as violins, flutes and trumpets, have resonators that are only approximately harmonic, and their operation and harmonic sound spectrum both rely upon the extreme nonlinearity of their driving mechanisms. Such instruments might be described as `essentially nonlinear'. In impulsively excited instruments, such as pianos, guitars, gongs and cymbals, however, the nonlinearity is `incidental', although it may produce striking aural results, including transitions to chaotic behaviour. This paper reviews the basic physics of a wide variety of musical instruments and investigates the role of nonlinearity in their operation.

  15. Transplant ethics under scrutiny - responsibilities of all medical professionals.

    PubMed

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-02-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices. PMID:23444249

  16. Solar Activity in Cycle 24 - What do Acoustic Oscillations tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, Sushant; Simoniello, Rosaria; Hill, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Solar Cycle 24 is the weakest cycle in modern era of space- and ground-based observations. The number of sunspots visible on solar disk and other measures of magnetic activity have significantly decreased from the last cycle. It was also preceeded by an extended phase of low activity, a period that raised questions on our understanding of the solar activity cycle and its origin. This unusual behavior was not only limited to the visible features in Sun's atmosphere, the helioseismic observations also revealed peculiar behavior in the interior. It was suggested that the changes in magnetic activity were confined to shallower layers only, as a result low-degree mode frequencies were found to be anti-correlated with solar activity. Here we present results on the progression of Cycle 24 by analyzing the uninterrupted helioseismic data from GONG and SDO/HMI, and discuss differences and similarity between cycles 23 and 24 in relation to the solar activity.

  17. Variation of Thermal Pressure along the Solid Hugoniot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Jing, Fuqian

    2005-07-01

    The behavior of thermal pressure PTH for all kinds of solid materials were investigated by using lattice dynamics theory and shock wave theory along the Hugoniot up to 500GPa. The results showed that for metals, ionic crystal and miners, etc., the ratio of the thermal pressure to the total pressure (PTH /PTotal) is approximately keeping in constant in a large pressure range not only for non-porous materials but also for porous materials at certain porosity. This confirms theoretically the existence of material constant parameter β along solid Hugoniot (Gong et al., Shock Compression of Condensed Matter-2003, edited by M. D. Furnish, Y. m. Gupta, and J. W. Forfes, pp.61-64.). Moreover, the volume dependence of the thermal pressure for all kinds of materials was addressed in our paper.

  18. Entropic Step Doubling on W(430).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Edward H.; Dey, Srijata; West, James; Kiriukhin, Sergei

    1996-03-01

    We present high resolution low energy electron diffraction (LEED) results for the W(430) surface. Unlike every other system studied to date, single atomic height steps on this surface become energetically unfavorable at elevated temperatures. Above 940 K, a two phase mixture of single and double height steps forms. The transition to double height steps is predicted on the basis of a simple model provided that unconventional defect energetics are invoked. Specifically, double height steps cost more than twice as much energy as single height steps, while kinks on the double height steps cost less energy than kinks on single height steps. Recent theoretical calculations independently confirm this energetics hierarchy. (W. Xu, J.B. Adams and T.L. Einstein (to be published).) The existence of the doubling transition sheds new light on previous self diffusion coefficient measurements for other stepped tungsten surfaces. (Y.M. Gong and R. Gomer, J. Chem. Phys. 88), 1359 (1988); 88, 1370 (1988).

  19. Effectiveness of CAM therapy: understanding the evidence.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2011-02-01

    By definition, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attempts to diagnose and treat illnesses in unconventional ways. CAM has been classified as: (1) alternative medical systems (eg, traditional Chinese medicine [including acupuncture], naturopathic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy); (2) biologic-based therapies (eg, herbal, special dietary, and individual biologic treatments); (3) energy therapies (eg, Reiki, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy, Qi Gong, and intercessory prayer); (4) manipulative and body-based systems (eg, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage); and (5) mind-body interventions (eg, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and the relaxation response). This review focuses on how to assess the effectiveness of CAM therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pains, emphasizing the role of specific and nonspecific analgesic mechanisms, including placebo. PMID:21220082

  20. Complementary/Integrative Therapies That Work: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kligler, Benjamin; Teets, Raymond; Quick, Melissa

    2016-09-01

    Significant evidence supports the effectiveness and safety of several complementary or integrative treatment approaches to common primary care problems. Acupuncture is effective in the management of chronic low back pain. Mind-body interventions such as cognitive behavior therapy, yoga, tai chi, qi gong, and music therapy may be helpful for treating insomnia. Exercise can reduce anxiety symptoms. Herbal preparations and nutritional supplements can be useful as first-line therapy for certain conditions, such as fish oil for hypertriglyceridemia, St. John's wort for depression, and Ginkgo biloba extract for dementia, or as adjunctive therapy, such as coenzyme Q10 for heart failure. Probiotic supplementation can significantly reduce the likelihood of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Physicians should caution patients about interactions, and counsel them about the quality and safety of herbal and nutritional supplements. PMID:27583423

  1. Using subsurface helicity measurements to predict flare occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinard, A. A.; Henthorn, J.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.

    2009-12-01

    Solar flares are responsible for a number of hazardous effects including disabling high-frequency radio communications, interfering with GPS measurements, and disrupting satellites. Forecasting flare occurrence is very difficult, giving little advanced notice of these events. One possible means for predicting flare occurrence lies in helioseismology, i.e. analysis of the region below the active region for signs of an impending flare. Time series helioseismic data collected by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) have been analyzed for a subset of active regions that produce large flares and a subset with very high magnetic field strength that produce no flares. A predictive parameter has been developed and analyzed using discriminant analysis as well as traditional forecasting tools such as the Heidke skill score. Preliminary results indicate this parameter predicts flare occurrence with a high success rate.

  2. [Prevention of noise induced hearing loss in musicians of Chinese opera].

    PubMed

    Bu, G

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of hearing impairment in musicians of Chinese opera is higher than that in popular music and rock and roll music. The sound levels of different instruments used in Chinese opera measured acoustically showed drums, gongs and cymbols to be hazardous to the ear. The conventional measures of prevention, such as ear plugs are not acceptable by the musicians because of interference to the musician's hearing ability. A rearrangement of situations of the musicians was suggested by the authors. The percussive musicians should be situated one meter lower than other musicians. Animal (guinea pigs) experiments by study of AP in EcochG and ultrastructural observations of the cochlea have confirmed that our suggestion for prevention of noise induced hearing impairment to be efficient. PMID:1419181

  3. Ring-Diagram Analysis: Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.

    Ring diagram analysis is now more than a decade old. While the details of the technique are still evolving, the application of the method to MDI, TON, Mt. Wilson, HLH, and GONG data is providing intriguing results. Thanks to the work of many people, it is now becoming possible to observationally infer the complicated dynamics in the outer 15 Mm of the solar convection zone, investigate the depth dependence of meridional flow, and get a closer look at zonal jet-stream structures in the mid-latitudes. We may soon be able to similarly investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of scalar fields. As ring diagrams and other local helioseismology methods such as time-distance and acoustic imaging continue to mature, the comparison of results from different techniques on common data sets will provide a useful reality check.

  4. Transplant ethics under scrutiny – responsibilities of all medical professionals

    PubMed Central

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L.; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices. PMID:23444249

  5. The future of helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, M.

    2011-10-01

    Helioseismology is the only possibility to probe the conditions inside the Sun, which advances our understanding of the solar structure and the Sun's influence on the Earth. The field of helioseismology has been developing rapidly since the 1980s thanks to dedicated projects like the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG). The field is now about to take a giant leap forward with the successful launches of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the PICARD mission with vastly better spatial and temporal resolution. This now allows to make use of the full potential of local and global helioseismology techniques to study inhomogeneities in the solar interior which are connected to solar dynamo action. In addition, new ground-based instruments are being developed for complementing in unique ways the space observations by establishing physical relationships between internal solar properties and magnetic activity in the solar atmosphere. This paper summarizes the new goals, possibilities, and prospects of helioseismology.

  6. Careers and people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Gong for graphene Graphene pioneer Andre Geim has won the 2009 Körber European Science Award for his work on these 2D carbon crystals. Geim, a physicist at Manchester University in the UK, received the award in a ceremony on 11 November at the Körber Foundation's headquarters in Hamburg, Germany. The €750 000 prize is given annually to "fully active scientists" based in Europe whose research has potential applications and scope for further development. Award conditions stipulate that 10% of the money is for the recipient's personal use, while the remainder must be spent on research within five years. The foundation was set up in 1985 by Kurt A Körber, a German industrialist, and the prize is awarded to technical and life scientists in alternate years.

  7. The Global Oscillation Network Group site survey. 1: Data collection and analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Frank; Fischer, George; Grier, Jennifer; Leibacher, John W.; Jones, Harrison B.; Jones, Patricia P.; Kupke, Renate; Stebbins, Robin T.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Project is planning to place a set of instruments around the world to observe solar oscillations as continuously as possible for at least three years. The Project has now chosen the sites that will comprise the network. This paper describes the methods of data collection and analysis that were used to make this decision. Solar irradiance data were collected with a one-minute cadence at fifteen sites around the world and analyzed to produce statistics of cloud cover, atmospheric extinction, and transparency power spectra at the individual sites. Nearly 200 reasonable six-site networks were assembled from the individual stations, and a set of statistical measures of the performance of the networks was analyzed using a principal component analysis. An accompanying paper presents the results of the survey.

  8. Efficacy of five-element gymnastics in glucose and lipid control in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiu-Ling; Tai, Yen-Kuang; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the efficacy of Five-Element Gymnastics (FEG) in controlling glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) at the 8th and the 16th weeks of intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. FEG consolidates several traditional Chinese exercises including Qigong, Xiang Gong, and martial arts with gymnastics. The experimental group (n = 31) practiced FEG at home for 16 weeks. The control group (n = 35) maintained usual activities. FEG was associated with decrease of HbA1C, TG, and LDL-C levels at the 8th week and continuous decrease of HbA1C through the 16th week. FEG could be an exercise choice for patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22495908

  9. Do in Situ Observations of Solar Wind Stream Interfaces Reflect the Evolution of Coronal Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunac, K. D.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Popecki, M. A.; Lee, M. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2008-12-01

    STEREO/PLASTIC observed at least four corotating interaction regions (CIRs) from March 2007 to April 2008. After observing a CIR stream interface at one observatory we estimated the time-of-arrival at the second STEREO observatory assuming radial propagation from a corotating source. In some instances the actual time-of-arrival did not agree with the prediction. This could be explained by changes in the solar wind speed at the source and/or by motion of the coronal hole from which the fast stream is emitted. We compare STEREO/PLASTIC observations of the stream interfaces with GONG coronal hole maps to see if the changes observed in situ are consistent with evolution at the source.

  10. Clinical features and prognosis in colorectal cancer patients with different ethnicities in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yusup, Akram; Wang, Hai-Jiang; Rahmutula, Azmat; Sayim, Parhat; Zhao, Ze-Liang; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical factors and tumor characteristics that predict survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with different ethnicities in Xin Jiang area. METHODS: A total of 1421 histopathologically confirmed sporadic CRC patients who were either Han/Chinese or Uyghur were identified and enrolled from a database of both diagnoses and operative procedures from Xin Jiang Tumor Hospital, which is affiliated to Xin Jiang Medical University between 2000 and 2007. Patients with family histories of CRC, hereditary nonpolyposis CRC, familial adenomatous polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, carcinoid, squamous carcinoma or melanoma were excluded. The two ethnic groups were compared with regard to clinical features, tumor characteristics, disease stage, overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate and cancer-specific survival rate. The factors predicting long-term survival were assessed via both univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1421 patients with CRC enrolled in this study, 1210 patients were Han/Chinese (mean age, 62.3 ± 4.5 years; range, 19-92 years), while 211 patients were Uyghur (mean age, 52.4 ± 15.6 years; range, 17-87 years). There were significant differences in proportions of gender, age, blood type, occupation and histopathological type between the Han/Chinese and Uyghur patients (P < 0.05). The median overall, disease-free and cancer-specific survival time were 45, 62 and 65 mo for the Han/Chinese patients and 42, 49 and 61 mo for the Uyghur patients (P = 0.000, P = 0.005, P = 0.007). The cumulative 5-year survival of the Uyghur patients was significantly worse than that of the Han patients (P = 0.000). A multivariate analysis showed that age, ethnicity, histopathological type, differentiation, T (Infiltration depth), N (Lymph node metastasis), staging, postoperative metastasis and metastatic site (P < 0.05) were found to be the prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: The Uyghur CRC patients are associated with significantly

  11. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign.

  12. Sensitivity of surface characteristics on the simulation of wind-blown-dust source in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. H.; Gong, S. L.; Gong, W.; Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Stroud, C. A.; Zhang, J.

    Recently, a wind-blown-dust-emission module has been built based on a state-of-the-art wind erosion theory and evaluated in a regional air-quality model to simulate a North American dust storm episode in April 2001 (see Park, S.H., Gong, S.L., Zhao, T.L., Vet, R.J., Bouchet, V.S., Gong, W., Makar, P.A., Moran, M.D., Stroud, C., Zhang, J. 2007. Simulation of entrainment and transport of dust particles within North America in April 2001 ("Red Dust episode"). J. Geophys. Res. 112, D20209, doi:10.1029/2007JD008443). A satisfactorily detailed assessment of that module, however, was not possible because of a lack of information on some module inputs, especially soil moisture content. In this paper, the wind-blown-dust emission was evaluated for two additional dust storms using improved soil moisture inputs. The surface characteristics of the wind-blown-dust source areas in southwestern North America were also investigated, focusing on their implications for wind-blown-dust emissions. The improved soil moisture inputs enabled the sensitivity of other important surface characteristics, the soil grain size distribution and the land-cover, to dust emission to be investigated with more confidence. Simulations of the two 2003 dust storm episodes suggested that wind-blown-dust emissions from the desert areas in southwestern North America are dominated by emissions from dry playas covered with accumulated alluvial deposits whose particle size is much smaller than usual desert sands. As well, the source areas in the northwestern Texas region were indicated to be not desert but rather agricultural lands that were "activated" as a wind-blown-dust sources after harvest. This finding calls for revisions to the current wind-blown-dust-emission module, in which "desert" is designated to be the only land-cover category that can emit wind-blown dust.

