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Sample records for gorges area south

  1. Hydrothermal alteration of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area (South China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowski, Arkadiusz; Bristow, Thomas F.; Wampler, J. M.; Środoń, Jan; Marynowski, Leszek; Elliott, W. Crawford; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2013-04-01

    The geochemical and fossil record preserved in the Ediacaran age (635-551 Ma) Doushantuo Formation of South China has been extensively examined to explore the impact of changing climate and the oxidation state of the oceans on the development and distribution of early multicellular life. In the Yangtze Gorges area, this formation shows many of the geochemical trends and features thought to typify global ocean chemistry in the Ediacaran Period, but there are indications that post-sedimentary processes modified these signals. This study of clay minerals and organic matter builds a more detailed picture of the type and degree of post-sedimentary alteration at different stratigraphic levels of the formation and focuses on how this alteration influenced stable carbon and oxygen isotope records. In the cratonward Jiulongwan and Huajipo sections of the Doushantuo Formation, its lower part (Members 1 and 2) consists largely of dolomitic shale, rich in authigenic saponite that crystallized in an alkaline sedimentary basin. Saponite has been altered to chlorite via corrensite across tens of meters of strata in lower Member 2, with increased alteration downward toward the cap dolostone. The greater chloritization is accompanied by lower δ18O and higher δD values of trioctahedral clays. This pattern of alteration of trioctahedral clays is likely due to hydrothermal fluid activity in the underlying, relatively permeable Nantuo Formation and cap dolostone. A concomitant increase of solid bitumen reflectance toward the base of the formation supports this idea. In the uppermost part of the formation in the Yangtze Gorges area (Member 4), a typical open water marine dolomitic shale rich in illite and organic matter, increases in the methylphenanthrenes ratio index and solid bitumen reflectance correlate with decrease of the bulk rock K/Al ratio upward, providing evidence for hot fluid migration above the nearly impermeable shale. Clay from the upper part of the formation is

  2. Monitoring Ground Surface Displacements in the Three Gorges Area, Crustal Tectonic Movement in Tibet and Subsidence in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Muller, J.-P.; Singleton, A.; Li, Z.; Liu, D.; Riedel, B.; Niemeier, W.; Liang, C.; Zeng, Q.; Jiao, J.; Ye, Y.; Green, B.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, J.; Xiao, R.; He, X.; Xiong, S.

    2014-11-01

    During the first half of the DRAGON-3 project, various projects have been running through collaborations between research groups focusing on different geographical studies in the Three Gorges Region (3G), Tibet, Coal Mining areas in West China, Daduhe River and Southeast China. Stimulated by the interest and concerns of demonstrated and potential geo-hazards in the 3G Region, research has been undertaken focusing on deformation monitoring using SAR images with much higher spatial and temporal sampling. The use of different strategies including sub-Pixel Offset Tracking (sPOT) have been evaluated in challenging areas with steep slopes and dense vegetative cover. In addition to the development and validation of algorithms to improve previous attempts using InSAR, studies have been conducted on environmental impacts included mapping of subsidence caused by mining activities; assessment of building collapse after earthquakes using polarized SAR; landslide monitoring of a hydraulic engineering resettlement zone using GPS and InSAR, etc.

  3. 24. MITSUBISHI BIPLANE VALVE GORGE POWERHOUSE SEEN FROM THE SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. MITSUBISHI BIPLANE VALVE GORGE POWERHOUSE SEEN FROM THE SOUTH. THE MITSUBISHI BIPLANE VALVES WERE INSTALLED IN 1980 AND REPLACED LARNER-JOHNSON NEEDLE VALVES ON UNITS 21, 22, AND 23, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  4. Microbial mat structures in the basal Ediacaran Doushantuo cap dolostone from the Yangtze Gorges area of South China and their environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Wang, J.; Xiao, S.; Hu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental changes after the terminal Cryogenian snowball Earth event have been debated extensively in the literature. But there have been relatively few studies on the biotic response in the aftermath of this snowball Earth event. In fact, a variety of potential microbial facies are preserved in basal Ediacaran cap dolostones as peloids, clotted fabrics, and morphologically diverse microbialites (e. g., tube-like stromatolites and stratiform biolaminites). In South China, centimeter-sized domal and conical stromatolites consisting of wavy or wrinkled microbial mats occur at the top of the Doushantuo cap dolostone. Sedimentological investigation of these stromatolites on outcrop and in core samples from the Yangtze Gorges area suggests that they are likely biological in origin. These stromatolites are characterized by vertical accumulation of dark and light laminae. The dark laminae are sub-millimetric in thickness and are composed of probably biogenic kerogen as determined by Raman spectroscopy. The dark laminae is also rich in pyrite, likely derived from organic degradation by sulfate reduction bacteria. Microsparry calcite occur as cements between the dark laminae. Within the Doushantuo stromatolites, there are patches of randomly oriented calcite needles. The precipitation of these calcite needles may have also been facilitated by microbial processes such bacterial sulfate reduction. Our study shows that shallow marine environment became habitable soon after the snowball Earth glaciation ended and benthic microbes were among some of the first organisms to colonize these environments.

  5. Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is

  6. Assessment and application of potential food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yongzhong; Gao, Yanghua; Zhu, Lifen

    2006-08-01

    The assessment of food provisioning services of ecosystems in Three-gorge areas is helpful for better understanding the function of ecosystems in local human well-beings. In this paper, process-based models are used to assess the potential food provisioning services derived from agriculture ecosystems and grassland ecosystems, a modifying model along with normal woodlands and a set of modifying coefficients is built to assess the potential food from woodland ecosystems. A set of power regression models based on environment factors are built to estimate the potential fish production from water ecosystems. Land cover data stemmed from Landsat TM images, as well as other natural and social-economic data in 1km resolution such as temperature, precipitation, and DEM, are used to support these assessment models. It shows that the four ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can provide 85.98×10 12 calories heat, 2.49 billion kilograms protein and 823.4 million kilograms fat. Human carrying capacity model under the balance nutrition pattern is built in this paper, which results in two key findings: ecosystems in Three-gorge areas can feed 45.92 million people under wealthy living standard which is 1.53 times of the current population, and the sustainable population is from 9.69 to 36.23 million under that living standard. Multi-scale population pressure model is built to calculate the population pressure index in Three-gorge areas. The grain for green pressure index, a multivariate linear weighed model, is used to determine the spatial distribution of farmland fit for grain for green and fit for protecting.

  7. Landslide Monitoring in Three Gorges Area Using Multi-Frequency Insar Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Balz, T.; Tantianuparp, P.; Shi, X.; Zhang, L.; Wang, T.

    2012-12-01

    Landslide is a term describing the downslope movement of soil, rock, and organic materials under the effects of gravity. Landslides are very destructive forces. In order to decrease landslide occurrences and its impacts, landslide monitoring is applied to analyze, forecast, and control landslides. The Three Gorges Project, the largest hydroelectric project of the world, began to function in 2003. The dam site is situated at Sandouping in China's Hubei Province. The reservoir has a length of approximately 600 km along the Yangtze River. In 2001, in a statistical survey, carried out by the Ministry of Land and Resources of China, landslides were observed in all counties surrounding the Three Gorges reservoir and nearly 2500 landslide bodies were observed. There are many landslide triggering factors in this area, for example the dam was built on a geologically unstable zone, the large surface-water level change, the construction of new buildings and roads, deforestation, etc. The potential landslide hazards are threatening the lives of millions of residents in the area. The Three Gorges area has a rough topography and is heavily vegetated. In an effort to reduce the landslide risks, advanced monitoring techniques and methods, such as a GPS network and other terrestrial surveillance technologies, are used in the area. Although these techniques can acquire highly accurate results, their results are only available over sparse measurement points and it they requires high costs for manpower and rather high costs for the instrument manipulation. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), an active microwave imaging system, suffers from temporal decorrelation when monitoring heavily vegetated area as the Three Gorges. In order to analysis long-term and continuous displacement trend in this area, Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are applied. Both techniques are able to detect surface motions. We use high resolution TerraSAR-X X

  8. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  9. Multi-Orbit Ps-Insar for Landslide Monitoring in Three Gorges Area (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Zhang, L.; Balz, T.; Shi, X.; Tantianuparp, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges Project, the largest hydroelectric project of the world, became operational in 2003. The construction and operation of the dam significantly increased the number of active landslide bodies in the reservoir area. The reservoir area is huge, with approximately 600 km length along the Yangtze River starting from the dam at Sandouping in China's Hubei province. The dam itself was built on a rather geologically unstable zone, causing many concerns before, during, and after construction. Landslides are activated by the large surface-water level changes in each store-and-release cycle, but also by the construction of new buildings and roads and the deforestation in the area. Landslides are a huge safety concern in the area. To reduce the risks, various methods are applied in the area, such as a GPS networks and terrestrial surveillance. However, this sparse point information cannot cover the vast reservoir area. Furthermore, the area is densely vegetated and has a rough topography with steep mountainsides. Vast areas are practically inaccessible for terrestrial surveillance, due to the difficult terrain. Such a vast and inaccessible area is best to be surveyed using remote sensing techniques. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can measure long-term and continuous displacement trends using Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI). However, the steep mountainside and the dense vegetation are also hindering the use of interferometric SAR techniques. The very dense vegetation causes a strong temporal decorrelation of the interferometric signal in the area. This especially affects shorter wavelength systems, like the X-band systems of TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed, but also the C-band systems. The longer wavelength L-band of ALOS PALSAR was less affected by the temporal decorrelation in the area, but unfortunately PALSAR is not operational anymore. The steep mountainsides also cause problems in the analysis of the

  10. Chemical quality of surface water in the Flaming Gorge Reservoir area, Wyoming and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, R.J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1973-01-01

    Construction of Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation started in 1959, and storage began in November 1962. A reconnaissance study was made during the period 1966-68 to determine the effects of the reservoir on the chemical quality of the effluent water and to describe the quality of the impounded water and inflowing water. The major inflow to the reservoir is from the Green River, which contributes an average of 81 percent of the water and 59 percent of the inflow load of dissolved solids. Together, Blacks Fork and Henrys Fork contribute an average of about 16 percent of the water and about 23 percent of the dissolved-solids load, whereas minor tributaries contribute approximately 3 percent of the total inflow water to the reservoir, but about 18 percent of the total incoming load of dissolved solids. The concentration of dissolved solids in the reservoir in October 1966 was about 150 mg/l (milligrams per liter) greater than the concentration of the 1962-66 inflow and in September 1968 about 95 mg/l greater than the concentration of the 1962-68 inflow. The increased concentration is due. mostly to leaching of minerals from the reservoir bottom. For the 1963-68 water years, about 1.2 million tons of dissolved solids was leached from inundated areas. The major observable difference between the chemical composition of the inflow during 1963-66 and that of the reservoir in 1966 is an increase in the percentage of sulfate and a decrease in the percentage of bicarbonate. Impoundment of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir during the 1963-68 water years caused the concentration of dissolved solids in the river system to increase by 130 mg/l, or about 32 percent over what would have occurred without the reservoir. Evaporation accounted for an increase of 15 mg/l, and leaching accounted for an increase of 115 mg/l.

  11. Occurrence of organotin compounds in river sediments under the dynamic water level conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Ke; Chen, You-Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wei, Yun-Mei; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Bin; Qiu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    The Three Gorges Project is the largest hydro project in the world, and the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is dynamic and adjustable with the aim of flood control and electrical power generation. It is necessary to investigate the pollutants and their underlying contamination processes under dynamic water levels to determine their environmental behaviors in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Here, we report the assessment of organotin compounds (OTs) pollution in the river sediments of the TGRA. Surface sediment samples were collected in the TGRA at low and high water levels. Tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their degradation products in sediments were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PhTs) were detected in sediments, and BTs predominated over PhTs in the whole study area under dynamic water level conditions. The concentrations of OTs in sediments varied markedly among locations, and significant concentrations were found in river areas with high levels of boat traffic and wastewater discharge. Sediments at all stations except Cuntan were lightly contaminated with TBT, and total organic carbon (TOC) was a significant factor affecting the fate of TBT in the TGRA. The butyltin and phenyltin degradation indices showed no recent inputs of TBT or TPhT into this region, with the exception of fresh TPhT input at Xiakou Town. Shipping activity, wastewater discharge, and agriculture are the most likely sources of OTs in the TGRA. PMID:25537288

  12. Evaluation of Gridded Precipitation Data for Driving SWAT Model in Area Upstream of Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Lijing; Yu, Jingshan; Xu, Zongxue

    2014-01-01

    Gridded precipitation data are becoming an important source for driving hydrologic models to achieve stable and valid simulation results in different regions. Thus, evaluating different sources of precipitation data is important for improving the applicability of gridded data. In this study, we used three gridded rainfall datasets: 1) National Centers for Environmental Prediction - Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFSR); 2) Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE); and 3) China trend - surface reanalysis (trend surface) data. These are compared with monitoring precipitation data for driving the Soil and Water Assessment Tool in two basins upstream of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. The results of one test basin with significant topographic influence indicates that all the gridded data have poor abilities in reproducing hydrologic processes with the topographic influence on precipitation quantity and distribution. However, in a relatively flat test basin, the APHRODITE and trend surface data can give stable and desirable results. The results of this study suggest that precipitation data for future applications should be considered comprehensively in the TGR area, including the influence of data density and topography. PMID:25409467

  13. [Characteristics of nutrient loss of Lanlingxi watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Zuo-Qing

    2013-08-01

    The water flow velocity of part of the tributaries in the Three Gorges Reservoir area has become slower after the water storage period, and agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) is an urgent problem to be solved. Based on a closed catchment of Lanlingxi watershed, the process and the load of nitrogen and phosphorus loss were monitored, and the different ways of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss under typical rainfall conditions in watershed scale were compared. The results showed that: (1) The concentration of total nitrogen (TN) gradually decreased with the increasing runoff, and slowly increased after the rain stopped, while the total phosphorus (TP) was contrary to that of TN; (2) The TN loss process had a close relation with rainfall, as TP loss was influenced by the rainfall intensity. N loss was mainly in the form of dissolvable nitrogen, while particle phosphorus was the dominant form for P loss. (3) Surface runoff was the important way of nutrient loss, as interflow greatly influenced the N loss; (4) Various forms of N and P loss showed a significant linear relationship with runoff. (5) The annual TP loss was 28.94 kg x (a x km)(-2) and TN loss was 1040.41 kg x (a x km2)(-1) in this watershed. PMID:24191545

  14. Pilot project on the resettlement of out-migrant agricultural population in Yangtze Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W

    1992-10-01

    A brief summary is provided of the pilot project on the resettlement of the agricultural population in Yangtze Reservoir Area, China. Population needed to be resettled from the area to be flooded by the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the middle of the Yangtze River. The submerged area included 19 cities and counties of which 2 are county level cities, 11 county seats, 140 towns and market towns, 326 townships, and 1351 villages. The population to be evacuated totaled 725,500 residents, of whom 392,90 were urban residents and 332,600 were rural residents. The amount of cultivated land lost amounted to 3573 mu (1 mu = 17.5% of an acre). While the hydropower station is being constructed, the population will rise over 20 years to 1 million. The Chinese government has developed a program of resettlement, whereby displaced population receive financial support to develop the economy; the sum appropriated equaled 50 million yuan RMB. So far, the pilot project has been successful. Within the 326 townships affected, only part of the land lying below the highest water level of the reservoir would be affected; the remaining land could be used for resettlement, albeit the land is uncultivated grassland and barren mountains and hills. Resettlement in the area is preferred over long distance migration. The government program will help farmers make full use of the available lands. Suggested crops include mulberry trees, oranges, medical herbs, and other cash crops. Effort will be made to ensure each farmer will receive one mu of economic forest or one mu of cultivated land of high and stable yields. The program aims to guarantee sufficient food supplies and the same standard of living before displacement, as well as the opportunity to create better conditions for alleviating poverty and improvement through increased productivity. PMID:12286961

  15. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  16. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  17. Surface vertical displacements and level plane changes in the front reservoir area caused by filling the Three Gorges Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hansheng

    2000-06-01

    On the basis of the results of geological surveys and seismic prospecting in the Three Gorges area, two Earth models are constructed which are appropriate to the crustal structure in the front Three Gorges Reservoir area. Utilizing load-induced deformation theory, we model the surface vertical displacements and level plane changes in the area caused by increased water loads of the reservoir. The two quantities are needed to determine height changes on the Earth's surface. The numerical results demonstrate that the heights will be significantly changed as the reservoir fills up. For example, when the reservoir water level reaches an elevation of 175 m, the crust subsides by 1.0˜48.3 mm, the level plane uplifts by 1.1˜7.5 mm, and the height falls by 2.1˜45.0 mm. Accordingly, our results provide the reliable corrected values for discriminating between the earthquake-related crustal motion and the height changes that occur due to reservoir impoundment. Moreover, if the height data previously observed in the area need to be used for engineering surveys after the reservoir is filled, they must be corrected.

  18. Use of Cusp Catastrophe for Risk Analysis of Navigational Environment: A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Hao, Guozhu; Huang, Liwen; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    A water traffic system is a huge, nonlinear, complex system, and its stability is affected by various factors. Water traffic accidents can be considered to be a kind of mutation of a water traffic system caused by the coupling of multiple navigational environment factors. In this study, the catastrophe theory, principal component analysis (PCA), and multivariate statistics are integrated to establish a situation recognition model for a navigational environment with the aim of performing a quantitative analysis of the situation of this environment via the extraction and classification of its key influencing factors; in this model, the natural environment and traffic environment are considered to be two control variables. The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River is considered as an example, and six critical factors, i.e., the visibility, wind, current velocity, route intersection, channel dimension, and traffic flow, are classified into two principal components: the natural environment and traffic environment. These two components are assumed to have the greatest influence on the navigation risk. Then, the cusp catastrophe model is employed to identify the safety situation of the regional navigational environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The simulation results indicate that the situation of the navigational environment of this area is gradually worsening from downstream to upstream. PMID:27391057

  19. Use of Cusp Catastrophe for Risk Analysis of Navigational Environment: A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Guozhu

    2016-01-01

    A water traffic system is a huge, nonlinear, complex system, and its stability is affected by various factors. Water traffic accidents can be considered to be a kind of mutation of a water traffic system caused by the coupling of multiple navigational environment factors. In this study, the catastrophe theory, principal component analysis (PCA), and multivariate statistics are integrated to establish a situation recognition model for a navigational environment with the aim of performing a quantitative analysis of the situation of this environment via the extraction and classification of its key influencing factors; in this model, the natural environment and traffic environment are considered to be two control variables. The Three Gorges Reservoir area of the Yangtze River is considered as an example, and six critical factors, i.e., the visibility, wind, current velocity, route intersection, channel dimension, and traffic flow, are classified into two principal components: the natural environment and traffic environment. These two components are assumed to have the greatest influence on the navigation risk. Then, the cusp catastrophe model is employed to identify the safety situation of the regional navigational environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The simulation results indicate that the situation of the navigational environment of this area is gradually worsening from downstream to upstream. PMID:27391057

  20. [Control of Soil Nutrient Loss of Typical Reforestation Patterns Along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhi-lin; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong

    2015-10-01

    Annual soil nutrient loss characteristics on typical reforestation patterns in watershed along the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were studied based on runoff plot experiment. Runoff and sediment nutrition content from May to October 2014 of typical reforestation patterns including garden plot (tea garden), forest land (Chinese chestnut) and the original slope farmland were determined and then analyzed. The results showed that: (1) After the Returning Farmland to Forest Project the quantity of annual soil nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus, the sum of them in sediment and runoff) loss decreased. The output of total nitrogen (TN) was in the order of slope farmland (2 444.27 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (998.70 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (532.61 g x hm(-2)), and for total phosphorus (TP) loss was slope farmland (1 690.48 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (488.06 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (129.00 g x hm(-2)) . Compared with slope farmland, the load of TN and TP output of reforestation patterns decreased 68.68% and 81.75%, respectively. (2) Compared with slope farmland, available nitrogen loss decreased in reforestation patterns. Total nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) loss ranked in the order of slope farmland (113.79 g x hm(-2)) > tea garden (73.75 g x hm(-2)) > Chinese chestnut forest (56.06 g x hm(-2)) The largest amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) was found in tea garden (69.34 g x hm(-2)), then in farmland (52.45 g x hm(-2)), and the least in Chinese chestnut forest (47.23 g x hm(-2)). (3) The main route of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N loss was both through runoff, the quantity of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N output in which accounted for 91.4% and 92.2% of the total, respectively. The quantity of TN and TP in sediment accounted for 86.6% and 98.4% of the total. TN and TP loss showed an extremely significant correlation with sediments, which showed that sediment output was the main approach of TN and TP loss. PMID:26841618

  1. The German-Chinese research collaboration YANGTZE-GEO: Assessing the geo-risks in the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt, S.; Behrens, T.; Bieger, K.; Ehret, D.; Frei, M.; Hörmann, G.; Seeber, C.; Schleier, M.; Schmalz, B.; Fohrer, N.; Kaufmann, H.; King, L.; Rohn, J.; Subklew, G.; Xiang, W.

    2012-04-01

    The river impoundment by The Three Gorges Dam leads to resettlement and land reclamation on steep slopes. As a consequence, ecosystem changes such as soil erosion, mass movements, and diffuse sediment and matter fluxes are widely expected to increase rapidly. In order to assess and analyse those ecosystem changes, the German-Chinese joint research project YANGTZE-GEO was set up in 2008. Within the framework of YANGTZE-GEO five German universities (Tuebingen, Erlangen, Giessen, Kiel, Potsdam) conducted studies on soil erosion, mass movements, diffuse matter inputs, and land use change and vulnerability in close collaboration with Chinese scientists. The Chinese partners and institutions are according to their alphabetic order of hometown the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES; Beijing), the Standing Office of the State Council Three Gorges Project Construction Committee (Beijing), the National Climate Centre (NCC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA; Beijing), the Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing for Land and Resources (AES; Beijing), the Nanjing University, the CAS Institute of Soil Science (Nanjing), the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology at CAS (NIGLAS; Nanjing), the China University of Geosciences (CUG; Wuhan), the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology (Wuhan), and the China Three Gorges University (Yichang). The overall aim of YANGTZE-GEO is the development of a risk assessment and forecasting system to locate high risk areas using GIS-based erosion modelling, data mining tools for terrace condition analysis and landslide recognition, eco-hydrological modelling for diffuse matter inputs, and state-of-the-art remote sensing to assess the landscape's vulnerability. Furthermore, the project aims at the recommendation of sustainable land management systems. YANGTZE-GEO showed the relevance of such research and crucially contributes to the understanding of the dimension and dynamics of the ecological consequences of

  2. Soil moisture status estimation over Three Gorges area with Landsat TM data based on temperature vegetation dryness index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Li, Jiong; Dong, Yanfang

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture is the important indicator of climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture and other parameters of the land surface and atmospheric interface. Soil moisture plays an important role on the water and energy exchange at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Remote sensing can provide information on large area quickly and easily, so it is significant to do research on how to monitor soil moisture by remote sensing. This paper presents a method to assess soil moisture status using Landsat TM data over Three Gorges area in China based on TVDI. The potential of Temperature- Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) from Landsat TM data in assessing soil moisture was investigated in this region. After retrieving land surface temperature and vegetation index a TVDI model based on the features of Ts-NDVI space is established. And finally, soil moisture status is estimated according to TVDI. It shows that TVDI has the advantages of stability and high accuracy to estimating the soil moisture status.

  3. [Seasonal variation of phytoplankton community in Xiaojiang backwater area during the preliminary operation stage of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-song; Sheng, Jin-ping; Li, Zhe; Gao, Xu; Fang, Fang; Zhou, Hong

    2010-07-01

    According to one year's continuous observation on algae in the Xiaojiang backwater area in Three Gorges Reservoir, our group analyzed algae community and its succession in the Xiaojiang backwater area at the beginning of the function of the reservoir. The algae cell density and biomass are the highest in spring and the lowest in winter. The maximal value of cell density is 421.64 x 10(3) cells x L(-1), and the minimal value is 2.06 x 10(5) cells x L(-1); and maximal value of biomass is 39,231.84 microg x L(-1), and the minimal value is 226.17 microg x L(-1). From May 2007 to May 2008, there are 7 phylum, 101 category, 262 genus appeared in the Xiaojiang backwater area, in which 51 categories are Chlorophyta accounting for 50.5%, 22 categories are Bacillariophyta accounting for 21.8%, 18 categories are Cyanophyta accounting for 17.8%, and 4 categories are Dinophyta, 2 categories are Cryptophyta, 3 categories are Euglenophyta, 1 category is Xanthophyta and others. Cryptomonas, Chlorella, Cyclotella, Scenedesmus, Oocystis, Chlamydomonas, Schroederia, Aulacoseira, Stephanodiscus and Fragilaria are familiar categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. Asterionnella, Aulacoseira, Coelastrunm, Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Aclinastnrum, Dictyosphaerium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Merismopedia, Ceratium, Peridinium and Cryptomonas are the preponderant categories in the Xiaojiang backwater area. PMID:20825015

  4. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Columbia Gorge. 9.178 Section 9.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.178 Columbia Gorge. (a) Name. The name of...

  5. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Columbia Gorge. 9.178 Section 9.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.178 Columbia Gorge. (a) Name. The name of...

  6. An Allocation of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources to Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Crovelli, Robert A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Milici, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered oil and gas resources that may underlie Gauley River National Recreation Area and New River Gorge National River in West Virginia. Using the results of an assessment of undiscovered resources from ten assessment units in the Appalachian Basin Province that include these land parcels, the USGS allocated 2.9 billion cubic feet of gas, 1.6 thousand barrels of oil, and 45 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to part of Gauley River National Recreation Area, and 39 billion cubic feet of gas, 24 thousand barrels of oil, and 644 thousand barrels of natural gas liquids to New River Gorge National River. These allocated volumes of undiscovered resources represent potential volumes in undiscovered fields.

  7. Soil stability characteristics of mulberry lands at hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Shi, Dongmei; Hu, Xueqin; Huang, Xianzhi; Li, Yexin; Guo, Tianlei

    2015-10-01

    The hydro-fluctuation belt in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is a typical seasonal and artificial wetland system and ecologically fragile zone. Using the widely existing mulberry forest lands in the hydro-fluctuation belt as an example and the 180-m water-level forest land as a control, this paper analyzes the soil stability of mulberry forestlands at different water levels in the hydro-fluctuation belt by analyzing and comparing the changes between soil physical and mechanical properties. The results indicated that (1) water-level changes, such as rising, flooding, draining, and exposure, affect the soil structure in mulberry forestlands. The soil agglomeration statuses for the soil layers decreased from 180 > 175 > 170 > 165 m, and the soil agglomeration statuses at a depth of 0∼20 cm decreased by 43.79, 44.95, and 57.45% compared with the control. (2) The soil water stability index decreased as follows: 180 > 170 > 175 > 165 m, which only accounted for 50.00, 47.73, and 40.91% of the control. In addition, the soil water stability indexes for the topsoils at various water levels were 1.87 (180 m), 1.67 (175 m), 2.92 (170 m), and 1.86 (165 m) times greater than those of the subsoils; thus, the resistance to hydraulic dispersion and disintegration were greater in the topsoil than in the subsoil. (3) The soil aggregate stability index decreased from 180 > 165 > 170 > 175 m and by 22.75, 23.53, and 35.29% compared with the control. (4) The soil shear strengths (composed of the cohesive force C and the internal friction angle φ) of the topsoils at water levels of 175, 170, and 165 m were significantly lower than in the control, and the internal friction angles decreased by 10.52, 19.08, and 43.25% and the cohesive force decreased by 9.88, 16.36, and 27.51%, respectively. The stability of the soil structure was greatly influenced by the soil clay content, soil organic matter content, and waterlogging duration. The study results

  8. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level. PMID:26936476

  9. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  10. [Seasonal variation of cyanobacteria and its potential relationship with key environmental factors in Xiaojiang backwater area, Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Guo, Jing-song; Fang, Fang; Gao, Xu; Sheng, Jin-ping; Zhou, Hong; Long, Man

    2010-02-01

    Eutrophication and algal blooms occurred in the backwater areas of tributaries in Three Gorges Reservoir were the hot ecological issues in recent years. A one year field survey on cyanobacteria was put forward from May, 2007 to May, 2008 in Xiaojiang backwater area. 15 genera and 40 species of cyanophyta were detected. Mean value of cyanobacterial cell density was (23.50 +/- 10.30) x 10(5) cells x L(-1), i.e., 24.1% in the algal community, while the biomass was (768.70 +/- 287.40) microg x L(-1) which was 8.9% in the total biomass of algal community. Seasonal variation of cyanobacteria was apparent. Generally, cyanobacteria bloom occurred during late spring and early summer. Its abundance decreased after summer and reached the minimum level in winter. Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, Merismopedia and Phormidium were the common cynaobacterial genera. The cumulated cell density of these five genera of cyanobacteria above accounted up to 79.1% in the total cell density of cyanobacteria, while that of biomass accounted up to 77.6%. Spearman correlation analysis among the cell density, biomass as well as the key environmental factors indicated that utilization of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for anabolism was evident; however, nitrate would be the major nitrogen source for cyanobacteria. Moreover, increase of temperature and decrease of depth of euphotic zone had a significant effect on the abundance of cyanobacteria. According to co-analysis of hydrology and rainfall data in the whole year circle, it was found that nitrogen and phosphorus were input by the heavy rain and surface runoff with inorganic sediments, offering the enriched nutrients in water column. Meanwhile, turbidity increased by the inorganic suspended sediments decreased the depth of euphotic zone. The physiological advantage of cyanobacteria in low light and high turbidity environment might be the cause of cyanobacteria bloom in Xiaojiang backwater area. PMID:20391694

  11. Landslide susceptibility mapping based on rough set theory and support vector machines: A case of the Three Gorges area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ling; Niu, Ruiqing; Huang, Bo; Wu, Xueling; Zhao, Yannan; Ye, Runqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a novel hybrid model for assessing landslide susceptibility at the regional scale using multisource data to produce a landslide susceptibility map of the Zigui-Badong area near the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. This area is subject to anthropogenic influences because the reservoir's water level fluctuates cyclically between 145 and 175 m; in addition, the area suffers from extreme rainfall events due to the local climate. The area has experienced significant and widespread landslide events in recent years. In our study, a novel hybrid model is proposed to produce landslide susceptibility maps using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. The hybrid model is based on rough set (RS) theory and a support vector machine (SVM). RS theory is employed as an attribute reduction tool to identify the significant environmental parameters of a landslide, and an SVM is used to predict landslide susceptibility. Four data domains were considered in this research: geological, geomorphological, hydrology, and land cover. The original group of 20 environmental parameters and 202 landslides were used as the inputs to produce a landslide susceptibility map. According to the map, 19.7% of the study area was identified as medium- and high-susceptibility zones encompassing 89.5% of the historical landslides. The results indicate high levels of landslide hazard in and around the main inhabited areas, such as Badong County and other towns, as well as in rural residential areas and transportation areas along the Yangtze River and its tributaries. The predicted map indicates a good correlation between the classified high hazard areas and slope failures confirmed in the field. Furthermore, the quality of the proposed model was comprehensively evaluated, including the degree of model fit, the robustness of the model, the uncertainty associated with the probabilistic estimate, and the model prediction skill. The proposed model was also compared

  12. [Effects of different vegetation protection measures on erosion prevention of unpaved roadside slopes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Wei; Li, Zhao-Xia; Cai, Chong-Fa

    2012-04-01

    One of the main impacts of road construction is the creation of bare and steep slopes when lack of vegetation protection, which usually generates serious soil loss, a major erosion source in mountainous areas. In this study, six treatments including planting grass (GRA), grass and bush (GBC), building terrace combined with grass and bush (TGB), planting sod strip (SS), building sloping farmland (SFL), and building sloping farmland combined with grass (SFLG) were installed on the newly constructed unpaved roadside slopes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area to investigate the effects of these measures on the erosion prevention of the unpaved roadside slopes under natural rainfall. Among the six treatments, GBC had the best effect, which had the quickest revegetation rate (the mean vegetation coverage increased from 20.2% to 91.6%), decreased the soil bulk density by 9.5%, and increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity by 678.1%, followed by GRA and SS. TGB had the greatest potential in mitigating soil loss and runoff, with the efficiency in trapping sediment and runoff reached 80.2% and 72.3%, respectively, being appropriate for the cut slopes with a gradient greater than 45 degrees, followed by GBC and GRA. GRA had a higher efficiency on fill slope than on cut slope, while GBC showed greater applicability on cut slope. On the fill slope with a moderate gradient 15 degrees, SFLG had a potential of trapping 23.0% of sediment, which was equivalent to that of GRA and GBC, but the efficiency in trapping runoff was only 2.0%. When the fill slopes with a gradient less than 15 degrees were utilized as farmland, a grass buffer strip of 2 m length was needed on the upslope for erosion control. PMID:22803451

  13. Effects of land use patterns on stream water quality: a case study of a small-scale watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhilin; Han, Liyang; Zeng, Lixiong; Xiao, Wenfa; Tian, Yaowu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we have considered the relationship between the spatial configuration of land use and water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Using land use types, landscape metrics, and long-term water quality data, as well as statistical and spatial analysis, we determined that most water quality parameters were negatively correlated with non-wood forest and urban areas but were strongly positively correlated with the proportion of forest area. Landscape indices such as patch density, contagion, and the Shannon diversity index were able to predict some water quality indicators, but the mean shape index was not significantly related to the proportions of farmland and water in the study area. Regression relationships were stronger in spring and fall than in summer, and relationships with nitrogen were stronger than those of the other water quality parameters (R(2) > 0.80) in all three seasons. Redundancy analysis showed that declining stream water quality was closely associated with configurations of urban, agricultural, and forest areas and with landscape fragmentation (PD) caused by urbanization and agricultural activities. Thus, a rational land use plan of adjusting the land use type, controlling landscape fragmentation, and increasing the proportion of forest area would help to achieve a healthier river ecosystem in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). PMID:26681324

  14. Occurrence and removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater treatment plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Guo, Xuesong; Cui, Xing; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Han; Wang, M K; Qiu, Ling; Chen, Shaohua

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of six endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E(1)), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), estriol (E(3)), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), were assessed in influents, effluents and excess sludge in ten municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) area, Chongqing, China. Three types of activated sludge treatment processes, oxidation ditch (OD), reversed anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (rA(2)/O) technology and sequential batch reactor (SBR), were used in the surveyed WWTPs. These WWTPs were all combined landfill leachate-sewage treatment plants. All analytes were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) in the dissolved phase and by accelerated solvent-based extraction (ASE) in sludge. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed for the analysis of EDCs. Among these EDCs, BPA was the most frequently detected and abundant compound (100.0-10566.7 ng L(-1), 15.5-1210.7 ng L(-1) and 85.0-2470.4 ng g(-1) with respect to the influents, effluents and excess sludge samples). The greatest levels of steroidal estrogens in municipal influents were observed in E(3) which were all >100 ng L(-1), followed by E(1) (42.2-110.7 ng L(-1)) and E(2) (7.4-32.7 ng L(-1)), and in the effluents and sludge were E(1) > E(3) > E(2) which were all <31 ng L(-1) and 105 ng g(-1), respectively. Regarding synthetic estrogens, EE(2) was frequently detected in the influents, occurring below 50 ng L(-1), while DES was not detected at all. A high correlation coefficient was observed between the leachate-sludge ratio and concentrations of influent EDCs, and it was statistically significant (i.e., R > 0.65, P < 0.05), but removal efficiency of the EDCs did not show significant differences with OD, rA(2)/O and SBR processes. Furthermore, modification of treatment technology as well as operational parameters, such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), sludge retention time (SRT) and disinfection process (DP

  15. 12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW WEST, AREA SOUTH OF RECESS AREA, SHOWING CUT STONE AND RUBBLESTONE CONSTRUCTION - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  16. Crustal structure across the Three Gorges area of the Yangtze platform, central China, from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Mooney, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Wang, E.; Teng, J.; Okaya, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present active-source seismic data recorded along a 300??km-long profile across the Three Gorges area of the western Yangtze platform, central China. From west to east, the profile crosses the Zigui basin, Huangling dome and Jianghan basin. The derived crustal P-wave velocity structure changes significantly across the Tongchenghe fault that lies at the transition from the Huangling dome to the Jianghan basin. West of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Zigui basin and the Huangling dome, we observe a ~ 42??km thick crust of relatively low average velocity (6.3-6.4??km/s). In contrast, east of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Jianghan basin, the crust is only 30??km thick and has a high average velocity (6.6-6.7??km/s). A west-east variation in crustal composition along the Tongchenghe fault is also inferred. West of the fault, P-wave velocities suggest a felsic composition with an intermediate layer at the base of the crust, whilst, east of the fault, felsic, intermediate, and mafic crustal layers are apparent. Our results suggest that the crust beneath the Jianghan basin has been thinned by rifting, accompanied by intrusion of the lower crust by mafic dikes and sills. The west-to-east division of the crust in the Three Gorges area coincides with first-order geophysical contrasts in gravity, topography, crustal and lithospheric thickness. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. South Asia Area Syllabus. Center for Area and Country Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossow, Robert

    The purpose of this syllabus is to help government personnel assigned to South Asia, or to positions dealing with South Asian affairs, to acquire a basic knowledge of the area and some understanding of the motivational dynamics of the people. It is not intended to serve as an operational briefing nor to take its place. The goal is the facilitation…

  18. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Green; Jin Xu

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. [Concentrations and pollution assessment of soil heavy metals at different water-level altitudes in the draw-down areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye-Chun; Lei, Bo; Yang, San-Ming; Zhang, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of 175 m trial impounding (2008 and 2009) of the Three Gorges Reservoir on soil heavy metals, three draw-down areas with similar geological environment and history of land-use in Zhongxian County were chosen. Altogether 36 surface soil samples (including 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer) from water-level altitude of 160 m and 170 m were obtained, and their heavy metals concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method. Geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and Håkanson potential ecological risk index were applied to assess the heavy metals pollution status and potential ecological risk, respectively. Results indicated that although the inundation period of 160 m was 224 d longer than that of 170 m, significant difference in concentrations of heavy metals were not found between the two water-level altitudes. Except for Cd, most of the heavy metals highly related with each other positively. According to the geoaccumulation index, the pollution extent of the heavy metals followed the order: As > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn = Pb > Cr. The I(geo) value of As, Cd and Cu were 0.45, 0.39 and 0.06, respectively, indicating that the soil was only lightly polluted by these heavy metals. Håkanson single potential ecological risk index followed the order: Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn. Cd with E(i) values of 59.10, had a medium potential for ecological risk,while As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn only had a light potential. Consequently, although As, Cd and Cu were the major heavy metals with potential ecological risk for surface soil pollution in the draw-down areas in Zhongxian County, the Three Gorges Reservoir. PMID:22509605

  20. [Temporal and Spatial Variation of Nutrients and Chlorophyll a, and Their Relationship in Pengxi River Backwater Area, Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wei, Jian-jun; Fu, Li; Zhou, Chuan; Haffner, Douglas G

    2015-06-01

    In order to explore the temporal and spatial variation of nutrients and chlorophyll a and their relationship in the Three Gorges Reservoir, nutrients and chlorophyll a were monitored chronically and frequently in Gaoyang Lake in Pengxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir from May 2013 to May 2014. The study showed that the thermal stratification affected the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a and nutrients. The water thermal stratification in Gaoyang Lake occurred in early March and disappeared in the middle of September, and there was no stratification in winter ( November to February of the second year). Chlorophyll a in the surface water increased from 14.92 microg x L(-1) to 183.73 microg x L(-1) and then the chlorophyll a concentration decreased with the increasing depth of the mixing layer ( epilimnion) in the spring of 2014. Furthermore, phosphorus concentration was significantly different among layers when the water stratified and the concentration gradient of TP between the surface and the bottom was (0.18 +/- 0.04) mg x L(-1). When water was not stratified in Gaoyang Lake, the surface, middle and bottom layers had similar concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients, respectively. Nitrate N and dissolved phosphorus were the major components of TN and TP, respectively, during the high water level period in Gaoyang Lake with nitrate N accounting for 71.4%-95.4% of TN and dissolved phosphorus 42.7%-94.% of TP, showing that the backwater from the mainstream of Yangtze was the main source of nitrate N and dissolved phosphorus in Gaoyang Lake. PMID:26387308

  1. 33 CFR 110.127b - Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127b Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah. (a) Buckboard Crossing, Wyo. That portion of Flaming Gorge Lake inclosed by the shore and a line connecting...

  2. 33 CFR 110.127b - Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127b Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah. (a) Buckboard Crossing, Wyo. That portion of Flaming Gorge Lake inclosed by the shore and a line connecting...

  3. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.89 New River Gorge National River....

  4. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%–19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides. PMID:27187430

  5. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides. PMID:27187430

  6. Impact of Urban, Agricultural and Industrial Emissions on the Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in the Columbia River Gorge Scenic Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainord, J.; George, L. A.; Orlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) formation is not fully characterized due to inadequate knowledge of pre-cursor emissions (ammonia, NH3, and nitrogen oxides, NOx) and from incomplete understanding of reactions in model predictions involving the precursors and the chemical products such as nitric acid (HNO3). The Columbia River Gorge (CRG), located between Oregon and Washington states, has unique sources of reactive nitrogen located at both ends and experiences bimodal winds: winter easterlies and summer westerlies. Because of the unique winds, this project will utilize the CRG as an environmental flow tube as we monitor for atmospheric reactive nitrogen species at two locations within the CRG: one located on the western side and one on the east. Measurements will include total oxidized nitrogen, NOx, NH3 and HNO3 using annular denuders, and a novel method using ion exchange resins for particulate ammonium, nitrate, and sulfates. In addition, an ozone gas analyzer and meteorological conditions of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction will be measured. Our December 2012- June 2014 NOx measurements located near the eastern end of the CRG show significantly different (p<<0.05) levels of NO2 with easterly (8.1 ppb) versus westerly (5.7 ppb) wind conditions. This suggests an eastern NOx source - potentially the 550 megawatt Boardman Coal Power Plant 100 km to the east. These measurements in the near-source environment will provide insight into uncertainties in HNO3 formation, regional ammonia levels, and the best strategy for managers to reduce NOx or NH3 emissions to minimize SIA formation.

  7. Diversity and Above-Ground Biomass Patterns of Vascular Flora Induced by Flooding in the Drawdown Area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J.H.Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  8. 76 FR 33778 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in the San Joaquin River Gorge Special Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management, Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in the San Joaquin River Gorge... proposes to begin collecting fees in fiscal year 2011 at the San Joaquin River Gorge (SJRG) Special... INFORMATION: The San Joaquin River Gorge Management Area is a popular recreation area offering...

  9. Energy-efficient routing control algorithm in large-scale WSN for water environment monitoring with application to Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:24741360

  10. Energy-Efficient Routing Control Algorithm in Large-Scale WSN for Water Environment Monitoring with Application to Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:24741360

  11. Bivariate hydrologic risk analysis based on a coupled entropy-copula method for the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y. R.; Huang, W. W.; Huang, G. H.; Huang, K.; Li, Y. P.; Kong, X. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a bivariate hydrologic risk framework is proposed based on a coupled entropy-copula method. In the proposed risk analysis framework, bivariate flood frequency would be analyzed for different flood variable pairs (i.e., flood peak-volume, flood peak-duration, flood volume-duration). The marginal distributions of flood peak, volume, and duration are quantified through both parametric (i.e., gamma, general extreme value (GEV), and lognormal distributions) and nonparametric (i.e., entropy) approaches. The joint probabilities of flood peak-volume, peak-duration, and volume-duration are established through copulas. The bivariate hydrologic risk is then derived based on the joint return period to reflect the interactive effects of flood variables on the final hydrologic risk values. The proposed method is applied to the risk analysis for the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. The results indicate the entropy method performs best in quantifying the distribution of flood duration. Bivariate hydrologic risk would then be generated to characterize the impacts of flood volume and duration on the occurrence of a flood. The results suggest that the bivariate risk for flood peak-volume would not decrease significantly for the flood volume less than 1000 m3/s. Moreover, a flood in the Xiangxi River may last at least 5 days without significant decrease of the bivariate risk for flood peak-duration.

  12. Soil-air greenhouse gas fluxes influenced by farming practices in reservoir drawdown area: A case at the Three Gorges Reservoir in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Zhang, Zengyu; Lin, Chuxue; Chen, Yongbo; Wen, Anbang; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China has large water level variations, creating about 393 km(2) of drawdown area seasonally. Farming practices in drawdown area during the low water level period is common in the TGR. Field experiments on soil-air greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in fallow grassland, peanut field and corn field in reservoir drawdown area at Lijiaba Bay of the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in the TGR were carried out from March through September 2011. Experimental fields in drawdown area had the same land use history. They were adjacent to each other horizontally at a narrow range of elevation i.e. 167-169 m, which assured that they had the same duration of reservoir inundation. Unflooded grassland with the same land-use history was selected as control for study. Results showed that mean value of soil CO2 emissions in drawdown area was 10.38 ± 0.97 mmol m(-2) h(-1). The corresponding CH4 fluxes and N2O fluxes were -8.61 ± 2.15 μmol m(-2) h(-1) and 3.42 ± 0.80 μmol m(-2) h(-1). Significant differences and monthly variations among land uses in treatments of drawdown area and unflooded grassland were evident. These were impacted by the change in soil physiochemical properties which were alerted by reservoir operation and farming. Particularly, N-fertilization in corn field stimulated N2O emissions from March to May. In terms of global warming potentials (GWP), corn field in drawdown area had the maximum GWP mainly due to N-fertilization. Gross GWP in peanut field in drawdown area was about 7% lower than that in fallow grassland. Compared to unflooded grassland, reservoir operation created positive net effect on GHG emissions and GWPs in drawdown area. However, selection of crop species, e.g. peanut, and best practices in farming, e.g. prohibiting N-fertilization, could potentially mitigate GWPs in drawdown area. In the net GHG emissions evaluation in the TGR, farming practices in the drawdown area shall be taken

  13. Three Gorges Dam: Impact of Water Level Changes on the Density of Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Oncomelania hupensis in Dongting Lake Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Yi; Zhou, Yi-Biao; Chen, Yue; Liang, Song; Li, Lin-Han; Zheng, Sheng-Bang; Zhu, Shao-ping; Ren, Guang-Hui; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis remains an important public health issue in China and worldwide. Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of schistosoma japonicum, and its change influences the distribution of S. japonica. The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) has substantially changed the ecology and environment in the Dongting Lake region. This study investigated the impact of water level and elevation on the survival and habitat of the snails. Methods Data were collected for 16 bottomlands around 4 hydrological stations, which included water, density of living snails (form the Anxiang Station for Schistosomiasis Control) and elevation (from Google Earth). Based on the elevation, sixteen bottomlands were divided into 3 groups. ARIMA models were built to predict the density of living snails in different elevation areas. Results Before closure of TGD, 7 out of 9 years had a water level beyond the warning level at least once at Anxiang hydrological station, compared with only 3 out of 10 years after closure of TGD. There were two severe droughts that happened in 2006 and 2011, with much fewer number of flooding per year compared with other study years. Overall, there was a correlation between water level changing and density of living snails variation in all the elevations areas. The density of living snails in all elevations areas was decreasing after the TGD was built. The relationship between number of flooding per year and the density of living snails was more pronounced in the medium and high elevation areas; the density of living snails kept decreasing from 2003 to 2014. In low elevation area however, the density of living snails decreased after 2003 first and turned to increase after 2011. Our ARIMA prediction models indicated that the snails would not disappear in the Dongting Lake region in the next 7 years. In the low elevation area, the density of living snails would increase slightly, and then stabilize after the year 2017. In the medium elevation region

  14. Farmers' Willingness to Participate in the Next-Stage Grain-for-Green Project in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Xu, Jianying

    2015-08-01

    The policy implications for success in the next-stage Grain-for-Green Project (GFGP) in China are analyzed from the perspectives of farmers' willingness. The ecological protection belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area was chosen as the case study area, where 1207 valid questionnaire surveys based on participatory rural appraisal were collected in 2012. Our study found that farmers with lower levels of education, older age, and higher livelihood dependency on farmland were more prone to reclamation if the compensation ended. Females and non-migrants were more reluctant to participate in the next GFGP than others. Nevertheless, traditional farming was no longer a preferred livelihood by all respondents. The majority of respondents (74.4%) wished to be liberated from the low-income farmland work through the next GFGP, and half of them (50.6%) hoped to get non-cash compensation. The Willingness to Accept (WTA) values of the next GFGP showed significant social heterogeneity and regional difference, with an average of annual RMB¥16,665 ha(-1), about 4.5 times the local compensation standard in 2000. By revealing some limitations of the uniform nationwide compensation standard system and the single payment form in adapting to evolving socioeconomic conditions, our study highlighted the importance of developing a region-based compensation standard system, integrating the next GFGP into regional sustainable development organically by more comprehensive alternative policy, and bonding a vertical partnership between the local community and the nation. Our study revealed some key elements for success in the future design of restoration projects in China. PMID:25907281

  15. Farmers' Willingness to Participate in the Next-Stage Grain-for-Green Project in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lin; Xu, Jianying

    2015-08-01

    The policy implications for success in the next-stage Grain-for-Green Project (GFGP) in China are analyzed from the perspectives of farmers' willingness. The ecological protection belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area was chosen as the case study area, where 1207 valid questionnaire surveys based on participatory rural appraisal were collected in 2012. Our study found that farmers with lower levels of education, older age, and higher livelihood dependency on farmland were more prone to reclamation if the compensation ended. Females and non-migrants were more reluctant to participate in the next GFGP than others. Nevertheless, traditional farming was no longer a preferred livelihood by all respondents. The majority of respondents (74.4 %) wished to be liberated from the low-income farmland work through the next GFGP, and half of them (50.6 %) hoped to get non-cash compensation. The Willingness to Accept (WTA) values of the next GFGP showed significant social heterogeneity and regional difference, with an average of annual RMB¥16,665 ha-1, about 4.5 times the local compensation standard in 2000. By revealing some limitations of the uniform nationwide compensation standard system and the single payment form in adapting to evolving socioeconomic conditions, our study highlighted the importance of developing a region-based compensation standard system, integrating the next GFGP into regional sustainable development organically by more comprehensive alternative policy, and bonding a vertical partnership between the local community and the nation. Our study revealed some key elements for success in the future design of restoration projects in China.

