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Sample records for gorny altai southern

  1. First native silica findings in bismuth from garnet skarns of Ribny Log - 2 gold ore target in Topolninsk ore deposit (Gorny Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, T.; Timkin, T.; Savinova, O.

    2015-02-01

    The nanomineralogic investigation results of ore minerals in metasomatites (garnet skarns) of Ribny Log- 2 gold ore in Topolninsk ore deposit (Gorny Altai) revealed the native silica impurities (Si) of 1 - 5 nm within the grains of native bismuth (Bi). Polished sections were examined by using Tescan Vega 3 scanning electron microscope (SEM) with Oxford energy-dispersive spectrometer at the Department of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Institute of Natural Resources, Tomsk Polytechnic University.

  2. Crustal melting and magma mixing in a continental arc setting: Evidence from the Yaloman intrusive complex in the Gorny Altai terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Kulikova, Anna V.; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2016-05-01

    Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves may retain important information on crust-mantle interaction, and thus are significant for study of crustal growth and differentiation. An integrated petrological, geochronological and geochemical study on the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, was conducted to determine their source nature, petrogenesis and geodynamics. Mafic enclaves are common in the plutons, and a zircon U-Pb age (389 Ma ± 4 Ma) indicates that they are coeval with their granitoid hosts (ca. 393-387 Ma). Petrographic observations reveal that these mafic enclaves probably represent magmatic globules commingled with their host magmas. The relatively low SiO2 contents (46.0-60.7 wt.%) and high Mg# (38.9-56.5) further suggest that mantle-derived mafic melts served as a crucial component in the formation of these mafic enclaves. The granitoid hosts, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, are I-type in origin, possessing higher SiO2 contents (60.2-69.9 wt.%) and lower Mg# (32.0-44.2). Their zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the magmas were dominated by remelting of Neoproterozoic (0.79-1.07 Ga) crustal materials. Meanwhile, the geochemical modeling, together with the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves and the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases, suggests that magma mixing possibly contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of the granitoid hosts. Our results imply that mafic magmas from the mantle not only provided substantial heat to melt the lower crust, but also mixed with the crust-derived melts to form the diverse granitoids. The oxidizing and water-enriched properties inferred from the mineral assemblages and compositions imply that the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex were possibly formed in a continental arc-related setting, which is also supported by their geochemistry. The Devonian granitoids from the Gorny Altai terrane show remarkable temporal-spatial-petrogenetic affinities to the counterparts from the Altai-Mongolian terrane, indicating that these two terranes were possibly under subduction of the same oceanic plate (i.e., the Ob-Zaisan Ocean). The voluminous granitoids signify significant crustal recycling and growth as a response to the underplating of extensive mantle-derived basaltic melts.

  3. Neoproterozoic-middle Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of the Gorny Altai terrane, northwest of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Zheng, Jianping; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    The Gorny Altai terrane (GA) is a key area in understanding the crustal evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper reports U-Pb and Hf-isotope data for detrital zircons from Cambrian to early Devonian sedimentary sequences to constrain their provenance, as well as the tectono-magmatic events and crustal growth in this region. Nearly all the detrital zircons are characterized by euhedral to subhedral morphology, high Th/U ratios (ca. 0.1-1.6) and typical oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. The three samples from the Gorny Altai Group (middle Cambrian to early Ordovician) yield detrital zircon populations that are composed predominantly of 530-464 Ma grains, followed by a subordinate group of 641-549 Ma old. The Silurian and Devonian samples exhibit similar major zircon populations (555-456 Ma and 525-463 Ma, respectively), but a significant amount of additional 2431-772 Ma zircons occur in the early Devonian sample. Our results suggest that detritus from the nearby Kuznetsk-Altai intra-oceanic island arc served as a unitary source for the Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary sequences, but older detritus from other sources added to the early Devonian sequence. The low abundance of ca. 640-540 Ma detrital zircons may testify that this island arc was under a primitive stage in this period, when mafic volcanic rocks probably dominated. In contrast, the dominant population of ca. 530-470 Ma zircons may indicate an increased amount of granitic rocks in the source area, suggesting that the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc possibly evolved into a mature one in the Cambrian to early Ordovician. The ca. 530-470 Ma detrital zircons are almost exclusively featured by positive εHf(t) values and have two-stage Hf model ages of ca. 1.40-0.45 Ga, indicating that the precursor magmas were sourced predominantly from heterogeneous juvenile materials. We conclude that the late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the Kuznetsk-Altai arc made a significant contribution to the crustal growth in the CAOB. The absence of middle Ordovician to early Devonian detrital zircons possibly implies that the area changed to a passive margin in the middle Ordovician. Of special significance are the 2431-772 Ma zircons in the early Devonian sample, which are quite comparable to the Precambrian detrital zircons from the Altai-Mongolian terrane (AM) but distinct from those from the Siberian continent. This indicates that the AM is a plausible source for the 2431-772 Ma zircons. Our data therefore imply that the GA possibly amalgamated with the AM before the early Devonian rather than in the late Devonian to early Carboniferous as previously suggested.

  4. Contrasting styles of mineralization in the Chinese Altai and East Junggar, NW China: implications for the accretionary history of the southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Bo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The Chinese Altai-East Junggar collage in the southern Altaids hosts three metallogenic belts, which are, from north to south: (1) a volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) Cu-Pb-Zn belt; (2) a belt of shear zone-related gold deposits; (3) a porphyry Cu-Au-Mo belt. The VMS deposits formed in two pulses (c. 405 Ma and c. 375 Ma) in the Chinese Altai arc. The porphyry deposits developed in three pulses in the East Junggar arc, the first two synchronous with the VMS mineralization, and the third at c. 330 Ma. The shear zone-related gold deposits developed in the late Carboniferous to Permian at the contact between the Chinese Altai and East Junggar arcs. Time-space distributions of diverse ore deposits across the Altai-East Junggar collage indicate that the collage developed from two independent arcs, the Chinese Altai and the East Junggar. The VMS and porphyry deposits developed in the Chinese Altai and East Junggar arcs, respectively. The Chinese Altai arc is interpreted to be a Japanese-type arc, and the East Junggar arc a Mariana-type arc. During the latest Palaeozoic, the two arcs were juxtaposed by the Erqis Fault, when many shear zone-related lode gold deposits were emplaced. These metallogenic distributions were a likely response to spatially localized mechanisms of crust growth and to the tectonic evolution of the Altai-East Junggar collage, and they are consistent with interpretation of the Altaids as a multiple subduction-accretion collage.

  5. [Health and recreational localities in the republic of altai and prospects for the development of spa-and-resort services on their basis].

    PubMed

    Dzharabova, N K; Iakovenko, É S; Lukovskaia, I A; Sidorina, N G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to explore low- and mid-altitude valleys and depressions in the northern and central bioclimatic provinces of Gorny Altai for the identification of the health and recreational localities most promising in terms development of spa-and-resort services. The integral estimation of landscape and climatic conditions in conjunction with the quality of hydromineral resources of therapeutic value provided the data that were used by the authors to propose recommendations for the creation of the system of mountain-climate health resorts and touristic-recreational complexes of regional and federal significance at the territory of the Republic of Altai. PMID:22693741

  6. Mesozoic lamprophyres of Gorny and Mongolian Altay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    The Chuya complex consists of more then 400 early Mesozoic lamprophyre dikes that occur in the vast territory in the structures of the Gorny and Mongolian Altay. Based on the irregular distribution of the dikes, various researchers have distinguished from 3 to 6 separate dike swarms or areas. Each of them is spatially connected with a specific simultaneous ore deposit. For example, in the Aktash area, there are the Aktash, Chagan-Uzun and other Sb-Hg deposits, in the territory of the South-Chuya area there are the Kalguta Mo-W and Chagan-Burgasy Ag-Pb deposits and within the Yustyd area there are the Askhatin-Gol Ni-Co-As deposit, Asgat, Ozernoe and Tolbonour Ag-Sb deposits. But the genetic link between the magmatic rocks and close in time and space ore deposits has not yet been proven. In this work samples of lamprophyre dikes from the largest areas (Yustyd and South Chuya) were studied. The dikes are extraordinarily similar in mineralogical and chemical aspects. The greatest differences are in the isotopic characteristics of the rocks. Lamprophyres and syenites of the South-Chuya area have negative eNd (~-4) and an elevated 87Sr/86Sr (>0.711) ratio whereas lamprophyres of the Yustyd area are close to BSE (eNd~0, 87Sr/86Sr=0.705-0.707)/ Using data on the composition of rock-forming minerals, study of chemical characteristics and composition of lamprophyre fluid inclusions, we propose different sources with similar geochemical characteristics and varying degrees of metasomatic mantle material provoked different isotopic composition. The resulting liquid rich in carbonates and composite fluids in conjunction with low degrees of melting generates approximately petrochemical and mineralogical similar compositions newly formed rocks.

  7. Estimating gold-ore mineralization potential within Topolninsk ore field (Gorny Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timkin, T.; Voroshilov, V.; Askanakova, O.; Cherkasova, T.; Chernyshov, A.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the results of ore and near-ore metasomatite composition analysis, the factors and indicators of gold-ore mineralization potential were proposed. Integration of the obtained data made it possible to outline magmatic, structural, and lithological factors, as well as direct and indirect indicators of gold-ore mineralization. Applying multidimensional analysis inherent to geochemical data, the spatial structure was investigated, as well as the potential mineralization was identified. Based on the developed and newly-identified mineralization, small (up to medium-sized) mineable gold-ore deposits in skarns characterized by complex geological setting was identified.

  8. Detrital zircon record of the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks in Russian Altai: Implications on their provenance and the tectonic nature of the Altai-Mongolian terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    An integrated U-Pb and Hf-isotope study on detrital zircons from the early Paleozoic meta-sedimentary rocks along the Charysh-Terekta-Ulagan-Sayan suture zone in Russian Altai was conducted in order to trace their provenance and tectonic setting. Most of the zircons possess oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (> 0.1), indicating their magmatic origin. The investigated samples yield similar zircon populations, i.e., dominant groups with late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic ages, followed by those from Mesoproterozoic to late Neoproterozoic and minor ones from Archean to middle Mesoproterozoic, indicating multiple tectono-thermal events in the source area. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and its adjacent island arcs possibly provided substantial materials to the sedimentary basin. These rocks show detrital zircon age patterns and Hf-isotope compositions similar to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane in western Mongolia, but different from those in the Gorny Altai terrane. Therefore, the investigated meta-sedimentary units possibly represented the northernmost segment of the Altai-Mongolian terrane. With combination of previous studies in the Chinese Altai and Tseel terrane, our data suggest that the Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represents a coherent continental arc-accretionary prism system built upon the active margin of the western Mongolia during the Cambrian to Ordovician and thus does not support the micro-continent model with a passive margin. A compilation of U-Pb and Hf-isotope data of detrital zircons from the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane shows that the source area (i.e., the western Mongolia) underwent two most extensive magmatic activities at ca. 1.02-0.67 Ga and 0.67-0.43 Ga. These zircons possess both positive and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting significant crustal growth and reworking during the magmatic activities. Our study underlines a crucial role of Precambrian micro-continents (e.g., the Tuva-Mongolian terrane) and island arcs surrounding them in the formation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  9. A Few Issues on the Peat Research in the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, Lydia I.; Larina, Galina; Shurova, Maya

    2010-05-01

    At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of peat and marsh waters is carried out. The group structure of organic substance of various samples of peat is investigated by the method of Institutes of Peat. The toxic metals of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As were defined by the method of stripping voltammetry. The region of the Altai Mountains is characterized by the contrastive distribution of some heavy metals and arsenic in a soil cover. This is caused by a variety of petrography and granulometry of soil forming material, and also by a landscape and geochemical situation in the system of vertical zoning. The sources of natural accumulation of heavy metals in the ground might be the deposits of polymetals. In this connection the content of the specified toxic elements in the peat under research has been identified. The peat of the Turochak deposit is characterized by a significant ash content - up to 41,9%; the increased ash content is typical of the Kutyush deposit: from 6,1% up to 19, %. The peat of the Northeastern Altai is referred to non-bitumunous: the content of bitumen makes up less than 5%. In comparison with the European peat the peat under study of the transitive and lowland type is characterized by the significant content of easy hydrolysable substances in the amount of 24,8-41,1%. The amount of the non-hydrolysable rest makes up around 4,3 - 7,4 %. The total content of fulvic acids is less than the content of humic acids by 2,9 - 5,8 times. The high content of humic acids which can reach up to 58 % is characteristic of certain deposits. Humic acids extracted from the peat are characterized, as a rule, by similar IR-spectra. The distinctions are shown in an unequal intensity of characteristic absorption bands, in their spreading and some shifts. It is revealed that humic acids of peat with the increase in a degree of decomposition are exposed to transformation; therefore the increase in their structure of functional groups is observed. As a result of the research which was carried out the following elements among heavy metals in the lowland peat of the Altai Mountains are revealed: Cd (2,7 - 30)> Hg (0,67)> Zn (0,22) ~Pb (0,21)> Cu (0,13)> As (0,03). The degree of mobility of chemical elements in the peat varies within the limits of 1,3 - 36%. According to the degree of their mobility these elements form the following line: Zn (36 %)> Pb (18,1 %)> Cd (9,6 %)> Cu (1,3 %). The content and the character of distribution of the heavy metals under study and arsenic in the peat of the Altai Mountains have their unique features in comparison with the same valley analogues. The mountain peat of the Central Altai contains much less Hg than the West Siberian one: 0,078 mg/g and 0,69 mg/g accordingly. Cd represents itself as the concentrator in the lowland peat of the Northeastern and Central Altai, its content is actually the same and makes up approximately 0,3 mg/kg. The lowland Altai and West Siberian peat has the same amount of Pb: 4-5 mg/kg; they have smaller amounts of Zn and Cu in comparison with the European and West Siberian peat. The revealed features of distribution of some toxic metals are the display of specificity of peat genesis in the conditions of a mountain relief. The complex of the data received by us allows to consider the peat of the Altai Mountains as a non-polluting raw source concerning the amount of some natural toxic substances. The possible perspective directions of practical application of the mountain peat can be medicine, veterinary science, and agriculture.

  10. Objective and Subjective Data on Altai and Kazakh Ethnolinguistic Vitality in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagmur, Kutlay; Kroon, Sjaak

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the ethnolinguistic vitality of Altai and Kazakh as compared to Russian in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai. Data were gathered by document analysis, interviews with experts and by conducting a subjective ethnolinguistic vitality questionnaire. The data showed that Altai and Kazakh, as a consequence of a long-lasting

  11. Objective and Subjective Data on Altai and Kazakh Ethnolinguistic Vitality in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagmur, Kutlay; Kroon, Sjaak

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the ethnolinguistic vitality of Altai and Kazakh as compared to Russian in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai. Data were gathered by document analysis, interviews with experts and by conducting a subjective ethnolinguistic vitality questionnaire. The data showed that Altai and Kazakh, as a consequence of a long-lasting…

  12. Reflection of climatic changes in Altai phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malygina, Natalia; Barlyaeva, Tatiana; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana; Mitrofanova, Elena; Lovtskaya, Olga; Nenasheva, Galina; Otgonbayar, Demberel; Papina, Tatiana; Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Sokolov, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    The last decades of the past century showed noticeable climate changes in many parts of the Earth (IPCC, 2007). Numerous models suggest that the climate changes will continue, showing a variable intensity especially in mountain regions. Altai Mountains, located at the boundary of taiga, desert, and semiarid regions of Central Asia, are exposed to intensive climatic and environmental changes. Analysis of changes in phenological parameters is the simplest process for track changes in the ecology of species in response to climate change. We present climatic characteristic and statistical analysis changes of thermal and precipitation regimes in Altai Mountains (Russian and Mongolian Altai), and the response of phenological parameters to these changes. The close correlation between temperature series of the Russian and northern part of Mongolian Altai is determined. At the same time, a correlation between precipitation data is observed only for the cold (November - March) seasons. It was found that the rate of temperature increase for the period under consideration (1940-2012) ranged from 0.15 to 0.55 ° C/10 years, and the most significant increase was registered during the cold seasons. An increase of annual means of precipitation is in the range from 2.32 to 6.37 mm / 10 years. The maximal increase (29 mm / 10 years) was observed in the data from the Kara-Tyureck station, whose location is the highest one of the considered stations (2600 m). During the maximal warming (1980-1999), a 2-4.5 times increase of annual average temperature was observed as compared to the period of 1940 - 1979. The amount of precipitation is increased for Ust'-Koksa (5 times) and Ulgiy (2 times) stations, but it is 3 times lower for Kosh-Agach and Kara-Tyureck stations. The results of the correlation analysis of temperature and precipitation data for the analyzed Russian and Mongolian Altai stations were confirmed and detailed by the wavelet and wavelet coherence / phase analysis. The temperature series variations obtained with the wavelet analysis correspond to the periods of North Atlantic Oscillation and solar activity variation, and precipitation are in good agreement with changes in Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The analyzed climatic change influenced on the beginning of pollination of different plant species in Altai region. If average (for 27 years) of the beginning of pollination of Artemisia gmelinii (a typical representative of Central Asian steppe vegetation) was counted at 24 of August, a mass pollination of this species was at 5th of September. So deviation reached 14 days. Under condition of more cool summer the pollination in most cases (80 %) started later. Additionally we counted average temperature of beginning of pollination of this species which was + 21.5 C0, and sums of action temperatures (+5 C0) = 1675, (+10 C0) = 1491.

  13. Peculiarities of Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatova, Anna; Nepop, Roman

    2010-05-01

    The Altai Mountains form the northern part of the Central Asia orogenic belt and is a transpressional zone formed due to oblique thrusting. Its late Cenozoic reactivation is attributed to India-Eurasia collision, and to ongoing indentation India to Eurasia. Continued strain and stress build-up has been partly partitioned by propagation northward to Eurasia's interior along preexisting fault zones. Deformation along these zones has been responsible for building of the modern mountain belts. Geological and geomorphological data indicate that the impact of India-Eurasia collision on the northern Tien Shan, Altai and northern Kazakhstan regions showed up at 11, 5 and 3 Ma respectively. Along with the morphotectonic analysis, analysis of sediment fillings of intermountain depressions and piedmont plains we study the distribution and extension of the Pleistocene glaciations within the Altai Cenozoic uplift which reveal some peculiarities of tectonic evolution of the Altai Mountains: 1) Rejuvenation of the mountain systems within Altai Mountains in south-eastern direction which is opposite to the stress propagation related to India-Eurasia collision. 2) The simplification of neotectonic structure in south-eastern direction. Fan-like system of mountain ridges and intermountain depressions in Russian Altai is changed in Mongolian Altai by several contiguous, sub parallel mountain chains with the narrow lowerings between. Goby Altai is formed by far distant, separate ridges pierced through piedmont depressions. 3) Steep bench of base level of orogen between North- and South-Eastern parts of Russian Altai which was formed at the edge of the middle- and the late- Pleistocene. Clear-cut distinction of types of the middle Pleistocene glaciations in different parts of Altai Mountains argues for the fact that its orographic structure had been generally formed by the middle Pleistocene. At the same time drastic changes of glaciations type in the late Pleistocene (that occurred in spite of at least the same climatic changes) indicate significant relief rebuilding during interglacial period probably at the end of the middle Pleistocene. Modern river incision and glacial deepening of the valleys, vertical displacements up to 50-100 m that cut the Pleistocene cirques, kars and troughs, great amount of giant seismically induced gravitational slope movements in the late Pleistocene moraines point out the ongoing Holocene uplifting and widening of the ridges of Russian Altai. Strong modern earthquakes in Russian and Goby Altai argue that the process of tectonic rebuilding of this mountain system which started at the edge of the middle- and the late- Pleistocene hasn't been completed yet.

  14. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  15. The crustal structure from the Altai Mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Mooney, W.D.; Yuan, X.; Coleman, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new crustal section across northwest China based on a seismic refraction profile and geologic mapping. The 1100-km-long section crosses the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Junggar Accretional Belt and eastern Junggar basin, easternmost Tianshan Mountains, and easternmost Tarim basin. The crustal velocity structure and Poisson's ratio (??), which provide a constraint on crustal composition, were determined from P and S wave data. Despite the complex geology, the crustal thickness along the entire profile is nearly uniform at 50 km. The thickest crust (56 km) occurs at the northern end of the profile beneath the Altai Mountains and the thinnest (46 km) crust is beneath the Junggar basin. Beneath surficial sediments, the crust is found to have three layers with P wave velocities (Vp) of 6.0-6.3, 6.3-6.6, and 6.9-7.0 km/s, respectively. The southern half of the profile, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin, shows low P wave velocities and ?? = 0.25 to a depth of 30 km, which suggests a quartz-rich, granitic upper crustal composition. The northern half of the profile below the Altai Mountains and Junggar Accretional Belt has a higher Poisson's ratio of ?? = 0.26-0.27 to a depth of 30 km, indicative of an intermediate crustal composition. The entire 1100-km-long profile is underlain by a 15-30 km thick high velocity (6.9-7.0 km/s; ?? = 0.26-0.28) lower-crustal layer that we interpret to have a bulk composition of mafic granulite. At the southern end of the profile, a 5-km-thick midcrustal low-velocity layer (Vp = 5.9 km/s, ?? = 0.25) underlies the Tianshan and the region to the south, and may be indicative of a near-horizontal detachment interface. Pn velocities are ???7.7-7.8 km/s between the Tianshan and the Junggar basin, and ???7.9-8.0 km/s below the Altai Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin. We interpret the consistent three-layer stratification of the crust to indicate that the crust has undergone partial melting and differentiation after Paleozoic terrane accretion. The thickness (50 km) of the crust appears to be related to compression resulting from the Indo-Asian collision.

  16. Subduction plagiogranites of Rudny Altai: Age and composition characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuybida, M. L.; Kruk, N. N.; Shokal'skii, S. P.; Gusev, N. I.; Murzin, O. V.

    2015-09-01

    Results of geological, geochemical, and isotope geochronological studies of the oldest plagiogranites of Rudny Altai are given. The plagiogranites under consideration were formed at the beginning of Middle Devonian (395-387 Ma) simultaneously with large-scale supra-subduction volcanism accompanied by formation of numerous copperâ "base metal deposits. Geochemistry of plagiogranites is rather similar to hypabyssal rhyolites and rhyiodacites of the Mel'nichyj-Sosnovskaya Formation in Rudny Altai (Emsian-Eifelian) suggesting their comagmatism.

  17. New data on the most ancient early quaternary glaciation in Gornyi Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykin, V. S.; Zykina, V. S.; Smolyaninova, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this work introduce substantial corrections into the Upper Cenozoic stratigraphy and geological history of Gornyi Altai. They provide evidence for the most ancient Early Pleistocene glaciation in this region. This follows from finds of faceted boulders buried in the Bashkaus Formation. Pale-omagnetic investigations revealed in the latter a wide zone of negative polarity corresponding to the Matuyama Chron in the magnetostratigraphic scale and made it possible to correlate the formation with the Lower Pleistocene in the standard stratigraphic scale. It is shown that global cooling at the beginning of the Quaternary Period stimulated development of glaciation on the southern slope of the Kuraiskii Range exceeding in size its present-day scale.

  18. Glacier Evolution in the Altai Mountains, South-West Siberia, for the Last Half Century (with use of Geo-Informational Catalogue)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surazakov, A. B.; Narojniy, Y. K.; Nikitin, S. A.; Aizen, V. B.

    2003-12-01

    To systemize and analyze the information for the period from 1835 to present on altitudinal distributions of glaciers, exposition, their numbers and surface areas in basins, volumes, genetic classification, location of lower and upper level of glaciers, average firn line position and main morphometric characteristics, DataBase on glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (AGDB) has been developed in ArcGIS Format [Tomsk State University, Russia]. Data from Glacier Catalogue [1962], topographic maps with the scale of 1:25000 and 1:50000 and air photos, which fixed glaciers' state on 1952, were digitized. Instrumental observational data on glacier tongue retreat from twenty glaciers since 1835, and radio-echo sounding measurements of 120 glacier volumes were also digitized in the AGDB. Modern state of Altai glaciers and their changes since 1952 were assessed from Resurs space images and partially from instrumental observations. Based on estimation from Resurs for the period from 1952 to 1998, the value of Altai glacier retreating was about 56.9 km2, i.e. 7.1 % of total area, varied from 4 % for valley glaciers to 16 % for glaciers of flat mountain tops. Retreat of 2-8 m per year was accompanied by their 10% mass loss. The slightest degradation occurred in inner (central) part of the glacier system, in the heads of river basins with large-scale glaciation, e.g., in the Katunski, Nothern-Chuiski and Southern-Chuiski ranges, amounting to 6.3%. These are the highest regions, reaching up to 4506 m., and 80% of Altai's glaciers are located there. In the river basins with relatively small-glacierized areas, at the peripheral regions, e.g., Kurai, Chihacheva ranges, the degradation reached its maximum values up to 22%.

  19. Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papina, T.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

    2013-10-01

    Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86°34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. Daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation have been used to identify the predominant atmospheric circulations (elementary circulating mechanisms, or ECMs) generating the entry of biological proxies on the glacier surface. It was shown that the high-resolution records of diatoms, cysts, spores, and plant pollen in the Belukha ice core are the biological proxies for the changes in the structure of precipitation in the Altai region since these records can reflect changes in the contribution of different atmospheric circulation to annual or seasonal precipitation. The joint consideration of the transport ability of the biological species and the data of precipitation allowed us to determine the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. The main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and northern Kazakhstan basins; coniferous tree pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of western Siberia; pollen of deciduous trees and herbs from steppe and forest-steppe vegetation in the northern Altai and eastern Kazakhstan; and cysts and spores of plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace elements in the ice core.