  13. Expectations in culturally unfamiliar music: influences of proximal and distal cues and timbral characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Tardieu, Julien; Dunbar-Hall, Peter; Best, Catherine T.; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Listeners' musical perception is influenced by cues that can be stored in short-term memory (e.g., within the same musical piece) or long-term memory (e.g., based on one's own musical culture). The present study tested how these cues (referred to as, respectively, proximal and distal cues) influence the perception of music from an unfamiliar culture. Western listeners who were naïve to Gamelan music judged completeness and coherence for newly constructed melodies in the Balinese gamelan tradition. In these melodies, we manipulated the final tone with three possibilities: the original gong tone, an in-scale tone replacement or an out-of-scale tone replacement. We also manipulated the musical timbre employed in Gamelan pieces. We hypothesized that novice listeners are sensitive to out-of-scale changes, but not in-scale changes, and that this might be influenced by the more unfamiliar timbre created by Gamelan “sister” instruments whose harmonics beat with the harmonics of the other instrument, creating a timbrally “shimmering” sound. The results showed: (1) out-of-scale endings were judged less complete than original gong and in-scale endings; (2) for melodies played with “sister” instruments, in-scale endings were judged as less complete than original endings. Furthermore, melodies using the original scale tones were judged more coherent than melodies containing few or multiple tone replacements; melodies played on single instruments were judged more coherent than the same melodies played on sister instruments. Additionally, there is some indication of within-session statistical learning, with expectations for the initially-novel materials developing during the course of the experiment. The data suggest the influence of both distal cues (e.g., previously unfamiliar timbres) and proximal cues (within the same sequence and over the experimental session) on the perception of melodies from other cultural systems based on unfamiliar tunings and scale systems

  14. Analysis of the Deflection of CMEs by Coronal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, Paulett C.; Panasenco, O.; Vourlidas, A.

    2013-07-01

    Understanding coronal influences on the direction of propagation of CMEs is important for space weather prediction. It is well known that CMEs often propagate non-radially, e.g., they do not move out radially from the location of the solar source (see, e.g., Cremades and Bothmer, A&A, 2004; Panasenco et al., Sol. Phys. 2013). There is evidence that most CMEs exit the corona in the minimum field region surrounding the coronal/heliospheric current sheet (HCS). If this is the case, then the degree of deflection should reflect the distance of the source region from the current sheet region. Here we study the observed deflection in latitude of four CMEs using STEREO/SECCHI’s EUV and white light observations to trace the deflection. A potential-field source surface (PFSS) model (Schrijver & DeRosa, Sol. Phys. 2003) is used to give information on the magnetic forces acting on the CME at different heights in the lower corona. This model, as well as the PFSS model results at the GONG website (http://gong.nso.edu/data/magmap/archive.html) and the coronal observations from STEREO, are used to try to determine the location of the HCS. For the events studied, we find cases when the deflection is gradual (occurring between the surface at several solar radii) and cases where the deflection is immediate (within ~1.5 solar radii). There are many cases in the literature where CMEs originating at high latitude are deflected towards the ecliptic and eventually impact Earth. Several of the CMEs we analyzed were later detected in situ at ~1 AU and we compare the near-Sun trajectory information to the trajectory information determine from the in situ information.

  15. Global geometry optimization of silicon clusters described by three empirical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

    2003-07-01

    The "basic-hopping" global optimization technique developed by Wales and Doye is employed to study the global minima of silicon clusters Sin(3⩽n⩽30) with three empirical potentials: the Stillinger-Weber (SW), the modified Stillinger-Weber (MSW), and the Gong potentials. For the small-sized SW and Gong clusters (3⩽n⩽15), it is found that the global minima obtained based on the basin-hopping method are identical to those reported by using the genetic algorithm [Iwamatsu, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10976 (2000)], as well as with those by using molecular dynamics and the steepest-descent quench (SDQ) method [Feuston, Kalia, and Vashishta, Phys. Rev. B 37, 6297 (1988)]. However, for the mid-sized SW clusters (16⩽n⩽20), the global minima obtained differ from those based on the SDQ method, e.g., the appearance of the endohedral atom with fivefold coordination starting at n=17, as opposed to n=19. For larger SW clusters (20⩽n⩽30), it is found that the "bulklike" endohedral atom with tetrahedral coordination starts at n=20. In particular, the overall structural features of SW Si21, Si23, Si25, and Si28 are nearly identical to the MSW counterparts. With the SW Si21 as the starting structure, a geometric optimization at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of density-functional theory yields an isomer similar to the ground-state- isomer of Si21 reported by Pederson et al. [Phys. Rev. B 54, 2863 (1996)].

  16. The Discriminant Analysis Flare Forecasting System (DAFFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham; Wagner, Eric; Hill, Frank; Marble, Andrew R.

    2016-05-01

    The Discriminant Analysis Flare Forecasting System (DAFFS) has been developed under NOAA/Small Business Innovative Research funds to quantitatively improve upon the NOAA/SWPC flare prediction. In the Phase-I of this project, it was demonstrated that DAFFS could indeed improve by the requested 25% most of the standard flare prediction data products from NOAA/SWPC. In the Phase-II of this project, a prototype has been developed and is presently running autonomously at NWRA.DAFFS uses near-real-time data from NOAA/GOES, SDO/HMI, and the NSO/GONG network to issue both region- and full-disk forecasts of solar flares, based on multi-variable non-parametric Discriminant Analysis. Presently, DAFFS provides forecasts which match those provided by NOAA/SWPC in terms of thresholds and validity periods (including 1-, 2-, and 3- day forecasts), although issued twice daily. Of particular note regarding DAFFS capabilities are the redundant system design, automatically-generated validation statistics and the large range of customizable options available. As part of this poster, a description of the data used, algorithm, performance and customizable options will be presented, as well as a demonstration of the DAFFS prototype.DAFFS development at NWRA is supported by NOAA/SBIR contracts WC-133R-13-CN-0079 and WC-133R-14-CN-0103, with additional support from NASA contract NNH12CG10C, plus acknowledgment to the SDO/HMI and NSO/GONG facilities and NOAA/SWPC personnel for data products, support, and feedback. DAFFS is presently ready for Phase-III development.

  17. UTILIZATION OF MULTIPLE MEASUREMENTS FOR GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hill, Frank

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic field measurements, line of sight (LOS) and/or vector magnetograms, have been used in a variety of solar physics studies. Currently, the global transverse velocity measurements near the photosphere from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are available. We have utilized these multiple observational data, for the first time, to present a data-driven global three-dimensional and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and to investigate the energy transport across the photosphere to the corona. The measurements of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity reflect the effects of convective zone dynamics and provide information from the sub-photosphere to the corona. In order to self-consistently include the observables on the lower boundary as the inputs to drive the model, a set of time-dependent boundary conditions is derived by using the method of characteristics. We selected GONG's global transverse velocity measurements of synoptic chart CR2009 near the photosphere and SOLIS full-resolution LOS magnetic field maps of synoptic chart CR2009 on the photosphere to simulate the equilibrium state and compute the energy transport across the photosphere. To show the advantage of using both observed magnetic field and transverse velocity data, we have studied two cases: (1) with the inputs of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity measurements, and (2) with the input of the LOS magnetic field and without the input of transverse velocity measurements. For these two cases, the simulation results presented here are a three-dimensional coronal magnetic field configuration, density distributions on the photosphere and at 1.5 solar radii, and the solar wind in the corona. The deduced physical characteristics are the total current helicity and the synthetic emission. By comparing all the physical parameters of case 1 and case 2 and their synthetic emission images with the EIT image, we find that using both the measured magnetic field and the

  18. Expectations in culturally unfamiliar music: influences of proximal and distal cues and timbral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Catherine J; Tardieu, Julien; Dunbar-Hall, Peter; Best, Catherine T; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Listeners' musical perception is influenced by cues that can be stored in short-term memory (e.g., within the same musical piece) or long-term memory (e.g., based on one's own musical culture). The present study tested how these cues (referred to as, respectively, proximal and distal cues) influence the perception of music from an unfamiliar culture. Western listeners who were naïve to Gamelan music judged completeness and coherence for newly constructed melodies in the Balinese gamelan tradition. In these melodies, we manipulated the final tone with three possibilities: the original gong tone, an in-scale tone replacement or an out-of-scale tone replacement. We also manipulated the musical timbre employed in Gamelan pieces. We hypothesized that novice listeners are sensitive to out-of-scale changes, but not in-scale changes, and that this might be influenced by the more unfamiliar timbre created by Gamelan "sister" instruments whose harmonics beat with the harmonics of the other instrument, creating a timbrally "shimmering" sound. The results showed: (1) out-of-scale endings were judged less complete than original gong and in-scale endings; (2) for melodies played with "sister" instruments, in-scale endings were judged as less complete than original endings. Furthermore, melodies using the original scale tones were judged more coherent than melodies containing few or multiple tone replacements; melodies played on single instruments were judged more coherent than the same melodies played on sister instruments. Additionally, there is some indication of within-session statistical learning, with expectations for the initially-novel materials developing during the course of the experiment. The data suggest the influence of both distal cues (e.g., previously unfamiliar timbres) and proximal cues (within the same sequence and over the experimental session) on the perception of melodies from other cultural systems based on unfamiliar tunings and scale systems. PMID

  19. Seismic Study of the Solar Interior: Inferences from SOI/MDI Observations During Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have continued in collaboration with Dr. Eff-Darwich (University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain) the study of the structure, asphericity and dynamics of the solar interior from p-mode frequencies and frequency splittings. In March 2001, Dr. Eff-Darwich came for 3 weeks visit to CfA. During this visit we completed our work on the inversion of the internal solar rotation rate, and submitted a paper describing this work to the Astrophysical Journal. This paper has been recently revised in response to the referee comments and I expect that it will be accepted for publication very soon. We also have analyzed helioseismic data looking for temporal variations of the solar stratification near the base of the convection zone. We have expanded on the initial work that was presented at the SOHO-10/GONG-2000 meeting (October 2000, Tenerife), and are in the process of writing this up. Substantial progress towards the characterization of high-degree p-modes has been achieved. Indeed, in collaboration Dr. Rabello-Soares (Stanford University), we have gained a clear conceptual understanding of the various elements that affect the leakage matrix of the SOI/MDI instrument. This was presented in an invited talk at the SOHO-10/GONG-2000 meeting (October 2000, Tenerife). Once we will have successfully migrated from a qualitative to a quantitative assessment of these effects, we should be able to generate high-degree p-modes frequencies so crucial in the diagnostic of the layers just below solar surface.

  20. Neuroenhancement of Memory for Children with Autism by a Mind–Body Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Sze, Sophia L.; Lau, Eliza M.

    2015-01-01

    The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind–body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT), progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training, or no training for 1 month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind–body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism. PMID:26696946

  1. Taxonomic notes on the genus Orthobrachia Warren, with description of a new species from China and Thailand (Lepidoptera, Geometridae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guo-Hua; Su, Zi-You; Stüning, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All seven members of the genus Orthobrachia Warren, 1895 are recorded, with description of a new species from Sichuan Province, China and N. Thailand, including Orthobrachia latifasciata (Moore, 1888) and Orthobrachia flavidior (Hampson, 1898) from northern India, Nepal and China, Orthobrachia tenebrosa Yazaki, 1992 from Nepal and India, Orthobrachia owadai Yazaki, 1992 from India, Orthobrachia simpliciata Yazaki, 2002 from China, and Orthobrachia maoershanensis Huang, Xin & Wang, 2003 from South China. A key to the Orthobrachia species is provided, along with a distributional map of all nominal species. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Hunan Agricultural University (China), South China Agricultural University (China) and Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (Germany). PMID:27563275

  2. Remarks on the regularity criteria of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system in terms of two velocity field components

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2014-03-15

    We study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system and obtain its regularity criteria in terms of only two velocity vector field components eliminating the condition on the third component completely. The proof consists of a new decomposition of the four nonlinear terms of the system and estimating a component of the magnetic vector field in terms of the same component of the velocity vector field. This result may be seen as a component reduction result of many previous works [C. He and Z. Xin, “On the regularity of weak solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic equations,” J. Differ. Equ. 213(2), 234–254 (2005); Y. Zhou, “Remarks on regularities for the 3D MHD equations,” Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 12(5), 881–886 (2005)].

  3. Existence and multiplicity of solutions for Kirchhoff-type equation with radial potentials in {R3}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anran; Su, Jiabao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we deal with the Kirchhoff-type equation -[1+intlimits_{{{R}}^3} (|nabla u|^2+V(x)u^2)dx ][Δ u+V(x)u] = λ Q(x) f(u), quad xin {{R}}^3, quad quad quad {(P)_λ} u(x)→ 0, quad as |x|→ ∞ , where {λ > 0}, V and Q are radial functions, which can be vanishing or coercive at infinity. With assumptions on f just in a neighborhood of the origin, existence and multiplicity of nontrivial radial solutions are obtained via variational methods. In particular, if f is sublinear and odd near the origin, we obtain infinitely many solutions of {(P)_λ} for any {λ > 0}.

  4. Refined comparison theorems for the Dirac equation with spin and pseudo-spin symmetry in d dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Richard L.; Zorin, Petr

    2016-04-01

    The classic comparison theorem of quantum mechanics states that if two potentials are ordered then the corresponding energy eigenvalues are similarly ordered, that is to say if Va≤ Vb, then Ea≤ Eb. Such theorems have recently been established for relativistic problems even though the discrete spectra are not easily characterized variationally. In this paper we improve on the basic comparison theorem for the Dirac equation with spin and pseudo-spin symmetry in d≥ 1 dimensions. The graphs of two comparison potentials may now cross each other in a prescribed manner implying that the energy values are still ordered. The refined comparison theorems are valid for the ground state in one dimension and for the bottom of an angular momentum subspace in d>1 dimensions. For instance in a simplest case in one dimension, the condition Va≤ Vb is replaced by Ua≤ Ub, where Ui(x)=int0x Vi(t)dt, xin[0,∞), and i=a or b.

  5. Chinese Constellations and Star Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Star observations can be traced back to as early as the twenty-third century BC in ancient China. By the fifth century BC, the Chinese had named the 28 asterisms that formed the basic reference points for the Chinese equatorial coordinate system. By the first century BC, the Chinese had developed a unique system of constellations that reflected Chinese cosmological ideas with the central theme of the correlation between Heaven and Man. Star charts have been discovered on tomb ceilings dating back to Han times. But most of them are illustrative in their presentation of stars. The Dunhuang star maps from the ninth century, the star maps in the Xin yixiang fa yao of the eleventh century, and the Suzhou Astronomical Planisphere of the thirteenth century are examples of precise star maps from ancient China.

  6. Single to Multiquasiparticle Excitations in the Itinerant Helical Magnet CeRhIn5

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Schmalzl, K.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Stunault, A.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-06-19

    Neutron scattering is used to measure the quantum spin fluctuations in CeRhIn5 - the parent material of the eXIn5 superconducting series. Out-of-plane spin fluctuations are gapped and localized in momentum, similar to the spin excitons in CeCoIn5. The in-plane fluctuations consist of sharp spin-wave excitations parameterized by a nearest neighbor exchange JRKKY =0.88 ± 0.05 meV that crossover to a temporally and spatially broad multiparticle spectrum with energies of ~ 2 × JRKKY . This continuum represents composite fluctuations that illustrate the breakdown of single magnons originating from the delicate energy balance between localized 4f and itinerant behavior in a heavy metal. The experiment therefore shows how quasiparticle behavior is changed by the close proximity of quantum criticality.