  16. [Cadmium and selected heavy metals in soils of Jianping area in Wushan County, the Three Gorges region: distribution and source recognition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Zhang; Xiao, Tang-Fu; Ning, Zeng-Ping; Jia, Yan-Long; Li, Hua-Jun; Yang, Fei; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Min

    2013-06-01

    Abnormally high cadmium (Cd) concentrations were existed in soils of Jianping area in the Three Gorges region, but little information is available about the geochemical distribution of Cd and source identification. In the present paper, total contents of Cd and other selected heavy metal elements, the characteristics of soil, the contents of Cd in typical soil profiles, and chemical forms of Cd in selected soils were studied. The correlation analysis, the principal component analysis, and the comparison between different soil types were conducted. The concentration distribution of Cd and selected elements in local soils was investigated and their sources were identified. The results showed that Cd in local rocks, coal and coal wastes ranged from 0.22-101 mg x kg(-1), 0.42-42 mg x kg(-1) in the arable topsoil, and 0. 12-8.5 mg x kg(-1) in natural soils. The soils were also rich in other elements such as V, Cr, Ni and Zn. The weak acid fraction of Cd accounted for 17%-35% of total contents. This study demonstrated that soils from the Jianping area of Wushan County had a serious Cd pollution, and both local rocks and soils display a significant geochemical interrelation. Cd particularly accumulates in the topsoil, and it is mainly derived from the geogenic source. Human such as the historical coal mining may overload Cd in the soils. The local soils had a high portion of bioavailable Cd, through which Cd may easily transfer to and accumulate in the local crops growing in the Cd-rich soils and cause potential health risk to local residents. PMID:23947061

  17. [Three-dimensional Fluorescence Spectral Characteristics of Different Molecular Weight Fractionations of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Water-level Fluctuation Zones of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-shuang; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Song; Wei, Shi-qiang; Wang, Ding-yong; Yan, Jin-long

    2016-03-15

    The study of the molecular weight (MW) fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic environment is of interests because the size plays an important role in deciding the biogeochemical characteristics of DOM. Thus, using ultrafiltration ( UF) technique combined with three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, DOM samples from four sampling sites in typical water-level fluctuation zones of Three Gorge Reservoir areas were selected to investigate the differences of properties and sources of different DOM MW fractions. The results showed that in these areas, the distribution of MW fractions was highly dispersive, but the approximately equal contributions from colloidal (Mr 1 x 10³-0.22 µm) and true dissolved fraction (Mr < 1 x 10³) to the total DOC concentration were found. Four fluorescence signals (humic-like A and C; protein-like B and T) were observed in all MW fractions including bulk DOM, which showed the same distribution trend: true dissolved > low MW (Mr 1 x 10³-10 x 10³) > medium MW (Mr 10 x 10³-30 x 10³) > high MW (Mr 30 x 10³-0.22 µm). Additionally, with decreasing MW fraction, fluorescence index (FI) and freshness index (BIX) increased suggesting enhanced signals of autochthonous inputs, whereas humification index ( HIX) decreased indicating lowe humification degree. It strongly suggested that terrestrial input mainly affected the composition and property of higher MW fractions of DOM, as compared to lower MW and true dissolved fractions that were controlled by autochthonous sources such as microbial and alga activities, instead of allochthonous sources. Meanwhile, the riparian different land-use types also affected obviously on the characteristics of DOM. Therefore, higher diversity of land-use types, and also higher complexity of ecosystem and landscapes, induced higher heterogeneity of fluorescence components in different MW fraction of DOM. PMID:27337878

  18. [Nitrogen and phosphorus loss in different land use types and its response to environmental factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Li-Xiong; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tian, Yao-Wu

    2012-10-01

    The control of agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS) is an urgent problem to be solved for the ecological environment construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We analyzed the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss and its response to environmental factors through monitoring the nutrient loss in different land use types after returning farmland to forest. The results showed that: 1) The variability of nutrient concentration loss was strong in different land use types under different rainfall conditions, and the variability in the concentration of available nutrient was much higher than that of total nutrient; 2) Compared to farmland, the annual phosphorus loss of different land use types was reduced by 84.53% - 91.61% after returning farmland to forest; the reduction of annual nitrogen loss was not significant except Chinese chestnut forest (Castanea mollissima) and arbor forest, and the nitrogen loss was much higher than the phosphorus loss in all land use types; 3) The particle phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) were the main forms of the phosphorus and nitrogen loss, respectively; 4) The nutrient loss of tea garden (Camellia sinensis) and bamboo forest (Phyllostachys pubescens) showed a good correlation with precipitation, and the correlation of phosphorus was better than that of nitrogen, but there was no significant relation with the rainfall intensity; 5) The coverage of vegetation, tree layer and litter had a great influence on the loss of total nitrogen (TN). NO3(-)-N loss was highly influenced by the ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) content in the surface soil, and P loss mainly by the total phosphorus (TP) and sand content in the soil. PMID:23233964

  19. Rates of Litter Decomposition and Soil Respiration in Relation to Soil Temperature and Water in Different-Aged Pinus massoniana Forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lixiong; Huang, Zhilin; Lei, Jingpin; Zhou, Benzhi; Li, Maihe

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the soil carbon dynamics and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to environmental changes, we studied soil respiration, litter decomposition, and their relations to soil temperature and soil water content for 18-months (Aug. 2010–Jan. 2012) in three different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Across the experimental period, the mean total soil respiration and litter respiration were 1.94 and 0.81, 2.00 and 0.60, 2.19 and 0.71 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and the litter dry mass remaining was 57.6%, 56.2% and 61.3% in the 20-, 30-, and 46-year-old forests, respectively. We found that the temporal variations of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates can be well explained by soil temperature at 5 cm depth. Both the total soil respiration and litter respiration were significantly positively correlated with the litter decomposition rates. The mean contribution of the litter respiration to the total soil respiration was 31.0%–45.9% for the three different-aged forests. The present study found that the total soil respiration was not significantly affected by forest age when P. masonniana stands exceed a certain age (e.g. >20 years old), but it increased significantly with increased soil temperature. Hence, forest management strategies need to protect the understory vegetation to limit soil warming, in order to reduce the CO2 emission under the currently rapid global warming. The contribution of litter decomposition to the total soil respiration varies across spatial and temporal scales. This indicates the need for separate consideration of soil and litter respiration when assessing the climate impacts on forest carbon cycling. PMID:25004164

  20. [Transfer characteristic and source identification of soil heavy metals from water-level-fluctuating zone along Xiangxi River, three-Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qiang; Nie, Xiao-Qian; Huang, Ying-Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Transfer characteristics of heavy metals and their evaluation of potential risk were studied based on determining concentration of heavy metal in soils from water-level-fluctuating zone (altitude:145-175 m) and bank (altitude: 175-185 m) along Xiangxi River, Three Gorges Reservoir area. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) was employed for heavy metal source identification and source apportionment. Results demonstrate that, during exposing season, the concentration of soil heavy metals in water-level-fluctuation zone and bank showed the variation, and the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in shallow soil, but increased in deep soil at water-level-fluctuation zone. However, the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in both shallow and deep soil at bank during the same period. According to the geoaccumulation index,the pollution extent of heavy metals followed the order: Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr, Cd is the primary pollutant. FA and FA-MLR reveal that in soils from water-level-fluctuation zone, 75.60% of Pb originates from traffic, 62.03% of Cd is from agriculture, 64.71% of Cu and 75.36% of Cr are from natural rock. In soils from bank, 82.26% of Pb originates from traffic, 68.63% of Cd is from agriculture, 65.72% of Cu and 69.33% of Cr are from natural rock. In conclusion, FA-MLR can successfully identify source of heavy metal and compute source apportionment of heavy metals, meanwhile the transfer characteristic is revealed. All these information can be a reference for heavy metal pollution control. PMID:24946610

  1. [Effects of litterfall and root input on soil physical and chemical properties in Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was made on the soil physical and chemical properties in different-aged Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area under effects of litterfall and roots. The annual litter production in mature stand was 19.4% and 65.7% higher than that in nearly mature and middle-aged stands, respectively. The litter standing amount was in the sequence of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, while the litter turnover coefficient was in the order of nearly mature stand (0.51) > mature stand (0.40) > middle-aged stand (0.36). The total root biomass, live root biomass, and dead root biomass were the highest in middle-aged stand, and the lowest in nearly mature stand. In middle-aged stand, soil total porosity was the highest, and soil bulk density was the lowest. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were in the order of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, soil nitrate nitrogen occupied a larger proportion of soil mineral N in nearly mature stand, while ammonium nitrogen accounted more in middle-aged and mature stands. In nearly mature stand, litter production was moderate but turnover coefficient was the highest, and soil nutrient contents were the lowest. In middle-aged stand, root biomass and soil total porosity were the highest, and soil bulk density were the lowest. In mature stand, root biomass was lower while soil nutrient contents were the highest. The increase of root biomass could improve soil physical properties. PMID:23479870

  2. [Distribution and Content of Transferable Nitrogen in the Soil of Water Level Fluctuating Zones of Mainstream and Its Tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    2016-03-15

    In order to find the intrinsic correlation between water eutrophication and transformation of nitrogen in soil of water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas (TGRA), the method of sequential extraction process was applied to analyze the content and distribution characteristics of total transferable nitrogen (TF-N) in the mainstream of Yangtze River (Wanzhou section) and its tributaries of Mixi and Zhuxi River. The results showed that, compared with the main stream, the contents of soil organic matter (SOM) and total nitrogen (TN) were higher, while cation exchange capacity( CEC) and pH value were lower in the tributaries during the dry period. The main species of TF-N in soil was organic matter-sulfide form of nitrogen (OSF-N) in the WLFZ and the content of different TF-N species was in the order of OSF-N > iron-manganese oxide form of nitrogen (IMOF-N) > ion extractable form of nitrogen (IEF-N) > carbonate form of nitrogen (CF-N). The spatial distribution pattern of total TF-N was in the order of Zhuxi River > Mixi Valley > the main stem of Yangtze River. There were no significant differences between IEF-N and OSF-N contents both in the main and tributaries of Yangtze River. The distribution of CF-N and IMOF-N had similar patterns, whereas the TF-N showed a reverse pattern in comparison with the former two species in the main and tributary of Yangtze River, which was a main factor of TF-N differences between the main steam and tributaries of the Yangtze River. PMID:27337886

  3. [Effects of light irradiation on phosphorous releases from typical submerged soils of water-level fluctuation zones of Three Gorges Reservoirs areas].

    PubMed

    Guo, Nian; Jiang, Tao; Wei, Shi-Qiang; Yan, Jin-Long; Liang, Jian; Lu, Song; Gao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    For understanding the impact of light irradiation on the phosphorus (P) releases from soil-water interface, two types of typical soils sampled from water-level fluctuation zones of Three Gorges Reservoir areas were selected as research objectives, and simulated light irradiation experiment in lab was conducted for unveiling the underlying mechanisms of P releases from submerged soils in the presence of light irradiation. The results showed that light irradiation could inhibit P releases from submerged soils by a certain degree. Under light condition, total P (TP) concentrations in underlying water of submerged purple soil ranged from 0.018 to 0.033 mg x L(-1), as compared to the range of 0.02-0.057 mg x L(-1) in darkness treatment. Additionally, for gray-brown purple soil, TP was in a range of 0.028-0.045 mg x L(-1) when light irradiated, but in the range of 0.04-0. 084 mg x L(-1) under darkness condition. Meanwhile, changes of iron oxides in soils due to light irradiation were possibly to be the important reason to explain the inhabitation of light irradiation on P releases. Moreover, light irradiation resulted in decreasing saturation degree of iron oxides in soils, which further inhibited the iron reduction and production of amorphous iron, further enhanced the underlying mechanisms of decreasing P releases in presence of light irradiation. Further, CO2 and CH4 could reflect decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) in submerged condition. Light irradiation significantly decreased SOC transformation into carbon gases. Stimulating consumption of inorganic electron acceptors in submerged soils could also be used to explain the changes of iron oxides under light irradiation condition. Thus, inhabitation of light irradiation on P releases from submerged soils obviously related with iron minerals reduction and decomposition of organic matter in soils. PMID:25826924

  4. 8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, detail of log construction - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  5. Assessment of the environment effects of constructing the Three Gorge Project on the Yangtze River

    SciTech Connect

    LaBounty, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Three Gorge Project is a multipurpose project with the primary function of flood control. Other functions include power and navigation and could include irrigation. A 200 m high concrete gravity dam, currently being considered, would be located in the lower reach of the famous Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in Hubei and Sichuan Provinces. The reservoir will store about 70 x 10 to the 9th cu m and extend upstream about 780 km. The proposed powerplant would have an installed capacity of 25,000 MW, consisting of twenty-five 1000-MW units. The Three Gorge Project, when constructed, would be the largest water resource project anywhere on earth. Beneficial effects include elimination of flooding along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, a substantial increase in much needed electric power for south and central China, and creation of a large body of water which could be used for aquaculture. Consideration is also being given to diverting water to the North China Plain, one of the most important agricultural areas of China. Major adverse impacts include relocation of more than 2 million people for the reservoir area; loss of habitat for many kinds of Yangtze River aquatic life, including the unique Chinese sturgeon; and the possibility of reducing nutrient input to the downstream and estuarine fisheries. The possibility of minimizing adverse effects seems high, if the potential environmental impacts are identified and means of mitigation are carried out. 22 references, 1 figure.

  6. 2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GORGE HIGH DAM. UNUSUALLY HIGH WATER IN GORGE LAKE DUE TO THE COMBINATION OF UNIT 24 BEING DOWN FOR REWINDING AND TWO UNITS COMING ON LINE UNEXPECTEDLY AT ROSS POWERHOUSE LED TO WATER FLOWING OVER THE SPILLGATES. EACH GATE IF 47 FEET WIDE AND 50 FEET HIGH, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. Decadal dynamics of lake inundation areas in the Yangtze Basin downstream from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) - consequences from climate variability or from the TGR water modulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Sheng, Y.; Tong, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    The central and lower reach of Yangtze Basin is the host of over 75% of Chinese freshwater lakes in area. Statuses of these lakes (e.g., size, level, and gradient) are closely associated with water levels and discharge from the Yangtze main stem and tributaries. This study presents a systematic diagnosis of the decadal (2000 - 2012) dynamics of lake inundation areas in this region, in response to local climate variability and upstream water level modulation from the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). We aim to investigate two overarching questions: i) How did inundation areas of the downstream lakes change before vs. after the initial TGR impounding (June, 2003)? ii) How much has water level modulation from the TGR altered the seasonality and annual trends of downstream lake areas in comparison to the contribution of natural precipitation? Existing literature on the interaction between TGR and downstream lakes was limited to individual lake cases and lacking contextual comparison with the surrounding tributary watersheds and lake systems. This study targeted 118 lakes larger than 25 km2 across the entire hydrologic watershed downstream from the TGR. Covering a total area of ~15,100 km2, these lakes constitute 80% of the total lake surface in the studied downstream basin. Based on their discriminant relationships with the Yangtze River (the main stem), these lakes were classified into three categories: (I) in the floodplain and freely connected to the Yangtze River; (II) in the floodplain but outflows to the Yangtze River artificially controlled (i.g., by sluice gates); and (III) beyond the floodplain. Lake areas in Classes I & II are considered to be influenced by the Yangtze River level. Daily-to-monthly areas of each studied lake was mapped using MODIS Terra imagery consecutively from February, 2000 to February, 2012. The combined lake inundation area from either Class I or II indicate a significant decline trend after the initial impounding event in late June, 2003

  8. [Effects of land use and landscape pattern on nitrogen and phosphorus exports in Lanlingxi Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Yang; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tian, Yao-Wu; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Wu, Dong

    2014-03-01

    The temporal and spatial characteristics of N, P exports and effects of land use and landscape pattern on N, P exports were analyzed in the Lanlingxi Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the TN, TP and NO3(-) -N were mainly generated by non-wood forest, the N, P exports in flood period (June to September) were significantly higher than the non-flood period (January to May). The NH4(+) -N export was derived from the residential area in the non-flood period, while from non-wood forest in the flood period. In addition, the performance of samples N, P exports with forest distributed were lower in both two periods. Also, the proportion of forest significantly negatively correlated with NO3(-) -N, TP in the non-flood period and TN, TP in the flood period. The residential area proportion notably positively correlated with NO3(-) -N, TN in non-flood period and NO3(-) -N, TN, TP in the flood period. The non-wood forest proportion also significantly positively correlated with NH4(+) -N, TN in the flood period. Moreover, PD closely positively correlated with N exports in non-flood period, with NO3(-) -N, NH4(+) -N in flood period. The CONT index strongly negatively correlated with N exports in flood period and TP in non-flood period. However, the proportions of farmland, unused land and the indices of ED were relatively weakened with N, P exports in both periods, while SHMN and water proportion did not show any positive or negative correlation. Moreover, the regression fitting degree of NH4(+)-N was superior to NO3(-) -N, TN and TP with the adjust R2 of 0.885 and 0.969 in two periods, while the regression relation was better than that of non-flood period. The result of redundancy analysis further demonstrated that the landscape fragmentation caused by patches types of different land uses could better explain impacts on the exports of nitrogen and phosphorus. The two canonical axes accumulated explained the 90% proportion of the variables and

  9. View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Building No. 45. Parking Area No. 22 in foreground, Building No. 40, No. 42, and No. 43 at left rear, note boulders as a landscape design element. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 45, East side of South Twenty-eighth Street, south of Foothill Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water. PMID:25826925

  12. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zi, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological assessment of 21 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics and antihypersensitives, were studied at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Individual treatment unit effluents, as well as primary and secondary sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the selected PhACs to evaluate their biodegradation, persistence and partitioning behaviors. PhACs were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. All the 21 analyzed PhACs were detected in wastewater and the target PhACs except acetaminophen, ibuprofen and gemfibrozil, were also found in sludge. The concentrations of the antibiotics and SVT were comparable to or even higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. The elimination of PhACs except acetaminophen was incomplete and a wide range of elimination efficiencies during the treatment were observed, i.e. from "negative removal" to 99.5%. The removal of PhACs was insignificant in primary and disinfection processes, and was mainly achieved during the biological treatment. Based on the mass balance analysis, biodegradation is believed to be the primary removal mechanism, whereas only about 1.5% of the total mass load of the target PhACs was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg, with a few exceptions) also indicate that biodegradation/transformation was responsible for the removal of the target PhACs. Ecotoxicological assessment indicated that the environment concentrations of single compounds (including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin-H2O) in effluent and sludge, as well as the mixture of the 21 detected PhACs in effluent, sludge and receiving water had a significant ecotoxicological

  13. Spatiotemporal characteristics of the Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges region (China) constrained by radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, R.; Li, Z.; Liu, P.; Singleton, A.; Hoey, T.; Cheng, X.

    2014-04-01

    The Huangtupo landslide is one of the largest in the Three Gorges region, China. The county-seat town of Badong, located on the south shore between the Xiling and Wu gorges of the Yangtze River, was moved to this unstable slope prior to the construction of the Three Gorges Project, since the new Three Gorges reservoir completely submerged the location of the old city. The instability of the slope is affecting the new town by causing residential safety problems. The Huangtupo landslide provides scientists an opportunity to understand landslide response to fluctuating river water level and heavy rainfall episodes, which is essential to decide upon appropriate remediation measures. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques provide a very useful tool for the study of superficial and spatially variable displacement phenomena. In this paper, three sets of radar data have been processed to investigate the Huangtupo landslide. Results show that maximum displacements are affecting the northwest zone of the slope corresponding to Riverside slumping mass I#. The other main landslide bodies (i.e. Riverside slumping mass II#, Substation landslide and Garden Spot landslide) exhibit a stable behaviour in agreement with in situ data, although some active areas have been recognized in the foot of the Substation landslide and Garden Spot landslide. InSAR has allowed us to study the kinematic behaviour of the landslide and to identify its active boundaries. Furthermore, the analysis of the InSAR displacement time-series has helped recognize the different displacement patterns on the slope and their relationships with various triggering factors. For those persistent scatterers, which exhibit long-term displacements, they can be decomposed into a creep model (controlled by geological conditions) and a superimposed recoverable term (dependent on external factors), which appears closely correlated with reservoir water level changes close to the river's edge. These

  14. Residential area, south and east elevations of Charlie and Dorothy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Residential area, south and east elevations of Charlie and Dorothy Wells' house above (north of) Thurmond Commercial Area. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  15. RESIDENTIAL AREA, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS OF CHARLIE AND DOROTHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RESIDENTIAL AREA, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS OF CHARLIE AND DOROTHY WELL'S HOUSE ABOVE (NORTH OF) THURMOND COMMERCIAL AREA - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  16. The Three Gorges Project: How sustainable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa Brian Morgan, Te Kipa; Sardelic, Daniel N.; Waretini, Amaria F.

    2012-08-01

    MMDMF does have relevance in identifying areas of conflict, and it can support the Cost-Benefit Analysis in assessing sustainability, as a Decision Support Tool. The research concluded that, based on both models, the Three Gorges Project as understood in 1988, and incorporating more recent sustainability analysis is contributing to enhanced sustainability.

  17. Interior of decontamination area and shower at south entry, wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of decontamination area and shower at south entry, wood door frame and shelf brackets in view, view facing south-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Operations & Message Center, Behind Facility No. 1, corner of Avenue E & Seventh Street, connected to Facility Nos. 1B & 1D by wooden bridges, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. View of south elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area No. 14 in foreground, Building No. 45 at right rear. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  20. 8. TANKWATER VAT IN RENDERING AREA ON SOUTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TANKWATER VAT IN RENDERING AREA ON SOUTH SIDE OF LEVEL 3; LOOKING WEST - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of front (south side) from west parking area - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Main Hospital Building, Charlie Kelly Boulevard, North side, at intersection of Sharon A. Lane Drive, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. View south of sail loft mid loft area. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south of sail loft - mid- loft area. Note inflatable boats undergoing pressure testing. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Three Gorges Dam, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.

    This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER

  5. Results of chemical analyses of soil, shale, and soil/shale extract from the Mancos Shale formation in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area, southwestern Colorado, and at Hanksville, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli; Grauch, Richard I.; Ball, Bridget A.; Chong, Geneva W.; Elliott, John G.; Kosovich, John J.; Livo, Keith E.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2007-01-01

    Results of chemical and some isotopic analyses of soil, shale, and water extracts collected from the surface, trenches, and pits in the Mancos Shale are presented in this report. Most data are for sites on the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area (GGNCA) in southwestern Colorado. For comparison, data from a few sites from the Mancos landscape near Hanksville, Utah, are included. Twelve trenches were dug on the GGNCA from which 258 samples for whole-rock (total) analyses and 187 samples for saturation paste extracts were collected. Sixteen of the extract samples were duplicated and subjected to a 1:5 water extraction for comparison. A regional soil survey across the Mancos landscape on the GGNCA generated 253 samples for whole-rock analyses and saturation paste extractions. Seventeen gypsum samples were collected on the GGNCA for sulfur and oxygen isotopic analysis. Sixteen samples were collected from shallow pits in the Mancos Shale near Hanksville, Utah.

  6. Bedrock gorges incising glacial hanging valleys (Western Alps, France): results from morphometric analysis, numerical modeling and 10Be cosmogenic dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Lague, Dimitri; Carcaillet, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Bedrock gorges are frequent features in glacial or post-glacial landscapes and allow measurements of fluvial bedrock incision in mountainous relief. Using digital elevation models, aerial photographs, topographic maps and field reconnaissance in the Pelvoux-Ecrins Massif (French Western Alps), we have identified ~30 tributary hanging valleys incised by gorges toward their confluence with the trunk streams. Longitudinal profiles of these tributaries are all convex and have abrupt knickpoints at the upper limit of oversteepened gorge reaches. From morphometric analyses, we find that mean channel gradients and widths, as well as knickpoint retreat rates, display a drainage-area dependence modulated by bedrock lithology. However, there appears to be no relation between horizontal retreat and vertical downwearing of knickpoints. Numerical modeling has been performed to test the capacity of different fluvial incision models to predict the inferred evolution of the gorges. Results from simple end-member models suggest transport-limited behavior of the bedrock gorges. Using a more sophisticated model including dynamic width adjustment and sediment-dependent incision rates, we show that bedrock gorge evolution requires significant supply of sediment from the gorge sidewalls triggered by gorge deepening, combined with pronounced inhibition of bedrock incision by sediment transport and deposition. We then use in-situ produced 10Be cosmogenic nuclides to date and quantify bedrock gorge incision into a single glacial hanging valley (Gorge du Diable). We have sampled gorge sidewalls and the active channel bed to derive both long-term and present-day incision rates. 10Be ages of sidewall profiles reveal rapid incision through the late Holocene (ca 5 ka), implying either delayed initiation of gorge incision after final ice retreat from internal Alpine valleys at ca 12 ka, or post-glacial surface reburial of the gorge. Both modeling results and cosmogenic dating suggest that

  7. Analytical results, mineralogical data, and sample locality map of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples, from the Fremont Gorge (UT-050-221) and Fiddler Butte (UT-050-241) Wilderness Study Areas, Wayne and Garfield Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Detra, D.E.; Erickson, M.S.; Kemp, W.M. III; Willson, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a geochemical and mineralogical survey of the Fremont Gorge and Fiddler Butte Wilderness Study Areas, Wayne and Garfield Counties, Utah. The Fremont Gorge and Fiddler Butte Wilderness Study Areas comprise about 265 mi/sup 2/ in Wayne and Garfield counties, Utah. The study areas are located along the Dirty Devil River just north of Utah State Highway 95 and along Sulphur Creek five miles east of Torrey, Utah. The area is comprised of flat lying sediments of the Henry Basin section which are Triassic to Holocene in age. The topographic relief in the study area is about 3000 ft (915 m) with a maximum elevation of 6900 ft (2100 m). The ground surface is a flat lying plateau which has been eroded to steep walled canyons by intermittent streams and one third order river. The climate is arid. 4 refs.

  8. ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MAIN FLOOR CANNING AREA - LOOKING SOUTH Stairway to the left leads into empty can storage area from which a can conveyor track, for flat oval cans, can be seen descending at a forty-five degree angle. Cement bases in the foreground held brining tanks into which cut fish were sluiced. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the South-North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, M.; Li, M. T.; Chen, J.; Finlayson, B.; Chen, D.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, M.; Barnett, J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of the Three Gorges Dam, the South-North Water Transfer Project and other water abstractions on the probability of long-duration salt intrusions into the Yangtze River estuary. Studies of intrusions of saltwater into estuaries are typically constrained by both the short duration of discharge records and the paucity of observations of discharge and salinity. Thus, studies of intrusions of saltwater into estuaries typically seek to identify the conditions under which these intrusions occur, using detailed observations for periods of 20-60 days. The paper therefore first demonstrates a method by which to identify the conditions under which intense intrusions of long-duration occur and then applies that method to analyse the effect of the three projects. The paper constructs a model of the relationship between salinity and discharge and then employs Monte Carlo simulation methods to reconstruct the probability of observing intrusions of differing intensities and durations in relation to discharge. The model predicts that the duration of intrusions with chlorinity ≥ 250 mg L-1 (or ≥ 400 or 500 mg L-1) increases as the number of consecutive days with discharge ≤ 12 000 m3 s-1 (or ≤ 8000 m3 s-1 increases. The model predicts that in 1950-2014, the number of consecutive days with chlorinity ≥ 250 mg L-1 averaged 21.34 yr-1; if the three projects operate according to their normal rules, that average would rise to 41.20 yr-1. For a randomly selected year of discharge history from the period 1950-2014, under normal operating rules for these projects the probability of an intrusion rises from 0.25 (for 30-day intrusions) or 0.05 (for 60-day intrusions) to 0.57 or 0.28, respectively.

  11. [Effect of Soil and Dominant Plants on Mercury Speciation in Soil and Water System of Water-Level-Fluctuation Zone in the Three Gorges Area].

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Wang, Yong-min; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Ya-wei; An, Si-wei; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-03-15

    Plentiful plants in the water-level-fluctuation-zone (WLFZ) of Three Gorges Reservoir ( TGR) grow vigorously during the non-flooded period, especially the herbaceous ones. Then, the WLFZ is submerged gradually from the end of September. Soil-plant system that under a long time flooded condition may change the form of mercury, thus resulting in a secondary pollution of the water environment in TGR. To understand the characteristics of mercury species in soils and water after submerged, four kinds of typical plants from TGR were tested in the lab under submerged condition. The results indicated that the plants could promote the formation of soil methylmercury ( MeHg) , and had a significant effect on the different forms of mercury concentrations of the overlying water during inundation. Cynodon dactylon as the dominant species in WLFZ, because of its higher content of total mercury ( THg ) and methylmercury, the effect on MeHg and the other forms of mercury in the soil and the overlying water system was obvious. After 90 days, the soil MeHg level was the highest in Cynodon dactylon & soil & water treatment (B1) [(1,135.86 ± 113.84) ng · kg⁻¹]. It was approximately 2 times less than that of the soil MeHg in soil & water treatment (CK2) . The variation characteristics of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg) , dissolved mercury (DHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg) and dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) of overlying water all showed a parabolic shape with a peak skewed to the left, and the peak was reached on the 30th day. Meanwhile, TMeHg, THg and DHg in B1 treatment were the highest, which were (2.88 ± 0.06), (40.29 · 2.42) and (35.51 · 3.77) ng · L⁻¹ respectively, and TMeHg and THg in the overlying water were mainly in the form of dissolved state. Therefore, it could be inferred that the water consumption of the Three Gorges reservoir would increase the mercury pollution load of the reservoir. PMID:27337887

  12. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

    Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

    The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

    The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and

  13. 49. TILE PACKING AREA AND APPRENTICE WORKSPACE, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. TILE PACKING AREA AND APPRENTICE WORKSPACE, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH END OF EAST WING. THE SKYLIGHT, ADDED IN 1976. COVERS A ROOF OPENING LEFT FOR THE CHIMNEY OF A POSSIBLE THIRD BISCUIT KILN. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  14. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  15. Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of display area (room 101), looking south towards TV control panel room (room 139) at far left corner. The stairway leads to the commander's quarters and the senior battle viewing bridge at top right. Control and communication consoles at the right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  16. 16. DETAIL: West gate pivot area (south side). This feature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL: West gate pivot area (south side). This feature retains its curved timber quoin, post base and part of the lower joinery intact. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  17. View south from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area across a pile of removed gravestones to Mill Street houses. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH ENTRANCE ACROSS RECEIVING AREA OF FACTORY PAST THE GLASS-ENCLOSED OFFICE TOWARD SHOP AREA. BESIDE THE VERTICAL POST ROOF SUPPORT IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A SCALE AND DRAFTING TABLE. BESIDE THE OFFICE WALL ON THE RIGHT IS A SMALL SHOP REPAIR BENCH, WHILE ABOVE THE OFFICE WINDOWS ARE BOXES OF COMPANY MANUSCRIPT BUSINESS RECORDS. THE WELDED METAL PIPE RACK IS A MODERN INTRUSION. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  19. View of Argentina-Paraguay border area of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Argentina-Paraguay border area of South America as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. This picture was taken with type 2443 infrared color film. The Parana River flows from east to west across the picture. This part of the Rio Parana is located between the towns of Posadas, Argentina, and Resitencia, Argentina. The major body of water in the large swamp area is Laguna Ibera. Note the several fires burning in this area. The largest land mass (Argentina) is south of the river. Paraguay is north of the river. Isla Apipe Grande is near the center of the photograph.

  20. Patterns in atmospheric circulation affect emission sources contributing to nitrogen deposition in the Columbia River Gorge, Pacific Northwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. M.; Chung, S. H.; Welker, J. M.; Harlow, B.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River Gorge separating Oregon and Washington provides an ideal setting to investigate how atmospheric circulation patterns determine types of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition. Up-gorge and down-gorge atmospheric circulation patterns each provide a different suite of emission sources. Up-gorge airflow originates in the Portland-Vancouver metro area dominated by urban and industrial sources. Down-gorge patterns originate in the Columbia River basin, which is dominated by agricultural production. We tested the dependence of emission sources contributing to atmospheric deposition on circulation patterns by measuring the isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) in 2003-2004 precipitation samples from the WA98-Columbia River Gorge NADP & USNIP site. Circulation patterns were determined using back-trajectory analysis with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model using the archived EDAS meteorological dataset. We observed a significant difference (P=0.01) between up-gorge and down-gorge patterns with mean δ15N-NO3- of +1.8 and -2.1‰ for up- and down-gorge, respectively. The differences observed between these two patterns is likely tied to the different emission sources of N found in these different geographic areas. The lower δ15N of down-gorge sources is due to the large amount of agricultural production in the Columbia River basin. Observed values for the up-gorge patterns likely result from industrial and fossil fuel emissions of NOx, the precursor of deposited NO3-, in the Portland-Vancouver area. The significantly greater amount of NO3- in precipitation from up-gorge patterns (0.72 mg/L) compared to down-gorge patterns (0.36 mg/L, P=0.01) supports the influence of urban sources rather than relatively clean marine air which characteristically has low amounts of NO3-. No significant differences are found in δ18Onitrate or Δ17Onitrate between the two patterns, suggesting that atmospheric chemistry

  1. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountains area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, Roy W.; Hanson, Ronald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Rocks that make up the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer crop out over ~500 mi2 in the Arbuckle Mountains province in south-central Oklahoma. The aquifer consists of limestone, dolomite, and sandstone of the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician age and is about 5,000-9,000 ft thick. The rocks were subjected to intensive folding and faulting associated with major uplift of the area during Early to Late Pennsylvanian time.

  2. Territorial disputes simmer in areas of South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-13

    This paper reports that China's award of an exploration cooperation contact in the Nansha area of the South China Sea has revived territorial disputes in the area centering ton the Spratly and Paracel islands. The key dispute is between China and Viet Nam, which earlier engaged in military action over ownership of the islands, believed to have world class potential for hydrocarbon discoveries. Those two nations, as well as Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan, lay claim to overlapping boundaries of the Spratly Islands. Separately, China and Viet Nam dispute territorial claims in the Paracels. Tensions continue to mount, and regional governments are trying to negotiate compromises to avoid a repeat of warfare.

  3. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Post-glacial rock avalanche causing epigenetic gorge incision (Strassberg gorge, Eastern Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard

    2015-04-01

    In the western part of the Eastern Alps, the Strassberg gorge 1.5 km in length and down to 100 m in depth shows a marked asymmetry in height of its right/left brinklines. The gorge is incised into Upper Triassic dolostones, and parallels an older valley filled with Quaternary deposits. Upstream, the valley-fill consists of (a) glacial till (Last Glacial Maximum, LGM), overlain by (b) a rock avalanche deposit (RAD) at least a few tens of meters thick, and (c) alluvial deposits shed over the RAD (except for projecting boulders); the RAD is locally also downlapped by scree slopes. Downstream, the valley-fill consists of glacio-fluvial deposits overlain by LGM till and, on top, the RAD. The rock avalanche defaced from the west slope of mount Hohe Munde (2662 m asl), and consists exclusively of clasts of Wetterstein Limestone (Triassic p. p.). Rock avalanche defacement was tied to a system of NW-SE trending strike-slip faults (Telfs fault zone). The rock avalanche descended before the old valley was significantly cleared of glaciofluvial/glacial deposits of the LGM. On a plateau west of the present bedrock gorge, LGM till is veneered over a large area by RAD; the till and the RAD both were later involved in slumping. The RAD covers a total planview area of ~3.7 square kilometers. The fahrböschung of the rock avalanche is reconstructed between 16°-14.5°. In its proximal part, the rock avalanche propagated by dynamic fragmentation; in the distal part, propagation was by sheet-like 'plug flow', perhaps in part over a snow cover. The filling of the old valley by the RAD led to: (a) formation and filling of a small intramontane basin directly upstream, and (b) incision of the present Strassberg gorge along a course westward-parallel to the old valley. Mean rates of bedrock incision required to form the deepest reach of the present canyon range from 1 cm/a (since 10 ka) to 0.7 cm/a (since 15 ka). In the considered area, talus breccias of pre-LGM age locally show zones of

  5. 29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF AREA BEHIND BOILER 904 LOOKING SOUTH. THE HOPPERS IN THE RIGHT UPPER QUADRANT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH DISCHARGE FLY ASH INTO A VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE OGIVE SHAPED DEVICE BELOW THE HOPPER IS A RELIEF INTAKE VALVE FOR THE VACUUM ASH COLLECTION SYSTEM. THE "S" SHAPED CONDUITS TO THE LEFT OF THE HOPPERS CARRY BOILER FEED WATER FROM THE ECONOMIZERS (WATER PREHEATERS) TO THE BOILERS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  6. Dating the incision of the Yangtze River gorge at the First Bend using three-nuclide burial ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, Devin; Hoke, Gregory D.; Liu-Zeng, Jing; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan H.; Niedermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Incision of the Yangtze River gorge is widely interpreted as evidence for lower crustal flow beneath the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Previous work focused on the onset of incision, but the duration of incision remains unknown. Here we present cosmogenic nuclide burial ages of sediments collected from caves on the walls of the gorge that show the gorge was incised ~1 km sometime between 18 and 9 Ma. Thereafter, incision slowed substantially. We resolve middle Miocene burial ages by using three nuclides and accounting for in situ muogenic production. This approach explains the absolute concentrations of 10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne, as well as 26Al/10Be and 21Ne/10Be ratios. A declining incision rate challenges existing geodynamic interpretations by suggesting that either (1) surface uplift has ceased immediately south of the plateau margin or (2) gorge incision is not a useful proxy for the timing of surface uplift.

  7. Total atmospheric mercury deposition in forested areas in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Su; Seo, Yong-Seok; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-06-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) was sampled weekly in dry and wet deposition and throughfall and monthly in litterfall, and as it was volatilized from soil from August 2008 to February 2010 to identify the factors influencing the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in a temperate deciduous forest in South Korea. For this location there was no significant correlation between the estimated monthly dry deposition flux (litterfall + throughfall - wet deposition) (6.7 µg m-2 yr-1) and directly measured dry deposition (9.9 µg m-2 yr-1) likely due primarily to Hg losses from the litterfall collector. Dry deposition fluxes in cold seasons (fall and winter) were lower than in warmer seasons (spring and summer). The volume-weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in both precipitation and throughfall were highest in winter, likely due to increased scavenging by snow events. Since South Korea experiences abundant rainfall in summer, VWM Hg concentrations in summer were lower than in other seasons. Litterfall fluxes were highest in the late fall to early winter, when leaves were dropped from the trees (September to November). The cumulative annual Hg emission flux from soil was 6.8 µg m-2 yr-1. Based on these data, the yearly deposition fluxes of Hg calculated using two input approaches (wet deposition + dry deposition or throughfall + litterfall) were 6.8 and 3.6 µg m-2 yr-1, respectively. This is the first reported study which measured the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in South Korea, and thus our results provide useful information to compare against data related to Hg fate and transport in this part of the world.

  8. Now you see it, now you don't: impact of temporary closures of a coal-fired power plant on air quality in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, D. A.; Reidmiller, D. R.

    2009-06-01

    We have analyzed 14 years of aerosol data spanning 1993-2006 from the IMPROVE site at Wishram, Washington (45.66° N, 121.00° W; 178 m above sea level) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) National Scenic Area (http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/columbia/) of the Pacific Northwest of the US. Two types of analyses were conducted. First, we examined the transport for days with the highest fine mass concentrations (particulate matter with diameter <2.5μm or, PM2.5) using HYSPLIT back-trajectories. We found that the highest PM2.5 concentrations occurred during autumn and were associated with easterly flow, down the CRG. Such flow transports emissions from a large coal power plant and a large agricultural facility into the CRG. This transport was found on 20 out of the 50 worst PM2.5 days and resulted in an average daily concentration of 20.1 μg/m3, compared with an average of 18.8 μg/m3 for the 50 highest days and 5.9 μg/m3 for all days. These airmasses contain not only high PM2.5 concentrations but also elevated aerosol NO3- concentrations. These results suggest that emissions from large industrial and agricultural sources on the east end of the CRG, including the coal-fired power plant at Boardman, Oregon, have a significant impact on air quality in the region. In the second analysis, we examined PM2.5 concentrations in the CRG during periods when the Boardman power plant was shut down due to repairs and compared these values with concentrations when the facility was operating at near full capacity. We also examined this relationship on the days when trajectories suggested the greatest influence from the power plant on air quality in the CRG. From this analysis, we found significantly higher PM concentrations when the power plant was operating at or near full capacity. We use these data to calculate that the contribution to PM2.5 mass in the CRG from the Boardman plant was 0.90 μg/m3 averaged over the entire

  9. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... River South of the Troy Locks, NY. 165.165 Section 165.165 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. (b) Definitions. The...

  10. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. (b) Definitions. The following... operations are not authorized to transit that portion of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when...

  11. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. (b) Definitions. The following... operations are not authorized to transit that portion of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when...

  12. 33 CFR 165.165 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 165.165 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY. (a) Regulated navigation area. All navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. (b) Definitions. The following... operations are not authorized to transit that portion of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when...

  13. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY... contract for the conduct of certain visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation...

  14. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Singh, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  15. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Nelson, Andrew; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Singh, Amrendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  16. Fluvial incision into bedrock: Insights from morphometric analysis and numerical modeling of gorges incising glacial hanging valleys (Western Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Lague, Dimitri

    2010-06-01

    Bedrock gorges incising glacial hanging valleys potentially allow measurements of fluvial bedrock incision in mountainous relief. Using digital elevation models, topographic maps, and field reconnaissance, we identified and characterized 30 tributary hanging valleys incised by gorges near their confluence with trunk streams in the Romanche watershed, French Western Alps. Longitudinal profiles of these tributaries are all convex and have abrupt knickpoints at the upper limit of oversteepened gorge reaches. We reconstructed initial glacial profiles from glacially polished bedrock knobs surrounding the gorges in order to quantify the amount of fluvial incision and knickpoint retreat. From morphometric analyses, we find that mean channel gradients and widths, as well as knickpoint retreat rates, display a drainage area dependence modulated by bedrock lithology. However, there appears to be no relation between horizontal retreat and vertical downwearing of knickpoints. Assuming a postglacial origin of these gorges, our results imply high postglacial fluvial incision (0.5-15 mm yr-1) and knickpoint retreat (1-200 mm yr-1) rates that are, however, consistent with previous estimates. Numerical modeling was used to test the capacity of different fluvial incision models to predict the inferred evolution of the gorges. Results from simple end-member models suggest transport-limited behavior of the bedrock gorges. A more sophisticated model including dynamic width adjustment and sediment-dependent incision rates predicts present-day channel geometry only if a significant supply of sediment from the gorge sidewalls (˜10 mm yr-1) is triggered by gorge deepening, combined with pronounced inhibition of bedrock incision by sediment transport and deposition.

  17. [Effect of Charge-Transfer Complex on Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Absorption Property of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in Waters of Typical Water-Level Fluctuation Zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir Areas].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Mu-xue; Wang, Ding-yong; Wei, Shi-qiang; Lu, Song

    2016-02-15

    As an important fraction of dissolved organic matter (DOM), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) plays a key role in decision of the optical properties and photogeochemistry of DOM, and further affects pollutant fate and global carbon cycle. These optical properties are ascribed to two chromophoric systems including superposition of individual chromophores and charge-transfer (CT) complexation between electron donor (e.g., phenols and indoles) and acceptor (e.g., quinones and other oxidized aromatics) in DOM structures. Thus in this study, based on the "double-chromophoric system" model, DOM samples from four typical water-level fluctuation zones of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) areas were selected, to investigate the effect and contribution of charge-transfer complex to ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption property of CDOM. Using NaBH, reduction method, original featureless absorption curve was classified into two independent curves caused by individual chromophoric group, which were derived from a simple superposition of independent chromophore and charge-transfer complex, respectively. Also, the changes in curve properties and specific parameters before and after NaBH4 reduction were compared. The results showed that in all DOM samples from the four sites of TGR, more than 35% of absorption was attributed from CT complex. Shibaozhai of Zhongxian and Zhenxi of Fuling showed the highest proportion ( > 50%). It suggested that the role of CT complex in CDOM property could not be neglected. After removal of CT complex, absorption curve showed blue-shift and CDOM concentration [a (355)] decreased significantly. Meanwhile, because of deforming of bonds by reduction, DOM structures became more dispersive and the molecular size was decreased, resulting in the lower spectral slope (S) observed, which evidentially supported that the supermolecular association structure of DOM was self-assembled through CT complex. Meanwhile, deceasing hydrophobic components led

  18. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  20. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  1. Exhumation of a Himalayan core complex during east-west extension enhanced by focused precipitation along the Arun River gorge; the Ama Drime Massif, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, M. J.; Newell, D. L.; Cottle, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between exhumation of the Himalayas and focused precipitation is often described by channel flow or tectonic aneurysm models. In these models, mid-crustal rocks are exhumed during crustal shortening through focused denudation that occurs on the front of the Himalayas. The Ama Drime Massif (ADM) protrudes 70-km-north from the crest of the Himalayas, narrows from 35 to 1 km in width from south to north and is an important new addition to these models. 300-m-wide, N-S striking shear zones and active normal faults, we term the Ama Drime Detachment (ADD), bound the ADM and offset the South Tibetan detachment. The ADD preserves a progression from a distributed shear zone through mylonites and into discrete detachments, all of which record east-west extension. Active normal faults within the ADD offset lacustrine, fluvial and alluvial deposits. The footwall of the ADD includes the deepest structural position exposed in the central Himalayas, as recorded by eclogite bearing lenses (Cottle et al., this meeting), granulitic mafic layers and migmatitic augen gneiss. Hot springs along the western limb and nose of the ADD suggest that the modern structure is tapping into warm, upwelling lower crustal material (Newell et al., this meeting). Major rivers are displaced around the ADM in valleys filled by alluvium, except where they cross into the footwall block where they are marked by bedrock gorges. The Arun River gorge begins at the knickpoint on the southern end of the ADM where the drainage crosses the western limb of the ADD into the footwall block. Previous investigations suggest that, south of this point, the Arun River follows the crest of the Arun antiform. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the Arun River gorge is spatially related to focused precipitation and elevated erosion index, relative to the surrounding area, resulting in a mini tectonic aneurysm. We propose that the ADM is a core complex that juxtaposes a deep crustal block with the

  2. View of Parking Area No. 15 on South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 15 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Building No. 17 at rear. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. View of Parking Area No. 25 on South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 25 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Building No. 32 at left and Building No. 41 at rear. Note staircase and drainage channel in foreground. Looking northwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. View of Parking Area No. 21 on South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 21 on South Twenty-Sixth Street. Buildings No. 17, 18, 19, 33, 34, 22, and 20, from left to right. Note boulder placement as designed landscape feature. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. View of Parking Area No. 32 from South TwentySixth Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Parking Area No. 32 from South Twenty-Sixth Street. Buildings No. 35, 37, 38, and 39, from left to right. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. View of parking area on South TwentySixth Street near Foothill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of parking area on South Twenty-Sixth Street near Foothill Avenue. Walkway at center, Building No. 35 on left, and Building No. 25 on right, looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. View of South TwentyEighth Street. Note parking area at right. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of South Twenty-Eighth Street. Note parking area at right. Buildings No. 46, 45, and 47 from right to left. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. Hydrology of the Oakley Fan Area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Newton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Oakley Fan area is a broad, crescent-shaped lowland along the southern margin of the Snake River Plain in south-central Idaho. Intensive groundwater development for irrigation has resulted in rapid water-level declines and, as a consequence, designation by the State of four Critical Groundwater Areas. Principal aquifers are in limestone, rhyolite, basalt, and alluvium. Annual water-level declines range from 3 ft to about 5 ft. Recharge to the groundwater system is from infiltration of surface water used for irrigation, precipitation on the surrounding mountains, infiltration of localized runoff, and upward movement of thermal water. Groundwater pumpage during the period 1979-84 averaged 173,000 acre-ft/yr. Surface and groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type with variable concentrations of dissolved solids. Comparisons of silica and chloride concentrations and isotopic composition of groundwater were useful in determining areal extent of aquifers and movement of groundwater. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the Oakley Fan area was developed. The aquifer system was simulated in three phases: (1) Average 1979-84 hydrologic conditions, (2) 1910 hydrologic conditions, and (3) 1910-84 hydrologic conditions. Model simulation indicated that, for the period 1945-79, subsurface outflow declined from 327,000 acre-ft/yr to 215,000 acre-ft/yr. Simulated groundwater pumpage during the period 1945-79 was 3,000,000 acre-ft; simulated change in storage was 250,000 acre-ft. Simulations with the model approximate natural conditions and probably can be used to evaluate future changes in the hydrologic system.