  20. Formation conditions of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    The results of previous geological, petrochemical, and metallogenic surveys conducted from the 1960s to the 1990s provide the geological and tectonic basis of this study. The unique mineral deposits of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province were formed in the Middle Paleozoic (S2-C1) at the junction between different structures of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: the Alei-Charysh-Tigirek rift (in the north) with the Korgon-Markakol' island arc and Belaya Uba-Maimyr intra-arc trough (in the southwest). The Rudny Altai structural-formational zone that formed at the junction between these structures evolved as a magmatic arc and was characterized by the formation of granite-greenschist arches, volcanoplutonic magmatism and high heat and fluid flow (greenschist-facies metamorphism of Upper Silurian-Upper Devonian rocks and deposition of pyrite-bearing hydrothermal-sedimentary horizons, VMS and copper-VMS deposits and isolated base-metal ore bodies). The tectonomagmatic history of the Rudny Altai zone can be subdivided into several stages: Ludlow-Emsian, Late Emsian-Givetian, Frasnian-Early Famennian, Middle Famennian-Early Visean, and Late Visean-Serpukhovian. The island arc is represented by volcanic rocks of the andesite-dacite-rhyolite (early stage), basalt-rhyolite (Late Emsian-Eifelian), and basalt-andesite-rhyolite series (Late Visean). Volcanosedimentary strata (until the Givetian age) and turbidites up to 3-5 km thick were deposited in the interarc trough. Because of their metastable behavior, the volcanic rocks became actively involved in ion-exchange reactions with the formational waters, whereas the differences in hydraulic head between arches and troughs created favorable conditions for the transport of the metamorphic fluids, and the thermal gradient promoted thermodiffusion of divalent species of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu, etc. toward the high-temperature zone and development of the high-Mg metamorphic-metasomatic alteration with a VMS-base-metal mineralization. As a result, ore deposits of different structural and genetic types were formed. Temperatures of ore formation (200-400°C) were controlled by thermal effect of pyrite dissolution and replacement reactions. The ore composition and regional metallogenic zoning were defined based on their position with respect to interarc and interarch troughs and the chemistry of the metal-extraction environment.

  1. Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papina, T.; Blyacharchyuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

    2013-05-01

    Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86° 34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. We used daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation to identify the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. Our analyses revealed that main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and North Kazakhstan basins. Coniferous trees pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of West Siberia and pollen of hardwoods and herbs from steppe and forest steppe vegetation in the Northern Altai and East Kazakhstan. Cysts of algae and spores of inferior plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace species in the ice core.

  2. Provenance of Early Paleozoic metasediments in the central Chinese Altai: Implications for tectonic affinity of the Altai-Mongolia terrane in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujing; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Xu, Huilong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Cai, Keda

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese Altai is one of the most typical segments of the Altai-Mongolia terrane, of which the tectonic evolution and affinity are hotly disputed and still not well constrained. Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks are extensive in the Altai-Mongolia terrane and their provenance is a key to unravelling the tectonic history of this terrane. Metasediments from Kulumuti Group were collected from the central Chinese Altai for geochemical study. They have low Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 52-54) and high Index of Compositional Variability (ICV = 0.81-1.19) values, different from the mature post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS), indicating relatively weak chemical weathering and a source compositionally dominated by immature material that lacks alumina-rich minerals. These rocks are moderately enriched in light rare earth element (LREE) and show relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.36-9.80, GdN/YbN = 1.31-2.45). Compared with PAAS, they mostly have lower large ion lithophile element concentrations (e.g. Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U and Pb) and similar contents of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf and Y), but with lower Nb and Ta. The metasediments have high Rb concentrations (> 50 ppm), relatively high K2O (> 1.1 wt.%) and low REE contents with negative Eu/Eu* anomalies, indicating that these rocks were derived from an acid-intermediate igneous source. The rocks have slightly enriched Nd isotopic compositions with calculated initial εNd(t) values mostly ranging from - 4.3 to - 0.2 and TDM2 model ages between 1.22 and 1.56 Ga. Detrital zircons from two samples of the Kulumuti metasediments have similar age spectra, dominated by Early Paleozoic to latest Neoproterozoic zircons (465-576 Ma) with a few older grains formed between 766-972 Ma and 1321-2572 Ma, remarkably consistent with those from the low-grade metamorphic Habahe Group in the western Chinese Altai. In combination with previous published data, the detrital zircons from Early Paleozoic metasediments in the Chinese Altai dominantly formed between 430-580 and 750-950 Ma, with only a minor population of Meso- to Paleoproterozoic grains. When compared with adjacent terranes, the age spectrum of the Chinese Altai is most similar to that of the Tarim Craton. This craton provided Precambrian materials for the Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks now exposed in the Chinese Altai, and therefore suggests that the whole Altai-Mongolia terrane has a close tectonic affinity to the Tarim Craton.

  3. Hybrid dysgenesis determinants in a natural Drosophila population from Altai

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhemyakina, T.A.; Furman, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    Localization of mobile elements P and hobo in the genomes of isofemale Drosophila lines obtained from a natural population from Biisk (Altai) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The average copy number per genome was 27.1 for P and 22.0 for hobo. The highest number of P and hobo copies was recorded in the 3R and 21 chromosomes, respectively. The X chromosome contained the lowest number of hobo copies. For P, this relationship was not shown. Both transposons had preferential localization sites, or {open_quotes}hot spots,{close_quotes} which partly coincided with intercalary heterochromatin regions. Correlation analysis of P and hobo copy number showed independent distribution of these hybrid dysgenesis determinants. The 1A site, which is thought to be associated with the P cytotype expression, was not labelled in any line. 40 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  5. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    We report the first high-resolution (with intervals ca. 20-50 years) late-Holocene (4200 yr BP) pollen record from Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mountains, obtained from the underwater Ridge of Sofia Lepneva in 2006 (core Tel 2006). The study presents (i) the results of palynological analysis of Tel 2006; (ii) the results of spectral analysis of natural cycles based on the periodical fluctuation of taiga-biome curve; and (iii) quantitative reconstructions of the late-Holocene regional vegetation, woody coverage and climate in northern part of the Altai Mountains in order to define place of Northeast Altai on the map of the late-Holocene Central Asian environmental history. Late Holocene vegetation of the northeastern part of Altai recorded in Tel 2006 core is characterized by spread of dark-coniferous forest with structure similar to modern. Dominant trees, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), are the most ecological sensitive taxa between Siberian conifers (Shumilova, 1962), that as a whole suggests mild and humid climatic conditions during last 4200 years. However, changes of pollen taxa percentages and results of numerical analysis reveal pronounced fluctuation of climate and vegetation. Relatively cool and dry stage occurred prior to ca. 3500 cal yr BP. Open vegetation was widespread in the region with maximum deforestation and minimal July temperatures between 3800-3500 cal yr BP. Steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae could grow on the open sites around Lake Teletskoye. Reconstructed woody coverage is very low and varies between 29-35%. After ca. 3500 cal yr BP the area of dark-coniferous mountain taiga has significantly enlarged with maximums of woody coverages and taiga biome scores between ca. 2470-1040 cal yr BP. In the period of ~3500-2500 cal yr BP the averages July temperatures increased more than 1 0C. Climate became warmer and wetter. During last millennium (after 1040 cal yr BP) average July temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years intervals during the Late Holocene. Kravchinsky et al. (2013) presume that the 1000- and 500-year periodicities recorded in magnetic properties of soil layers correspond to solar activity induced climate changes in Southern Siberia; however, Stuiver&Braziunas (1993) relate the ~500-yr cycle to flux oscillations in the Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. The ˜210-year periodicities may reflect the ~200-year solar de Vries cycle that is commonly believed to be one of the most intense solar cycles (e.g. Wagner G. et al., 2001; Damon&Peristykh, 2000; Stuiver&Braziunas, 1993). Dendrochronlogical data obtained from the Tien Shan and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau confirm the existence of 200-year climatic cycles associated with solar activity in Central Asia (Raspopov et al., 2008). Absence of 1500-year climatic cycles (Bond events) in Tel 2006 record may be explained by deep intercontinental location of the Lake Teletskoye whereas 1500-year cycles are linked with the North Atlantic oceanic circulation (Bond et al., 2001; Debret et al., 2007).

  6. Ore belts of the Greater Altai and their ore resource potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Yachkov, B. A.; Titov, D. V.; Sapargaliev, E. M.

    2009-06-01

    The results of comprehensive geological and metallogenic studies of the Greater Altai are presented. This project has been carried out since 1997 under the guidance of Academician G.N. Shcherba. The importance of these investigations is determined by the need to enhance and further develop mineral resources of nonferrous, noble, rare, and other metals for operating mining and metallurgical enterprises of Kazakhstan. The great body of information on the geology, geophysics, and metallogeny of the region obtained over many years has been integrated on the basis of new global tectonics. The Greater Altai embraces the Hercynides of the Rudny Altai, Qalba-Narym, West Qalba, Zharma-Saur, and the adjacent territories of Russia and China. The present-day tectonic units are considered to be detached blocks of ancient continental massifs that drifted in the Paleoasian ocean and then amalgamated into the structure of the Greater Altai during the Hercynian collision. The tectonic and metallogenic demarcation of the studied territory made possible the recognition of the Rudny Altai, Qalba-Narym, West Qalba, and Zharma-Saur ore belts, different in geology, geodynamic evolution, and metallogeny. The formation conditions and localization of volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, gold, and rare-metal deposits pertaining to certain ore-bearing geochronological levels were specified, and the potential of the region for various mineral resources was estimated.

  7. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai. PMID:27029141

  8. Forest- and agroclimatic potential in the Altai-Sayan ecoregion under climate change during the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenova, E. I.; Tchebakova, N.; Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Altai Sayan ecoregion (ASE), central Asia, is located in Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan, within the window 80-102° E and 42-57° N, north of the territory of Tibet. The ASE is a territory with a great variety of landscapes observed at a short distance: from nival and tundra landscapes at highlands, to taiga (dark-needled and light-needled) and subtaiga at middle elevations, to steppes at lower elevations. This southern part of Siberia is known as having a high agroclimatic potential due to favorable climatic and soil resources. Crops of food, forage, and biofuels primarily reside in steppe and forest-steppe zones and are resistant to frequent droughts and the cold climate. Regional studies over the Altai-Sayan ecoregion have already registered a change in climate at the end of the 20th century: January temperatures increased 1-2°C and July temperatures increased 0.7-1.5°C over the last 50 years in the northern portion of ASE; in the southern, more continental portion of ASE, both January and July temperature increased two times greater, 2-4°C and 1.4-3.2°C,0 respectively. Our goal was to model how mountain vegetation in ASE may be altered in a changing climate through the century to the year 2080 and if the agroclimatic potential in the lowlands of ASE may benefit from climate change. We used our montane bioclimatic vegetation model (MontBioCliM) to predict the future vegetation distribution, coupling MontBioCliM with the HadCM3 A2 and B1 climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. MontBioCliM is an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5C; negative degree days below 0°C; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). Our model runs indicated that by 2080, forest habitats would decrease from 52% to 48% according to the moderate scenario B1 and from 52% to 38% according the harsh A2 scenario. In a warmer climate, grasslands better adapted to hot and dry climates would replace forest which may not be regenerate because of an increased potential for severe and large fires. At the expense of forests, more potential agricultural lands were modeled to appear in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats in foothills and lowlands in ASE. These lands might become suitable for growing traditional crops and introducing new crops. Bioclimatic models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to the above climate change scenarios. Crops were predicted to extend in size and to 2-fold increase. However, due to shortage of water in the future dry climate crops would necessitate irrigation. A new agroclimatic potential of the Altai-Sayan ecoregion was predicted to evolve as climate changes.

  9. Microelements in Lowland Peat of the Northeastern Part of the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurova, M. V.; Larina, G. V.; Kozlova, S. A.; Shagaeva, L. L.

    2010-05-01

    The greatest areas of bogs are concentrated in the northeastern part of Altai Republic. This place due to a great amount of precipitation and a powerful accumulation of snow with a little drain in comparison with other areas has plenty of bogs. A quarter of all bogs of the Altai Mountains is concentrated here. The bogs develop mainly in the valleys of the rivers. The bogs have a modern origin and the process of bog formation goes at the present time by overgrowing of oxbow and valley lakes, and also by bogging of dry lands - woods and meadows. The area of bogs in relation to the general territory of highlands makes up 1%. Nevertheless, these territories are regarded as complex ecosystems which have economic and scientific value. Let's consider the content of heavy metals in different horizons of the peat under study. The samples of peat of the deposit being examined are characterized by a low total content of zinc: 6,21-44,12 mg/kg. The average amount of zinc in the soils of the Altai Mountains is much larger and makes up 70,3 mg/kg. Quite a significant amount of copper is washed away from peat thickness, its total amount is at the level of 1,58-10,73 mg/kg. The reason for it, probably, lies in the fact that there is a significant amount of fulvic acids in the composition of humic acids which enable the migration of copper beyond the limits of the peat ground in the conditions of the sour environment. A completely different situation is observed in the soils of the Altai mountain area. The biogeochemistry of copper in the soils of the Altai Mountains is thoroughly investigated by M.A.Malgin, A.V.Puzanov, O.A.Yelchininova. Its average amount in the soils of the Altai Mountains makes up 40,6 mg/kg which is twice as much as the abundance ratio in comparison with the world soils. The authors explain this fact as follows: copper is an inactive element in the soils since its ions are easily precipitated by sulfide-, carbonate-, and hydroxide ions, and also are taken up by humic acids of soils. Therefore, notwithstanding the washing type of a water mode, the leaching of copper from the soils of the Altai Mountains is not observed. The amount of cadmium in the investigated lowland peat makes up from 0,12 up to 0,57 mg/kg which is almost two times less than the roughly allowable concentration. Also the monotonous increase of the concentration factor of cadmium upwards on the structure is observed. The peat of the surveyed deposit as far as the amount of cadmium is concerned is actually at the level of the background soils of the Altai mountain area. The amount of lead in the peat under study is not subject to significant fluctuation - from 1,34 up to 10,0 mg/kg which is lower than the average amount characteristic of the soils of the Altai Mountains. The roughly allowable concentration of lead for sour soils makes up 65 mg/kg, therefore the peat under study is non-polluting or lead-free. There is an even distribution of lead in the structure of the axial section. In the distribution of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead in peat thickness there is a contrast between the top layers and the bottom ones. The top layers are characterized by higher concentration of elements. The lowland peat of the northeastern part of Altai Republic in comparison with the West-Siberian peat is characterized by the increased values of zinc and has the same amount of copper and lead.

  10. Climate changes and human dynamics in the SE Altai (Russia) during the past 4000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agatova, Anna; Nepop, Roman; Nazarov, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Slyusarenko, Igor; Bronnikova, Maria; Orlova, Ljubov

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (SE Altai) which is the part of the Altai Mountains - the northern segment of the Central Asia collision belt. It represents a combination of landscapes and ecosystems of alpine highlands, vast plateau-topped watersheds and intermountain depressions with unique archeological sites and traditional forms of environmental management of different cultures. The SE Altai has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic but till now the issue of chronology of the archaeological cultures is still debated. From the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, these can be generally regarded as a single economic-cultural type - nomads of arid piedmonts and mountains of temperate zone. The collective evidence indicates the significantly warmer climate in the SE Altai during the early Holocene. The Neoglacial began here about 5000 years BP and includes three periods of glaciers expansions controlled by climate deterioration (Akkem, Historical and Aktru (LIA) stages). Our numerous radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and wood fragments buried in moraines, glaciofluvial sediments and proglacial forefields argue for prolonged and frequent glacier advances separated by shorter glacier recessions. A decrease in the areas occupied by forest vegetation and the reduction in glacier size at each subsequent glacial stage expressed in the topography suggest aridity intensification during the second half of the Holocene. This conclusion is also supported by the absence of a reaction from the glaciers to the thermal minimum of the middle of 19-th century. It is very likely that such glacier dynamics is a common feature for the whole Central Asia. Thus the evolution of Altai nomad cultures, discussed in this paper, corresponds to a period of cooling and aridity intensification. In spite of climate deterioration that was the time of prosperity of the Altai nomadic cultures. It is most richly characterized by numerical dates of archaeological finds and major nature events which control migrations and shifting of Scythian, Hunnu, Turk and later nomadic cultures in the region. We present here an expanded dataset of new radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and charcoals from iron-smelting furnaces, dendrochronologically obtained ages of tree fragments washed up from glaciers in a modern glacial zone as well as lifespan analysis of archeological burial grounds and their spatial distribution within the Kurai and Chuya depressions. All these allowed us to correlate major nature events with the human dynamics in the SE Altai during the second half of the Holocene. Climate together with political and social aspects is one of the major factors that controlled the size of population, evolution and migration of nomadic cultures in the region. The influence of climatic changes on human societies was much stronger than the opposite. Anthropogenic impact is restricted to massive timber cutting which contributed to deforestation of the eastern part of the SE Altai. The study was partly funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grants 13-05-00555 and 13-04-01829).

  11. Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog

    PubMed Central

    Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  12. Climate Change in the Russian Altai Mountains and its Influence on Tree Line and Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syromyatina, M.; Moskalenko, I.; Ganushkin, D.; Chistyakov, K.

    2011-12-01

    The mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to climate changes. The Russian Altai Mountains are located in the Inner Asia on the border of Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan. The Department of Geography and Geoecology of SPbSU has been organizing annual field expeditions to this region during the last 20 yrs. The uniqueness of the Altai landscapes lies in its great variety as these mountains are higher than 4 km and located on the zonal border between steppes and semi-deserts and between continental and sharply continental climates. This research deals with space-time features of regional climate changes and the dynamics of high-altitude landscapes. The 1940-2004 time series of seasonal air temperature and precipitation from 14 weather stations from 300 to 2600 m a.s.l. were statistically analyzed applying regression, correlation, spectral and cluster analyses. To extend time series over the past 350-400 yrs, mean summer temperature and precipitation were reconstructed applying dendroclimatological methods and using the WSL Dendro data base. Comparing to the Northern Hemisphere tendency of temperature increase in the second half of the 20th century over the Altai has been observed generally earlier, since 1950s. Maximum warming rate in the last quarter of the 20th century is typical to winter in the Altai (0,85°/10 yrs) as well as the entire Northern Hemisphere. Synchronous changes in the Altai and the Northern Hemisphere are observed in all seasons only in 1975-2004. At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries warming rates slow down in the region while temperature level is still high. These changes are partly associated with circulation epochs. Spectral analysis revealed important role of natural cyclical recurrence in climate changes, for example quasi-biennial, solar and Brückner cycles. According to dendrochronological reconstruction mean summer temperature increased from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) to its maximum in the 1990s by approximately 2°C, to the average for the period 1986-2004 - about 1,3°C. As tree line against the other belt borders strongly limited by summer temperature its eventual dynamics since the end of the LIA over the Altai were estimated and tree line position at different stages of modern regional warming was reconstructed. Theoretical evaluation shows that mean summer temperature increase of 1.3°C from the end of the LIA causes tree line to rise maximum by 180-280 m in different localities of the Altai. Glacial complexes of mountain massifs Mongun-Taiga, Tavan-Boghd-Ola, Turgeni-Nuru and Harhira-Nuru located in the South-Eastern Altai are represented by small glaciers mostly on northern and eastern leeward slopes. Being situated in region with dry climatic conditions (250-400 mm/year) glaciers survive only in negative forms of relief with high concentration of snow. Accumulation coefficient is mainly from 2 to 3, and on cirque glaciers is from 6 to 8. Now glaciers retreat rapidly (17% of area loss for the period of 1995-2010 for Mongun-Taiga, 12% in 2002-2009 for Tavan-Boghd-Ola), especially valley glaciers (2-10 m/yr), the number of glaciers increase due to disintegration of larger glaciers. Small forms of glaciation disappear or transform into snow patches and rock glaciers.

  13. Ancient DNA analysis affirms the canid from Altai as a primitive dog.

    PubMed

    Druzhkova, Anna S; Thalmann, Olaf; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Wayne, Robert K

    2013-01-01

    The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

  14. On the synonymy of two Acantholycosa species (Araneae, Lycosidae) from the Altai

    PubMed Central

    Fomichev, Alexander A.; Marusik, Yuri M.; Koponen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two species previously known from East Kazakhstan, Acantholycosa katunensis Marusik, Azarkina & Koponen, 2004, known from the holotype male, and Acantholycosa kurchumensis Marusik, Azarkina & Koponen, 2004, syn. n. known from females, are synonymized, and priority is given to Acantholycosa katunensis. Acantholycosa katunensis is reported for the first time in the Russian Altai. Both sexes of this species are illustrated, and a distribution map is provided. PMID:27006610

  15. [Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and its concurrence with other tick-borne infections in the Republic of Altai].

    PubMed

    Shchuchinova

    2013-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) cases occur everywhere in the Republic of Altai. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted to humans by at least three genera of ticks: Ixodes, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis. The risk of the infection is higher in the northern part of the republic. Most patients with HGA show serologic evidence of coinfection with North Asian tick typhus and other tick-borne diseases. The high probability of HGA concurrent with other tick-borne infections requires an integrated approach to preventing these diseases in the Republic of Altai. PMID:25924278

  16. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications of Late Triassic granites in the Mongolian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Batulzii; Boldbaatar, Enkhjargal; Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Yin, An

    2016-03-01

    Although the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in western China and western Mongolia occurred in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian, widespread intra-continental magmatism continued to occur across this region from the Late Permian to the end of the Triassic. In this study we document field relationships and geochemical characterization of a Late Triassic felsic intrusive complex in the western Mongolian Altai. The plutonic complex occurs as sills, dikes, and small stocks and its composition varies from biotite granite, two-mica granite, to leucogranite. Structurally, the plutonic complex occurs in the hanging wall of a segment of the regionally extensively (>1500 km long) Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust zone. As the plutonic bodies both cut and are deformed by the shear fabrics in this regional thrust shear zone, the duration of felsic magmatism and regional thrusting was temporally overlapping. This suggests that magmatism was coeval with crustal thickening. Major- and trace-element data and isotopic analysis of granitoid samples from our study area indicate that the felsic intrusions were derived from partial melting of meta-sediments, with the biotite and two-mica granite generated through vapor-absent melting and the leucogranite from flux melting. Although the Mongolian Altai intrusions were clearly originated from anatexis, coeval granite in the Chinese Altai directly west of our study area in the hanging wall of the Irtysh-Ertix-Bulgan thrust was derived in part from mantle melting. To reconcile these observations, we propose a Himalayan-style intracontinental-subduction model that predicts two geologic settings for the occurrence of felsic magmatism: (1) along the intracontinental thrust zone where granite was entirely generated by anatexis and (2) in the hanging wall of the intracontinental thrust where convective removal and/or continental subduction induced mantle melting.

  17. Molecular identification of human echinococcosis in the Altai region of Russia.

    PubMed

    Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoikhet, Yakov N; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Ito, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Mitochondrial haplotypes were determined for Echinococcus species infecting individuals diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) at Altai State Medical University Hospital in Barnaul, Russia during 2008 to 2011. The nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was determined for 31 of 34 AE and 8 of 12 CE cases. All of the AE cases were confirmed to be caused by Asian type Echinococcus multilocularis, while CE cases were caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6). PMID:22609955

  18. Constraining the timing of the most recent cataclysmic flood event from ice-dammed lakes in the Russian Altai Mountains, Siberia, using cosmogenic in situ 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Anne U.; Herget, Jürgen; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Borodavko, Pavel; Kubik, Peter W.; Heine, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    Ice-dammed lakes were repeatedly formed in intermontane basins in the Russian Altai Mountains throughout the Pleistocene. These cataclysmic outburst floods, caused by ice-dam failures, were documented as Earth's largest flood waves by other geoscientists. Using in situ 10Be, we successfully dated surfaces of flood-associated boulders located in a former lake basin and downvalley from a former ice dam. Our precise surface exposure ages suggest that all boulders were associated with the most recent out of a number of cataclysmic floods that occurred at 15.8 ± 1.8 ka. The field location of the boulders implies that they were deposited by the largest late Pleistocene flood that drained the Chuya-Katun Lake completely following initial dam failure. A published reconstruction of the late glacial paleoenvironment in the vicinity of the former ice dam indicates that dam failure was likely a result of climatically induced downwasting of glaciers. The failure of the ice dam provides more evidence for the timing of widespread warming during the late glacial in southern Russia. This flooding event in the headwaters of the Ob River coincides with a freshwater peak as recorded in isotopic records of the Kara Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai - article no. D05309

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M.

    2006-03-07

    In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.

  20. A new species of Barbatula from the Russian Altai (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Prokofiev, Artem M

    2015-01-01

    Barbatula restricta, new species, is described from the Saldan-Kol Lake in the upper Ob River drainage in the Altai Mountains. It is distinguished from all other species of Barbatula in Asia by its body depth increasing continuously between the nape and the dorsal-fin origin and a combination of characters: nares widely spaced, upper lip with a short medial incision, lower lip without lateral expansions, mental lobes of lower lip without conical protrusions, tips of paired fins formed by 1st and 2nd branched rays, 42-45 (mean 44) vertebrae, color pattern consisting of small irregular mottles without saddles on back. An overview of the status of all nominal Asiatic Barbatula species described is given. PMID:26701442

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of altai osman Oreoleuciscus humilis Warpachowski (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Shiung; Liu, Guo-Di; Shen, Chia-Ning; Prokofiev, Artem M

    2016-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of altai osman Oreoleuciscus humilis Warpachowski collected from Mongolia has been amplified and sequenced in this study. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,606 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of Oreoleuciscus humilis is 27.6% for A, 26.4% for T, 27.2% for C, 18.8% for G, with higher AT content 54.0%. This study will be rather beneficial for understanding the phylogenetic approach of Oreoleuciscus species and other related genera of cyprinid fishes. PMID:24963765

  2. Holocene climate change and peatland dynamics in the Altai Mountains in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Yu, Z.; Li, Q.; Zhao, W.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present preliminary results from a peat-core record to investigate responses of upland vegetation and peatlands to Holocene climate change in the Altai Mountains. Chronology of a 650-cm-long peat core from the Iron Arshad Khan (IAK) peatland in the western Altai Mountains was controlled by 20 AMS dates on identifiable terrestrial macrofossils, covering the entire Holocene. Lithology results indicate that the peat accumulation initiated at 11 ka (1 ka =1000 cal BP), with a sharp increase in organic matter content to >80%. Plant macrofossil data show a sequence of changes from the peatlands dominated by Cyperaceae before 8.1 ka, to Cyperaceae and brown moss-dominated at 8-4.5 ka, Sphagnum and Cyperaceae-dominated at 4.5-2 ka, and to Cyperaceae-dominated again after 2 ka. Carbon accumulation rates were highest at >40 gC/m2/yr at 8.5-7 ka, more than doubled the Holocene average at the site. Pollen analysis shows the highest tree pollen (mainly from Picea) of up to 59% occurred at 8-6.4 ka, suggesting a warm and wet mid-Holocene 'optimum' climate in the region. Organic matter bulk density shows an increasing trend after 6.4 ka, suggesting increasing cumulative decomposition of accumulated peat. Our multi-proxy data indicate clear responses of peatland species composition, moisture conditions and carbon accumulation to regional climate change. The cooling and drying trend since the mid-Holocene was likely in response to the decrease in summer insolation and in westerly-induced precipitation. Furthermore, our results from this temperate highland peatland may shed new lights on understanding peatland carbon dynamics in northern Eurasia, including the largest peatland basin in West Siberia, as well as Holocene climate changes in central Asia.