  7. Extending the MSSM with Singlet Higgs and Right Handed Neutrino for the Self-Interacting Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hai-Jing; Wang, Wen-Yu

    2016-04-01

    In order to meet the requirement of BBN, the right handed neutrino is added to the singlet Higgs sector in the GNMSSM. The spectrum and Feynman rules are calculated. the dark matter pheonomenology is also studied. In case of λ ∼ 0, the singlet sector can give perfect explanation of relic abundance of dark matter and small cosmological structure simulations. The BBN constraints on the light mediator can be easily solved by decaying to the right handed neutrino. When the λN is at the order of O}(0.1), the mass of the mediator can be constrained to several MeV. Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 1375001, Ri-Xin Foundation of Beijing University of Technology and by Talents Foundation of Education Department of Beijing

  8. Confucian virtues and Chinese adolescent development: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Fu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that different Chinese communities have already undergone industrialization and urbanization, Confucian virtues are still regarded as developmental ideals in Chinese culture. Unfortunately, while Confucian virtues are commonly discussed under Chinese philosophies, they are rarely examined in the context of developmental research. In this paper, several key Confucian virtues are discussed, including loyalty ("zhong"), filial piety ("xiao"), benevolence ("ren"), affection ("ai"), trustworthiness ("xin"), righteousness ("yi"), harmony ("he"), peace ("ping"), propriety ("li"), wisdom ("zhi"), integrity ("lian") and shame ("chi"). These Chinese traditional virtues are also linked to the concepts of character strengths and positive youth development constructs highlighted in Western culture. It is argued that Confucian virtues provide an indigenous conceptual framework to understand character strengths and positive youth development in Chinese culture. Furthermore, when service leadership is considered in Chinese contexts, these virtues should be regarded as important cornerstones. PMID:23612532

  9. Weighted estimates for tangential boundary behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, V. G.; Smovzh, L. V.

    2006-02-01

    Let (X,\\mu,d) be a space of homogeneous type (here d is a quasimetric and \\mu a measure). A function \\varepsilon of modulus of continuity kind gives rise to approach regions \\Gamma_{\\varepsilon}(x) at the boundary of \\mathbf{X}, \\mathbf{X}=X\\times\\lbrack0,1), where for a point x\\in X, \\displaystyle \\Gamma_{\\varepsilon}(x)=\\{(y,t)\\in \\mathbf{X}:d(x,y)<\\varepsilon(1-t)\\}.These are 'tangential' regions if \\lim_{t\\to+0}\\varepsilon(t)/t=\\infty.Weighted L^p-estimates are proved for the corresponding maximal functions of integral operators. Applications of these estimates to potentials in \\mathbb{R}^n and to multipliers of homogeneous expansions of holomorphic functions in the Hardy classes in the unit ball of \\mathbb{C}^n are presented.

  10. Magnetic-field control of quantum critical points of valence transition.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinji; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Flouquet, Jacques

    2008-06-13

    We study the mechanism of how critical end points of first-order valence transitions are controlled by a magnetic field. We show that the critical temperature is suppressed to be a quantum critical point (QCP) by a magnetic field, and unexpectedly, the QCP exhibits nonmonotonic field dependence in the ground-state phase diagram, giving rise to the emergence of metamagnetism even in the intermediate valence-crossover regime. The driving force of the field-induced QCP is clarified to be cooperative phenomena of the Zeeman and Kondo effects, which create a distinct energy scale from the Kondo temperature. This mechanism explains the peculiar magnetic response in CeIrIn(5) and the metamagnetic transition in YbXCu(4) for X=In as well as the sharp contrast between X=Ag and Cd. PMID:18643524

  11. Tuning the critical magnetic field of the triplon Bose-Einstein condensation in Ba3-xSrxCr2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Henrik; Sabitova, Alsu; Schilling, Andreas; von Rohr, Fabian; Förster, Tobias; Peters, Laurens

    2016-03-01

    The structure and magnetic interactions of the triplon Bose-Einstein condensation candidates Ba3Cr2O8 and Sr3Cr2O8 have been studied thoroughly in the literature, but little is known about a possible triplon condensation in the corresponding solid solution {{Ba}}3-xSr x Cr2O8. We have prepared various members of this solid solution and systematically examined their magnetic properties in high magnetic fields up to 60 {{T}} and at low temperatures down to 340 {mK}, by means of pulsed field and cantilever magnetometry. From these experiments for x\\in \\{3,2.9,2.8,2.7,2.6,2.5\\}, we find that the critical fields of {{Ba}}3-xSr x Cr2O8 decrease monotonically with decreasing Sr content x. This change is in good agreement with the earlier reported variation of the magnetic interactions in these compounds.

  12. Do physicochemical variables regulate the distribution of zooplankton communities in reservoirs dominated by filter-feeding carp?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Menghong; Yang, Lili; Liu, Qigen

    2014-03-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton communities in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Xin'anjiang Reservoir, Zhejiang, China, were investigated monthly, between 2009 and 2010. Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) dominated the pelagic fish community of this large, deep reservoir. Cladocerans were distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. Rotifers were mainly found in the upper reaches, while copepods tended to assemble in the lower reaches. The Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression were used to identify the major physicochemical gradients influencing community variations. Zooplankton community distributions were influenced by water temperature, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and silicon. Excess nutrients, in particular silicon, stimulated rotifer growth. Based on these findings, it is possible to use rotifer density as a bioindicator of eutrophic status in deep reservoir ecosystems.

  13. Absence of Critical Points of Solutions to the Helmholtz Equation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Giovanni S.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this paper is to show the absence of critical points for the solutions to the Helmholtz equation in a bounded domain {Ωsubset{R}3} , given by div(a nabla u_{ω}g)-ω qu_{ω}g=0&quad {in Ω,} u_{ω}g=g&quad{on partialΩ.} We prove that for an admissible g there exists a finite set of frequencies K in a given interval and an open cover {overline{Ω}=\\cup_{ωin K} Ω_{ω}} such that {|nabla u_{ω}g(x)| > 0} for every {ωin K} and {xinΩ_{ω}} . The set K is explicitly constructed. If the spectrum of this problem is simple, which is true for a generic domain {Ω} , the admissibility condition on g is a generic property.

  14. [Mechanism of "treating heart and brain with same methods" based on data science].

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Tang, Shi-huan; Lu, Peng; Yang, Hong-jun

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory of "treating heart and brain diseases with same methods (Nao Xin Tong Zhi: NXTZ)" has great significance to the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It has been proven effective by a great deal of clinical researches. However, the underlying mechanism for this theory is still unclear. To provide insights into the potential mechanism of "NXTZ", this study attempts to deeply investigate the mechanism from two representative cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebral apoplexy. First, various data resources were integrated to obtain different types of biomedical entities including drugs, targets, pathways and diseases. Then, three different approaches including text mining, biological network and enrichment analysis were utilized to recognize the potential common features between CHD and cerebral apoplexy, and the corresponding functions of drugs which could treat both diseases, thus unveiling the mechanism of NXTZ. PMID:27071272

  15. [Research on the changes of name of Wuzhuyu (Medicinal Evodia Fruit)].

    PubMed

    Mao, Bin-bin; Wang, De-qun

    2010-01-01

    The name of Wuzhuyu (Medicinal Evodia Fruit) comes from the place of "Wu", and the shape of its fruit, which is like a 'Zhuyu'. In addition, it is also called "Yi, Sha, Jiao, Dang, Yuejiao and Qiu" for different reasons; for example, "Yi" because of its processing and sacrificial function; and "Sha" because of the bug-killing function of its root and cortex. In Xin Xiu Ben Cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) of the Tang Dynasty, its names were unified as Wuzhuyu. Because it can be eaten, it was also called "Shizhuyu". In the Song Dynasty, with the discontinued vogue of eating Zhuyu, people had difference attitudes to the "Wuzhuyu" and "Shizhuyu". Nowadays, "Wuzhuyu" is the established name of these kinds of materia medica. PMID:20403258

  16. Phase transition-induced band edge engineering of BiVO4 to split pure water under visible light

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Won Jun; Kang, Hyun Joon; Kong, Ki-Jeong; Lee, Yun Seog; Park, Hunmin; Lee, Younghye; Buonassisi, Tonio; Gleason, Karen K.; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Through phase transition-induced band edge engineering by dual doping with In and Mo, a new greenish BiVO4 (Bi1-XInXV1-XMoXO4) is developed that has a larger band gap energy than the usual yellow scheelite monoclinic BiVO4 as well as a higher (more negative) conduction band than H+/H2 potential [0 VRHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) at pH 7]. Hence, it can extract H2 from pure water by visible light-driven overall water splitting without using any sacrificial reagents. The density functional theory calculation indicates that In3+/Mo6+ dual doping triggers partial phase transformation from pure monoclinic BiVO4 to a mixture of monoclinic BiVO4 and tetragonal BiVO4, which sequentially leads to unit cell volume growth, compressive lattice strain increase, conduction band edge uplift, and band gap widening. PMID:26508636

  17. Asymptotic stability of rarefaction waves for 2 × 2 viscous hyperbolic conservation laws—The two-modes case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Zhouping

    In this paper, we continue our study on the asymptotic behavior toward rare-faction waves of a general 2 × 2 system of hyperbolic conservation laws with positive viscosity matrix. It is shown that when the initial data is a small perturbation of a weak rarefaction wave (a linear superposition of a 1-rarefaction wave and a 2-rarefaction wave) for the corresponding inviscid hyperbolic conservation laws, then the solution of the Cauchy problem for the viscous system globally exists and tends to the rarefaction wave. The result is proved by using an energy method, combining the technique in [Z. P. Xin, J. Differential Equations73 (1988), 45-77], and using the characteristic-energy method of T. P. Liu [ Mem. Amer. Math. Soc.328 (1975), 1-108].

  18. [Zheng Meijian's Sha yu yi yu (Random Medical Talks in Leisure Time) and his new ideas on pulse-taking].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H M; Zheng, R X; Lu, X; Chen, X G; Wu, F; Liu, K K

    2016-03-01

    Zheng Meijian, a doctor of Xin'an district in the reign of Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, left his manuscript Sha yu yi yu (Random Medical Talks in Leisure Time), and was handed down in his family for generations. Sha yu yi yu was published in the Anhui Yixue of Issue 20, 1959, with horizontal layout and punctuation. The book records Zheng Meijian's understanding for the medicine, especially his new ideas on the cunkou pulse, with its underlying corresponding relationship among cun-guan-chi and zang-fu which should be combined with meridian and collateral system, claiming that the pulse taken superficially was corresponding to fu, while that taken deeply, to zang. He classified the strength of the fingers in pulse-taking into 8 levels, and advocated flexible application of pulse-taking. All his opinions had an important reference value for theoretical research and clinical application of pulse-taking. PMID:27255196

  19. Reconstruction of Fractional Quantum Hall Edges: Numerical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xin; Yang, Kun; Rezayi, E. H.

    2003-03-01

    The interplay of electron-electron interaction and confining potential can lead to the reconstruction of fractional quantum Hall edges (Xin Wan, Kun Yang, and E. H. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 056802 (2002).). We have performed exact diagonalization studies on microscopic models of fractional quantum Hall liquids, in finite size systems with disc geometry, and found numerical evidence that suggests edge reconstruction occurs under rather general conditions. Due to edge reconstruction, additional nonchiral edge modes can arise for both incompressible and compressible states. We have studied the electron dipole spectral function that is directly related to the microwave conductivity measurement of a two-dimensional electron gas with an array of antidots (P. D. Ye et al., Phys. Rev. B 65, 121305 (2002).). Our results are consistent with the enhanced microwave conductivity observed in experiments at low temperatures, and its suppression at higher temperatures. We also discuss the effects of the edge reconstruction on the fractional quantum Hall edge tunneling experiments.

  20. [The old transcript "Kosha-hon" quoted by Chusai Shibue in his lecture manuscript for Spiritual Pivot (Lingshu) "Reisu Kogi"].

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    The details about the old transcript "Kosha-hon" quoted by Chusai Shibue in his Reisu Kogi had remained unspecified. However, the author found that the Kosha-hon is probably now in the possession of the Peking University Library. In addition, through the investigation, the following facts emerged: 1) The date of writing of the transcript can be presumed to be between the Kanbun and Enpo eras in the Edo period. 2) The book, called "Kosha-hon", can be presumed to transcribe the lost version of the text in the group of the twelve volumes of XinKan Huangdi Neijing Lingshu. 3) Shibue left side notes, headed "Kosha-hon Hoki", and he used them for revision, but in fact these notes originated in the Ma Taixuan's Huangdi Neijing Lingshu Zhuzheng Fawei. PMID:21661230

  1. On the fixed points of monotonic operators in the critical case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engibaryan, N. B.

    2006-10-01

    We consider the problem of constructing positive fixed points x of monotonic operators \\varphi acting on a cone K in a Banach space E. We assume that \\Vert\\varphi x\\Vert\\le\\Vert x\\Vert+\\gamma, \\gamma>0, for all x\\in K. In the case when \\varphi has a so-called non-trivial dissipation functional we construct a solution in an extension of E, which is a Banach space or a Fréchet space. We consider examples in which we prove the solubility of a conservative integral equation on the half-line with a sum-difference kernel, and of a non-linear integral equation of Urysohn type in the critical case.

  2. Bilinear and trigonometric approximations of periodic functions of several variables of Besov classes B_{p, \\theta}^r

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, A. S.

    2006-04-01

    We obtain order-sharp estimates for bilinear approximations of periodic functions of 2d variables of the form f(x,y)=f(x-y), x, y\\in \\pi_d = \\prod_{j=1}^d\\lbrack-\\pi, \\pi\\rbrack , obtained from functions f(x)\\in B_{p, \\theta}^r, 1\\le p<\\infty, by translating the argument x\\in \\pi_d by vectors y\\in \\pi_d. We also study the deviations of step hyperbolic Fourier sums on the classes B_{1,\\theta}^r and the best orthogonal trigonometric approximations in L_q, 1, of functions belonging to these classes.