  9. Geomorphic impacts of active tectonics on a river course, the case of Klissoura gorge, central Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsanakas, Konstantinos; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Karymbalis, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    The delicate balance of the natural processes within the river systems can be easily tipped making them very sensitive to changes occurring on the earth surface. Fluvial systems are therefore profoundly influenced by endogenic processes such as active tectonics as well as global sea level fluctuations following the climatic variations during the Quaternary. This study deals with the geomorphological evolution of the broader area of the abandoned gorge of Klissoura which is located in central Greece. This 130 m deep and roughly 3 km long gorge is a characteristic example of an old drainage course preserved on the footwall blocks of two normal faults which confine both outlets of the deeply incised valley. The gorge has formed by a river that once had a N-S flow direction discharging into the Gulf of Patras. Acheloos River and the much smaller Ermitza Remma Stream are the two recent primary watercourses which drain the area close to the abandoned gorge. Both the dimensions and morphological characteristics of the abandoned deep valley indicate that the gorge has formed by a large river with high discharge in order to incise into the limestone bedrock. In order to investigate the tectonic constrains and determine the geomorphic and climatic processes that compelled the lower reaches of Acheloos River to abandon the gorge and find an outlet following its present course a GIS based analysis at a scale of 1:50.000 was applied in the drainage basin of Acheloos River. Additionally, to reconstruct the palaeolandscape and the earth surface processes, a detailed morphometric and geomorphic analysis of the abandoned gorge was also performed at a scale of 1:5.000 coupled with field observations and stratigraphic analysis of the deposits outcropping on the valley sides within the gorge as well as on both outlets. The geomorphic analysis led to the conclusion that the primary course of the gorge abandonment and diversion and reverse of the drainage is the uplift of the footwall

  10. Drowning deaths in Mthatha area of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2008-10-01

    Deaths by drowning are a serious public health problem worldwide. They are under-investigated and hence under-estimated. Drowning is an important and preventable cause of death. This paper aims to estimate the deaths by drowning in Mthatha area of South Africa. Records of the medico-legal autopsies in Umtata General Hospital (UGH) were reviewed from 1993 to 2004. All cases of unnatural death are brought by the police to UGH mortuary. Three hundred and forty-three cases of death as a result of drowning were recorded over a period of 12 years (1993-2004). There was an increased trend of drowning from 2.7 per 100, 000 in 1993 to 12 per 100,000 in 2004. Males outnumbered females by 2.6:1. The incidence of drowning declines as age advances. The highest number (96) of victims was under ten years of age. Deaths due to drowning are increasing especially among male children and young adults. PMID:19051671

  11. 6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM THE ROOF OF GORGE POWERHOUSE LOOKING EAST TO THE FORMER GRAVITY OIL STORAGE BUILDING, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  12. 5. GORGE HIGH DAM; LOOKING TOWARD INTAKE WITH WATER FLOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GORGE HIGH DAM; LOOKING TOWARD INTAKE WITH WATER FLOWING OVER THE TOP OF THE SPILLGATE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  13. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  14. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  15. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; Missile test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... the Gulf of Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf...

  16. 1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GORGE HIGH DAM. THIS THIN ARCH DAM WITH A GRAVITY SECTION IS THE THIRD DAM BUILT BY SEATTLE CITY LIGHT TO PROVIDE WATER FOR GORGE POWERHOUSE AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1961, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge High Dam, On Skagit River, 2.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  17. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Geomorphic evolution of the Yangtze Gorges and the time of their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jijun; Xie, Shiyou; Kuang, Mingsheng

    2001-11-01

    The Three Gorges of the Yangtze link its upper rocky valley to downstream alluvial sections. A series of stepped landforms exist in the Three Gorges area, the Sichuan Basin upstream and the Jianghan Basin downstream. These landforms are characterized by two planation surfaces, one erosional surface, and up to seven terraces. The higher planation surface (named the Exi Surface, ~1800-2000 m a.s.l.) and the lower planation surface (1200-1500 m) were probably formed in the Tertiary (prior to 3.4-3.6 Ma B.P.). No correlation seems to exist between the drainage networks of earlier period with the present Yangtze system. It is suggested that the erosional surface found in the study area at 800-1200 m in elevation above sea level was formed in Late Pliocene of Early Pleistocene. During this period following the last planation event, the ancestral Yangtze might have begun to adjust its drainage network. The seven terraces, well developed along the eastern Sichuan Basin and the Three Gorges, date from Early to Late Pleistocene (1.16-0.01 Ma B.P). The chronostratigraphic evidence and diagnostic sediments are generally comparable in time and space from the Sichuan Basin, through the Three Gorges, to the Jianghan Basin. Therefore, the present study proposes that the Three Gorges were cut not later than the initiation of the earliest terrace. The fluvial landforms in the Yangtze Gorges are characterized also by valley-in-valley cross-sections, i.e. an older U-shaped valley cut by a younger V-shaped valley. A tectonic rise accompanied by a rapid downcutting of the river channels predominated in the region.

  19. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  20. Towards a better knowledge of flash flood forecasting at the Three Gorges Region: Progress over the past decade and challenges ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Yang, Dawen; Yang, Hanbo; Wu, Tianjiao; Xu, Jijun; Gao, Bing; Xu, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The study area, the Three Gorges Region (TGR), plays a critical role in predicting the floods drained into the Three Gorges Reservoir, as reported local floods often exceed 10000m3/s during rainstorm events and trigger fast as well as significant impacts on the Three Gorges Reservoir's regulation. Meanwhile, it is one of typical mountainous areas in China, which is located in the transition zone between two monsoon systems: the East Asian monsoon and the South Asian (Indian) monsoon. This climatic feature, combined with local irregular terrains, has shaped complicated rainfall-runoff regimes in this focal region. However, due to the lack of high-resolution hydrometeorological data and physically-based hydrologic modeling framework, there was little knowledge about rainfall variability and flood pattern in this historically ungauged region, which posed great uncertainties to flash flood forecasting in the past. The present study summarize latest progresses of regional flash floods monitoring and prediction, including installation of a ground-based Hydrometeorological Observation Network (TGR-HMON), application of a regional geomorphology-based hydrological model (TGR-GBHM), development of an integrated forecasting and modeling system (TGR-INFORMS), and evaluation of quantitative precipitation estimations (QPE) and quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) products in TGR flash flood forecasting. With these continuing efforts to improve the forecasting performance of flash floods in TGR, we have addressed several critical issues: (1) Current observation network is still insufficient to capture localized rainstorms, and weather radar provides valuable information to forecast flash floods induced by localized rainstorms, although current radar QPE products can be improved substantially in future; (2) Long-term evaluation shows that the geomorphology-based distributed hydrologic model (GBHM) is able to simulate flash flooding processes reasonably, while model

  1. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  2. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  3. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  4. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  5. 33 CFR 162.210 - Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... south 300 feet to the high waterline. (4) El Dorado County Beach. The waters of Lake Tahoe shoreward of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted... § 162.210 Lake Tahoe, Calif.; restricted areas along south shore. (a) The areas—(1) Baldwin Beach,...

  6. 75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Troy Locks, New York AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... south of the Troy Locks. This regulated navigation area is necessary to promote maritime safety, and... operations, from operating on the navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy locks when...

  7. 50 CFR 622.224 - Area closures to protect South Atlantic corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region... from the water. (c) Deepwater Coral HAPCs—(1) Locations. The following areas are designated Deepwater Coral HAPCs: (i) Cape Lookout Lophelia Banks is bounded by rhumb lines connecting, in order,...

  8. 50 CFR 622.224 - Area closures to protect South Atlantic corals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region... from the water. (c) Deepwater Coral HAPCs—(1) Locations. The following areas are designated Deepwater Coral HAPCs: (i) Cape Lookout Lophelia Banks is bounded by rhumb lines connecting, in order,...

  9. Columbia Gorge Community College Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jonathon V.

    This is a report on a business survey conducted by Columbia Gorge Community College (CGCC) (Oregon) to review the success and quality of the college's degree and certificate programs in business administration, computer application systems, and computer information systems. The community college surveyed 104 local businesses to verify the…

  10. Exploration Zone for Human Mission to Mars: The Area South of Firsoff Crater in Arabia Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; Pondrelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    We are proposing an area south of Firsoff Crater that scientifically includes: reconstruction of the stratigraphy at global scale, the identification of sedimentary environment and paleoclimatic conditions and large astrobiological potentiality.

  11. VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPUTER/DATA COLLECTION AREA, SOUTH OF FIRING ROOM NO. 3, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Launch Control Center, LCC Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. Inner gorge-slot canyon system produced by repeated stream incision (eastern Alps): Significance for development of bedrock canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Diethard; Wischounig, Lukas; Gruber, Alfred; Ostermann, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Many inner bedrock gorges of the Alps show abrupt downstream changes in gorge width, as well as channel type and gradient, as a result of epigenetic incision of slot canyons. Many slot canyons also are associated with older gorge reaches filled with Quaternary deposits. The age of slot canyons and inner bedrock gorges, however, commonly is difficult to constrain. For the inner-bedrock gorge system of the Steinberger Ache catchment (eastern Alps), active slot canyons as well as older, abandoned gorge reaches filled with upper Würmian proglacial deposits record three phases of gorge development and slot-canyon incision. A 234U/230Th age of cement of 29.7 ± 1.8 ka in fluvial conglomerates onlapping the flank of an inner gorge fits with late Würmian valley-bottom aggradation shortly before pleniglacial conditions; in addition, the age indicates that at least the corresponding canyon reach must be older. During advance of ice streams in the buildup of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the catchment was blocked, and a proglacial lake formed. Bedrock gorges submerged in that lake were filled with fluviolacustrine deposits. During the LGM, the entire catchment was overridden by ice. During post-glacial reincision, streams largely found again their preexisting inner bedrock canyons. In some areas, however, the former stream course was 'missed', and a slot canyon formed. The distribution of Pleistocene deposits, the patterns of canyon incision, and the mentioned U/Th cementation age, however, together record a further discrete phase of base-level rise and stream incision well before the LGM. The present course of Steinberger Ache and its tributaries is a patchwork of (1) slot canyons incised during post-glacial incision; (2) vestiges of slot canyons cut upon an earlier (middle to late Würmian?) cycle of base-level rise and fall; (3) reactivated reaches up to ~ 200 m in width of inner bedrock gorge that are watershed at present, and more than at least ~ 30 ka in age; and (4

  13. Accumulation of floating microplastics behind the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Gong, Wen; Lv, Jizhong; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Chenxi

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in surface water from the Three Gorges Reservoir. Nine samples were collected via trawl sampling with a 112 μmmesh net. The abundances of microplastics were from 3407.7 × 10(3) to 13,617.5 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the main stream of the Yangtze River and from 192.5 × 10(3) to 11,889.7 × 10(3) items per square kilometer in the estuarine areas of four tributaries. The abundance of microplastics in the main stream of the Yangtze River generally increased as moving closer to the Three Gorges Dam. The microplastics are made exclusively of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS). Together with microplastics, high abundance of coal/fly ash was also observed in the surface water samples. Comparing with previously reported data, microplastics in the TGR were approximately one to three orders of magnitudes greater, suggesting reservoirs as potential hot spot for microplastic pollution. PMID:25935612

  14. Altered streamflow and sediment entrainment in the Gunnison Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Parker, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The Gunnison River in the Gunnison Gorge is a canyon river where upstream dams regulate mainstem discharge but do not affect debris-flow sediment supply from tributaries entering below the reservoirs. Regulation since 1966 has altered flood frequency, streambed mobility, and fluvial geomorphology creating potential resource-management issues. The duration of moderate streamflows between 32.3 and 85.0 m3/s has increased threefold since 1966. This, along with flood-peak attenuation, has facilitated fine-sediment deposition and vegetation encroachment on stream banks. The Shields equation and on-site channel geometry and bed-material measurements were used to assess changes in sediment entrainment in four alluvial reaches. Sand and fine gravel are transported through riffle/pool reaches at most discharges, but the cobbles and boulders composing the streambed in many reaches now are infrequently entrained. Periodic debris flows add coarse sediment to rapids and can increase pool elevation and the streambed area affected by backwater and fine-sediment accumulation. Debris-flow supplied boulders accumulate on fans and in rapids and constrict the channel until reworked by larger floods. The response to streamflow-regime changes in the Gunnison Gorge could serve as an analog for alluvial reaches in other regulated canyon rivers.

  15. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  16. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... attacks primarily prickly pear cacti in arid and coastal areas. In the continental United States, the... United States belong to the genus Opuntia, also known as the prickly pear cactus. Opuntia cactus...

  17. Results of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) drought analysis (South Dakota drought 1976)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    LACIE using techniques developed from the southern Great Plains drought analysis indicated the potential for drought damage in South Dakota. This potential was monitored and as it became apparent that a drought was developing, LACIE implemented some of the procedures used in the southern Great Plains drought. The technical approach used in South Dakota involved the normal use of LACIE sample segments (5 x 6 nm) every 18 days. Full frame color transparencies (100 x 100 nm) were used on 9 day intervals to identify the drought area and to track overtime. The green index number (GIN) developed using the Kauth transformation was computed for all South Dakota segments and selected North Dakota segments. A scheme for classifying segments as drought affected or not affected was devised and tested on all available 1976 South Dakota data. Yield model simulations were run for all CRD's Crop Reporting District) in South Dakota.

  18. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving... Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a point...

  19. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from... Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving... Mexico south from Choctawhatchee Bay within an area described as follows: Beginning at a point...

  20. Areas of permanent shadow in Mercury's south polar region ascertained by MESSENGER orbital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Harmon, John K.; Murchie, Scott L.; Blewett, David T.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zhong, Ellen D.

    2012-05-01

    Radar-bright features near Mercury's poles have been postulated to be deposits of water ice trapped in cold, permanently shadowed interiors of impact craters. From its orbit about Mercury, MESSENGER repeatedly imaged the planet's south polar region over one Mercury solar day, providing a complete view of the terrain near the south pole and enabling the identification of areas of permanent shadow larger in horizontal extent than approximately 4 km. In Mercury's south polar region, all radar-bright features correspond to areas of permanent shadow. Application of previous thermal models suggests that the radar-bright deposits in Mercury's south polar cold traps are in locations consistent with a composition dominated by water ice provided that some manner of insulation, such as a thin layer of regolith, covers many of the deposits.

  1. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... acquire conservation easements is from the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, as amended (16 U... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South... Conservation Area, the 554th unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the...

  2. Hydrology of the Arbuckle Mountain area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, R.W.; Hanson, R.L.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water in the aquifer is confined in some parts of the area, while in other parts it is unconfined. The average saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 3,500 feet in the outcrop area. Water levels measured in wells fluctuated from 8 to 53 feet each year, primarily in response to recharge from rainfall. Recharge to the aquifer is estimated at about 4.7 inches per year. The average storage coefficient of the aquifer is estimated at 0.008, and the average transmissivity is estimated at 15,000 feet squared per day. Based on an average saturated thickness of about 3,500 feet and a storage coefficient of 0.008, the volume of ground water contained in the 500-square-mile outcrop area is about 9 million acre-feet. An undetermined amount of fresh water probably exists in the aquifer around the periphery of the aquifer outcrop. Base flow of streams that drain the aquifer accounts for about 60 percent of the total annual runoff from the outcrop area and is maintained by numerous springs. The close hydraulic connection between streams in the outcrop area and the aquifer is shown by a close correlation between base flow in Blue River and the fluctuation of ground-water levels in five wells in the Blue River basin. This correlation also exists between the discharge by Byrds Mill Spring and the fluctuation in water level in a nearby observation well; increase and decrease in spring discharge correspond to rise and fall of the water level in the well. The chemical quality of water from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer is suitable for most industrial and municipal uses. The water is hard and of the bicarbonate type; the average hardness is about 340 milligrams per liter, and the average dissolved-solids concentration is about 360 milligrams per liter. Because springs issue from the aquifer and discharge to streams in the area, the quality of water from springs and base flow in streams is similar to that of ground water. The average dissolved-solids concentration of stream water is

  3. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF STAIRS AND OVERLOOK AT SOUTH APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF STAIRS AND OVERLOOK AT SOUTH APPROACH, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  4. South Atlantic OCS area living marine resources study. Volume I: an investigation of live bottom habitats south of Cape Fear, North Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The major objectives of this study were to (1) characterize benthic and nektonic communities associated with representative live bottom habitats on the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Bight, and (2) evaluate factors which might influence these communities, particularly the potential for impact by offshore oil and gas activities. The study areas include nine live bottom areas located off South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

  5. Geologic map of the South Jackson Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, Martin L.

    1986-01-01

    The South Jackson Mountains Wilderness Study Area is in south-central Humboldt County, approximately 50 miles northwest of Winnemucca, Nevada. The boundaries originally specified for the wilderness study area encompassed an area of 60,211 acres. The draft Environmental Impact Statement issued in 1983 by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) identified 20,094 acres within the wilderness study area as potentially suitable for inclusion into the National Wilderness Preservation System. Subsequent (August 27, 1984) deletions by the BLM have resulted in the present study area of approximately 10,300 acres. The boundaries of the study area are approximated by the range crestline to the east and the 4,400-ft contour along the west side of the range from King Lear Peak north to the divide between Hobo and Christiorsson Canyons.

  6. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  7. Black carbon measurement in a coastal area of south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, K. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cao, J. J.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.

    2006-06-01

    To better understand anthropogenic pollution originating in Asia and its transport into the global atmosphere, black carbon (BC) emissions were measured continuously from June 2004 to May 2005 at Hok Tsui (22.13°N, 114.15°E). Hok Tsui is a continental outflow, downwind monitoring site, located in a coastal area near Hong Kong. Using an Aethalometer, hourly BC concentrations ranged from 63.0 ng/m3 to 17.3 μg/m3, showing a clear seasonal pattern with high concentrations in winter, spring, and fall and low values in summer. During the winter, high BC concentrations occurred frequently as a result of southward long-range transport of polluted air masses in the boundary layer over the Asian continent. Anthropogenic emissions in coastal areas of southeastern China were the major potential sources for the observed pollutants. During the summer, high BC concentrations were measured occasionally when the air masses came from the northwest. These anthropogenic pollutants were found to be regional in nature, originating from sources in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, which included emissions from residential and agricultural combustion, industry, power plants, motor vehicles, and ships.

  8. Andean Basins Morphometry: Assesing South American Large Rivers' Source Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, R. A.; Latrubesse, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Presently there are no regional-scale morphometric analyses of Andean fluvial basins. Therefore, we created a continental-scale database of these basins. Our data covers over an area 1,000,000 km2 of the Andes, from Venezuela to Argentina. These basins are the source of some of the largest rivers in the world including the Amazon, Orinoco, Parana, and Magdalena. Morphometric parameters including shape factor, relief ratio, longitudinal profiles and different indices of basin elevation were calculated based on the CGIAR SRTM 4.1 DEM (~90 m resolution). FAO Hydrosheds were used to segment the DEM by major catchment and then manually cut at the Andean zone. In the North and Central Andes, this produced over 500,000 subcatchments, which we reduced to 619 by setting minimum catchment area to 100 km2. We then integrate lithologic data from DNPM geologic data. Our results indicate that sedimentary lithologies dominate Central Andean catchments (n=268,k=4), which cover an area 767,00 km2, while the Northern Andean catchments (covering 350,000 km2) are more varied, dominated by volcanics in the Pacific (n=78), a sedimentary (48%) dominant mix in the Caribbean (n=138) and 60% sedimentary in the Amazon-Orinoco subregion catchments (n=138). Elevation averages are smallest in the north Andes and average maximum elevations (6,026 m) in the Argentinian catchments (n=65) of the Central Andes are the highest. Shape factors range from 0.49 to 0.58 in the North and 0.52 to 0.58 in the Central Andes. There are clear differences in all categories between region and subregion, but that difference does not hinge on a single morphometric or geologic parameter. Morphometric parameters at a watershed scale (listed in Table) are analyzed and hydrologic data from gauging stations throughout the Andes (n=100) are used to compare morphometric parameters with lithology and characteristics from the basin hydrograph (peak discharge timing, minimum and maximum discharge, and runoff).

  9. Interpretation of Geoelectric Structure at Hululais Prospect Area, South Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Mulyadi

    1995-01-01

    Schlumberger resistivity surveys were conducted in 1993 as part of a combined geological, geophysical and geological program to investigate a geothermal prospect in the Hululais area, Southern Sumatra. These resistivity data resolved the upper conductive layer and were interpreted to define the shallow extent of a possible geothermal system. A follow-up magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out to probe deeper than the dc resistivity survey results achieved. However, the resistive sub-stratum below the conductive layer was still poorly resolved. Possible reasons for this include a preferential channeling of the telluric current within the thick shallow very conductive layer, thus limiting the penetration depth of the magnetotelluric signals and poor resolution due to high noise levels caused by significant rain and sferics.

  10. 18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ON THE TURBINE ARE EACH EQUIPPED WITH A SHEAR PIN AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGE. IF A GATE JAMS, THE PIN SMEARS AND THE CHANGE IN OIL PRESSURE TRIGGERS AN ALARM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  11. 36 CFR 7.89 - New River Gorge National River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... River Gorge National River? (i) In addition to the applicable provisions in 36 CFR part 4, all... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New River Gorge National River. 7.89 Section 7.89 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Historic interior view of gorge wall, taken shortly after battle, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic interior view of gorge wall, taken shortly after battle, looking northwest at the entrance and northwest shoeing damage to gorge wall as well as timber and earth blindage (see also HABS No. GA-2158-39). - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

    1985-01-01

    The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Liao, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012

  15. The Italian-Americans of the South Bend-Mishawaka Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotia, Elizabeth R.; Rasmussen, Karen

    Developed as part of an ethnic heritage studies program, this historical narrative of Italian Americans can enhance cultural awareness. This document presents the story of Italians beginning with cultural roots in Italy and their subsequent emigration to the United States, including to South Bend, Indiana. Four major areas are explored. An account…

  16. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Roh, Hanseong; Kim, Juhyeok; Cho, Sukhyeong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Jinwon; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Chong, Hyonyong; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2015-03-20

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Klesiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea. The strain K. oxytoca M1 is able to produce either 2,3-butanediol or acetoin selectively by controlling the pH and temperature. PMID:25660421

  17. Breastfeeding Practices of Japanese Mothers in the South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongo, Hiroko

    A study investigated the attitudes of Japanese breastfeeding mothers in the South Bay area in Los Angeles. The sample consisted of 20 Japanese mothers over the age of 18 who were born in Japan, who recently came to the United States, and whose youngest child has been breastfed for at least 6 months. Subjects were interviewed in their native…

  18. Temporal and spatial patterns of internal phosphorus recycling in a South Florida (USA) stormwater treatment area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large constructed wetlands, known as stormwater treatment areas (STAs), have been deployed to remove phosphorus (P) in drainage waters before discharge into the Everglades in South Florida, USA. Their P removal performance depends on internal P cycling under typically hydrated, b...

  19. Social Change, Anomy and Alienation in Low-Income Areas of the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong I.; And Others

    Theories of social change suggest that both anomy and alienation should increase among low-income people experiencing rapid social change. To more sharply distinguish the causal relationship between social change and the state of peoples' minds in rural and semirural areas of the South, separate hypotheses were developed for anomy (Durkheim's…

  20. Geologic map of the South Sierra Wilderness and South Sierra Roadless area, southern Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F. ); Carter, K.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The study area is underlain predominantly by granitoid rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Metamorphic rocks are present in roof pendants mainly in the southwest corner of the study area and consist of quartz-biotite schist, phyllite, quartzite, marble, calc-silicate hornfels, and meta-dacite. Among the seven Triassic and (or) Jurassic plutons are three newly described units that consist of the gabbro of Deer Mountain, the tonalite of Falls Creek, and the quartz diorite of Round Mountain. The map shows one newly described unit that intrudes Triassic rocks: the granodiorite of Monache Creek which is a leucocratic, medium-grained, equi-granular, locally porphyritic biotite hornblende granodiorite. Among the seven Cretaceous plutons are two newly described units. The Cretaceous rocks are generally medium- to coarse-grained, potassium-feldspar porphyritic granite with biotite and minor hornblende; it includes abundant pods of alaskite. The granite of Haiwee Creek is similar but only locally potassium-feldspar porphyritic and with only minor hornblende. Major-element data plotted on Harker diagrams show the older rocks to be higher in iron and magnesium and lower in silica than the younger rocks. There are abundant local pods of alaskite throughout the study area that consist of medium- to coarse-grained, leucocratic granite, alkali-feldspar granite and associated aplite and pegmatite bodies occurring as small pods and highly leucocratic border phases of nearby plutons. Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rock include the rhyolite of Monache Mountain and Quaternary surficial deposits: fan, stream-channel, colluvium, talus, meadow-filling, rock-glacier, and glacial-moraine deposits. Important structures include the Sierran front fault and a possible extensional feature along which Bacon (1978) suggests Monache Mountain erupted.

  1. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  2. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils and sediment of Hanfeng Lake, Three Gorges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenrui; Lu, Yingzhuan; Gao, Shutao; Jia, Xuwei; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Xiangying; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2015-01-01

    As ubiquitous organic contaminants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were evaluated to explore the impacts of the water level fluctuating zone (WLFZ) on organic pollutant behavior and the retention mechanism of organic pollutants in the bank-WLFZ-water system of Hanfeng Lake in the Three Gorges region of China. The mean concentrations of total PBDEs were 103, 75.2, and 568 ng g(-1) dry wt for bank soils, WLFZ soils, and sediment samples, respectively. Except for sampling sites S1 and S2, the levels of PBDEs decreased in the order of sediment>WLFZ soil > bank soil, suggesting that PBDEs were transferred from bank soil to WLFZ soil and finally deposited in the sediment. Decabromodiphenyl ethers (deca-BDEs) were the predominant congener in the study area, comprising 93.8% to 98.3% of the total PBDEs. Greater photolytic degradation of deca-BDEs was suggested in bank soils based on a higher relative abundance of octa- and nona-BDEs than in WLFZ soils and sediment. This may have occurred because deca-BDEs in bank soils have relatively longer sunlight exposure than in WLFZ soils and sediment due to the annual alternation of water storage and drainage in the catchments of the Three Gorges Reservoir. More in-depth investigations of contaminants in bank-WLFZ-water systems are needed due to the large areas of WLFZ created by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and their importance to the balance of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26181085

  3. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  4. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  5. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  6. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  7. 33 CFR 334.60 - Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.60 Section 334.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.60 Cape Cod Bay south of Wellfleet Harbor, Mass.; naval aircraft bombing target area....

  8. Exceptional river gorge formation from unexceptional floods.

    PubMed

    Anton, L; Mather, A E; Stokes, M; Muñoz-Martin, A; De Vicente, G

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of rates and mechanisms of incision and knickpoint retreat in bedrock rivers is fundamental to perceptions of landscape response to external drivers, yet only sparse field data are available. Here we present eye witness accounts and quantitative surveys of rapid, amphitheatre-headed gorge formation in unweathered granite from the overtopping of a rock-cut dam spillway by small-moderate floods (∼100-1,500 m(3) s(-1)). The amount of erosion demonstrates no relationship with flood magnitude or bedload availability. Instead, structural pattern of the bedrock through faults and joints appears to be the primary control on landscape change. These discontinuities facilitate rapid erosion (>270 m headward retreat; ∼100 m incision; and ∼160 m widening over 6 years) principally through fluvial plucking and block topple. The example demonstrates the potential for extremely rapid transient bedrock erosion even when rocks are mechanically strong and flood discharges are moderate. These observations are relevant to perceived models of gorge formation and knickpoint retreat. PMID:26242429

  9. Exceptional river gorge formation from unexceptional floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, L.; Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; de Vicente, G.

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of rates and mechanisms of incision and knickpoint retreat in bedrock rivers is fundamental to perceptions of landscape response to external drivers, yet only sparse field data are available. Here we present eye witness accounts and quantitative surveys of rapid, amphitheatre-headed gorge formation in unweathered granite from the overtopping of a rock-cut dam spillway by small-moderate floods (~100-1,500 m3 s-1). The amount of erosion demonstrates no relationship with flood magnitude or bedload availability. Instead, structural pattern of the bedrock through faults and joints appears to be the primary control on landscape change. These discontinuities facilitate rapid erosion (>270 m headward retreat; ~100 m incision; and ~160 m widening over 6 years) principally through fluvial plucking and block topple. The example demonstrates the potential for extremely rapid transient bedrock erosion even when rocks are mechanically strong and flood discharges are moderate. These observations are relevant to perceived models of gorge formation and knickpoint retreat.

  10. Gravity investigations of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, south-central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheirer, Daniel S.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford

    2006-01-01

    The geological configuration of the Arbuckle Uplift in the vicinity of Chickasaw National Recreation Area in south-central Oklahoma plays a governing role in the distribution of fresh and mineral springs within the park and in the existence of artesian wells in and around the park. A confining layer of well-cemented conglomerate lies immediately below the surface of the recreation area, and groundwater migrates from an area of meteoric recharge where rocks of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer crop out as close as two kilometers to the east of the park. Prominent, Pennsylvanian-aged faults are exposed in the aquifer outcrop, and two of the fault traces project beneath the conglomerate cover toward two groups of springs within the northern section of the park. We conducted gravity fieldwork and analysis to investigate the subsurface extensions of these major faults beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area. By defining gravity signatures of the faults where they are exposed, we infer that the Sulphur and Mill Creek Faults bend to the south-west where they are buried. The South Sulphur Fault may project westward linearly if it juxtaposes rocks that have a density contrast opposite that of that fault's density configuration in the Sulphur Syncline area. The Sulphur Syncline, whose eastern extent is exposed in the outcrop area of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, does not appear to extend beneath Chickasaw National Recreation Area nor the adjacent City of Sulphur. The South Sulphur Fault dips steeply northward, and its normal sense of offset suggests that the Sulphur Syncline is part of a graben. The Mill Creek Fault dips vertically, and the Reagan Fault dips southward, consistent with its being mapped as a thrust fault. The Sulphur and Mill Creek Synclines may have formed as pull-apart basins in a left-lateral, left-stepping strike-slip environment. The character of the gravity field of Chickasaw National Recreation Area is different from the lineated gravity field in the area

  11. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Background The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa's health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. Objectives The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. Method A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, health-worker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. Conclusion The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcare services and increasing the doctors’ hours. PMID:26245391

  12. Organic carbon cycling in sediments of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent shelf: Implication for the influence of Three Gorges Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Yao, Peng; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Bin; Pan, Huihui; Wang, Jinpeng; Yu, Zhigang

    2014-11-01

    Surface sediments collected from the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent shelf were analyzed for elemental and stable carbon isotopic composition, and lignin-phenols to investigate spatial variability of the sources, transport and decay of sedimentary organic carbon (OC). Bulk and molecular proxy data indicated a mixed marine/terrestrial OC sources in the study area. A three end-member mixing model using Monte-Carlo simulation showed that marine OC was the predominant OC source, accounting for an increasing fraction along the coast and seaward, while soil-derived OC and C3 vascular plant detrital OC decreased seaward and southward. Large fragments of lignin-rich C3 vascular plant OC were deposited mainly near the river mouth, whereas fine-grained lignin-poor soil-derived OC was delivered further south alongshore. Higher values of lignin decay indices, seaward and southward, were attributed to selective transport of terrestrial OC on fine-grained particles and efficient remineralization in mobile muds. Λ8 of OC in Changjiang Estuary sediments has slightly decreased in recent years, which could in part be due to the trapping of terrestrial coarse particles by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). Also, we propose that there has been an increasing input of phytodetritus derived from freshwater phytoplankton to coastal sediments after the construction of the TGD.

  13. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Doody, J. Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D’Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general. PMID:26135472

  14. The Dry Season Shuffle: Gorges Provide Refugia for Animal Communities in Tropical Savannah Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Doody, J Sean; Clulow, Simon; Kay, Geoff; D'Amore, Domenic; Rhind, David; Wilson, Steve; Ellis, Ryan; Castellano, Christina; McHenry, Colin; Quayle, Michelle; Hands, Kim; Sawyer, Graeme; Bass, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the wet-dry tropics, animal species face the major challenges of acquiring food, water or shelter during an extended dry season. Although large and conspicuous animals such as ungulates and waterfowl migrate to wetter areas during this time, little is known of how smaller and more cryptic animal species with less mobility meet these challenges. We fenced off the entire entrance of a gorge in the Australian tropical savanna, offering the unique opportunity to determine the composition and seasonal movement patterns of the small vertebrate community. The 1.7 km-long fence was converted to a trapline that was deployed for 18-21 days during the early dry season in each of two years, and paired traps on both sides of the fence allowed us to detect the direction of animal movements. We predicted that semi-aquatic species (e.g., frogs and turtles) would move upstream into the wetter gorge during the dry season, while more terrestrial species (e.g., lizards, snakes, mammals) would not. The trapline captured 1590 individual vertebrates comprising 60 species. There was a significant bias for captures on the outside of the fence compared to the inside for all species combined (outside/inside = 5.2, CI = 3.7-7.2), for all vertebrate classes, and for specific taxonomic groups. The opposite bias (inside/outside = 7.3, N= 25) for turtles during the early wet season suggested return migration heading into the wet season. Our study revealed that the small vertebrate community uses the gorge as a dry season refuge. The generality of this unreplicated finding could be tested by extending this type of survey to tropical savannahs worldwide. A better understanding of how small animals use the landscape is needed to reveal the size of buffer zones around wetlands required to protect both semi-aquatic and terrestrial fauna in gorges in tropical savannah woodland, and thus in ecosystems in general. PMID:26135472

  15. Brief statement on the hydrology of the Sampit River area near Georgetown, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Carolina Refining and Distributing Company is planning to locate an oil-refining plant near Georgetown, South Carolina. To aid in the preparation of an environmental impact statement, a description of the stratigraphy, ground-water resources, and an assessment of possible seismic activity that may occur in the Winyah Bay vicinity has been prepared. Additional data will be required to quantitatively evaluate the impact of an oil spill on the shallow aquifer in the area. (USGS)

  16. Change of climate conditions in the forest area of South Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetko, M. V.; Moiseeva, Y. A.; Terre, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    A statistical analysis of meteorological parameters which influence the intensity of exogenous processes in the forest area of South Yakutia has been performed. The indicated increase in mean annual air and soil temperature rates occurred non-uniformly. Annual precipitation increase was due to precipitation rates in cold or transitional seasons; increase in snow cover depth and decrease in diurnal air temperature range was observed in cold season.

  17. COMANCHE-BIG SOUTH, NEOTA-FLAT TOP, AND NEVER SUMMER WILDERNESS STUDY AREAS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Patten, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource assessment was made of three wilderness study areas adjacent to the north and west sides of Rocky Mountain National Park in north-central Colorado. Gold, silver, and uranium prospects in major faults near the Comanche-Big South wilderness study area suggest the possibility that these commodities may also occur along numerous similar faults within the study area, but the lack of evidence for mineralized rock at the surface suggests little chance for deposits along these structures. The Neota-Flat Top wilderness study area shows no evidence of being mineralized and little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. The Never Summer wilderness study area has strong geologic, geochemical, and geophysical evidence indicating probable resource potential for molydenum deposits. The nature of the geologic terrain precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  18. View of interior facade of gorge wall looking from southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior facade of gorge wall looking from southeast to northwest at the northern half of the wall ( see also HABS No. GA-2158-56 & 57). - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  19. The Volcanic Story of the Columbia River Gorge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John Eliot

    1982-01-01

    Uses maps, diagrams, and geological accounts to describe the Columbia River Gorge which separates Oregon from Washington and exposes an unexcelled record of Cenozoic volcanic stratigraphy, sedimentation, flooding, and landsliding for the visiting tourists, geologists, or students. (Author/DC)

  20. [Zoning of water environment protection in Three Gorges Reservoir watershed].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-jing; Xi, Chun-yan; Zheng, Bing-hui

    2011-04-01

    Regional differences in socio-economic development, land use, vegetation cover, and relative location of water body within a watershed bring about significant effects on the water environment quality of the watershed. Concerning about the core demands of water body protection, it is important and necessary to carry out zoning water environment protection for whole watershed. With a view to the spatial differences in regional characteristics of eco-environment and water body pressure-respond features, this paper studied the zoning of water environment protection in the Three Gorges Reservoir watershed, based on the methods of ecological factors overlay and ecological sensitivity analysis. The factors considered included hydrothermal conditions, terrain topography, administrative unit, and ecological sensitivity. Three regions in the watershed were zoned, i. e., 1) red region, namely strictly protected region, with an area of 2924 km2 and occupying 5.1% of the total; 2) yellow region, namely first class protection region, with an area of 10477 km2 and occupying 18.4%; and 3) blue region, namely second class protection region, with an area of 43599 km2 and occupying 76.5%. The key environmental problems of the regions were identified, and the strategies for the regions' development and water environment protection were proposed. PMID:21774330

  1. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. ); Westbrook, T.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  2. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  3. Migration and global environmental change: methodological lessons from mountain areas of the global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, A.; Gioli, G.; Afifi, T.

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources, and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empirical case studies, the literature on migration and global environmental change has not yet moved beyond case study results to address and explain global patterns and specificities of migration in mountain areas of the global South. After an introduction to the topic, the authors present a new synthesis of three field studies combining household surveys, participatory research approach (PRA) tools and key informant interviews in Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This article suggests that the systematic use of transdisciplinary approaches, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, is the key to understanding global migration patterns in rural mountain areas of the global South. The results of our synthesis suggests that survey data should be triangulated with PRA results as well as secondary data in order to build household profiles connecting vulnerability (measured through a multidimensional index) with human mobility patterns. Such profiles can be conducive to better understand the feedback processes between livelihoods and mobility patterns both within each case study and across case studies, helping researchers to draw general lessons.

  4. Migration and global environmental change: methodological lessons from mountain areas of the global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, A.; Gioli, G.; Afifi, T.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empirical case studies, the literature on migration and global environmental change has not yet moved beyond case study results to address and explain global patterns and specificities of migration in mountain areas of the global South. After an introduction to the topic, the authors present their empirical approach combining household surveys, Participatory Research Approach (PRA) tools and key informant interviews through its application in three case studies in Pakistan, Peru and Tanzania. This article suggests that the systematic use of transdisciplinary approaches, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, is the key to understanding global migration patterns in rural mountain areas of the global South. In the future, survey data should be triangulated with PRA results as well as secondary data in order to build household profiles connecting vulnerability (measured through a multidimensional index) with human mobility patterns. Such profiles can be conducive to better understand the feedback processes between livelihoods and mobility patterns both within each case study and across case studies, helping researchers to draw general lessons.

  5. Altitude of the Top of the Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoli, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara. Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  6. Altitude of the Top of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  7. Altitude of the top of the Inyan Kara Group in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  8. Altitude of the Top of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  9. Altitude of the Top of the Madison Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study arca arc Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  10. Potentiometric surface of the Deadwood Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  11. Ground-water resources of the St. James area, South-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ropes, L.H.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the quality and quantity of the ground-water resources in the area of St. James, Minnesota. St. James is located in the center of Watonwan County in south-central Minnesota. The area is covered by a thick layer of glacial drift which is underlain by Cretaceous, Cambrian, and Precambrian rocks. St. James presently obtains its water supply from two aquifers. One is a Cretaceous sandstone 160 feet below the surface, in which two wells are completed. This aquifer yields abundant water but it is of poor quality and is expensive to treat. The second source, tapped by three municipal wells, is a surficial sand and gravel deposit less than 40 feet thick at the well field. This aquifer produces water of better quality, but its extent and capacity are not known. There are other wells in the area completed at depths ranging from 15 to 500 feet.

  12. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn. PMID:17647095

  13. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W. ); Close, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits.

  14. Gravity Anomalies and Depths of Sedimentary of Mekong Delta Area, South of Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang Van, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta is the region in the south of Vietnam with the total area of about 40.000 km2 and almost of this area is covered by water. Gravity measurement of this area was performed by Cuu Long Petroleum Agency (Vietnam) in 1980's and the Bouguer anomaly map of this area at the scale of 1/500.000 was established.We used the Bouguer anomaly map to study the geological structure of this area. This paper is divided into two parts. Firstly, we split the Mekong Delta area into two basins (CanTho-DongThap and TraCu basins) and two swells (Saigon and SocTrang swells) and delineated their boundaries by using the characteristics of Bouguer anomalies. Secondly, we used the second polynomial formula to separate the Bouger anomaly map into the regional and residual gravity anomaly maps. With this residual anomaly map, the 3D basemenf of Cenozoic-Mesozoic sediments of this area was computed by using the Parker-Oldenburg method.

  15. 75 FR 6347 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... with that process, we published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register on July 27, 2009 (74 FR 36999-37000... Republic of South Africa as pest-free areas for citrus black spot. Based on our site visit to the area and...-free areas for citrus black spot. EFFECTIVE DATE: February 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  16. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  17. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  18. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  19. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  20. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A...

  1. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.840 Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840...

  2. 33 CFR 165.840 - Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Limited Access Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.840 Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area, Gulf of Mexico: Mississippi Canyon Block 20, South of New Orleans, LA. 165.840 Section 165.840...

  3. Hypergol Maintenance Facility Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas, SWMU 070 Corrective Measures Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ralinda R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Year 10 Annual Report for implementation of corrective measures at the Hypergol Maintenance Facility (HMF) Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The work is being performed by Tetra Tech, Inc., for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) NNK12CA15B, Task Order (TO) 07. Mr. Harry Plaza, P.E., of NASA's Environmental Assurance Branch is the Remediation Project Manager for John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Tetra Tech Program Manager is Mr. Mark Speranza, P.E., and the Tetra Tech Project Manager is Robert Simcik, P.E.

  4. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  5. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  6. A novel overall approach for sediment-related disaster prevention in urban areas, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongyeob; Lee, Changwoo; Woo, Choongshik; Jeong, Seonhwan

    2015-04-01

    In South Korea, we had 140 landslides around Mt. Umyeon of Seoul city on July 27, 2011, which caused 16 deaths and more than 150 house damages. These landslides were triggered by a severe rainfall event with the total amount of 365 mm, equivalent to a 100-year-recurrence interval event. The landslide disaster in Mt. Umyeon is the first sediment-related disaster posing the significant serious damages to urban areas in South Korea which requires overall reconsideration about prevention, warning, countermeasure and rehabilitation to sediment-related disasters in urban areas. To meet such demands of society, the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), competent to the sediment-related disasters research, is committed to conducting on a research project of development of a prevention system for sediment-related disasters in urban areas including non-structural countermeasures such as construction of landslide early warning system and structural ones such as development of urban-typed debris flow barriers. Of these countermeasures, a proto-type of landslide early warning system consisting of a variety of sensors such as soil moisture content sensor and tensiometer has been tested in-situ in a point view of system performance maintenance. We have also tried to find the threshold of the sensors by slope failure experiments. Meanwhile, two types of debris flow barriers for urban areas were developed and their functioning abilities have been tested by both of flume test and computational structure analysis. We hope these research results would mitigate potential damages efficiently by sediment-related disasters in urban areas.

  7. Validate the universal pattern decomposition method using satellite data acquired over the Three Gorges region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fujiwara, N.; Furumi, S.; Muramatsu, K.; Daigo, M.; Zhang, L.

    2005-10-01

    The universal pattern decomposition method (UPDM) has been successfully applied to simulated data for Landsat/ETM+, Terra/MODIS, ADEOS-II/GLI and 92 bands-CONTINUE sensors using ground-measured data. This paper validates the UPDM using MODIS and ETM+ data acquired over the Three Gorges region of China. The reduced 2 values of selected area D, that with the smallest terrain influences, are 0.000409 (MODIS) and 0.000181 (ETM+), and the average linear regression factor between MODIS and ETM+ is 1.0077, with rms 0.0082. The results demonstrated that the UPDM coefficients are sensor-independent.

  8. Management of municipal solid waste in the Three Gorges region

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Liao Pei Tingquan Huang Chuan; Yuan Hui

    2009-07-15

    As the fourth phase of the Three Gorges reservoir project commenced in 2008, the rate of water flow in the Yangtze River has obviously decelerated further downstream and water clarity within the storage facility has decreased. Meanwhile, the rate of urbanization in the region is adding to the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) being generated by every day life. The composition of the waste is becoming more diversified and complicated, thereby presenting an increasing threat to the ecological environment and water resources of the Three Gorges region. This paper is a probe into MSW in terms of its characteristics as well as methods of storage, collection, transportation, recycling, treatment and disposal, the protection of environmental ecosystems. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems in the Three Gorges region, and indeed the whole of China. Based on the analysis of the present situation of MSWM and its treatment/disposal, some methods of sorting, recycling, decomposing, incineration and reuse are described, sanitary landfill as the main disposal method in Chongqing city, incineration being the second. Sanitary landfill or dump was also used for MSW treatment in the Three Gorges region, and this paper also provides some suggestions for improving MSWM in the Three Gorges region.

  9. Wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in Guangzhou, a subtropical area in South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Yin; Xu, Yi-Gang; Zhou, Ben; Zhang, Hui-Huang; Lan, Jiang-Bo

    2010-12-01

    With the aim of understanding the seasonal distribution of deposition fluxes of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) in South China, a main acid deposition region in China, precipitation samples were collected and analyzed from Guangzhou area, between March 2005 and February 2006. The estimated wet deposition of N (including ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N)) and S (sulfate sulfur (SO(4)-S)) during the monitoring period were 40.47 kg N ha(-1) and 65.29 kg S ha(-1), respectively. The average deposition of NH(4)-N was ∼1.5 times of the NO(3)-N deposition, suggesting that the reduced and oxidized N depositions were comparable in the study area. The S and N depositions in the rainy season were greater than those in the dry season, showing great seasonal variation, which was consistent with both the distribution of precipitation and the period of fertilizer application for agriculture. The N and S wet deposition fluxes in Guangzhou were greater than those in Beijing and Zhengzhou, located in the northern China, but comparable to the level of Chongqing, located in the southwestern China, another major acid deposition region. The atmospheric N and S depositions in these cities from north to south were affected by both intensive agricultural and industrial activities. PMID:20052612

  10. The cost of anaplasmosis in the Red River Plains and south-east areas of Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Morley, R S; Hugh-Jones, M E

    1989-01-01

    Losses from morbidity and mortality due to anaplasmosis were assessed in beef and dairy cattle of the Red River Plains and south-east areas of Louisiana. The cost of treatment and prevention of anaplasmosis and losses in milk production and those due to deaths or culling were valued at $0.5 million for the year 1983 in these two areas. The cost of prevention included the use of tetracyclines in feed and salt-mineral supplements, injectable tetracycline, vaccination and an estimated 10% of the cost of insecticidal ear tags, sprays, pour-on applications and dust bags. The remainder of these costs and the total cost of vector control in dairy cattle was attributed to the control of fly annoyance. Treatment costs included veterinary fees and the owner's treatment costs, including labour costs. PMID:2588475

  11. Assessing and Understanding Trail Degradation: Results from Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Olive, N.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes results from a comprehensive assessment of resource conditions on a large (24%) sample of the trail system within Big South Fork National River and Recreational Area (BSF). Components include research to develop state-of-knowledge trail impact assessment and monitoring methods, application of survey methods to BSF trails, analysis and summary of results, and recommendations for trail management decision making and future monitoring. Findings reveal a trail system with some substantial degradation, particularly soil erosion, which additionally threatens water quality in areas adjacent to streams and rivers. Factors that contribute to or influence these problems are analyzed and described. Principal among these are trail design factors (trail topographic position, soil texture, grade and slope alignment angle), use-related factors (type and amount of use), and maintenance factors (water drainage). Recommendations are offered to assist managers in improving the sustainability of the trails system to accommodate visitation while enhancing natural resource protection.