  3. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Shoikhet, Y N; Kiselev, V I; Zaitsev, E V; Kolyado, I B; Konovalov, B Y; Bauer, S; Grosche, B; Burkart, W

    1999-09-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues. PMID:10525958

  4. [The soil content of cesium-137 in the Republic of Altai due to nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk testing site].

    PubMed

    Meshkov, N A; Val'tseva, E A

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive fall-outs from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests carried out at the Semipalatinsk testing site have resulted in local soil pollution with 137Cs in the Republic of Altai. The subjects of the investigations were the main types of soils from North and Central Altai. In the Republic of Altai, the share of 137Cs in the upper (0-5 cm) soil layer has been established to be 54.6% in the Turochaksky district to 92.1% in the Ulagansky district. By taking into account the fact that the major activity of 137Cs has been accumulated in the 0.5-cm surface layer, its may be expected that there will be its rather separation with a fine-dispersed surface material In this connection, 137Cs can enter the organism with inhaled dust due to deflation during soil eolation. The inhalation of 137Cs by the dwellers of the areas that have been exposed to irradiation during nuclear weapon tests at the Semipalatinsk testing site continues to be also important today. PMID:20000090

  5. Ecological structure of recent and last glacial mammalian faunas in northern Eurasia: the case of Altai-Sayan refugium.

    PubMed

    Pavelková Řičánková, Věra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

  6. Ecological Structure of Recent and Last Glacial Mammalian Faunas in Northern Eurasia: The Case of Altai-Sayan Refugium

    PubMed Central

    Pavelková Řičánková, Věra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

  7. Late Quaternary rates of uplift and shortening at Baatar Hyarhan (Mongolian Altai) with optically stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Edwin; Walker, Richard; Molor, Erdenebat; Fattahi, Morteza; Bayasgalan, Amgalan

    2009-04-01

    We investigate mountain building in the Altai range of western Mongolia, focusing on Baatar Hyarhan, a NW-trending massif bounded by active thrust faults. Our primary aims are to describe how thrusting has evolved over time, to calculate late Quaternary slip rates by dating offset alluvial markers with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and to compare these late Quaternary rates with measurements of deformation on decadal and geological timescales. Patterns of topography and drainage suggest that Baatar Hyarhan has grown in length and has propagated laterally from the SE towards the NW over time. On the NE side of the massif, the range-bounding Zereg fault appears active only along younger parts of Baatar Hyarhan; next to the oldest, SE part of the massif faulting has migrated into the adjacent Zereg Basin, where it has uplifted low, linear ridges of folded sediment, known locally as forebergs. On the SW side of the massif, only the range-bounding Tsetseg fault appears active. Using OSL, we establish ages of ~15, ~20 and ~85 kyr for alluvial deposits cut by these faults. These ages are close to those of alluvial markers in the separate Gobi Altai range, suggesting that periods of fan and terrace formation may correlate over wide tracts of Mongolia, presumably under the primary control of climate. Combining our OSL ages with offsets measured with differential GPS, we calculate Late Quaternary slip rates across forebergs in the Zereg Basin and across the range-bounding Zereg and Tsetseg faults. Uncertainties in fault dip (due to lack of clear fault exposures) and burial ages (due to incomplete resetting of the luminescence clock) mean that the exact slip rates are poorly constrained. Nevertheless, the vertical displacement rates we calculate across the Zereg and Tsetseg range-front faults-0.2-0.6 and 0.1-0.4 mm yr-1, respectively-are at the lower end of long-term (~5 Myr) estimates of 0.4-0.8 and 0.3-0.7 mm yr-1, respectively. Vertical rates of deformation may, therefore, have remained constant over the past ~5 Myr, but equally the late Quaternary rates might be lower than the geological ones. This possible discrepancy could be accounted for if some of the shortening has shifted away from the range-front faults onto other nearby structures. The forebergs in the eastern Zereg Basin are an obvious candidate, but they show at least 10 km cumulative shortening (which would take a few Ma to accumulate at late Quaternary rates) and cannot simply be regarded as the latest stage of outward mountain growth. The total Late Quaternary shortening rate across all three areas of faulting is 0.7-2.4 mm yr-1, making up between one tenth and one third of the ~7 mm yr-1 convergence across the whole Altai range.

  8. Early Paleozoic sedimentary record of the Chinese Altai: Implications for its tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xiaoping; Sun, Min; Yuan, Chao; Xiao, Wenjiao; Cai, Keda

    The Chinese Altai is a typical part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), but its tectonic evolution is not well understood. Geochemical study of Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks was conducted to better constrain their provenance and tectonic environment. These rocks have relatively low CIA values (49 to 79), with ICV values (0.73-1.36) higher than that of post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS), suggesting that they experienced relatively weak chemical weathering and were mainly derived from an immature source. Compared to PAAS and upper crust, the samples mostly have relatively lower high field strength elements (HFSE) (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta) and large ion lithophile element (LILE) contents (e.g. Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U, Pb). However, their relatively high Rb concentrations (> 40 ppm), low Rb/Sr (0.04-3.24) and Th/U (Th/U = 3-8) ratios are indicative of an acidic-intermediate igneous source that had undergone weak chemical weathering. All of the samples are moderately enriched in LREE (light REE) and show relatively flat Chondrite-normalized HREE (heavy REE) patterns (La N/Yb N = 3.2-12.6) with various negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.4-0.9). Meta-arenaceous samples have moderate SiO 2 (average 72.9 wt.%), Al 2O 3 (average 11.5 wt.%), Fe 2O 3T + MgO (average 7.16 wt.%) contents and moderate Al 2O 3/SiO 2 (average 0.16), K 2O/Na 2O (average 0.93) ratios, similar to those of graywackes from continental island arcs or active continental margins. However, meta-argillaceous samples have high SiO 2 (average 60.8 wt.%), Al 2O 3 (average 17.2 wt.%), Fe 2O 3T + MgO (average 12.2 wt.%) contents and high K 2O/Na 2O (average 3.45), Al 2O 3/SiO 2 (average 0.28) ratios similar to mudstones from continental arc basins. This kind of tectonic environment is also manifested in tectonic discrimination diagrams including Th-Sc-Zr/10 and La-Th-Sc. These geochemical characteristics suggest that the metasedimentary rocks were deposited in an active continental margin or continental arc setting. This does not favor the previously proposed passive continental margin model. Therefore, this study supports an arc accretion model for the Chinese Altai.

  9. Snow and ice-core stable isotopes time series and precipitation in Altai Mountains (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Fujita, K.; Nikitin, S. A.; Kreutz, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Altai's glaciers provide information on internal and external hydrological cycles over the Eurasia, storing long-term records of fresh water transport from Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Central Asia closed drainage basin. The 22 m firn-ice cores and 3 m snow pits from the Belukha firn Plateau (4109 - 4115 m) were used to recover climatic records through physical and stable isotopes analysis. Well preserved seasonal δ 2H and δ 18O signals exist in the snow firn records with the mean of oxygen isotope ratios of -13.6‰ . Three distinct data on moisture origin were clustered, i.e., Atlantic, Pacific Oceans and internal central Asian drainage basin. Two thirds of annual accumulation was formed by oceanic precipitation and more than half in annual accumulation has isotopic ratios corresponding to evaporation over the northern Atlantic Ocean. The δ D-δ 18O relationship associated with Atlantic moisture source varied slightly during the year with intercept range from 8.8 in winter to 12.0 in spring and with almost unchangeable during the year deuterium excess of 10‰ . The contribution of precipitation transferred from the Pacific Ocean, which has smallest deuterium excess (4.6‰ , comprises on average 16% in annual accumulation with maximum in summer (up to 21%) and minimum of 8% in spring. The low d-excess was associated with the high atmospheric moisture saturation over the ocean during formation of precipitation. The mean and absolute values of δ 18O for records related to Pacific Ocean origin are the highest among three clusters (-9‰ ) that associated with highest air temperature during precipitation. The internal moisture source provides the largest portion of precipitation to Altai glaciers in the spring (up to 42%) and the minimum contribution during winter. The linear transfer function between mean air temperature and the isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation originating from the same external or internal moisture source was developed at the seasonal temporal scale.

  10. A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Crockford, Susan J.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris) come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000–9000 calendar years ago, cal BP), with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500–19,000 cal BP). The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia). Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides) and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old), and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. Conclusions/Significance The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial – early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim) and Siberia (Razboinichya), separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of origin (as some DNA data have suggested) and subsequent spread. PMID:21829526

  11. Crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai: Implications for the continental evolution and growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Buslov, M. M.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ming; Rubanova, E. S.; Kulikova, A. V.; Voytishek, E. E.

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a gigantic tectonic collage of numerous accreted terranes. However, its geodynamic evolution has been hotly debated primarily due to incomplete knowledge on the nature of these enigmatic terranes. This work presents new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data to constrain the crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai, a critical segment of Altai-Mongolian terrane. The youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 470 Ma constrain that the Terekta Formation, previously envisaged as Precambrian basement, was actually deposited after the Middle Ordovician. As for the three more sedimentary sequences above the Terekta Formation, they have youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 425 Ma, 440 Ma and 380 Ma, respectively, indicating their depositions likely in the Late Silurian to Devonian. From all analyses, it is noted that many zircon U-Pb ages cluster at ca. 520 Ma and ca. 800 Ma, and these zircons display oscillatory zoning and have subhedral to euhedral morphology, which, collectively, suggests that adjacent Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks were possibly dominant in the sedimentary provenance. Additionally, a few rounded Archean to Mesoproterozoic zircon grains are characterized by complex texture, which are interpreted as recycling materials probably derived from the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent. Precambrian rocks have not been identified in the Russian Altai, Chinese Altai and Mongolian Altai so far, therefore, Precambrian basement may not exist in the Altai-Mongolian terrane, but this terrane probably represents a large subduction-accretion complex built on the margin of the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent in the Early Paleozoic. Multiple episodes of ridge-trench interaction may have caused inputs of mantle-derived magmas to trigger partial melting of the newly accreted crustal materials, which contributed to the accretionary complex. During accretionary orogenesis of the CAOB, formation of such subduction-accretion complex is likely ubiquitous, indicating continental crust growth by both lateral accumulation and vertical basaltic injection.

  12. New evidence on tick-borne rickettsioses in the Altai region of Russia using primary lesions, serum and blood clots of molecular and serological study.

    PubMed

    Granitov, Vladimir; Shpynov, Stanislav; Beshlebova, Olga; Arsenjeva, Irina; Dedkov, Vladimir; Safonova, Marina; Stukolova, Olga; Pantjukhina, Anna; Tarasevich, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne rickettsioses (TBRs) have similar clinical symptoms and can give serological cross-reaction. We firstly found that in the natural foci of North Asian tick typhus (NATT) in the Altai region of Russia, TBRs can be caused by two Rickettsia species: Rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica (causative agent of NATT) and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. Rickettsial DNA was detected in primary lesions, serum samples and blood clots using real-time PCR. Therefore, each case of TBRs should be verified by using molecular typing. TBR caused by R. sibirica subsp. sibirica - NATT dominates on the territory of Altai region. PMID:26344602

  13. Cosiesmic slope mass movements and its contribution to the Holocene landscape denudation: geological evidences and numerical estimations from SE Altai (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Strong earthquakes deform Earth's surface and affect the topography of mountain terrains. They can also induce widespread mass wasting which often cause most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the earthquakes. Their abundant occurrence and large volumes of displaced material also indicate a great influence of seismically induced landslides on landscape denudation. Estimating earthquake magnitudes and topography changes using instrumental data and historic accounts can give information about regional seismicity during relatively short time period. At the same time the evolution of paleoseismogeological studies clearly demonstrates that in order to properly understand the seismic potential of a region, and to assess the associated topography changes, extensive studies are necessary to take full advantage from the geological evidence of past earthquakes. The key point of this investigation is detailed study of geomorphologically expressed surface displacement of evidently seismic origin. The Altai neotectonic uplift is the part of Central-Asian collision belt and is a transpressional zone formed due to oblique thrusting. Russian Altai is the northern extension of Mongolian Altai which is known by its high seismicity. As a result SE Altai is the most seismically active part of Russian Altai. This was evidenced by the 2003 Chuya earthquake (MS = 7.3). Strong Holocene earthquakes left the most enduring imprint on landforms of Russian Altai. Giant landslides have been well preserved in topography here due to arid climate. The leading factor in generation of such landslides is seismic excitation. Our field observations of the ground effects of strong modern and prehistoric earthquakes reveal regional criteria that indicate seismic origin of Altai paleolandslides. Unconsolidated Cenozoic sediments presented in the most active areas at the depression-range transition along fault boundaries of landforms provide geological conditions of landsliding in this active mountain terrain. Paleoseismogeological study of SE Altai reveal a number of strong Holocene earthquakes (shaking intensity IX - X according MSK-64 scale). These events generated a lot of ruptures and giant landslides. Paleolandslide's close location in the modern earthquake's epicenter zone shows that the source areas of large earthquakes in SE Altai were repeatedly reactivated. Strong prehistoric earthquakes with magnitudes M>6.9 occurred here. Besides, this fact also argues the hypothesis of the identity of historic and Holocene earthquake's mechanisms in a region. Thus unilateral displacement of tectonic blocks along the bounders of the Chuya-Kurai intermountain depressions took place at least from the beginning of the Holocene. In our researches we mainly focused on the largest earthquake triggered landslides. These giant paleolandslides already in itself evidence to high regional seismicity. Using data from 15 strong modern earthquakes worldwide we have calculated the correlation between earthquake magnitude and the volume of the largest triggered landslide. We have also modified correlation between earthquake magnitude and the total volume of generated landslides. All these allow us to estimate magnitudes of prehistoric earthquakes, calculated the total volume of earthquake triggered landslides, the contribution of landslides caused by aftershocks and the Holocene erosion rate due to seismically induced landslides for SE Altai.

  14. Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in the Altai Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in Ulagan district of the Altai Republic have been studied. They belong to two soil divisions: Al-Fe-humus soils (with various types of podburs) and iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems). The soils within the eluvial part of the studied catena—iron-illuvial soddy podburs—are developed from the residuum of magmatic and metamorphic rocks with high (up to 80 vol %) content of gravels and coarse rock fragments. Their high porosity favors downward migration and precipitation of humus-iron compounds on the surface of gravels and mineral grains in the illuvial horizon. The soils of the accumulative part of the catena—permafrost-affected raw-humus pod-burs and gleyic podburs)—are developed from moraine deposits of loamy-sandy texture with up to 30 vol % of gravels. In these soils, the features of the Al-Fe-humus migration are weakly pronounced; the soils are underlain by the waterproof frozen horizon (permafrost), have high humus content, and have thixotropic properties in the lower horizons. Their reaction is slightly acid to neutral, and their base saturation is up to 80%. These characteristics do not meet the criteria of podburs as defined in the new Russian soil classification system. Their origin may be related to the local mixing of weathering products of different bedrock materials, including magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks during the deposition of moraine sediments. Iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems) are formed on convex parts of slopes from the residuum and colluvial derivatives of magmatic and metamorphic rocks (granite, metamorphic slates, red-colored sandstone, etc.). A distinctive feature of these soils is their ocherous-brown color and a considerable content of gravels in the entire profile. The chemical properties of rzhavozems resemble those of the Al-Fe-humus soils of automorphic positions: acid and slightly acid reaction, low base saturation, and a relatively high content of organic carbon in the organic and mineral horizons.

  15. Distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mts, Russia (Diplopoda).

    PubMed

    Nefedieva, Julia S; Nefediev, Pavel S; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B; Dyachkov, Yuri V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai, Russia based on new samples from the Kyga Profile sites, as well as on partly published and freshly revised material (Mikhaljova et al. 2007, 2008, 2014, Nefedieva and Nefediev 2008, Nefediev and Nefedieva 2013, Nefedieva et al. 2014), is established. The millipede diversity is estimated to be at least 15 species and subspecies from 10 genera, 6 families and three orders. The bulk of species diversity is confined both to low- and mid-mountain chern taiga forests and high-mountain shrub tundras, whereas the highest numbers, reaching up to 130 ind./m², is shown in subalpine Pinussibirica sparse growths. Based on clustering studied localities on species diversity similarity two groups of sites are defined: low-mountain sites and subalpine sparse growths of Pinussibirica ones. PMID:26257540

  16. Structural control on the shape of intrusions in the Koktokay ore district, Chinese Altai, north western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Qin, Ke Zhang; Zhou, Qi Feng; Paterson, Greig

    2016-02-01

    The Koktokay pegmatite-type rare-metal-bearing ore district in the Altai orogen is famous for both its large scale and its diversity of rare metals. However, the emplacement mechanisms of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions in the Koktokay ore district are still unclear. Based on field observations, the emplacement of the ore-bearing pegmatite intrusions falls into two types. The first type is typical of the formation of dykes and sills, whereby they intruded into fan shaped, moderate dipping, joints within plutonic rocks. The second type involves the formation of a punched laccolith that was fed by a pegmatite sill. Magmatic stoping is the main mechanism of the laccolith emplacement. The peripheral faults played an important role in helping the emplacement of the laccolith. The trend of dykes and sills indicate two potential prospecting areas, which are located in the western and northern regions of the Koktokay ore district.

  17. Distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mts, Russia (Diplopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Nefedieva, Julia S.; Nefediev, Pavel S.; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B.; Dyachkov, Yuri V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai, Russia based on new samples from the Kyga Profile sites, as well as on partly published and freshly revised material (Mikhaljova et al. 2007, 2008, 2014, Nefedieva and Nefediev 2008, Nefediev and Nefedieva 2013, Nefedieva et al. 2014), is established. The millipede diversity is estimated to be at least 15 species and subspecies from 10 genera, 6 families and three orders. The bulk of species diversity is confined both to low- and mid-mountain chern taiga forests and high-mountain shrub tundras, whereas the highest numbers, reaching up to 130 ind./m², is shown in subalpine Pinus sibirica sparse growths. Based on clustering studied localities on species diversity similarity two groups of sites are defined: low-mountain sites and subalpine sparse growths of Pinus sibirica ones. PMID:26257540

  18. Reconstruction and prediction of climate and vegetation change in the Holocene in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Blyakharchuk, T. A.; Parfenova, E. I.

    2009-10-01

    Two quantitative methods were used to reconstruct paleoenvironments and vegetation in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia, during the Holocene. The 'biomization' method of Prentice et al (1996 Clim. Dyn. 12 185-96), applied to the surface pollen record, worked fairly well in the reconstructions of current vegetation. Applying this method to fossil pollen data, we reconstructed site paleovegetation. Our montane bioclimatic model, MontBioCliM, was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. The differences between site paleo and current climates served as past climate change scenarios. The climatic anomalies for 2020, 2050, and 2080 derived from HadCM3 A1FI and B1 of the Hadley Centre, UK, served as climate change scenarios in the 21st century. MontBioCliM was applied directly to all climate scenarios through the Holocene to map past and future mountain vegetation over the Altai-Sayan mountains. Our results suggest that the early Holocene ca 10 000 BP was cold and dry; the period between 8000 and 5300 BP was warm and moist; and the time slice ca 3200 BP was cooler and drier than the present. Using kappa statistics, we showed that the vegetation at 8000 BP and 5300 BP was similar, as was the vegetation at 10 000 BP and 3200 BP, while future vegetation was predicted to be dissimilar to any of the paleovegetation reconstructions. The mid-Holocene is frequently hypothesized to be an analog of future climate warming; however, being known as warm and moist in Siberia, the mid-Holocene climate would likely impact terrestrial ecosystems differently from the projected warm and dry mid-century climate.

  19. Distinct deformational history of two contrasting tectonic domains in the Chinese Altai: Their significance in understanding accretionary orogenic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Min; Schulmann, Karel; Zhao, Guochun; Wu, Qihang; Jiang, Yingde; Guy, Alexandra; Wang, Yuejun

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese Altai, a key component of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt, is considered to be formed through multiple accretions of different terranes. However, the deformational histories of each terrane (tectonic domain), i.e. structural records before and after the accretion, are rarely studied, which has hindered our understanding of the accretionary processes. To fill the gap, a systematic macro- and microscopic structural analysis was carried out on two contrasting litho-tectonic units, i.e. the early Paleozoic low-grade Alegedayi Ophiolitic Complex (AOC) juxtaposed to the high grade Tarlang Granitic Massif (TGM). Selected rock samples were analyzed using zircon U-Pb isotopic dating to constrain the timing of polyphase deformation. Our structural and geochronological data suggest that the two litho-tectonic units were initially detached and located in different crustal levels and experienced distinct phases of deformation under contrasting P-T conditions. They were mutually accreted with each other in the early Devonian and jointly underwent a WNW-ESE-directed shortening deformational event (D1) at ˜390 Ma. The change of tectonic regime was further enhanced by a subsequent NNE-SSW-directed shortening deformation (D2) after ˜ 380 Ma. The shortening process ended before the crustal-scale sinistral strike-slip shearing deformation along the Erqis fault zone at 290 - 240 Ma. Results of this study provide solid field-based evidence for a model that the Chinese Altai initially underwent a nearly E-W-oriented subduction-accretional event in the middle Paleozoic, before it was reoriented to a nearly N-S-oriented convergence.

  20. Teleseismic Body Wave Analysis for the 27 September 2003 Altai, Earthquake (Mw7.4) and Large Aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Mellors, R.

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the kinematics of the rupture process for the September 27, 2003, Mw7.3, Altai earthquake and its associated large aftershocks. This is the largest earthquake striking the Altai mountains within the last 50 years, which provides important constraints on the ongoing tectonics. The fault plane solution obtained by teleseismic body waveform modeling indicated a predominantly strike-slip event (strike=130, dip=75, rake 170), Scalar moment for the main shock ranges from 0.688 to 1.196E+20 N m, a source duration of about 20 to 42 s, and an average centroid depth of 10 km. Source duration would indicate a fault length of about 130 - 270 km. The main shock was followed closely by two aftershocks (Mw5.7, Mw6.4) occurred the same day, another aftershock (Mw6.7) occurred on 1 October , 2003. We also modeled the second aftershock (Mw6.4) to asses geometric similarities during their respective rupture process. This aftershock occurred spatially very close to the mainshock and possesses a similar fault plane solution (strike=128, dip=71, rake=154), and centroid depth (13 km). Several local conditions, such as the crustal model and fault geometry, affect the correct estimation of some source parameters. We perfume a sensitivity evaluation of several parameters, including centroid depth, scalar moment and source duration, based on a point and finite source modeling. The point source approximation results are the departure parameters for the finite source exploration. We evaluate the different reported parameters to discard poor constrained models. In addition, deformation data acquired by InSAR are also included in the analysis.

  1. [THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND EPIZOOTIOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF TOXOCARIASIS FOCI AS AN ELEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IN CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALTAI)].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Astanina, S Yu; Shchuchinova, L D; Dovgalev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological and epizootiological features of toxocariasis foci were investigated in the Republic of Altai. The results of coproovoscopic examinations of dogs, those of serological screening for toxocariasis among different age and occupational groups and coniingents at risk for HIV infection, hepatitis B and C, patients with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, toxocariasis mortality rates in the Republic of Altai, and the materials of sanitary and parasitological studies of soil and other environmental constituents for Toxocara canis eggs provide support for the poor situation of toxocariasis in the region. Relying on the current standards and the findings of this study, the Republic of Altai may be referred to as a moderately dangerous area at medium risk for contamination in terms of epidemic, epizootic, and environmental hazards. The results of assessing the quality of laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic helminthisms call for further improvement of the professional knowledge, abilities, and skills of the employees from health care and veterinary facilities, as well as economic objects within production laboratory control, basing on the principles and requirements of the environmental management system and the food quality and safety management system. PMID:26720968

  2. Fragments of the Vendian-Paleozoic oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in foldbelts (Altai-Sayan, Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, I.; Buslov, M.