  3. Single to Multiquasiparticle Excitations in the Itinerant Helical Magnet CeRhIn5

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Schmalzl, K.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Stunault, A.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-06-19

    Neutron scattering is used to measure the quantum spin fluctuations in CeRhIn5 - the parent material of the eXIn5 superconducting series. Out-of-plane spin fluctuations are gapped and localized in momentum, similar to the spin excitons in CeCoIn5. The in-plane fluctuations consist of sharp spin-wave excitations parameterized by a nearest neighbor exchange JRKKY =0.88 ± 0.05 meV that crossover to a temporally and spatially broad multiparticle spectrum with energies of ~ 2 × JRKKY . This continuum represents composite fluctuations that illustrate the breakdown of single magnons originating from the delicate energy balance between localized 4f and itinerant behavior in amore » heavy metal. The experiment therefore shows how quasiparticle behavior is changed by the close proximity of quantum criticality.« less

  4. The prevalence of mind-body dualism in early China.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2011-07-01

    We present the first large-scale, quantitative examination of mind and body concepts in a set of historical sources by measuring the predictions of folk mind-body dualism against the surviving textual corpus of pre-Qin (pre-221 BCE) China. Our textual analysis found clear patterns in the historically evolving reference of the word xin (heart/heart-mind): It alone of the organs was regularly contrasted with the physical body, and during the Warring States period it became less associated with emotions and increasingly portrayed as the unique locus of "higher" cognitive abilities. We interpret this as a semantic shift toward a shared cognitive bias in response to a vast and rapid expansion of literacy. Our study helps test the proposed universality of folk dualism, adds a new quantitative approach to the methods used in the humanities, and opens up a new and valuable data source for cognitive scientists: the record of dead minds. PMID:21658101

  5. Reconstruction from blind experimental data for an inverse problem for a hyperbolic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilina, Larisa; Thành, Nguyen Trung; Klibanov, Michael V.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2014-02-01

    We consider the problem of the reconstruction of dielectrics from blind backscattered experimental data. The reconstruction is done from time domain data, as opposed to a more conventional case of frequency domain data. Experimental data were collected using a microwave scattering facility which was built at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. This system sends electromagnetic pulses into the medium and collects the time-resolved backscattered data on a part of a plane. The spatially distributed dielectric constant \\varepsilon _{r}( \\mathbf {x}) ,\\mathbf {x}\\in {R}^{3} is the unknown coefficient of a wave-like PDE. This coefficient is reconstructed from those data in blind cases. To do this, a globally convergent numerical method is used.

  6. Optical properties of InGaAs linear graded buffer layers on GaAs grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B.; Baek, J. H.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, S. W.; Jung, S. D.; Han, W. S.; Lee, E. H.

    1996-05-01

    We report optical characteristics of linear graded InxGa1-xAs (XIn=0-0.58) buffer layers grown on GaAs by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Two types of wirelike surface structures were observed from the layers grown at two different temperatures. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and double-crystal x-ray diffractometric measurements indicate that the PL energy and the relaxation of the graded layers were strongly dependent on the top surface structure. InGaAs cap layers were grown on top of the graded buffer layers with a variation of indium composition. A strong PL signal was observed from the top region of the graded layer grown with a lattice-matched cap layer. It suggests that the top region of the grade, similar to a graded well structure, is compressively strained but is of high structural quality without dislocations.

  7. Taxonomic notes on the genus Orthobrachia Warren, with description of a new species from China and Thailand (Lepidoptera, Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Hua; Su, Zi-You; Stüning, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    All seven members of the genus Orthobrachia Warren, 1895 are recorded, with description of a new species from Sichuan Province, China and N. Thailand, including Orthobrachia latifasciata (Moore, 1888) and Orthobrachia flavidior (Hampson, 1898) from northern India, Nepal and China, Orthobrachia tenebrosa Yazaki, 1992 from Nepal and India, Orthobrachia owadai Yazaki, 1992 from India, Orthobrachia simpliciata Yazaki, 2002 from China, and Orthobrachia maoershanensis Huang, Xin & Wang, 2003 from South China. A key to the Orthobrachia species is provided, along with a distributional map of all nominal species. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in Hunan Agricultural University (China), South China Agricultural University (China) and Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (Germany). PMID:27563275

  8. Modeling of thermosolutal convection during Bridgman solidification of semiconductor alloys in relation with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Duffar, Thierry

    2004-05-01

    Thermosolutal convection during vertical Bridgman directional solidification of Ga 1- xIn xSb alloys has been studied by numerical simulation. The transient analysis of heat, momentum and species transport has been performed by using the finite element code FIDAP ®. In the case of vertical Bridgman configuration, the thermal convection is driven by the radial temperature gradients. The solute (InSb) rejected at the solid-liquid interface, which is heavier than the GaSb component, damps the thermally driven convection. The solutal effect on the melt convection has been analyzed for low ( x=0.01) and high ( x=0.1) doped Ga 1- xIn xSb alloys. It is found that the damping effect is negligible for Ga 0.99In 0.01Sb alloy grown at low pulling rates ( V= 1 μm/s ), but cannot be neglected if the pulling rate is increased. In the case of concentrated alloys, the low level of convection intensity leads to an increase of radial segregation and interface curvature during the whole growth process as also shown by experiments. The effect of solutal buoyancy force on the melt convection is analyzed for the horizontal Bridgman configuration under microgravity conditions. An inverse but lower solutal effect on the melt convection, as compared with vertical Bridgman arrangement, is observed. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and show that convective transport can be observed even for low (2×10 -6g0) residual gravity levels.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10−7, HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10−6), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10−6), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10−7) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China. PMID:26039976

  10. Global transonic conic shock wave for the symmetrically perturbed supersonic flow past a cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Yin, Huicheng

    In this paper, we are concerned with the global existence and stability of a steady transonic conic shock wave for the symmetrically perturbed supersonic flow past an infinitely long conic body. The flow is assumed to be polytropic, isentropic and described by a steady potential equation. Theoretically, as indicated in [R. Courant, K.O. Friedrichs, Supersonic Flow and Shock Waves, Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1948], it follows from the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions and the entropy condition that there will appear a weak shock or a strong shock attached at the vertex of the sharp cone in terms of the different pressure states at infinity behind the shock surface, which correspond to the supersonic shock and the transonic shock respectively. In the references [Shuxing Chen, Zhouping Xin, Huicheng Yin, Global shock wave for the supersonic flow past a perturbed cone, Comm. Math. Phys. 228 (2002) 47-84; Dacheng Cui, Huicheng Yin, Global conic shock wave for the steady supersonic flow past a cone: Polytropic case, preprint, 2006; Dacheng Cui, Huicheng Yin, Global conic shock wave for the steady supersonic flow past a cone: Isothermal case, Pacific J. Math. 233 (2) (2007) 257-289] and [Zhouping Xin, Huicheng Yin, Global multidimensional shock wave for the steady supersonic flow past a three-dimensional curved cone, Anal. Appl. 4 (2) (2006) 101-132], the authors have established the global existence and stability of a supersonic shock for the perturbed hypersonic incoming flow past a sharp cone when the pressure at infinity is appropriately smaller than that of the incoming flow. At present, for the supersonic symmetric incoming flow, we will study the global transonic shock problem when the pressure at infinity is appropriately large.

  11. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JI-XIN; SUN, YAN-HONG; LI, CHAO-PIN

    2015-01-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (P<0.05). Furthermore, the skin irritation test results indicated that the clove volatile oil did not trigger any irritation (0.2 and 0.3 points for intact and scratched skin, respectively), and had a safety equal to that of distilled water. There were not any adverse effects observed following application of the clove volatile oil on the intact or scratched skin. In conclusion, the volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti-Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo. PMID:25780426

  12. High illumination uniformity scheme with 32 beams configuration for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Gu, Chun; Xu, Lixin; Zhou, Shenlei

    2016-04-01

    The self-adapting algorithms are improved to optimize a beam configuration in the direct drive laser fusion system with the solid state lasers. A configuration of 32 laser beams is proposed for achieving a high uniformity illumination, with a root-mean-square deviation at 10-4 level. In our optimization, the parameters such as beam number, beam arrangement, and beam intensity profile are taken into account. The illumination uniformity robustness versus the parameters such as intensity profile deviations, power imbalance, intensity profile noise, the pointing error, and the target position error is also discussed. In this study, the model is assumed a solid-sphere illumination, and refraction effects of incident light on the corona are not considered. Our results may have a potential application in the design of the direct-drive laser fusion of the Shen Guang-II Upgrading facility (SG-II-U, China).

  13. MHD Simulations of Core Collapse Supernovae with Cosmos++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Shizuka; Salmonson, Jay

    2010-10-01

    We performed 2D, axisymmetric, MHD simulations with Cosmos++ in order to examine the growth of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in core-collapse supernovae. We have initialized a non-rotating 15 Msolar progenitor, infused with differential rotation and poloidal magnetic fields. The collapse of the iron core is simulated with the Shen EOS, and the parametric Ye and entropy evolution. The wavelength of the unstable mode in the post-collapse environment is expected to be only ~200 m. In order to achieve the fine spatial resolution requirement, we employed remapping technique after the iron core has collapsed and bounced. The MRI unstable region appears near the equator and angular momentum and entropy are transported outward. Higher resolution remap run display more vigorous overturns and stronger transport of angular momentum and entropy. Our results are in agreement with the earlier work by Akiyama et al. [1] and Obergaulinger et al. [2].

  14. Long working distance autocollimating and microscope monitoring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing-guo; Liu, Guo-dong; Gong, Na; Chen, Feng-dong; Zhuang, Zhi-tao

    2013-01-01

    In the laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment, the high accuracy target field coordinate system should be found to monitor the target by all kinds of physics diagnose instrument. Before the testing target is shot, the coordinate system should be transferred to the testing target, and recurrent the coordinate system before each shooting. In order to solve this problem, two set microscope optics vision instruments are designed which has autocollimating and target position monitoring functions, and its working distance is 3.8 meters,and its optic resolution is 8 micron. Firstly, the optical coordinate axis of the two instruments is adjusted orthogonally by each other, then the ICF range coordinate is transferred to a testing target by a sensor, and ensure testing target located at the center of ICF range coordinate. The instrument has already been used in Shen Guang III device, and also can be used for object monitoring and tracing in a kind of field.

  15. Modeling Source Surface Plasma and Magnetic Field Based on Expansion Factor fS and Angular Distance θb Between the Foot Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, F.; Feng, X.; Xiang, C.; Wu, S. T.

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the distribution of plasma and magnetic field on the source surface of 2.5 RS covering four different phases of solar activity. We use the expansion factor fS and the angular distance θb in specifying the solar wind speed on the source surface, which can separate the open field region and the close field region effectively. We select 136 Carrington Rotations (CRs) covering four different phases of solar activity, and use an empirical model of the magnetic field topology by Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) and an empirically derived global coronal density distribution by MKIII in High Altitude Observatory (HAO) as input. The solar wind speed at 1AU derived from the new distribution on the source surface works much better than one derived from the previous method (Shen et al. 2010), as compared with observational data.

  16. [Story life CHENG Dan-an's, works and his achievements on acupuncture and moxibustion science].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Cai, Yue

    2011-05-01

    Mr. CHENG Dan-an, who devoted himself to the renaissance of the course of modern Chinese acupuncture, the establishment of acupuncture education unit, correspondence education, acupuncture personnel fostering and publication of periodicals on acupuncture, has great contribution to the academic exchanges and popularization of acupuncture. Mr. CHENG has completed over 10 articles and more than 20 works and translations. According to him, mechanism on meridians, collaterals, acupoints and acupuncture techniques were explored with the promotion on application of "Shen" and "qi" in clinic. Pulse and tongue diagnosis as well as acupuncture treatment were supplemented into Shanghanlun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases). And great importance was attached on the scientific validity and practicability. His professional ethics and dedication are worth to be learned by all medical workers nowadays. His acupuncture theories and academic achievements still inspire us today, which are also taken as the origin for the innovation and development of modern acupuncture science. PMID:21692305

  17. Thermal lens spectrometry: Optimizing amplitude and shortening the transient time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Rubens; de Araújo, Marcos A. C.; Jali, Pedro; Moreira, Sanclayton G. C.; Alcantara, Petrus; de Oliveira, Paulo C.

    2011-06-01

    Based on a model introduced by Shen et al. for cw laser induced mode-mismatched dual-beam thermal lens spectrometry (TLS), we explore the parameters related with the geometry of the laser beams and the experimental apparatus that influence the amplitude and time evolution of the transient thermal lens (TL) signal. By keeping the sample cell at the minimum waist of the excitation beam, our results show that high amplitude TL signals, very close to the optimized value, combined with short transient times may be obtained by reducing the curvature radius of the probe beam and the distance between the sample cell and the detector. We also derive an expression for the thermal diffusivity which is independent of the excitation laser beam waist, considerably improving the accuracy of the measurements. The sample used in the experiments was oleic acid, which is present in most of the vegetable oils and is very transparent in the visible spectral range.

  18. Assessing the accuracy of different simplified frictional rolling contact algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollebregt, E. A. H.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Xie, G.; Shackleton, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for assessing the accuracy of different frictional rolling contact theories. The main characteristic of the approach is that it takes a statistically oriented view. This yields a better insight into the behaviour of the methods in diverse circumstances (varying contact patch ellipticities, mixed longitudinal, lateral and spin creepages) than is obtained when only a small number of (basic) circumstances are used in the comparison. The range of contact parameters that occur for realistic vehicles and tracks are assessed using simulations with the Vampire vehicle system dynamics (VSD) package. This shows that larger values for the spin creepage occur rather frequently. Based on this, our approach is applied to typical cases for which railway VSD packages are used. The results show that particularly the USETAB approach but also FASTSIM give considerably better results than the linear theory, Vermeulen-Johnson, Shen-Hedrick-Elkins and Polach methods, when compared with the 'complete theory' of the CONTACT program.

  19. Unsteady boundary layers with an intelligent numerical scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebeci, T.

    1986-02-01

    A numerical method has been developed to represent unsteady boundary layers with large flow reversal. It makes use of the characteristic box scheme which examines the finite-difference grid in relation to the magnitude and direction of local velocity and reaches and implements a decision to ensure that the Courant, Friedricks and Lewey stability criterion is not violated. The method has been applied to the problem of an impulsively started circular cylinder and the results, though generally consistent with those of van Dommelen and Shen obtained with a Lagrangian method, show some differences. The time step is identified as very important and, with the present intelligent numerical scheme, the results were readily extended to times far beyond those previously achieved with Eulerian methods. Extrapolation of the results suggests that the much-discussed singularity for this unsteady flow is the same as that of the corresponding steady flow.

  20. Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effects of the extract from Salviae Miltiorrhizae radix. A study on the identification of lithospermic acid B in the extracts.