  12. Natural recovery of different areas of a deserted quarry in South China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenjun; Ren, Hai; Fu, Shenglei; Wang, Jun; Yang, Long; Zhang, Jinping

    2008-01-01

    A quarry is a surface mining operated place, which produces enormous quantities of gravel, limestone, and other materials for industrial and construction applications. Restoration and revegetation of deserted quarries are becoming increasingly important. Three areas of a typical quarry in South China: terrace for crushed materials (terrace), spoiled mound, and remaining side slope, were investigated, to compare the existing plant species and to study the relationship between environmental factors and revegetation. The plant species composition of these three areas was found to differ significantly after eight years of natural recovery. The typical plant communities found over them were composed of gramineous herbs, ferns, and shrubs. Soil organic matter, soil moisture, and soil bulk density were considered to be the major determining factors for vegetation succession. There existed abiotic and biotic thresholds during quarrying restoration. Suggestions had been presented that could have accelerated the process of natural recovery in quarries. PMID:18575134

  13. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985 was concentrated in proven petroleum provinces. Successful exploration and development efforts were most intense in Colombia and Venezuela, where activity centered around the Cano Limon field area. Initial production of 30,000 BOPD from Cano Limon started in December, raising Colombia again to the ranks of an exporting nation. Another significant discovery in Colombia was San Francisco field in the Upper Magdalena basin. Argentina reported significant discoveries by YPF in the Northwest Cretaceous and Neuquen basins and by Total offshore Tierra del Fuego. Brazil continued to discover major reserves in the offshore Campos basin in ever-increasing water depths. At year end, Venezuela was drilling Furrial-1 in eastern Venezuela. The well is reported to be the outstanding discovery of 1985, if not of the last 2 decades. 4 figures, 7 tables.

  14. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  15. Canyon-related undulation structures in the Shenhu area, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Shaohua; Su, Ming; Kuang, Zenggui; Yang, Rui; Liang, Jinqiang; Wu, Nengyou

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics and origin of seafloor and subsurface undulations were studied in the Shenhu area, northern South China Sea using high-precision multibeam bathymetric map and high-resolution 2D seismic data. Two undulation structure fields associated with submarine canyons have been identified. One structure field is developed in canyon head areas and shows waveform morphology on the bathymetric map. The waves display wavelengths and wave heights of 1-2 km and 20-50 m, respectively, generally occur on slopes from 1° to 5°, and extend for about 15 km approximately parallel to the canyon's orientation. The other structure field is developed in the lower segment or mouth area of submarine canyons. In general, the waves display wavelengths and wave heights of 1.3-3.6 km and 50-80 m, respectively, occur on slopes of approximately 2°, and extend for more than 20 km. Sediment cores from crests between submarine canyons in the lower segment include predominantly silts and clayey silts. Since undulations in the two fields show differences in morphology and internal architectures, two different formation mechanisms are suggested. Seafloor undulations in the head area of submarine canyons are interpreted as creep folds induced by soft sediment deformation. Undulation structures in the lower segment or the mouth area of submarine canyons are sediment waves constructed by turbidity currents overflows along the submarine canyons.

  16. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. E, Table 2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for...

  17. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. E, Table 2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for...

  18. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. E, Table 2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for...

  19. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. E, Table 2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for...

  20. Changes in the forest ecosystems in areas impacted by aridization in south-western Romania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past few decades, global climate change has accentuated the intensification of aridization in South-Western Romania, with direct and indirect consequences on the quality of forest ecosystems. In addition to qualitative deterioration, the quantitative changes brought about by intensive anthropic deforestation have created the conditions for a decline in the size of forest areas on vast tracts of land. The paper aims to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in the forest ecosystems in South-Western Romania, changes due to the synergic context of the global climate changes and the anthropic pressures of the past three decades. In order to capture the evolution of aridization in the study area, specific aridization indexes have been calculated, such as the De Martonne index and the UNEP aridity index. 1990 and 2011 satellite images have been used in order to quantify the qualitative changes. Results The results obtained indicated that, in the past two decades, the quality of the biomass declined as a result of the increase in the climatic aridity conditions (De Martonne si UNEP aridity index, indicating in the last decades, annual values under 15 mm/°C, and under 0.5 mm/mm, that means that the values situated under these thresholds, describe arid and semi-arid climate conditions). Also, the uncontrolled logging across vast surfaces caused the loss of forest ecosystems by 7% in the overall study area, during the last three decades. Conclusions The severe effects of aridization meant, first of all, a significant decline in the quality of the ecosystem services supplied by forests. In the absence of viable actions to correct the present situation, the extremely undesirable consequences of an ecological and social nature will arise in the near future. PMID:24393389

  1. PM10 monitoring and receptor modeling in some urban areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, V.S.; Engelbrecht, J.P.; Swanepoel, L.; Mostert, J.; Chow, J.

    1997-12-31

    Several source apportionment studies have been conducted in some of the urban areas of South Africa following US EPA guidelines. These studies involved the measuring of close to 40 new source profiles, ambient air sampling, chemical analyses and the CMB7 source apportionment modeling of PM10 size fractions. Source and ambient data were collected by Mintek over a five year period at sites in Vereeniging, Vanderbijlpark and Sasolburg (all in the Vaal Triangle), Olifantsfontein, Nelspruit and Randburg. Comparison of the gravimetric data show definite seasonal trends, with the highest levels being recorded during the winter months at sampling sites close to townships which use domestic coal as their prime source of energy. In the industrial areas of the Vaal Triangle and Olifantsfontein the pollution levels are at their highest, with the US EPA 24-hour national ambient air quality standard of 150g per cubic meter being exceeded on several occasions. The US EPA annual mean standard of 50g per cubic meter was also exceeded at these sites. The lowest PM10 levels were recorded in the residential areas Randburg and Nelspruit (Valencia Park). The source apportionment results show domestic coal combustion, fugitive soil dust, secondary salts of ammonium sulfate and nitrate, and power plant fly-ash to be major contributors to airborne particulate pollution. For the Nelspruit sites biomass burning is a major contributor. Minor sources include iron arc furnace, sinter plant and coking furnace dusts. Petrol vehicle emissions are also a minor source of PM10 pollution. Results from these studies emphasize the need for a continuous national air monitoring network for South Africa, from which the authorities, industry, the public and the environment can benefit.

  2. The Characterization of Microearthquakes in Offshore Area of Northeastern South Korea from Multidisciplinary Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. M.; Che, I. Y.; Kim, G.

    2015-12-01

    A number of small earthquakes in offshore Gangneung-Sokcho-Goseong area of northeastern South Korea has been identified and the hypocenters of these events are relocated by double-difference algorithm using multidisciplinary data set. Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) lists 845 events for the period Jan. 2010 - Jun. 2015 with local magnitude up to 3.3. Peer review shows that the offshore events can be grouped into a number of small clusters, whereas onshore events are relatively few and unevenly distributed. It appears to have little relationship between the location of offshore event clusters and the direction of main onshore faults running NNE - SSW. In this study, we focus on the small events occurred in the area of N37°45´-38°35´ and E128°30´ - 129°20´. The Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) network operated by KIGAM and 5 temporary stations with Guralp CMG-40T short-period seismometers placed along the east coast of South Korea record the seismic energy generated from small events. The 137 events recorded from May to October 2014, ranging in local magnitude from 0.4 to 2.3, are already relocated using 1849 direct P-wave traveltimes identified from 29 stations. Relocation produced two major clusters in offshore Goseong (cluster 1) and Yangyang (cluster 2) province. The waveforms of relocated events in cluster 1 and 2 are similar to those from explosion in waters rather than earthquake, and spectrum analysis shows energy concentration on low frequencies below 10 Hz. We are combining the multidisciplinary data set from land based broadband and short-period seismometers, Guralp OBS system deployed in July this year, accelerometer and hydrophone array mounted on the offshore platforms of the underwater seismic observatory in the north of the study area. The integration of seismic and hydro-acoustic data in offshore supplements uneven azimuthal coverage and gives improved characterization of offshore seismic activity.

  3. Status of two Coreius species in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuguo; Lloret, J.; Li, Zhongjie; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Perera, H. A. C. C.; Liu, Jiashou

    2016-01-01

    Dam construction alters natural flow regimes which, in turn, cause significant changes in fish communities during and after impoundment. The construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir, from impoundment of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, China, may have affected native fish species. Thus, the status of two lotic freshwater fish species, Coreius heterodon and C. guichenoti, were monitored in the Three Gorges Reservoir, including fish abundance, individual composition, growth, condition, and mortality. Data on both species were gathered from upstream, midstream and downstream areas of the reservoir and, where available, from studies published before and after dam construction. Lower abundance, slower growth, a less diversified age structure, poorer fish condition (indicated by hepatosomatic index) and higher mortalities were recorded in sites nearest the dam compared with upstream areas. Furthermore, after final impoundment, individual Coreius species inhabiting the area changed, with young individuals becoming more abundant, while upstream of the reservoir the two Coreius species became smaller at a given age. The results show that the status of the two Coreius species was subject to dramatic changes after impoundment.

  4. Simulation of the advective methane transport and AOM in Shenhu area, the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wu, N.

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) occurs in the transition zone between the presence of sulfate and methane. This reaction is an important process for methane and the global carbon cycle. Methane gas hydrates bearing sediments were recovered in Shenhu Area, the Northern South China Sea, and methane advective transport was detected in this area as well. A one dimension numerical simulation tool was implemented to study the AOM process combined with the advective methane transport in Shenhu Area according to the local drilling data and geochemical information. The modeled results suggest that local methane flux will be consumed in the sediment column via dissolution, sorption and AOM reaction. A portion of methane will enter water column and possibly atmosphere if the methane flux was one order of magnitude higher than current level. Furthermore, the calculated rates of AOM in Shenhu area range similar to that of gas hydrate mounds in Mexico Golf. However, AOM is ability to consume more methane than that in Golf of Mexico due to the lower permeable sediment associated with a deeper sulfate methane transition layer.

  5. Prevalence and Diversity of Leptospires in Different Ecological Niches of Urban and Rural Areas of South Andaman Island

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Chandan; Kumar, K. Vinod; Raj, R. Vimal; Vedhagiri, K.; Vijayachari, P.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease around the globe. South Andaman Island is an endemic region for leptospirosis. We herein compared the prevalence of leptospires in urban and rural areas of South Andaman Island. The PCR detection and isolation of Leptospira revealed that pathogenic leptospires were prevalent in sewage water and household drainage water in urban areas and in paddy fields, vegetable field water, and stream water in rural areas. These results demonstrate that intermediates are ubiquitously present in the environment and may be responsible for asymptomatic infections, and also provide an insight into disease ecology. PMID:26936796

  6. Prevalence and Diversity of Leptospires in Different Ecological Niches of Urban and Rural Areas of South Andaman Island.

    PubMed

    Lall, Chandan; Kumar, K Vinod; Raj, R Vimal; Vedhagiri, K; Vijayachari, P

    2016-03-26

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease around the globe. South Andaman Island is an endemic region for leptospirosis. We herein compared the prevalence of leptospires in urban and rural areas of South Andaman Island. The PCR detection and isolation of Leptospira revealed that pathogenic leptospires were prevalent in sewage water and household drainage water in urban areas and in paddy fields, vegetable field water, and stream water in rural areas. These results demonstrate that intermediates are ubiquitously present in the environment and may be responsible for asymptomatic infections, and also provide an insight into disease ecology. PMID:26936796

  7. 3D coexisting modes of thermal convection in the faulted Lower Yarmouk Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Fabien; Inbar, Nimrod; Möller, Peter; Raggad, Marwan; Rödiger, Tino; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Numerical investigations of 3D modes of large-scale convection in faulted aquifers are presented with the aim to infer possible transport mechanisms supporting the formation of thermal springs in the Lower Yarmouk Gorge (LYG), at the border between Israel and Jordan. The transient finite elements models are based on a geological model of the LYG that introduces more realistic structural features of the basin, compared to previous existing models of the area (Magri et al., submitted). The sensitivity analysis of the fault permeability showed that faults cross-cutting the main regional flow direction allow groundwater to be driven laterally by convective forces within the fault planes. Therein thermal waters can either discharge along the fault traces or exit the fault through adjacent permeable aquifers. The location of springs can migrate with time, is not strictly constrained to the damage zones and reflects the interplay between the wavelength of the multicellular regime in the fault zone and the regional flow toward discharge areas in the lowlands. The results presented here suggest that in the LYG case, crossing flow paths result from the coexistence of fault convection, that can develop for example along NE-SW oriented faults within the Gorge, and additional flow fields that can be induced either by topography N-S gradients, e.g. perpendicular to the major axe of the Gorge, or by local thermal convection in permeable aquifers below Eocene aquiclude. The sensitivity analysis is consistent with the analytical solutions based on viscous-dependent Rayleigh theory. It indicates that in the LYG coexisting transport processes likely occur at fault hydraulic conductivity ranging between 2.3e-7 m/s and 9.3e- 7 m/s (i.e. 7 m/yr and 30 m/yr). The LYG numerical example and the associated Rayleigh analysis can be applied to study the onset of thermal convection and resulting flow patterns of any fractured hydrothermal basin. References Magri F, Möller S, Inbar N, M

  8. Principals' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership Practices and Its Impact on School Climate in Selected South Florida Public School District Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership practices of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate impact using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership Practices Inventory" ("LPI") 360 Online was used…

  9. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ..., 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 18419-18421, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0127) a proposal... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit...

  10. Protected Areas in South Asia Have Not Prevented Habitat Loss: A Study Using Historical Models of Land-Use Change

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Natalie E.; Boakes, Elizabeth H.; McGowan, Philip J. K.; Mace, Georgina M.; Fuller, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system. PMID:23741486

  11. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FILAMENTS IN THE SERPENS SOUTH MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-López, M.; Looney, L.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D.; Arce, H. G.; Plunkett, A.; Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Pound, M.; Isella, A.; Kauffmann, J.; Tobin, J. J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Kwon, W.; Ostriker, E.; Tassis, K.; Shirley, Y. L.

    2014-08-01

    We present the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 → 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin{sup 2} and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s{sup –1}, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N{sub 2}H{sup +} filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  12. Land Claims and Comanagement of Protected Areas in South Africa: Exploring the Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepe, Thembela

    2008-03-01

    Comanagement has recently become the most popular approach for reconciling land claims and biodiversity conservation in South Africa and beyond. Following the resolution of land claims on protected areas in South Africa, comanagement arrangements have been created between the relevant conservation authorities and the land claimant communities who are legally awarded tenure rights to the land. However, it is doubtful that these partnerships constitute success for the former land claimants. Using the case of a “resolved” land claim in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape Province, as well as insights from comanagement literature, this paper identifies and discusses three key possible reasons for the unimpressive performance of comanagement in reconciling land restitution and conservation. The first one is the origins of the comanagement idea in the conservation of high value natural resources (e.g., fisheries, forestry), rather than in or including concerns for resource rights. The second reason is the neglect of key conditions for successful comanagement, as discussed in the comanagement literature. The final reason is the ambiguity in settlement agreements, including the use of terminology and concepts that reinforce unequal power relationships, with the state emerging as the powerful partner. This paper concludes that, unless there is a serious reassessment of the comanagement idea as a way of reconciling land reform and conservation, and a possible review of settlement agreements that have relied on comanagement, both the integrity of the “successful land claimant’s rights” and that of conservation remain under threat.

  13. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  14. The Study on S-Wave Velocity Structure of Upper Crust in Three Gorges Region of Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zhu, P.; Zhou, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The profile of S-wave velocity structure along Badong-Maoping-Tumen is presented using the ambient noise data observed at 10 stations from mobile broadband seismic array which is located at Three Gorges Region. All of available vertical component time series during April and May,2011 have been cross-correlated to estimate the empirical Green functions. Group velocity dispersion curves were measured by applying multiple filtering technique. Using these dispersion curves,we obtain high resolution pure-path dispersions at 0.5-10 second periods. The S-wave velocity structure,which was reconstructed by inverting the pure-path dispersions,reveals the velocity variations of upper crust at Three Gorges Region. Main conclusions are as follows:(1)The velocity variations in the study region have a close relationship with the geological structure and the velocity profile suggests a anticline unit which core area is Huangling block;(2)The relative fast velocity variations beneath Jiuwanxi and its surrounding areas may correspond to the geological structure and earthquake activity there;(3) The high velocity of the upper crustal in Sandouping indicates that the Reservoir Dam of Three Gorges is located at a tectonic stable region.

  15. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

    2008-12-01

    The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‰, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‰, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‰, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average δ18O and δD in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‰ and -47.50‰; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‰ and - 53.46‰. In Hadong area, average δ18O and δD in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‰ and -49.80‰; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater

  16. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-461X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago.

  17. Oil and gas developments in South Africa, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-46-1X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. 8 figures, 8 tables.

  18. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation made in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation of the availability and quality of water from the bedrock aquifers in the Rapid City area, South Dakota, concluded that Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development of the three major aquifers investigated (the Inyan Kara, the Minnelusa, and the Madison). Ground-water availability and quality were evaluated on the basis of unit thickness and depth, potentiometric-surface altitudes and gradients, estimated recharge and discharge rates, estimated aquifer transmissivities and storage coefficients, reported yields of existing wells, and concentrations of ions in the water that may affect its use as a community supply. The Inyan Kara aquifer has the least potential for additional development because of reported small well yields , the proximity of the outcrop, and concentration of radium-226 exceeding 5 picocuries per liter. The Minnelusa aquifer is unsuitable for development in the eastern two-thirds of the study area because the concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate commonly exceed the recommended maximum level for community water supplies. The Madison aquifer has the greatest potential for additional development because it has the greatest recharge rate, has areas with significant fracture permeability, yields as much as 500 gallons per minute to wells, and has satisifactory water quality, though it is hard (hardness 120 to 180 milligrams per liter) to very hard (hardness greater than 180 milligrams per liter). (USGS)

  20. Comparative study of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in low socioeconomic areas from South chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Dhanabal, Jeevitha; Selvadoss, Pradeep Pushparaj; Muthuswamy, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0-50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%), Cyclospora sp. (22.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%), Giardia intestinalis (14.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%), Trichuris trichiura (1.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (2.7%) were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas. PMID:24587897

  1. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  2. Perceptions of a Nearby Exurban Protected Area in South Carolina, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, David B.; Lawton, Laura J.

    2008-03-01

    To address the dearth of literature on the relations between local residents in urban areas and nearby higher-order exurban protected areas, this study examined the perceptions of Columbia (South Carolina) residents toward Congaree National Park. Mail-out survey results from a random sample of 455 adult residents showed positive overall attitudes toward the park, although this did not extend to a desire to personally volunteer in park activities. Cluster analysis on the basis of seven perceptual statements produced three groups: “very enthusiastic park supporters” (VEPS), accounting for one fourth of the sample; “less enthusiastic park supporters” (LEPS), accounting for approximately one half of the sample; and “ambivalents” (AMBS), accounting for the rest. The AMBS tend to be younger than members of the other clusters and have higher income, but enthusiasm was more clearly related to high levels of interaction and awareness relative to the park. Managerial implications of the study are considered, including the need to encourage higher levels of park awareness and visitation, as well as more ecologically responsible behavior, among residents of the greater Columbia urban area.

  3. Geographical Overview of the Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir, China - Geologic Hazards and Environmental Impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam and Reservoir on the Yangtze River, China, has been an ambitious and controversial project. The dam, the largest in the world as of 2008, will provide hydropower, help to manage flood conditions, and increase the navigability of the Yangtze River. However, this massive project has displaced human and animal populations and altered the stability of the banks of the Yangtze, and it may intensify the seismic hazard of the area. It has also hindered archeological investigations in the reservoir and dam area. This report, originally in the form of a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, gives a short history and overview of the dam construction and subsequent consequences, especially geologic hazards already noted or possible in the future. The report provides photographs, diagrams, and references for the reader's further research - a necessity, because this great undertaking is dynamic, and both its problems and successes continue to evolve. The challenges and consequences of Three Gorges Dam will be closely watched and documented as lessons learned and applied to future projects in China and elsewhere.

  4. Evaluation of groundwater contamination in a coastal area of south-eastern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Antoci, Maria Lucia; Brugaletta, Luana; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was under taken to evaluate the groundwater resources contamination due to intensive agricultural practices (particularly greenhouses). The study-area is located in the coastal area of the Ragusa province (South-East Sicily), where numerous existing greenhouses may cause the contamination of groundwater systems (unconfined and confined aquifers) beneath the cropped land. The pollution risk is mainly related with the seepage process of macro-elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), held in the irrigation water and the massive use of fertilizers and pesticides, that may pass through the unsaturated zone of the soil profile. Moreover, the area is characterized by the presence of several wells (about 15 wells/km²) for agricultural use that cause the aquifer overexploitation and the consequent risk of seawater intrusion. The agriculture practices adopted in the study area (irrigation volumes, fertilizer concentrations, use of pesticides…) were monitored since February 2009; moreover, the pollution risk of the aquifers was evaluated through the analysis of groundwater water samples collected (monthly) in the monitoring wells; in particular, nitrogen compounds, soluble phosphorous (PO₄²⁻), potassium, as well as the main pesticides commonly used in the study area, were measured.The results show that electrical conductivity and chloride concentration values can cause reduction of production and leaf damage problems, respectively, for most of the monitored farm systems. The high nitrogen compounds concentrations observed in the monitored wells can cause health and environmental problems. Moreover high pesticide contamination of groundwater was found in two of the five monitored wells. PMID:21726148

  5. An oilspill risk analysis for the South Atlantic (proposed sale 78) outer continental shelf lease area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuels, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    An oilspill risk analysis was conducted for the South Atlantic (proposed sale 78) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease area. The analysis considered the probability of spill occurrences based on historical trends; likely movement of oil slicks based on a climatological model ; and locations of environmental resources which could be vulnerable to spilled oil. The times between spill occurrence and contact with resources were estimated to aid analysts in estimating slick characteristics. Critical assumptions made for this particular analysis were: (1) that oil exists in the lease area, (2) that either 0.228 billion (mean case) or 1.14 billion (high case) barrels of oil will be found and produced from tracts sold in sale 78, and (3) that all the oil will be found either in the northern or the southern portion of the lease area. On the basis of these resource estimates, it was estimated that 1 to 5 oilspills of 1,000 barrels or greater will occur over the 25 to 30-year production life of the proposed sale 78 tracts. The results also depend upon the routes and methods chosen to transport oil from OCS platforms to shore. Given the above assumptions, the estimated probability that one or more oilspills of 1,000 barrels or larger will occur and contact land after being at sea less than 30 days is less than 15 percent for all cases considered; for spills 10,000 barrels or larger, the probability is less than 10 percent. These probabilities also reflect the following assumptions: oilspills remain intact for up to 30 days, do not weather, and are not cleaned up. It is noteworthy that over 80 percent of the risk of oilspill occurrence from proposed sale 78 is due to transportation rather than production of oil. In addition, the risks of oilspill occurrence from proposed sale 78 (mean resource estimate) are less than one-tenth of the risks of existing tanker transportation of crude oil imports and refined products in the South Atlantic area.

  6. Spatial Characterization Soil Quality in the C-111 Spreader Canal Area, South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terselich, P.; Leding, P.; Sullivan, E.; Marcus, W.; Melesse, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP), the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has proposed the C-111 Spreader Canal Project to introduce a canal eastward from the intersection of the C-111E to spread water to the Southern Glades and Model Lands in south Miami-Dade County. The rehydration and the established sheet flow from the project will have a hydropattern that will sustain the ecosystem in the targeted areas. Successful completion and implementation of the project will also improve the hydrological and environmental systems by creating natural corridors between the Everglades and the Southern Glades and Model Lands. A study to characterize the soil quality of the project area associated with soil contamination from past agricultural activities was conducted by URS Corporation (URS). Over 3500 acres of the study area were divided into 50 acre grids. From the soil depth of 0 to 6 inches, a total of 710 samples were collected and analyzed for potential contaminants. Analytical laboratory results show that 4,4-DDE was detected above the Threshold Effects Concentrations (TEC) of 3.2 mg/kg at seven grids. Total Chlordane was detected above the TEC of 3.2 mg/kg at two grids and above the Probable Effects Concentrations (PEC) of 18 mg/kg at one grid. Selenium was detected above the TEC of 1.0 mg/kg in four grids. Arsenic exceeded the TEC of 9.8 mg/kg in one grid and Copper was also detected above its respective TEC of 32 mg/kg at one grid. Since the mean and 95% UCL for Selenium exceeded 1.0 mg/kg and due to the fact that there has been no research developed in understanding the presence of Selenium in these coastal and wetland areas, further research is essential to determine the forms of the detected Selenium (elemental or compound), distribution, and mobility. (key words: Everglades, Selenium, C-111 Spreader Canal, soil quality, restoration, TEC)

  7. Two ultramafic rock types in the Hongseong area, South Korea: Tectonic significance for northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, J.; Oh, C. W.; Choi, S. G.; Rajesh, V. J.

    2013-08-01

    Several isolated lensoidal mafic and serpentinized ultramafic bodies occur in the Hongseong area, South Korea, which is the Korean extension of the Dabie-Sulu collisional belt of China and the northern margin of the South China Block. The mafic and ultramafic bodies are important in any interpretation of the Neoproterozoic tectonics of northeast Asia related to the amalgamation and break-up of the Rodinia supercontinent. The Singok, Gwangcheon, and Hongseong ultramafic rocks are significant bodies of ultramafic rock in the Hongseong area. The orthopyroxenes in the Singok harzburgite plot mostly in the forearc peridotite fields of major element classification diagrams. The Singok olivines also classify as forearc peridotite on the basis of their Fo and NiO contents. The spinels of the Singok harzburgite plot within the mantle array on an Al2O3 versus Cr2O3 diagram, and they fall in the ophiolite and supra-subduction zone peridotite (SSZ) fields on several tectonic discrimination diagrams. These data indicate that the Singok harzburgite is a segment of residual mantle that formed in a SSZ tectonic setting before the amalgamation of the Rodinia supercontinent as the Bibong and Baekdong ultramafic rocks in the Hongseong area. The spinels from the Gwangcheon harzburgite and Hongseong dunite have similar geochemical characteristics with those from ultramafic rocks formed in the Lesvos incipient rift. They plot in the mantle array on the Al2O3 versus Cr2O3 diagram and have higher Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +) than abyssal peridotites and lower Cr/(Cr + Al) than SSZ and forearc peridotites. These data together with field evidence indicate that the Gwangcheon and Hongseong ultramafic rocks formed in a continental rift tectonic setting during the break-up of the Rodinia supercontinent. These two types of ultramafic rock from the Hongseong area, which formed in different tectonic settings, are correlated well with the two periods of Neoproterozoic magmatic activity along the northern

  8. Do we need big flood to cut spectacular river gorges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, Loreto; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Mather, Anne; Stokes, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The study of a historical erosional process occurred in a dam spillway in NW Spain evidences extremely rapid gorge formation in granite. Historic documents, photographs and surveys preserved at the Historical Archives allowed the reconstruction of the whole erosion process. A ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide amphitheater headed canyon was carved over 6 years. The study approaches the reconstruction of the scour site topography prior to the gorge formation and during the erosion events, and analyses the erosion mechanisms involved in the canyon cutting. Data reveal extremely high (>100 m/year) erosion rates, the highest reported so far on earth, associated to small-moderate floods (~100-1500m3/s). Results come to nuance the established models of erosion and gorge formation which are used to analyze the landscape evolution. The example demonstrates that moderate water discharges are capable of radical erosion suggesting that adjustments to changes such as drainage diversion and capture, or glacier outburst, may be initially much more rapid than has hereto been assumed. Structural preconditioning of the bedrock through jointing and faulting was the primary control on landscape change, conditioning gorge morphology and the rate at which erosion progress.

  9. The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Queensland Priority Country Area. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briody, P.

    The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Priority Country Area (a vast, generally arid hot region some 800 km by 450 km) is a unique, dynamic, and successful program, enjoying an extremely high degree of enthusiastic support from all involved--administrators, instructors, students, schools, and communities. Begun in 1977, there are…

  10. High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, Mattia; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can be seen with the geological Radon map. The methodology used to understand the natural phenomena (that are the basis of the analysis of potential Radon risk) is based on a preliminary study from literature: Geological study, general classification, environment formation in which it has developed the area or part of it, detailed studies of the area investigated, the underground structure, level of fracturing, cracking, and primary and secondary porosity, seismic of area. The Area's identification with different risk degrees of Radon production, concentration and emanation characterized by natural boundaries, geological, geomorphological, etc... Information obtained from paragraphs 1 and 2 provide the "Indices of potential risk of the generation, emanation and diffusion of Radon'; this hazard indices allow to optimize the measurements distribution in soils. We Identify the sub-areas of the zone study that can be characterized by high Radon concentrations, dividing these by "natural" hypothetical lines such as the lithology changing, permeability, subsoil structure, etc. ... The preliminary study allows the optimisation of sampling strategy based on not Uniform distribution of 'in situ' measures, where to intensive the measures and where to make only control points of Radon concentration. With these information and with Uranium concentration in samples of different geological formations and Radon measures in water and in soil air we obtained thematic maps and box-plots linking the natural geological indices and we identified the factors that govern the Radon rise and diffusion. The Lecce Karst's study have

  11. Time constraints for the Yellow River traversing the Sanmen Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, P.; Jia, J.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Yellow River is sourced to the northern piedmont of the Bayanhar Mountain Range in the Qinghai Province. It is the second longest river in China, traversing 5464 km. The Yellow River bends like a square in its middle course before traversing the Sanmen Gorge. The Sanmen Gorge is the last gorge in the main course of the Yellow River. After the Sanmen Gorge, the Yellow River flows into vast plains without any barrier, and finally emptys into the Bohai Bay. Thus, the timing of cut-through the Sanmen Gorge implies a true sense of formation and connection of the Yellow River. Drilling in the Weihe Basin, located west of the Sanmen Gorge, shows deposition of over 1000 m lacustrine/fluvial sediments and suggests existence of a paleolake in the basin before the Sanmen Gorge was cut through. The lacustrine/fluvial sequence outcrops at the west bank of the Youhe reservoir is composed of the Sanmen Formation and the Youhe Formation, typical of the sediments in the Weihe Basin. We studied five lacustrine/fluvial phase samples collected from the Youhe reservoir section and three fluvial sand samples relating to transition from lake to fluvial environments from Xihoudu. Our cosmogenic nuclide burial ages suggest that the paleolake formed 2 Ma ago, the transition of the Youhe Formation to the Sanmen Formation occurred 1.8 Ma ago, and the transition from lake to fluvial environment occurred 1.4-1.5 Ma ago. Thick fluvial sands, 90-120 m and 60 m higher than the current water level of the Yellow River, are preserved at Liujiahou and Mapo, respectively, located within the Sanmen Gorge. Dating of these fluvial sands suggests their deposition ages over 1.3 Ma. Zircon U-Pb age distributions of the sands further suggest that Weihe primarily flowed over the Sanmen Gorge 1.3-1.5 Ma ago, followed by the Yellow River cutting through the gorge 1.3-1.4 Ma ago. Previous studies show that the Yellow River appeared at Lanzhou 1.7 Ma ago and running through to the Bohai Bay in the Early

  12. Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2004-01-01

    The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on

  13. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  14. Perchlorate contamination of groundwater from fireworks manufacturing area in South India.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei P; Sugimoto, Rina; Ramu, Karri; Sudaryanto, Agus; Malarvannan, Govindan; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Munuswamy, Natesan; Ganesh, Deavaraj Sankar; Sivakumar, Jeyaraj; Sethuraman, A; Parthasarathy, V; Subramanian, Annamalai; Field, Jennifer; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ = 0.005 μg/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 μL) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005-7,690 μg/L in groundwater (n = 60), <0.005-30.2 μg/L in surface water (n = 11), and 0.063-0.393 μg/L in tap water (n = 3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 μg/L), further investigation on human health is warranted. PMID:23108714

  15. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Human Carnivore Coexistence on Communal Land Bordering the Greater Kruger Area, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Gusset, Markus

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for coexistence between rural people (living adjacent to a protected area) and predators (from the same area) ranging onto communal land. Ninety members of local communities bordering Manyeleti Game Reserve, which is contiguous with Kruger National Park, South Africa were interviewed. Respondents expressed diverging attitudes toward predators, which were more favorable among participants with higher education. Negative views were particularly due to fear of human and livestock losses, especially to lions, Panthera leo. Lions were thought to be the most abundant predator both within and outside the reserve. Lions were also the best known predator and were most often held responsible for killing livestock. Despite these livestock losses and a lack of conservation education, most participants voiced favorable opinions about large carnivore conservation, as predators were considered an integral part of the respondents’ natural heritage. Thanks to this cultural tolerance and also because of a largely accepted management policy regarding predator control, large carnivores and people can coexist in the vicinity of Kruger National Park.

  17. Geologic features of areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espenshade, Gilbert H.

    1956-01-01

    Areas of abnormal radioactivity south of Ocala, Marion County, Fla., discovered in 1953 by aerial survey, were investigated by surface examination and by 10 power auger drill holes. Inter-bedded clay, clayey sand, and uraniferous phosphorite occur in the areas of anomalous radioactivityo Miocene fossils occur at three localities in these beds which are evidently outliers- of Miocene sediments on the Ocala limestone of Eocene age. The preserved outliers are southwest of the main belt of Miocene sediments. The principal uraniferous rocks are clayey, sandy, pellet phosphori1te that occurs in beds a few feet thick, and very porous, phosphatic sand rock which makes abundant float at many places. Apatite forms the phosphate pellets in the unweathered phosphorite. The very porous, phosphatic sand rock is the highly leached residuum of the pellet phosphorite and is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, wavellite, and crandallite (pseudowavellite). It closely resembles the aluminum phosphate rock of the 'leached zone' of the Bone Valley formation in the land-pebble phosphate district.

  18. The characteristics of the chemical flow within the Motru catchment area, south — west Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionuş, Oana

    2011-03-01

    The present paper, with reference to the Motru catchment area, contributes to the hydrochemical studies at an international level and to the completion of the characteristics regarding the chemical flow in Romania. In this regard, it emphasizes once again the dependence between the content of dissolved salts (fixed residue — mg/l) on the one hand and the lithological conditions, human activity, flow and the surface of the catchments on the other hand. The calculation and the analysis of the chemical flow for the Motru catchment area (located in the south-west of Romania) was performed on the basis of two parameters: the average flow of dissolved chemical substances (mg/s) and specific average chemical flow (t/kmp year) recorded at the monitoring stations on the Motru River and its tributaries during the period 2005-2009. The values obtained (for example: 2.63 mg/s and 47.7 t/km2 year, at the Fata Motrului station, on the Motru River, in 2009) confirm the importance of the areal factors of natural background in the analysis of chemical flow as a morpho-dynamic process and implicitly for the chemical quality of surface waters.

  19. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    PubMed

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa. PMID:27427912

  20. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  1. Geology of the area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Secor, D.T. Jr.; Smith, W.A.; Snoke, A.W.; Peck, L.S.; Pitcher, D.M.; Prowell, D.C.; Simpson, D.H.

    1982-08-10

    This study provides geological background information necessary for an evaluation of the earthquake hazard in an area of induced seismic activity at Monticello Reservoir, South Carolina. This region contains a thick stratified sequence of Proterozoic Z and Cambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. In the early to middle Paleozoic, this sequence was recrystallized and deformed under metamorphic conditions that ranged from greenschist to amphibolite facies and experienced at least two episodes of folding. The region has been intruded by late kinematic to postkinematic granitoid plutons of Silurian and Carboniferous ages and by numerous northwest trending diabase diks of Late Traissic and Early Jurassic age. The region south of Monticello Reservoir in the Carolina slate belt experienced two episodes of faulting in the late Paleozoic and/or early to middle Mesozoic. The older group of faults trends approximately east, has only small displacements, and is characterized by extensive silicifiction of the fault zones. The younger group of faults trends approximately north has experienced dip slip displacements up to 1700 m and is characterized by carbonate mineralization in the fault zones. Both sets of faults are cut by an undeformed diabase dike of Late Triassic or Early Jurassic age. The induced seismic activity around Monticello Reservoir is occurring in a heterogeneous quartz monzonite pluton of Carboniferous age. The pluton contains large enclaves of country rock and is cut by numerous, diversely oriented small faults and joint. These local inhomogeneities in the pluton together with an irregular stress field are interpreted to control the diffuse seismic activity around the reservoir. In view of the apparent absence of lengthy faults it is unlikely that a large-magnitude earthquake will occur in response to the stress and pore pressure changes related to the impoundment of Monticello Reservoir.

  2. Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: Issues and interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan

    2013-09-01

    The paper takes China's authoritative Environmental Impact Statement for the Yangzi (Yangtze) Three Gorges Project (TGP) in 1992 as a benchmark against which to evaluate emerging major environmental outcomes since the initial impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir in 2003. The paper particularly examines five crucial environmental aspects and associated causal factors. The five domains include human resettlement and the carrying capacity of local environments (especially land), water quality, reservoir sedimentation and downstream riverbed erosion, soil erosion, and seismic activity and geological hazards. Lessons from the environmental impact assessments of the TGP are: (1) hydro project planning needs to take place at a broader scale, and a strategic environmental assessment at a broader scale is necessary in advance of individual environmental impact assessments; (2) national policy and planning adjustments need to react quickly to the impact changes of large projects; (3) long-term environmental monitoring systems and joint operations with other large projects in the upstream areas of a river basin should be established, and the cross-impacts of climate change on projects and possible impacts of projects on regional or local climate considered.

  3. Why Gas Hydrate Occurrenced Over Topographic Highs in Shenhu Area Northern South China Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane gas hydrate has been drilled by China Geological Survey in shenhu area northern south china sea in 2007 .Shenhu area is located in the middle-lower continental slope and 17 submarine canyons are incised into the shelf,gas hydrtae was observed in boreholes over topographic highs,but origin of the hydrate is controversial.Accumulation of gas hydrate is depending on temperature-pressure field and supply quantities of methane and some other factors,in the same depth of the shallow sediments there is the same press,so temperature field and supply quantities of methane become the most important factors.Lachenbruch(1968) calculated the topographic disturbance to geothermal gradients,in shenhu area consistent local variations were observed, notably low heat flow values over prominent topographic highs and high heat flow values over the flanks of the topographic highs. At some localities over a horizontal distance of 2.5 km, heat flow increased by as much as 50%, from typical values of 65 to 100 mW/m2 .Some vertical fractures were observed beneath topographic highs in previous studies.Based on the profile across borehole SH7,we designed four experiments:A,uniform distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;B,Uniform distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs;C,uneven distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;D,uneven distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs.According to previous studies,we restored Palaeobathymetry,abundance of organic matters, sandstone-madstone ratio ,porosity and permeability of each,and parameters of vertical fractures.The result of experiment D shows the similar distribution characteristic with the drilling result,so We believe that low heat flux and Vertical fractures are the most important factors . This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41406080).

  4. Delineation of Areas Contributing Water to the Dry Brook Public-Supply Well, South Hadley, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.; Stone, Janet Radway

    2004-01-01

    Areas contributing water to the Dry Brook public-supply well in South Hadley, Massachusetts, were delineated with a numerical ground-water-flow model that is based on geologic and hydrologic information for the confined sand and gravel aquifer pumped by the supply well. The study area is along the Connecticut River in central Massachusetts, about 12 miles north of Springfield, Massachusetts. Geologic units in the study area consist of Mesozoic-aged sedimentary and igneous bedrock, late-Pleistocene glaciolacustrine sediments, and recent alluvial deposits of the Connecticut River flood plain. Dry Brook Hill, immediately south of the supply well, is a large subaqueous lacustrine fan and delta formed during the last glacial retreat by sediment deposition into glacial Lake Hitchcock from a meltwater tunnel that was likely near where the Connecticut River cuts through the Holyoke Range. The sediments that compose the aquifer grade from very coarse sand and gravel along the northern flank of the hill, to medium sands in the body of the hill, and to finer-grained sediments along the southern flank of the hill. The interbedded and overlapping fine-grained lacustrine sediments associated with Dry Brook Hill include varved silt and clay deposits. These fine-grained sediments form a confining bed above the coarse-grained aquifer at the supply well and partially extend under the Connecticut River adjacent to the supply well. Ground-water flow in the aquifer supplying water to Dry Brook well was simulated with the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-flow modeling code MODFLOW. The Dry Brook aquifer model was calibrated to drawdown data collected from 8 observation wells during an aquifer test conducted by pumping the supply well for 10 days at a rate of 122.2 cubic feet per minute (ft3/min; 914 gallons per minute) and to water levels collected from observation wells across the study area. Generally, the largest hydraulic conductivity values used in the model were in the sand and

  5. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... (74 FR 651-664, Docket No. APHIS-2008- 0126), that led to establishment of the Peruvian Hass avocado... effective on January 4, 2010 (75 FR 1-13), we stated that more research would need to be done in accordance... Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist...

  6. 76 FR 12132 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Hilight Field Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Final EIS was publicly available on July 30, 2010 (75 FR 44951). This decision is subject to appeal to... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area South Hilight Field Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental Impact Statement, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...

  7. Selected hydrogeologic data for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected hydrogeologic data on wells and springs in the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The data were used to create potentiometric maps for these five aquifers.

  8. Inner gorges cut by subglacial meltwater during Fennoscandian ice sheet decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J. D.; Codilean, A. T.; Stroeven, A. P.; Fabel, D.; Hättestrand, C.; Kleman, J.; Harbor, J. M.; Heyman, J.; Kubik, P. W.; Xu, S.

    2014-05-01

    The century-long debate over the origins of inner gorges that were repeatedly covered by Quaternary glaciers hinges upon whether the gorges are fluvial forms eroded by subaerial rivers, or subglacial forms cut beneath ice. Here we apply cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating to seven inner gorges along ~500 km of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet margin in combination with a new deglaciation map. We show that the timing of exposure matches the advent of ice-free conditions, strongly suggesting that gorges were cut by channelized subglacial meltwater while simultaneously being shielded from cosmic rays by overlying ice. Given the exceptional hydraulic efficiency required for meltwater channels to erode bedrock and evacuate debris, we deduce that inner gorges are the product of ice sheets undergoing intense surface melting. The lack of postglacial river erosion in our seven gorges implicates subglacial meltwater as a key driver of valley deepening on the Baltic Shield over multiple glacial cycles.

  9. Inner gorges cut by subglacial meltwater during Fennoscandian ice sheet decay.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J D; Codilean, A T; Stroeven, A P; Fabel, D; Hättestrand, C; Kleman, J; Harbor, J M; Heyman, J; Kubik, P W; Xu, S

    2014-01-01

    The century-long debate over the origins of inner gorges that were repeatedly covered by Quaternary glaciers hinges upon whether the gorges are fluvial forms eroded by subaerial rivers, or subglacial forms cut beneath ice. Here we apply cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating to seven inner gorges along ~500 km of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet margin in combination with a new deglaciation map. We show that the timing of exposure matches the advent of ice-free conditions, strongly suggesting that gorges were cut by channelized subglacial meltwater while simultaneously being shielded from cosmic rays by overlying ice. Given the exceptional hydraulic efficiency required for meltwater channels to erode bedrock and evacuate debris, we deduce that inner gorges are the product of ice sheets undergoing intense surface melting. The lack of postglacial river erosion in our seven gorges implicates subglacial meltwater as a key driver of valley deepening on the Baltic Shield over multiple glacial cycles. PMID:24809336

  10. Human parasitoses of the Malili area, South Sulawesi (Celebes) province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S W; Carney, W P; Van Peenen, P F; Russell, D; Saroso, J S

    1978-06-01

    A biomedical survey was conducted in 9 villages in the Malili area of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Blood specimens were examined for malaria and microfilariae; stool specimens were examined for intestinal parasites. Malaria parasitemias were rare; Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 10 and P. vivax in 11 of 985 blood smears. Malayan filariasis was endemic to all villages surveyed. The overall prevalence of detectable microfilaremias was 15%, varying from 34% in Kawata to 1% in Nuha. Microfilarial densities, expressed as MfD50 averaged 8.0 and varied from 1.1 in Timampu to 16.0 in Karabbe. Intestinal parasites were common. Although Schistosoma japonicum was not found, 97% of the examined had one or more intestinal parasites as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (74%), Trichuris trichiura (65%), hookworm (62%), Entamoeba coli (38%), Endolimax nana (10%), Entamoeba histolytica (6%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (4%), Entamoeba hartmanni (3%), Giardia lamblia (2%) Chilomastix mesnili (1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (1%). Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Hymenolepis nana eggs were detected once each and heterophyid-like eggs were detected twice. PMID:364674

  11. Methane seepage in the Shenhu area of the northern South China Sea: constraints from carbonate chimneys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Hongxiang; Zhang, Mei; Mao, Shengyi; Wu, Nengyou; Lu, Hongfeng; Chen, Duofu

    2016-02-01

    Two authigenic carbonate chimneys were recovered from the Shenhu area in the northern South China Sea at approximately 400 m water depth. The chimneys' mineralogy, isotopic composition, and lipid biomarkers were studied to examine the biogeochemical process that induced the formation of the chimneys. The two chimneys are composed mostly of dolomite, whereas the internal conduits and semi-consolidated surrounding sediments are dominated by aragonite and calcite. The specific biomarker patterns (distribution of lipids and their depleted δ13C values) indicate the low occurrence of methanotrophic archaea ANME-1 responsible for the chimneys' formation via anaerobic oxidation of methane. A significant input of bacteria/planktonic algae and cyanobacteria to the carbon pool during the precipitation of the carbonate chimneys is suggested by the high contributions of short-chain n-alkanes (69% of total hydrocarbons) and long-chain n-alcohols (on average 56% of total alcohols). The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonate mixtures vary from 3.1‰ to 4.4‰ in the dolomite-rich chimneys, and from 2.1‰ to 2.5‰ in the internal conduits, which indicates that they were precipitated from seawater-derived pore waters during a long period covering the last glacial and interglacial cycles. In addition, the mixture of methane and bottom seawater dissolved inorganic carbon could be the carbon sources of the carbonate chimneys.

  12. Vehicular emission exposure of bicycle commuters in the urban area of Guangzhou, South China (PRC)

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, L.Y.; Hung, W.T. ); Qin, Y. )

    1994-01-01

    Guangzhou is a major city in South China and is at the forefront of economic reform since 1978. The population of Guangzhou is rapidly increasing and most people either walk or cycle to and from work. These commuters are highly vulnerable to vehicular emissions. An indirect approach was adopted to estimate vehicular emission exposure to Guangzhou bicycle commuters. Four bus routes were selected as typical commuting routes. Concentrations of NO[sub x] and CO as well as traffic volume, vehicle speed, ground-level wind speed, and direction were measured at monitoring points set up along the routes of typical street links passing through areas of various land uses. CO and NO[sub x] were recognized to be two major vehicular emission pollutants. The average CO exposure levels of Guangzhou bicycle commuters ranged from 3.7 [mu]L/L to 8.2 [mu]L/L. Few CO samples exceeded the Chinese national assessment standard. No adverse effect on health was expected. The average NO[sub x] exposure levels of Guangzhou bicycle commuters ranged from 0.13 [mu]L/L to 0.26 [mu]L/L. More than half of the NO[sub x] samples exceeded the Chinese national assessment standard. Adverse effects on the health of bicycle commuters might result. Other factors such as street configurations and land uses were also analyzed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Methane seepage in the Shenhu area of the northern South China Sea: constraints from carbonate chimneys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Hongxiang; Zhang, Mei; Mao, Shengyi; Wu, Nengyou; Lu, Hongfeng; Chen, Duofu

    2016-06-01

    Two authigenic carbonate chimneys were recovered from the Shenhu area in the northern South China Sea at approximately 400 m water depth. The chimneys' mineralogy, isotopic composition, and lipid biomarkers were studied to examine the biogeochemical process that induced the formation of the chimneys. The two chimneys are composed mostly of dolomite, whereas the internal conduits and semi-consolidated surrounding sediments are dominated by aragonite and calcite. The specific biomarker patterns (distribution of lipids and their depleted δ13C values) indicate the low occurrence of methanotrophic archaea ANME-1 responsible for the chimneys' formation via anaerobic oxidation of methane. A significant input of bacteria/planktonic algae and cyanobacteria to the carbon pool during the precipitation of the carbonate chimneys is suggested by the high contributions of short-chain n-alkanes (69% of total hydrocarbons) and long-chain n-alcohols (on average 56% of total alcohols). The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonate mixtures vary from 3.1‰ to 4.4‰ in the dolomite-rich chimneys, and from 2.1‰ to 2.5‰ in the internal conduits, which indicates that they were precipitated from seawater-derived pore waters during a long period covering the last glacial and interglacial cycles. In addition, the mixture of methane and bottom seawater dissolved inorganic carbon could be the carbon sources of the carbonate chimneys.