    2003-04-01

    Four main accretion-collision stages of the evolution of the Paleo-Asian ocean have been recognized in Altai-Sayan: 1) Early-Middle Cambrian, 2) Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician, 3) Devonian-Early Carboniferous and 4) Late Paleozoic. The 1st and 2nd stages characterize evolution of the Kuznetsk-Altai island-arc system, which was accreted to the Siberian continent. The third stage refers to two collisional events during the closing of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: the Gondwana-derived Altai-Mongolian terrane collided with the Siberian continent (D3), and the latter collided with the Kazakhstan continent (C2). Each stage was recorded in folded rock units. Paleooceanic crust fragments occur within accretionary wedges and suture zone. Their geological identification was supported by geochemical data. The better studied areas are Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges, Charysh-Terekta shear zone, and Chara ophiolitic suture zone. Identification of the Vendian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust extended our knowledge about the Paleo-Asian Ocean evolution. The Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges recorded the Vendian-Cambrian stage of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc evolution. The Charysh-Terekta zone resulted from the Late Devonian collision of the Altai-Mongolian terrane and the Siberian continent. The Chara ophiolitic suture was formed after the Late Carboniferous-Permian collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents. The Kurai accretionary wedge is composed of the tectonic sheets of the Baratal paleoisland and Chagan-Uzun ophiolites. The Katun accretionary wedge involves paleo-oceanic island rock units: limestones, dolomites, siliceous shales, and basaltic flows. The Charysh-Terekta zone is composed of several tectonic lenses (e.g. Zasurin Formation) comprising sandstones, cherts, pillow-basalts, volcanoclastics, and gabbro-diabase sills and dikes. The Chara ophiolitic belt consists of several melange zones with high-pressure metamorphic rocks (metabasaltic rocks) metamorphosed deep-water siliceous sediments, eclogites, amphibolites, glaucophane schists and volcanic-siliceous rocks with radiolarians and conodonts. The geochemical study of metabasaltic rocks from those four entities indicates that they were formed in two major settings: at mid-oceanic ridges and in oceanic islands. The fragments of the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean were involved in accretionary wedges and shear zones as a result of accretion-collision processes and subduction.

  3. New methodological aspects of using dendrochronological analysis for dating strong paleoearthquakes (by the example of SE Altai, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Nazarov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Dendroseismology has a great potential in a paleoseismological investigation due to utmost precision of dating. Rings of trees - witnesses of seismic events contain both the evidence for the earthquake and its age. These evidences can be created by surface ruptures (sheared off tree roots and trunks, tilted and fallen trees etc.) or by earthquake induced geomorphic processes and/or seismic shaking (tree death or slower growth caused by lost of their crowns, tilted or buried trees caused by landsliding, as well as trees germination on bared surfaces) (McCalpin, 2009). Dendrogeomorphology (Stoffel, 2010) is another young and promising approach which among others studies different aspects of rock fall activity on the basis of wood penetrating injuries of trees. It should be underscored that both techniques are used most efficiently just on times that cover the life span of the last forest stand (about 300-500 years). The main idea of our approach of using dendrochronological analysis for timing strong paleoearthquakes is analyzing of tree-ring anomalies caused by specifically seismically triggered rock falls during the prolonged time interval. SE part of Russian Altai, in this case, is a unique place: 1) seismically induced slope processes intrude into forest stand zone in an immediate vicinity with the modern upper timber limit (which is favorable for carrying out the dendrochronological analysis); 2) arid climate promotes good preservation of wood (up to two thousand years on stone surfaces); 3) 2367-years absolute tree-ring chronology "Mongun" has been developed for SE Altai and Tuva regions (Myglan et al., 2012). We tested this approach during our paleoseismological investigations at the previously unknown complex of earthquake triggered landslides on the northern part of the Chagan-Uzun massif. The south fault boundary of this block was reactivated at the time of the 2003 Chuya earthquake (?s=7.3). We developed 1153 years (856 -2009 AD) local tree ring chronology on Pinus sibirica for this area. In order to provide absolute dates of paleoearthquakes we analyzed the ages of penetrating tree injuries caused by rock falls. Simultaneity of these injuries sustained by trees which grew on different earthquake induced landslides was accepted as a criterion of their seismic origin. The accuracy of such an approach was supported by data obtained from analyzing injuries occurred on trees as a result of rock falls triggered by the 2003 Chuya earthquake. In addition to estimating the upper possible date of creation of this complex of earthquake triggered landslides we have also established with the annual resolution the date of previously unknown strong medieval earthquake. This dendrochronologically obtained data has been independently verified by radiocarbon dating of seismically cut fossil soil overlapped by that undistorted. New data also allows us to specify the recurrence interval of strong earthquakes for SE Altai. Beside the obvious applied importance for local paleoseismological investigations the suggested approach can be used for timing strong paleoearthquakes for regions where instrumental seismic records or historical accounts are not available.

  4. Cryogenesis study of a pingo-like mound in the Akkol valley of the Russian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahana, G.; Fukui, K.; Fujii, Y.; Ostanin, O.; Mikhailov, N.

    2008-12-01

    Vertical outcrop of a pingo-like mound found in the Akkol valley of the Russian Altai Mountains is described. Several pingo-like mounds were found on the valley floor at about 2300 m ASL. They are 5 - 10 m high and up to 50 m in diameter. Part of a 5 m mound had collapsed into adjacent pond with continuous water supply from streams on the mountain ridge nearby and top 4 m section had been revealed. Highly complex combinations of segregated ice lenses were observed in the outcrop. Ice veins, which are consisted by a number of thick ice lenses, develop radially from the core of the mound. The areas in-between the ice veins had fine parallel lenticular cryostructure. Surface soil layer (about one meter) and patchy soil parts between ice lenses were made of fine till of lacustrine sediments. delta O18 values of water from these ice lenses range from -15 to -18. Spatial distribution of the isotope values was well correlated with the spatial pattern of the ice lenses"f distribution. In addition to segregation of ice lenses perpendicular to the temperature gradient, contribution of relatively rapid formation of ice in radial direction from the core of the mound can be large in this three dimensional frost heave phenomenon.

  5. Geochemical study of the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern Altai-Mongolian terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Implications on the provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2014-12-01

    The Altai-Mongolian terrane (AM) is a key component of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), but its tectonic nature has been poorly constrained. This paper reports geochemical compositions of Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM to trace their source nature and depositional setting, which in turn place constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the AM. The Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM show variable major-element compositions, with negative correlation between SiO2 and TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3T, MgO and K2O. Their high ICV values (1.18-2.53) and relatively low CIA values (37.9-76.3) indicate that the sediments were immature and probably underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering. The low-SiO2 samples are characterized by relatively restricted SiO2/Al2O3 (mostly 2.60-6.07) and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.02-1.89), implying their proximal deposition without obvious sedimentary sorting and recycling. In contrast, the high-SiO2 samples show much higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratios (15.4-19.9) possibly due to sedimentary sorting and/or silicification. All these samples yield relatively high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios (15.6-22.8), strong LREEs/HREEs differentiation ((La/Yb)N = 4.86-10.7) and obvious negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.61-0.83). Combined with their Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, La/Th and Co/Th ratios comparable with intermediate-acidic magmatic rocks, we infer that these kinds of magmatic rocks served as a major source for the investigated meta-sedimentary rocks. The TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3T + MgO concentrations are mostly higher than typical sediments from passive margin, and the Th/U, La/Sc, Th/Sc, Eu/Eu∗, Zr/Hf, Zr/Th and La/Th ratios are quite similar to sediments from continental arcs. These data suggest that the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM were most likely deposited in an environment related to a continental arc setting rather than a passive regime. These rocks show strong similarities to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai (CA, southern AM) and Tseel terrane (southeastern extension of the CA in western Mongolia) in terms of geochemical compositions and depositional setting. With combination of recent isotopic studies for detrital zircons, our data suggest that the AM probably represented a coherent accretionary prism along a continental arc in the early Paleozoic.

  6. Magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Chinese Altai, NW China: insights from the Paleozoic mafic and felsic intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Zhao, Guochun; Long, Xiaoping

    2013-04-01

    The Chinese Altai, as a key segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is dominated by variably deformed and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and plutonic rocks. The plutonic rocks include extensive granites and relatively subordinate mafic intrusions. For instance, mafic dykes in the northwestern region (Habahe area) have an emplacement age of 375.5±4.8Ma and include gabbroic and doleritic dykes. The gabbroic dykes have chondrite-normalized REE patterns similar to N-MORB (La/YbN=0.86~1.1), together with their high ɛNd(t) values (+7.6~+8.1), indicating deriviation from a N-MORB-type depleted asthenospheric mantle. While the doleritic dykes resemble E-MORB (La/YbN= 1.12~2.28) with relatively low ɛNd(t) values (+3.4-+5.4) and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7057-0.7060), suggesting derivation from a mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and/or melts. In contrast, mafic intrusions in the southeastern region (Keketuohai area) occur as a zoned intrusion with an emplacement age of 409±5 Ma, consisting of dunite, olivine gabbro, hornblende gabbro and pyroxene diorite. Their ɛNd(t) values (0 to +2.7) suggest that the parental magma was produced by partial melting of the lithospheric mantle under a high geothermal regime. Zircon U-Pb ages demonstrate that voluminous granitoids were continuously emplaced over more than 30 % area of the Chinese Altai during the period from 447 Ma to 368 Ma with a climax at ca. 400 Ma. Positive ɛHf(t) values (0 to +9) of normal magmatic zircons suggest that the granitoid magmas were derived from juvenile sources. The extensive magmatism at ca. 400 Ma significantly changed the Hf isotopic composition of the magma source by substantial input of juvenile material in a relatively short period. Four representative large S-type granitic intrusions were emplaced from 419 to 393 Ma, consistent with a period of intensive magmatic activities. The S-type granitic magmas were generated by dehydration melting of newly accreted materials, which were possibly brought to at least middle crustal depth by subduction-related activities in an active continental margin. In contrast, Carboniferous rocks were relatively minor and some granodioritic intrusions in the northwestern region have 313±5 Ma emplacement age. They are characterized by distinctively low total REE contents (67-187 ppm) without pronounced negative Eu anomalies and mantle-like whole-rock Nd-Sr isotopic compositions (ɛNd(t)=+2.5 to +4.5; (87Sr/86Sr)i =0.7038 to 0.7048) and zircon ɛHf(t) values (+5.93 to +12.9), implying that parental magma was probably derived from an oceanic lithospheric mantle. Magmatism was active continuously from the Early to Middle Paleozoic, and the strongest magmatic activity took place in the Devonian. Mafic and felsic rocks mostly have positive zircon ɛHf(t) values, and show a dramatic change in zircon Hf isotope compositions at ca. 400 Ma, suggesting significant contributions from mantle-derived juvenile materials to the crust. These findings, together with the occurrence of chemically distinctive igneous rocks and the high-T metamorphism, can be collectively accounted for by ridge-trench interaction during the accretionary orogenic process. In contrast, Carboniferous magmatism represents an important transitional episode from subduction-related regime to post-orogenic extension.

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical features of promising types of gold mineralization in the western Altai-Sayany folded region (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernykh, Alexandr

    2013-04-01

    The western Altai-Sayany folded region is one of the oldest mining regions of Russia. Typical gold deposits are quartz-viens and skarns, which formation is associated with intrusion of island-arc and collision granitoids. Due to the fact that the traditional gold ore base of the region has already been largely worked out, the necessity of prospecting for new gold deposits has arisen. On the basis of available data, one may state that the outlook for the development of gold-mining industry of the Altai-Sayany region is concerned with gold mineralization in weathering crusts, epithermal gold-silver, gold-porhyry and gold-sulfide formations. The total gold resource potential of these object types is estimated by us at the level of 2000 t. The gold mineralization of epithermal gold-silver formation is confined to Early-Middle Devonian volcanic-plutonic belt. Here, gold-bearing zones of beresitization, argillization, sulfidization and silicification are discovered among volcanites. Maximum contents of noble metals are found in quartz-sulfide veins among sulfidized (arsenic pyrite, pyrite, galenite, sphalerite and fahlore, etc.) and silicified volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Ore zones are marked by anomalously high content of Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Hg not only in bedrocks, but also in haloes of dispersion in loose deposits. Gold-sulfide mineralization in terrigenous carbonaceous strata is confined to Late Riphean, Early Cambrian and Devonian metamorphosed complexes. This rocks were formed in the marginal sea basins. Metamorphism and repeated tectono-magmatic activation in the region resulted in redistribution and accumulation of gold. Gold-ore zones are marked by intensive silicification and sulfidization and are characterized mostly by occurrences of multiple generations of pyrite and arsenic pyrite. Gold occurs both in free state and in sulphides. Geochemistry of gold-ore zones can be characterized by associated elevated content of As, Ag, Sb, Cu, Hg. Gold-sulfide mineralization in terrigenous-carbonate strata (Karline type) is confined to Vendian and Late Devonian-Carboniferous carbonaceous dolomite and limestone. Formation of such epithermal mineralization is associated with Mesozoic Siberian plume evolution. Gold mineralization is confined to major tectonic zones, it is accompanied by listwenite, jasperoid and argillizated rock as well as barite, polymetal and mercury mineralization. Geochemistry of gold-ore zones can be characterized by associated elevated content of As, Ag, Sb, Pb, Zn, Hg Tl. Gold-porphyritic mineralization is confined to the areas of distribution of small massifs and dyke fields composed of diorite, granitoid, monzonite, and syenitoid. It is significant that gold is closely associated with copper and molybdenum reflecting general regularities in formation of porphyry orogenic systems. Gold-ore zones are accompanied by kalifeldsparization, silicification and sulfidization. The most widely distributed minerals in ore zones are chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, molybdenite, fahlores etc. Gold in crusts of weathering is found in Cretaceous-Paleogene clay and clay-rubbly deposits distributed predominantly among Early Cambrian gold-bearing sulfidized vulcanogenic-sedimentary rocks. Average content of gold in the crusts of weathering is 0.5-1.5 g/t. The gold is of high fineness, with little silver admixture, predominantly free, recoverable by gravity separation, fine in some areas, and associated with clay particles.

  8. Microclimate affects soil chemical and mineralogical properties of cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egli, Markus; Lessovaia, Sofia; Chistyakov, Kirill; Inozemzev, Svyatoslav

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation and temperature particularly influence soil properties by affecting the type and rates of chemical, biological, and physical processes. To a great extent, element leaching and weathering rates are governed by these processes. Vegetation growth and decomposition, that depend on temperature and the other environmental factors, influence weathering reactions through the production of acidity and organic ligands that may promote chemical weathering and subsequent elemental leaching. The present work focuses on cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Siberia, Russia). The investigated field site (2380 m asl) is characterised by cold winters (with absolute minimum temperatures of -50°C; a mean temperature in January is -21°C) and cool summers (+8°C mean temperature in July). The mean annual temperature is -5.4°C. Annual precipitations are relatively low (500 mm with 20% of precipitation in July). Permafrost is widespread and occurs sometimes at a depth of 30 to 50 cm. Several studies have shown the influence of slope aspect and the resulting microclimate on soil weathering and development. There is however no unanimous agreement whether weathering is more intense on north- or south-facing slopes and whether small differences in thermal conditions may lead to detectable differences. Higher temperatures do not necessarily lead to higher weathering rates in cold alpine regions as shown by previous investigations in the European Alps. Water fluxes through the soils seemed to be more important. We consequently investigated soils in the cold-alpine environment of the Central Altai Mountains on a very small area close to a local glacier tongue. Half of the investigated soil profiles were south-facing (5) and the other half north-facing (5). The soils have the same parent material (mica-rich till), altitude, topography, and soil age. The vegetation is alpine grassland that is partially intersected with some juniper and mosses, which portion in the soil surface increases towards the hill footslope. Soil chemical properties such as organic C, N, soil organic matter quality (using DRIFT), pH value, (oxy)hydroxides, total elemental contents (XRF), and soil mineralogy (using diagnostic treatments and XRD) were determined. The age constraint of the site was given by geomorphic studies, 14C dating of a nearby peat-bog and of the stable organic matter fraction of the soils. The soils have a Holocene age. The results showed astonishingly clearly - similarly to the European Alps - that the south-facing soils have a lower weathering state. This is expressed by statistically significant lower pH-values, more oxalate and dithionite extractable Fe, Al, Mn, and Si contents, higher C concentrations and stocks and even lower total Si- and Ca-contents at north facing sites. A similar weathering trend was also obtained from the weathering index (Ca+K)/Ti. The geochemical evolution of the soils seems also here to be enhanced at north facing sites, although very severe climatic conditions prevail. We must assume that weathering is not limited by temperature in the active layer but rather by soil moisture that seems to be higher during the warmer period in the north-facing soils. This is furthermore confirmed by the appearance of slightly evident features of an umbric soil horizon at the north-facing sites at the hill footslope. Furthermore, biodegradation seem to be less pronounced on north-facing sites compared to south-facing sites. Poorly degraded organic matter is consequently accumulated on north-facing sites. This finally gives rise to more organic and mobile organic ligands that promote weathering processes.

  9. Quantitative reconstructions of mid- to late holocene climate and vegetation in the north-eastern altai mountains recorded in lake teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Andreev, Andrei; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei; Babich, Valery; Li, Hong-Chun; Shilov, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We report the first high-resolution (20-50 years) mid- to late Holocene pollen records from Lake Teletskoye, the largest lake in the Altai Mountains, in south-eastern West Siberia. Generally, the mid- to late Holocene (the last 4250 years) vegetation of the north-eastern Altai, as recorded in two studied sediment cores, is characterised by Siberian pine-spruce-fir forests that are similar to those of the present day. A relatively cool and dry interval with July temperatures lower than those of today occurred between 3.9 and 3.6 ka BP. The widespread distribution of open, steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae reflects maximum deforestation during this interval. After ca. 3.5 ka BP, the coniferous mountain taiga spread significantly, with maximum woody coverage and taiga biome scores between ca. 2.7 and 1.6 ka BP. This coincides well with the highest July temperature (approximately 1 °C higher than today) intervals. A short period of cooling about 1.3-1.4 ka BP could have been triggered by the increased volcanic activity recorded across the Northern Hemisphere. A new period of cooling started around 1100-1150 CE, with the minimum July temperatures occurring between 1450 and 1800 CE.

  10. A synthesis of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of granitoids from Southwest Mongolia: Implications for crustal nature and tectonic evolution of the Altai Superterrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Tumurkhuu, Dondov

    2015-09-01

    Granitoid magmatism is extensively developed in the Altai Superterrane, but the timing of magmatic events is not so well determined. In this study, twelve granitoid intrusions from Southwest Mongolia were dated by the zircon U-Pb method and analyzed for zircon Hf isotopic compositions. The new age data indicated three phases of magmatic emplacement: Middle Paleozoic (398-350 Ma), Late Paleozoic (317-289 Ma) and Triassic (ca. 244-211 Ma). The first-phase magmatism is mainly composed of hornblende-bearing I-type granitoids, formed during a long-lasting subduction process in the Early to Middle Paleozoic. The second-phase magmatism was manifested by a few small intrusions, primarily distributed along the Erqis fault zone, and probably formed in a transitional tectonic regime from subduction to post-tectonic setting in the Late Paleozoic. The third-phase magmatism was represented by post-tectonic granitoids emplaced in an intraplate extensional setting. Model ages that were calculated using the composition of new continental crust are predominantly Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic, indicating that the protoliths of granitoids were likely dominated by Paleozoic juvenile crust with minor Neoproterozoic materials. The Altai Superterrane was a huge Paleozoic tectonic collage produced by amalgamation of subduction-accretion complexes in the margin of the Siberian continent and the Tuva-Mongol microcontinent.

  11. Mid-late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda, southern West Siberia: vegetation, climate and humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Nourgaliev, Danis; Palagushkina, Olga; Papin, Dmitry; Frolova, Larisa

    2012-08-01

    An environmental reconstruction of mid-late Holocene vegetation, climate and lake dynamics was inferred from pollen and diatom records of Lake Big Yarovoe in Kulunda, southern West Siberia. The reconstruction suggests a general prevalence of steppe during the last 4.4 ka. Under a relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.4 and 3.75 ka BP. The largest development of conifer forest started in Kulunda after 3.75 ka BP. The onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by the dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in the lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominant in Kulunda, along with a sharp reduction of conifers. These results are in agreement with the general pattern of the Holocene environmental history of the surrounding areas, including the Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. The penetration of coniferous forest into the Kulunda steppe after 3.75 ka BP was related to its geographical location northwest of the Altai Mountains. The economic activities of the ancient population of Kulunda depended on the environmental changes during the Holocene.

  12. Pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectra of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Eastern Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single finding of this taxa can be important in the interpretation of fossil spectra. Recent spectra don not reflect present vegetation communities. Pollen of arboreal taxa predominates over non-arboreal taxa ( Pinus amounts to 80 %), among herbaceous pollen taxa Poaceae are most abundance ( pollen content may reach 20%). Participation of Poaceae pollen is strongly overestimated. Subfossil spectra better reflects major vegetation communities occurring today in researching area. Non-arboreal taxa predominates over arboreal taxa, among herbaceous pollen taxa Artemisia (6-20%), Cyperaceae (3-40 %), Poaceae (1-12%) are most abundance. So in general pollen assemblages of subfossil spectra correspond to structure of the described vegetation communities. This research will help in climate reconstructions in this mountain region.

  13. Identification sources of pollen spectra in dry and wet atmospheric deposition in the forest-steppe zone of Altai Krai (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Nenasheva, Galina; Malygina, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Pollen spectra circulating in the atmosphere contain the important information about primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), worldwide interest in which has significantly increased in recent decades [Despres, 2012]. It is related to the fact that many researchers suggest primary aerosols as a condensation nucleus significantly affected on the formation of clouds and precipitation and, consequently, on the hydrological cycle and climate, especially at the regional level [Andreae et al., 2008; Poschlet et al., 2010; Prenni et al., 2009]. We present the comparison of pollen spectra obtained during the dry and wet atmospheric deposition in Altai Krai (Russia) and identification of the sources/regions of their receipts. Altai Krai is located in the center of the Eurasian continent, at the border of several natural and climatic zones. A significant part of the region's territory is characterized as a forest-steppe zone with a lot of natural and anthropogenic landscapes, accompanied by continental climate. It provides a rich diversity of natural vegetation and cultural associations. During last 10 years pollen grains has been monitored in the airspace of Barnaul city (the capital of Altai Krai) located in the central part of the forest-steppe zone). During the monitoring, the attempts to determine the origin of pollen spectra (local or introduced) were made as well. In the long-term average dates of the first wave of dusting in the spring season 2014 Burkard pollen traps were used in order to monitor the airspace in Barnaul, namely dry deposition of pollen grains [Nenasheva, 2013]. To estimate the wet deposition PBAP (pollen), which can reach 80% in the middle latitudes, precipitation sampler were installed close to Burkard pollen traps in order to sample precipitation. The samples were filtered through a filter having a pore diameter of 1 µm, then prepared and examined for the presence of pollen grains. The comparison of the results of pollen analysis of 10 samples of precipitation and the samples obtained by Burkard pollen traps for dates with precipitation from April to May 2014 showed the following. Pollen spectra isolated from the different types of precipitation (dry and wet) correspond to each other in taxonomic composition in 85% of cases. For example, isolated pollen spectra for 11 April, considering the wet deposition, is characterized by the presence of Pinus sylvestris. According to Burkard pollen traps, pollen grains Pinus sylvestris were also identified in the air. To identify the sources of pollen grains, we estimated the long-term average date of pine dusting on the territory of Barnaul. During the period from 2004 till 2013 it accounts for the end of the second decade of May. Thereby, isolated pollen grains are unlikely to have local origin. To confirm this fact, backward trajectories were calculated on April 11, 2014 using the model HYSPLIT [http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php]. Trajectories showed the southwest transport of pollen to have been identified in the atmospheric surface layer from the territory in the south of Altai Krai, including the surroundings of Lake Zaisan (Kazakhstan), where earlier dusting of pine could be observed mentioned.

  14. Glacier shrinkage and climatic change in the Russian Altai from the mid-20th century: An assessment using remote sensing and PRECIS regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahgedanova, Maria; Nosenko, Gennady; Khromova, Tatyana; Muraveyev, Anton

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines changes in the surface area of glaciers in the North and South Chuya Ridges, Altai Mountains in 1952-2004 and their links with regional climatic variations. The glacier surface areas for 2004 were derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Data from the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) dating to 1952 and aerial photographs from 1952 were used to estimate the changes. 256 glaciers with a combined area of 253 ± 5.1 km2 have been identified in the region in 2004. Estimation of changes in extent of 126 glaciers with the individual areas not less than 0.5 km2 in 1952 revealed a 19.7 ± 5.8% reduction. The observed glacier retreat is primarily driven by an increase in summer temperatures since the 1980s when air temperatures were increasing at a rate of 0.10-0.13°C a-1 at the glacier tongue elevation. The regional climate projections for A2 and B2 CO2 emission scenarios developed using PRECIS regional climate model indicate that summer temperatures will increase in the Altai in 2071-2100 by 6-7°C and 3-5°C respectively in comparison with 1961-1990 while annual precipitation will increase by 15% and 5%. The length of the ablation season will extend from June-August to the late April-early October. The projected increases in precipitation will not compensate for the projected warming and glaciers will continue to retreat in the 21st century under both B2 and A2 scenarios.

  15. [Comparative analysis of ISSR markers polymorphism in populations of yak (Bos mutus) and in F1 hybrids between yak and cattle in the Sayan-Altai region].