    PubMed

    Kamata, K; Iizuka, T; Nagai, M; Kasuya, Y

    1993-07-01

    1. The aqueous extract of Salviae Miltiorrhizae radix (Chinese crude drug named "dan-shen") relaxed the noradrenaline-precontracted aorta with endothelium. 2. Vasodilation by the extract disappeared in aorta without endothelium, and was inhibited by pretreatment with 10(-4) M NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or 10(-5) M methylene blue. 3. The inhibition of the extract-induced vasodilation by L-NMMA was reversed by L-arginine (3 x 10(-4) M). 4. The component of the extract was analyzed by chromatography, fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS) and 1H-NMR. 5. An active component of the extract, which showed endothelium-dependent vasodilation, was found to be identical with lithospermic acid B. PMID:8224751

  1. Evaluating estimators for numbers of females with cubs-of-the-year in the Yellowstone grizzly bear population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, S.; White, G.C.; Keating, K.A.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2007-01-01

    Current management of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Yellowstone National Park and surrounding areas requires annual estimation of the number of adult female bears with cubs-of-the-year. We examined the performance of nine estimators of population size via simulation. Data were simulated using two methods for different combinations of population size, sample size, and coefficient of variation of individual sighting probabilities. We show that the coefficient of variation does not, by itself, adequately describe the effects of capture heterogeneity, because two different distributions of capture probabilities can have the same coefficient of variation. All estimators produced biased estimates of population size with bias decreasing as effort increased. Based on the simulation results we recommend the Chao estimator for model M h be used to estimate the number of female bears with cubs of the year; however, the estimator of Chao and Shen may also be useful depending on the goals of the research.

  2. Relativistic equation of state at subnuclear densities in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. W.; Shen, H.

    2014-06-20

    We study the non-uniform nuclear matter using the self-consistent Thomas-Fermi approximation with a relativistic mean-field model. The non-uniform matter is assumed to be composed of a lattice of heavy nuclei surrounded by dripped nucleons. At each temperature T, proton fraction Y{sub p} , and baryon mass density ρ {sub B}, we determine the thermodynamically favored state by minimizing the free energy with respect to the radius of the Wigner-Seitz cell, while the nucleon distribution in the cell can be determined self-consistently in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. A detailed comparison is made between the present results and previous calculations in the Thomas-Fermi approximation with a parameterized nucleon distribution that has been adopted in the widely used Shen equation of state.

  3. Particle-hole symmetry breaking in the pseudogap state of Pb0.55Bi1.5Sr1.6La0.4CuO6+δ: A quantum chemical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panas, Itai

    2011-01-01

    Two Bi2201 model systems are employed to demonstrate how, beside the Cu-O σ band, a second band of purely O 2pπ character can be made to cross the Fermi level due to its sensitivity to the local crystal field. This result is employed to explain the particle-hole symmetry breaking across the pseudogap recently reported by Shen and co-workers [see M. Hashimoto , Nature Phys.10.1038/nphys1632 6, 414 (2010).]. Support for a two-bands-on-a-checkerboard candidate mechanism for high-Tc superconductivity is claimed. Analysis based on band structures, partial density of states, and sum over states densities scanning-tunneling-microscopy-type images is provided.

  4. Bounded Correctors in Almost Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Gloria, Antoine; Kuusi, Tuomo

    2016-05-01

    We show that certain linear elliptic equations (and systems) in divergence form with almost periodic coefficients have bounded, almost periodic correctors. This is proved under a new condition we introduce which quantifies the almost periodic assumption and includes (but is not restricted to) the class of smooth, quasiperiodic coefficient fields which satisfy a Diophantine-type condition previously considered by uc(Kozlov) (Mat Sb (N.S), 107(149):199-217, 1978). The proof is based on a quantitative ergodic theorem for almost periodic functions combined with the new regularity theory recently introduced by uc(Armstrong) and uc(Shen) (Pure Appl Math, 2016) for equations with almost periodic coefficients. This yields control on spatial averages of the gradient of the corrector, which is converted into estimates on the size of the corrector itself via a multiscale Poincaré-type inequality.

  5. Equation of state for nuclear matter in core-collapse supernovae by the variational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, H.; Takehara, Y.; Yamamuro, S.; Nakazato, K.; Suzuki, H.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Takano, M.

    2014-12-01

    We construct a new nuclear equation of state (EOS) for core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations using the variational many-body theory. For uniform nuclear matter, the EOS is constructed with the cluster variational method starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the Argonne v18 two-body potential and the Urbana IX three-body potential. The masses and radii of neutron stars calculated with the obtained EOS at zero temperature are consistent with recent observational data. For non-uniform nuclear matter, we construct the EOS in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. In this approximation, we assume a functional form of the density distributions of protons, neutrons, and alpha-particles, and minimize the free energy density in a Wigner-Seitz cell with respect to the parameters included in the assumed density distribution functions. The phase diagram of hot nuclear matter at a typical temperature is reasonable as compared with that of the Shen EOS.

  6. A line-imaging velocity interferometer technique for shock diagnostics without x-ray preheat limitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Liu, Shenye; Xu, Tao; Mei, Lusheng; Jiang, Xiaohua; Ding, Yongkun

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted with a line-imaging velocity interferometer on sandwich targets at the Shen Guang-III prototype laser facility in China, with the goal of eliminating the preheat effect. A sandwich target structure was used to reduce the x-ray preheat limitation (radiation temperature ~170 eV) in a radiative drive shock experiment. With a thick ablator, the preheat effect appeared before the shock arrived at the window. After adding a shield layer of high-Z material on the ablator, x-rays which penetrated the ablator were so weak that the blank-out effect could not be measured. This experiment indicates that the sandwich target may provide a valuable technique in experiments such as equation of state and shock timing for inertial confinement fusion studies. PMID:22047281

  7. Terahertz reflection response measurement using a phonon polariton wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Hayato; Katayama, Kenji; Shen, Qing; Toyoda, Taro; Nelson, Keith A.

    2009-03-01

    We developed a new technique for the measurement of terahertz reflection responses utilizing a propagating phonon polariton wave. Frequency tunable phonon polariton waves were generated by the recently developed continuously variable spatial frequency transient grating method [K. Katayama, H. Inoue, H. Sugiya, Q. Shen, T. Taro, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031906 (2008)]. The phonon polariton wave traveled in a ferroelectric crystal in an in-plane direction with an inclined angle of 26°, and the wave reflected at the crystal edge where a sample was positioned. The reflected polariton wave was detected by the same method as that used for the generation of the polariton waves. By comparing the reflection intensities in the presence and absence of the sample, reflectivity of the polariton wave was calculated, and the refractive index and absorption in the terahertz region were obtained.

  8. [Briefly analysis on academic origins of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. PMID:25039195

  9. Chinese equipment for US markets: traditional design, low cost

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, P.C.; Hansen, J.C.; Shen, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Peter C. Kissel and James C. Hansen were members of a delegation of US businessmen invited to the People's Republic of China by the China Science and Technology Exchange Center and Carroway Engineering, Inc., to discuss China's small-scale hydroelectric equipment and the means of obtaining such equipment for exportation to the US. The delegation, led by Peter K. Shen, president of Carroway Engineering, visited with Chinese government officials in four cities and provinces in June 1985, and inspected two of the principal electrical machine factories that manufacture hydroelectric equipment for projects in the US. In this article, the authors discuss the negotiations necessary to obtain Chinese equipment and China's ability to supply the US market for turbine-generator equipment.

  10. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2016-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua’s own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:27182075

  11. Ten years of the Three Gorges Dam: a call for policy overhaul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiankun; Lu, X. X.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world’s largest source of ‘clean’ hydroelectric power (Shen and Xie 2004), has entered its tenth year after the first turbine went into operation in June 2003. The dam, with a generating capacity 20 times that of the United States’ Hoover Dam, has been hailed as a crucial part of a solution to China’s energy crisis. Despite great benefits, however, major concerns have been voiced over the disastrous environmental and social consequences of this massive engineering project (Stone 2011). In this paper, we review the benefits and impacts learned from the controversial megadam over the past decade and discuss perspective quests on policy overhaul for future environmental protection.

  12. Life on a Surface in a Low-Reynolds-Number Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Howard A.

    2014-11-01

    There are many studies of the dynamics of swimming microorganisms. There are far fewer studies of how bacteria that attach to surfaces respond to motions of the surrounding fluid. Such motions can influence bacterial orientation, which can, in turn, impact bacterial colonization and motility on surfaces. Moreover, as biofilms develop, stresses from the flow on the surface can cause three-dimensional rearrangements of the soft biofilm in the form of ``streamers'' that can bridge the sides of a porous system; such suspended filaments trigger rapid clogging. Some of the underlying fluid dynamics will be discussed in the spirit of how the flow couples to the spatial and temporal evolution of these bacterial systems. Joint work with N. Autrusson, B. Bassler, K. Drescher, Z. Gitai, L. Guglielmini, F. Ingremeau, M.K. Kim, S. Lecuyer, O. Pak, A. Persat, R. Rusconi, Y. Shen, A. Siryaporn, N. Wingreen.

  13. Effects of space flight exposure on cell growth, tumorigenicity and gene expression in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Chen; Tong, Yongqing; Zhou, Guohua; Xie, Pingli; Hu, Jinyue; Li, Guancheng

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that harsh outer space environment, consisting of microgravity and radiation, poses significant health risks for human cells. To investigate potential effects of the space environment exposure on cancer cells we examined the biological changes in Caski cells carried by the "Shen Zhou IV" spaceship. After exposure for 7 days in spaceflight, 1440 survival subclonal cell lines were established and 4 cell lines were screened. 44F10 and 17E3 were selected because of their increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, while 48A9 and 31F2 had slower cytological events. Experiments with cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, soft agar assay, tumorigenesis assay and DNA microarray analysis have shown that selected cell lines presented multiple biological changes in cell morphology, cell growth, tumorigenicity and gene expression. These results suggest that space environment exposure can make significant biological impact on cancer cells and provide an entry point to find the immunological target of tumorigenesis.

  14. My heart will go on—beneficial effects of anti-MiR-30 after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhuang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs play key roles in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and during cardiovascular disease development and progression, such as myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). A recent manuscript by Shen and colleagues provided evidence that the miR-30-CSE-H2S axis contributes to the protection against cardiomyocyte ischemic injury by regulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Inhibition of the miR-30 family after MI injury offers potential therapeutic value to ‘keep our heart going on’. As this study highlights miRNAs as promising future therapeutic targets, their translational applicability to utilization in humans needs to be viewed with caution. PMID:27162794

  15. The Research on the Impact of Management Level’s Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level’s charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level’s charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26628936

  16. [Brief explanation of shi lin (urolithic stranguria)].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-yuan

    2010-05-01

    Shi lin (urolithic stranguria) is a kind of stranguria, manifested as pain occurred when pissing and sand-like in the urine, developed from the early concept of shi long. This name of disease was appeared firstly in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica), and then, the disease name of sha lin, sha shi lin and sha lin were derived from it by the Song Dynasty. It was said that the disease with sha (sand-like) was easy to treat, and with shi (stone-like) was difficult to cure. This disease was also happened in the children, and the reasons were the same with ones of the adult. Furthermore, there was a name of disease, xue sha lin, which was a kind of woman disease and had nothing to do with shi lin. PMID:21029715

  17. The Research on the Impact of Management Level's Charismatic Leadership Style on Miners' Unsafe Behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Di, Hongxi; Tian, Shuicheng; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is research the impact of management level's charismatic leadership style on miners' unsafe behavior by using the questionnaires on charismatic leadership style, safety attitude and the miners' unsafe behavior measurement to investigate 200 employees in Shen Dong Company. The research results suggest that management level's charismatic leadership style have very important influence on miners' unsafe behavior and the influence is affected by the safety attitude which is the intermediary function. In the end, this study propose advice on how to improve the coal mine enterprise managers charismatic leadership style in the coal mine enterprise's safety management work, including attach great importance to a variety of incentive methods, set up safety moral models, practice of inductive leadership concept, create a good atmosphere of safety, etc for reference for coal mining enterprises. PMID:26628936

  18. [An introduction on the editions of Zhang Gao's Yi shuo (Medical Narrations)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuguang; Lu, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Zhang Gao's Yi shuo (Medical Narrations) of the Southern Song Dynasty had 2 kinds of editions: domestic editions and foreign editions. The former includes 1 Song edition, 14 Ming editions, 3 Qing editions and 25 editions after the Republic of China. The latter, mainly 2 classes, the Japanese edition and Korean printing type edition. In the Ming Dynasty, the editions of Yi shuo generated 2 branches: inherited edition and supplementary edition. The inherited editions include Gu Dingfang's edition, Zhang Yaode's edition, Wu Mianxue's edition, Wu Zhongheng's edition, Wang Kentang's edition, editions from Si ku quan shu (Imperial Collection of Four), stereotype edition of the 3th year of Xuantong reign (1911) from Shanghai Civilization Bookstore, edition of the 2(nd) year of Manji of Japan etc. The supplemental editions include Zhang Zili's edition, Shen Fan's edition, Fu Feng'ao's edition, transcript of the late Ming Dynasty preserved in the Library of Peking University, and Korean printing type edition etc. PMID:25620361

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS-RM project: z<1 QSO host galaxies (Matsuoka+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Strauss, M. A.; Shen, Y.; Brandt, W. N.; Greene, J. E.; Ho, L. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Sun, M.; Trump, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    We use the data acquired in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project, in which a single spectroscopic field was repeatedly observed to explore the variability of quasars. The full technical details of the project are found in Shen et al. (2015, J/ApJS/216/4). SDSS-RM was conducted during the dark/gray time in the final season (2013-2014) of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS; Dawson et al. 2013AJ....145...10D). The target field (centered at RAJ2000=14:14:49.00, DEJ2000=+53:05:00.0) coincides with the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS 1; Kaiser et al. 2010SPIE.7733E..0EK) Medium Deep Field MD07, which lies within the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey W3 field. (1 data file).

  20. A crinkly leaf and delay flowering mutant of tobacco obtained from recoverable satellite-flown seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liu-Ti; Zheng, Shao-Qing; Huang, Xue-Lin

    Dry seeds of Nicotiana tabacum (L) cv. K346 were flown with a recoverable satellite, the Chinese "Shen Zhou III" for 162 h. After spaceflight, a crinkly leaf and delay flowering mutant of tobacco ( T-cldf), which phenotype differed from the ground control (K346), was obtained from the seedlings after 48 d of the recoverable satellite-flown seeds germination. Major characteristics of T-cldf phenotype included crinkly leaf with outgrowth of the adaxial surface among the secondary veins and delay flowering. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that five polymorphic bands were detected between T-cldf and ground control. The results suggested that recoverable satellite-flown condition could bring inheritable mutagenic effects on tobacco seeds and maybe used as a tool for accelerating the progress in tobacco breeding.