  14. Gas hydrate saturation from acoustic impedance and resistivity logs in the shenhu area, south china sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, X.; Wu, S.; Lee, M.; Guo, Y.; Yang, S.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    During the China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition -1 (GMGS-1), gas hydrate was discovered in layers ranging from 10 to 25 m above the base of gas hydrate stability zone in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Water chemistry, electrical resistivity logs, and acoustic impedance were used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the chloride concentrations range from 0 to 43% of the pore space. The higher gas hydrate saturations were present in the depth from 152 to 177 m at site SH7 and from 190 to 225 m at site SH2, respectively. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity using Archie equation have similar trends to those from chloride concentrations. To examine the variability of gas hydrate saturations away from the wells, acoustic impedances calculated from the 3 D seismic data using constrained sparse inversion method were used. Well logs acquired at site SH7 were incorporated into the inversion by establishing a relation between the water-filled porosity, calculated using gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity logs, and the acoustic impedance, calculated from density and velocity logs. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from acoustic impedance of seismic data are ???10-23% of the pore space and are comparable to those estimated from the well logs. The uncertainties in estimated gas hydrate saturations from seismic acoustic impedances were mainly from uncertainties associated with inverted acoustic impedance, the empirical relation between the water-filled porosities and acoustic impedances, and assumed background resistivity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Isotope and trace element geochemistry of lamprophyres and syenites from different areas of South-Chuya complex, SE Altai.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Major and trace elements and radiogenic isotope data are reported for lamprophyres and syenites of South-Chuya complex associated with ore districts in South East of Gornyi Altai, Russia. Dikes of lamprophyres form big area, elongated from north-west to south-east. Within the area of complex dikes distribute irregularly accompanied the fault zones. Lamprophyres of three largest areas, named Aktash, South Chuya and Yustyd were characterized in terms of geology, petro- and geochemistry, isotopic composition. Some of the lamprophyres judging by the high mg'>60 reveal mantle signatures. They reveal round TRE patterns typical of the primitive low degree partial melts but with the negative Nb- Ta anomalies. The others with the lower mg' suggest their differentiation and contamination in crust material. They reveal slightly lower level of TRE and lower troughs of all HFSE. All dikes had intruded in the period of 250-235 Ma, have similar mineralogical, petro- and geochemistry characteristics which were the reasons for unite all of them in one complex. On the most of geochemistry diagrams dikes from 3 areas form their own, but intersected clusters. But on the isotopic diagrams (Sm/Nd and Rb/Sr systems) they show the principle dissimilarity between dikes from various areas. Yustyd lamprophyres initial isotopic characteristics are close to the BSE. The south-chuya rocks isotopic compositions are more enriched by 87Sr/86Sr and have negative ɛNd (-2.84..-4.05). Contamination by the lower crust material suggested at the early stage during the formation of the lamprophyres. Bu the Yustyd lamprophyres were contaminated also during the ascend by the upper crust. Two competitive hypotheses n the isotopic composition are dicussed: 1) different sources or 2) different proportions between the material from the same sources, which ensemble generate the parental magma for the rocks.

  16. Structural Model of the Basement in the Central Savannah River Area, South Carolina and Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.; Stieve, A.

    1992-03-01

    Interpretation of several generations of seismic reflection data and potential field data suggests the presence of several crustal blocks within the basement beneath the Coastal Plain in the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA). The seismic reflection and refraction data include a grid of profiles that capture shallow and deep reflection events and traverse the Savannah River Site and vicinity. Potential field data includes aeromagnetic, ground magnetic surveys, reconnaissance and detailed gravity surveys. Subsurface data from recovered core are used to constrain the model.Interpretation of these data characteristically indicate a southeast dipping basement surface with some minor highs and lows suggesting an erosional pre-Cretaceous unconformity. This surface is interrupted by several basement faults, most of which offset only early Cretaceous sedimentary horizons overlying the erosional surface. The oldest fault is perhaps late Paleozoic because it is truncated at the basement/Coastal Plain interface. This fault is related in timing and mechanism to the underlying Augusta fault. The youngest faults deform Coastal Plain sediments of at least Priabonian age (40-36.6 Ma). One of these young faults is the Pen Branch faults, identified as the southeast dipping master fault for the Triassic Dunbarton basin. All the Cenozoic faults are probably related in time and mechanism to the nearby, well studied Belair fault.The study area thus contains a set of structures evolved from the Alleghanian orogeny through Mesozoic extension to Cenozoic readjustment of the crust. There is a metamorphosed crystalline terrane with several reflector/fault packages, a reactivated Triassic basin, a mafic terrane separating the Dunbarton basin from the large South Georgia basin to the southeast, and an overprint of reverse faults, some reactivated, and some newly formed.

  17. Geochemistry of archean shales from the Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa: source-area weathering and provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Condie, K.C.

    1987-09-01

    With a few exceptions, shales from the Archean Witwatersrand Supergroup in South Africa are depleted in Na, Ca, Large ion lithophile elements (LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and half field strength elements ((HFSE) compared to Phanerozoic shales. Cr, Co and Ni are enriched in all Witwatersrand shales and Fe and Mg are high in shales from the West Rand Groups (WRG) and lower Central Rand Group (CRG). Shales from the CRG and uppermost WRG are enriched in Na, Al, LILE, REE, HFSE and transition metals relative to shales from the lower WRG. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for all Witwatersrand shales are enriched in light-REE and exhibit small to moderate negative Eu anomalies. Relative to shales from the CRG, shales from the WRG exhibit depletions of Na, Ca and Sr, a feature probably reflecting intense chemical weathering of their source rocks. CIA indices in Witwatersrand shales are variable, even within the same shale unit. Such variations reflect chiefly variable climatic zones or rates of tectonic uplift in source areas with perhaps some contribution from provenance and element remobilization during metamorphism. Compared to present-day upper continental crust, all but the Orange Grove, Roodepoort, and K8 shales appear to have been derived from continental sources depleted in LILE, REE, and HFSE and enriched in transition metals. Computer mixing models abased on six relatively immobile elements (Th, Hf, Yb, La, Sc, Co) and four source rocks indicate that the relative proportions of granite, basalt and komatiite increased with time in sediment source areas at the expense of tonalite.

  18. Phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters in aquaculture areas of Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Jiangang; Zhang, Yujuan; Cao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Environmental characteristics and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in two aquaculture areas in Dapeng Cove of Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2005 and June 2006. Phytoplankton abundance ranged between 5.0 and 8877.5 cells/mL, with an average of 751.8 cells/mL. The seasonal cycle of phytoplankton were demonstrated by frequent oscillations, with recurrent high abundances from late spring to autumn and a peak stage in late winter. Diatoms were the predominant phytoplankton group, accounting for 93.21% of the total abundance. The next most abundant group was the dinoflagellates, which made up only 1.24% of total abundance. High concentrations of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech with a maximum of 603.0 cells/mL were firstly recorded in this area known for high rates of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) contamination. Temperatures and salinities were within the suitable values for the growth of phytoplankton, and were important in phytoplankton seasonal fluctuations. The operation of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (DNPS) exerts influences on the phytoplankton community and resulted in the high abundances of toxic dinoflagellate species during the winter months. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved silicate (DSi) were sufficient, and rarely limited for the growth of phytoplankton. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) was the most necessary element for phytoplankton growth. The enriched environments accelerated the growth of small diatoms, and made for the shift in predominant species from large diatom Rhizosolenia spp. to chain-forming diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Thalassiosira subtilis. PMID:19999976

  19. Geostatistical analysis of soil geochemical data from an industrial area (Puertollano, South-Central Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbrí, José M.; Higueras, Pablo; López-Berdonces, Miguel A.; García-Noguero, Eva M.; González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Martínez-Coronado, Alba

    2015-04-01

    Puertollano is the biggest industrial city of Castilla-La Mancha, with 48,086 inhabitants. It is located 250 km South of Madrid in the North border of the Ojailén River valley. The industrial area includes a big coal open pit (ENCASUR), two power plants (EON and ELCOGAS), a petrochemical complex (REPSOL) and a fertiliser factory (ENFERSA), all located in the proximities of the town. These industries suppose a complex scenario in terms of metals and metalloids emissions. For instance, mercury emissions declared to PRTR inventory during 2010 were 210 kg year-1 (REPSOL), 130 kg year-1 (ELCOGAS) and 11,9 kg year-1 (EON). Besides it still remains an unaccounted possibly of diffuse sources of other potentially toxic elements coming from the different industrial sites. Multielemental analyses of soils from two different depths covering the whole valley were carried out by means of XRF with a portable Oxford Instruments device. Geostatistical data treatment was performed using SURFER software, applying block kriging to obtain interpolation maps for the study area. Semivariograms of elemental concentrations make a clear distinction between volatile (Hg, Se) and non-volatile elements (Cu, Ni), with differences in scales and variances between the two soil horizons considered. Semivariograms also show different models for elements emitted by combustion processes (Ni) and for anomalous elements from geological substrate (Pb, Zn). In addition to differences in anisotropy of data, these models reflect different forms of elemental dispersion; despite this, identification of particular sources for the different elements is not possible for this geochemical data set.

  20. Late Miocene/Pliocene Ostracod Biostratigraphy from South Carpathian Foredeep, Romania (Badislava-Topolog Area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floroiu, Alina; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    The Paratethys epicontinental sea has been an essential paleogeographic feature defining the Eurasian interior since Oligocene. By the end of the Miocene, ongoing tectonic activity in the region determined severe restrictions of the connection of the large former Paratethys sea resulting in the formation of several smaller subbasins: the Pannonian basin, the Dacian basin, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. In the western part of the Dacian Basin, the thick and continuous Mio-Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Getic Depression of Romania provide an exceptional opportunity to study the paleoecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys during the time when the Mediterranean and Black Sea experienced important sea level changes related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. These sedimentary successions were the basis of high-resolution magnetobiostratigraphic studies that allow a detailed correlation to the Geological Time Scale. Here, we present the main characteristics of the ostracod assemblages of the Late Miocene/Pliocene sedimentary succession from Badislava-Topolog section covering the Eastern Paratethys regional Maeotian and Pontian, stages that are, at moment, under ongoing formal stratigraphic definition process. The Mio-Pliocene is exposed in the central part of the Getic Depression, especially Topolog-Arges area, where it riches up to 500 m in thickness being incorporated into a large monocline structure with 15o-20o plungeto the south. The Upper Maeotian deposits from the area have developed mainly in fluviatile-deltaic facies with frequent continental intercalations. The ostracod assemblage is represented by rare fresh water ostracods of Candona, Pseudocandona and Ilyocypris genera, capable to populate unstable environments like flood-plains, lakes and rivers with temporary existence. The scarce Maeotian ostracod fauna from this marginal section differs essentially from the more diversified one of the same age recorded in areas that evolved in basinal

  1. Selected South African Grade 10 Learners' Perceptions of Two Learning Areas: Mathematical Literacy and Life Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldenhuys, J. L.; Kruger, C.; Moss, J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Mathematical Literacy (ML) and Life Orientation (LO) were introduced into South Africa's Grade 10 national curriculum. The implementation of the ML programme in schools stemmed from a need to improve the level of numeracy of the general population of South Africa, while LO was introduced to equip learners to solve problems and to make…

  2. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments with regard to the mapping and analysis of MAGSAT data for the investigation of correlations between the magnetic field characteristics of South American and African shields are reported. Significant results in the interpretation of the global total-field anomalies and the anomaly patterns of Africa and South America are discussed. The central position of the Brazilian shield tends to form a negative total-field anomaly, consistent with findings for shields in equatorial Africa. Sedimentary sequences in the Amazon basin and in the Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paolo areas exhibit positive anomalies, also consistent with equatorial Africa. Results for the Caribbean Sea and Guyana regions are also described.

  3. 27 CFR 9.178 - Columbia Gorge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Quadrangle, Washington—Oregon, 1994; (6) Brown Creek Quadrangle, Oregon, 1994; (7) Ketchum Reservoir... straight south on the R12E-R13E line, crossing onto the Brown Creek map, to its intersection with the T1N-T1S Base Line at the southeast corner of section 36 (Brown Creek Quadrangle); (19) Continues 6.1...

  4. Study on Seismogenesis of 2013 Ms5.1 Badong Earthquake in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zeng, Z.; Xu, S.; He, C.

    2015-12-01

    On 16 December, 2013, an earthquake of Ms5.1 occurred in Badong County, the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. We collected all the 150 published focal mechanism solutions (FMS) and inversed the tectonic stress field in Badong, the Three Gorges Dam and Huangling anticline area using the software SATSI (Hardebeck and Michael, 2006). Inversion results show that the orientations of maximum principle stress axis (σ1) in Badong plunge to NNE or SSW. Detailed characteristics of the stress field indicate that the σ1 axis is almost vertical in the center of Huangling anticline and turns horizontal to the west. As to deep structures, we studied the satellite gravity anomalies of 8-638 order in this area using the EIGEN-6C2 model provided by ICGRM. Combining the seismic sounding profile through the epicenter of Badong earthquake and the petrology data, we reinterpreted the deep structure in the study area. The results show that the deep crust in Badong is unstable and the deep material's upwelling leads to Huangling anticline continued uplifting, which is consistent with the result indicated from the stress filed. Both of them provide energy for the preparation of earthquake. The FMS shows that Gaoqiao Fault is the causative fault of this Ms5.1 earthquake. Field investigations indicated that the lithology and fracture characteristic in Badong is beneficial to reservoir water infiltration. Before the earthquake, reservoir water level raised to 175m, the highest storage level, which increased the loading. Based on above researches, we believe that the Ms5.1 Badong earthquake is controlled by deep tectonic environment and stress field in shallow crust. The reservoir water infiltration and uploading increase generated by water storage of the Three Gorges area reduced the strength of Gaoqiao Fault and changed its stress state. These factors jointly promoted an abrupt movement of the fault in the critical stress state, and triggered the Ms5.1 Badong earthquake.

  5. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    PubMed Central

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. Method This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05) being from urban respondents for the latter two issues only. Conclusion Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remote areas of the country. Opinions des étudiants sud-africains en optométrie sur la possibilité de travailler dans les zones rurales après l’obtention de leur diplôme. Contexte Les problèmes des yeux et de vision sont plus courants dans les zones rurales qu’en ville; et une forte proportion de Sud-africains vit dans les zones rurales. Objectif Examiner les opinions des étudiants sud

  6. Tick bites on humans in the agricultural and recreational areas in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Monika; Szymańska, Jolanta; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The investigations were conducted in the Lublin province (south-eastern Poland) in areas of high agricultural and recreational value. Among the 418 patients admitted to medical clinics due to arthropod bites in the years 2003-2005, 184 people (44%) had been bitten by ticks. As shown by the research, high-risk groups include people whose stay in tick habitats is connected with their occupational work (54.5%) as well as recreation and tourism (45.5%). As many as 78.7% of the patients were attacked by Ixodes ricinus ticks in forests, and much fewer (31.3%) in other habitats located in urban and rural areas. In one case, a Dermacentor reticulatus female was attached to the skin. Ticks were most commonly located on the upper (28.8%) and lower (27.2%) extremities, and on the abdomen (15.8%). Local skin reactions (57.6%) with predominance of erythema were the most prevalent. Combined local and systemic symptoms were reported less frequently (20.1%). The general symptoms were headache (10.8% of patients), fever (5.4%), lymphadenitis (5.9%) and arthralgia (4.3%). No lesions produced by tick bites were reported in 22.3% of the patients. Field studies conducted in 2003-2004 demonstrated that I. ricinus is a common species in the southern part of the Lublin province, where the density of nymphs and adult forms in various localities during the period of peak seasonal activity (in May) ranges from 18.5-26 specimens/1 h of collection. Two tick species, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, occur in the northern part of the province. The density of I. ricinus nymphs and adult forms as well as D. reticulatus adults is in the range of 2.5-42 specimens/1 hr of collection and 19.5-64.0 speciments/1 hr of collection, respectively. Due to the high risk of tick attacks in the study area, there arises the necessity to permanent the monitoring of ticks numbers and tick-borne diseases. PMID:21736280

  7. The potential of Biochar technology in combating rocky desertification in the Karst area of south China*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, X.; Xing, Y.; Fang, B.; Zhang, L.; Yang, F.; Zhou, H.

    2012-04-01

    Land degradation in the Karst region is characterized by soil erosion and subsequent exposure of bedrocks in hillsides, i.e. the rocky desertification. The primary causative forces lie in the deforestation and cultivation on the slopes of mountain topography that inherently lacks for soil deposition due to the dissolving nature of the limestone or dolomite. Realizing the far-reaching impact of the Karst land degradation, which not only impoverishes the local farmers, but also jeopardizes the ecosystem's safety in the middle and lower reaches of the Xijiang and Yangtze rivers, the important economic zones in the south and east China, the Chinese central and provincial governments pushed very hard in recent decade to implement restoration of the hill slopes. Hundreds of millions of money have been invested in this effort. The achievement, however, falls far short of the expectations because, as we believe, of the neglect of the inevitability of the mass development of the mountain slopes. As the most intensely degraded area in southwest China, Guizhou province exemplies the other Karst regions in south China in the development of the rocky desertification. With the establishment of the P. R. China, this mountainous province, like other regions of China, witnessed the soaring of population, of which 86% occurred in the countryside. The urge to support the increased population led to the most prevalent land reclamation in Guizhou's history. Due to lack of plat land resources, the farmers have no alternative but to turn their axes and hoes to the hillsides. The disturbances deprived the meager soil of its fragile stability and made it an easy prey to the flooding waters and thus resulted in the widespread rocky desertification. The restoration of the hillsides, therefore, must be compensated by incomes from other sources. Accordingly, we proposed an approach through increasing the productivity of the basic farmland, the fields that are located in the flat lands, and did

  8. Geomorphology and Mapping of Canyon Lake Gorge from Flood Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    A large volume of runoff causes flood that exceed the capacity of flood control reservoir. Canyon Lake Gorge, Canyon Lake, TX was formed as a result of a major erosional event in 2002. A low-pressure system combined with a flow of tropical air hit over central Texas causing precipitation, recent flooding in 2015 has changed the structure of the channel. Here, channel changes in the canyon are evaluated using hydrologic conductivity, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and photogrammetry. Mapping and field reconnaissance will be used to map out changes over the years of when the flood had occurred in the past (1998, 2002, and 2015) as well as to study the flood surrounding Canyon Lake Gorge and Guadalupe River. A demographic survey will be used to analyzed the damage that was caused by the flood and compare the severity of the event. The justification for this is that the Canyon Lake Gorge have a unique formation, geologic time scale before and after the flood has changed. The recent flood in 2015 gives an opportunity to study the changes that is currently occurring.

  9. Agricultural impacts on ecosystem functioning in temperate areas of North and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerschman, Juan Pablo; Paruelo, José María

    2005-07-01

    Land use has a large impact on ecosystem functioning, though evidences of these impacts at the regional scale are scarce. The objective of this paper was to analyze the impacts of agricultural land use on ecosystem functioning (radiation interception and carbon uptake) in temperate areas of North and South America. From land cover maps generated using high-resolution satellite images we selected sites dominated by row crops (RC), small grain crops (SG), pastures (PA), and rangelands (RA) in the Central Plains of USA and the Pampas of Argentina. These two regions share climatic characteristics and the agricultural conditions (crop types) are also very similar. Both areas were originally dominated by temperate grasslands. In these sites we extracted the temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA satellites for the period 1989-1998 and calculated the mean seasonal NDVI curve for each site. Additionally, we calculated the mean annual NDVI, the maximum NDVI, the date of the year when the max NDVI was recorded and the interannual variability of these three attributes. We compared the mean values of each NDVI-derived attribute between land cover types and between continents. The NDVI seasonal patterns for each land cover type were roughly similar between the Central Plains and the Pampas during the growing season. The largest differences were observed during the winter and spring, when the NDVI of all land cover types in the Central Plains remained at lower values than in the Pampas. This was probably caused by the high annual thermal amplitude in the Central Plains that results in a much more restricted growing season. As a result of these differences in the shape of the NDVI curve, the mean annual NDVI in the Central Plains was lower than in the Pampas for all land cover types but the maximum NDVI did not differ importantly. In both regions, row crops delayed the date of the NDVI peak, small grain crops advanced it and pastures

  10. Hydrothermal Chloride Flux from the Area of Ongoing Uplift West of South Sister Volcano, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, E. A.; Randolph-flagg, N. G.; Newman, A. C.; Murveit, A. M.; Mariner, R. H.; Evans, W. C.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.

    2011-12-01

    Uplift west of South Sister began in 1997 at a rate of 3-5 cm/yr and is ongoing at a rate of ~1 cm/yr. Many springs in the area of uplift have anomalous chloride (up to 20 mg/L) and sulfate concentrations (up to 20 mg/L), are anomalously warm (up to 5oC above expected ambient), and have high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.6 times RA). There is a strong intercorrelation among chloride (Cl-) concentration, temperature, and 3He concentration, suggesting a common magmatic source. Since uplift was detected in 2002 we have monitored hydrothermal Cl flux at two locations: the first site several hundred m below the spring vent with the highest 3He/4He ratio and the second site ~20 km downstream of that spring in Separation Creek, which captures the total hydrothermal Cl flux (~12 g/s) from the ~175 km2 area of uplift. Best fit lines for long-term trend in Cl flux at both sites have shallow slopes ( < 0.2 g/s per year at Separation Creek). There is, however, a strong seasonality to the Cl flux. At the site with the highest 3He/4He ratio, the Cl flux varies from ~0.1 g/s in late spring to ~0.2 g/s in late fall. The periods of decrease/increase in Cl flux coincide with presence/absence of snow cover. The temperature at the vent with highest 3He/4He ratio shows almost constant temperature (ranging from 7.7-7.8oC over a 13-month period of record in 2009-2010). Spectral analysis done using a 0.5-2.5 cycle/day bandpass filter shows significant peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies for Cl flux, discharge, temperature, and specific-conductance time series from both sites, suggesting sensitivity to Earth tides. Data gaps and changes in sampling interval complicate determination of significance at longer (fortnightly to annual) periods. Published compilations indicate that earthquake-induced hydrologic changes are fairly common for seismic energy density e > 0.01 J/m3 (Wang and Manga, Earthquakes and Water, 2010), and during the 2002-2010 period of record, local to regional

  11. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  12. Monitoring the Dynamic of a Fluvial Channel after Lahar Disturbance: Huiloac Gorge (Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, N.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Tanarro, L. M.; Renschler, C.; Sanjosé, J. J.; Atkinson, A.

    2009-04-01

    estimating the volume of erosion and deposition for a given time interval. Analysis of the geomorphic variations for the period February 2002-February 2008, shows that the banks formed by lahar deposits in 1997 and 2001 at the study site receded from 48.6% to 27.4% in favor of the riverbed, and 31.0% to 52.7%, in favor of the terraces formed by secondary lahars. The time sequence for the cross-profiles depicts a general widening and infilling of the gorge floor, with greater emphasis on erosion from September 2003-February 2008 (1523 m3as compared to 387 m3of accretion). The changes, however, were not homogeneous during the study period, due to varying rainfall patterns that cause fluctuations in runoff. This relationship became evident after comparing geomorphologic and topographic alterations and heavy precipitation (maximum/24 hrs), and variations in monthly precipitation yield and average yield for the period 1971-2000 (data provided by the Mexico's National Meteorological Service). Although both lower slope recession and lahar-induced deposition on the floor of the channel increased during the period February-October 2002, down cutting and evacuation of materials (677 m3) greatly surpassed deposition (145 m3). The predominance of one process in relation to another was much more acute for this period than for any other, even though it occurred during a relatively dry rainy season with below average precipitation. The explanation for this is attributed to the onset of lahar activity in January 2001 and high maximum rainfall late in the rainy season. This was followed by a dry spell and a second very wet rainy season from October 2002 - September 2003. During this time, the slopes continued to recede in favor of the riverbed, where some down cutting and infilling occurred, resulting in a slight net gain in surface area. During the next five months of the dry season, changes in the landforms were proportionally greater, producing a substantial increase in surface area and

  13. Structural style and Basin Formation in Deep-water Area of Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Z.; Zhen, S.; Xiong, P.; Min, C. C.

    2007-12-01

    In the deep-water area of northern South China Sea (SCS) developed a series of sedimentary basins. Active exploration for deep-water hydrocarbon has begun in these areas since this century. The well LW3-1-1 at water depth of 1480m in the BaiYun Sag (BYS) of the Pearl River Mouth Basin in 2006 discovered 56m layer of pure gas, demonstrated the good hydrocarbon potential of the area. Wide-angle seismic profiling has verified the transitional type of crust in the slope areas. The Moho surface shoals step-by-step from 30-29km under the shelf, ~15 km under the slope, and ~12km under the abyssal plain. Moho also rises beneath depocenters, mirroring the shape of sedimentary basement. The crustal thickness at the center of the BYS is <7km. Lower crustal high velocity layer is found in the eastern and central portions of the northern SCS. The pre-Cenozoic basement in northern SCS is the extension of the inland basement and consists of mainly metamorphosed Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine and continental strata, complicated by Yanshanian (J-K) intrusive and extrusive rocks. From geophysical data we inferred that a SW-NE Mesozoic trench-arc system exists beneath the Cenozoic sediments in the northeastern SCS, related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean towards the East Eurasian margin. The stress field in the East Eurasian margin changed abruptly in Late Cretaceous. Rifting started in the entire margin and eventually led to the opening of the SCS in late Early Oligocene. Large sedimentary basins developed in the margins of the SCS. Paleogene lacustrine sediments contain hydrocarbon sources, while traps are mostly found in Neogene marine strata. The structure of the northern SCS shows clear W-E variation, divided into NE-, NEE-, and NE-trending segments by two major NW-SE transfer faults. The Southern Depression of the Qiongdongnan Basin to the west is characterized by NE-trending half grabens. The BYS at the central segment is characterized by NEE-trending composite

  14. Application of ERTS imagery in estimating the environmental impact of a freeway through the Knysna area of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D. T.; Gilbertson, B.

    1974-01-01

    In the coastal areas north-east and south-west of Knysna, South Africa lie natural forests, lakes and lagoons highly regarded by many for their aesthetic and ecological richness. A freeway construction project has given rise to fears of the degradation or destruction of these natural features. The possibility was investigated of using ERTS imagery to estimate the environmental impact of the freeway and found that: (1) All threatened features could readily be identified on the imagery. (2) It was possible within a short time to provide an area estimate of damage to indigenous forest. (3) In several important respects the imagery has advantages over maps and aerial photos for this type of work. (4) The imagery will enable monitoring of the actual environmental impact of the freeway when completed.

  15. Evaluation of radar-based precipitation estimates for flash flood forecasting in the Three Gorges Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Yang, D.; Hong, Y.; Qi, Y.; Cao, Q.

    2015-05-01

    Spatial rainfall pattern plays a critical role in determining hydrological responses in mountainous areas, especially for natural disasters such as flash floods. In this study, to improve the skills of flood forecasting in the mountainous Three Gorges Region (TGR) of the Yangtze River, we developed a first version of a high-resolution (1 km) radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) consideration of many critical procedures, such as beam blockage analysis, ground-clutter filter, rain type identification and adaptive Z-R relations. A physically-based distributed hydrological model (GBHM) was established and further applied to evaluate the performance of radar-based QPE for regional flood forecasting, relative to the gauge-driven simulations. With two sets of input data (gauge and radar) collected during summer 2010, the applicability of the current radar-based QPE to rainstorm monitoring and flash flood forecasting in the TGR is quantitatively analysed and discussed.

  16. Wind Field Predictions for the Columbia Gorge and the Goodnoe Hills Wind Turbine Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Veenhuizen, Scott D.; Lin, Jung-Tai.

    1980-08-01

    Numerical estimates of the long term seasonal mean wind speeds, wind directions, and available wind power density were conducted for comparison with the results of field wind measurements obtained by the Bonneville Power Administration for the Columbia Gorge region along the Oregon-Washngton border. The authors had previously used the numerical method of estimating wind flows in complex terrain to identify high wind energy areas within the Olympic Peninsula and Northern Cascade regions of the State of Washington. The numerical technique was used as a generalized wind prospecting tool to provide the link between regional assessments and on-site biological or geomorphological indicators of mean wind speeds and available wind energy. The wind flow model used is a two dimensional model based upon simplified hydrodynamical equations describing the fluid and thermodynamic motion of the atmosphere.

  17. [Evaluation on the impacts of environmental changes and Three-Gorge engineering on the population of Yangtze voles (Microtus forits) in the Dongting Lake region].

    PubMed

    Zou, Shaolin; Guo, Cong; Liu, Xinping

    2002-05-01

    The relationships between the population of Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis) and the evolvement of the Dongting Lake beaches were analyzed based on historical data, and the impacts of the Three-Gorge Engineering on beach environment and water level of the lake were assessed according to the regulation scheme on downward discharge flux of the Three-Gorge dam. The results indicated that the population of the voles has been increasing since 1950's, owing to the continuous enlargement of the lake beach and prolonging successional emergence of the beach. The emergence date of the beach in Autumn would be earlier, its emergence area would be going up, the population of the voles would be also expanded at the initial post-construction stage, which would still increase with the continuous expansion of beach area in a middle and long period after the establishment of the dam. More voles would thus move to the farmland, and heavily harm crops. PMID:12181902

  18. Monitoring the Dynamic of a Fluvial Channel after Lahar Disturbance: Huiloac Gorge (Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, N.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.; Tanarro, L. M.; Renschler, C.; Sanjosé, J. J.; Atkinson, A.

    2009-04-01

    estimating the volume of erosion and deposition for a given time interval. Analysis of the geomorphic variations for the period February 2002-February 2008, shows that the banks formed by lahar deposits in 1997 and 2001 at the study site receded from 48.6% to 27.4% in favor of the riverbed, and 31.0% to 52.7%, in favor of the terraces formed by secondary lahars. The time sequence for the cross-profiles depicts a general widening and infilling of the gorge floor, with greater emphasis on erosion from September 2003-February 2008 (1523 m3as compared to 387 m3of accretion). The changes, however, were not homogeneous during the study period, due to varying rainfall patterns that cause fluctuations in runoff. This relationship became evident after comparing geomorphologic and topographic alterations and heavy precipitation (maximum/24 hrs), and variations in monthly precipitation yield and average yield for the period 1971-2000 (data provided by the Mexico's National Meteorological Service). Although both lower slope recession and lahar-induced deposition on the floor of the channel increased during the period February-October 2002, down cutting and evacuation of materials (677 m3) greatly surpassed deposition (145 m3). The predominance of one process in relation to another was much more acute for this period than for any other, even though it occurred during a relatively dry rainy season with below average precipitation. The explanation for this is attributed to the onset of lahar activity in January 2001 and high maximum rainfall late in the rainy season. This was followed by a dry spell and a second very wet rainy season from October 2002 - September 2003. During this time, the slopes continued to recede in favor of the riverbed, where some down cutting and infilling occurred, resulting in a slight net gain in surface area. During the next five months of the dry season, changes in the landforms were proportionally greater, producing a substantial increase in surface area and

  19. [Nitrogen Losses Under the Action of Different Land Use Types of Small Catchment in Three Gorges Region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-long; Gao, Ming; Ni, Jiu-pai; Xie, De-ti; Deng, Hua

    2016-05-15

    As an independent water-collecting area, small catchment is the source of non-point source pollution in Three Gorges Region. Choosing 3 kinds of the most representative land-use types and using them to lay monitoring points of overland runoff within the small catchment of Wangjiagou in Fuling of Three Gorges Region, the author used the samples of surface runoff collected through the twelve natural rainfalls from May to December to analyze the feature of spatial-temporal change of Nitrogen's losses concentrations under the influence of different land use types and the hillslopes and small catchments composed by those land use types, revealing the relation between different land-use types and Nitrogen's losses of small catchments in Three Gorges Region. The result showed: the average losses concentration of TN showed the biggest difference for different land use types during the period of spring crops, and the average value of dry land was 1. 61 times and 6.73 times of the values of interplanting field of mulberry and paddy field, respectively; the change of the losses concentration of TN was most conspicuous in the 3 periods of paddy field. The main element was NO₃⁻-N, and the relation between TN and NO₃⁻-N showed a significant linear correlation. TN's and NO₃⁻-N's losses concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the area ratio of corn and mustard, but got a significant negative correlation with the area ratio of paddy and mulberry; NH₄⁺-N's losses concentrations got a significant positive correlation with the area ratio of mustard. Among all the hillslopes composed by different land use types, TN's average losses concentration of surface runoff of the hillslope composed by interplantating field of mulberry and paddy land during the three periods was the lowest, and the values were 2.55, 11.52, 8.58 mg · L⁻¹, respectively; the hillslope of rotation plough land of corn and mustard had the maximum value, and the values were

  20. A reconnaissance of the Archean complex of the Granite Gorge, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, L.F.; Hunter, J. Fred

    1917-01-01

    The field work upon which this article is based was done in March and April, 1914. From Garnet Canyon, near the west end of the Granite Gorge, the route followed the Tonto trail along the so-called lower plateau, or Tonto platform, to Red Canyon, at the east end of the Granite Gorge.

  1. "Possible impacts of climate change on the Danube river along the Iron Gate gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research was dedicated to foreseeing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources in eastern part of Serbia, along the Danube catchment. The Danube basin is in the eastern section of the considered RCM ( Regional climate model). For this purposes, the RCM EBU-POM according to the IPCC scenario A1B, was used in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100. The Danube's catchment encompasses continental climate, as it is land-dominated by advection from the surrounding land areas. This part of Danube catchment is greatly affected by the Mediterranean climate, since the Danube runoff gives a relevant contribution of freshwater flux into the Mediterranean sea and it is dependent mostly on precipitated water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) in order to get relevant coefficients. The second approach, which is more typically meteorological, relies on the calculation of the E for the time frame 2071-2100 by using the previous coefficients and getting runoff depth (h) and discharge (Q) as the final outputs. The results according to this model, show that the river flow of the Danube, in this part of its basin, will decrease over 50% with a great consequences to the dams Iron Gate I and II, their accumulations and ecosystems. Furthermore, if we take into account predictions made by IPCC which say that the south-east Europe will face temperature growth of 0.2 degrees in the next two decades for the range of SRES scenarios, makes the

  2. Analysis of urban storm-runoff data and the effects on the South Platte River, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, S.R.; Doerfer, J.T.; Mustard, M.H.; Blakely, S.R.; Gibbs, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Denver was selected for inclusion in the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Denver Regional council of governments, contains a synopsis of previous urban runoff studies in the Denver metropolitan area. The report includes a description of the monitored basins, a summary of storm runoff-to-rainfall ratios and estimates of impervious retention, and constituent loads and concentrations from seven small basins. The data from six small and five tributary basins to the South Platte River are analyzed using regression analysis, resulting in two sets of regression equations to predict storm runoff volume and selected constituent loads. The regression equations may be used to estimate storm-runoff volume and constituent loads from unmonitored basins from 15 to 16,000 acres with effective impervious areas of 15 to 90 percent. The effects of urban runoff on the South Platte River in the Denver area are described in three ways. The three methods indicated that storm runoff was a significant contributor of total suspended solids, total organic carbon, total lead, and total zinc to the South Platte River. (USGS)

  3. RESOURCES FOR SOUTH ASIAN AREA STUDIES IN THE UNITED STATES, REPORT OF A CONFERENCE CONVENED BY THE COMMITTEE ON SOUTH ASIA OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR ASIAN STUDIES FOR THE UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION (FEBRUARY 23-25, 1961).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAMBERT, RICHARD D.

    THE 21 WORKING PAPERS IN THIS BOOK WERE PREPARED BY AMERICAN SCHOLARS IN THE FIELD OF SOUTH ASIAN AREA AND LANGUAGE STUDIES FOR A CONFERENCE CONVENED BY THE COMMITTEE ON SOUTH ASIA OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR ASIAN STUDIES IN 1961. THE CONFERENCE DEALT WITH THE NEED FOR RESEARCH ON SPECIFIC COUNTRIES AND IN SPECIFIC DISCIPLINES AS WELL AS THE PRESENT…

  4. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  5. Simulation analysis of within-day flow fluctuation effects on trout below flaming Gorge Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, S. F.; Hayse, J. W.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division; EPRI

    2006-01-01

    In addition to being renewable, hydropower has the advantage of allowing rapid load-following, in that the generation rate can easily be varied within a day to match the demand for power. However, the flow fluctuations that result from load-following can be controversial, in part because they may affect downstream fish populations. At Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah, concern has been raised about whether flow fluctuations caused by the dam disrupt feeding at a tailwater trout fishery, as fish move in response to flow changes and as the flow changes alter the amount or timing of the invertebrate drift that trout feed on. Western Area Power Administration (Western), which controls power production on submonthly time scales, has made several operational changes to address concerns about flow fluctuation effects on fisheries. These changes include reducing the number of daily flow peaks from two to one and operating within a restricted range of flows. These changes significantly reduce the value of the power produced at Flaming Gorge Dam and put higher load-following pressure on other power plants. Consequently, Western has great interest in understanding what benefits these restrictions provide to the fishery and whether adjusting the restrictions could provide a better tradeoff between power and non-power concerns. Directly evaluating the effects of flow fluctuations on fish populations is unfortunately difficult. Effects are expected to be relatively small, so tightly controlled experiments with large sample sizes and long study durations would be needed to evaluate them. Such experiments would be extremely expensive and would be subject to the confounding effects of uncontrollable variations in factors such as runoff and weather. Computer simulation using individual-based models (IBMs) is an alternative study approach for ecological problems that are not amenable to analysis using field studies alone. An IBM simulates how a

  6. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

  7. CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral remote sensing anomaly extraction of metallogenic prediction research in Gansu Beishan South Beach area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yongfei; Zhao, Yingjun

    2014-11-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has one of the technical advantages atlas. The known deposits of Gansu Beishan South Beach deposits as the study area, based on the theory of wall rock alteration, using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (CASI/SASI), extracted mineralization alteration information and analysis. Based on airborne hyperspectral remote sensing mineral mapping results in the study area, Combining analysising of possible mineral formation fluid properties, spatial distribution characteristics and time evolution with analysising of mineral formation environment (lithology and tectonic environment), construction of the South Beach gold deposit location model, the deposit location model as a guide, comprehensive analysis of mineralization geological background and surface geochemical data, delineated mineralization favorable areas. The field investigation showed that signs of altered development of strong in the delineation of the mineralization favorable areas and metallogenic potential of better, is worth paying attention to the prospecting target area. Further explanation that the hyperspectral remote sensing can provide accurate and reliable information for the prospecting, and is worthy of further mining the ore prospecting potential.

  8. A Multi-satellite Remote Sensing Product of Reservoir Storage, Elevation, and Surface Area in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Gao, H.; Naz, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoir storage information is essential for accurate flood monitoring and prediction. South Asia, however, is dominated by international river basins where communications among neighboring countries about reservoir storage and management are extremely limited. A suite of satellite observations were combined to create a high quality reservoir storage product in South Asia from 2000 to 2012. The approach used water surface area estimations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices product and the area-elevation relationship to estimate reservoir storage. The surface elevation measurements were from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). In order to improve the accuracy of water surface area estimations for relatively small reservoirs, a novel classification algorithm was developed. This remotely sensed product contains time series of reservoir elevation, area, and storage for a total of 21 reservoirs, which represents 28% of the integrated reservoir capacity in South Asia. The remotely sensed results were validated comprehensively over five reservoirs through two steps. First, the MODIS surface water classification images were compared with Landsat high resolution (30 m) classifications. Second, the reservoir elevation and storage dataset from remote sensing was evaluated using gauge observations. . The storage estimates were highly correlated with observed values (i.e., the correlation coefficients were all larger than 0.9), with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) ranging from 9.51% to 25.20%. Uncertainty analysis was also conducted for the remotely sensed storage estimations. For the parameterization uncertainty associated with surface area retrieval, the storage mean relative uncertainty was 3.90%. With regard to the uncertainty introduced by ICESat/GLAS elevation measurements, the storage mean absolute uncertainty was 0.67%.

  9. Analysis of Staining Observed on Structures in the Georgetown, South Carolina Area

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Govier, R. Dale

    2002-05-01

    Beginning around 1970, the Georgetown, SC, community complained about black dust and red stains collecting on houses, cars, boats, and other structures. The community, through the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), seeks to identify the source or cause of the staining and ways to reduce or eliminate it in the future.

  10. School Leadership Practices That Work in Areas of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikoko, Vitallis; Naicker, Inbanathan; Mthiyane, Siphiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on evidence from five school principals regarding leadership practices that work in multiple deprived contexts. The South African educational landscape is complex, often described as a cocktail of first and third world institutions. Looking at the schooling system on a continuum, on the one end there are first class schools…

  11. 50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10â² N. Lat. 3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F...) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access...

  12. 50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10â² N. Lat. 3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F...) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access...

  13. The regional distribution regularity of landslides and their effects on the environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keqiang, He; Guangming, Yu; Xiangran, Li

    2009-06-01

    On the basis of research and analysis of the landslide system of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, this paper systematically analyzes and studies the temporal-spatial distribution law of landslides of this reservoir area and their impacts on environment of this area. The paper puts forward that the temporal-spatial distribution of this area’s landslides is mainly controlled by lithologic characters of strata, geological structure, valley landscape, and types of bank slope structure; landslide deformation and failure have such characteristics as simultaneity, laggardness, cyclical instability, and stage. Besides, the paper systematically analyzes and studies the main impacts of landslide on environment and points out that landslides and collapses will bring about relatively serious impacts on relocation and layout of cities and towns along the banks. These impacts mainly include the increase of relocation investment, number of migrants, and compensation for losses. Much attention and evaluation should be paid to the impacts of Xintan Landslide and Lianziya Landslide—large landslides near the Dam—on the construction and safety of the Three Gorges Project. However, landslides have relatively small impacts on shipping and reservoir capacity. The above-mentioned research is of great guiding significance for the construction of the Three Georges Project, planning and construction of cities and towns along the banks, and protection of geological environment.

  14. Examining time trends in the Oldowan technology at Beds I and II, Olduvai Gorge.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuki

    2002-09-01

    The lithic analysis of the Bed I and II assemblages from Olduvai Gorge reveals both static and dynamic time trends in early hominids' technology from 1.8 to 1.2 m.y.a. The Bed I Oldowan (1.87-1.75 m.y.a.) is characterized by the least effort strategy in terms of raw material exploitation and tool production. The inclusion of new raw material, chert, for toolmaking in the following Developed Oldowan A (DOA, 1.65-1.53 m.y.a.) facilitated more distinctive and variable flaking strategies depending on the kind of raw materials. The unique characters of DOA are explainable by this raw material factor, rather than technological development of hominids. The disappearance of chert in the subsequent Developed Oldowan B and Acheulian (1.53-1.2 m.y.a.) necessitated a shift in tool production strategy more similar to that of Bed I Oldowan than DOA. However, the evidence suggests that Bed II hominids might have been more skillful toolmakers, intensive tool-users, and engaged in more active transport of stone tools than the Bed I predecessors. Koobi Fora hominids maintained a more static tool-using behavior than their Olduvai counterparts due mainly to a stable supply of raw materials. They differed from Olduvai hominids in terms of less battering of cores, consistent transport behavior, and few productions of side-struck flakes, indicating a regional variation of toolmaking and using practice. However, they shared with Olduvai hominids a temporal trend toward the production of larger flakes from larger cores after 1.6 m.y.a. Increased intake of animal resources and the expansion of ranging area of Homo ergaster would have led to the development of technological organization. Technological changes in the Oldowan industry are attested at Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Sterkfontein, suggesting that it was a pan-African synchronous phenomenon, beginning at 1.5 m.y.a. PMID:12234546

  15. Study of Active Faults in the Three Gorges Dam region by Detecting and Relocating Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Zhu, L.; Xu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Seismicity in the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region and its adjacent areas increased dramatically as the water- level of the TGD reservoir rises since its completion in 2003. Accordingly, many efforts have been put forward to quantify the seismicity and geological hazards in the region. However, the precise detective of earthquakes, especially for the minor ones, remains difficulty because of sparse distribution of permanent seismic stations. From December 2013 to June 2014, we deployed 30 three-component broadband seismic stations in the TGD region. During the deployment, we recorded two earthquakes of magnitudes lager than 5.0, one occurred on December 16th 2013 in Badong and another on March 30th 2014 in Zigui. We firstly used a sliding-window cross-correlation (SCC) detection technique to supplement the events catalog from the China Earthquake Networks Center. Over 500 new events with ML lager than 0.5 were detected. We then relocated 502 events out of the total 987 events using the double-difference (DD) relocation algorithm. We also determined moment tensors of some large earthquakes using gCAP. The results clearly show two active faults along Yangtze River with dips of 50 degrees and 90 degrees to a maximum depth of 10 km, respectively. And they also reveal that water might have permeated to a depth of 6 km corresponds to the interface of sediments and metamorphic basement beneath Zigui Basin. We thus preliminarily judge that the quakes are triggered by local stress adjustment resulting of fluctuation of Three Gorges reservoir's loading.

  16. Total Nitrogen Sources of the Three Gorges Reservoir--A Spatio-Temporal Approach.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunping; Wang, Lijing; Zheng, Binghui; Holbach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of nutrient concentrations, loads, and their distribution from upstream tributaries is important for the management of large lakes and reservoirs. The Three Gorges Dam was built on the Yangtze River in China, the world's third longest river, and impounded the famous Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this study, we analyzed total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and inflow data from 2003 till 2010 for the main upstream tributaries of the TGR that contribute about 82% of the TGR's total inflow. We used time series analysis for seasonal decomposition of TN concentrations and used non-parametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Walli H, Mann-Whitney U) as well as base flow segmentation to analyze significant spatial and temporal patterns of TN pollution input into the TGR. Our results show that TN concentrations had significant spatial heterogeneity across the study area (Tuo River> Yangtze River> Wu River> Min River> Jialing River>Jinsha River). Furthermore, we derived apparent seasonal changes in three out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR rivers (Kruskal-Walli H ρ = 0.009, 0.030 and 0.029 for Tuo River, Jinsha River and Min River in sequence). TN pollution from non-point sources in the upstream tributaries accounted for 68.9% of the total TN input into the TGR. Non-point source pollution of TN revealed increasing trends for 4 out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR. Land use/cover and soil type were identified as the dominant driving factors for the spatial distribution of TN. Intensifying agriculture and increasing urbanization in the upstream catchments of the TGR were the main driving factors for non-point source pollution of TN increase from 2003 till 2010. Land use and land cover management as well as chemical fertilizer use restriction were needed to overcome the threats of increasing TN pollution. PMID:26510158

  17. Total Nitrogen Sources of the Three Gorges Reservoir — A Spatio-Temporal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunping; Wang, Lijing; Zheng, Binghui; Holbach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of nutrient concentrations, loads, and their distribution from upstream tributaries is important for the management of large lakes and reservoirs. The Three Gorges Dam was built on the Yangtze River in China, the world’s third longest river, and impounded the famous Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this study, we analyzed total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and inflow data from 2003 till 2010 for the main upstream tributaries of the TGR that contribute about 82% of the TGR’s total inflow. We used time series analysis for seasonal decomposition of TN concentrations and used non-parametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Walli H, Mann-Whitney U) as well as base flow segmentation to analyze significant spatial and temporal patterns of TN pollution input into the TGR. Our results show that TN concentrations had significant spatial heterogeneity across the study area (Tuo River> Yangtze River> Wu River> Min River> Jialing River>Jinsha River). Furthermore, we derived apparent seasonal changes in three out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR rivers (Kruskal-Walli H ρ = 0.009, 0.030 and 0.029 for Tuo River, Jinsha River and Min River in sequence). TN pollution from non-point sources in the upstream tributaries accounted for 68.9% of the total TN input into the TGR. Non-point source pollution of TN revealed increasing trends for 4 out of five upstream tributaries of the TGR. Land use/cover and soil type were identified as the dominant driving factors for the spatial distribution of TN. Intensifying agriculture and increasing urbanization in the upstream catchments of the TGR were the main driving factors for non-point source pollution of TN increase from 2003 till 2010. Land use and land cover management as well as chemical fertilizer use restriction were needed to overcome the threats of increasing TN pollution. PMID:26510158

  18. Breeding systems, hybridization and continuing evolution in Avon Gorge Sorbus

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Shanna; Robertson, Ashley; Rich, Timothy C. G.; Djordjević, Milena; Cerović, Radosav; Houston, Libby; Harris, Stephen A.; Hiscock, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are key processes in plant evolution and are responsible for ongoing genetic diversification in the genus Sorbus (Rosaceae). The Avon Gorge, Bristol, UK, is a world ‘hotspot’ for Sorbus diversity and home to diploid sexual species and polyploid apomictic species. This research investigated how mating system variation, hybridization and polyploidy interact to generate this biological diversity. Methods Mating systems of diploid, triploid and tetraploid Sorbus taxa were analysed using pollen tube growth and seed set assays from controlled pollinations, and parent–offspring genotyping of progeny from open and manual pollinations. Key Results Diploid Sorbus are outcrossing and self-incompatible (SI). Triploid taxa are pseudogamous apomicts and genetically invariable, but because they also display self-incompatibility, apomictic seed set requires pollen from other Sorbus taxa – a phenomenon which offers direct opportunities for hybridization. In contrast tetraploid taxa are pseudogamous but self-compatible, so do not have the same obligate requirement for intertaxon pollination. Conclusions The mating inter-relationships among Avon Gorge Sorbus taxa are complex and are the driving force for hybridization and ongoing genetic diversification. In particular, the presence of self-incompatibility in triploid pseudogamous apomicts imposes a requirement for interspecific cross-pollination, thereby facilitating continuing diversification and evolution through rare sexual hybridization events. This is the first report of naturally occurring pseudogamous apomictic SI plant populations, and we suggest that interspecific pollination, in combination with a relaxed endosperm balance requirement, is the most likely route to the persistence of these populations. We propose that Avon Gorge Sorbus represents a model system for studying the establishment and persistence of SI apomicts in natural populations. PMID

  19. Dating the Naisiusiu Beds, Olduvai Gorge, by electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, A. R.; Hay, R. L.; Masao, F.; Blackwell, B. A. B.