    PubMed

    Stolpovsky, Yu A; Kol, N V; Evsyukov, A N; Nesteruk, L V; Dorzhu, Ch M; Tsendsuren, Ts; Sulimova, G E

    2014-10-01

    The genetic variability in seven yak populations from the Sayan-Altai region and in F1 hybrids between yak and cattle (khainags) was investigated with the help of a technique that involves the use of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers generated with PCR primers (AG)9C and (GA)9C. Samples for the analysis were collected in Mongolia, Tuva, and Altai from 2008 through 2012. The examined yak populations differed in in the presence/absence of ISSR fragments, as well as in their frequency. In total, 46 ISSR fragments were identified using two marker systems; the proportion of polymorphic loci constituted 76% and 90% for the AG-ISSR and GA-ISSR markers, respectively. For the total sample of yaks, total genetic diversity (Ht), within-population diversity (Hs), and interpopulation diversity (Gst) constituted 0.081, 0.044, and 0.459 for the AG-ISSR and 0.137, 0.057, and 0.582 for the GA-ISSR markers, respectively. Based on ISSR finger printing, species- and breed-specific DNA patterns were described for the three groups of animals (yaks, cattle, khainags). For the domestic yak, the species-specific profile was represented by eight ISSR fragments. Genetic relationships between the yak populations, cattle breeds, and khainags were examined with the help of four different approaches used in the analysis of population structure: estimation of phylogenetic similarity, multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. Clear evidence on the differentiation of the populations examined at the interspecific, as well as at intraspecific, level were obtained. Similar (relative); as well as remote (isolated), yak populations were identified. Khainags occupy an intermediate position between yak and cattle. However, the data on the ISSR-PCR marker polymorphism (genome polymorphism, population structure).indicate that part of the analyzed khainag genome was more similar to the yak genome than to the cattle genome. PMID:25720249

  16. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title: Southern Africa View larger JPEG image ... visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 -South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project: ...

  17. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4.5-8.5) and εHf(t) (10.2-16.8) values, as well as young isotopic model ages. These Devonian-Carboniferous intermediate-felsic volcanics are interpreted as the products of partial melting of a juvenile lower crust with some contributions from mantle components in an evolved island arc setting from immature to mature island arc. The basin filling pattern and the distribution of arc volcanics and their zircon Hf model ages with the eruptive time suggest that the Wulungu Depression represents an island arc-basin system with the development of a Carboniferous retro-arc basin. In combination with previous work, we propose that the northern Junggar area comprises three arc-basin belts from south to north: the Darbut-Luliang-Karamaili, Wulungu-Yemaquan, and Saur-Fuhai-Dulate. Such tectonic subdivisions are consistent with the regional gravity and magnetic anomaly data. The recognition of the Wulungu arc-basin system demonstrates that the Junggar Basin is likely underlain by juvenile continental crust rather than ancient Precambrian basement, and also implies that the CAOB was built by amalgamation of multiple linear arcs and accretionary complexes.

  18. Geochemical and detrital zircon studies of meta-sedimentary rocks from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks, Russian Altai: Implications on their tectonic affinity and geodynamic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2015-04-01

    A combined whole-rock geochemical and detrital zircon geochronological and Hf-isotope study was conducted on meta-sedimentary sequences of the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks in order to trace their provenance, depositional setting and tectonic affinity. Samples from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks underwent epidote-amphibole- and greenschist-facies metamorphism, respectively, but all of them show comparable geochemical characteristics. They are characterized by high Al2O3/SiO2 ratios and ICV (Index of Chemical Variability) values, while (Gd/Yb)N ratios and REEs compositions are comparable to those of the upper continental crust, indicating that their protoliths were immature and probably deposited proximal to the source areas without significant sedimentary sorting. The low CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) values for these samples (47.3-74.5 and 52.5-74.5, respectively) further suggest that the source rocks underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering. All the samples show major elements (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2, TiO2/Fe2O3T, Fe2O3T/Al2O3), REEs concentrations, HFSEs and transition elements compositions between the typical andesites and granites, but deviate from those of basaltic rocks, implying that intermediate-felsic rocks served dominant sources during the sedimentation. These geochemical characteristics are consistent with the continental island arc setting, which is discriminated by the TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3T + MgO concentrations higher than those of passive marginal depositions, but La/Sc, Ti/Zr, La/Th, La/Sc and Zr/Th ratios comparable to those of depositions in continental island arc settings. Two samples from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks yield similar detrital zircon age spectra, with the most prominent population of ca. 620-470 Ma old and a subordinate one of ca. 943-743 Ma old. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and surrounding island arcs in western Mongolia probably provided substantial sources to the protoliths. The similarities in geochemical compositions and detrital zircon patterns with those for the Altai-Mongolian terrane suggest that the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks possibly represented the northern margin of this terrane with different crustal levels. Our study places further constraints that the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represented a large subduction-accretion complex built upon the active margin in the western Mongolia during the early Paleozoic.

  19. Southern Rains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...   View Larger image Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the Microfabrics of Surface Horizons and Desert Varnish in Extremely Arid Soils of the Mojave (USA) and Trans-Altai Gobi (Mongolia) Deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, M. P.; Shishkov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The mineralogical composition of coarse fraction and characteristic features of the micro- and submicrofabrics and chemical composition of desert varnish on gravels of desert pavements and the underlying vesicular crust soil horizons were studied in the extremely arid soils of the Mojave (USA) and Trans-Altai Gobi (Mongolia) deserts. A set of common diagnostic features of elementary pedogenetic processes was identified in the automorphic desert soils developed on ancient (70-90 ka) piedmont plains composed of alluvial deposits with the high content of red-earth clay. The results of this study attest to the long and complicated history of the extremely arid soils with alternation of the humid and arid phases of pedogenesis reflected in a specific combination of textural (clay-illuvial) and carbonate pedofeatures and in the distribution patterns of iron, manganese, titanium, and barium in different layers of the desert varnish. The chemical composition of the latter did not depend on the mineralogical composition of the underlying substrates and was formed with active participation of soil microorganisms. This allowed us to conclude about the polygenetic (accretionary-microbiological) nature of desert varnish.

  1. Southern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This rare cloud free view of southern Italy (41.0N, 16.0E) shows almost all of the famous `boot' configuration of the peninsula up to just north of Naples and Mount Vesuvius. The land mass of this historic peninsula contrasts sharply with the sparkling blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. A New Comprehensive Dataset on Glacier Area Changes From 1960s to 2008 in Altai-Sayan, Tien Shan And Pamir Mountain Systems of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surazakov, A.; Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E.; Nikitin, S.

    2010-12-01

    Mountain glaciers are a vital source of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. To quantify glacier loss due to climate change during the last 42 years and use this information in water resources estimation, we have completed a comprehensive database of the glacier area changes in Altai-Sayan (AS), Tien Shan (TS) and Pamir (PA) mountains. A new wall-to-wall glacier inventory was completed based on ASTER and Landsat ETM+ multispectral imagery (circa 2000). Counting only the glaciers that are larger than 0.1 sq. km, in Central Asia there were: 1,428 glaciers with area of 1,285 sq. km in AS; 11,671 glaciers with area of 13,424 sq. km in PA; 10,925 glaciers with area of 13,196 sq. km in TS. Glacier changes since 1960s and after 2000, were estimated using historical snapshots of glacier areas that were manually digitized from declassified 2 m Corona (1960s) and 6-9 m Hexagon (1970s) satellite photographs and 2.5 m ALOS/PRISM imagery (2008). The high-resolution Corona and Hexagon images were co-registered to the modern imagery using novel rigorous orthorectification approaches. The developed multitemporal orthophotography allowed, for the first time, direct image to image analysis of glacier area changes at unprecedented level of detail, while retaining regional scope of the study. Overall, historical snapshots were created for about 61% of the total glacier area in Central Asia. Preliminary analysis suggested large variability of glacier area losses in these three mountains systems. The largest massifs of glaciations in PA and TS lost only 2-4% during the last half a century, whereas regions of dispersed glaciations located at low elevation of the periphery of mountains systems lost up to 25% of their area.

  3. Subsidence and drowning of a carbonate platform in south-central Mongolia (Gobi Altai region) during the late Eifelian to early Givetian: A synthesis of conodont data, magnetic susceptibility, and paleoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Nicholas B.; Jeffrey Over, D.; Chuluun, Minjin; Myrow, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    New and published stratigraphic data are integrated herein to resolve the age and depositional setting of Middle Devonian strata in the Gobi-Altai Terrane of south-central Mongolia (Bayanhongar Province). The Tsagaankhaalga Formation (Emsian?-Eifelian) is composed primarily of tabular sandy carbonates; it is sharply overlain by dark, fine-grained volcanoclastic marine sedimentary rock of the Govialtai Formation (Givetian), which is comparatively unfossiliferous, except for sporadic, fossiliferous carbonate interbeds. The latter unit contains abundant tentaculites as well as a newly recovered collection of conodonts assigned to the lower Givetian varcus Zone (timorensis, rhenana, or ansatus). A positive shift in bulk magnetic susceptibility coincides with the Tsagaankhaalga/Govialtai contact, and elevated values within the Govialtai correspond to tuffaceous and rhyolitic strata. The transition from carbonate facies of the Tsagaankhaalga Formation to the volcanoclastic shales of the Govialtai Formation is interpreted as the result of local tectonic activity. This may be qualitatively described as a transition from a shallow marine carbonate shoal with an epibenthic fauna (Tsagaankhaalga), to a deeper, clastic dominated environment with a nektic fauna (Govialtai). The pulse of tectonism must predate the lower Givetian, and it echoes the "Tsakhir Event", which is recorded by the transition from Ordovician-Silurian carbonates to Lochkovian conglomerate. These findings provide useful biostratigraphic control and insight into the complex tectonic evolution of the Gobi-Altai Terrane and adjacent blocks on the Eurasian Craton.

  4. Composition and formations conditions of andalusite-kyanite-sillimanite pegmatoid segregstions in metamorphic rocks of the Tseel block (Mongolian Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukov, Vasiliy

    2010-05-01

    Quartz veins and pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications often occur in metamorphic complexes. Metapelites abound in various combinations of two Al2SiO5 polymorphs, e.g., andalusite + sillimanite and sillimanite + kyanite (Kerrick, 1990). Rocks with three polymorphs are much scarcer; they result from subsequent crystallization during progressive metamorphism or combined regional and contact metamorphism or from metastable crystallization (Kerrick, 1990). Study of veins containing various Al2SiO5 modifications can give insight into the PT-conditions of metamorphism and their temporal changes. The Tsel block is localized in the basins of the Tseliyn, Hudjertiyn, Sharin, and Deresetuin Rivers and is part of the Hercynides structure on the southern flank of Mongolian Altay. Pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications were discovered in the vicinity of the western contact of one of the largest basic-rock massifs, Buren-Hairhan.They are hosted by schists bearing paragenesis Bt + Ms + St + Grt + Ky + Sill + And + Fibr + Pl + Qtz. Visual examination of the pegmatoid segregations showed the presence of large (up to 4-5 cm) mineral aggregates —kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. They are prismatic, with rhombic sections, and are composed of chaotically arranged kyanite crystals with irregular-shaped andalusite relics between them. The samples also contain large (1 cm) muscovite plates localized between the pseudomorphs as well as quartz grains. The pegmatoid segregations bear the following mineral assemblage: And + Ky + Sil + Fibr + Ms + Qtz + Pl + St +Grt + Bt. Predominant minerals are Al2SiO5 polymorphs (30-50 vol.%), muscovite (30-60 vol.%), and quartz (up to 20 vol.%). Biotite and plagioclase are present in small amounts; staurolite and garnet are occasional. Based on the observed mineral correlations, the following sequence of formation of Al2SiO5 polymorphs has been established: First, andalusite was replaced by kyanite to form pseudomorphs; then, fibrolite was produced, which, in turn, gave way to prismatic sillimanite. The fact that fibrolite formed after kyanite is proved by its presence in muscovite developed after the latter mineral. Sillimanite was, most likely, produced later than or synchronously with large muscovite replacing andalusite grains and kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. 2. Though the estimated P and T values are close to those of the triple point (Pattison, 1992), the studied rocks bear evidence for the replacement of andalusite by kyanite and sillimanite. The mineral assemblages pointing to the kyanitesillimanite type of metamorphism of the host rocks and the presence of andalusite relics in the latter suggest that the andalusite formed during earlier metamorphic events. This polymorph formation sequence agrees with Kozakov's (1986) data on change of the regional metamorphism from andalusite-sillimanite to kyanite-sillimanite one. 3. The great amounts of muscovite in veins containing Al2SiO5 polymorphs and its presence at phase contacts suggest a great role of muscovite in the phase transitions between different polymorphs. Since phases other than Al2SiO5 and muscovite are present in negligible amounts, it is not ruled out that the polymorphs were transformed by the ion exchange mechanism (Carmichael, 1969). 1. Carmichael, D.M., 1969. On the mechanism of prograde metamorphic reaction in quartz-bearing pelitic rocks. Contr. Miner. Petrol. 20, 244-267. 2. Kerrick, D.M., 1990. The Al2SiO5 polymorphs. Rev. Miner. 22, p. 406. 3. Kozakov, I.K., 1986. Precambrian infrastructure complexes of Mongolia [in Russian]. Nauka, Leningrad. 4. Pattison, D.R.M., 1992. Stability of andalusite and sillimanite and the Al2SiO5 triple point: constraints from the Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. J. Geol. 100, 423-446.

  5. Late Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Altai segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from metamorphic P-T pseudosection and zircon U-Pb dating of ultra-high-temperature granulite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yinqi; Santosh, M.; Chen, Hanlin; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies rocks offer important constraints on crustal evolution processes and tectonic history of orogens. UHT granulites are generally rare in Phanerozoic orogens. In this study, we investigate the late Paleozoic pelitic UHT granulites from Altai in the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The diagnostic minerals in these rocks include high alumina orthopyroxene (Al2O3 up to 9.76 wt.%, and y(opx) = AlVI in orthopyroxene up to 0.21) coexisting with sillimanite and quartz, and low Zn spinel (ZnO = 1.85-2.50 wt.%) overgrowth with quartz. Cordierite corona separates sillimanite from orthopyroxene. The high alumina orthopyroxene is replaced by symplectites of low-alumina orthopyroxene (~ 5.80 wt.% Al2O3) and cordierite. These textural observations are consistent with a significant decompression following the peak UHT metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modeling using pseudosections and the y(opx) isopleths indicate an anti-clockwise P-T path for the exhumation of the Altai orogenic belt. The pre-peak assemblage of spinel + quartz in garnet is stable at high- to ultra-high-temperature and low-pressure conditions (P < 5.8 kbar at T ~ 900 °C). The peak P-T values recorded by high aluminium orthopyroxene is > 940 °C and 7.8 to 10 kbar. Subsequent near-isothermal decompression occurred at 890 to 940 °C and 5 to 6 kbar. The final-stage cooling is recorded at 750 and 800 °C and 4 to 5 kbar accompanied by a decrease in the y(opx) values (0.11-0.12). In the UHT granulite, zircon grains are commonly enclosed within cordierite. The overgrowth rims of the zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 277 ± 2 Ma using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, which is interpreted to mark the timing of decompression and cooling. We propose that the anti-clockwise P-T path of the UHT granulite in the Altai orogenic belt could be related to an extensional event related to the sinistral strike-slip along the Irtish tectonic belt after the subduction and slab detachment during the convergence of the Kazakhstan-Junggar plate and the Siberian plate.

  6. Debris-covered glacial forms and dynamics of glaciers of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (Altai-Sayan mountain system).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkin, Dmitry; Chistyakov, Kirill

    2013-04-01

    Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (3970 m) is situated in the intersection of Altai and Sayan mountain ridges. Average annual temperature within the massif is below -2.6°C, annual precipitation 145-300 mm. Glaciation of the massif has total area of 20 km2. Geographers of Saint-Petersburg University study the glaciers and periglacial zone since 1990. Since the maximum of the LIA the glaciers retreat, short stabilizations took place in early 1920-s, mid-1960-s and mid-1980-s. In 1995-2008 glaciation lost 19% of area. Irregular rate of glacial retreat after the LIA lead to formation of 3 groups of debris covered objects. The first group is connected with moraines of LIA (altitude 2650-3000 m). They consist of ice core and debris cover of different thickness. The mechanism of their formation is the following: stabilization of the edges of the glaciers causes accumulation of the debris, they armor the ice, preventing it from melting. When warming starts the exposed part of the glacier grows thinner, the ice under the moraine looses contact with the main body of the glacier. Increased flow of glacial melt water in the last 10 years led to exposure of moraine ice. Some glaciers which supported LIA moraines on the internal side, retreated abruptly in the period of 1995-2008. Moraines lost their stability, they collapse intensely and ice core melts out. This is observed at Seliverstova glacier (2.8 km2). The second group (altitude 2850-2950 m) is situated between LIA moraines and glaciers. It is represented by layers of ice covered by thin (several dozen cm) moraine. Streams along the edges of the layers expose ice to the depth of 2-3 meters in many places. Edges of glaciers on aerial photos of 1965 coincide with the edges of these layers. It proves their glacial origin. Objects of the third group are parts of glaciers that lost their connection with the main glacial masses and turned into dead ice and small cirque glaciers that lost their accumulation area and activity in 1995-2008. The process of armoring of these ice masses is now very active. Rock glaciers of the massif also have glacial genesis but they don't belong to any group because they integrate buried ice of different generations at least from the maximum of the LIA . Periodic cutoff of new masses of buried ice from the glaciers provides continuous alimentation of rock glaciers. We mapped 17 rock glaciers with total area of 5.5 km2. 2 active rock glaciers under valley glaciers Left Mugur and Right Mugur have the shape of tongues cutting through moraines of LIA and extending 350-500 m further down the slope. Activity of these rock glaciers is proved by transverse crevasses, steepness, instability and bareness of frontal ledges, abundance of boulders fallen from these ledges. We estimate the average rate of their advance from the beginning of LIA 0.5-0.7 m/year .

  7. The Southern Supercluster

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Shyamal )

    1989-10-01

    The Southern Supercluster is described using data compiled from five catalogs, reduced to a homogeneous system following RC2. In terms of mass, luminosity, and mass-to-light ratio, the Southern Supercluster compares well with the Coma and Hercules superclusters, but is less massive than the Local Supercluster. It is shown that, even though the Southern Supercluster is the nearest supercluster to the Local Supercluster, it is well separated from the Local Supercluster. However, there is evidence of a tenuous stream of galaxies connecting the Southern Supercluster with the Perseus Supercluster. 30 refs.

  8. Southern Antarctic Peninsula

    This image shows ice-front retreat in part of the southern Antarctic Peninsula from 1947 to 2009. USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. The southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula is one area studied as part of this project, and is summariz...

  9. 'Gupton' southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...

  10. Pearl southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...

  11. Southern Screamer in Pantanal

    Southern screamer along marsh boardwalk at Fortín Patria, Pantanal. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. This region, situated in the extreme northeastern corner of western Paraguay and extending south along the Paraguay river forms a southern...

  12. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  13. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed

  14. The appearance of the elements of the Protopteris floras: Paleogeographic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhnev, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The elements of the Protopteris floras were identified in lower Emsian deposits in areas of collision and rift-related volcanism in Gorny Altai, Tuva Trough, Khakassia, Rybinsk Depression, and the eastern Kuznetsk Basin. The appearance of this type of flora in Siberia was accompanied by short-term climatic transitions from humid to arid conditions and periodic shoreline oscillations. The eruptions of volcanoes brought chemical elements and compounds into the atmosphere, which were responsible for mutations in the plants. Natural selection, which was caused by changes in climatic conditions, also played an important role.

  15. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  16. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  17. Southern Vietnam since 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dat, Bao

    1995-01-01

    Discusses social and political changes in southern Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. Describes anti-U.S. propaganda used in the schools and media in the years immediately following the war. Contends that younger Vietnamese look forward to a closer relationship with the United States and its people. (CFR)

  18. 'Biloxi' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Biloxi' tetraploid southern highbush blueberry is a new cultivar developed and released by the Agricultural Reseach Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture breeding programs in Beltsville, MD, and Poplarville MS. Plants of 'Biloxi' are upright, vigorous and productive. The fruit ripens earl...

  19. Trouble at Texas Southern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the

  20. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  1. 'Pearl' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  2. Trouble at Texas Southern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

  3. The Oratory of Southern Demagogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.

    This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters

  4. The Oratory of Southern Demagogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.

    This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…

  5. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  6. Brushfires in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of brushfires in Southern Africa, exact location unknown, raises questions concerning the overall global environmental effect of large scale biomass burning as an indicator of large scale conversion of tropical, closed canopy forests to pastoral and agricultural uses. Other concerns relate to the reduction of the biotic and genetic diversity in the global tropics and the relationship of biomass burning to atmospheric chemistries.

  7. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  9. Indigenous Astronomy in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.

  10. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  11. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  12. Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Stephen James

    2013-05-01

    Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

  13. Southern Portion of Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. This image identifies the southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula, which is one area studied as part of this project. Research on the southern Antarctic Peninsula is summarized in the USGS report,

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in planetary nebulae (Gorny+, 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorny, S. K.; Stasinska, G.; Escudero, A. V.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2004-11-01

    We present new spectroscopic data (43 objects) and derived plasma diagnostics and abundances (164 objects) of a sample of planetary nebulae in the direction of the Galactic center. The spectra were obtained in July 2000 with the 1.9-m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. The spectral coverage was 3500-7000Å with an average resolution of 1000. (4 data files).

  15. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National Park, which occupies the far southwest of the island, is largely under cloud.

    Prominent along the east coast are the Canterbury Plains, approximately 180 kilometers long and extending inland from the coast to the foothills of the Southern Alps. This is the largest area of flatland in New Zealand, and a rich agricultural region renowned for its wheat, wool, and livestock. Here the distance between the east and west coasts is little more than 150 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  17. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  18. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  19. Southern California water reclamation study

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, S.; Martin, K.; Weinberg, K.; Mills, K.

    1998-07-01

    This paper is a summary of the first phase of a study initiated by the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), seven Southern California water agencies, and the California Department of Water Resources. The objective of this study, known as the Southern California Comprehensive Water Reclamation and Reuse Study (SCCWRRS), is to identify opportunities and constraints for maximizing water reuse in Southern California using two time horizons, 2010 and 2040. Maximizing water reuse will help to meet increasing demands while facing limited supplies of fresh water future.

  20. Callisto's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These views of Callisto's southern hemisphere were taken by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer just after closest approach in orbit G8 on May 6, 1997. These false color images show surface compositional differences, red = more ice, blue = less ice.

    The upper left view contains Buri, a crater with a diameter of about 60 km. In the infrared spectrum, Buri and the rays that extend from the crater have high abundance of water ice compared to the surrounding region. The center view, a large (200 km or 120 mile diameter) unnamed impact crater with a distinct ring or circle around it reveals a complex mix of ice and non-ice materials. This is possibly due to impact excavation of the ice-rich subsurface which suggests that the darker material is just a thin surface covering caused by impact debris or a lag deposit from which the ice has evaporated away. The infrared data shows spectral signatures for both sulfur and carbon as two potential materials which could play a part in the complicated make-up of Callisto's surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  1. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  2. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  3. Southern Hospitality with a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Veronica

    1997-01-01

    Describes the humanitarian efforts of St. Luke's Parish to reach out to the community and help others. Its attempts to spread justice and peace have made it a healing presence in southern society. (YKH)

  4. The University of Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Dawn Marie

    1985-01-01

    The University of Southern California's commitment to excellence as well as the significance of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program in the university's mission to prepare the community's future leaders are discussed. ROTC faculty selection criteria are identified. (MLW)

  5. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  6. Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

  7. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  8. The Southern Ocean CIRCLE initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E. J.; Ellis-Evans, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The circumpolar Southern Ocean is the principal ocean connection between the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and exerts a profound influence on world climate through ocean circulation and its major role in the global carbon cycle. It is a major repository of biodiversity and also the only ocean system where significant marine living resources are yet to be fully exploited. However, this key component of the Earth System is still poorly understood, in part due to the logistical problems of a harsh, remote location and the circumpolar nature of the environment. Circumpolar patterns of variability have now been recognized and the current challenge is to understand how, at a circumpolar scale, this variability is generated, its impact on the regional biogeochemical cycles, its interaction with ecosystem processes and the links to global scale processes. Many of these scientific issues can only be addressed by Southern Ocean scale studies, and although a range of national and international research programmes are already targeting particular aspects, the research effort is largely uncoordinated. The European Polar Board is sponsoring a pan-European initiative (Southern Ocean CIRCLE) to coordinate the currently disparate Southern Ocean research effort and this initiative aims to address climate variability, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem dynamics with particular reference to the links between these aspects in the circumpolar Southern Ocean. This poster outlines the development of the SO CIRCLE initiative, the major areas of science and proposals for implementation. It also outlines how SO CIRCLE will link to other programmes with a Southern Ocean component (e.g. CLIVAR, CliC, GLOBEC, SOLAS). A key aspect of the initiative will be to coordinate European scientific effort in the Southern Ocean with that of the wider international community.

  9. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by 63.5 kilometers (35 by 39.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 21.6 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 6, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet Dates Acquired: September 4, 2007.

  10. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments. Seattle, WA. Geological Society of America. Coale, K., 2003. Open Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments: What they have told us, what they have not. American Society for Limnology and Oceanography and The Oceanography Society, Honolulu, February 2004. Coale, K., 2004. Recent Research from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), in Taking the Heat: What is the impact of ocean fertilization on climate and ocean ecology? Science of earth and sky. AAAS, February 12-16, Seattle, WA

  11. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  12. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,

  13. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

  14. RESOURCES FOR SOUTHERN MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRINKER, PAUL; RUSSELL, WENDELL H.

    INFORMATION ABOUT LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT TRAINING RESOURCES, IN 15 SOUTHERN STATES, WAS ANALYZED TO DETERMINE PROGRAMS WHICH WOULD EFFECTIVELY INCREASE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES. SOCIAL SCIENTISTS (1) TALKED WITH MORE THAN 360 STAFF MEMBERS IN 58 SCHOOLS, (2) CONTACTED FEDERAL, STATE, LABOR, AND PRIVATE…

  15. Pediatric melioidosis in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Eshwara, Vandana K; Kini, Pushpa; Bhat, Vinod

    2015-08-01

    Melioidosis in children is increasingly detected from the coastal region of Southern India during monsoon. We present 11 cases of melioidosis, ranging from localized to disseminated, treated successfully, barring one death. It calls for awareness and upgrading laboratory facilities for better diagnosis and management of pediatric melioidosis. PMID:26388638

  16. The Recent Rise of Southern Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynds, Ernest C.

    During the past decade states in the southern United States have produced an increasing percentage of the nation's "city" magazines. Three magazines illustrate what the southern metropolitan magazines are doing to serve their readers and their communities. "Southern Living" provides information about its readers' interests as urban and suburban

  17. The Recent Rise of Southern Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynds, Ernest C.

    During the past decade states in the southern United States have produced an increasing percentage of the nation's "city" magazines. Three magazines illustrate what the southern metropolitan magazines are doing to serve their readers and their communities. "Southern Living" provides information about its readers' interests as urban and suburban…

  18. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires. The haze aerosols sampled were more heat-absorbing than expected, which means the haze layer may have a significant warming influence on the region's atmosphere. For more information, see the press release Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Visualization Studio

  19. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed <5% to total zooplankton in the Lazarev Sea, but 15% (max = 93%) to macrozooplankton in the East Antarctic. In addition to regional density distributions we have synthesized data on vertical distributions, seasonal cycles, and inter-annual density variation. Trophically, gymnosome are specialist predators on thecosomes, while thecosomes are considered predominantly herbivorous, capturing food with a mucous web. The ingestion rates of L. retroversa australis are in the upper range for sub-Antarctic mesozooplankton (31.2-4196.9 ng pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also contribute significantly to organic carbon flux through the production of fast sinking faecal pellets and mucous flocs, and rapid sinking of dead animals ballasted by their aragonite shells. Quantification of these contributions requires data on mucous web production rates, egestion rates, assimilation efficiencies, metabolic rates, and faecal pellet morphology for application to sediment trap studies. Based on the available data, pteropods are regionally significant components of the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem. However, there is an urgent need for focused research on this group in order to quantify how a decline in pteropod densities may impact on Southern Ocean ecosystems.