  1. Efficacy of Chinese auriculotherapy for stress in nursing staff: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2014-01-01

    Objective this randomized single blind clinical study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of auriculotherapy with and without a protocol for reducing stress levels among nursing staff. Method a total of 175 nursing professionals with medium and high scores according to Vasconcelos' Stress Symptoms List were divided into 3 groups: Control (58), Group with protocol (58), Group with no protocol (59). They were assessed at the baseline, after 12 sessions, and at the follow-up (30 days). Results in the analysis of variance, statistically significant differences between the Control and Intervention groups were found in the two evaluations (p<0.05) with greater size of effect indices (Cohen) for the No protocol group. The Yang Liver 1 and 2, Kidney, Brain Stem and Shen Men were the points most used. Conclusion individualized auriculotherapy, with no protocol, could expand the scope of the technique for stress reduction compared with auriculotherapy with a protocol. NCT: 01420835 PMID:25029046

  2. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. PMID:22835605

  3. A new method for the preparation of polymeric porous layer open tubular columns for GC application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, T. C.; Wang, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    A new method to prepare polymeric PLOT columns by using in situ polymerization technology is described. The method involves a straightforward in situ polymerization of the monomer. The polymer produced is directly coated on the metal tubing. This eliminates many of the steps needed in conventional polymeric PLOT column preparation. Our method is easy to operate and produces very reproducible columns, as shown previously (T. C. Shen. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 30, 239, 1992). The effects of solvents, tubing pretreatments, initiators and reaction temperatures in the preparation of PLOT columns are studied. Several columns have been developed to separate (1) highly polar compounds, such as water and ammonia or water and HCN, and (2) hydrocarbons and inert gases. A recent improvement has allowed us to produce bonded polymeric PLOT columns. These were studied, and the results are included also.

  4. Applications of Fourier Analysis in Homogenization of the Dirichlet Problem: L p Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksanyan, Hayk; Shahgholian, Henrik; Sjölin, Per

    2015-01-01

    Let u ɛ be a solution to the system where , is a smooth uniformly convex domain, and g is 1-periodic in its second variable, and both A ɛ and g are sufficiently smooth. Our results in this paper are twofold. First we prove L p convergence results for solutions of the above system and for the non oscillating operator , with the following convergence rate for all which we prove is (generically) sharp for . Here u 0 is the solution to the averaging problem. Second, combining our method with the recent results due to Kenig, Lin and Shen (Commun Pure Appl Math 67(8):1219-1262, 2014), we prove (for certain class of operators and when ) for both the oscillating operator and boundary data. For this case, we take , where A is 1-periodic as well. Some further applications of the method to the homogenization of the Neumann problem with oscillating boundary data are also considered.

  5. [Using Guangming (GB37) acupoint to treat eye diseases: from historical suspense to modern clinical experiments].

    PubMed

    Huang, T; Wu, M Z

    2016-05-01

    Guangming (GB37) gained its name before the writing of Huang di Ming Tang Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Mingtang Classic), the earliest work of the art of acupuncture point. However, in acupuncture and moxibustion works before the Song Dynasty, this acupoint was not used to treat eye diseases. In Dou Hanqing's Zhen jiu biao you fu (Song to Elucidate Mysteries in Acupuncture Moxibustion), Guangming was used to treat oculopathy as an alias of Cuanzhu (BL2). Influenced by this, the alias "Guangming" was mistaken as Guangming (GB37) of the Gallbladder Meridian in the Bian que shen ying zhen jiu yu long jing (Bian Que Acupuncture and Moxibustion Jade Dragon Classic) of the Yuan Dynasty, and the symptom of eye itch was added to the indications of Guangming (GB37). This was wrongly informed in the later acupuncture and moxibustion works, and the modern scholars also accepted it and confirmed its effect by the clinical and experimental research. PMID:27485868

  6. [Effects of electromagnetic fields on tonicity of cerebral vessels and arterial pressure].

    PubMed

    Razumov, A N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Kolesnikova, I V; Kasparov, E V; Anan'in, N N; El'chininov, N V; Gallinger, V E; Mineeva, E N

    2006-01-01

    Investigations performed by the authors show that normalization of the mechanisms of vegetative regulation of arterial pressure and cerebral vessels tonicity in young patients with sympathico-tonic vegetative dystonia can be achieved by combined use of constant magnetic field (magnetic induction 60 mTl, penetration 10 mm, area 1.5 cm2) and monochromatic electromagnetic wave (length 0.47 mcm, frequency 6 x 10(14) Hz, penetration 1.5 mm and light spot 7 mm) which are directed to a biologically active point C7 shen-men from both sides simultaneously for 3 min, at 11 a.m. to 13 p.m. once a day, for 10 days. PMID:16752814

  7. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades.

  8. Magnetic Properties of CoFe_2O4 and Fe_3O_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Robert; Chan, T.; Kenning, G. G.; Huang, L.; Yan, Y.

    2002-03-01

    In order to optimize the magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles for use as Magnetic Resonance Imaging contrast agents and other in vivo biological applications, we have synthesized CoFe_2O_4(Liu, C.; Bingsuo, Z.; Rondinone, A.J.; Zhang, Z.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc.) 122, 6263 (2000). and Fe_3O_4(Shen, T.; Weissleder, R.; Papisov, M.; Bogdanov, A.; Brady, T. MRM) 29, 599 (1993). magnetic nanoparticles of sizes 5, 8, and 11nm using water-in-oil reverse micelles. Size was determined using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Magnetic properties were measure from 10K-340K using SQUID magnetometry. Magnetization as a function of magnetic field has been performed at approximately body temperature ( ~310K) in order to help us determine the optimal size and composition for in vivo application.

  9. Prothrombotic lipoprotein patterns in stroke.

    PubMed

    Podrez, Eugene A; Byzova, Tatiana V

    2016-03-10

    The importance of research focused on the final events of atherothrombosis cannot be overestimated. Platelet hyperreactivity leading to thrombosis is the main reason for mortality and morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease and stroke, which together remain a leading cause of death in developed countries. In this issue of Blood, Shen et al1 establish another functional link between proatherogenic lipoproteins and platelet-mediated thrombus formation with a specific focus on stroke. In their model, the initiating component is L5, the electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), which was shown to be substantially elevated in patients with ischemic stroke. L5 was shown to activate platelets via its receptor, lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), and αβ amyloid peptide, which together contribute to platelet hyperreactivity and stroke complications. PMID:26965920

  10. Demographic and Prescribing Patterns of Chinese Herbal Products for Individualized Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease in Taiwan: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Long; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Ping; Huang, Meng-Hsuan; Su, Fang-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Combinations of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are widely used for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Taiwan. We analyzed the usage and frequency of CHPs prescribed for patients with IHD. Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study was conducted, 53531 patients from a random sample of one million in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 2000 to 2010 were enrolled. Descriptive statistics, the multiple logistic regression method and Poisson regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for utilization of CHPs. Results The mean age of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) nonusers was significantly higher than that of TCM users. Zhi-Gan-Cao-Tang (24.85%) was the most commonly prescribed formula CHPs, followed by Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang (16.53%) and Sheng-Mai-San (16.00%). The most commonly prescribed single CHPs were Dan Shen (29.30%), Yu Jin (7.44%), and Ge Gen (6.03%). After multivariate adjustment, patients with IHD younger than 29 years had 2.62 times higher odds to use TCM than those 60 years or older. Residents living in Central Taiwan, having hyperlipidemia or cardiac dysrhythmias also have higher odds to use TCM. On the contrary, those who were males, who had diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) were less likely to use TCM. Conclusions Zhi-Gan-Cao-Tang and Dan Shen are the most commonly prescribed CHPs for IHD in Taiwan. Our results should be taken into account by physicians when devising individualized therapy for IHD. Further large-scale, randomized clinical trials are warranted in order to determine the effectiveness and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:26322893

  11. Resonant spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2005-03-01

    Remarkable phenomena have been observed in 2DEG over last two decades, most notably, the discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of spin transport provides a good opportunity to explore spin physics in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling and other interaction. It is already known that the spin-orbit coupling leads to a zero-field spin splitting, and competes with the Zeeman spin splitting if the system is subjected to a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of 2DEG. The result can be detected as beating of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation. Very recently the speaker and his collaborators studied transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. The spin-orbit coupling competes with the Zeeman splitting to generate additional degeneracies between different Landau levels at certain magnetic fields. It is predicted theoretically that this degeneracy, if occurring at the Fermi level, gives rise to a resonant spin Hall conductance, whose height is divergent as 1/T and whose weight is divergent as -lnT at low temperatures. The charge Hall conductance changes by 2e^2/h instead of e^2/h as the magnetic field changes through the resonant point. The speaker will address the resonance condition, symmetries in the spin-orbit coupling, the singularity of magnetic susceptibility, nonlinear electric field effect, the edge effect and the disorder effect due to impurities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under Grant No.: HKU 7088/01P. *S. Q. Shen, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256603 (2004) *S. Q. Shen, Y. J. Bao, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, cond-mat/0410169

  12. Asymmetric multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis of financial time series.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-09-01

    We propose the asymmetric multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MS-ADCCA) method and apply MS-ADCCA method to explore the existence of asymmetric cross-correlation for daily price returns in US and Chinese stock markets and to assess the properties of these asymmetric cross-correlations. The results all show the existences of asymmetric cross-correlations, while small asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at larger scales are also displayed. There is a strong similarity between S&P500 and DJI, and we reveal that the asymmetries depend more on the cross-correlations of S&P500 vs. DJI, S&P500 vs. NQCI, DJI vs. NQCI, and ShangZheng vs. ShenCheng when the market is falling than rising, respectively. By comparing the spectra of S&P500 vs. NQCI and DJI vs. NQCI with uptrends and downtrends, we detect some new characteristics which lead to some new conclusions. Likewise, some new conclusions also can be drawn by the new characteristics displayed through the comparison between the spectra of ShangZheng vs. HSI and ShenCheng vs. HSI. Obviously, we conclude that although the overall spectra are similar and one market has the same effect when it is rising and falling in the study of asymmetric cross-correlations between it and different markets, the cross-correlations and asymmetries on the trends of the different markets are all different. MS-ADCCA method can detect the differences on the asymmetric cross-correlations by different trends of markets. Moreover, the uniqueness of cross-correlation between NQCI and HSI can be detected in the study of the asymmetric cross-correlations, which confirms that HSI is unique in the Chinese stock markets and NQCI is unique in the US stock markets further. PMID:25273179

  13. Time Correlation Function Modeling of Third-Order Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy of a Charged Surface/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Green, Anthony J; Space, Brian

    2015-07-23

    Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS), a second-order optical process, is interface-specific in the dipole approximation [Perry, A.; Neipert, C.; Moore, P.; Space, B. Chem. Rev. 2006, 106, 1234-1258; Richmond, G. L. Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 2693-2724; Byrnes, S. J.; Geissler, P. L.; Shen, Y. R. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2011, 516, 115-124]. At charged interfaces, the experimentally detected signal is a combination of enhanced second-order and static-field-induced third-order contributions due to the existence of a static field. Evidence of the importance/relative magnitude of this third-order contribution is seen in the literature [Ong, S.; Zhao, X.; Eisenthal, K. B. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1992, 191, 327-335; Zhao, X.; Ong, S.; Eisenthal, K. B. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1993, 202, 513-520; Shen, Y. R. Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 1999, 68, 295-300], but a molecularly detailed approach to separately calculating the second- and third-order contributions is difficult to construct. Recent work presented a novel molecular dynamics (MD)-based theory that provides a direct means to calculate the third-order contributions to SFVS spectra at charged interfaces [Neipert, C.; Space, B. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 224706], and a hyperpolarizability model for water was developed as a prerequisite to practical implementation [Neipert, C.; Space, B. Comput. Lett. 2007, 3, 431-440]. Here, these methods are applied to a highly abstracted/idealized silica/water interface, and the results are compared to experimental data for water at a fused quartz surface. The results suggest that such spectra have some quite general spectral features. PMID:25415752

  14. GPS-based crustal deformations in Azerbaijan and their influence on seismicity and mud volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirov, F. A.; Guliyev, I. S.; Feyzullayev, A. A.; Safarov, R. T.; Mammadov, S. K.; Babayev, G. R.; Rashidov, T. M.

    2014-11-01

    Using Shen's method (Shen et al., 1996), deformations of the Earth's crust in Azerbaijan were studied based on GPS measurements. For estimating the rate of deformation, we used the field of velocity vectors for Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, and Armenia that were derived from GPS measurements during 1998-2012. It is established that compression is observable along the Greater Caucasus, in Gobustan, the Kura depression, Nakhchyvan Autonomous Republic, and adjacent areas of Iran. The axes of compression/contraction of the crust in the Greater Caucasus region are oriented in the S-NE direction. The maximum strain rate (approximately 200 × 10-9 per annum) is documented in the zone of mud volcanism at the SHIK site (Shykhlar), which is marked by a sharp change in the direction of the compression axes (SW-NE). It is revealed that the deformation field also includes the zones where strain rates are very low approximating 5 × 10-9 per annum. These zones include the Caspian-Guba and northern Gobustan areas, characterized by extensive development of mud volcanism. The extension zones are confined to the Lesser Caucasus and are revealed in the Gedabek (GEDA) and Shusha (SHOU) areas, as well as in the zone located between the DAMO and PIRM sites (Iran), where the deformation rate amounts to 100 × 10-9 per annum. It is concluded that the predominant factor responsible for the eruption of mud volcanoes is the intensity of gas-generation processes in the earth's interior, while deformation processes play the role of a trigger. The zone of the epicenters of strong earthquakes is correlated to the gradient zone in the crustal strain rates.

  15. Chinese Herbal Products for Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hung, I-Ling; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Lin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Tseng, Ying-Jung; Kuo, Chun-En; Hu, Wen-Long; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been described in ancient medicine systems as treatments for various stroke-associated ailments. This study is aimed to investigate the prescription patterns and combinations of CHPs for ischemic stroke in Taiwan. Prescriptions of CHPs for ischemic stroke were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Every prescription with a leading diagnosis of ischemic stroke made during 2000-2010 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied to the pattern of co-prescriptions. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess demographic and risk factors that are correlated with CHP use. The dataset of inpatient claims data contained information on 15,896 subjects who experienced ischemic stroke from 2000 to 2010. There was an average of 5.82 CHPs in a single prescription for subjects with ischemic stroke. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) (40.32%) was by far the most frequently prescribed formula CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two-formula-CHP was BYHWT with Shu-jin-huo-xue-tang (SJHXT) (4.40%). Dan Shen (16.50%) was the most commonly used single CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Shi Chang Pua with Yuan Zhi (4.79%). We found that BYHWT and Dan Shen were the most frequently prescribed formula and single CHP for ischemic stroke, respectively. These results provide information about individualized therapy and may contribute to further pharmacologic experiments and clinical trials. PMID:26477801

  16. Asymmetric multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis of financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-09-01

    We propose the asymmetric multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MS-ADCCA) method and apply MS-ADCCA method to explore the existence of asymmetric cross-correlation for daily price returns in US and Chinese stock markets and to assess the properties of these asymmetric cross-correlations. The results all show the existences of asymmetric cross-correlations, while small asymmetries at small scales and larger asymmetries at larger scales are also displayed. There is a strong similarity between S&P500 and DJI, and we reveal that the asymmetries depend more on the cross-correlations of S&P500 vs. DJI, S&P500 vs. NQCI, DJI vs. NQCI, and ShangZheng vs. ShenCheng when the market is falling than rising, respectively. By comparing the spectra of S&P500 vs. NQCI and DJI vs. NQCI with uptrends and downtrends, we detect some new characteristics which lead to some new conclusions. Likewise, some new conclusions also can be drawn by the new characteristics displayed through the comparison between the spectra of ShangZheng vs. HSI and ShenCheng vs. HSI. Obviously, we conclude that although the overall spectra are similar and one market has the same effect when it is rising and falling in the study of asymmetric cross-correlations between it and different markets, the cross-correlations and asymmetries on the trends of the different markets are all different. MS-ADCCA method can detect the differences on the asymmetric cross-correlations by different trends of markets. Moreover, the uniqueness of cross-correlation between NQCI and HSI can be detected in the study of the asymmetric cross-correlations, which confirms that HSI is unique in the Chinese stock markets and NQCI is unique in the US stock markets further.