    2003-05-01

    The lower beds at Olduvai Gorge are well known for containing early hominid fossils and Oldowan stone tools, and their ages have been established by 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and paleomagnetic stratigraphy. Ages are generally less certain for the upper deposits at Olduvai Gorge because of the scarcity of datable tuffs. The youngest archaeologically significant site at Olduvai is microlithic LSA, which lies in the type section of the Naisiusiu Beds. The age for the site is controversial, with 14C dates of 17,000-17,550 (Hay, R.L., 1976 Geology of Olduvai Gorge, University of California Press, Berkeley) and >42,000 BP (Manega, P.C., 1993. Geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic study of the Plio-Pleistocene Hominid sites and the Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland in Northern Tanzania. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The tuff bed in the zone with artifacts does not contain materials datable by 40Ar/ 39Ar, and some other dating method was needed. In the summer of 2001, five equid teeth were collected from the type Naisiusiu site. Another tooth had previously been collected. ESR ages have been determined for three teeth from the archaeological level and their ages cluster around 62±5 ka, assuming linear uranium uptake. Another tooth from a level without artifacts and believed to be significantly younger dated to 39±5 ka, again assuming LU. These dates are considerably older than previous estimates and suggest that the East African MSA/LSA transition occurred very early.

  20. Oligocene-Miocene carbonates in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea, and their tectono-sedimentary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Weiwei; Li, Jiabiao; Dong, Congzhi; Fang, Yinxia

    2015-09-01

    We have analyzed two recently acquired multi-channel seismic profiles across the Reed Bank area, South China Sea. A detailed seismic interpretation coupled with drilling data has proved the occurrence of a wide carbonate platform, developed between the Late Oligocene and the Early Miocene (32-20 Ma). The top of these carbonates is an important regional unconformity, corresponding to a strong and continuous seismic reflector. An age of about 20 Ma is inferred for this reflector, acting as a regional unconformity marking the cessation of seafloor spreading with an erosional/non-depositional hiatus, spanning 3 or 4 m.y. The time interval during which the carbonate platforms formed is concurrent with the opening of the South China Sea. The reconstruction of the tectonic subsidence in this area has shown a decrease in rate of subsidence during the drifting stage (32-17 Ma), indicating that the whole Reed Bank area was in a tectonically stable and shallow water environment for more than 10 m.y., favoring the development of shallow water carbonates. With a sharply increased subsidence rate after the end of spreading (17 Ma) and a continuously increased sea level, the carbonate platforms were drowned and died, except some structural highs with reef buildups, where the carbonate sedimentation continued to Middle Miocene. We suggest that delayed tectonic subsidence in Reed Bank area might have been related to a secondary mantle convection under the rift lasting more than about 10 m.y.

  1. Evaluation of analytical assays efficiency to detect aflatoxin M1 in milk from selected areas in Egypt and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, Mulunda; Abdel-Hadi, Ahmed; Ali, Ahmed M; Egbuta, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Recently, methods to analyze aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and dairy products have been developed for both screening purposes (i.e., rapid, economical, and simple methods) and for confirmation by accurate, reproducible, and sensitive quantification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different rapid kits and techniques available on the market by using different analytical methods: thin layer chromatography (TLC), immunoaffinity column, AFM1 immunochromatographic strip, and ELISA; some samples were also submitted to HPLC for comparison of results. One hundred thirty-eight samples were collected from rural subsistence and commercial dairy farms in selected areas of Egypt and South Africa and analyzed for the presence of AFM1. The results obtained by AFM1 immunochromatographic strip indicated the lowest frequency of occurrence, with a detection incidence of 20.45% in Egyptian samples and 16% in South African samples. Aflatoxin M1 was detected by ELISA in 65 (73.9%) Egyptian milk samples, with a range of 8.52 to 78.06 ng/L, and in 34 (68%) South African milk samples, with a range of 5 to 120 ng/L. A higher incidence of AFM1 in Egyptian milk samples was shown by TLC (81.8%) compared with ELISA (73.9%). Samples analyzed by ELISA in South African milk samples demonstrated satisfactory correlation when compared with HPLC coupled with Coring cell (an electrochemical cell for the derivatization of AFM1). Among the positive samples, 18 of the Egyptian samples (20.45%) positive by ELISA had levels of AFM1 above the European Union (EU) regulatory limit (50 ng/L), whereas 65 samples (73.9%) were above the Egyptian regulatory limit (0 ng/L). Six of the South African samples (12%) tested by ELISA were above the South African (50 ng/L) and EU regulatory limits. The mean concentration of AFM1 was 25.79 ng/L in Egyptian samples and 17.06 ng/L by ELISA and 39 ng/L by HPLC in South African samples. These contamination levels would not represent a serious public

  2. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: new data from Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gromme, C.S.; Hay, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    The lower lava flow of Bed I in Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika, carries natural remanent magnetization (NRM) having normal polarity. Thermal demagnetization experiments demonstrate the stability of this NRM. Thus the Olduvai geomagnetic polarity event, which was originally named from the upper lava flow in Bed I, is represented in its type locality by two normally magnetized lavas. These lavas have been shown to be 1.9 m.y. old, and although they are distinct from each other in composition and surface structure, their eruptions appear to have been closely spaced in time. ?? 1967.

  3. Differential exhumation rates in the High Himalaya perpendicular to the orogenic convergence: from Mt. Everest to the Arun River gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haviv, I.; Avouac, J.; Farley, K. A.; Harrison, M.; Neupane, P. C.; Heizler, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term localization of tectonic strain in response to erosion by surface processes is an intriguing hypothesis with implications ranging from flexural isostasy and river anticlines to tectonic aneurysm and channel flow. We examine geomorphic indices and thermochronologic constraints along the Barun river in Eastern Nepal flowing entirely within the High Himalaya and perpendicular to the orogenic convergence, from Mt. Everest and Mt. Makalu in the west, to the confluence with the Arun River gorge in the east. Apatite (U-Th)/He valley bottom ages decrease from ~ 2 Ma at the Makalu base camp to ~0.8 Ma at the Arun gorge. Along the same transect Zircon (U-Th)/He ages decrease from ~ 4 Ma to ~ 1.9 Ma. The two ends of this transect delineate cooling rates which are different by more than a factor of two. 3D thermo-kinematic modeling suggests that this difference can be translated to an exhumation rate delta of around 1 km/Ma which is supported further by a sub-vertical age-elevation transect along the slopes of Mt. Makalu. Previously published AFT data from the peak of Mt. Everest suggests that less than 3-5 km of rock were removed at the peak setting over the last 14 Ma. In addition, our own (U-Th)/He data from the Everest base camp in Tibet supports < 3 km of valley bottom exhumation over the last 10 Ma. We demonstrate that our data requires differential uplift with lower long-term uplift rates at the Everest and Makalu area, vs. higher uplift at the Arun gorge. In addition, we discuss stratigraphic and thermochronologic observations which suggest that other prominent Himalaya peaks such as Shisha Pangma, Annapurna and Manaslu have also experienced long-term exhumation rates which are much lower than those of adjacent valleys.

  4. Crop identification and acreage estimation over large geographic areas using LANDSAT MSS data. [south central Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The comparison between the acreage estimates for the April LANDSAT data and the USDA Statistical Reporting Service estimates show no significant difference for the south central crop reporting district in Kansas. A paired-t test with an alpha = .05 was run comparing the percentages of wheat in each county. The results of their test showed no significant difference between the two estimates for wheat.

  5. Identifying the Source and Generation of Thermal Groundwaters based on Stable Isotopes and Rare Earths - the Case of the Lower Yarmouk Gorge Artesian Wells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, C.; Möller, P.; Magri, F.; Kraushaar, S.; Dulski, P.; Guttman, J.; Rödiger, T.

    2014-12-01

    Along the Lower Yarmouk Gorge, thermal groundwaters with varying chemical and isotopic signatures emerge from Cenozoic Limestones. The bordering semiarid Golan and Ajloun Heights host fresh and variable tempered groundwaters in Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata. Sources and mineralisation of these groundwaters are derived from mutual discussion of d2H, d18O and d34S, major elements, rare earth distribution patterns and the (hydro)geological setting. Positive shift of d18O and d2H occur due to evaporation before replenishment and the interaction with basalts. Major infiltration areas for Golan Heights are the limy foothills of the Mt. Hermon and for the Ajloun Heights the Plateau itself. To a less degree, precipitation infiltrates also the basaltic catchments. Groundwaters are mineralised by water/rock (i) variably altered limestones by diagenesis, (ii) evaporates and seawater brines enclosed in limestone matrix and (iii) locally occurring basaltic intrusiva. In the Yarmouk Gorge, a deep-seated brine of the Ha'on type ascends and mixes with the fresh shallow groundwater. REY and isotope fingerprints prove that water from the Syrian Hauran Plateau is recharging springs and wells in the lowermost Yamouk Gorge. Although capping wide areas, the basaltic cover of the Golan Heights is of minor importance for recharge of the underlying A7/B2 aquifer, which becomes recharged at the foothills of Mt. Hermon and gets confined southwards, leading ibid. to ascension of water into the basaltic cover. Anomalous heat flux near the Yarmouk gorge and locally in the western escarpment of the Ajloun may be produced by ascending fluids from greater depth and/or by basaltic intrusions.

  6. EFFECTS OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ON WATER QUALITY IN THE BIG SOUTH FORK NATIONAL RIVER AND RECREATION AREA, TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, William P.

    1984-01-01

    The South Fork Cumberland River begins in Tennessee at the confluence of the New River and Clear Fork. Strip mining for coal in the New River basin has been ongoing for decades with little reclamation prior to 1977. Water-quality data show that suspended-sediment and dissolved-constituent loads from the New River dominate the water quality in the National River and Recreation Area. The suspended sediment can impart a highly turbid and aesthetically displeasing appearance to the water during low-flow periods which are times of maximum recreational use. High suspended-sediment concentrations are also potentially harmful to the aquatic habitat in the Recreation Area. In addition to the suspended-sediment load, a large supply of coarse material is slowly moving through the channels of the New River basin toward the Recreation Area.

  7. Delineation of the subsurface geological structures of Omu-Aran area, south-western Nigeria, using aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayode, J. S.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Baioumy, H. M.; Khalil, A. E.; Khiruddin, B. A.

    2015-04-01

    Omu-Aran area is characterized by mining activities to exploit the valuable mineralization there. These facts motivated the present work to evaluate the factors controlling the mineralization in the study area using aeromagnetic data obtained from the Nigerian Geological survey Agency. The data was processed and interpreted with the mean of delineating subsurface geological structures around Omu-Aran in Kwara State, South-western Nigeria. Data enhancement methods was performed on the aeromagnetic map using Regional Residual Separation of the total field anomalies map; horizontal gradient enhanced and International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRS) removed; reduced to the pole magnetic shaded relief image was carried out; Magnetic vertical gradient calculated, Magnetic horizontal gradient measured and Analytical signal map was constructed using some computer aided packages. The interpreted map enabled delineation of various subsurface geological structures such as the rock contacts, fractured and faulted areas.

  8. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation.

  9. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. PMID:26682944

  10. 50 CFR Table 1 (south) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting South of 40°10â² N. Lat. 1 Table 1... Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting South of 40°10′ N....

  11. 50 CFR Table 1 (south) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting South of 40°10â² N. Lat. 1 Table 1... Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting South of 40°10′ N....

  12. 50 CFR Table 1 (south) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting South of 40°10â² N. Lat. 1 Table 1... Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting South of 40°10′ N....

  13. 50 CFR Table 1 (south) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting South of 40°10â² N. Lat. 1 Table 1... Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting South of 40°10′ N....

  14. Flood-Inundation Maps of Selected Areas Affected by the Flood of October 2015 in Central and Coastal South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.; Watson, Kara M.; Painter, Jaime A.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy rainfall occurred across South Carolina during October 1–5, 2015, as a result of an upper atmospheric low-pressure system that funneled tropical moisture from Hurricane Joaquin into the State. The storm caused major flooding in the central and coastal parts of South Carolina. Almost 27 inches of rain fell near Mount Pleasant in Charleston County during this period. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages recorded peaks of record at 17 locations, and 15 other locations had peaks that ranked in the top 5 for the period of record. During the October 2015 flood event, USGS personnel made about 140 streamflow measurements at 86 locations to verify, update, or extend existing rating curves (which are used to compute streamflow from monitored river stage). Immediately after the storm event, USGS personnel documented 602 high-water marks, noting the location and height of the water above land surface. Later in October, 50 additional high-water marks were documented near bridges for South Carolina Department of Transportation. Using a subset of these high-water marks, 20 flood-inundation maps of 12 communities were created. Digital datasets of the inundation area, modeling boundary, and water depth rasters are all available for download.

  15. Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of

  16. Amphitheater-headed canyons formed by megaflooding at Malad Gorge, Idaho

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Michael P.; Mackey, Benjamin H.; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Many bedrock canyons on Earth and Mars were eroded by upstream propagating headwalls, and a prominent goal in geomorphology and planetary science is to determine formation processes from canyon morphology. A diagnostic link between process and form remains highly controversial, however, and field investigations that isolate controls on canyon morphology are needed. Here we investigate the origin of Malad Gorge, Idaho, a canyon system cut into basalt with three remarkably distinct heads: two with amphitheater headwalls and the third housing the active Wood River and ending in a 7% grade knickzone. Scoured rims of the headwalls, relict plunge pools, sediment-transport constraints, and cosmogenic (3He) exposure ages indicate formation of the amphitheater-headed canyons by large-scale flooding ∼46 ka, coeval with formation of Box Canyon 18 km to the south as well as the eruption of McKinney Butte Basalt, suggesting widespread canyon formation following lava-flow diversion of the paleo-Wood River. Exposure ages within the knickzone-headed canyon indicate progressive upstream younging of strath terraces and a knickzone propagation rate of 2.5 cm/y over at least the past 33 ka. Results point to a potential diagnostic link between vertical amphitheater headwalls in basalt and rapid erosion during megaflooding due to the onset of block toppling, rather than previous interpretations of seepage erosion, with implications for quantifying the early hydrosphere of Mars. PMID:24344293

  17. Amphitheater-headed canyons formed by megaflooding at Malad Gorge, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Michael P; Mackey, Benjamin H; Farley, Kenneth A

    2014-01-01

    Many bedrock canyons on Earth and Mars were eroded by upstream propagating headwalls, and a prominent goal in geomorphology and planetary science is to determine formation processes from canyon morphology. A diagnostic link between process and form remains highly controversial, however, and field investigations that isolate controls on canyon morphology are needed. Here we investigate the origin of Malad Gorge, Idaho, a canyon system cut into basalt with three remarkably distinct heads: two with amphitheater headwalls and the third housing the active Wood River and ending in a 7% grade knickzone. Scoured rims of the headwalls, relict plunge pools, sediment-transport constraints, and cosmogenic ((3)He) exposure ages indicate formation of the amphitheater-headed canyons by large-scale flooding ∼46 ka, coeval with formation of Box Canyon 18 km to the south as well as the eruption of McKinney Butte Basalt, suggesting widespread canyon formation following lava-flow diversion of the paleo-Wood River. Exposure ages within the knickzone-headed canyon indicate progressive upstream younging of strath terraces and a knickzone propagation rate of 2.5 cm/y over at least the past 33 ka. Results point to a potential diagnostic link between vertical amphitheater headwalls in basalt and rapid erosion during megaflooding due to the onset of block toppling, rather than previous interpretations of seepage erosion, with implications for quantifying the early hydrosphere of Mars. PMID:24344293

  18. Local Climate Sensitivity of the Three Gorges Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.; Jin, Jiming; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2005-02-18

    Two simulations, control and land use change, were performed for an eight week period (2 April-16 May 1990) to determine the net sensitivity of the local climate around the Three Gorges Dam. The analysis indicates that the large reservoir acts as a potential evaporating surface that decreases the surface temperature, cools the lower atmosphere, decreasing upward motion, and increasing sinking air mass. Such sinking results in low level moisture divergence, decreasing cloudiness, and increasing net downward radiation, which increases the surface temperature. However, results indicate that evaporative cooling dominates radiative warming in this initial study. The strong evaporation also supplies moisture to the atmosphere, suggesting an increase in precipitation, but the sinking moist air diverges away from the TGD region with no net change in precipitation. This numerical study represents an initial methodology for quantification of the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the local climate and a more comprehensive, fine-scale set of multi-season simulations with additional observational data is needed for a more complete analysis.

  19. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-01

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences. PMID:26442144

  20. Biogeography of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): Distribution, Endemism, and Area Relationships in South America

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations. PMID:23527261

  1. Population structure of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) in maize-growing areas with atrazine application versus non-maize-growing areas in South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du Preez, L.H.; Solomon, K.R.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Weldon, C.

    2005-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been suggested to cause gonadal deformities in frogs and could possibly impact on reproduction. Since the early 1960s, atrazine has been used in large amounts in maize production areas of South Africa. These areas overlap with populations of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) that has a wide distribution in southern Africa and is found in most water-bodies including those where atrazine residues are detected. The aim of this study was to compare various attributes of individual- and population-level responses of X. laevis from maize-growing and non-maize-growing areas. Xenopus laevis were studied in three reference and five maize-growing sites. Sex ratio, snout-vent length, body-mass and age profiles were found to be similar for populations in maize-growing and non-maize-growing areas. Our mark-recapture data indicated that all sites had robust populations. There were no significant relationships between exposure to atrazine and any of the parameters investigated in populations of X. laevis.

  2. Marine Protected Area Management in South Africa: New Policies, Old Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowman, Merle; Hauck, Maria; van Sittert, Lance; Sunde, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    A historical perspective on MPA identification and governance in South Africa reflects the continued influence of a top-down and natural science-based paradigm, that has hardly changed over the past half century, despite the wealth of literature, and a growing consensus, that advocates the need to adopt a more integrated and human-centered approach. Based on extensive research in two coastal fishing communities, the paper highlights impacts and conflicts arising from this conventional approach to MPA identification, planning and management. It argues that failure to understand the particular fishery system in all its complexity, in particular the human dimensions, and involve resource users in planning and decision-making processes, undermines efforts to achieve conservation and fisheries management objectives. The customary rights of local resource users, and their food and livelihood needs in relation to marine resources, need to be acknowledged, prioritized and integrated into planning and decision-making processes. Convincing ecologists, fisheries scientists and managers, that MPA success depends on addressing the root causes of resource decline and incorporating social factors into MPA identification, planning and management, remains a huge challenge in South Africa.

  3. Marine protected area management in South Africa: new policies, old paradigms.

    PubMed

    Sowman, Merle; Hauck, Maria; van Sittert, Lance; Sunde, Jackie

    2011-04-01

    A historical perspective on MPA identification and governance in South Africa reflects the continued influence of a top-down and natural science-based paradigm, that has hardly changed over the past half century, despite the wealth of literature, and a growing consensus, that advocates the need to adopt a more integrated and human-centered approach. Based on extensive research in two coastal fishing communities, the paper highlights impacts and conflicts arising from this conventional approach to MPA identification, planning and management. It argues that failure to understand the particular fishery system in all its complexity, in particular the human dimensions, and involve resource users in planning and decision-making processes, undermines efforts to achieve conservation and fisheries management objectives. The customary rights of local resource users, and their food and livelihood needs in relation to marine resources, need to be acknowledged, prioritized and integrated into planning and decision-making processes. Convincing ecologists, fisheries scientists and managers, that MPA success depends on addressing the root causes of resource decline and incorporating social factors into MPA identification, planning and management, remains a huge challenge in South Africa. PMID:20449745

  4. Effects of hydropower operations on recreational use and nonuse values at Glen Canyon and Flaming Gorge Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    Increases in streamflows are generally positively related to the use values of angling and white-water boating, and constant flows tend to increase the use values more than fluctuating flows. In most instances, however, increases in streamflows beyond some threshold level cause the use values to decrease. Expenditures related to angling and white-water boating account for about $24 million of activity in the local economy around Glen Canyon Dam and $24.8 million in the local economy around flaming Gorge Dam. The range of operational scenarios being considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, when use rates are held constant, could change the combined use value of angling and white-water boating below Glen Canyon Dam, increasing it by as much as 50%, depending on prevailing hydrological conditions. Changes in the combined use value below Flaming Gorge Dam could range from a decrease of 9% to an increase of 26%. Nonuse values, such as existence and bequest values, could also make a significant contribution to the total value of each site included in this study; however, methodological and data limitations prevented estimating how each operational scenario could change nonuse values.

  5. Chemometric evaluation of nitrate contamination in the groundwater of a hard rock area in Dharapuram, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajil Kumar, P. J.; Jegathambal, P.; James, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations on groundwater nitrate contamination in the Dharapuram area of Tamil Nadu in south India as a primary step to initiate denitrification. Groundwater samples were collected from 26 selected locations during the pre-monsoon season in July 2010 and analysed for nitrate and other water quality parameters. Two important water types were identified, viz. Ca-Na-HCO3 and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl. It is found that the majority of samples possess high nitrate concentration; 57 % of samples exceeded the permissible limit of Indian (45 mg/L) and WHO (50 mg/L) drinking water standard. Spatial distribution map of NO3 suggested that major contamination was observed in the SW and NW parts of the study area. This result was in agreement with the corresponding land-use pattern in this study area. Denitrification process at greater depths was evident from the negative correlation between NO3 and well depth. The sources and controlling factors of high nitrate were investigated using cross plots of NO3 with other selected hydrochemical parameters. Positive correlation for NO3 was observed with EC, K, Cl and SO4. This analysis was capable of differentiating the various sources of nitrate in groundwater. The major sources of nitrate contamination are identified as areas of high fertilizer application, sewages and animal waste dumping yards. Regulation of these pollutant sources with appropriate and cost-effective denitrification process can restore the water quality in this area.

  6. Modeling underwater transport of oil spilled from deepwater area in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haibo; An, Wei; You, Yunxiang; Lei, Fanghui; Zhao, Yupeng; Li, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Lagrangian integral technique and Lagrangian particle-tracking technique, a numerical model was developed to simulate the underwater transport of oil from a deepwater spill. This model comprises two submodels: a plume dynamics model and an advection-diffusion model. The former is used to simulate the stages dominated by the initial jet momentum and plume buoyancy of the spilled oil, while the latter is used to simulate the stage dominated by the ambient current and turbulence. The model validity was verified through comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data from several laboratory flume experiments and a field experiment. To demonstrate the capability of the model further, it was applied to the simulation of a hypothetical oil spill occurring at the seabed of a deepwater oil/gas field in the South China Sea. The results of the simulation would be useful for contingency planning with regard to the emergency response to an underwater oil spill.

  7. Identification of airborne microbiota in selected areas in a health-care setting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of bio-aerosols in the spread of disease and spoilage of food has been described in numerous studies; nevertheless this information at South African hospitals is limited. Attributable to their size, bio-aerosols may be suspended in the air for long periods placing patients at risk of infection and possibly settling on surfaces resulting in food contamination. The aim of the study is to assess the microbial composition of the air in the kitchen and selected wards at a typical district hospital in South Africa. Air samples were collected using the settle plates and an SAS Super 90 air sampler by impaction on agar. These microbial samples were quantified and identified using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Analytic Profile Index (API). Results Microbial counts were found to be higher in the fourth (≤6.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) sampling rounds when compared to the first (≥2 cfu/m-3), second (≤3.0 × 101 cfu/m-3) and third (≤1.5 × 101 cfu/m-3) sampling rounds. Genera identified included Bacillus, Kocuria, Staphylococcus, Arthrobacter, Candida, Aureobasidium, Penicillium and Phoma amongst others. The presence of these pathogens is of concern, attributable to their ability to cause diseases in humans especially in those with suppressed host immunity defenses. Furthermore, fungal genera identified (e.g. Candida) in this study are also known to cause food spoilage and fungal infections in patients. Conclusion Results from this study indicate the importance of air quality monitoring in health-care settings to prevent possible hospital-acquired infections and contamination of hospital surfaces including food contact surfaces by airborne contaminants. PMID:24750818

  8. Monitoring the event-scale evolution of a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. L.; Suppe, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Daan River Gorge in western Taiwan provides a unique opportunity to directly observe the impacts of individual flood events on channel evolution. The 1200 m long and up to 20 m deep bedrock gorge has formed in the past 11 years in response to uplift of the riverbed during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. The extremely rapid pace of erosion ensures that flood events have measurable and often dramatic effects on the channel. Since early 2009 we have monitored evolution of the gorge with repeated RTK GPS surveys, laser rangefinder measurements, and terrestrial LIDAR surveys. Six rainfall stations and five water level gauges provide hydrological data for the basin. Discharge is highly variable, ranging from 5 to over 1000 m3/s, and incision is largely driven by floods associated with typhoons and other heavy rainfall events. Different sections of the channel may respond to floods in different ways. In the lower gorge, bedrock incision has ceased, and flood-related changes involve the deposition and removal of sediment. In the steeper upper gorge, flood impacts have included bedrock incision, knickpoint retreat, sediment deposition, and channel widening. Upstream of the bedrock gorge the river is cut into gravel fill, exposing bedrock in the channel bed. The river here is relatively mobile, and floods have caused bedrock incision, channel migration, sediment deposition and removal, and channel avulsion. Since monitoring began, the Daan River has experienced one typhoon (Typhoon Morakot, Aug. 2009) and four heavy rainfall events (April 2009, June 2009, June 2010 and July 2010). Typhoon Morakot, the largest of these events, with 984 mm of rain over five days and a discharge of 1000-1300 m3/s, was a net erosive event, causing 1.5 to 2 m of sediment removal from the lower gorge and a similar amount of bedrock incision in the preexisting upper gorge. In addition, an avulsion of the main channel ~2 km upstream of the gorge redirected flow into the gorge, triggering the

  9. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  10. Ground water in the Crow Creek-Sand Lake area, Brown and Marshall Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopman, F. C.

    1957-01-01

    Transpiration by vegetation and evaporation account for most of the ground water discharged in the area; relatively little ground water is discharged by streams, wells, and springs, or as underflow out of the area. Much of the low-lying land is waterlogged. However, by improving and cleaning both the natural and artifical drains and by lowering the water table by pumping, waterlogging can be materially decreased and its recurrence prevented.

  11. Excavation of Tunnel Valleys and Inner Gorges by Subglacial Meltwater Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaud, F.; Flowers, G. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Koppes, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Subglacial meltwater erosion (SME) is thought to contribute to the excavation of tunnel valleys and inner gorges, yet the underpinnings of the formation of these landforms remain obscure. Tunnel valleys are large channel-like features (100s of metres to few kilometres wide and up to 10s of kilometres in length) commonly found in the vicinity of former continental ice-sheet margins. The main question concerning their formation is: does SME excavate them gradually or by large subglacial floods? Inner gorges are V-shaped incisions in an otherwise glacially overprinted landscape. The initial assertion of their fluvial origin has recently been disputed, as they have been shown to persist through multiple glaciations and SME has been invoked to explain some inner gorges in Scandinavia and the Alps. The question is therefore: can SME explain the excavation of an inner gorge? In order to test these hypotheses related to the genesis of tunnel valleys and inner gorges, we use a 1-D model of subglacial hydrology to drive a model of bedrock erosion by total sediment load based on the tools and cover effect. Calculated values of subglacial transport stage in response to ordinary seasonal processes are comparable to those during large floods in rivers. Subglacial floods therefore limit bedrock erosion by transporting sediment farther from the bed, thus inhibiting impacts. Consequently, we find that gradual SME is likely to produce more incision over a glacial cycle. When we simulate the total SME that occurs through a glacial cycle under a synthetic ice-sheet margin, we are able to produce tunnel valleys or inner gorges over the timespan of a glaciation. Based on these results, we propose that (1) tunnel valleys and inner gorges can both be the result of SME, (2) tunnel valleys in bedrock can be formed through gradual processes rather than floods, and (3) SME enhances inner gorge relief.

  12. Dongsha Area Gas-hydrate Petroleum System in northern Slope of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pibo, Su; Zhibin, Sha

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in addressing key issues on the formation, occurrence,and stability of gas hydrate in nature. The concept of a gas-hydrate petroleum system, similar to the system that guides current conventional oil and gas exploration,is gaining acceptance.A gas-hydrate petroleum systems model is a digital data model of a gas-hydrate petroleum system in which the interrelated processes and their results can be simulated by numerical modeling.A new module of gas-hydrate petroleum system simulating can predict the thickness of the gas hydrate stability field, the generation and migration of biogenic and thermogenic methane gas,and its accumulation as gas hydrates in gas hydrate stability field. Dongsha area is located to eastern part of the Pearl River Mouth basin, and is one of the key hydrate-exploration areas in China. However, the gas hydrate petroleum system and basin modeling in Dongsha area haven't been paid enough attention. In the paper,geological conditions for gas hydrate formation have been naturally prepared on the Dong sha area.The paper first analyzed the geological-tectonic conditions of gas hydrate formation in Dongsha area,and selected the typical sections in Dong sha uplift area and southwest taiwan basin.The geological models of gas hydrate reservoir in the two study area were constructed through the typical seismic image.The typical seismic lines are obtained from the two study area by Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey.In combination with physical,thermal and geochemical data,the match condition of gas hydrate formation was studied.by sedimentary basin simulation technique.The research results is as followed:1.In southwest taiwan basin Basin, thermal developing history is low in deep department stratum,Source of gas of hydrate come from shallower biogenic gas;2.In Dongsha uplift areas,the thickness of Cenozoic is thin and the Sediment is limited,so biogenic gas was scarce,Source of gas of hydrate come from a

  13. Rongbuk re-visited: Geochronology of leucogranites in the footwall of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Everest Region, Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, John M.; Searle, Michael P.; Jessup, Micah J.; Crowley, James L.; Law, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The Hermit's Gorge area adjacent to the Rongbuk Glacier on the north side of Mount Everest is a critical location to establish the timing and duration of movement along the ductile strand of the South Tibetan Detachment system (STDS), a low-angle, north-dipping normal fault that bounds the upper part of the Greater Himalayan Sequence. Monazite from four leucogranite samples in the Hermit's Gorge that bracket the timing of ductile fabric development has been dated using both U/Th-Pb ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICPMS. Results suggest that the earliest, ~ 16.4 Ma, leucogranite sills have been folded and deformed along with the host sillimanite gneisses and calc-silicates whereas structurally higher sills and dykes that post-date fabric development are slightly younger, all within uncertainty of one another at 15.6 to 15.4 Ma. Field relations combined with age data constrain ductile fabric formation associated with movement along this strand of the STDS as being on-going at 16.4 Ma but had ceased prior to 15.6 Ma, while brittle faulting along the STDS is younger than 15.4 Ma. Combined with data from the Everest massif and surrounding region, ages of granite crystallization and ductile shearing propagated up-structural section and northward with time.

  14. Aerosol effects on the enhancement of cloud-to-ground lightning over major urban areas of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, S. K.; Liou, Y.-A.; Ha, K.-J.

    2009-03-01

    A long term (1989-1999) investigation has been made using the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data collected to study the aerosol effect on lightning activity over five major urban areas of South Korea. The cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) of South Korea. The results reveal that an enhancement of around 40-64% in the negative flash density and 26-49% in the positive flash density is observed over the urban areas compared to their surroundings. On the other hand a percentage decrease of around 7-19% in positive flashes occurs over the urban area. The results are in good agreement with those available in the literature. The enhancement of lightning is examined in relation to the PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and SO 2 concentrations. The PM10 and SO 2 concentrations exhibit a positive linear correlation with the number of cloud-to-ground flashes, while a negative correlation is observed between those concentrations and the percentage of positive flashes. Positive correlations of 0.795 and 0.801 are found for the PM10 and SO 2 concentrations, respectively, when compared separately with the number of CG flashes, establishing the effect of aerosols on urban CG lightning enhancement. However, negative correlations of - 0.577 and - 0.548 are obtained for the PM10 and SO 2 concentrations, respectively, when compared separately with the percentage of positive flashes.

  15. An integrated and open source GIS environmental management system for a protected area in the south of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, A.; Duarte, L.; Sillero, N.; Gonçalves, J. A.; Fonte, J.; Gonçalves-Seco, L.; Pinheiro da Luz, L. M.; dos Santos Beja, N. M. R.

    2015-10-01

    Herdade da Contenda (HC), located in Moura municipality, Beja district (Alentejo province) in the south of Portugal (southwestern Iberia Peninsula), is a national hunting area with 5270ha. The development of an integrated system that aims to make the management of the natural and cultural heritage resources will be very useful for an effective management of this area. This integrated system should include the physical characterization of the territory, natural conservation, land use and land management themes, as well the cultural heritage resources. This paper presents a new tool for an integrated environmental management system of the HC, which aims to produce maps under a GIS open source environment (QGIS). The application is composed by a single button which opens a window. The window is composed by twelve menus (File, DRASTIC, Forest Fire Risk, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Bioclimatic Index, Cultural Heritage, Fauna and Flora, Ortofoto, Normalizes Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use Land Cover Cover (LULC) and Help. Several inputs are requires to generate these maps, e.g. DEM, geologic information, soil map, hydraulic conductivity information, LULC map, vulnerability and economic information, NDVI. Six buttons were added to the toolbar which allows to manipulate the information in the map canvas: Zoom in, Zoom out, Pan, Print/Layout and Clear. This integrated and open source GIS environment management system was developed for the HC area, but could be easily adapted to other natural or protected area. Despite the lack of data, the methodology presented fulfills the objectives.

  16. The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available. PMID:22022632

  17. Transfer of Cadmium from Soil to Vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg−1) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg−1). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg−1). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils. PMID:25247431

  18. Marketing Strategies Preferred by South Carolina One-Stop Career Center Area Directors to Attract Dislocated Workers under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Eugene F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the marketing strategies South Carolina One-Stop Career Centers Area Directors felt provided the best opportunity for dislocated workers to learn about their services. Two theories emerged: the Service Marketing Theory and the Word-of-Mouth Marketing Theory. Of the 36 area directors cited for this study,…

  19. Geology and hydrology of the 300 Area and vicinity, Hanford Site, South-Central Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylord, D. R.; Poeter, E. P.

    1991-10-01

    The following report summarizes the findings of a joint Washington State University (WSU) and Colorado School of Mines (CSM) research team that investigated the geology and hydrogeology of the 300 Area during FY 87-89. The primary goal of this research was to evaluate existing data and identify new and innovative techniques and/or methods necessary to characterize the 300 Area geology and hydrogeology. Site characterization of the 300 Area demands the close integration of geologic and hydrogeologic research to achieve the most meaningful results. Geologic aspects of the research focused on the identification and analysis of both small- (i.e., sedimentary-textural characteristics) and large-scale (i.e., lithofacies and architectural elements) aquifer heterogeneities and on the derivation of fundamental compositional (i.e., mineralogy and geochemistry) data to assist in identification of marker beds. Hydrogeologic aspects of the research focused on identification and refinement of hydraulically significant, three-dimensional aquifer units termed hydrofacies and on preliminary inverse modeling of ground water flow in the 300 Area. Hydrofacies are fundamental units that will aid in site characterization, development of monitoring programs, and design of remedial action. Inverse modeling is used to improve estimates of the values of hydraulic parameters associated with each hydrofacies. The WSU/CSM research team identified two major shortcomings of the geologic and hydrogeologic data base for the 300 Area. First, the quality of geologic data from 300 Area drilling is far below that necessary to characterize either the geology or hydrogeology of the suprabasalt strata. Second, the limited number of field-scale aquifer tests and the veritable lack of hydraulic testing of discrete aquifer intervals greatly limit attempts to accurately identify basic hydraulic parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and/or specific yield.

  20. 40-years of fires in a touristic area from South of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Costa del Sol in the Province of Malaga is one of the major touristic region in Spain. Its develop started in the 1960s of the XXth century at the same time as other regions in Mediterranean Europe. Since then, this area has become a holiday touristic centre for different countries and regions from Europe (United Kingdom, Escandinavia, Germany, Netherlands, Russia, etc.). Likewise, Costa del Sol has been characterised by a constant grow of the residence tourism rendering in an extreme increment of urban areas, especially in those municipalities located in the coast. This expansión of urban áreas was carried out against rural and natural vegetated areas. The region is characterised by very montanious topography, predominant impermeable rocks (shales, schists and peridotites) and abundant rainfalls from October to May, especially, in the western area (where a climatic gradient is observed from humid to dry conditions). All of these features, joined a very spread and intense occupation by urban, infrastructures and touristic land uses, renders in a very high vulnerability to fires and their consequences. As fire removes vegetation cover and accelerate water erosion, local relief and climatic conditions induce to extreme high risk of soil loss and floodings. During the last 40 years, in the study area, the number of fires increased as weell as the affected area, following the similar trend for the rest of Spain and other Mediterranean countries. This situation increases the exposition to fire risk for more than one-million of people, which become at least two-millions during the summer months when fire conditions are expected.

  1. A Biophysical and Economic Profile of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands as Potential Large-Scale Antarctic Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Yesson, Christopher; Gravestock, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The current hiatus in the establishment of a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Antarctic means that other routes to conservation are required. The protection of overseas territories in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic represents one way to advance the initiation of such a network. This review of the physical and biological features of the United Kingdom (U.K.) overseas territories of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is undertaken to estimate the importance of the islands in terms of marine conservation in the Southern Ocean and globally. The economy and management of SGSSI are also analysed, and the question of whether the islands already have sufficient protection to constitute part of an Antarctic network of MPAs is assessed. The SGSSI comprise unique geological and physical features, a diverse marine biota, including a significant proportion of endemic species and globally important breeding populations of marine predators. Regardless of past exploitation of biotic resources, such as seals, whales and finfish, SGSSI would make a significant contribution to biological diversity in an Antarctic network of MPAs. At present, conservation measures do not adequately protect all of the biological features that render the islands so important in terms of conservation at a regional and global level. However, a general lack of data on Antarctic marine ecosystems (particularly needed for SGSSSI) makes it difficult to assess this fully. One barrier to achieving more complete protection is the continuing emphasis on fishing effort in these waters by U.K. government. Other non-U.K. Antarctic overseas territories of conservation importance are also compromised as MPAs because of the exploitation of fisheries resources in their waters. The possible non-use values of SGSSI as well as the importance of ecosystem services that are indirectly used by people are outlined in this review. Technology is improving the potential for management of remote MPAs

  2. Rapid Gorge Formation in an Artificially Created Waterfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, L.; Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2014-12-01

    A number of studies have examined rates of gorge formation, nick point retreat, and the controls on those rates via bedrock erodibility, the effectiveness of bedrock erosion mechanisms and the role of hillslope processes. Most findings are based on conceptual / empirical models or long term landscape analysis; but studies of recent quantifiable events are scarce yet highly valuable. Here we present expert eye witness account and quantitative survey of large and rapid fluvial erosion events that occurred over an artificially created waterfall at a spillway mouth. In 6 years a ~270 m long, ~100 m deep and ~100 to 160 m wide canyon was carved, and ~1.58 x106 m3 of granite bedrock was removed from the spillway site. Available flow data indicates that the erosion took place under unremarkable flood discharge conditions. The analysis of historic topographic maps enables the reconstruction of the former topography and successive erosion events, enabling the quantification of bedrock erosion amounts, and rates. Analysis of bedrock erodibility and discontinuity patterns demonstrates that the bedrock is mechanically strong, and that similar rock strength and fracture patterns are found throughout the region. It is apparent that structural pre-conditioning through fracture density and orientation in relation to flow and slope direction is of paramount importance in the gorge development. The presented example provides an exceptional opportunity for studying the evolution process of a bedrock canyon and to precisely measure the rate of bedrock channel erosion over a six year period. Results illustrate the highly episodic nature of the erosion and highlight several key observations for the adjustability of bedrock rivers. The observations have implications for the efficiency of bedrock erosion and raise important questions about incision rates, driving mechanisms and timescale assumptions' in models of landscape change.

  3. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  4. Assessing internal biophysical vulnerability to landslide hazards - a nested catchment approach: Xiangxi Watershed / Three Gorges Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, Matthias; Seeber, Christoph; Hartmann, Heike; Xiang, Wei; King, Lorenz

    2010-05-01

    The Three Gorges dam construction was completed in 2006. Besides the international media, also the responsible authorities and various scholarly communities pay close attention to potential and actual environmental impacts related to the impoundment and development activities. The geo-environment within the Three Gorges region is highly conducive to landslides. Consequently, a scientific monitoring and risk mitigation system was established and is still under development. Risk analysis with regard to gravity driven mass movements is highly complex and strongly site specific - several aspects hamper a universal methodology applicable for landslide risk and site assessment. The interdisciplinary Sino-German Yangtze-Project Research co-operation aims, among others, to support the sustainable cultivation of the newly developed ecosystems within the Yangtze catchments. Land use change and increasing population growth are causing severe pressure on the scarce land resources. Landslides are acknowledged as important threat, hence vulnerability of certain landscape components have to be identified, quantified and monitored. A nested quantitative approach for vulnerability analysis is developed. The applied risk and vulnerability model understands risk as the product of hazard and vulnerability. Whereas vulnerability is characterized by: mass movement intensity and susceptibility of the respective element at risk. The watershed of Xiangxi river serves as study area. In general, catchment approaches intent and proved to be a functional geographical unit for successful integrated resources management. Several limitations with regard to data accessibility, availability and accuracy have to be considered due to restrictions of feasible scales. Comprehensive large-scale site investigations are confined to training areas for model calibration and validation. Remote sensing potentials are utilised for land use/ land cover change analysis and localization of selected elements

  5. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary. PMID:12201151

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of areas surrounding two transformer salvage companies, Colman, South Dakota, September 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Greichus, Y.A.; Dohman, B.A.

    1980-06-01

    Soil, corn plants, and foliage from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls. Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCBs were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCBs found in the contaminated areas closely resembled Aroclor 1260 as did the PCBs in the waste oil, wherease PCBs in other areas were more similar to Aroclor 1254. PCBs on surface soils taken from an unplowed pasture near the factories also resembled Aroclor 1260, whereas samples taken from depths of 2 to 4 inches showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were < 0.05 ppM, whereas leaves contained PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppM. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas.

  7. Anderson Canyon--A Classic Area in South-Central Idaho for Teaching Alpine Glacial Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paull, Rachel Krebs

    1988-01-01

    Describes a source of diversity and enrichment for summer field experiences. Presents information on the geographic and geologic setting, glacial history and record, relative dating of deposits, and use for student experience. Tables include a generalized location of the area, summary of moraine morphology, and pictures. (RT)

  8. Body size of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera, Insecta) in areas with different levels of conservation in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Linzmeier, Adelita M; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S

    2011-01-01

    Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but body size was not a good predictor of its abundance. There was a trend toward a decrease in body size from the less to the most conserved areas; however, the definition of a pattern in successional areas not seems to be entirely clear. PMID:22303100

  9. Body size of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera, Insecta) in areas with different levels of conservation in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linzmeier, Adelita M.; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but body size was not a good predictor of its abundance. There was a trend toward a decrease in body size from the less to the most conserved areas; however, the definition of a pattern in successional areas not seems to be entirely clear. PMID:22303100

  10. 78 FR 58266 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin... standard. DATES: The proposed rule published on August 27, 2009 (74 FR 43654) is withdrawn with respect to...-4102, israels.ken@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 27, 2009 (74 FR 43654), EPA...

  11. Summary of data from onsite and laboratory analyses of surface water and marsh porewater from South Florida Water Management District Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, South Florida, March 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of chemical analysis for samples collected during March, 1995, as part of a study to quantify the interaction of aquatic organic material (referred to here as dissolved organic carbon with dissolved metal ions). The work was done in conjunction with the South Florida Water Management District, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Ecosystems Initiative, and the South Florida National Water Quality Assessment Study Unit. Samples were collected from surface canals and from marsh sites. Results are based on onsite and laboratory measurements for 27 samples collected at 10 locations. The data file contains sample description, dissolved organic carbon concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance, and additional analytical data for samples collected at several sites in the Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, south Florida.

  12. Hyper-spectral observations of greenhouse gases in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding Yi; Zhang, Chun-ming; Qin, Lin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiang-hong; Li, Hong-qun; Yang, Fu-Mo; Chen, Gang-Cai; Wang, Shu-peng; Zhang, Xing-ying; Zhang, Peng

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the most ambitious hydroelectric and flood control project in human history. Its riparian zone has areas of ~300 km2 with water levels fluctuating between 175m above the sea in winter and 145m in summer, and is a special type of wetlands at the low water levels. These wetlands may release CO2 and CH4 with significantly spatial and temporal variations, and have been misleadingly described as a “methane menace” and caused a worldwide concern. A joint research program for TGR greenhouse gases monitoring is operated by several institutions and based at Yangtze Normal Univ. in Fuling of Chongqing. It is characterized by the combined satellite, airship, and ground-based hyper-spectral observations, which serve to simultaneously measure various eco-environmental parameters in a large area with high spatial and spectral resolutions, and to model the status and key dynamic processes of the TGR greenhouse gases. In this talk, the retrieval algorithm of the gas species from satellite near-infrared observations is discussed with special attentions paid to the mountainous and foggy TGR region. The distributions and variations of TGR greenhouse gases are studied by using the AIRS and SCIAMACHY monthly means of multiple years. The airship and ground-based observation system is outlined and expected to provide unique data needed to address the TGR environmental issues, and to evolve towards operational service.

  13. Pattern recognition method applied to the forecast of strong earthquakes in South American seismic prone areas

    SciTech Connect

    Benavidez, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pattern recognition method is applied to the Andean seismic region that extends from southern latitudes 2 to 27 in the South American continent, to set a criterion for the prediction of the potential sites of strong earthquakes epicenters in the zone. It is assumed that two hypothesis hold. First, the strong earthquake epicenters typically cluster around the intersection of morphostructural lineaments. Second, the rules of recognition obtained for neighboring zones which exhibit distinctive neotectonic evolution, state of stress, spatial earthquake distribution and geological development, may be different in spite of the fact that the morphostructural zoning does not reflect a separation between them. Hence, the region is divided into two broad-scale tectonic segments located above slabs of similar scale in the Nazca plate in which subduction takes place almost subhorizontally (dipping at an angle of about 10) between latitudes 2S and 15S, and at a steeper angle (of approximately 30) within latitudes 15S to 27S. The morphostructural zoning is carried out for both zones with the determination of the lineaments and the corresponding disjunctive knots which are defined as the objects of recognition when applying the pattern recognition method. The Cora-3 algorithm is used as the computational procedure for the search of the rule of recognition of dangerous and non-dangerous sites for each zone. The set criteria contain in each case several characteristic features that represent the topography, geology and tectonics of each region. Also, it is shown that they have a physical meaning that mostly reflects the style of tectonic deformation in the related regions.