  20. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state's designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

  1. Southern States` Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state`s designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

  2. Dusty Skies over Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's 'Santa Anas' are dry, north-easterly winds having speeds in excess of 25 knots (46 kilometers/hour). Santa Ana conditions are commonly associated with gusts of more than twice this level. These offshore winds usually occur in late fall and winter when a high pressure system forms in the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevadas and the Rocky Mountains. The air warms as it flows downslope from the high plateau, and its speed increases dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of the winds varies greatly from place to place, and the Santa Anas can be sufficiently strong to pick up surface dust.

    This view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer shows the pattern of airborne dust stirred up by Santa Ana winds on February 9, 2002. The image is from MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera, and airborne particulates are especially visible due to the camera's oblique viewing angle. Southeast of the Los Angeles Basin, a swirl of dust, probably blown through the Banning Pass, curves toward the ocean near Dana Point. The largest dust cloud occurs near Ensenada, in Baja California, Mexico. Also visible in this image is a blue-gray smoke plume from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California.

    This image was acquired during Terra orbit 11423, and represents an area of about 410 kilometers x 511 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  3. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  4. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  5. Pulmonary hydatidosis from Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Arias, Liliana Eugenia; Puzzio, Carla Pia; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus. Even though different measures are taken including the use of a vaccine in livestock to stop transmission, the continuous diagnoses of cases, mainly of liver and pulmonary hydatidosis, show the failure of the control programs for hydatidosis in our country. A clinical case of pulmonary hydatidosis in a patient from a rural endemic area in Southern Argentina is described. PMID:26629454

  6. Astrometry of southern radio sources.

    PubMed

    White, G L; Jauncey, D L; Harvey, B R; Savage, A; Gulkis, S; Preston, R A; Peterson, B A; Reynolds, J E; Nicolson, G D; Malin, D F

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogues. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarc-second radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way. PMID:11538705

  7. Classifying Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    There is a wide variety of flavours of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere, with differing structures and lifecycles. Previous studies have classified these manually using upper level flow features or satellite data. In order to be able to evaluate climate models and understand how extratropical cyclones might change in the future, we need to be able to use an automated method to classify cyclones. Extratropical cyclones have been identified in the Southern Hemisphere from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset with a commonly used identification and tracking algorithm that employs 850hPa relative vorticity. A clustering method applied to large-scale fields from ERA-Interim at the time of cyclone genesis (when the cyclone is first identified), has been used to objectively classify these cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere. This simple method is able to separate the cyclones into classes with quite different development mechanisms and lifecycle characteristics. Some of the classes seem to coincide with previous manual classifications on shorter timescales, showing their utility for climate model evaluation and climate change studies.

  8. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mabey, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150 C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications. A majority of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. The largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grang View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107 C and an energy of 4.5 x 10 to the 20th power joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system was found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures was not found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90 and 150 C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain.

  9. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  10. Comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the seismotectonic deformation orientations for southern Siberia area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushenkova, Natalia; Kuchay, Olga; Chervov, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The recent geodynamics of southern Siberia is under influence of external and internal factors. First, fields of tension arise on borders of a large earth's plates during their interaction caused by lateral movement. Second, processes in the sublithospheric part of the upper mantle of the region. To study influence of these factors we carried out the comparison of various geophysical methods results, with taking into account available geological data on a faults structure of the region. The joint analysis included results of seismotomographic modeling, determinations of seismotectonic deformation (STD) principal axes orientation, and data of numerical thermogravitational modeling of upper mantle convection with considering influence on its structure of a local overheat under surrounding thick lithosphere blocks. The 3D model of seismic P-waves anomalies distribution in the upper mantle of southern Siberia and adjacent areas is updated by addition to calculations a new data from the ISC catalog. It is calculated by a technique developed during the previous researches (Koulakov, Bushenkova, 2010). Thickness estimates of a «seismic lithosphere» are made in the same way, as in work (Bushenkova, etc., 2008). The received estimates are used for specification of boundary conditions for a numerical thermogravitational modeling (Chervov, Chernykh, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, in press). A principal axes STD orientations are calculated on Riznichenko&Kostrov's method by data of focal mechanisms solution about 770 earthquakes with magnitude of 3.5 - 7.3 which have occurred in the crust of Altai-Sayan area from 1970 to 2007. We have executed a comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the principal axes STD orientations for the southern Siberia and adjacent territories. The following features were found. It is possible to observe a tendency to azimuthal change of the principal axes STD orientations along borders of positive and negative seismic velocity anomalies in the obtained seismotomographic model. We observe obvious correlation of the principal exes STD orientations distribution and convection flows distribution in the obtained numerical thermogravitational model of the upper mantle structure. Namely, orientations of an extension are mainly located along descending flow (in the plan), whereas orientations of a shortening - across them respectively. Further with approach to an ascending flow it is possible to observe a tendency to change of the direction of the STD orientations of an extension axes around its center, and on radii - directly over the center of this ascending flow. We consider that, due to stability of the observed tendencies, in other areas with similar block structure of a lithosphere, it will be possible to predict orientations of a principal axes seismotectonic deformations for the subsequent seismic events in similar regions. Work is performed with partial support of the RFBR #13-05-00054 and IP SB RAS #76.

  11. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field campaigns such as Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A), Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Since those large international efforts, satellites have matured enough to enable quantifiable measurements of regional land surface, atmosphere, and ocean. In addition, global and chemical transport models have also been advanced to incorporate various data. Thus, the timing of the workshop was right for a full-fledged re-assessment of the chemistry, physics, and socio-economical impacts caused by pollution in the region, including a characterization of sources, deposition, and feedbacks with climate change.

  12. Southern rim of Pacific Ocean basin: southern Andes to southern Alps

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D.; Garrett, S.W.; Grunow, A.M.; Pankhurst, R.J.; Storey, B.C.; Vennum, W.R.

    1986-07-01

    Between the southern Andes of Tierra del Fuego and the southern Alps of New Zealand lies the least accessible and geologically least explored part of the Pacific Ocean basin. A joint United Kingdom-United States project was initiated in 1983 to elucidate the geologic history and structure of the Pacific margin of Antarctica from the Antarctic Peninsula to Pine Island Bay at approximately lone. 105/sup 0/W. The first season (1983-1984) of this West Antarctic Tectonics Project was spent in the Ellsworth-Whitmore crustal block, and the second (1984-1985) in the Thurston Island crustal block. The project involves structural and general field geology, petrology, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and airborne geophysics (magnetics and radar ice echo sounding). A final geologic season will be spent in the Pensacola Mountains of the Transantarctic Range in 1987-1988.

  13. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  14. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  15. Tectonic deformation in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  16. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  17. Materials Physics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Michael

    2003-03-01

    As part of the developing world, southern Africa is trying to adapt to meet the challenges of the modern global economy. While the subcontinent is rich in mineral and energy resources, it is recognized that knowledge- based activities, leading to technological innovation, are essential in order to provide opportunities for its people. Materials science and technology have been identified as areas in which research should be encouraged . A number of initiatives have been launched in order to facilitate developments in these areas. The National Science Foundation is playing an important role in providing assistance for various new undertakings. A summary of the steps taken will be presented. While facilities for materials preparation and characterization exist in the region, there is much room for improvement. Centralized facilities, plus international collaborations and agreements, can help by providing access to state-of-the-art equipment. In order to ensure local expertise and the training of young scientists for the future, it is recognized that strong fundamental research activities in areas such as condensed matter and materials science are necessary. Furthermore, to prevent the loss of skilled young people to developed countries, it is important to provide opportunities for high quality research through visiting scientist programs at major laboratories in the US , Europe and other developed regions of the world. An overview of southern African materials physics research facilities and activities, with information on certain high-tech industrial research programs, will be given.

  18. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  19. Southern Rural Access Program: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Michael; Holloman, Curtis; Herman, James

    2003-01-01

    The Southern Rural Access Program, a grant program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in eight southern states, funds projects that nurture rural and disadvantaged students in health-care fields; build state, regional, or community capacity to recruit and retain rural health professionals; support rural health networks; and provide loans to…

  20. Rural Education in the Southern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Robert L.

    Rural education in the Southern United States is discussed in sections on the social and economic role of education, problems in Southern rural society, the importance of material resources, and concluding recommendations. Education is perceived as: improving the quality of recipients' lives; providing a ranking system which fits children into the…

  1. Southern Women's Literature: A Process of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Elizabeth A.

    Teachers and students worked together at the University of Alabama to evolve a literature course that dealt with the Southern regional character and culture as manifested in the writings of women. The course began with an orientation to the region, with emphasis on the images and stereotypes of Southern women. Literary material included in the…

  2. SHEATH BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN SOUTHERN RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight is a serious fungal disease problem in southern US rice production, making it necessary for rice farmers to diligently use fungicides for its control. There are no long grain rice varieties adapted to commercial production in the southern US that have adequate resistance to sheath bli...

  3. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  4. Combustion metamorphism in southern california.

    PubMed

    Bentor, Y K; Kastner, M

    1976-08-01

    In several places in Southern California bituminous sediments of the Monterey Formation-siliceous shales, phosphatic rocks, dolomites, and arkoses-were affected during the Pleistocene and as late as the l9th century by spontaneous subsurface combustion of organic matter, during which temperatures up to 1600 degrees C were reached. This oxidative heating (combustion metamorphism) affected rock complexes over areas of tens of square kilometers that tend to occur in clusters. As a result of these processes, the rocks recrystallized and partially melted to form pseudomagmas which intruded the country rocks. The chemical compositions of these melts differ from those of igneous magmas. Acid and intermediate siliceous melts as well as phosphatic melts have formed. These two types are generally immiscible. The following high-temperature minerals were determined: alpha- and beta-cristobalite, quartz, calcic plagioclase, diopsidic pyroxene, wollastonite, cordierite, graphite, fluorapatite, and fluorite; at lower temperature pyrite, gypsum, aragonite, calcite, jarosite, and hexahydrite crystallized. PMID:17841822

  5. Teleconnections in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, K. C.; White, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Monthly anomalies from climatology of sea level pressure and 500 mb geopotential height are used to study teleconnection patterns in the Southern Hemisphere. The data and method used are described, and correlations between zonally averaged anomalies are given. The zonal wavenumber three patterns and teleconnection patterns are given, and the results of eigenvector analysis with teleconnection patterns at 500 mb are reported. The zonally averaged anomalies display two patterns of variability; an out-of-phase relation between high and low latitudes and a pattern in which anomalies in midlatitudes vary out of phase with anomalies in low and high latitudes. In winter, midlatitudes are dominated by three centers of positive correlations over the oceans while the negative correlations are found at high and low latitudes. The teleconnection pattern in summer at 500 mb shows an out-of-phase relation between heights over the subtropical continents and heights in the midlatitude oceans.

  6. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  7. Aseismic uplift in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, R.O.; Church, J.P.; Elliott, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary examination of the historic geodetic record has disclosed crustal uplift of 0.15 to 0.25 meter that apparently began around 1960 and has since grown to include at least 12,000 square kilometers of southern California. This uplift extends at least ISO kilometers west-northwestward along the San Andreas Fault from Cajon to Maricopa, southward from the San Andreas into the northern Transverse Ranges, and eastward from Lebec into and including much of the western Mojave block. It seems to have grown spasmodically eastward from a center near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults and has occurred largely within an area that has remained virtually aseismic since at least 1932. Although much of this area has been characterized by crustal mobility since at least the turn of the century, the described uplift seems to be an Uhusually large and probably unique event superimposed on the existing pattern of continuing deformation.

  8. Southern Hemisphere tropospheric aerosol microphysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gras, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Aerosol particle-size distribution data have been obtained in the Southern Hemisphere from approximately 4-deg S to 44-deg S and between ground level and 5 km, in the vicinity of eastern Australia. The relative shape of the free-tropospheric size distribution for particles with radii larger than approximately 0.04 micron was found to be remarkably stable with time, altitude, and location for the autumn-winter periods considered. This was despite some large concentration changes, which were found to be typical of the southeastern Australian coastal region. The majority of free-troposphere large particles were found to have sulfuric acid or lightly ammoniated sulfate morphology. Large particles in the boundary layer almost exclusively had a sea-salt morphology.

  9. Southern Mexico Miocene Magmatic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layer, P.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic activity in southern Mexico have been occurred in three important volcanic regions: Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (TVF), Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), and Tacaná Volcanic Complex (TVC). This activity produce alkaline and calc-alkaline products. The TVF has been active since 7 Ma ago producing Na-alkaline basanite, trachybasalt, and trachyandesite (41 63 wt% SiO2), and calc-alkaline basalts, basaltic-andesites, and andesites (45 63 wt% SiO2). The CVA including El Chichon Volcano produced calc-alkaline magmas varying from andesites to dacites (57 65 wt% SiO2) emitted between 2100 ka ago (Tzontehuitz) to 225 ka and K-alkaline magmas emitted from 1.1 Ma ago (trachybasalt, 46 51 wt% SiO2) to the Recent (trachyandesite, 57 63 wt% SiO2). The TVC emitted calc-alkaline products varying from basaltic-andesite (52 57 wt% SiO2) as mafic enclaves, andesites (57 63 wt% SiO2), and dacites (63 68 wt% SiO2). El Chichón and TVF present slight enrichments in K2O, Na2O, Rb, Sr, Th, U, Cs, and LREE respect to TVC, these are signatures related to subduction environment. The presence of alkaline magmas at El Chichón and TVF correspond to mantle low degree melts that reach the surface along with calc-alkaline lavas due to a tensional stress field that allows their pass to the surface. In the generation of the magmas of southern Mexico three components are involved: mantle partial melting fluids, fluid from subducted lithosphere, and continental crust, likely interacting in different ratios through time and in different proportions from SW to NE.

  10. Southern Hemisphere Polygonal Patterned Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Earth, periglacial is a term that refers to regions and processes where cold climate contributes to the evolution of landforms and landscapes. Common in periglacial environments on Earth, such as the arctic of northern Canada,Siberia, and Alaska, is a phenomenon called patterned ground. The 'patterns' in patterned ground often take the form of large polygons, each bounded by either troughs or ridges made up of rock particles different in size from those seen in the interior of the polygon. On Earth, many polygons in periglacial environments are directly linked to water: they typically form from stresses induced by repeated freezing and thawing of water, contraction from stress induced by changing temperatures, and sorting of rocks brought to the surface along polygon boundaries by the freeze-thaw processes. Although not exclusively formed by freezing and thawing of water, that is often the dominant mechanism on Earth.

    Polygons similar to those found in Earth's arctic and antarctic regions are also found in the polar regions of Mars. Typically, they occur on crater floors, or on intercrater plains, between about 60o and 80o latitude. The polygons are best seen when bright frost or dark sand has been trapped in the troughs that form the polygon boundaries. Three examples of martian polygons seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are shown here. Each is located in the southern hemisphere:(left) Polygon troughs highlighted by frost as the south polar cap retreats during spring. The circular features are the locations of buried craters that were originally formed by meteor impact. This image, E09-00029, is located at 75.1oS, 331.3oW, and was acquired on 1 October 2001.(center) Summertime view of polygons, highlighted by dark, windblown sand, on the floor of a crater at 71.2oS, 282.6oW. The image, E12-02319, was obtained on 21January 2002.(right) Polygon troughs highlighted by the retreating south polar frost cap during southern summer near 80.7oS, 70.4oW. This picture, M11-01795, was taken by MOC on 13 January 2000.Some Mars researchers assume that polygons on the Red Planet are key indictors that ground ice is present or was present in the recent past. However, whether these polygons actually required water ice to form is, in fact, unknown, since dry processes are also known on Earth for form similar polygons.

  11. Ice in the Southern Coalsack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. G.; Blum, R. D.; Quinn, D. E.; Sellgren, K.; Whittet, D. C. B.

    2002-03-01

    To better understand the conditions under which ice mantles form on grains in molecular clouds, three globules in the Southern Coalsack have been searched for the presence of H2O ice. Given the total lack of star formation in the Coalsack, it is an ideal site for studying unprocessed icy molecular mantles. In our sample of eight field stars lying behind the Coalsack we detect strong H2O ice absorption in the lines of sight to two stars and possible weak absorption in four others. We estimate H2O ice column densities or upper limits for these lines of sight. Compared to dark clouds such as Taurus, the Coalsack H2O ice column densities are lower than expected given the quiescent nature of the Coalsack region. It is possible that the chemical evolution of the Coalsack may simply be at too early a stage for significant ice mantles to appear on the grains, except perhaps in the densest parts of some of the globules. Alternatively, the presence or absence of ice absorption may be related to the distribution of dust along each line of sight, specifically, the relative contributions of dense globules and a more extended diffuse component. For example, our observations are consistent with an ice threshold extinction similar to that observed in the Taurus dark cloud if extinction amounting to AV~5 towards Globules 2 and 3 arises in the extended component. Globule 1 appears to have no extended component.

  12. Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

  13. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... southwesterly along southbound Interstate 5 to its junction with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the...

  14. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... southwesterly along southbound Interstate 5 to its junction with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the...

  15. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... southwesterly along southbound Interstate 5 to its junction with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the...

  16. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... southwesterly along southbound Interstate 5 to its junction with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the...

  17. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... southwesterly along southbound Interstate 5 to its junction with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the...

  18. Meteor showers of the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molau, Sirko; Kerr, Steve

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of an exhaustive meteor shower search in the southern hemisphere. The underlying data set is a subset of the IMO Video Meteor Database comprising 50,000 single station meteors obtained by three Australian cameras between 2001 and 2012. The detection technique was similar to previous single station analysis. In the data set we find 4 major and 6 minor northern hemisphere meteor showers, and 12 segments of the Antihelion source (including the Northern and Southern Taurids and six streams from the MDC working list). We present details for 14 southern hemisphere showers plus the Centaurid and Puppid-Velid complex, with the ? Aquariids and the Southern ? Aquariids being the strongest southern showers. Two of the showers (?^2 Sagittariids and ? Cetids) were previously unknown and have received preliminary designations by the MDC. Overall we find that the fraction of southern meteor showers south of -30deg declination (roughly 25%) is clearly smaller than the fraction of northern meteor showers north of +30deg declination (more than 50%) obtained in our previous analysis.

  19. Southern Saskatchewan Ticagrelor Registry experience

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Payam; Chopra, Varun; Bell, Ali; Kelly, Sheila; Zulyniak, Lori; Booker, Jeff; Zimmermann, Rodney; Semchuk, William; Cheema, Asim N; Lavoie, Andrea J

    2014-01-01

    Background As ticagrelor enters into clinical use for acute coronary syndrome, it is important to understand patient/physician behavior in terms of appropriate use, adherence, and event rates. Methods The Southern Saskatchewan Ticagrelor Registry is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study that identifies consecutive patients started on ticagrelor. We aimed to evaluate both on- and off-label use, identify characteristics of patients who prematurely stop ticagrelor, and describe patient/physician behavior contributing to inappropriate stoppage of this medication. Results From April 2012 to September 2013, 227 patients were initiated on ticagrelor, with a mean age of 62.2±12.1 years. The participants were 66% men and had a mean follow up of 157.4±111.7 days. Seventy-four patients (32.4%) had off-label indications. Forty-seven patients (20.7%) prematurely stopped ticagrelor and were more likely to be older, women, nonwhite, present with shock, and complain of dyspnea. Twenty-six of the 47 patients stopped ticagrelor inappropriately because of patient nonadherence (18 patients) and physician advice (eight patients). A composite outcome event of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 8.8% of the entire cohort and was more likely to occur in those older then 65 years, those presenting with cardiogenic shock, and those who prematurely stopped ticagrelor. Conclusion In this real-world registry of patients started on ticagrelor, a third have off-label indications and a fifth prematurely stop the medication. Premature discontinuation was an independent predictor of major life-threatening bleeding and increased composite event rate of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. PMID:25342889

  20. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern...

  1. The Southern Ocean: Source and sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.

    2011-03-01

    Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.

  2. Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

  3. The Southern Kalahari: A potential new dust source in the southern hemisphere?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the northern hemisphere. The relatively less dust emission in the southern hemisphere in part limits the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity and ability to seque...

  4. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the tendency to emigrate is fostered by landlessness (Lesotho), surplus labor (Botswana and Swaziland), and political and economic underdevelopment (Mozambique). In order to redirect migrant flows, policies must address labor migration, political refugees, urban-rural dynamics, job-creation, income distribution, and democratization. PMID:12347010

  6. A High Resolution Southern Ocean Cyclone Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uotila, P. J.; Lynch, A. H.; D'Amico, M.; Abramson, R.; Egan, A.; Pezza, A. B.; Keay, K.; Cassano, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Cyclones over the Southern Ocean represent an important element in the global circulation of heat and moisture and the maintenance of Southern Hemisphere climate. We seek to advance the understanding of atmospheric processes responsible for the development and decay of Southern Ocean mesocyclones and to explore the interactions between these cyclones and the underlying surface conditions, including sea ice extent, thickness, concentration, motion, and temperature. In this presentation, we will describe a Southern Ocean climatology, created based on the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) output and satellite observations. Intercomparison of cyclonicity between three re-analysis products and AMPS output reveals significant differences close to Antarctica especially during winter. Differences arise due to resolution of data and different surface parametrization schemes. The method applied to construct the climatology utilizes the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique to derive large-scale circulation patterns and a cyclone detection algorithm. The seasonal variability between large- scale circulation patterns and their association to the cyclone formation over the Southern Ocean is of particular interest. In addition, variables that influence the formation of a cyclogenetic environment, such as sea surface temperatures and the sea-ice extent, are analyzed.

  7. Adjoint tomography of the southern California crust.

    PubMed

    Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Maggi, Alessia; Tromp, Jeroen

    2009-08-21

    Using an inversion strategy based on adjoint methods, we developed a three-dimensional seismological model of the southern California crust. The resulting model involved 16 tomographic iterations, which required 6800 wavefield simulations and a total of 0.8 million central processing unit hours. The new crustal model reveals strong heterogeneity, including local changes of +/-30% with respect to the initial three-dimensional model provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The model illuminates shallow features such as sedimentary basins and compositional contrasts across faults. It also reveals crustal features at depth that aid in the tectonic reconstruction of southern California, such as subduction-captured oceanic crustal fragments. The new model enables more realistic and accurate assessments of seismic hazard. PMID:19696349

  8. Moho depth and age in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.

    2010-05-01

    Moho ages beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and to the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect. Moho structure in southern Norway was targeted recently with a seismic refraction study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains, the youngest section of the Fennoscandian shield were recorded. Moho depths beneath the high mountains are 36-40 km, thinning towards the Atlantic Margin and the Oslo graben. A new Moho depth map is constructed for southern Norway by compiling new depth measurements with previous refraction Moho measurements. Gaining better constraint on Moho depths in this area is timely, as debate over the source of support for the mountains has provided the impetus for a new focus project, TopoScandesdeep, to find the depth and mechanisms of compensation. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson's ratio structure that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson's ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower crust is present. The vast difference in Moho depths in the Fennoscandian shield are, therefore, mostly due to the variation in thickness of the high Vp lower crust. These new data on Moho depth, lower crustal thickness and crustal composition provide new insights into the processes that have led to both the uplift and maintenance of the southern Scandes Mountains.

  9. A new fault lineament in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.; Johnson, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows a 50-mile wide tectonic zone across Southern California oriented about 15 deg to the structures of the Transverse Ranges or with an azimuth of 70 deg. The zone is delineated on the imagery by terrian alignments and vegetational differences. A previously undisclosed tectonic lineament extends across the Mojave Desert and appears as a line of crustal upwarping. Pressure which would have caused this plus the occurrence of many thrust faults with the 70 deg azimuth indicate this to be a zone of crustal compression. Recent earthquake epicenters appear to be related to this compression zone rather than the traditional fault network of Southern California.