  17. Weighing supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Alireza

    We calculate the black hole masses for a sample of 27728 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3 (DR3). To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio, we reconstruct quasar spectra for this large sample of quasars using the eigenspectra method (Yip et al., 2004). This method reduces the uncertainty of the measurements for even noisy original spectra, making almost all the SDSS quasar spectra usable for our study. A few applications for black hole mass estimates are presented here. Wang et al. (2006) estimated an average radiative efficiency of 30%-35% for quasars at moderate redshift, which implies that most supermassive black holes are rotating very rapidly. Using our black hole mass estimates, we have found that their method is not independent of quasar lifetimes and thus that quasars do not necessarily have such high efficiencies. As a second application, we have investigated a claim by Steinhardt and Elvis (2009) that there exists a sub-Eddington boundary in the quasar mass-luminosity plane using the Shen et al. (2008) mass estimates. We re-calibrate the mass-scaling relations following Wang et al. (2009) with the most up-to-date reverberation estimates of black hole masses. We compare results from the original data sets with the new re-calibrated estimates of the mass-luminosity plane. We conclude that the presence of the sub-Eddington boundary in the original data of Shen et al. (2008) is likely due to biases in the mass-scaling relation and not to any physical process.

  18. Theory of Self-Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. R.; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    Self-phase modulation refers to the phenomenon in which a laser beam propagating in a medium interacts with the medium and imposes a phase modulation on itself. It is one of those very fascinating effects discovered in the early days of nonlinear optics (Bloembergen and Lallemand, 1966; Brewer, 1967; Cheung et al., 1968; Lallemand, 1966; Jones and Stoicheff, 1964; Shimizu, 1967; Stoicheff, 1963). The physical origin of the phenomenon lies in the fact that the strong field of a laser beam is capable of inducing an appreciable intensity-dependent refractive index change in the medium. The medium then reacts back and inflicts a phase change on the incoming wave, resulting in self-phase modulation (SPM). Since a laser beam has a finite cross section, and hence a transverse intensity profile, SPM on the beam should have a transverse spatial dependence, equivalent to a distortion of the wave front. Consequently, the beam will appear to have self-diffracted. Such a self-diffraction action, resulting from SPM in space, is responsible for the well-known nonlinear optical phenomena of self-focusing and self-defocusing (Marburger, 1975; Shen, 1975). It can give rise to a multiple ring structure in the diffracted beam if the SPM is sufficiently strong (Durbin et al., 1981; Santamato and Shen, 1984). In the case of a pulsed laser input, the temporal variation of the laser intensity leads to an SPM in time. Since the time derivative of the phase of a wave is simply the angular frequency of the wave, SPM also appears as a frequency modulation. Thus, the output beam appears with a self-induced spectral broadening (Cheung et al., 1968; Gustafson et al., 1969; Shimizu, 1967).

  19. A novel phosphorylation site at Ser130 adjacent to the pseudosubstrate domain contributes to the activation of protein kinase C-δ.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jianli; Holewinski, Ronald J; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Steinberg, Susan F

    2016-02-01

    Protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) is a signalling kinase that regulates many cellular responses. Although most studies focus on allosteric mechanisms that activate PKCδ at membranes, PKCδ also is controlled via multi-site phosphorylation [Gong et al. (2015) Mol. Cell. Biol. 35: , 1727-1740]. The present study uses MS-based methods to identify PKCδ phosphorylation at Thr(50) and Ser(645) (in resting and PMA-treated cardiomyocytes) as well as Thr(37), Thr(38), Ser(130), Thr(164), Thr(211), Thr(215), Ser(218), Thr(295), Ser(299) and Thr(656) (as sites that increase with PMA). We focused on the consequences of phosphorylation at Ser(130) and Thr(141) (sites just N-terminal to the pseudosubstrate domain). We show that S130D and T141E substitutions co-operate to increase PKCδ's basal lipid-independent activity and that Ser(130)/Thr(141) di-phosphorylation influences PKCδ's substrate specificity. We recently reported that PKCδ preferentially phosphorylates substrates with a phosphoacceptor serine residue and that this is due to constitutive phosphorylation at Ser(357), an ATP-positioning G-loop site that limits PKCδ's threonine kinase activity [Gong et al. (2015) Mol. Cell. Biol. 35: , 1727-1740]. The present study shows that S130D and T141E substitutions increase PKCδ's threonine kinase activity indirectly by decreasing G loop phosphorylation at Ser(357). A S130F substitution [that mimics a S130F single-nt polymorphism (SNP) identified in some human populations] also increases PKCδ's maximal lipid-dependent catalytic activity and confers threonine kinase activity. Finally, we show that Ser(130)/Thr(141) phosphorylations relieve auto-inhibitory constraints that limit PKCδ's activity and substrate specificity in a cell-based context. Since phosphorylation sites map to similar positions relative to the pseudosubstrate domains of other PKCs, our results suggest that phosphorylation in this region of the enzyme may constitute a general mechanism to control PKC isoform

  20. A novel phosphorylation site at Ser130 adjacent to the pseudosubstrate domain contributes to the activation of protein kinase C-δ

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianli; Holewinski, Ronald J.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Steinberg, Susan F.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) is a signalling kinase that regulates many cellular responses. Although most studies focus on allosteric mechanisms that activate PKCδ at membranes, PKCδ also is controlled via multi-site phosphorylation [Gong et al. (2015) Mol. Cell. Biol. 35, 1727–1740]. The present study uses MS-based methods to identify PKCδ phosphorylation at Thr50 and Ser645 (in resting and PMA-treated cardiomyocytes) as well as Thr37, Thr38, Ser130, Thr164, Thr211, Thr215, Ser218, Thr295, Ser299 and Thr656 (as sites that increase with PMA). We focused on the consequences of phosphorylation at Ser130 and Thr141 (sites just N-terminal to the pseudosubstrate domain).We show that S130D and T141E substitutions co-operate to increase PKCδ’s basal lipid-independent activity and that Ser130/Thr141 di-phosphorylation influences PKCδ’s substrate specificity. We recently reported that PKCδ preferentially phosphorylates substrates with a phosphoacceptor serine residue and that this is due to constitutive phosphorylation at Ser357, an ATP-positioning G-loop site that limits PKCδ’s threonine kinase activity [Gong et al. (2015) Mol. Cell. Biol. 35, 1727–1740]. The present study shows that S130D and T141E substitutions increase PKCδ’s threonine kinase activity indirectly by decreasing G loop phosphorylation at Ser357. A S130F substitution [that mimics a S130F single-nt polymorphism (SNP) identified in some human populations] also increases PKCδ’s maximal lipid-dependent catalytic activity and confers threonine kinase activity. Finally, we show that Ser130/Thr141 phosphorylations relieve auto-inhibitory constraints that limit PKCδ’s activity and substrate specificity in a cell-based context. Since phosphorylation sites map to similar positions relative to the pseudosubstrate domains of other PKCs, our results suggest that phosphorylation in this region of the enzyme may constitute a general mechanism to control PKC isoform activity. PMID:26546672

  1. Forecasting the Solar Drivers of Severe Space Weather from Active-Region Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Large flares and fast CMEs are the drivers of the most severe space weather including Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEP Events). Large flares and their co-produced CMEs are powered by the explosive release of free magnetic energy stored in non-potential magnetic fields of sunspot active regions. The free energy is stored in and released from the low-beta regime of the active region s magnetic field above the photosphere, in the chromosphere and low corona. From our work over the past decade and from similar work of several other groups, it is now well established that (1) a proxy of the free magnetic energy stored above the photosphere can be measured from photospheric magnetograms, and (2) an active region s rate of production of major CME/flare eruptions in the coming day or so is strongly correlated with its present measured value of the free-energy proxy. These results have led us to use the large database of SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning Solar Cycle 23 to obtain empirical forecasting curves that from an active region s present measured value of the free-energy proxy give the active region s expected rates of production of major flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and SEP Events in the coming day or so (Falconer et al 2011, Space Weather, 9, S04003). We will present these forecasting curves and demonstrate the accuracy of their forecasts. In addition, we will show that the forecasts for major flares and fast CMEs can be made significantly more accurate by taking into account not only the value of the free energy proxy but also the active region s recent productivity of major flares; specifically, whether the active region has produced a major flare (GOES class M or X) during the past 24 hours before the time of the measured magnetogram. By empirically determining the conversion of the value of free-energy proxy measured from a GONG or HMI magnetogram to that which would be measured from an MDI magnetogram, we have made GONG and HMI magnetograms useable with

  2. Meditation practices for health: state of the research.

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Bond, Kenneth; Karkhaneh, Mohammad; Tjosvold, Lisa; Vandermeer, Ben; Liang, Yuanyuan; Bialy, Liza; Hooton, Nicola; Buscemi, Nina; Dryden, Donna M; Klassen, Terry P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review and synthesize the state of research on a variety of meditation practices, including: the specific meditation practices examined; the research designs employed and the conditions and outcomes examined; the efficacy and effectiveness of different meditation practices for the three most studied conditions; the role of effect modifiers on outcomes; and the effects of meditation on physiological and neuropsychological outcomes. DATA SOURCES Comprehensive searches were conducted in 17 electronic databases of medical and psychological literature up to September 2005. Other sources of potentially relevant studies included hand searches, reference tracking, contact with experts, and gray literature searches. REVIEW METHODS A Delphi method was used to develop a set of parameters to describe meditation practices. Included studies were comparative, on any meditation practice, had more than 10 adult participants, provided quantitative data on health-related outcomes, and published in English. Two independent reviewers assessed study relevance, extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. RESULTS Five broad categories of meditation practices were identified (Mantra meditation, Mindfulness meditation, Yoga, Tai Chi, and Qi Gong). Characterization of the universal or supplemental components of meditation practices was precluded by the theoretical and terminological heterogeneity among practices. Evidence on the state of research in meditation practices was provided in 813 predominantly poor-quality studies. The three most studied conditions were hypertension, other cardiovascular diseases, and substance abuse. Sixty-five intervention studies examined the therapeutic effect of meditation practices for these conditions. Meta-analyses based on low-quality studies and small numbers of hypertensive participants showed that TM(R), Qi Gong and Zen Buddhist meditation significantly reduced blood pressure. Yoga helped reduce stress. Yoga

  3. Structure and dynamics in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Q.; Qi, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Study of structural geology in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay has achieved great breakthroughs in recent years. However the studies of structure and dynamics still remain much controversy. Based on the 3D and partial 2D seismic data, combined with regional geology and well data, the characteristics of structures in the north Jizhong Deprssion are analyzed, the dynamics is discussed. Our analyses show that the Cenozoic structures in the north Jizhong Depression can be subdivided into extensional system and strike-slip system. Extensional system concludes series of normal faults and transfer faults. Normal faults are mainly trend NNE and NE. They control the Paleogene sediments in sub-depressions of hanging-wall, and bottom out into a sub-horizontal detachment zone in deep level shaped like listric. Transfer faults mainly adjust displacement of normal faults, yet some like Tongbozhen and Niutuozhen are transfer faults in Paleocene and Eocene but change to normal faults in Oligocene. Strike-slip system is predominantly consisted by sub-vertical right-lateral strike-slip faults such as Xin`anzhen and Maxi. From seismic profiles, Xin`anzhen and Maxi cut into basement but only influence the sediments of Ed of Paleogene and Lower Neogene. Based on the relation of sedimentary sequence and faults, the extensional system mainly develops from Paleocene to Late Oligocene, but strike-slip system predominantly develops from Late Oligocene to Miocene. From the superposed section of crustal structure and basin structure in Jizhong Depression, the Cenozoic sub-basin is just located on the thinner zones of crustal, corresponding with the location of mantle uplift. It indicates that the Paleogene development of Jizhong Depression is related to the horizontal tension caused by uplift of magma in mantle. The results illustrate that extensional deformation in Jizhong depression is caused by the uplift of magma. The right-lateral strike-slip deformation, same with Tancheng

  4. Positive nonlinear pressure shift of Cs in Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; McGuyer, Bart; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate that the hyperfine resonance frequency of ground state Cs atoms have a nonlinear dependence on the pressure of the buffer gas Ne at a fixed temperature. The hyperfine resonance frequency of alkali-metal atoms is shifted by an amount, which had long been assumed to be linear with the buffer gas pressure until Fei Gong discovered that the shift of Rb and Cs hyperfine resonance frequency has a nonlinear dependence on the pressure of the buffer gas Ar and Kr. While the nonlinear pressure shift of Cs in Ar and Kr is negative, we found that the nonlinear pressure shift of Cs hyperfine frequency in Ne is positive. The reason of the nonlinear shift is the three body collision(eg: Cs-Ne-Ne) and the formation of Van der Waals molecules of a Cs atom and a buffer gas atom of Ar, Kr, or Ne. The hyperfine precession rate of a Cs atom bound in molecule has a shift respect to a free Cs atom. The reversal sign of this nonlinear pressure shift of Cs in Ne respect to Ar and Kr demonstrate that the shift of the hyperfine precession rate of Cs in CsNe is reversed respect to CsAr and CsKr.

  5. [Combining herbs with medication--risks vs. chances].