  14. Determination of brominated flame retardants in Jukskei River catchment area in Gauteng, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olukunle, O I; Okonkwo, O J; Kefeni, K K; Lupankwa, M

    2012-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are considered to be environmental pollutants due to their toxicity, persistence and ubiquity in the environment. Little information is known about the presence of brominated flame retardants in South Africa's water systems. Therefore, this study examined and compared different extraction methods (liquid-liquid (LL) vs. solid phase (SP) for water, Soxhlet extraction (SE) vs. ultrasonic for sediment) for extraction efficiencies in the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in water and sediment from Jukskei River. Clean-up of sample extracts was performed using disposable Pasteur pipettes containing neutral, acidified and basic silica gel. Final extracts, after concentration and dilution to 200 μL were analyzed by injecting 1 μL in the GC-ECD and GC-MS. Results obtained showed good recoveries for most of the tested analytes in water; for LLE, values ranged between 80.5 ± 10.22% and 126.6 ± 1.94%; SPE, 70.41 ± 2.01%-124.78 ± 3.78% (n = 3) and for sediment (73-114%, with an RSD <17%) using SE. The ultrasonic extraction method gave less than 50% recovery for most of the congeners. The concentrations of the BFRs in water samples were less than the detection limit while the concentrations in sediment ranged from 1.95 to 36.61 ng g(-1) dry weight for Σ(11) BFRs. Dichloromethane and n-hexane : acetone (2 : 1, v/v) gave optimum value of recovery for water and sediment respectively. PMID:22277235

  15. Geochemistry of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area because of utilization for water supplies and important influences on surface-water resources resulting from large springs and streamflow- loss zones. Examination of geochemical information provides a better understanding of the complex flow systems within these aquifers and interactions between the aquifers. Major-ion chemistry in both aquifers is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate near outcrop areas, with basinward evolution towards various other water types. The most notable differences in major-ion chemistry between the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are in concentrations of sulfate within the Minnelusa aquifer. Sulfate concentrations increase dramatically near a transition zone where dissolution of anhydrite is actively occurring. Water chemistry for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers is controlled by reactions among calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. Saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, and dolomite for most samples in both the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are indicative of the occurrence of dedolomitization. Because water in the Madison aquifer remains undersaturated with respect to gypsum, even at the highest sulfate concentrations, upward leakage into the overlying Minnelusa aquifer has potential to drive increased dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation. Isotopic information is used to evaluate ground-water flowpaths, ages, and mixing conditions for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Distinctive patterns exist in the distribution of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation for the Black Hills area, with isotopically lighter precipitation generally occurring at higher elevations and latitudes. Distributions of 18O in ground water are consistent with spatial patterns in recharge areas, with isotopically lighter 18O values in the Madison aquifer resulting from generally higher elevation recharge sources, relative to the

  16. Isolation of pure Babesia equi and Babesia caballi organisms in splenectomized horses from endemic areas in South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Waal, D T; Van Heerden, J; Van den Berg, S S; Stegmann, G F; Potgieter, F T

    1988-03-01

    Both Babesia equi and Babesia caballi are endemic in large parts of South Africa. Attempts were made to obtain pure local isolates of both B. equi and B. caballi for the purpose of developing serological tests to study the epidemiology of equine babesiosis in this country. The indirect fluorescent antibody test was used to screen horses for B. equi and B. caballi in an endemic area. Seven horses and 3 donkeys between 3 and 36 months of age that tested negative were subsequently splenectomized. The splenectomy operation was performed through the abdominal approach. A 100% survival rate was achieved through this method, probably because it reduced the risk involved in the operation. Blood collected from naturally infected horses and passaged in fully susceptible splenectomized horses and a donkey, under laboratory conditions, produced 2 isolates of Babesia caballi and 1 of B. equi. Microscopical and serological examinations confirmed that these were pure isolates. PMID:3353098

  17. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Chernyak, S.; Gouden, Y.; Hayes, J.; Robins, T.; Chetty, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004–2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 ± 47 pg m−3, and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. PMID:18838199

  18. Watershed development practices for ecorestoration in a tribal area - A case study in Attappady hills, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zaag, Pieter Van der

    Attappady is a rural area in Kerala, South India, that has suffered from severe land degradation and which is inhabited by a poor and predominantly tribal population. The combination of severe land degradation, poverty and a tribal population make Attappady hydrologically and socially unique. Ecological degradation and deforestation followed the gradual building up of land pressure resulting from immigration by more wealthy outsiders. The hills of Attappady were once the forest land of Kerala. Recently it was on the verge of complete degradation. This paper explains how an ecorestoration project involving soil and water conservation interventions, the introduction of agro-forestry, nutritional diversification, income generation activities and training was implemented in a participatory manner. The project had positive impacts on both the environment and the livelihoods of the people living in the watershed, but it also suffered from drawbacks. This paper reports on the successes as well as the lessons learned from this unique ecorestoration project.

  19. An explanation of bright areas inside Shackleton Crater at the Lunar South Pole other than water-ice deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Junichi; Yamamoto, Satoru; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    2013-08-01

    water molecules of cometary and/or solar wind origin migrated to and accumulated in cold permanently shadowed areas at the lunar poles has long been debated from the perspective of scientific interest and expectations for future utilization. Recently, high reflectance condition was observed inside the lunar South Pole Shackleton Crater for the 1064.4 nm of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the high reflectance was explained to perhaps be due to a surface frost layer in excess of 20% water-ice. Here we investigate the crater with the Selenological Engineering Explorer Multi-band imager that has nine bands in the visible to near-infrared range, including a 1050 nm band (62 m/pixel resolution). Part of the illuminated inner wall of Shackleton Crater exhibits high reflectance at 1050 nm but also exhibits the diagnostic 1250 nm spectral absorption, a signature that is consistent with naturally bright purest anorthosite.

  20. Multiple strategies for resilient livelihoods in communal areas of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Twine, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Livestock farming in communal areas is an activity pursued by rural households as one of a range of livelihood strategies aimed at spreading risk. The cash and non-cash benefits derived from livestock, as well as the wide range of secondary resources harvested from communal rangelands, make an important contribution to livelihood diversification, and hence, resilience. Rural development policy should therefore not focus narrowly on commercialisation of livestock production in communal areas. Rather, it should take a multi-faceted approach to building livelihood resilience while providing pathways for households to escape poverty through enhancing the multiple benefits of livestock, adding value to secondary rangeland resources, and expanding the rural non-farm economy. PMID:25506184

  1. A study of sediment transport and erosion in the Fourchon area of south Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Self, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies were used as aids in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne, a coastal marshland of Louisiana. Problems were found in the aerial photography method used. Vegetational differences do not always reflect sediment differences. Only areas containing different soils and sediments are easily defined with aerial photography. The shoreline erosion rate is 75 to 100 ft/yr. Areas which are undergoing erosion shift due to changes in wave refraction. In canals and channels with strong currents, erosion also occurs at a rapid rate. It is recommended that drainage patterns be studied carefully before breaches are made as man-made breaches could reverse drainage.

  2. Interim report on results of test drilling in the Savannah area, Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Stephen M.; Wait, Robert L.

    1955-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation which is being made in cooperation with the Georgia Department of Mines, Mining and Geology, Chatham County, and the City of Savannah, is to determine whether salt-water encroachment has occurred in the principal limestone aquifer in the Savannah area, and, if so, to delimit the extent of the encroachment vertically and laterally.  The drilling of two test wells, which constitutes the initial part of the investigation, was done in April, May, and June, 1954.  This interim report describes the subsurface geology in the Savannah area and reports the results of water samples taken during the test drilling.  The investigation is being continued by M. A. Warren and F. B. Hudson of the U.S. Geological Survey, and later results will be given in a subsequent report.

  3. Geomorphic analysis in areas of low-rate neotectonic deformation: South Epirus (Greece) as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntokos, Dimitrios; Lykoudi, Evdoxia; Rondoyanni, Theodora

    2016-06-01

    River morphology and the distribution of river deposits reliably reflect the neotectonic activity of a region in relation to rock resistance and climatic changes. Geomorphic indices have been used to identify landscape evolution and active faults, particularly in areas of high-rate tectonic deformation. In areas of low-rate deformation, the influence of neotectonic activity on landscape evolution is less apparent, although it is important. The aim of this study is to examine the region of south Epirus (Greece), a region where the rates of active tectonic processes are low. Because rock resistance is low and the sediment supply is intense in this region, the fault surfaces are either not well preserved or they are covered. For the purposes of this paper, geomorphic analysis (including the drainage basin asymmetry factor, the basin hypsometric curve and integral, the valley floor width-to-height ratio, longitudinal river profiles, the stream-length gradient index normalized by the graded river gradient, and the mountain front sinuosity index) was used to evaluate neotectonic activity and to identify covered, potentially active faults. In places where fault surfaces could be observed, geological mapping and tectonic analysis were applied to determine the fault characteristics. The first result of this work is that important active or potentially active faults extend for a significant distance into the alluvial plains of south Epirus. In this case study, we considered that geomorphic indices constitute a valuable tool for identifying neotectonic activity in regions of low-rate deformation. Furthermore, geomorphic analysis reveals the location of covered fault structures, contributes to evaluating fault capability, and therefore to estimating seismotectonic hazard.

  4. Observation and analysis of time-variable gravity signal in China's Three Gorges Reservoir during the experimental water impoundment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Chen, C.; Liang, Q.; Du, J.

    2012-12-01

    The reasons of gravity field changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir of China are mainly due to the loads of huge water variations, which give rise to the crustal load deformation, the fluctuation of underground water and the secondary geological hazards. These consequences are becoming inevitable problems. On October 26, 2010, the dam front water level reached 175 m which was the highest water level of engineering design. Since then, the Three Gorges Reservoir had carried out experimental impoundment for three consecutive years. To obtain the response information of Three Gorges Reservoir and geological environment of surrounding area during fluctuation period, we conducted a series of continuous gravity observation, expecting to study the time-variable gravity field during the fluctuation and high water level period, and then to discuss the evolution of geological environment. This paper is based on the continuous gravity observation data (gPhone#101) during five months (from July 2011 to December 2011) before and after Three Gorges Project experimental impoundment on the observation points off shore of Yangtze River. The results show that it can be effectively detected the impact of impoundment on regional gravity field by using gravity observing methods. After removing the various corrections of theory tides, atmospheric pressure, polar motion, etc., analysis show that the linear changes of gravity in the stable water level period was caused by instrument zero drift. According to the linear drift rate fitting from the period, the changes in composition of the entire observation period can be obtained using segmented drift fitting. Residuals of gravity anomalies after piecewise subsection fitting drift were in high consistency with the water level. In the prophase of impoundment, direct gravitational effects caused by lower water level fluctuations were very obvious and the gravity response changed before dam front water level because of the indirect factors such

  5. Trichinella zimbabwensis in wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of South Africa.

    PubMed

    La Grange, Louis J; Marucci, Gianluca; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-04-01

    Recent discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in crocodiles from Zimbabwe, Lake Cahora Basa, Mozambique, and from lake Abaja, Ethiopia, prompted strict control measures to curb the possible spread of the infection to humans and also to prevent its introduction to other countries, which were considered free of this pathogen. In 2006, the Chief Directorate Veterinary Services of Mpumalanga Province of South Africa launched a survey to investigate the status of wild and commercial breeding crocodiles in the province. To evaluate if T. zimbabwensis was circulating in the environments where crocodiles are living in South Africa, 9 fish, 36 reptiles (including 27 Nile crocodiles) and 4 mammals have been investigated to detect Trichinella sp. larvae in their muscles. In January 2008, a Nile crocodile from Komatipoort, sampled by means of a tail biopsy, tested positive for Trichinella larvae. In June-July 2008, Trichinella sp. larvae were also detected in four other Nile crocodiles from the Olifants River Gorge. The prevalence of Trichinella infection in the investigated wild Nile crocodiles from South Africa is 38.5%. The larvae were identified as belonging to T. zimbabwensis by multiplex-PCR. These are the first reports of T. zimbabwensis in South Africa and suggest that the distribution area of this parasite species is wider than that believed in the past. PMID:19167165

  6. Ground-water conditions in the Cottonwood-West Oakley Fan area, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.K.; Young, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive groundwater development in the Cottonwood-West Oakley Fan area, Cassia County, Idaho, has resulted in rapid water-level declines and establishment of two critical groundwater areas. A northwest-trending fault in nearly coincident with the boundary between the two critical groundwater areas. Southwest of the fault, water levels in limestone are as much as 200 feet higher than those in silicic volcanics northeast of the fault, which indicates the fault is an effective barrier to groundwater movement. Results of an aquifer test in limestone southwest of the fault further indicate no hydraulic connection with the silicic volcanics aquifer northeast of the fault. Water levels in wells completed in limestone and silicic volcanics aquifers have declined 5 and 5.5 feet per year since 1977. Groundwater withdrawals in 1980 were about 60,000 acre-free from the silicic volcanics aquifer and, between 1977 and 1982, averaged about 5,300 acre-feet per year from the limestone aquifer. Annual recharge to the silicic volcanics aquifer is between about 10,000 and 26,000 acre-feet; recharge to the limestone aquifer is near 4,000 acre-feet. Limited water-quality data indicate the groundwater is chemically suitable for irrigation and domestic use. (USGS)

  7. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies. PMID:25863773

  8. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem. PMID:23484000

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  10. Evidence of Macroalgal Colonization on Newly Ice-Free Areas following Glacial Retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem. PMID:23484000

  11. A geochemical investigation of selected areas in Greenville and Laurens counties, South Carolina--implications for mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to geochemically evaluate three areas within the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle (see index map) that have been shown by previous studies to contain anomalously high amounts of tin. Jackson and Moore (1992) reported the presence of cassiterite (SnO2)-bearing heavy-mineral concentrates from stream sediment samples that were collected during a regional geochemical reconnaissance of the Greenville 1° x 2° quadrangle. The data reported here confirm identified in selected heavy-mineral concentrate samples. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of barium, beryllium, lanthanum, and thorium are also reported for parts of the same areas. No significant mineral deposits are known to occur in the study areas. There was, however, minor production of monazite from several nearby localities (Sloan, 1908), and gold was produced from deposits in the northeastern part of Greenville County and nearby Spartanburg County (McCauley and Butler, 1966). The three areas selected for resampling are located in the Inner Piedmont physiographic province of South Carolina (see index map). The generalized tectonic setting of the region and the locations of the study is just north of Greenville, S.C. Much of it is within the moderately to steeply sloped terrane of Paris Mountain State Park where elevations reach approximately 600 m. Simpsonville, S.C., is neat the center of the second study area, and the southernmost study area is near Hickory Tavern, S.C. Both the Simpsonville and Hickory Tavern study areas are in more gently rolling Piedmont terrane. Each of the sampled areas is drained by tributaries of the Enoree and Reedy Rivers. Parts of three different thrust sheets underlie the region covered by this study (fig. 1); in ascending structural position, they are the Six Mile, Paris Mountain, and Laurens thrust sheets (Nelson and others, 1987). Nelson (1988, p. 7) described the contacts between these sheets as being along unnamed faults. The rocks in and

  12. Estimation of effective plant area index for South Korean forests using LiDAR system.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kafatos, Menas; Son, Yowhan; Cho, Hyun-Kook; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure. Woody components, the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high precision, using geo-registered 3D-points. Based on this concept, the Effective Plant Area Indices (PAI(e)) for areas of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis), Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis) and Oak (Quercus spp.) were estimated by calculating the ratio of intercepted and incident LIDAR laser rays for the canopies of the three forest types. Initially, the canopy gap fraction (G ( LiDAR )) was generated by extracting the LiDAR data reflected from the canopy surface, or inner canopy area, using k-means statistics. The LiDAR-derived PAI(e) was then estimated by using G ( LIDAR ) with the Beer-Lambert law. A comparison of the LiDAR-derived and field-derived PAI(e) revealed the coefficients of determination for Korean Pine, Japanese Larch and Oak to be 0.82, 0.64 and 0.59, respectively. These differences between field-based and LIDAR-based PAI(e) for the different forest types were attributed to the amount of leaves and branches in the forest stands. The absence of leaves, in the case of both Larch and Oak, meant that the LiDAR pulses were only reflected from branches. The probability that the LiDAR pulses are reflected from bare branches is low as compared to the reflection from branches with a high leaf density. This is because the size of the branch is smaller than the resolution across and along the 1 meter LIDAR laser track. Therefore, a better predictive accuracy would be expected for the model if the study would be repeated in late spring when the shoots and leaves of the deciduous trees begin to appear. PMID:20697878

  13. Mapping land surface emissivity from NDVI: Application to European, African, and South American areas

    SciTech Connect

    Valor, E.; Caselles, V.

    1996-09-01

    Temperature is an important magnitude for many environmental models: (1) energy and matter exchange between atmosphere and surface, (2) weather prediction, (3) global ocean circulation, (4) climatic change, etc. Several methods have been developed to obtain surface emissivity from satellite data. In this way the authors propose a theoretical model that relates the emissivity to the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) of a given surface and explains the experimental behavior observed by van de Griend and Owe. They can use it to obtain the emissivity in any thermal channel, but in this work they have focused on the 10.5- to 12.5-{micro}m region, where most thermal sensors on board satellites work at present.The model is applicable to areas with several soil and vegetation types an where the vegetation cover changes. From the theoretical model the authors have developed an operational methodology to obtain the effective emissivity combining satellite images and field measurements.The error of the methodology ranges from 0.5% (due to the experimental limitations of the field methods) to 2% (considering the case in which they have no information about the studied area). To check the general validity of the model, the authors have validated and applied it in different atmospheric environments and in areas with a different degree of roughness, i.e., from midlatitude (France, Argentina) to tropical (Sahel, Botswana) atmospheres, and from flat (La Mancha, Spain) to rough (Valencia, Spain) surfaces, and they have obtained an error of estimate of 0.6% on the emissivity.

  14. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  15. Geology and ground-water resources of the "Equus beds" area in south central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lohman, Stanley William; Frye, John Chapman

    1940-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a detailed investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas State Geological Survey, Kansas State Board of Health, and the City of Wichita. The geology of the area has been remapped, and several new formations have been established, including the Emma Creek formation of middle and upper Pliocene age, and a thick loess deposit. The hydrologic studies involved extensive test drilling and resulted in the development of a new groundwater supply for the City of Wichita.

  16. Forestry, geology and hydrological investigations from ERTS-1 imagery in two areas of Ecuador, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Oriente area, well-drained forests containing commercially valuable hardwoods can be recognized confidently and delineated quickly on the ERTS imagery. In the tropical rainforest, ERTS can provide an abundance of inferential information about large scale geologic structures. ERTS imagery is better than normal aerial photography for recognizing linears. The imagery is particularly useful for updating maps of the distributary system of the Guagas River Basin and of any other river with a similarly rapid changing channel pattern.

  17. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  18. Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

  19. The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-zhong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion

  20. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  1. Occurrence and Mineralogical Characteristics of Tremolite Asbestos Occurred in Boryeong area, Chungnam, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, H.

    2009-12-01

    Abandoned tremolite mines, which had been exploited for several decades since 1930, are distributed in Boryeong, Chungnam. It is known that tremolite asbestos is approximately 100 times more harmful than chrysotile asbestos. Recently, it become a regional social problem because lung disease (mesothelioma and lung cancer) suspect patients are largely found among the residents of the mining area. Therefore, Korean government making every endeavor to remove asbestos risk in the area. However, there is insufficiency geological and mineralogical studies for tremolite asbestos. In the present study, the occurrence and mineralogical characteristics of tremolite asbestos were studied using polarization microscope, XRD, XRF, EPMA, SEM and TEM. Mica-schist of precambrian metasedimentary rock, which is widely distributed in the area, is the host rock of tremolite deposits. The rocks are largely disturbed by faults and folds, and shows sudden changes in strike and slope of strata. Tremolite ore bodies, which show relatively light colored, mainly occur as stratiform or veinlet and some occurs in brecciated rock fragments. Tremolite is a major asbestos mineral, and chrysotile, talc, mica, chlorite and quartz occurs as associated minerals. Considerable amount of ore containing pure tremolite is found, and ores having mineral assemblages of tremolite+talc, tremolite+quartz and chrysotile+talc also occurs. From optical microscope observations, most tremolites are asbestos from that meets to the criterion (length > 5 μm, diameter < 3 μm, aspect ratio > 3:1) defined by the international organization (WHO, ILO), but non-asbestos form tremolites are also included. Most asbestos form tremolites have the size range of 1.0-2.0 μm width and 5-10 μm length. The length can be shorten with crushing experiments, but the width remains unchanged. Non-asbestos form hardly change to asbestos form by mechanical crushing. From comprehensive studies for geological occurrence and mineral

  2. Landscape changes of desertification in arid areas: the case of south-west Algeria.

    PubMed

    Hirche, Aziz; Salamani, Mostefa; Abdellaoui, Abdelkader; Benhouhou, Salima; Valderrama, Jaime Martínez

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to monitor the arid Algerian High Plateaus, a key region for pastoral activities which has suffered harsh and widespread degradation from the eighties. This area is not sufficiently known by the international scientific community. For this purpose, we considered phytoecological inventories and thematic maps that have been carried out during 30 years. Available data for the study are vegetation maps derived from aerial photographs (1975-1978) and from satellite imagery (2006). The parameters considered include vegetation, flora, and soil surface properties. The study area is part of the ROSELT/OSS (ROSELT: Réseau d'Observatoires de Surveillance Ecologique à Long Terme (Long Term Ecological Monitoring Observatories Network); OSS: Observatory of the Sahara and the Sahel) network observatory (OSS 2008). To assess land degradation, we used landscape ecology parameters. These include the number and surface area of vegetation units, synthesized by the large patch index and the Shannon landscape diversity index. All parameters reflect an increase in landscape heterogeneity. The largest decline is observed for Stipa tenacissima vegetation units constituting 2/3 of the landscape in 1978 and occupied just 1/10 in 2006. Vegetation units linked to degradation, such those dominated by Salsola vermiculata, inexistent in 1978, now dominate the steppe. Another result of the ongoing landscape degradation on the plateaus between 1975 and 2006 is the decrease of vegetation cover. In 1978, 1/3 of rangelands only had low vegetation covers, inferior to 15%. Presently 9/10 present the same class cover. This can be explained by severe spells of drought combined by an exponential rise of livestock during the last 30 years. This has in turn greatly undermined the fodder potential of the steppe. Results suggest that the "greening-up" described by several authors in the Sahel over the last 40 years is not observed in the Algerian, nor in the North African steppes. On the

  3. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.S.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum developments in the region in 1982 had a more varied pattern than in 1981 when all aspects were upbeat with varying degrees of increases. In 1982, Brazil, Mexico, and Guatemala had striking increases in oil production; Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia had moderate increases; and Argentina, Trinidad, and Venezuela reported declines. In exploration, Argentina reported several additional offshore Tierra del Fuego discoveries in the Cretaceous Springhill and 2 more encouraging gas discoveries in the Noroeste basin. Bolivia reported an oil discovery from Silurian rocks more generally considered a gas objective. Brazil extended and confirmed the Western Amazonas gas area with 2 discoveries. Colombia added 2 more spectacular oil discoveries in the Llanos basin to follow up 2 similar finds in 1981. Several countries reported that discoveries have increased the national reserves of hydrocarbons. Considering the social, political, and economic problems in several countries, along with the worldwide depression and petroleum surplus, developments in the region have been on the whole favorable.

  4. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum exploration in the region was generally less in 1983 than in 1982. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Barbados increased crude production, whereas Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad-Tobago reported increases in gas production. Although drilling activities remained low compared to past years, significant oil discoveries were reported in Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil. In Colombia, Cano Limon field is reported to be the largest field found in the Llanos region. In Brazil, important oil discoveries were made offshore in the Para, Potiquas, and Ampos basins. In Mexico, discoveries were reported in the Cerro Azul, Poza Rica (Chicontepec, Villahermosa, and Tabasco) areas onshore and in the Bay of Campeche offshore. In Argentina, discoveries were made in the San Jorge basin and the Noreste Tarija basin. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  5. Self-regulation of ice flow varies across the ablation area in South-West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wal, R. S. W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Boot, W.; Stoffelen, M.; van Kampen, R.; Doyle, S.; Wilhelms, F.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Reijmer, C. H.; Oerlemans, J.; Hubbard, A.

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a positive feedback between ice flow and enhanced melt rates in a warmer climate fuelled the debate regarding the temporal and spatial controls on seasonal ice acceleration. Here we combine melt, basal water pressure, and ice velocity data. We show using twenty years of data covering the whole ablation area that there is no strong feedback between annual ice velocities and melt rates. Annual velocities even slightly decreased with increasing melt. Results also indicate that melt variations are most important for velocity variations in the upper ablation zone up to the equilibrium line altitude. During the extreme melt in 2012 a large velocity response near the equilibrium line was observed, highlighting the possibility of rapidly changing bed conditions in this part of the ice sheet that may lead to a doubling of the annual ice velocity.

  6. Self-regulation of ice flow varies across the ablation area in south-west Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wal, R. S. W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Boot, W.; Stoffelen, M.; van Kampen, R.; Doyle, S. H.; Wilhelms, F.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Reijmer, C. H.; Oerlemans, J.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-04-01

    The concept of a positive feedback between ice flow and enhanced melt rates in a warmer climate fuelled the debate regarding the temporal and spatial controls on seasonal ice acceleration. Here we combine melt, basal water pressure and ice velocity data. Using 20 years of data covering the whole ablation area, we show that there is not a strong positive correlation between annual ice velocities and melt rates. Annual velocities even slightly decreased with increasing melt. Results also indicate that melt variations are most important for velocity variations in the upper ablation zone up to the equilibrium line altitude. During the extreme melt in 2012, a large velocity response near the equilibrium line was observed, highlighting the possibility of meltwater to have an impact even high on the ice sheet. This may lead to an increase of the annual ice velocity in the region above S9 and requires further monitoring.

  7. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in around Tirupati Area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, E.; Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sharifi, Zahed

    2016-08-01

    In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. The main aim of this study has been to assess the variability of groundwater parameters to develop water quality of Tirupati area and its suitability for domestic and irrigation purpose. Further, the samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, carbonates, bicarbonates, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates, hardness, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, percent sodium (Na %), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and permeability index (PI) have been calculated. Chadha rectangular diagram for geochemical classification and hydrochemical processes of groundwater indicated that most of waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that majority of the water samples are suitable for domestic and irrigation purpose.

  8. Geology and pegmatites of part of the Fourmile area, Custer County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Andrew J.; Redden, Jack Allison

    1953-01-01

    The Fourmile area, Custer County, S. Dak., is underlain by pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks that surround the granitic core of the Black Hills. The main structure in the area is the upright limb of an overturned anticline that plunges about 30 ? S. 10 ? E. Three units of metamorphic rocks are described that have a total thickness of at least 7, 700 feet. The oldest of these units, a quartz-mica schist, is more than 6, 500 feet thick. The overlying unit, about 200 feet thick, is composed of thin beds of amphibolite and hornblende schist, lime-silicate rock, cordierite-biotite schist, microcline-biotite schist, and other types of rocks. The youngest unit, a quartz-mica-feldspar schist, is more than 1,000 feet thick. The presence of kyanite, staurolite, cordierite, and sillimanite in the rocks indicates that they have been subjected to high-grade metamorphism. About 420 pegmatites were mapped in the quartzmica-schist and the quartz-mica-feldspar schist. A few thin pegmatites in the third unit were not mapped. Most of these are concordant with the schistosity and relict (?) bedding of the enclosing metamorphic rocks. They are as much as 250 feet thick and range from 10 to 2, 600 feet in length. Nine peqmatites are zoned and classified as heterogeneous. The remainder are homogeneous and are poorly zoned. The major constituents are plaqioclase, quartz, perthite, and muscovite. The accessory minerals are tourmaline, apatite, garnet, and biotite. Beryl was observed in 15 peqmatites. The heterogeneous pegmatites contain commercial deposits of potash feldspar, mica (sheet and scrap), and beryl.

  9. The Three Gorges Dam: Does it accelerate or delay the progress towards eliminating transmission of schistosomiasis in China?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam, located in the largest endemic area of schistosomiasis in China, is one of the world's largest hydroelectric projects to date. Some large-scale hydro projects have resulted in schistosomiasis emergence or re-emergence. Therefore, the dam's potential impact on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum has raised concerns from medical researchers worldwide. A systematic literature review, coupled with an analysis of data on the water level and snail density in the Yangtze River was conducted to assess the impact of the dam on schistosomiasis transmission after more than 10 years of operation. The dam has significantly altered the water levels in the Yangtze River according to different seasons. These changes directly impact the ecology of the schistosome snail host. Due to the dam, there has been a reduction in the density of Oncomelania snails and/or changes in the distribution of snails. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum has decreased in the downstream areas of the dam, including in the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. The prevalence of infection with S. japonicum in humans has decreased from 6.80 % in 2002 (before the dam began operating) to 0.50 % in 2012, and the number of people infected with S. japonicum have decreased from 94 208 in 2002 to 59 200 in 2011 in the Poyang Lake region. The presence of the dam does not seem to affect snail breeding or the prevalence of schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Overall, the Three Gorges Dam has significantly contributed to changes in hydrology after more than 10 years of the dam operating. The changes caused by the dam, together with integrated control of schistosomiasis, might be accelerating the progress towards eliminating the transmission of S. japonicum in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Despite the positive effect the dam is having in controlling S. japonicum transmission, continued surveillance is required to monitor the future ecological impacts of the

  10. Tidal elevation, current, and energy flux in the area between the South China Sea and Java Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Dwi Susanto, R.; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Fan, Bin; Setiawan, Agus; Li, Shujiang; Wang, Yonggang; Gao, Xiumin

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and the Java Sea (JS) are connected through the Karimata Strait, Gaspar Strait, and the southern Natuna Sea, where the tides are often used as open boundary condition for tidal simulation in the SCS or Indonesian seas. Tides, tidal currents, and tidal energy fluxes of the principle constituents K1, O1, Q1, M2, S2, and N2 at five stations in this area have been analyzed using in situ observational data. The results show that the diurnal tides are the dominant constituents in the entire study area. The constituent K1 has the largest amplitude, exceeding 50 cm, whereas the amplitudes of M2 are smaller than 5 cm at all stations. The amplitudes of S2 may exceed M2 in the Karimata and Gaspar straits. Tidal currents are mostly of rectilinear type in this area. The semi-major axes lengths of the diurnal tidal current ellipses are about 10 cm s-1, and those of the semidiurnal tidal currents are smaller than 5 cm s-1. The diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS. The semidiurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS through the Karimata Strait and the eastern part of the southern Natuna Sea but flows in the opposite direction in the Gaspar Strait and the western part of the southern Natuna Sea. Harmonic analysis of sea level and current observation also suggest that the study area is located in the antinodal band of the diurnal tidal waves, and in the nodal band of the semidiurnal tidal waves. Comparisons show that the existing models are basically consistent with the observational results, but further improvements are necessary.

  11. Tidal elevation, current and energy flux in the area between the South China Sea and Java Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z. X.; Fang, G. H.; Susanto, R. D.; Adi, T. R.; Fan, B.; Setiawan, A.; Li, S. J.; Wang, Y. G.; Gao, X. M.

    2015-11-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and the Java Sea (JS) are connected through the Karimata Strait, Gaspar Strait, and the southern Natuna Sea, where the tides are often used as open boundary condition for tidal simulation in the SCS or Indonesian seas. Tides, tidal currents and tidal energy fluxes of the principle constituents K1, O1, Q1, M2, S2 and N2 at five stations in this area have been analyzed using in-situ observational data. The results show that the diurnal tides are the dominant constituents in the entire study area. The constituent K1 has the largest amplitude, exceeding 50 cm, whereas the amplitudes of M2 are smaller than 5 cm at all stations. The amplitudes of S2 may exceed M2 in Karimata and Gaspar Straits. Tidal currents are mostly of rectilinear type in this area. The major semi axis lengths of the diurnal tidal current ellipses are about 10 cm s-1, and those of the semi-diurnal tidal currents are smaller than 5 cm s-1. The diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS. The semi-diurnal tidal energy flows from the SCS to the JS through the Karimata Strait and the eastern part of the southern Natuna Sea but flows in the opposite direction in the Gaspar Strait and the western part of the southern Natuna Sea. Harmonic analysis of sea level and current observation also suggest that the study area is located in the loop band of the diurnal tidal waves, and in the nodal band of the semi-diurnal tidal waves. Comparisons show that the existing models are basically consistent with the observational results, but further improvements are necessary.

  12. Methane Release and Pingo-Like Feature Across the South kara Sea Shels, an Area of Thawing Offshore Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, P.; Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.

    2015-12-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release from the Russian Arctic shelf having a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Our recent studies revealed extensive gas release over an area of at least 7500 km2and presence of pingo-like features (PLFs), showing severe methane leakage, in the South Kara Sea in water depths >20m (Serov et al., 2015). Specifically, we detected shallow methane ebullition sites expressed in water column acoustic anomalies (gas flares and gas fronts) and areas of increased dissolved methane concentrations in bottom water, which might be sufficient sources of carbon for seawater-atmosphere exchange. A study of nature and source of leaking gas was focused on two PLFs, which are acoustically transparent circular mounds towering 5-9 m above the surrounding seafloor. One PLF (PLF 2) connects to biogenic gas from deeper sources, which is reflected in δ13CCH4 values ranging from -55,1‰ to -88,0‰ and δDCH4values varied from -175‰ to -246‰. Low organic matter content (0.52-1.69%) of seafloor sediments restricts extensive in situ methane production. The formation of PLF 2 is directly linked to the thawing of subsea permafrost and, possibly, decomposition of permafrost related gas hydrates. High accumulations of biogenic methane create the necessary forces to push the remaining frozen layers upwards and, therefore, form a topographic feature. We speculate that PLF 1, which shows ubiquitously low methane concentrations, is either a relict submerged terrestrial pingo, or a PLF lacking the necessary underlying methane accumulations. Our model of glacial-interglacial permafrost evolution supports a scenario in which subsea permafrost tapers seaward and pinches out at 20m isobaths, controlling observed methane emissions and development of PLFs. Serov. P., A. Portnov, J. Mienert, P. Semenov, and P. Ilatovskaya (2015), Methane release from pingo-like features across the South Kara Sea shelf, an area of thawnig

  13. Topographic thresholds in gully development on the hillslopes of communal areas in Ngqushwa Local Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, V.; Xanga, W. W.; Rowntree, K.

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between the spatial distribution of gully erosion and topographic thresholds in the form of slope angle, position and configuration, as well as land use change in the form of abandoned lands were examined in several affected catchments of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Land use and permanent gullies were mapped, digitized from orthophoto maps in Arc/info 3.5.2 GIS and converted to shapefiles using ArcView 3.2 GIS. Relationships between the mapped phenomena and topographic variables were sought using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS. A comparison between areas with a high potential for gullying and actual gully erosion was made using the Stream Power Index ( SPI) as a surrogate for critical flow shear stress. Field surveys were also conducted to assess the present condition of the gullied sites as well as to validate DEM derivations. Seventy five percent of the gullied area was noted to lie on abandoned lands. A predominance of gullying in concave bottom lands was also identified. The SPI values highlighted a distinct preferential topographic zone for gully location. A conceptual model depicting the interaction between land use and topographic parameters to induce gully erosion was developed. This should assist local authorities to develop a policy regarding management of abandoned lands.

  14. Acoustic Velocity Log Numerical Simulation and Saturation Estimation of Gas Hydrate Reservoir in Shenhu Area, South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Liu, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate model and free gas model are established, and two-phase theory (TPT) for numerical simulation of elastic wave velocity is adopted to investigate the unconsolidated deep-water sedimentary strata in Shenhu area, South China Sea. The relationships between compression wave (P wave) velocity and gas hydrate saturation, free gas saturation, and sediment porosity at site SH2 are studied, respectively, and gas hydrate saturation of research area is estimated by gas hydrate model. In depth of 50 to 245 m below seafloor (mbsf), as sediment porosity decreases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as gas hydrate saturation increases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as free gas saturation increases, P wave velocity decreases. This rule is almost consistent with the previous research result. In depth of 195 to 220 mbsf, the actual measurement of P wave velocity increases significantly relative to the P wave velocity of saturated water modeling, and this layer is determined to be rich in gas hydrate. The average value of gas hydrate saturation estimated from the TPT model is 23.2%, and the maximum saturation is 31.5%, which is basically in accordance with simplified three-phase equation (STPE), effective medium theory (EMT), resistivity log (Rt), and chloride anomaly method. PMID:23935407

  15. Input of atmospheric lead to marine sediments in a south-east Pacific coastal area (approximately 36 degrees S).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Praxedes N; Salamanca, Marco A

    2003-05-01

    Atmospheric input of Pb to coastal sediments in the south-east Pacific (approximately 36 degrees S) was estimated using: (1) a salt marsh (non-local emission sources) as a natural collector of atmospheric fluxes and (2) Pb concentrations in rain and air samples, both considered to be representative of the atmospheric input in the study area. A radioisotopic geochronology technique ((210)Pb) was used to estimate the total Pb atmospheric supply to the sediments. The results show that atmospheric input to Concepción Bay accounts for 13-68% of Pb in near shore sediments, evaluated through salt marsh and rain, both showing comparable results. Consequently, there are other relevant Pb sources to explain the higher concentrations in this area. Sediments in the shelf are subject to important influence of upwelling waters, estimated by Salamanca [Sources and sinks of (210)Pb in Concepción Bay, Chile (1993) PhD thesis, Marine Science Research Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA] using (210)Pb. The atmospheric input, however, is mainly responsible for the total Pb input, since the salt marsh (natural atmospheric collector) shows similar Pb(xs) inventories than the shelf, corresponding to a regional-scale Pb emissions. PMID:12517424

  16. South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network: an emerging partner in preparedness training.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Beth; Carson, Deborah Stier; Garr, David

    2009-03-01

    The South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC AHEC) was funded in 2003 to train healthcare professionals in disaster preparedness and response. During the 5 years of funding, its Disaster Preparedness and Response Training Network evolved from disaster awareness training to competency-based instruction and performance assessment. With funding from the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (ASPR), a project with implications for national dissemination was developed to evaluate 2 aspects of preparedness training for community-based healthcare professionals. The SC AHEC designed disaster preparedness curricula and lesson plans, using a consensus-building technique, and then (1) distributed sample curricula and resources through the national Area Health Education Center system to assess an approach for providing preparedness training and (2) delivered a standardized preparedness curriculum to key influential thought leaders from 4 states to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum. As a result of this project, the SC AHEC recommends that preparedness training for community-based practitioners needs to be concise and professionally relevant. It should be integrated into existing healthcare professions education programs and continuing education offerings. The project also demonstrated that although AHECs may be interested and well suited to incorporate preparedness training as part of their mission, more work needs to be done if they are to assume a prominent role in disaster preparedness training. PMID:19202395

  17. Impact of human activity and natural processes on groundwater arsenic in an urbanized area (South China) using multivariate statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanxing; Chen, Zongyu; Liu, Fan; Sun, Jichao; Wang, Jincui

    2014-11-01

    Anthropogenic factors resulted from the urbanization may affect the groundwater As in urbanized areas. Groundwater samples from the Guangzhou city (South China) were collected for As and other parameter analysis, in order to assess the impact of urbanization and natural processes on As distribution in aquifers. Nearly 25.5 % of groundwater samples were above the WHO drinking water standard for As, and the As concentrations in the granular aquifer (GA) were generally far higher than that in the fractured bedrock aquifer (FBA). Samples were classified into four clusters by using hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 is mainly located in the FBA and controlled by natural processes. Anthropogenic pollution resulted from the urbanization is responsible for high As concentrations identified in cluster 2. Clusters 3 and 4 are mainly located in the GA and controlled by both natural processes and anthropogenic factors. Three main mechanisms control the source and mobilization of groundwater As in the study area. Firstly, the interaction of water and calcareous rocks appears to be responsible for As release in the FBA. Secondly, reduction of Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and decomposition of organic matter are probably responsible for high As concentrations in the GA. Thirdly, during the process of urbanization, the infiltration of wastewater/leachate with a high As content is likely to be the main source for groundwater As, while NO3 (-) contamination diminishes groundwater As. PMID:24996949

  18. The Stakeholder Preference for Best Management Practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Sun, Chengchun; Huang, Qin

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 92 farmers and 42 policy managers in Wuxi County, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, was conducted to identify stakeholder preferences for alternative best management practices (BMPs) and to determine the factors that affect their acceptance. Policy manager support for most of the practices was relatively stronger than support by farmers, except for the grade stabilization structure (GSS), hillside ditch (HD) and constructed wetland alternative, owing to their perceptions of soil benefits, economic advantages and environmental advantages. Farmers opposed those practices that occupied cultivated lands or changed the conventional planting methods, such as field border, conservation tillage (CT) and contour buffer strips. They tended to accept the BMPs with off-farm pollution reduction, such as GSS, riparian forest buffer and HD, and the BMPs associated with soil benefits, such as nutrient management and Terrace. The result that almost all respondents did not accept CT differed from reports in the existing literature. There is a significant correlation between the acceptance of some BMPs and the townships where the farmers lived ( P ≤ 0.05). The environmental conditions and social factors would affect farmer support for BMPs, including local soil conditions, farming methods, economic income, education level and age. The economic advantages of the BMPs were the main motivation for farmers to accept the practices. Furthermore, intensive education efforts, financial incentives or economic subsidies may promote the adoption of the BMPs in our study area.

  19. Vertical Variation of Nonpoint Source Pollutants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Hong, Qian; Xie, Hui; Qiu, Jiali; Liu, Ruimin

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is considered the main reason for water deterioration, but there has been no attempt to incorporate vertical variations of NPS pollution into watershed management, especially in mountainous areas. In this study, the vertical variations of pollutant yields were explored in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) and the relationships between topographic attributes and pollutant yields were established. Based on our results, the pollutant yields decreased significantly from low altitude to median altitude and leveled off rapidly from median altitude to high altitude, indicating logarithmic relationships between pollutant yields and altitudes. The pollutant yields peaked at an altitude of 200–500 m, where agricultural land and gentle slopes (0–8°) are concentrated. Unlike the horizontal distributions, these vertical variations were not always related to precipitation patterns but did vary obviously with land uses and slopes. This paper also indicates that altitude data and proportions of land use could be a reliable estimate of NPS yields at different altitudes, with significant implications for land use planning and watershed management. PMID:23951110

  20. Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: the Era of the Three Gorges Dam

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Gray, Darren J.; Li, Yuesheng; Feng, Zheng; Williams, Gail M.; Stewart, Donald; Rey-Ladino, Jose; Ross, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The potential impact of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on schistosomiasis transmission in China has invoked considerable global concern. The TGD will result in changes in the water level and silt deposition downstream, favoring the reproduction of Oncomelania snails. Combined with blockages of the Yangtze River's tributaries, these changes will increase the schistosomiasis transmission season within the marshlands along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The changing schistosome transmission dynamics necessitate a comprehensive strategy to control schistosomiasis. This review discusses aspects of the epidemiology and transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China and considers the pathology, clinical outcomes, diagnosis, treatment, immunobiology, and genetics of schistosomiasis japonica together with an overview of current progress in vaccine development, all of which will have an impact on future control efforts. The use of synchronous praziquantel (PZQ) chemotherapy for humans and domestic animals is only temporarily effective, as schistosome reinfection occurs rapidly. Drug delivery requires a substantial infrastructure to regularly cover all parts of an area of endemicity. This makes chemotherapy expensive and, as compliance is often low, a less than satisfactory control option. There is increasing disquiet about the possibility that PZQ-resistant schistosomes will develop. Consequently, as mathematical modeling predicts, vaccine strategies represent an essential component in the future control of schistosomiasis in China. With the inclusion of focal mollusciciding, improvements in sanitation, and health education into the control scenario, China's target of reducing the level of schistosome infection to less than 1% by 2015 may be achievable. PMID:20375361

  1. The stakeholder preference for best management practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiali; Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Sun, Chengchun; Huang, Qin

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 92 farmers and 42 policy managers in Wuxi County, the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, was conducted to identify stakeholder preferences for alternative best management practices (BMPs) and to determine the factors that affect their acceptance. Policy manager support for most of the practices was relatively stronger than support by farmers, except for the grade stabilization structure (GSS), hillside ditch (HD) and constructed wetland alternative, owing to their perceptions of soil benefits, economic advantages and environmental advantages. Farmers opposed those practices that occupied cultivated lands or changed the conventional planting methods, such as field border, conservation tillage (CT) and contour buffer strips. They tended to accept the BMPs with off-farm pollution reduction, such as GSS, riparian forest buffer and HD, and the BMPs associated with soil benefits, such as nutrient management and Terrace. The result that almost all respondents did not accept CT differed from reports in the existing literature. There is a significant correlation between the acceptance of some BMPs and the townships where the farmers lived (P ≤ 0.05). The environmental conditions and social factors would affect farmer support for BMPs, including local soil conditions, farming methods, economic income, education level and age. The economic advantages of the BMPs were the main motivation for farmers to accept the practices. Furthermore, intensive education efforts, financial incentives or economic subsidies may promote the adoption of the BMPs in our study area. PMID:25011533

  2. Monitoring Tracer Stones in Fall Creek Gorge of Warren County, Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaven, S.; Anders, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fall Creek, in western Indiana, is an incised ravine, draining a ~25 km2 rolling upland. The pothole section of Fall Creek Gorge is a bedrock-incised step-pool system consisting of a 70 meter long reach which drops approximately 3 meters over a series of 12 hydraulic jumps. Repeated surveys of bed topography are used to estimate sediment transport through this reach. In addition, we track the motion of locally-collected cobble to boulder sized particles using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We observed a large change in bed morphology associated with a heavy rainfall event. Specifically, there was a net transport of sediment into the potholes reach. During the same event, tagged particles moved into and through the study area. The mobility of large particles supports the possibility that they act as tools shaping the potholes. Through ongoing monitoring we will assess the relationship between precipitation events and sediment transport and estimate the residence time of large particles within potholes. The ultimate goal is to understand the relationship between large sediment transport and pothole formation.;

  3. Measurement of particle number and related pollutant concentrations in an urban area in South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, D. M.; Teixeira, E. C.; Rolim, S. B. A.; Pereira, F. N.; Wiegand, F.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze atmospheric particle number concentration at Sapucaia do Sul, in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, and associate it with the pollutants NO, NO2, and O3. Measurements were performed in two periods: August to October, in 2010 and 2011. We used the following equipment: the continuous particulate monitor (CPM), the chemiluminescent nitrogen oxide analyzer (AC32M), and the UV photometric ozone analyzer (O342M). Daily and hourly particle number concentrations in fractions PR1.0 (0.3-1.0 μm), PR2.5 (1.0-2.5 μm), and PR10 (2.5-10 μm), and concentrations of pollutants NO, NO2, NOx, and O3 were measured. These data were correlated with meteorological parameters such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation. The daily variation of OX (NO2 + O3) and its relation with NO2 were also established. The results obtained for daily particle number concentration (particles L-1) showed that the area of study had higher particle number of PR2.5 and PR1.0 size ranges, with values of 19.5 and 28.51 particles L-1, respectively. Differences in particle number concentrations in PR1 and PR2.5 size ranges were found between weekdays and weekends. The daily variation per hour of concentrations of particle number, NO, and NOx showed peaks during increased traffic flow in the morning and in the evening. NO2 showed peaks at different times, with the first peak (morning) 2 h after the peak of NO, and a second peak in the evening (19:00). This is due to the oxidation of NO and to the photolysis of NO3 formed overnight. Correlation analysis suggests that there may be a relationship between the fine and ultrafine particles and NO, probably indicating that they have similar sources, such as vehicular emissions. In addition, a possible relationship of solar radiation with fine particle number concentrations, as well as with O3 was also observed. The results, too, show an inverse relationship between particle number

  4. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Majatladi, Daphney; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Lourens, Carina; Ebersohn, Karen; Venter, Estelle H

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV) is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June-August). Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March) to < 100 (July and August), no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level. PMID:25686125

  5. Bio-concentration of chromium--an in situ phytoremediation study at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Monalisa; Pattnaik, Mausumi M; Mishra, Aruna K; Patra, Hemanta K

    2012-01-01

    Mine waste water at South Kaliapani usually contains toxic levels of hexavalent Cr(VI). The present in situ study was conducted at South Kaliapani chromite mine area in Orissa state, India, to assess the phytoremediation ability of three plants, namely, rice (Oryza sativa L.), paragrass (Brachiaria mutica), and an aquatic weed (Eichhornia crassipes), in attenuating Cr(VI) from mine waste water and to correlate the bio-concentration factors (BCF) of Cr. Water hyacinth (E. crassipes) showed 24% to 54% reduction whereas paragrass (B. mutica) was able to reduce 18% to 33% of Cr(VI) from mine water. This reduction was studied over a period of 100 days of plant growth. The reduction was observed through a passage of a sum total of 2,000 sq. ft. cultivated plots and ponds separately. Reduction in Cr(VI) content in mine water varies with plant age as well as with the distance of passage. Cr accumulation and BCF values increased with high soil Cr levels as well as the age of plants. High BCF and transportation index (Ti) values, i.e., 10,924 and 32.09, respectively, were noted for water hyacinth. The Ti values indicated that the root-to-shoot translocation of Cr was very high after 100 days of growth. The total accumulation rate was maximum (8.29 mg Cr kg dry biomass(-1) day (-1)) in paragrass. The BCF values for roots were noted to be higher than those of leaves, stems, and grains of the 125-day-old plants. Hence, paragrass and water hyacinth may be used as tools of phytoremediation to combat the problem of in situ Cr contamination. PMID:21487717

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiology in a South African Community: A Second Study of a Very High Prevalence Area*

    PubMed Central

    VILJOEN, DENIS L.; PHILLIP GOSSAGE, J.; BROOKE, LESLEY; ADNAMS, COLLEEN M.; JONES, KENNETH L.; ROBINSON, LUTHER K.; EUGENE HOYME, H.; SNELL, CUDORE; KHAOLE, NATHANIEL C.O.; KODITUWAKKU, PIYADASA; ASANTE, KWADWO OHENE; FINDLAY, RICHARD; QUINTON, BARBARA; MARAIS, ANNA-SUSAN; KALBERG, WENDY O.; MAY, PHILIP A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a second primary school cohort in a community in South Africa. Method: Active case ascertainment, two-tier screening, and Institute of Medicine assessment methodology were employed among 857 first grade pupils, most born in 1993. Characteristics of children with FAS were contrasted with characteristics of a randomly selected control group from the same classrooms. Physical growth and development, dysmorphology and psychological characteristics of the children and measures of maternal alcohol use and smoking were analyzed. Results: The rate of FAS found in this study is the highest yet reported in any overall community in the world, 65.2-74.2 per 1,000 children in the first grade population. These rates are 33-148 times greater than U.S. estimates and higher than in a previous cohort study in this same community (40.5-46.4 per 1,000). Detailed documentation of physical features indicates that FAS children in South Africa have characteristics similar to those elsewhere: poor growth and development, facial and limb dysmorphology, and lower intellectual functioning. Frequent, severe episodic drinking of beer and wine is common among mothers and fathers of FAS children. Their lives are characterized by serious familial, social and economic challenges, compared with controls. Heavy episodic maternal drinking is significantly associated with negative outcomes of children in the area of nonverbal intelligence but even more so in verbal intelligence, behavior and overall dysmorphology (physical anomalies). Significantly more FAS exists among children of women who were rural residents (odds ratio: 7.36, 95% confidence interval: 3.31-16.52), usually among workers on local farms. Conclusion: A high rate of FAS was documented in this community. Given social and economic similarities and racial admixture, we suspect that other communities in the Western Cape

  7. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalvie, Mohamed A; Cairncross, Eugene; Solomon, Abdullah; London, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 μg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 μg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 μg/L (n = 21) and 3.16 ± 3.5 μg/L (n = 13) average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69%) followed by Hex River (46%) and Piketberg (39%). Detections were more frequent in surface water (47%) than in groundwater (32%) and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa. PMID:12689341

  8. Landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands in an agricultural area in south Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Anna; Pedersen, Eja; Weisner, Stefan E B

    2012-12-30

    Eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has in Sweden led to the initiation of government schemes aiming to increase wetland areas in agricultural regions and thereby reduce nutrient transport to the sea. Landowners play a significant role as providers of this ecosystem service and are currently offered subsidies to cover their costs for constructing and maintaining wetlands. We undertook a grounded theory study, in which landowners were interviewed, aiming at identifying landowners' incentives for constructing wetlands on their land. The study showed that adequate subsidies, additional services that the wetland could provide to the landowner, local environmental benefits, sufficient knowledge, and peers' good experiences could encourage landowners to construct wetlands. Perceived hindrances were burdensome management, deficient knowledge, time-consuming application procedures and unclear effectiveness of nutrient reduction. The main reason for not creating a wetland, however, was that the land was classified as productive by the landowner, i.e., suitable for food production. Current schemes are directed toward landowners as individuals and based on subsidies to cover costs. We propose that landowners instead are approached as ecosystem service entrepreneurs and contracted after a tendering process based on nutrient reduction effects. This would lead to new definitions of production and may stimulate improved design and placement of wetlands. PMID:23064246

  9. Modelling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine Tailings in Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mathuthu, Manny; Kamunda, Caspah; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1) was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 (238U), thorium-232 (232Th), and potassium-40 (40K) for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10−5 at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10−6 to 10−4. Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards. PMID:27338424

  10. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Carribbean area, and Mexico in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.S.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum developments in 1981 continued in the pattern of recent years of increasing exploration and exploitation in response to the second catastrophic surge in crude oil prices thrust on the world economy in 1979. Production of crude oil increased in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, whereas Venezuela, Trinidad, Peru, and Bolivia experienced declines. Exploratory surveys, exploratory drilling, and development drilling all increased in most of the countries reporting. Significant successful exploratory drilling is reported for several countries. In Argentina, the producing zone of the Austral basin has been extended farther offshore, and is reportedly productive in what is apparently the upper Malvinas basin. In Brazil, extensions to several producing areas are reported in the Campos basin. Also, the Jurua gas province of western Amazonas reportedly had an encouraging extension. Colombia had several discoveries in the Magdalena basins, but the 2 Llanos discoveries are considered much more significant. For a variety of reasons, several countries have undertaken or are undertaking changes in laws and regulations to attract foreign companies into exploration risk ventures. In some countries, exploitation ventures are also offered.