  10. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) high in orbit around the Earth, suddenly registered an intense burst of gamma-ray radiation from a direction less than 10° from the celestial south pole. Independently, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM) on board the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite also detected the event (see GCN GRB Observation Report 304 [2]). Following the BATSE alert, the BeppoSAX Wide-Field Cameras (WFC) quickly localized the sky position of the burst within a circle of 3 arcmin radius in the southern constellation Chamaeleon. It was also detected by other satellites, including the ESA/NASA Ulysses spacecraft , since some years in a wide orbit around the Sun. The event was designated GRB 990510 and the measured position was immediately distributed by BeppoSAX Mission Scientist Luigi Piro to a network of astronomers. It was also published on Circular No. 7160 of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Paul Vreeswijk, Titus Galama , and Evert Rol of the Amsterdam/Huntsville GRB follow-up team (led by Jan van Paradijs ) immediately contacted astronomers at the 1-meter telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) (Sutherland, South Africa) of the PLANET network microlensing team, an international network led by Penny Sackett in Groningen (The Netherlands). There, John Menzies of SAAO and Karen Pollard (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) were about to begin the last of their 14 nights of observations, part of a continuous world-wide monitoring program looking for evidence of planets around other stars. Other PLANET sites in Australia and Tasmania where it was still nighttime were unfortunately clouded out (some observations were in fact made that night at the Mount Stromlo observatory in Australia, but they were only announced one day later). As soon as possible - immediately after sundown and less than 9 hours after the initial burst was recorded - the PLANET observers turned their telescope and quickly obtained a series of CCD images in visual light of the sky region where the gamma-ray burst was detected, then shipped them off electronically to their Dutch colleagues [3]. Comparing the new photos with earlier ones in the digital sky archive, Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol almost immediately discovered a new, relatively bright visual source in the region of the gamma-ray burst, which they proposed as the optical counterpart of the burst, cf. their dedicated webpage at http://www.astro.uva.nl/~titus/grb990510/. The team then placed a message on the international Gamma-Ray Burster web-noteboard ( GCN Circular 310), thereby alerting their colleagues all over the world. One hour later, the narrow-field instruments on BeppoSax identified a new X-Ray source at the same location ( GCN Circular 311), thus confirming the optical identification. All in all, a remarkable synergy of human and satellite resources! Observations of GRB 990510 at ESO Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol, in collaboration with Nicola Masetti, Eliana Palazzi and Elena Pian of the BeppoSAX GRB optical follow-up team (led by Filippo Frontera ) and the Huntsville optical follow-up team (led by Chryssa Kouveliotou ), also contacted the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Astronomers at this Organization's observatories in Chile were quick to exploit this opportunity and crucial data were soon obtained with several of the main telescopes at La Silla and Paranal, less than 14 hours after the first detection of this event by the satellite. ESO PR Photo 22a/99 ESO PR Photo 22a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 211 x 400 pix - 72k] [Normal - JPEG: 422 x 800 pix - 212k] [High-Res - JPEG: 1582 x 3000 pix - 2.6M] ESO PR Photo 22b/99 ESO PR Photo 22b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 297k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 1.1M] [High-Res - JPEG: 2300 x 2509 pix - 5.9M] Caption to PR Photo 22a/99 : This wide-field photo was obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla on May 11, 1999, at 08:42 UT, under inferior observing conditions (seeing = 1.9 arcsec). The exposure time was 450 sec in a B(lue) filter. The optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 is indicated with an arrow in the upper part of the field that measures about 8 x 16 arcmin 2. The original scale is 0.24 pix/arcsec and there are 2k x 4k pixels in the original frame. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR Photo 22b/99 : This is a (false-)colour composite of the area around the optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510, based on three near-infrared exposures with the SOFI multi-mode instrument at the 3.6-m ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, obtained on May 10, 1999, between 23:15 and 23:45 UT. The exposure times were 10 min each in the J- (1.2 µm; here rendered in blue), H- (1.6 µm; green) and K-bands (2.2 µm; red); the image quality is excellent (0.6 arcsec). The field measures about 5 x 5 arcmin 2 ; the original pixel size is 0.29 arcsec. North is up and East is left. ESO PR Photo 22c/99 ESO PR Photo 22c/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 235 pix - 81k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 469 pix - 244k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2732 x 1603 pix - 2.6M] ESO PR Photo 22d/99 ESO PR Photo 22d/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 441 pix - 154k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 887 pix - 561k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2300 x 2537 pix - 2.3M] Caption to PR Photo 22c/99 : To the left is a reproduction of a short (30 sec) centering exposure in the V-band (green-yellow light), obtained with VLT ANTU and the multi-mode FORS1 instrument on May 11, 1999, at 03:48 UT under mediocre observing conditions (image quality 1.0 arcsec).The optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 is easily seen in the box, by comparison with an exposure of the same sky field before the explosion, made with the ESO Schmidt Telescope in 1986 (right).The exposure time was 120 min on IIIa-F emulsion behind a R(ed) filter. The field shown measures about 6.2 x 6.2 arcmin 2. North is up and East is left. Caption to PR Photo 22d/99 : Enlargement from the 30 sec V-exposure by the VLT, shown in Photo 22c/99. The field is about 1.9 x 1.9 arcmin 2. North is up and East is left. The data from Chile were sent to Europe where, by quick comparison of images from the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla with those from SAAO, the Dutch and Italian astronomers found that the brightness of the suspected optical counterpart was fading rapidly; this was a clear sign that the identification was correct ( GCN Circular 313). With the precise sky position of GRB 990510 now available, the ESO observers at the VLT were informed and, setting other programmes aside under the Target of Opportunity scheme, were then able to obtain polarimetric data as well as a very detailed spectrum of the optical counterpart. Comprehensive early observations of this object were also made at La Silla with the ESO 3.6-m telescope (CCD images in the UBVRI-bands from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared part of the spectrum) and the ESO 3.6-m New Technology Telescope (with the SOFI multimode instrument in the infrared JHK-bands). A series of optical images in the BVRI-bands was secured with the Danish 1.5-m telescope, documenting the rapid fading of the object. Observations at longer wavelengths were made with the 15-m Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). All of the involved astronomers concur that a fantastic amount of observations has been obtained. They are still busy analyzing the data, and are confident that much will be learned from this particular burst. The VLT scores a first: Measurement of GRB polarization ESO PR Photo 22e/99 ESO PR Photo 22e/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 434 pix - 92k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 867 pix - 228k] Caption to PR Photo 22e/99 : Preliminary polarization measurement of the optical image of the afterglow of GRB 990510, as observed with the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope and the multi-mode FORS1 instrument. The abscissa represents the measurement angle; the ordinate the corresponding intensity. The sinusoidal curve shows the best fit to the data points (with error bars); the resulting degree of polarization is 1.7 ± 0.2 percent. A group of Italian astronomers led by Stefano Covino of the Observatory of Brera in Milan, have observed for the first time polarization (some degree of alignment of the electric fields of emitted photons) from the optical afterglow of a gamma-ray burst, see their dedicated webpage at http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~lazzati/GRB990510/. This yielded a polarization at a level of 1.7 ± 0.2 percent for the optical afterglow of GRB 990510, some 18 hours after the gamma-ray burst event; the magnitude was R = 19.1 at the time of this VLT observation. Independently, the Dutch astronomers Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol measured polarization of the order of 2 percent with another data set from the VLT ANTU and FORS1 obtained during the same night. This important result was made possible by the very large light-gathering power of the 8.2-m VLT-ANTU mirror and the FORS1 imaging polarimeter. Albeit small, the detected degree of polarization is highly significant; it is also one of the most precise measurements of polarization ever made in an object as faint as this one. Most importantly, it provides the strongest evidence to date that the afterglow radiation of gamma-ray bursts is, at least in part, produced by the synchrotron process , i.e. by relativistic electrons spiralling in a magnetized region. This type of process is able to imprint some linear polarization on the produced radiation, if the magnetic field is not completely chaotic. The spectrum ESO PR Photo 22f/99 ESO PR Photo 22f/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 485 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 969 pix - 288k] Caption to PR Photo 22f/99 : A spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 990510, obtained with VLT ANTU and the multi-mode FORS1 instrument during the night of May 10-11, 1999. Some of the redshifted absorption lines are identified and the stronger bands from the terrestrial atmosphere are also indicated. A VLT spectrum with the multi-mode FORS1 instrument was obtained a little later and showed a number of absorption lines , e.g. from ionized Aluminium, Chromium and neutral Magnesium. They do not arise in the optical counterpart itself - the gas there is so hot and turbulent that any spectral lines will be extremely broad and hence extremely difficult to identify - but from interstellar gas in a galaxy 'hosting' the GRB source, or from intergalactic clouds along the line of sight. It is possible to measure the distance to this intervening material from the redshift of the lines; astronomers Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol found z = 1.619 ± 0.002 [4]. This allows to establish a lower limit for the distance of the explosion and also its total power. The numbers turn out to be truly enormous. The burst occurred at an epoch corresponding to about one half of the present age of the Universe (at a distance of about 7,000 million light-years [5]), and the total energy of the explosion in gamma-rays must be higher than 1.4 10 53 erg , assuming a spherical emission. This energy corresponds to the entire optical energy emitted by the Milky Way in more than 30 years; yet the gamma-ray burst took less than 100 seconds. Since the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are faint, and their flux decays quite rapidly in time, the combination of large telescopes and fast response through suitable observing programs are crucial and, as demonstrated here, ESO's VLT is ideally suited to this goal! The lightcurve Combining results from a multitude of telescopes has provided most useful information. Interestingly, a "break" was observed in the light curve (the way the light of the optical counterpart fades) of the afterglow. Some 1.5 - 2 days after the explosion, the brightness began to decrease more rapidly; this is well documented with the CCD images from the Danish 1.5-m telescope at La Silla and the corresponding diagrams are available on a dedicated webpage at http://www.astro.ku.dk/~jens/grb990510/ at the Copenhagen University Observatory. Complete, regularly updated lightcurves with all published measurements, also from other observatories, may be found at another webpage in Milan at http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~gabriele/990510/ . This may happen if the explosion emits radiation in a beam which is pointed towards the Earth. Such beams are predicted by some models for the production of gamma-ray bursts. They are also favoured by many astronomers, because they can overcome the fundamental problem that gamma-ray bursts simply produce too much energy. If the energy is not emitted equally in all directions ("isotropically"), but rather in a preferred one along a beam, less energy is needed to produce the observed phenomenon. Such a break has been observed before, but this time it occurred at a very favourable moment, when the source was still relatively bright so that high-quality spectroscopic and multi-colour information could be obtained with the ESO telescopes. Together, these observations may provide an answer to the question whether beams exist in gamma-ray bursts and thus further help us to understand the as yet unknown cause of these mysterious explosions. Latest News ESO PR Photo 22g/99 ESO PR Photo 22g/99 [Normal - JPEG: 453 x 585 pix - 304k] Caption to PR Photo 22g/99 : V(isual) image of the sky field around GRB 990510 (here denoted "OT"), as obtained with the VLT ANTU telescope and FORS1 on May 18 UT during a 20 min exposure in 0.9 arcsec seeing conditions. The reproduction is in false colours to better show differences in intensity. North is up and east is left. Further photometric and spectroscopic observations with the ESO VLT, performed by Klaus Beuermann, Frederic Hessman and Klaus Reinsch of the Göttingen group of the FORS instrument team (Germany), have revealed the character of some of the objects that are seen close to the image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 (also referred to as the "Optical Transient" - OT). Two objects to the North are cool foreground stars of spectral types dM0 and about dM3, respectively; they are located in our Milky Way Galaxy. The object just to the South of the OT is probably also a star. A V(isual)-band image (PR Photo 22g/99) taken during the night between May 17 and 18 with the VLT/ANTU telescope and FORS1 now shows the OT at magnitude V = 24.5, with still no evidence for the host galaxy that is expected to appear when the afterglow has faded sufficiently. Outlook The great distances (high redshifts) of Gamma-Ray Bursts, plus the fact that a 9th magnitude optical flash was seen when another GRB exploded on January 23 this year, has attracted the attention of astronomers outside the GRB field. In fact, GRBs may soon become a very powerful tool to probe the early universe by guiding us to regions of very early star formation and the (proto)-galaxies and (proto)-clusters of which they are part. They will also allow the study of the chemical composition of absorbing clouds at very large distances. At the end of this year, the NASA satellite HETE-II will be launched, which is expected to provide about 50 GRB alerts per year and, most importantly, accurate localisations in the sky that will allow very fast follow-up observations, while the optical counterparts are still quite bright. It will then be possible to obtain more spectra, also of extremely distant bursts, and many new distance determinations can be made, revealing the distribution of intrinsic brightness of GRB's (the "luminosity function"). Other types of observations (e.g. polarimetry, as above) will also profit, leading to a progressive refinement of the available data. Thus there is good hope that astronomers will soon come closer to identifying the progenitors of these enormous explosions and to understand what is really going on. In this process, the huge light-collecting power of the VLT and the many other facilities at the ESO observatories will undoubtedly play an important role. Notes [1] Gamma-Ray Bursts are brief flashes of high-energy radiation. Satellites in orbit around the Earth and spacecraft in interplanetary orbits have detected several thousand such events since they were first discovered in the late 1960s. Earlier investigations established that they were so evenly distributed in the sky that they must be very distant (and hence very powerful) outbursts of some kind. Only in 1997 it became possible to observe the fading "afterglow" of one of these explosions in visible light, thanks to accurate positions available from the BeppoSAX satellite. Soon thereafter, another optical afterglow was detected; it was located in a faint galaxy whose distance could be measured. In 1998, a gamma-ray burst was detected in a galaxy over 8,300 million light-years away. Even the most exotic ideas proposed for these explosions, e.g. supergiant stars collapsing to black holes, black holes merging with neutron stars or other black holes, and other weird and wonderful notions have trouble accounting for explosions with the power of 10,000 million million suns. [2] The various reports issued by astronomers working on this and other gamma-ray burst events are available as GCN Circulars on the GRB Coordinates Network web-noteboard. [3] See also the Press Release, issued by SAAO on this occasion. [4] In astronomy, the redshift (z) denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a distant galaxy or intergalactic cloud gives a direct estimate of the universal expansion (i.e. the "recession velocity"). The detailed relation between redshift and distance depends on such quantities as the Hubble Constant, the average density of the universe, and the 'cosmological' Constant. For a standard cosmological model, redshift z = 1.6 corresponds to a distance of about 7,000 million light-years. [5] Assuming a Hubble Constant H 0 = 70 km/s/Mpc, mean density Omega 0 = 0.3 and a Cosmological Constant Lambda = 0. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../ ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  11. Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Márcia Bohrer; Procianoy, Fernando; Maestri, Marcelo Krieger; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented. PMID:21412620

  12. Southern African Fireball Observations: 2014-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, T.

    2015-12-01

    Catalogue of Recent Sightings: This article continues the sequential numbering of reported fireball sightings from southern Africa, and covers fireballs observed during 2014 and 2015. By definition, a fireball is any meteor event with brightness equal to or greater than visual magnitude (mv) -3.

  13. Rain Rate Statistics in Southern New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.

  14. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major

  15. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  16. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a

  17. Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

  18. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major…

  19. Assessment in the Southern Commission on Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James T.

    1990-01-01

    Traces the revision of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges's "Criteria for Accreditation" to emphasize further the results of education, expressed in terms of planning, evaluation, and institutional effectiveness. Discusses benefits of the new emphasis and the ever-evolving nature of the "Criteria." (DMM)

  20. Streamlined Strategies to Better Visualize Southern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.

  1. Sunset Over Rangeland in Southern Paraguay

    Sunset over rangeland in southern Paraguay. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56°49’18’’W. (Portion of text from: Guyra Paraguay 2004, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Paraguay, Paragua...

  2. Teaching Gerontological Nursing in Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, H. Terri; Yurchuck, E. Ruth

    1993-01-01

    A survey of associate degree and baccalaureate nursing programs in 15 southern states (n=211) determined the current status of gerontological nursing programs. Findings indicate that, although there are areas of improvement, the status of gerontological nursing education and practice in the undergraduate curriculum is not equal to that of other…

  3. Geomorphic Aspects of Southern African Dryland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Southern African drylands are host to stable land surfaces with limited denudation rates. The resulting soils manifest long term weathering processes, including leaching, collapse and precipitation of calcium carbonate as is the case in the semi-arid Kalahari. Despite the thickness of some of the Kalahari soils and sands, they are furthermore depicting a range of neotectonic land forms and processes, associated with the contemporary rifting of the southern African continent. This is particularly apparent in satellite imagery and digital elevation data that can be used to examine regional scale surface characteristics. Southern Africa is also home to significant global and regional scale dust sources, which are mostly associated with inland basins and playas. Plumes of dust emitted from playas are able to impact upon downwind soil quality. This can be observed in the both the western Makgadikgadi as well as the Central Namib gravel plain. In the Namib playa dust contributes to the accumulation of gravel plain fines, leaching and massive pedogenic gypsum accumulations. It is apparent that Southern African dryland soils are home to aeolian inputs, host extensive duricrusts and depict neotectonic movement which should be of interest to the wider earth science community.

  4. El Nino --- Southern Oscillation Impact Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, N.

    1988-02-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon affects the atmosphere and ocean over much of the globe. The resultant atmospheric and oceanic anomalies can produce a variety of biological and societal impacts. Three examples of impacts that may be predictable by monitoring simple indices of ENSO are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such direct'' prediction of impacts are considered.

  5. Catalog of Uncommon Facilities in Southern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This catalog of uncommon facilities in southern universities was developed in an effort to bring about more effective use of existing facilities, to reduce the need for duplicating certain facilities, and to increase learning and research opportunities. All of the facilities listed are available, under certain conditions, for use by students and…

  6. A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Colleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern

  7. Impact bruise assessment of southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern highbush blueberries are currently mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours per acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are underway to develop “crispy” genotypes that will ...

  8. Eddy impact on the Southern Ocean ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennel, R. L.; Kamenkovich, I. V.; Fine, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the specific role of mesoscale eddies and coherent structures in the ventilation of the Southern Ocean through the analysis of Lagrangian particle trajectories in a suite of idealized numerical simulations. Being the biggest potential reservoir for heat and atmospheric gases, the Southern Ocean is of great importance in the Earth's climate system. Therefore, the understanding of ventilation, the process establishing communication between the surface mixed layer and the ocean interior, is crucial to quantify the storage of CO2 by the ocean and to improve climate change projections. Idealized numerical simulations of the Southern Ocean at 1/8o resolution are carried out using the NEMO Ocean General Circulation Model. Twin simulations with and without eddies having the same stratification and mean circulation, are considered using several definitions of eddies. The analysis of the differences between such simulations allows examination of the direct effect of eddies on ventilation of the Southern Ocean. The role played by coherent structures is also discussed by looking at the trajectories of particles specifically injected inside individual vortices.

  9. Impact bruise assessment of southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium darrowi ' V. corymbosum) are currently mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 1,100 h/ha) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are under way to develop ...

  10. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AUTOMATED CATALOGING PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCMURRY, GLENN

    THE FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A CENTER FOR PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOGS FOR ORGANIZATIONS IN EIGHT COUNTIES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WAS STUDIED. TO DETERMINE THE PROBLEMS AND COSTS INVOLVED, STANDARDS WERE DEVELOPED FOR INPUT OF MATERIAL THAT COULD BE USED IN A COMPUTER, PAGE LAYOUTS FOR A CATALOG WERE DESIGNED, A NUMBER OF CATALOGS…

  11. Situation in Southern US Row Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In research from southern University weed scientists pre applied herbicides appear to provide the best chance for successful Palmer amaranth control without relying on glyphosate. Fomesafen applied 14 days before cotton planting (DBP) or flumioxazin applied 21 DBP has provided good control if activ...

  12. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  13. Development of Southern Cross University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Cross University (SCU) has established a pathways college to increase access to and widen participation in higher education for people in regional areas of Australia. While many Australian universities have preparatory colleges associated with them, SCU College has been designed to make it unique in the sector. SCU College will operate…

  14. Emergency Food Providers in Southern Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Mary

    This paper examines emergency food provider networks in rural southern Illinois. An overview focuses on recent research reports on hunger in America, official federal emergency food assistance policy and criticisms of that policy, and the role of the private sector in emergency food distribution. The review details the disagreements on policy and…

  15. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable and other crops are produced on about 25000 ha. in southern Florida in an area adjacent to Everglades and Biscayne Bay National Parks (NP). High pest pressures require high pesticide use rates. We recently reported that one mechanism for transport of the insecticide endosulfan from treated...

  16. EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

    Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork practice…

  17. The Southern Appalachian Region. A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Thomas R., Ed.

    A comprehensive survey of the Southern Appalachians is presented with primary discussion centering around social, cultural, and economic conditions. Background information on the survey is provided. Four main sections are devoted to the changing population, economy, society, and culture. Major changes in the growth, distribution, and

  18. Naturalization of Dalechampia scandens in southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dalechampia scandens, a native to the American and African tropics, was recently found naturalized in two Broward County parks in southern Florida. This is the first occurrence of the plant in the continental United States. One of the populations may be an escape from a butterfly attraction where th...

  19. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    PubMed

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

  20. Black Populations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckert, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Few books have been written and little information is known about Black populations of the southern Appalachian mountains. This article describes the cultural and settlement patterns of these people and traces their historical development. Occupational changes and the effects of urbanization are presented. (VM)

  1. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOUTHERN HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY CULTIVARS TO BOTRYOSPHAERIA STEM BIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem blight, caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a destructive disease of rabbiteye and highbush blueberries in the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberry cultivars, hybrids between V. corymbosum and various native "southern" blueberry species, increasingly are being r...

  2. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 4. Southwest end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Southwest end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  4. 12. Interior, Blacksmith Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior, Blacksmith Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  5. 5. Northwest elevation, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Northwest elevation, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southeast (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. 6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN CONCRETE BRIDGE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN CONCRETE BRIDGE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, INCLUDING REINFORCED CONCRETE STRINGERS AND CROSS BEAM SUPPORTS. FACING SOUTH. - Easley Bridge, Spanning Norfolk Southern Corporation railroad tracks on Poplar Street, Bluefield, Mercer County, WV

  7. 7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  9. 4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. 3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. 1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. Overview of southeast corner of Southern Pacific Railroad Depot and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of southeast corner of Southern Pacific Railroad Depot and American Railway Express Building from front parking lot, facing northeast - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 3. EAST SIDE SHOWING RECREATION PATIO ADDITION AT SOUTHERN END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST SIDE SHOWING RECREATION PATIO ADDITION AT SOUTHERN END. TWO-STORY PORTION AT SOUTHERN END CONTAINS 'RIGGING LOFT.' - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie Magazine May 11, 1878 OAKLAND LONG WHARF - CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD TERMINUS - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Used by First Central Pacific Train to Enter Oakland -- November 8, 1869 - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Photographs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Photographs of 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Before Construction of Long Wharf - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After 1919 Oakland Mole -- Aerial View Looking West by South - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. European Southern Observatory - Atlas of the Northern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    In 1990 the Palomar Observatory (California Institute of Technology) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) started the joint production of the Palomar Observatory - European Southern Observatory Atlas of the Northern Sky, also called the POSS II SURVEY.

  1. SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  3. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  4. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Southern Taiwan - an Evolving "Coastal Range"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, F. T.; McIntosh, K.; Lavier, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    As a part of the TAIGER research, existing tectonic concepts are continuously being reviewed in light of new data and for experimental design. One of the critical areas for understanding the tectonics of Taiwan is southern Taiwan. Seismicity and recent tomographic imaging confirm that the tectonics of Taiwan is controlled by the subduction and collision of two plates: the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the Eurasian plate (EUR). In northern and central Taiwan the PSP is in collision with EUR, and at the same time subducts northward under northern Taiwan [Wu et al., 2008]. Before the PSP subducts to sufficient depth, the collision of PSP and EUR produced the Foothills and the Central Range on the EUR and the Coastal Range on the PSP side. For southern Taiwan, with 22.7°N as a rough demarcation, the tectonic interpretation is at variance and still in debate. To the east of southern Taiwan the inactive andesitic volcanic islands of Lutao and Lanhsu mark the top of the Luzon arc, separated from Taiwan by a somewhat deformed fore-arc basin [McIntosh et al., 2005]. To its west the Manila Trench is the western limit of a series of trend-parallel small thrusts on the ocean floor [Lunberg et al., 1997]. As the Trench approaches the continental shelf from the south it gradually loses its bathymetric signature. Southern Taiwan itself is commonly viewed as a part of the accretionary prism, and yet is also considered a continuation of the Central Range, produced by the collision of the Luzon arc and continental shelf. Suppe [1981] and many others had long recognized the central Taiwan orogeny, as a result of the collision of the Luzon Arc with the EUR continental shelf and Central Range, is built from rocks of the continental shelf. Inspection of a map of bathymetry around Taiwan shows that the continental shelf turns noticeably westward offshore of southwestern Taiwan, and that southern Taiwan is situated off the continental shelf. The presence of the Benioff zone under southern Taiwan and the normal faulting earthquakes (M7) west of Hengchun in 2006 indicate that southern Taiwan is a part of the PSP that is moving over the subducting EUR. It appears that southern Taiwan has not yet fully engaged in collision with EUR. This interpretation implies that the high topography of southern Taiwan is not created in the same manner as the Central Range. But how was it created? Where is the boundary between the EUR and PSP on land? If southern Taiwan does move westward as a part of PSP then when it collides with the continental shelf it will become a part of a new coastal range. A reexamination is timely as new sea-land, local and teleseismic tomography, more detailed seismicity, and dense GPS data are becoming available, and when there are chances to enhance experiments early next year for testing ideas. References Lunberg et al., 1997. Tectonophysics 274, 5-23. McIntosh et al., 2005. Tectonophysics, 401,23-54. Suppe, J., 1981. Geol. Soc. China, Mem. 4, 67- 89. Wu et al., 2008. Manuscript submitted to JGR.

  6. Dynamic aspects of the Southern-Hemisphere medium-scale waves during the southern summer season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Nune, Durga P.

    1987-01-01

    The role of medium-scale waves on three dynamic aspects of the Southern-Hemisphere general circulation is examined using data generated by the FGGE analyses of the ECMWF. The momentum and sensible heat transports by the medium-scale waves are discussed. The effects of medium-scale waves on atmospheric circulation of the Southern Hemisphere during the summer, in particular the vacillation of atmospheric energetics, are investigated. The horizontal and vertical structures and the transport properties of this wave regime and their relation to downstream development in the Southern Hemisphere are analyzed. It is observed that medium-scale waves supply about a half of the total eddy transport of sensible heat and momentum; the wave regime contributes to the time average of various energy contents and energetic components of atmospheric motion during the southern summer; and the wave regime is amplified during the developing stages of downstream development.