    PubMed

    Amir, Nir

    2013-07-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is driven by the use of plants or parts of plants, which have undergone minimal processing in order to treat disease and improve health. The article: "Traditional Immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in Modern Medicine", published in this issue of "Harefuah", raises the importance of integrating herbal medicine within the existing medical system. However, there are various limitations on integrating herbology in official frameworks, such as bureaucratic and legislative restrictions concerning the safety and efficacy of the herbs. This allows the marketing of many plants without a prescription requirement or professional advice. Another limitation relates to therapists, some of whom have not undergone proper training and may recommend the improper use of plants, resulting in a problematic combination with drugs in some cases. Regulation is necessary in order to better serve both the public and doctors. Regulation will define who is allowed to work with herbs and this will create a secure integration of herbs into the formal medical world. PMID:23957086

  6. Sleuthing the Dynamo: the Final Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies are opening new windows into the Sun;from its hidden interior to the far reaches of its turbulentouter envelope: rare-earth detectors for solar neutrinos; theGONG project for helioseismology; SOHO for high-resolutionXUV spectroscopy, and YOHKOH for coronal X-ray imaging. Atthe same time, a fleet of space observatories--ROSAT, EUVE,ASCA, and HST itself--are providing unprecedented views ofthe vacuum-UV and X-ray emissions of stars in our Galacticneighborhood. These seemingly unrelated developments are infact deeply connected. A central issue of solar-stellarphysics is the nature and origin of magnetic activity: thelink between the interior dynamics of a late-type star and theviolent state of its outermost coronal layers. As solarphysicists are unlocking the secrets of the hydromagneticDynamo deep inside the Sun, we and others have beendocumenting the early evolution of the Dynamo and itsassociated external gas-dynamic activity. In particular, wehave obtained HST/FOS spectra of ten young solar-type starsin three nearby open clusters--the Hyades, Pleiades, andAlpha Persei--ranging in age from 50 Myr to 600 Myr. We havesupplemented the HST spectroscopy with deep ROSAT pointings, and ground-based studies. Here, we will continue the HSTside of our project by obtaining FUV spectra of two AlphaPerseids from our original program (but not yet observed),and high-S/N follow-up measurements of the hyperactive PleiadH II 314.

  7. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn F.; Alexander, Caroline E.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Woolley, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120'' across), beginning at approximately 19:00 UT on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 Å, 304 Å, and 94 Å, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  8. Autonomous Boolean models for logic, timing, and stability in regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolar, Joshua E. S.

    2011-03-01

    The dynamics of gene expression in a cell is controlled by a dizzying array of biochemical processes. Natural selection, however, has created regulatory systems with a level of logical organization that can be modeled without detailed knowledge of the biochemistry. In cases where graded responses are not relevant, autonomous Boolean network (ABN) models can effectively represent the logic of gene regulation. These are models in which Boolean logic governs the output value of each node and the timing of updates is determined according to delay parameters associated with each link. An advantage of ABNs over synchronous or random asynchronous Boolean networks is that noise associated with molecular concentrations or transport times can be represented through fluctuations in the timing of updates. We have used ABN models to investigate the stability of oscillations in a model of transcriptional oscillations in yeast and the parameter constraints in a model of segment polarity maintenance in the fly embryo, and also to characterize chaotic dynamics observed in a free--running digital electronic circuit. The yeast study highlights architectural and dynamical features of oscillators that rely on pulse transmission rather than a frustrated feedback loop; the fly study reveals timing constraints that are hidden in ODE models; and the electronics study shows that Boolean chaos can occur if and only if time delays are history dependent. Joint work with V. Sevim, X. Gong, X. Cheng, M. Sun, D. Gauthier, H. Cavalcante, and R. Zhang. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-0417372 and NIH Grant P50-GM081883.

  9. Chromospheric Acoustic Oscillations in Active Flaring Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsue, T.; Hill, F.; Stassun, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chromospheric p-mode oscillations are studied in Hα to obtain helioseismic information regarding the local structural conditions around highly magnetic regions such as sunspots. Solar flares commonly occur in active regions where these sunspots exist therefore boosting the p-mode power. In our current study of analyzing p-modes in the chromosphere we study the time evolution of acoustic p-mode oscillation data taken from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Hα, and investigate the p-modes across the frequency band (1 < ν < 8.33 mHz). This study entails three active regions directly over sunspots, with accompanying flaring activity from two solar flares, occurring on June 13th and July 12th, 2012. Our analysis utilizes time series data to create Fourier power spectra of individual pixels spatially resolved around the flare region, to study the frequency bands. We then study how the frequency distribution evolves temporally by constructing a Power Map Movie (PMM) of the regions. From these PMMs we can take a survey of the chromospheric oscillations for each frequency band. We found that the intensity of the flare has an effect on the behavior of the p-modes within different frequency bands. The suppression of power was observed in dark anomalous structures within the PMMs and in other regions there was an observed boost in power due to flaring activity.

  10. Review of the GOLF/SOHO helioseismic results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turck-Chièze, S.; GOLF Team; GOLF-Ng Team; Dynamics Teams

    2007-07-01

    Helioseismic measurements aboard SoHO deliver new facts useful to improve our understanding of Sun and stars. After more than a decade of measurements aboard SoHO, we present the helioseismic results obtained with the GOLF instrument. If the first published papers of this community have mainly contrained the internal microphysics, these last 5 years have revealed an unprecedent insight on the impact of the solar cycle on the outer layers thanks to acoustic modes and on the radiative zone dynamics thanks to gravity mode studies. We will show why GOLF appears as an excellent instrument for this purpose and what we have learned from 10 years of observation aboard SoHO with this french-spanish resonant spectrometer. The progress done today by Doppler velocity measurements aboard SoHO (GOLF+ MDI) and by ground networks (BiSON and GONG) opens a totally new perspective for solar and stellar physics. So we then mention the questions that might be solved with the next generation of instruments already in construction in different european laboratories including GOLF-NG. They lead to two formation flying missions DynaMICCS and HIRISE proposed in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision perspective. An european strategy of measurements is suggested to maintain this discipline in the best conditions for the two next decades in order to get quantitative estimate of the effective role of the solar variabilities along time.

  11. The Virtual Solar Observatory - Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.

    2001-05-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is a software environment for searching, obtaining and analyzing data from archives of solar data that are distributed at many different observatories around the world. This "observatory" is virtual since it exists only on the Internet, not as a physical structure. As a research tool, the VSO would enable a new field of correlative statistical solar physics in which large-scale comparative studies spanning many dimensions and data sources could be carried out. Several groups with solar archives have indicated their willingness to particpate as a VSO component. These include NSO (KPVT GONG, and SOLIS); NASA/GSFC SDAC; SOHO; Stanford (SOI/MDI, TON, WSO); Lockheed (TRACE); MSU (Yohkoh); UCLA (Mt. Wilson 150-ft Tower); USC (Mt. Wilson 60-ft Tower); BBSO/NJIT; Arcetri (ARTHEMIS); Meudon; HAO; and CSUN/SFO. The VSO will be implemented so that additional systems can be easily incorporated. The VSO technical concept includes the federation of distributed solar archives, an adaptive metadata thesaurus, a single unified intuitive GUI, context-based searches, and distributed computing. The underlying structure would most likely be constructed using platform-independent tools such as XML and JavaScript. There are several technical challenges facing the VSO development. Issues of security, bandwidth, metadata, and load balancing must be faced. While the VSO is currently in the concept phase, a number of funding opportunities are bing pursued. The status of these proposals and plans for the future will be updated at the meeting.

  12. H-alpha Off-limb Carrington Synoptic Charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertello, L.; Hughes, A.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar prominences (and filaments) reveal complex structures, with significant differences inmorphology, lifetime, and complexity of their magnetic field environment. Studies of thesesolar features are important for understanding not only their origin but also their role as precursors ofenergetic events such as flares and coronal mass ejections.The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory provides, amongother products, high-cadence broad-band intensity measurements centered in the core ofH-alpha spectral line. Prominences and filaments are quite visible in these 2Kx2K images, that havebeen obtained since 2010. We recentlystarted a project to produce an archive of H-alpha off-limb Carrington Synoptic Charts to be usedfor systematic studies of prominences. Charts are produced to show both spatial and temporal variabilityof these features in four radius zones covering 1.01 to 1.11 solar radii. Here we describe the applied methodologyand show some preliminary results. Potential applications of interest to the solar and heliospheric communitiesare also briefly discussed.

  13. Light Curve Solutions of Eclipsing Binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Rao, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present model light curves for nine eclipsing binary stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These systems are detached binaries with nearly circular orbits, and were pseudorandomly selected from three of 21 LMC regions in the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment II (OGLE-II) survey. We make use of light curves, orbital periods, and binary classification as reported in Wyrzykowski et al. (2003). We present light curve solutions created with the software PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs (PHOEBE, Prsa & Zwitter 2005). Each solution has the best-fit mass ratio q, system inclination i, component temperatures T1 and T2, and modified Kopal potentials Ω1 and Ω2. PHOEBE employs a Nelder & Mead's Simplex fitting method that adjusts all the input parameters to find the best fit to the light curve. Many of the light curves have significant scatter, which can lead to multiple degenerate best-fit solutions, and we discuss what can be done in the future to refine our results, derive global stellar parameters, and place these nine systems in a larger context. We acknowledge the support of the International Research Experience for Students (IRES) program, which is sponsored by the NSF and administered by NSO/GONG.

  14. Sleuthing the Dynamo: Cycle 2 Continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    1991-07-01

    Innovative technologies of the 1990s will open new windows to the interior of the Sun and its hidden dynamics: the GONG project for helioseismology; rare-earth detectors for solar neutrinos; and SOLAR PROBE for high-order moments of the mass distribution. At the same time, newly-commissioned space observatories will provide unprecedented views of the vacuum-UV and X-ray emissions of stars in our Galactic neighborhood. These seemingly unrelated developments are in fact deeply connected. A central issue of solar-stellar physics is the nature and origin of magnetic activity: the profound link between the interior dynamics of a late-type star and the violent state of its outermost million-degree coronal layers. As solar physicists are unlocking the secrets of the hydromagnetic dynamo deep inside the Sun, we will apply one of the powerful new astronomical tools of the decade -- the HST -- to document the early evolution of the dynamo and its associated external gas-dynamic activity. In particular, we will obtain high-S/N FUV spectra of solar-type stars in young galactic clusters ranging in age from 1/10-th to 1/100-th that of the Sun.

  15. Sleuthing the Dynamo: Cycle 1 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    1990-12-01

    Innovative technologies of the 1990s will open new windows to the interior of the Sun and its hidden dynamics: the GONG project for helioseismology; rare-earth detectors for solar neutrinos; and SOLAR PROBE for high-order moments of the mass distribution. At the same time, newly-commissioned space observatories will provide unprecedented views of the vacuum-UV and X-ray emissions of stars in our Galactic neighborhood. These seemingly unrelated developments are in fact deeply connected. A central issue of solar-stellar physics is the nature and origin of magnetic activity: the profound link between the interior dynamics of a late-type star and the violent state of its outermost million-degree coronal layers. As solar physicists are unlocking the secrets of the hydromagnetic dynamo deep inside the Sun, we will apply one of the powerful new astronomical tools of the decade -- the HST -- to document the early evolution of the dynamo and its associated external gas-dynamic activity. In particular, we will obtain high-S/N FUV spectra of solar-type stars in young galactic clusters ranging in age from 1/10-th to 1/100-th that of the Sun.

  16. Regulation of gene expression by yoga, meditation and related practices: a review of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2013-02-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) approaches have gained significant interest in recent years to provide a solution for the health care challenges we face today. Yogic cognitive-behavioral practices are among the most widely used IM approaches and include diverse practices such as yoga asanas, meditation, breathing exercises, Qi Gong, Tai Chi Chih, and various others. Studies to date suggest that these yogic/meditative practices have significant positive effects on the mind-body system and thereby can increase wellness and support the healing process from disease. Previous work has provided evidence for both psychological and physiological effects of these practices; however, the mechanisms of these effects, especially at the molecular level, have largely been missing. Three recent studies started to provide some of this information through gene expression profiling in circulating immune cells, which support the hypothesis that yogic/meditative practices have a measurable effect at the molecular level. These studies are reviewed herein and some future perspectives are considered. PMID:23380323

  17. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn; Alexander, Caroline; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Woolley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120 arcseconds across), beginning at approximately 19:00 Universal Time on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 angstroms, 304 angstroms, and 94 angstroms, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  18. Influence of anionic substitution on the electrolyte electroreflectance study of band edge transitions in single crystal Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levcenco, S.; Dumcenco, D.; Wang, Y. P.; Huang, Y. S.; Ho, C. H.; Arushanov, E.; Tezlevan, V.; Tiong, K. K.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) solid solutions were grown by chemical vapor transport technique using iodine trichloride as a transport agent. As confirmed by X-ray investigations, the as-grown CZTSSe solid solutions are single phase and crystallized in kesterite structure. The lattice parameters of CZTSSe were determined and the S contents of the obtained crystals were estimated by Vegard's law. The composition dependent band gaps of CZTSSe solid solutions were studied by electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) measurements at room temperature. From a detailed lineshape fit of the EER spectra, the band gaps of CZTSSe were determined accurately and were found to decrease almost linearly with the increase of Se content, which agreed well with the recent theoretical first-principle calculations by S. Chen, A. Walsh, J.H. Yang, X.G. Gong, L. Sun, P. X. Yang, J.H. Chu, S.H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 125201 (5pp).

  19. Solar Subsurface Flows derived with Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, R.; Howe, R.; Gonzalez Hernandez, I.; Hill, F.; Haber, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Local helioseismology makes it possible to map the horizontal flows in the outer convection zone of the Sun. For the ring-diagram analysis, we start from full-disk Doppler velocity images of the Sun and track a region at about the surface rotation rate for a period of a day. Each tracked data cube of velocity is then Fourier transformed. The resulting 3-D power spectrum shows structures that correspond to the acoustic waves. These structures appear as rings in a 2-D plane at a given temporal frequency. Since acoustic waves are advected by subsurface flows, the velocity of these horizontal flows can be determined from the offset of the ring centers. Using ring-diagram analysis of Doppler images of the Sun obtained with the ground-based Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft (SOHO), we are studying, for example, the large-scale subsurface flows (E-W rotation and N-S meridional flow) and their variation with the solar cycle of magnetic activity. We are also studying subsurface flows associated with active regions on the Sun focusing on their evolution (emergence and decay). In addition, we have started to analyze data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft. We will present some recent results.

  20. Evaluation of dynamic subgrid-scale models in large-eddy simulations of neutral turbulent flow over a two-dimensional sinusoidal hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Feng; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Stoll, Rob

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate neutral turbulent boundary-layer flow over a rough two-dimensional sinusoidal hill. Three different subgrid-scale (SGS) models are tested: (a) the standard Smagorinsky model with a wall-matching function, (b) the Lagrangian dynamic model, and (c) the recently developed scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model [Stoll, R., Porté-Agel, F., 2006. Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulation of neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layers over heterogeneous terrain. Water Resources Research 42, W01409. doi:10.1029/2005WR003989]. The simulation results obtained with the different models are compared with turbulence statistics obtained from experiments conducted in the meteorological wind tunnel of the AES (Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada) [Gong, W., Taylor, P.A., Dörnbrack, A., 1996. Turbulent boundary-layer flow over fixed aerodynamically rough two-dimensional sinusoidal waves. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 312, 1-37]. We find that the scale-dependent dynamic model is able to account, without any tuning, for the local changes in the eddy-viscosity model coefficient. It can also capture the scale dependence of the coefficient associated with regions of the flow with strong mean shear and flow anisotropy. As a result, the scale-dependent dynamic model yields results that are more realistic than the ones obtained with the scale-invariant Lagrangian dynamic model.