  11. Migration and wintering areas of glaucous-winged Gulls from south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucouswinged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  12. Migration And wintering areas Of Glaucous-winged Gulls From south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter.

  13. Modelling of Radiological Health Risks from Gold Mine Tailings in Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mathuthu, Manny; Kamunda, Caspah; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth's surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1) was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 ((238)U), thorium-232 ((232)Th), and potassium-40 ((40)K) for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10(-5) at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-4). Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards. PMID:27338424

  14. "An assessment of changes the Danube river flow along the Iron Gate gorge for XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research was dedicated to foreseeing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources in eastern part of Serbia, along the Danube catchment. The Danube basin is in the eastern section of the considered RCM ( Regional climate model). For this purposes, the RCM EBU-POM according to the IPCC scenario A1B, was used in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100. The Danube's catchment encompasses continental climate, as it is land-dominated by advection from the surrounding land areas. This part of Danube catchment is greatly affected by the Mediterranean climate, since the Danube runoff gives a relevant contribution of freshwater flux into the Mediterranean sea and it is dependent mostly on precipitated water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. Prior to the assessment of changes of water resources of the Danube river, including the climate change effects, there was determined the terrain's spatial regionalization. Having been aware of the climatic-hydrologic and hydrographic homogeneity of regions, the whole territory of Serbia was divided into 20 units basins. The part of Danube basin in its eastern part, was subject of the research. For this balance unit, the main components of the balance equation of the water that included into the calculation are: precipitation P (mm), flow Q (m3/s), runoff depth h (mm), evaporation E (mm) and annual air temperature T (0C). The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) for the time frame 1961-1990 in order to get relevant coefficients

  15. "An assessment of changes the Danube river flow along the Iron Gate gorge for XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research was dedicated to foreseeing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources in eastern part of Serbia, along the Danube catchment. The Danube basin is in the eastern section of the considered RCM ( Regional climate model). For this purposes, the RCM EBU-POM according to the IPCC scenario A1B, was used in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100. The Danube's catchment encompasses continental climate, as it is land-dominated by advection from the surrounding land areas. This part of Danube catchment is greatly affected by the Mediterranean climate, since the Danube runoff gives a relevant contribution of freshwater flux into the Mediterranean sea and it is dependent mostly on precipitated water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. Prior to the assessment of changes of water resources of the Danube river, including the climate change effects, there was determined the terrain's spatial regionalization. Having been aware of the climatic-hydrologic and hydrographic homogeneity of regions, the whole territory of Serbia was divided into 20 units basins. The part of Danube basin in its eastern part, was subject of the research. For this balance unit, the main components of the balance equation of the water that included into the calculation are: precipitation P (mm), flow Q (m3/s), runoff depth h (mm), evaporation E (mm) and annual air temperature T (0C). The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) for the time frame 1961-1990 in order to get relevant coefficients

  16. Initiation age and incision rates of inner gorges: Do they record multiple glacial-interglacial cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delunel, Romain; Casagrande, Jan; Schlunegger, Fritz; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-04-01

    Inner gorges represent some of the most conspicuous landforms in the European Alps. They form narrow and deep active-channel incisions that link hanging tributaries with trunk valleys in glacially-conditioned environments. Despite abundant research carried out on these objects, both their origin and evolution have remained unclear. In particular, the age of initiation, the rate of incision, and the respective contribution of fluvial and subglacial processes in the evolution of inner gorges have still been a matter of scientific debate. Indeed, answering these questions has been complicated by the lack of appropriate quantitative methods and/or suitable sampling strategies for studying inner gorges. Here, we report 10Be concentrations measured in alluvial sediments that have been collected along the main stream of a ~20-km2-catchment in the Swiss foreland (Central European Alps). This catchment hosts a ca. 100-m-deep and 2-km-long inner gorge that has been cut mainly in glacial till. Catchment wide denudation rates inferred from 10Be analyses (n = 15) vary from ~120 to 650 mm/ka and show a general downstream increasing trend. Additional field observations and GIS analyses reveal that the denudation rates within the catchment increase from the headwaters, characterized by relict glacial/periglacial landscapes, to the downstream end of the basin where the inner gorge has been formed. Using a 10Be-based sediment budget approach and the delineation of topographic domains from a 2-m-resolution LIDAR, we provide an estimate of erosion rates within the gorge that are higher than 2.5 m/ka and can reach up to ~ 7 m/ka. Combining these estimated erosion rates with the reconstruction of eroded volumes within the gorge, we obtain a rough initiation age in the early Holocene, in general agreement with previous studies reporting a postglacial origin for the inner gorges. Our results therefore appear contradictory with recent findings arguing for a gradual formation of inner

  17. Preliminary report on methane emissions from the Three Gorges Reservoir in the summer drainage period.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Yang, Le; Wang, Xiaoke; Duan, Xiaonan; Mu, Yujing; Song, Wenzhi; Zheng, Feixiang; Niu, Junfeng; Tong, Lei; Zheng, Hua; Zhou, Yongjuan; Qiu, Jiangxiao; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2011-01-01

    Recently reported summertime methane (CH4) emissions (6.7 +/- 13.3 mg CH4/(m2 x hr)) from newly created marshes in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China have triggered broad concern in academic circles and among the public. The CH4 emissions from TGR water surfaces and drawdown areas were monitored from 3rd June to 16th October 2010 with floating and static chambers and gas chromatography. The average CH4 emission flux from permanently flooded areas in Zigui, Wushan and Yunyang Counties was (0.33 +/- 0.09) mg CH4/(m2 x hr). In half of these hottest months of the year, the wilderness, cropland and deforested drawdown sites were aerobic and located above water level, and the CH4 emissions were very small, ranging from a sink at 0.12 mg CH4/(m2 x hr) to a source at 0.08 mg CH4/(m2 x hr) except for one mud-covered site after flood. Mean CH4 emission in flooded drawdown sites was 0.34 mg CH4/(m2 x hr). The emissions from the rice paddy sites in the drawdown area were averaged at (4.86 +/- 2.31) mg CH4/(m2 x hr). Excepting the rice-paddy sites, these results show much lower emission levels than previously reported. Our results indicated considerable spatial and temporal variation in CH4 emissions from the TGR. Human activities and occasional events, such as flood, may also affect emission levels. Long-term CH4 measurements and modeling in a large region are necessary to accurately estimate greenhouse gas emissions from the TGR. PMID:22432334

  18. Suitability of Taxodium distichum for Afforesting the Littoral Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Du, Chunlan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J. H. Martin; Xiao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The littoral zone ecosystem of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has become significantly degraded by annual cycles of prolonged winter flooding and summer drought. For purposes of flood control and sediment management, the water level in the reservoir is lowered by 30 m during the summer monsoon season and raised again to 175 m above sea level each year at the end of the monsoon period. To explore an effective way to promote biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, we examined Taxodium distichum as a species for afforesting the littoral zone. Sapling growth variations were measured after two rounds of winter flooding. Dominant influence factors were determined by redundancy analysis. Herb community similarities between the experimental afforested areas and nearby control areas were assessed to detect the ecosystem influence of the experimental afforestation. 94.5% of saplings planted at elevations above 168 m survived. All measured growth indices (tree height, diameter at breast height, crown width and foliage density) decreased as the flood depth increased. Completely submerged saplings had a mean dieback height of -0.65 m. Greater initial foliage density led to increased tree height and stem diameter. Shannon-Wiener indices were not significantly different between plots in experimental and control areas, but the low similarity of herb communities between experimental and control areas (0.242 on average) suggested that afforestation would enrich plant community structure and improve littoral zone ecosystem stability. Because littoral zone afforestation provides several ecosystem services (habitat, carbon sink, water purification and landscaping), it is a promising revegetation model for the TGR. PMID:26771509

  19. Suitability of Taxodium distichum for Afforesting the Littoral Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Du, Chunlan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Xiao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The littoral zone ecosystem of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has become significantly degraded by annual cycles of prolonged winter flooding and summer drought. For purposes of flood control and sediment management, the water level in the reservoir is lowered by 30 m during the summer monsoon season and raised again to 175 m above sea level each year at the end of the monsoon period. To explore an effective way to promote biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, we examined Taxodium distichum as a species for afforesting the littoral zone. Sapling growth variations were measured after two rounds of winter flooding. Dominant influence factors were determined by redundancy analysis. Herb community similarities between the experimental afforested areas and nearby control areas were assessed to detect the ecosystem influence of the experimental afforestation. 94.5% of saplings planted at elevations above 168 m survived. All measured growth indices (tree height, diameter at breast height, crown width and foliage density) decreased as the flood depth increased. Completely submerged saplings had a mean dieback height of -0.65 m. Greater initial foliage density led to increased tree height and stem diameter. Shannon-Wiener indices were not significantly different between plots in experimental and control areas, but the low similarity of herb communities between experimental and control areas (0.242 on average) suggested that afforestation would enrich plant community structure and improve littoral zone ecosystem stability. Because littoral zone afforestation provides several ecosystem services (habitat, carbon sink, water purification and landscaping), it is a promising revegetation model for the TGR. PMID:26771509

  20. Distribution, migration and potential risk of heavy metals in the Shima River catchment area, South China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Ke, Zhiting; Wang, Jiang; Shimizu, Yuta; Zhu, Aiping

    2015-10-01

    The distribution, migration and potential risk of heavy metals in water and soil environments, related to city water supply, were investigated. Heavy metal concentrations in waters from the Shima River water ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 749 μg L(-1) for Mn, n.d. to 151 μg L(-1) for Ni, 7.00 to 494 μg L(-1) for Zn, n.d. to 93.0 μg L(-1) for Cu and n.d. to 9860 μg L(-1) for Fe. The highest concentration of heavy metals was found at an upstream site in February as a result of industrial effluent discharge. Groundwater (GW1-GW5) and soil (S1-S8) samples along the riverbank showed similar levels of contamination due to a close hydraulic relationship and frequent exchange of water, probably resulting in migration of heavy metals from river water to the aquifer and accumulation at the interface. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil profiles were in the ranges of 2.50-19.0 mg kg(-1) for As, 2.80-11.2 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 20.3-165 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 14.5-298 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 11.4-102 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 7.00-95.0 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 40.4-465 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 8.80 × 10(3)-21.8 × 10(3) mg kg(-1) for Fe, and 62.2-430 mg kg(-1) for Mn, showing severe soil pollution by Cd. LUMISTox testing and the potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to assess the potential for adverse ecological effects caused by heavy metals in water and soil media. River water samples posed slight acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri with luminescence inhibition rates (LIRs) ranging from 24.6% to 38.4% in February. Elevated Zn and Cu concentrations significantly contributed to the toxicity. However, groundwater did not exhibit any toxicity to Vibrio fischeri. The severity of the potential ecological risk for individual metals (Er(i)) decreased in the order of Cd > Cu > Ni > As > Pb > Zn > Cr. RI values indicated that all soil samples in the study area posed a high level of ecological risk. Cd contributed significantly (95.5-98.9%) to potential ecological risk in soils. PMID:26308469

  1. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  2. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area. PMID:26991380

  3. Influence of flocculation on sediment deposition process at the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dangwei; Liu, Xiaofang; Ji, Zuwen; Dong, Zhandi; Hu, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    By comparing the original particle gradation of sediment from the Three Gorges Reservoir with the single particle gradation, the differences in these two particle gradations showed that there is sediment flocculation in the Three Gorges Reservoir, which can accelerate the sediment deposition rate in the reservoir. In order to determine the influence of flocculation on the sediment settling velocity, sediment was collected at the Three Gorges Reservoir, and the indoor quiescent settling experiment was performed to study the mechanism of sediment flocculation. The experimental results showed that sediments aggregated from single particles into floccules in the settling processes. The single particles smaller than 0.022 mm will participate in the formation of floccules, which accounts for 83% of the total amount of sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Moreover, the degree of sediment flocculation and the increase in sediment settling velocity were directly proportional to the sediment concentration. Taking the average particle size and the median particle size as the representative particle size, respectively, the maximum flocculation factors were calculated to be 3.4 and 5.0. Due to the sediment flocculation, the volume of sediment deposition will increase by 66% when the mass settling flux factor of total sediment had a maximum value of 1.66, suggesting that flocculation has a significant influence on the sediment deposition rate in the Three Gorges Reservoir. PMID:26901731

  4. Seasonal succession of phytoplankton in response to the variation of environmental factors in the Gaolan River, Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chengrong; Zhang, Lang; Zheng, Yangzhong; Li, Dunhai

    2013-07-01

    To understand the responses of a freshwater ecosystem to the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), phytoplankton was monitored in the tributaries of the TGR area. From August 2010 to July 2011, algal species composition, abundance, chlorophyll a and other environmental parameters were investigated in the Gaolan River, which is a tributary of Xiangxi River. Thirty-one algal genera from seven phyla were identified. Results show that the lowest concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were 0.06 mg/L and 1.08 mg/L, respectively. The values of TP and TN exceeded the threshold concentration of the eutrophic state suggested for freshwater bodies. In the Gaolan River, the succession of phytoplankton showed clear seasonal characteristics. Different dominant species were observed among seasons under the control of environment factors. In spring and summer, the dominant species were Nitzschia sp. and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (L.) Ralfs, the limiting nutrient was NO{3/-}-N, and the key environmental factor for phytoplankton population succession was water temperature (WT). In autumn and winter, the dominant species were A. flos-aquae and Chlorella sp., the limiting nutrient was PO{4/3-}-P, and the key environmental factors were transparency and WT. This study illustrates the influence of physical and chemical factors on phytoplankton seasonal succession in a tributary of TGR since the downstream regions of Xiangxi River and Gaolan River became reservoirs after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam. We suggest that this activity has significantly affected water quality in the dam area.

  5. Late Holocene paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution at Elaiussa Sebaste archeological area (South-Eastern Turkey): preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Romana; Bernasconi, Maria Pia; Colizza, Ester; Di Rita, Federico; Equini Schneider, Eugenia; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia; Pugliese, Nevio

    2013-04-01

    Geological disciplines are increasingly applied to archaeological research. Their potentialities are able to cover numerous fields of research, since they can become very interesting tools to define the ancient environments, the origin of the human settlements and the natural and anthropic processes which occurred through the evolution of the territory. Elaiussa Sebaste (Mersin region, South-Eastern coast of the Turkey), which was an important coastal town from the II century BC to VII century AD, may represent a noteworthy field of application of geological disciplines. This site was one of the main trading harbours of the Mediterranean (from the Augustan to the Byzantine era) growing in the Augustan period and maintaining its prestige until the late Empire and the Byzantine era. Actually it was the intersection of the most important shipping and land routes among Syria, Egypt and the Anatolian peninsula. The evolution of the coastal environment around this town has been continuously modified by men along its history. The most evident modification occurred North and South the promontory of Elaiussa-Sebaste bay, i.e. the construction of two harbours, which have been subsequently buried by not well defined events. The definition of the geological processes controlling the evolution of the coastal area during the last 3000 years, should become essential to reconstruct the succession of the palaeoenvironments of Elaiussa Sebaste, including the decline of the harbours. With regard to this topic, the geomorphologic analysis reveals the complex interactions among tectonics, erosion and sedimentation in this coastal area in both, emerged and in ancient times submerged settings facing the archaeological site. During the summer 2012, a geological survey allowed us to drill nine boreholes along the land-to-sea transects in both harbours. Preliminary observations indicate the stratigraphic evolution from restricted to open marine coastal environments. Sedimentology

  6. Three-Gorge Reservoir: A 'Controlled Experiment' for Calibration/Validation of Time-Variable Gravity Signals Detected from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Boy, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    With the advances of measurements, modern space geodesy has become a new type of remote sensing for the Earth dynamics, especially for mass transports in the geophysical fluids on large spatial scales. A case in point is the space gravity mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) which has been in orbit collecting gravity data since early 2002. The data promise to be able to detect changes of water mass equivalent to sub-cm thickness on spatial scale of several hundred km every month or so. China s Three-Gorge Reservoir has already started the process of water impoundment in phases. By 2009,40 km3 of water will be stored behind one of the world s highest dams and spanning a section of middle Yangtze River about 600 km in length. For the GRACE observations, the Three-Gorge Reservoir would represent a geophysical controlled experiment , one that offers a unique opportunity to do detailed geophysical studies. -- Assuming a complete documentation of the water level and history of the water impoundment process and aided with a continual monitoring of the lithospheric loading response (such as in area gravity and deformation), one has at hand basically a classical forwardinverse modeling problem of surface loading, where the input and certain output are known. The invisible portion of the impounded water, i.e. underground storage, poses either added values as an observable or a complication as an unknown to be modeled. Wang (2000) has studied the possible loading effects on a local scale; we here aim for larger spatial scales upwards from several hundred km, with emphasis on the time-variable gravity signals that can be detected by GRACE and follow-on missions. Results using the Green s function approach on the PREM elastic Earth model indicate the geoid height variations reaching several millimeters on wavelengths of about a thousand kilometers. The corresponding vertical deformations have amplitude of a few centimeters. In terms of long

  7. Investigating the impact of global climatic and landuse changes on groundwater resources in hard rock areas of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrant, S.; Perrin, J.; Marechal, J.; Dewandel, B.; Aulong, S.; Ahmed, S.

    2010-12-01

    In most parts of India, and particularly in South India, groundwater levels are hazardously declining, while agricultural groundwater use is increasing. The current issue is to address the probable evolution of water table levels in relation with climate and agricultural changes. The aim of the SHIVA-ANR project (http://www.shiva-anr.org) is to provide some indicators of the water availability at the village scale to evaluate the vulnerability of farmers facing global changes. This study focuses on a particularly water stressed semi-arid area of South India characterized by hard rock geology with naturally low recharge capacity and limited surface water availability. The study catchment is located in the agricultural area of the Kudaliar river watershed (980km^2) located 50 km north of Hyderabad, India. It is composed of about 120 villages. Socio economic surveys have been carried out at the village scale to evaluate the present socio-economic situation of farmers. It also provides more details on various cultural and irrigation practices at this scale. The landuse has been evaluated by remote sensing with two satellite images, one after monsoon (October 2009), and the other during dry season (March 2010). Groundwater-irrigated rice paddies represent about 10% of the area, whereas rainfed crop (corn and cotton) represent about 45%. Numerous small tanks (reservoir) situated on the river network define a water harvesting system of 2% of the catchment area which captures surface runoff during monsoon. No discharges data are available at the outlet, as the river is dry most of the year. A hydro-geological survey has been carried out to provide a map of aquifer thickness and the general state of the groundwater level before and after monsoon. The Soil Water Assessment Tool model (SWAT) has been calibrated to assess the water budget of the agricultural catchment under present conditions. Soil parameters calibration is made first on seasonal groundwater recharge for

  8. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  9. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  10. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina who then expressed interest in collaborating on linking computer modeling of MAGSAT data to tectionic and metallogenic interpretation for South America and in making the final interpretation. Modeling continues with the preparation of a synopsis tectonic map of South America and the initiation of semi-final modeling of northern South America.

  11. China`s Three Gorges Dam: Mammoth opportunities - and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.P.

    1996-05-01

    China is embarking on an infrastructure project of almost unimaginable proportions. If it succeeds, it will be one of the modern wonders of the world. If it fails, the Chinese government could be impoverished for a generation. The Three Gorges Dam represents an audacious gamble for infrastructure-starved China. Like some U.S. utilities in the 1970`s and 1980`s, China is taking a giant roll of the dice on a single generating project. If it succeeds, the dam will be one of the modern wonders of the world. If it fails, China`s government could be impoverished for a generation. The scope of the project is breathtaking. Designed for flood control, navigation and hydropower, the dam will rise 185 meters, spanning a two-kilometer gap and creating a reservoir that will reach 600 kilometers westward to Chongqing. Twin five stage ship locks will lift river boats with 10,000 tonnes of cargo capacity, tripling the size of the vessels that can reach Chongqing.

  12. Education in Rural Areas of China and South Africa: Comparative Perspectives on Policy and Educational Management. Comparative Perspectives: Education in China & South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Adele; Wang, Qiang

    This report on the educational systems in China and South Africa compares the policies and processes of the two countries as they attempt to expand and improve rural education. Both countries experienced a major political upheaval, and even though there is a 50-year time lag between these events, political changes ushered in radical educational…

  13. Current state, sources, and potential risk of heavy metals in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Bing, Haijian; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Hongyang; Li, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is a particularly important issue for the safety of water quality due to the potential threats of metal toxicity to local and downstream human health. Surface sediments from riparian and submerged areas in the entire TGR mainstream were collected in 2014 to investigate the spatial distribution of HMs (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn), identify their possible sources, and assess their potential risk by multiple indices and metal fraction. Results showed that the concentrations of HMs in the sediments increased after the TGR operation, but were lower than those in other Chinese rivers of developed areas. The acid-soluble Cd accounted for more than 50% of total Cd in the sediments, whereas that of other HMs was very low. The Cd concentrations in the riparian sediments increased towards the dam; however, other metals in the riparian sediments and all HMs in the submerged sediments did not show any regular variation trend spatially. The stocks of HMs were significantly higher in the submerged sediments than in the riparian sediments. The high accumulation of HMs in the riparian sediments emerged between Fuling and Fengjie, and those in the submerged sediments existed in the near dam areas. Grain size and Fe/Mn oxides controlled the mobility and transfer of HMs in the sediments. Human activity in the catchment including industrial and agricultural production, shipping industry, mining, etc., increased inputs of HMs in the sediments, and altered their spatial distribution patterns. The sediments were moderately to highly contaminated by Cd, and slightly contaminated by other HMs. The results indicate the current priority of Cd contamination in the TGR, and will conduce to ecological protection in the TGR region. PMID:27131806

  14. Revisiting the CO2 "source" problem in upwelling areas - a comparative study on eddy upwellings in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, N.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, K.; Li, Q.; Dai, M.; Liu, J.; Guo, J.; Huang, B.

    2014-05-01

    The causes for a productive upwelling region to be a source of CO2 are usually referred to the excess CO2 supplied via upwelling of high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from deep water. Furthermore, we hypothesize that microbial activity plays a significant role on top of that. To test this hypothesis, multiple biogeochemical parameters were investigated at two cyclonic-eddy-induced upwelling sites, CE1 and CE2, in the western South China Sea. The data showed that upwelling can exert significant influences on biological activities in the euphotic zone and can also impact on particulate organic carbon (POC) export flux depending on upwelling conditions, such as the magnitude, timing, and duration of nutrient input and consequent microbial activities. At CE2, the increase of phytoplankton biomass caused by the upwelled nutrients resulted in increase of POC export flux compared to non-eddy reference sites, while at CE1 the microbial respiration of organic carbon stimulated by the upwelled nutrients significantly contributed to the attenuation of POC export flux. These results suggest that on top of upwelled DIC, microbial activities stimulated by upwelled nutrients and labile organic carbon produced by phytoplankton can play a critical role for an upwelling area to be outgassing or uptaking CO2. We point out that even though an upwelling region is outgassing CO2, carbon sequestration still takes place through the POC-based biological pump as well as the refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC)-based microbial carbon pump.

  15. [Reproduction of the Spanish sardine, Sardinella aurita (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gassman, Juan; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W

    2008-12-01

    Sex ratio, sexual maturity, fecundity and time of spawning of the Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island were determined through monthly samplings of commercial fisheries, from January 2004 to April 2005. A total of 3 736 individuals were examined. Sex ratio was 55.47% females and 44.53% males, with a 1:1.25 sexual proportion (chi2 = 44.454, p < 0.05). Length at first sexual maturity (L50) was 20 cm. Spawning of the species was confirmed to be partial and continuous throughout the year, with two peaks of intensity during the first and last quarters. Absolute fecundity ranged from 10,530 to 83,779 oocytes and it was proportional to body length (F = -100,900 + 6696.2 * L) and to body weight (F = 13,327 + 5666.3 * P). Relative fecundity ranged from 149 to 1020 oocytes/g and also was proportional to body length and weight. We concluded that the Spanish sardine exhibits two peaks of spawning activity per year with a very fluctuating partial fecundity which could possibly be explained by environmental variability. PMID:19419083

  16. Epipelagic mesozooplankton succession and community structure over a marine ouffall area in the northeastern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Li Chun; Kumar, Ram; Dahms, Hans Uwe; Chen, Chun Te; Chen, Qing Chao; Hwang, Jiang Shiou

    2008-05-01

    This study analyses distribution and abundance patterns of mesozooplankton communities at 13 stations in the coastal waters over a marine outfall area in the northeastern South China Sea. Cruises were conducted in March, June and September 2002, and plankton samples were collected with a 333 microm North Pacific net. The Mesozooplankton was dominated by calanoid Copepods, Cladocera, Chaetognatha and Pteropoda. Stations located near the entrance of the harbor provided a relatively higher abundance of Noctilucales and Radiolarians. In total, 20 zooplankton groups were identified in which, Calanoida, Cladocera, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda, Poecilostomatoida and Appendicularia comprised 92.77% of the total zooplankton abundance. Copepoda dominated in all three cruises, comprising 65.32% of the total mesozooplankton abundance. Samples collected in June recorded higher mesozooplankton abundance than March and September samples. Onshore stations recorded higher BOD values, higher abundance of Noctilucales and Radiolarians and a relativelylower abundance of the overall mesozooplankton. Total mesozooplankton abundance did not correlate significantly with temperature, pH, or dissolved oxygen, but correlated negatively with BOD. PMID:18972677

  17. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  18. Chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O

    2014-12-01

    A chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model was developed for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa in order to provide a simple and practical Pollution Index to assist with mitigation and rehabilitation activities. Historical data for 2003 to 2008 from 21 river sites were cubic-interpolated to daily values. Nine parameters were considered for this purpose, that is, ammonium, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. Parameter selection was based on sub-catchment pollution characteristics and availability of a consistent data range, against a harmonised guideline which provided five classes. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 used ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam, Vaal Barrage, Blesbokspruit/Suikerbosrant and Klip Rivers, respectively. Class 5 represented values which fell above those for Klip River. The Pollution Index, as provided by the model, identified pollution prioritisation monitoring points on Rietspruit-W:K2, Natalspruit:K12, Blesbokspruit:B1, Rietspruit-L:R1/R2, Taaibosspruit:T1 and Leeuspruit:L1. Pre-classification indicated that pollution sources were domestic, industrial and mine effluent. It was concluded that rehabilitation and mitigation measures should prioritise points with high classes. Ability of the model to perform simple scenario building and analysis was considered to be an effective tool for acid mine drainage pollution assessment. PMID:25473990

  19. Lake surface area variation and its responses to climatic change in Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet during 1970-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Tian, Y.; Sun, R.

    2015-12-01

    The research on lake extraction from multi-source and multi-temporal satellite images and the lake size variation can provide reliable method and indispensable information to deepen the understanding about alpine lake changes with the accelerating warming. With field survey experience in the Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet, the outlines of five lakes (i.e., Yamzhog Yumco, Chen Co, Kongmu Co, Bajiu Co and Puma Yumco) were delineated by the adoption of 42 scenes of satellite images from Landsat, CBERS and HJ from 1970 to 2010, basing on which the responses of alpine lakes to climate change at different timescales were explored. The results are summarized as follows. (1) The seasonal fluctuation of lake surface area was similar with different trend for the five alpine lakes. As for the last 41 years, the annual variation of lake surface area exhibited two kinds of patterns for the five alpine lakes. And the Yamzhog Yumco declined by 9.41%, while the rest four lakes expanded. (2) The responses of alpine lakes to climate change rely on different timescale and water replenishment types. On the one hand, the precipitation change was the predominant driving forces for the seasonal fluctuation and variation trend of lake size, and the rising temperature accounted for the inter-annual lake surface variation. On the other hand, the two kinds of alpine lakes behaviors were well correspondent with the warming temperature over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The lakes supplied mainly by precipitation shrunk as a result of increased evaporation, and lakes supplied mainly by glacier and snow meltwater, however, expanded because of the remarkable glacier recession. (3) The quantification of hydrological components would hopefully be improved, according to uncertainties analysis, with the adoption of microwave satellite images and higher resolution ones to disclose the interaction mechanism among climate, glacier, and lake in alpine regions.

  20. An Inverse Fault Detection From Shallow Geophysical Data at the P Reactor Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, A. E.; Knapp, C. C.; Addison, A. D.; Waddel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Surface and borehole Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), a Shallow Seismic Reflection (SSR) as well as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, in order to investigate the shallow stratigraphy, hydrogeophysical zonation, and the applicability and performance of these imaging techniques. The study site is the P Reactor Area located within the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, with clastic sediments ranging from Late Cretaceous to Miocene age. Lithologies consist of sand, clayey sand, and clay with minor amounts of calcareous minerals. The target of this research is the delineation and prediction of migration pathways of a large contaminant plume including trichloroethylene (TCE) that originates from the northwest section of the reactor facility and discharges into the nearby Steel Creek. Here, we present results from stratigraphic and hydrogeophysical characterizations using (1) the GPR technique involving the PulseEKKO 100 GPR system with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antennas, (2) the SSR method with a Geometrics 120-channel seismograph, and (3) the ERT technique with the SuperSting R8 IP with 8-channel multi-electrode resistivity and IP imaging system. Faulting on the GPR, SSR and ERT profiles may be observed through offsets of reflecting interfaces, dipping discontinuities, or fault plane imaging, all leading to a constrained interpretation of a fault system at the study site. The simultaneous use of the 50, 100 and 200 MHz antennas with the SSR and ERT methods allows us to generate a geologic cross-section of the subsurface to perform analyes of the radar and acoustic reflection data as a function of frequency, conductivity and acoustic impedance to facilitate interpolation and extrapolation of the hydraulic properties such as hydraulic conductivity (K) and porosity of the study area.

  1. A comparison of primary production models in an area of high mesoscale variability (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Muñoz, Cristina; López-Urrutia, Ángel; Lubián, Luis M.; García, Carlos M.; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2013-10-01

    Three types of primary productivity (PP) models were evaluated in a mesoscale area around the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica). Input variables were: phytoplankton carbon biomass, Chlorophyll a, sea water temperature, daily irradiance, among others, collected in situ during an oceanographic cruise (COUPLING, January 2010). Models of the first type were based on Chl a measurements: the widely used model VGPM (Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997) and a derived version developed for the Western Antarctic Peninsula (Dierssen et al., 2000). The second type included two models based on phytoplankton carbon biomass: one developed for the whole Southern Ocean (Arrigo et al., 2008) and one based on the Metabolic Theory of Ecology developed by López-Urrutia et al. (2006), being the first time that a model with these features is used for Antarctic waters. The third type was an updated version of the carbon-based model CbPM (first described by Behrenfeld et al. (2005)) based on the Chl a/carbon biomass ratio modulation. The degree of agreement among the results between the different types of models turned out to be low (> 30% of difference), but high within models of the same type (< 10% of difference). Biomass-based model predictions differed the most from those estimated by the other two types. The differences in PP estimates were primarily attributed to the different ways these models treat the phytoplankton assemblage, along with the difference in input variables. Among the five models evaluated, the output from the modified version of the CbPM showed the lowest bias (0.55) being the most realistic. It made a special attempt to detect the factors controlling phytoplankton physiological state, showing a nutrient limitation towards the Drake area similar to the one observed for the in situ PP values.

  2. The Geochronology and Geochemistry of Highly Fractionated I-type Granite within Gangdese batholith in Sangri Area, South Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Mo, X.; Zhu, D. C.; Wei, Y.; Liu, D.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath an active continental margin arise prolonged plutonic activity, which is illustrated by the vast chain of Gangdese batholith in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet. Although extensive studies have performed on the source regions, spatial-temporal associations and geotectonic implications of the granitic rocks within the batholith, the magmatic evolution and petrogenesis of plutons in Sangri area have remained poorly studied. Here we present zircon U-Pb geochronology, Hf isotope and bulk-rock geochemistry of the late Cretaceous Sangri biotite granites (SBG) in order to shed light on this issue. Zircon U-Pb geochronology demonstrates the plutonic activity emplaced at 67~65Ma. The SBG belong to high-K calc-alkaline series, displaying highly fractionated I-type signature with high content of SiO2 (74.26~76.93%), K2O+Na2O (7.87~8.56%), but low content of CaO (0.28~1%) and P2O5 (0.02~0.04%) and pronounced depletion in Sr, Ba, Eu, Nb and Zr. The affinity of mantle component in the SBG that was elucidated by positive zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 4.6~10.9, which makes it indistinguishable from other granitic rocks within Gangdese batholith. Tectonic models of evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean suggest that the break-off of the oceanic slab is required in order to generate enormous magmatism in Gangdese batholith during 66~50Ma. Associated with the coeval gabbroic and dioritic intrusions occurred in Sangri area, we suggest the magma of SBG had been derived from juvenile lower crust mingled with mantle component upwelling through the window of Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab, and were subjected to high degree of fractionation in the magma chamber.

  3. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 10{sup 22} ≤ P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≤ 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup –1}, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} = 9 × 10{sup 22} W Hz{sup –1}. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  4. Bent-tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 1022 <= P 1.4 GHz <= 1026 W Hz-1, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P 1.4 GHz = 9 × 1022 W Hz-1. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ~10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  5. Women's Experiences of Principalship in Two South African High Schools in Multiply Deprived Rural Areas: A Life History Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…

  6. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Both MAGSAT data and preliminary results emphasizing Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean were presented to geologists in Jamaica, Guyana, Brazil, and Argentina. Preliminary interpretations were discussed. A synopsis tectonic map of South America was completed. Semi-final modeling of northern South America was initiated.

  7. The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism.

    PubMed

    Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C

    2012-08-01

    The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism. PMID:22404967

  8. Smoothed particle hydrodynamic modeling of volcanic debris flows: Application to Huiloac Gorge lahars (Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Bouchra; Palacios, David; Pastor, Manuel; Zamorano, José Juan

    2016-09-01

    Lahars are among the most catastrophic volcanic processes, and the ability to model them is central to mitigating their effects. Several lahars recently generated by the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico) moved downstream through the Huiloac Gorge towards the village of Santiago Xalitzintla. The most dangerous was the 2001 lahar, in which the destructive power of the debris flow was maintained throughout the extent of the flow. Identifying the zone of hazard can be based either on numerical or empirical models, but a calibration and validation process is required to ensure hazard map quality. The Geoflow-SPH depth integrated numerical model used in this study to reproduce the 2001 lahar was derived from the velocity-pressure version of the Biot-Zienkiewicz model, and was discretized using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The results of the calibrated SPH model were validated by comparing the simulated deposit depth with the field depth measured at 16 cross sections distributed strategically along the gorge channel. Moreover, the dependency of the results on topographic mesh resolution, initial lahar mass shape and dimensions is also investigated. The results indicate that to accurately reproduce the 2001 lahar flow dynamics the channel topography needed to be discretized using a mesh having a minimum 5 m resolution, and an initial lahar mass shape that adopted the source area morphology. Field validation of the calibrated model showed that there was a satisfactory relationship between the simulated and field depths, the error being less than 20% for 11 of the 16 cross sections. This study demonstrates that the Geoflow-SPH model was able to accurately reproduce the lahar path and the extent of the flow, but also reproduced other parameters including flow velocity and deposit depth.

  9. Quantification of changes in water balance and sediment transport due to recent and future land use change in the Xiangxi Catchment (Three Gorges Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieger, K.; Schmalz, B.; Hörmann, G.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River induced a large-scale land use change in the Three Gorges Region in Central China. The relocation of towns, villages and agricultural areas is assumed to impact the water balance and increase erosion rates as well as sediment yields in the affected catchments. At the same time, an increasing risk of reservoir eutrophication can be expected because of higher inputs of nutrients, especially phosphorus, adsorbed to sediment and due to reduced flow velocities and prolonged residence times of water in the reservoir. As field experiments are often labor- and time-intensive and do not provide the possibility to analyze the effect of management decisions prior to their implementation, hydrologic and water quality models are frequently used to assess the impact of land use changes on water resources. In this study, the eco-hydrological model SWAT was applied to the Xiangxi Catchment in the Three Gorges Region in order to simulate stream flow and sediment loads at Xingshan gauging station under changing land use conditions. For the baseline scenario, a land use map for the year 1987 was used. The calibration of stream flow resulted in a good fit of simulated and observed data, which is indicated by NSE values of 0.69 and 0.67 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. In contrast, the model was not able to simulate the monthly average sediment loads correctly as indicated by very low NSE values of 0.42 (calibration) and 0.07 (validation). This is mainly due to insufficient input data because of a very low density of rain gauges in the Xiangxi Catchment. Also, there is very high uncertainty in the observed sediment data. Nevertheless, the modeling results prove the general applicability of SWAT to the Xiangxi Catchment and provide a sufficient basis for the simulation of land use scenarios. Land use maps for the years 1999 and 2007 were used to quantify the changes in water balance and sediment

  10. Heavy metal enrichment in the riparian sediments and soils of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q.; Bao, Y.; He, X.; Wen, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir encompasses a riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km2 that has been subjected to alternate inundation and exposure due to regular impoundment. Sedimentation on the riparian landforms constitutes an important pathway for riverine contaminant redistribution. In an attempt to understand heavy metal enrichment since water inundation, riparian sediments and soils were sampled along five transects in a typical riparian zone composed of cultivated bench terraces in the middle reaches. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were determined to characterize the lateral distribution and vertical transfer ratio. The results indicated that all heavy metals were enriched to varying extents both in the riparian sediments and soils, compared with regional background contents in soils and the reference levels in sediments. However, heavy metal levels in the riparian sediments were generally higher than those in the riparian soils, while those in the upper riparian soils (0-5 cm) were overall slightly higher than those in the lower riparian soils (5-10 cm). There was a decreasing trend of heavy metal contents with increasing elevation. The elevated levels of heavy metals in the riparian sediments may be attributed to sediment yields from upstream anthropogenic sources, especially during major rainstorms in the wet season when large loads of contaminated sediment may be produced from diffuse source areas. Heavy metals can also be adsorbed to pure sediment in the course of mobilization or after deposition. Considering that the riparian soils are local weathering products without mobilization, the enrichment of heavy metals may principally be ascribed to chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions or vertical transfer from overlaid sediments. Heavy metal enrichment may further be affected by the specific type of hydrologic regime such that relatively long flooding duration caused by water impoundment and natural floods

  11. Recent Fault Activity in the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina Earthquake Epicentral Area and its Relation to Buried Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, T. L.; Shah, A. K.; Horton, J. W., Jr.; Chapman, M. C.; Beale, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 1886 Charleston, SC earthquake (M6.8-7.3) is the largest recorded earthquake to strike the U.S. east of the Appalachian Mountains. It occurred along the U.S. passive margin within an area of extensive Mesozoic rifting and beneath the ~800-m thick, subhorizontal Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) strata. The fault(s) that caused the 1886 earthquake remain the subject of debate. We examine reprocessed seismic reflection data in the epicentral area to discern faults cutting the Cretaceous and Cenozoic ACP strata, and relate them to deeper structures revealed by the seismic profiles and filtered aeromagnetic data. Faults are identified on the seismic profiles by sharp vertical displacements of strata, abrupt but small changes in dip, and folding of the ACP strata. Some of these faults dip steeply and locally displace deeper reflectors within the underlying South Georgia rift basin with minor displacement; in places they bound uplifted blocks of ACP strata. These observations and the lack of surface scarps during the 1886 earthquake suggest a component of strike-slip for the Cretaceous and Cenozoic displacements, whereas some modern focal mechanisms show thrust motion. A prominent magnetic anomaly high shows a NE-trending west edge in the epicentral area, and short-wavelength magnetic anomalies show disruptions aligned along NE trends. These latter disruptions appear to be related to the seismically imaged faults that offset ACP strata. One of the faults, previously interpreted by Chapman and Beale (2010), shows folding and perhaps faulting of ACP strata with ~50 m vertical displacement and is aligned along the NW edge of the magnetic high. The vertical uplift is nearly equal through the ACP section with little or no upward decrease across the fault, indicating the motion is primarily Cenozoic. The fault lies near Summerville about 35 km NW of Charleston, where 1886 ground deformation was focused. Another NE-trending fault, crossing beneath the Ashley River ~15 km NW of

  12. Simulation of streamflow and sediment with the soil and water assessment tool in a data scarce catchment in the three gorges region, china.

    PubMed

    Bieger, Katrin; Hörmann, Georg; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The Three Gorges Region in China is currently subject to a large-scale land use change, which was induced by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. The relocation of towns, villages, and agricultural areas is expected to affect the water balance and increase erosion rates and sediment yields in the affected catchments. Hydrologic and water quality models are frequently used to assess the impact of land use changes on water resources. In this study, the eco-hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is applied to the Xiangxi Catchment in the Three Gorges Region. This paper presents the calibration and validation of streamflow and sediment loads at Xingshan gauging station. The calibration of daily streamflow resulted in a satisfactory fit of simulated and observed data, which is indicated by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values of 0.69 and 0.67 for the calibration (1981-1986) and validation (1988-1993) periods, respectively. In contrast, the model was not able to simulate the monthly average sediment loads correctly, as indicated by very low NSE values of 0.47 (calibration) and 0.08 (validation). This might be due to inadequate representation of spatial rainfall variability by the available climate stations, insufficient input data, uncertainties in the model structure, or uncertainties in the observed sediment loads. The discussion of these possible reasons for the incorrect prediction of sediment loads by SWAT reveals the need for further research in the field of hydrological and water quality modeling in China. PMID:25602538

  13. Salt-water encroachment, geology, and ground-water resources of Savannah area, Georgia and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counts, H.B.; Donsky, Ellis

    1964-01-01

    The Savannah area consists of about 2,300 square miles of the Coastal Plain along the coast of eastern Georgia and southeastern South Carolina. Savannah is near the center of the area. Most of the large ground-water developments are in or near Savannah. About 98 percent of the approximately 60 mgd of ground water used is pumped from the principal artesian aquifer, which is composed of about 600 feet of limestone of middle Eocene, Oligocene, and early Miocene ages. Industrial and other wells of large diameter yield as much as 4,200 gpm from the principal artesian aquifer. Pumping tests and flow-net analyses show that the coefficient of transmissibility averages about 200,000 gpd per ft in the immediate Savannah area. The specific capacity of wells in the principal artesian aquifer generally is about 50 gpm per ft of drawdown. The coefficient of storage of the principal artesian aquifer is about 0.0003 in the Savannah area. Underlying the Savannah area are a series of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediments ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Recent. The Upper Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lower Eocene sediments supply readily available and usable water in other parts of the Coastal Plain, but although the character and physical properties of these formations are similar in the Savannah area to the same properties in other areas, the hydraulic and structural conditions appear to be different. Deep test wells are needed to evaluate the ground-water potential of these rocks. The lower part of the sediments of middle Eocene age acts as a confining layer to the vertical movement of water into or out of the principal artesian aquifer. Depending on the location and depth, the principal artesian aquifer consists of from one to five geologic units. The lower boundary of the aquifer is determined by a reduction in permeability and an increase in salt-water content. Although the entire limestone section is considered water bearing, most of the ground water used in the

  14. Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on

  15. Wetland Diagenesis and Traces of Early Hominids, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deocampo, Daniel M.; Blumenschine, Robert J.; Ashley, Gail M.

    2002-03-01

    Lateral variations in whole-rock and clay geochemistry of basal Bed II claystones in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, reflect water quality differences across the Eastern Lacustrine Plain ∼1.75 myr ago. Bulk Ba/Sr and (Na2O+K2O+MgO)/Al2O3 range from 1.4 to 4.2 and from 0.7 to 1.4, respectively, and indicate leaching of lacustrine claystones beneath freshwater wetlands at times following lake retreat. Bulk MgO/Al2O3 (0.3-1.0) and molar Mg/Al (0.5-3.9) ratios of <0.2-μm clays reflect alteration of Mg-rich lacustrine clays. These indicators point to freshest conditions near Locality 43 of Hay (1976; HWK-East; Leakey, 1971), moderate conditions to the east (Locality 40-MCK), and high salinity and alkalinity to the west (Localities 85-VEK, 45-FLK). Clay geochemistry and artifact abundances are well correlated (r=-0.67, p<0.005), suggesting a relationship between paleo-water quality and hominid paleoecology. This pattern is consistent with predictions of greatest artifact discard/loss around freshwater sources where scavanging opportunities were greatest for hominids. This quantifies a relationship between artifact density distribution and a paleoecological proxy over landscape scales for the first time in Early Stone Age archaeology. In contrast, fossil bone abundance is uncorrelated (r=0.14, p=0.6), reflecting more complex taphonomic processes. Quantitative tests of landscape-scale land-use models are important for understanding early hominid behavior and its evolution.

  16. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  17. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Li, Kun; Zhou, Huaidong; Liu, Xiaoru; Zhang, Panwei; Wen, Wu; Yu, Yang; Yuan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the current contamination status of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in sediments from the mainstream and 22 primary tributaries of the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir region. To accomplish this, the concentrations of 22 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) congeners, 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in sediment samples were measured by GC-MS/MS. The result showed that the observed values of PBBs and PBDEs were 22.41 and 35.24 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. PBB1, 31 and 103 were the predominant PBB congeners, while PBDE28, 47, 77 and 99 were the predominant PBDE congeners. PBB209 and BDE209 were detected in >39% of the samples, with geometric means 2.43 and 11.92 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. PCBs were found to be the predominant compounds in sediment samples among the three PHAH subfamilies, with a geometric mean of 1,231.11 pg g(-1) dw, and PCB8, 18, 28, 52 and 66 were the primary PCB congeners. The measured levels of PHAHs were compared with results recently reported in the literature and their respective sediment quality guidelines recommended by the USEPA. The levels of PHAHs in the present study were generally lower than their respective threshold-effect levels, or were comparable to those reported in relatively uncontaminated freshwater samples from other regions. Taken together, these results suggest that, in the reservoir, toxic biological effects on aquatic biota in response to PHAHs contamination of sediments can be expected to be negligible. PMID:23043334

  18. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  19. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds affecting the air quality in a coastal urban area of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-09-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  20. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds Affecting the Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area of South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530