  7. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  8. Ethics Instruction in Community College Leadership Programs: Southern Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Nikisha Green

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which southern universities have graduate preparatory programs in community college leadership and how, if at all, ethics is addressed in their curricula and in instruction. Surveys were mailed to 38 southern universities located in the Southern Regional Education Board member states. Of the 21 responses…

  9. Tenacious Southern Progressives: Confounding Mencken's Myth of Mediocrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine

    After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the scholars…

  10. 76 FR 70437 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 26, 2011, Southern California Edison Company filed its compliance filing, pursuant to the Federal...).\\1\\ \\1\\ Southern California Edison Company, Order on Waiver Request 136 FERC ] 61,133 (2011)....

  11. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an...

  12. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in §...

  13. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in §...

  14. 50 CFR 223.212 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.212... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.212 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... the Southern Distinct Population Segment of spotted seal listed in § 223.102....

  15. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, B&P, AND BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC MOLDING MACHINES. OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT, SOUTHERN DUCTILE MAINTAINS AN AUTOMATED LAEMPE COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Southern Highbush Establishment Cultural Studies on Sandy Loam Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practices to establish southern highbush blueberries were initiated in 2002 and 2003 in Stone County research plots of hte Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory. Studies were initiated to examine different cultural practices on sandy loam soils. Southern highbush plants preferred...

  17. Roses in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    The two best known satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, are located in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years. They host many giant nebular complexes with very hot and luminous stars whose intense ultraviolet radiation causes the surrounding interstellar gas to glow. The intricate and colourful nebulae are produced by ionised gas [1] that shines as electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei recombine, emitting a cascade of photons at well defined wavelengths. Such nebulae are called "H II regions", signifying ionised hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen atoms that have lost one electron (protons). Their spectra are characterized by emission lines whose relative intensities carry useful information about the composition of the emitting gas, its temperature, as well as the mechanisms that cause the ionisation. Since the wavelengths of these spectral lines correspond to different colours, these alone are already very informative about the physical conditions of the gas. N44 [2] in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a spectacular example of such a giant H II region. Having observed it in 1999 (see ESO PR Photos 26a-d/99), a team of European astronomers [3] again used the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, pointing this 67-million pixel digital camera to the same sky region in order to provide another striking - and scientifically extremely rich - image of this complex of nebulae. With a size of roughly 1,000 light-years, the peculiar shape of N44 clearly outlines a ring that includes a bright stellar association of about 40 very luminous and bluish stars. These stars are the origin of powerful "stellar winds" that blow away the surrounding gas, piling it up and creating gigantic interstellar bubbles. Such massive stars end their lives as exploding supernovae that expel their outer layers at high speeds, typically about 10,000 km/sec. It is quite likely that some supernovae have already exploded in N44 during the past few million years, thereby "sweeping" away the surrounding gas. Smaller bubbles, filaments, bright knots, and other structures in the gas together testify to the extremely complex structures in this region, kept in continuous motion by the fast outflows from the most massive stars in the area. The new WFI image of N44 The colours reproduced in the new image of N44, shown in PR Photo 31a/03 (with smaller fields in more detail in PR Photos 31b-e/03) sample three strong spectral emission lines. The blue colour is mainly contributed by emission from singly-ionised oxygen atoms (shining at the ultraviolet wavelength 372.7 nm), while the green colour comes from doubly-ionised oxygen atoms (wavelength 500.7 nm). The red colour is due to the H-alpha line of hydrogen (wavelength 656.2 nm), emitted when protons and electrons combine to form hydrogen atoms. The red colour therefore traces the extremely complex distribution of ionised hydrogen within the nebulae while the difference between the blue and the green colour indicates regions of different temperatures: the hotter the gas, the more doubly-ionised oxygen it contains and, hence, the greener the colour is. The composite photo produced in this way approximates the real colours of the nebula. Most of the region appears with a pinkish colour (a mixture of blue and red) since, under the normal temperature conditions that characterize most of this H II region, the red light emitted in the H-alpha line and the blue light emitted in the line of singly-ionised oxygen are more intense than that emitted in the line of the doubly-ionised oxygen (green). However, some regions stand out because of their distinctly greener shade and their high brightness. Each of these regions contains at least one extremely hot star with a temperature somewhere between 30,000 and 70,000 degrees. Its intense ultraviolet radiation heats the surrounding gas to a higher temperature, whereby more oxygen atoms are doubly ionised and the emission of green light is correspondingly stronger, cf. PR Photo 31c/03. A selection of fields in the N44 complex ESO PR Photo 31c/03 ESO PR Photo 31c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 411 x 400 pix - 248k] [Normal - JPEG: 822 x 800 pix - 752k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1307 x 1272 pix - 1.8M] ESO PR Photo 31d/03 ESO PR Photo 31d/03 [Preview - JPEG: 469 x 400 pix - 268k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1056 x 902 pix - 1.2M] PR Photo 31c/03 shows the ionised region DEM L 159 and two clusters with hot stars named KMHK 840 (top left) and KMHK 831 (bottom right). PR Photo 31d/03 shows a region with pink-green shades that has been designated DEM L 144 and is located at the bottom centre of PR Photo 31a/03. It is a region of ionised hydrogen. Note that in PR Photo 31c/03 and 31d/03, the colours have been enhanced compared to PR Photo 31a/03 to clearly show the different shades. ESO PR Photo 31e/03 ESO PR Photo 31e/03 [Preview - JPEG: 471 x 400 pix - 196k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1139 x 968 pix - 1M] PR Photo 31e/03 shows a part of the central nebula, known as N44C. The green colour indicates areas that are particularly hot. The nature of the exciting source that delivers the necessary energy has been the subject of studies during two decades but is still not known with certainty. By contrast, ESO PR Photo 26a/99 was a three-colour composite produced by means of two broad-band filter exposures in blue and green light and one H-alpha exposure, and therefore outlining the general appearance of the ionised region. Says Fernando Comerón, leader of the team: "Thanks to the use of a UV-filter and two narrow-band filters isolating the emission of specific ions, the new picture provides much more information about the complicated physics of the excited interstellar gas in the region." Nausicaa Delmotte, member of the team, adds:"With its colourful beauty, N44 is a display of the violent phenomena that occur as the heaviest known stars unfold their power on the parental gas out of which they were born." Technical information The colour picture of N44 in the LMC is based on three monochromatic images taken on 6 and 7 December 2001 with the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope, using the U-band filter (containing the forbidden line of singly-ionised oxygen, [OII], at 372.7 nm) and two narrow-band filters centred, respectively, on the wavelengths of the forbidden line of doubly-ionised oxygen ([OIII], at 500.7 nm) and hydrogen (H-alpha line, at 656.2 nm). Each single-colour image is in turn composed of four individual frames of 20 minutes of exposure time each. The WFI detector system is composed of eight individual 2k x 4k CCDs with small gaps between them; for this reason, the individual frames in each filter were obtained with the telescope pointing at slightly different positions in the sky, so that the parts of the sky falling in the detector gaps in any given frame are recorded on the others. A problem with one of the detector chips causes double stellar images to appear over a small, narrow strip near the upper left edge of the full field image. The monochromatic images were produced by superimposing the individual frames, correcting for the telescope offsets. Finally, the combined images in each filter were aligned and colour-coded to produce the resulting colour picture. North is up and East is left.

  18. Structure of the lithosphere of the Mongolian-Siberian mountainous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorin, Yu. A.; Novoselova, M. R.; Turutanov, E. Kh.; Kozhevnikov, V. M.

    1990-03-01

    The Mongolian-Siberian mountainous province distinguished by Florensov (1978) includes the Sayan-Baikal, the Altai-Sayan regions and East Mongolian high ranges, and those of Mongolian Altai, Goby Altai and Khangai. In the Late Cenozoic all this province was involved in an intensive orogeny, the latter occurring both in the area under extension and in that under compression (the Sayan-Baikal domal uplift and the Altai uplift system, respectively). The study of the deep structure of the mountainous province and of relatively stable adjacent regions must contribute to a more complete understanding of the causes of intracontinental orogeny. The main subject of this study was to map the Moho depth and the thickness of the lithosphere as a whole, based on the interpretation of geophysical data covering the Mongolian-Siberian mountainous province, the Southern Siberian platform and the East Mongolian high plains.

  19. 76 FR 35508 - Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated May 13, 2011,...

  20. Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, David; Frew, David J.

    1995-10-01

    Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and thoroughly revised, enhancing its character as an indispensable information source. With over 150 illustrations, new material is included on constellations and celestial coordinate systems as well as more modern descriptions of stars, nebulae and galaxies. The authors have included a new "southern Messier" list of objects. The authors' passion for their subject make this a unique and inspirational book. Many of the beautiful photographs were taken by David Malin, the world's leading astronomical photographer. The result will fascinate active and armchair astronomers alike.

  1. A kinematic model of southern California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.

    1986-01-01

    We propose a kinematic model for southern California based on late Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion. This implies the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California that is interpreted to include the western Transverse Ranges and northwest trending, predominately strike-slip faults close to the coast both north and south of the Transverse Ranges. Strain on this system accounts for about a third of the total North America- Pacific plate motion. -from Authors

  2. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing. PMID:25468383

  3. West Nile virus in Southern Portugal, 2004.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Aida; Almeida, A Paulo G; Galão, Rui Pedro; Parreira, Ricardo; Piedade, João; Rodrigues, João C; Sousa, Carla A; Novo, M Teresa

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) genomic RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in six out of 57 mosquito pools collected in Southern Portugal, during the summer of 2004, yielding an infection rate (IR) of 2.8/1,000 mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of a 217-nucleotide fragment of the NS5 coding region, amplified from Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex univittatus unfed females, demonstrated a close relationship with WNV strains circulating in the Mediterranean basin (Italy, 1998; France, 2000; Morocco, 2003). The data in this short report demonstrate the presence of WNV in mosquitoes in Southern Portugal and the need of permanent surveillance for viral activity within the country. PMID:16417437

  4. Fires in Central and Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Fire scars and smoke plumes result from biomass burning in the savannas of southern Democratic Republic of Congo. Astronauts aboard the International Space Station observed the seasonal increase in savanna burning, which traditionally peaks in June in southern Democratic Republic of Congo. This image, taken on May 16, 2002, is centered near 8.6S, 27.4 E. These fires, likely the result of human activities, are thought to contribute significant emissions to the atmosphere (Cahoon, et al, 1992). The darker area in the foreground is a more heavily wooded hillside; most burning occurs in the grassier savannas which appear red-brown. Credits: Astronaut photograph ISS004-E-11958 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  5. Sharp View of Gullies in Southern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.

  6. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  7. Southern Ocean open-sea convection teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabre, Anna; marinov, Irina

    2015-04-01

    We show that Southern Ocean (SO) temperatures in the latest generation of Earth System Models exhibit two major modes of variation, one driven by deep convection and the other by tropical variability. We show that multiyear variability in Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can in turn influence oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropics on short time-scales. We argue that the strength and pattern of SO-tropical teleconnections depends on the intensity of SO deep convection. Periodic convection in the SO is a feature of most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al., 2014). Models show a wide distribution in the spatial extent, periodicity and intensity of their SO convection, with some models convecting most of the time, and some showing very little convection. In a highly convective coupled model, we find that multidecadal variability in SO and global SSTs, as well as SO heat storage are driven by Weddell Sea convective variability, with convective decades relatively warm due to the heat released from the deep southern ocean and non-convective decades cold due to the subsurface storage of heat. Furthermore, pulses of SO convection drive SST and sea ice variations, influencing absorbed shortwave and emitted longwave radiation, wind, cloud and precipitation patterns, with climatic implications for the low latitudes via fast atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections. We suggest that these high-low latitude teleconnection mechanisms are relevant for understanding hiatus decades. Additionally, Southern Ocean deep convection varied significantly during past, natural climate changes such as during the last deglaciation. Weddell Sea open convection has recently weakened, likely as a consequence of anthropogenic forcing and the resulting surface freshening. Our study opens up the tantalizing possibility that such large-scale changes in SO deep convection might have tropical and indeed global implications via atmospheric teleconnections. We advocate the collection of both paleo and modern proxies that can verify these model-derived mechanisms and global teleconnections.

  8. Gulf of Antalya, Southern Turkish Coastline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The historic and strategic southern Turkish coastline and Gulf of Antalya (37.0N, 31.0E) has, since ancient times, served as the classic land and sea invasion routes to the riches of the Near East as Persian, Greek, Roman and later European Crusader armies traveled the familiar routes of conquest. Even in modern times, this area is still the seat of political and military unrest as diverse cultural groups still strive for regional control.

  9. Mesozoic extension in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, F.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Geophysical data from the southern Appalachians are generally interpreted in terms of Paleozoic collisional tectonics; the later effects of Mesozoic extension are often overlooked or downplayed. This paper reinterprets seismic reflection data from Georgia with the view that Mesozoic extension is responsible for most of the seismic reflection patterns one sees today. The interpretation suggests that geophysical data from a particular area reflect the most recent tectonic event rather than earlier and perhaps more geologically obvious events.

  10. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  11. Primary production in Southern Ocean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Worthen, Denise; Schnell, Anthony; Lizotte, Michael P.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Ocean forms a link between major ocean basins, is the site of deep and intermediate water ventilation, and is one of the few areas where macronutrients are underutilized by phytoplankton. Paradoxically, prior estimates of annual primary production are insufficient to support the Antarctic food web. Here we present results from a primary production algorithm based upon monthly climatological phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS). Phytoplankton production was forced using monthly temperature profiles and a radiative transfer model that computed changes in photosynthetically usable radiation at each CZCS pixel location. Average daily productivity (g C m-2 d-1) and total monthly production (Tg C month-1) were calculated for each of five geographic sectors (defined by longitude) and three ecological provinces (defined by sea ice coverage and bathymetry as the pelagic province, the marginal ice zone, and the shelf). Annual primary production in the Southern Ocean (south of 50°S) was calculated to be 4414 Tg C yr-1, 4-5 times higher than previous estimates made from in situ data. Primary production was greatest in the month of December (816 Tg C month-1) and in the pelagic province (contributing 88.6% of the annual primary production). Because of their small size the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and the shelf contributed only 9.5% and 1.8%, respectively, despite exhibiting higher daily production rates. The Ross Sea was the most productive region, accounting for 28% of annual production. The fourfold increase in the estimate of primary production for the Southern Ocean likely makes the notion of an "Antarctic paradox" (primary production insufficient to support the populations of Southern Ocean grazers, including krill, copepods, microzooplankton, etc.) obsolete.

  12. New southern galaxies with active nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, M.A.G.; Da costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Rite, C.

    1987-03-01

    A list of AGN candidates, identified from optical spectra taken as part of an ongoing redshift survey of southern galaxies, is presented. The identification, coordinates, morphological type, measured heliocentric radial velocity, and proposed emission type are given for the galaxies showing evidence of nonstellar nuclear activity. Using standard diagnostics, several new Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear-emission regions (LINERs) are identified among the emission-line galaxies observed. 14 references.

  13. Perinatal mortality in lambs in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hancock, R D; Coe, A J; Silva, F C

    1996-11-01

    Hypothermia and dystocia were found to be the most common causes of perinatal mortality in 8 commercial wool flocks in one region of southern Brazil. It was established that low birth weight and poor maternal instinct in the ewes predisposed to losses due to hypothermia but that there appeared to be no association with adverse weather conditions. Other factors possibly predisposing to losses are discussed. PMID:8983130

  14. Early German plans for southern observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  15. Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

  16. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera. PMID:19357634

  17. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  18. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Southern Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.

  19. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  20. Teleconnection patterns in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, K. C.; White, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Contemporaneous correlations between geopotential heights on a given pressure surface at widely separated points on Earth, commonly referred to as teleconnections, are calculated from monthly mean sea level pressure and 500 mb geopotential height analyses for the Southern Hemisphere for five-month winter and summer seasons. During summer (November-March), anomalies over the three continents occur out of phase with anomalies over the subtropical oceans and in a wavenumber 3 pattern over the Southern Ocean near 55 deg S. The subtropical part of the pattern appears largely associated with the interannual variation of the seasonal cycle and annual mean. In winter (May-September) 500 mb geopotential heights over Africa exhibit positive correlations with heights over South America and the central South Pacific near New Zealand and negative correlations with height over the Southern Ocean. A striking wavenumber three pattern is apparent which shows the correlation of 500 mb geopotential height anomalies with 500 mb anomalies at 50 deg S, 95 deg E during winter. The strong positive correlations between 50 deg S, 95 E and 58 deg S, 150 deg W and 38 deg S, 15 deg W contrast with negative correlations over Antarctica and in low latitudes. Time variations in a similar pattern in sea level pressure are in phase with variations in the 500 mb pattern, suggesting an equivalent barotropic structure.

  1. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksa, U S; Ihalamulla, R L; Udagedera, C; Karunaweera, N D

    2007-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an established disease in Sri Lanka. The majority of cases have been reported from the North-Central Province, with the southern parts of the country considered less affected. However, during 2004, when the services of a dermatologist were available, a considerable number of patients were referred from the Southern Province, which formed the basis for this study. The clinical pattern, detailed geographical distribution within the Southern Province and periodicity of the cases were studied over a period of 12 months. Of the 113 patients diagnosed, the highest number was within the 10-19 years age group. Most patients were from densely populated rural areas around Matara, a large town within this province. There was a notable increase in the number of cases presenting during February-March and August-September, which are periods following monsoonal rains. Exposed areas of the skin were commonly affected, with the majority of patients having single lesions. Females and males were equally affected. This is in contrast to our previous findings in the North-Central Province where the majority of patients were male soldiers with multiple lesions. PMID:17499826

  2. Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

    1998-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters yield much higher short-term resolution to a period of about 1 year, a single continuous GPS site is significantly less expensive than a single strain meter and probably has better long-term stability beyond a 1-year period. Compared to less frequent field measurements, continuous GPS provides the means to better characterize the errors in GPS position measurements and thereby obtain more realistic estimates of derived parameters such as site velocities.

  3. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected by negative velocity anomalies (-5%) relative to the overall average Rayleigh wave group speed of about 3.0 km/s. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with recent results from three active seismic profiles through southern Norway (MAGNUS-REX), reflecting that the investigated frequencies of Rayleigh and Love waves are mostly sensitive to upper crustal structure. The interpretation of the low velocity anomalies in the western part of southern Norway is uncertain. Since the considered surface wave wavelengths are quite short, the effect of large topography contrasts from high mountains to deep fjords might bias the velocities towards lower values in this region.

  4. El Niño–Southern Oscillation diversity and Southern Africa teleconnections during Austral Summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Magadzire, Tamuka; Zinke, Jens; Husak, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of sea surface temperature (SST) expressions have been observed during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation events of 1950–2010, which have occurred simultaneously with different global atmospheric circulations. This study examines the atmospheric circulation and precipitation during December–March 1950–2010 over the African Continent south of 15∘S, a region hereafter known as Southern Africa, associated with eight tropical Pacific SST expressions characteristic of El Niño and La Niña events. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate the SST expressions of El Niño and La Niña. The seasonal precipitation forcing over Southern Africa associated with the eight SST expressions was investigated in terms of the horizontal winds, moisture budget and vertical motion. El Niño events, with warm SST across the east and central Pacific Ocean and warmer than average SST over the Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation reductions over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation reductions are forced primarily by large-scale mid-tropospheric subsidence associated with anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere. El Niño events with cooler than average SST over the Indian Ocean are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa associated with lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation and mid-tropospheric ascent. La Niña events, with cool SST anomalies over the central Pacific and warm SST over the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation increases are forced primarily by lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation, resulting in mid-tropospheric ascent and an increased flux of moisture into the region.

  5. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

    2002-01-01

    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales aggregating there. As a result, much of the Southern Ocean pelagic whaling was concentrated at the edge of the marginal ice zone. The extent and duration of sea ice fluctuate periodically under the influence of global climatic phenomena including the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Life cycles of some associated species may reflect this periodicity. With evidence for climatic warming in some regions of Antarctica, there is concern that ecosystem change may be induced by changes in sea-ice extent. The relative abundance of krill and salps appears to change interannually with sea-ice extent, and in warm years, when salps proliferate, krill are scarce and dependent predators suffer severely. Further research on the Southern Ocean sea-ice system is required, not only to further our basic understanding of the ecology, but also to provide ecosystem managers with the information necessary for the development of strategies in response to short- and medium-term environmental changes in Antarctica. Technological advances are delivering new sampling platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles that are improving vastly our ability to sample the Antarctic under sea-ice environment. Data from such platforms will enhance greatly our understanding of the globally important Southern Ocean sea-ice ecosystem. PMID:12154613

  6. Southern Ocean Response to NADW Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Schmidt, G.; Russell, G.; deMenocal, P.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) changes in both past and future climates has raised the issue of how the Southern Ocean would respond. Recent experiments with the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model have shown that a "bipolar see-saw" between NADW production and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production in the Weddell Sea can occur in conjunction with freshening of the North Atlantic. However, this effect operates not through a slow ocean response but via a rapid atmospheric mechanism. As NADW reduces, colder temperatures in the North Atlantic, and Northern Hemisphere in general, are associated with higher surface pressure (increased atmospheric mass). Reduced mass in the Southern Hemisphere occurs in response, with lower pressure over the South Pole (an EOF #1 effect, the "high phase" of the Antarctic Oscillation).The lower pressure is associated with stronger west winds that generate an intensified Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which leads to longitudinal heat divergence in the South Atlantic (and heat convergence in the Southern Indian Ocean). Colder temperatures in the Weddell Sea region lead to sea ice growth, increased salinity and surface water density, and greater Weddell Sea Bottom Water production. Increased poleward transport of heat occurs in the South Atlantic in conjunction with increased bottom water production, but its convergence at high latitudes is not sufficient to offset the longitudinal heat divergence due to the intensified ACC. The colder temperatures at high latitudes in the South Atlantic increase the latitudinal temperature gradient, baroclinic instability, eddy energy and eddy poleward transport of momentum, helping to maintain the lower pressure over the pole in an interactive manner. The heat flux convergence in the Indian Ocean provides a warming tendency in that region, and overall global production of AABW remains unchanged. These results have implications for the interpretation of the ice core records of the last deglaciation, but may also be relevant for changes during the Holocene and perhaps even in response to increased CO2 forcing,

  7. Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

  8. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  9. Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.

    1999-05-18

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area.

  10. Detecting Ambient Tectonic Tremor in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. R.; Hough, S. E.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    In every tectonic setting where it is observed, tremor proves difficult to detect due to its long durations and low amplitudes close to the noise band. This is particularly true in southern California where cultural noise sources are both spatially and temporally pervasive. Ambient tectonic tremor in circum-Pacific subduction zones was shown to consist of repeating low-frequency earthquakes and locates at the deep extent of the primary seismogenic zone in a region downdip of historical M 8+ earthquakes. The signals were also shown to have a distinct spectral shape (typically around 1-8 Hz) whose higher frequency falloff differs from that of local noise and ordinary earthquakes. In the strike-slip setting, families of deep ambient tremors near the Parkfield-Cholame segment of the San Andreas fault were considered proxies for deep fault slip. Whether ambient tremor occurs in a similar fashion- or even at all- in southern California remains unclear. We employ a combination of running autocorrelation and matched-filter techniques successfully used in both subduction and strike slip settings to detect and locate tremor/low-frequency earthquakes in southern California. In our case, however, detections are accepted or rejected by calculating their spectral shapes to assure the signals are distinct from local noise sources and earthquakes. We scan continuous seismic recordings of the Southern California Seismic Network near the San Jacinto fault from 2008-2012 to detect tremor-like signals, distinguish their spectral shape from other sources, and subsequently locate it. We target this area on account of the abundance of seismic stations including borehole stations. Also, since tremor (2-8 Hz) was triggered by the passing surface waves of the 2002 M 7.9 Denali earthquake in vicinity of the San Jacinto fault we expect an ambient signal to occur in the same area with a similar spectral shape. The application of a spectral discriminator is particularly needed in this region, where previous analysis identified recurrent transients with a spectrum peaked between 3 and 4 Hz associated with heavy train traffic along the Coachella Valley.

  11. South Pol: Revealing the polarized southern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalha~es, A. M.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Carciofi, A.; Costa, R.; Dal Pino, E. M. G.; Diaz, M.; Ferrari, T.; Fernandez, C.; Gomes, A. L.; Marrara, L.; Pereyrac, A.; Ribeiro, N. L.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Rubinho, M. S.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Taylor, K.

    2012-05-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimetric module at an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile, in late 2012. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy <~ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar explosions and Solar System, among others.

  12. Laser ablation studies in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Edric; Forbes, A.; Turner, G. R.; Michaelis, Max M.

    2000-08-01

    With the launch of the South African National Laser Centre, new programs will need to be defined. Medical, environmental and industrial laser applications must obviously take top priority -- as opposed to the uranium isotope separation and military applications of the past. We argue however, that a small effort in laser ablation for space propulsion is justifiable, since a few very large CO2 lasers are available and since two tentative propulsion experiments have already been conducted in South Africa. We attempt to give LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) an equatorial and a Southern dimension.

  13. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken into consideration not only from the anthropological or cultural point of view, but also for further phyto-chemical investigation. Our studies, as well as those of other authors, try to provide an original picture of the local ethno-biodiversity. PMID:17537240

  14. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  15. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN THEIR MOLDS. AS A JOBBING FOUNDRY MAKING CASTINGS ON AN CONTRACTUAL-ORDER BASIS, THEIR CUSTOMERS PROVIDE, OR CONTRACT FOR PATTERN CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES, HOWEVER, PROVIDE REPAIR SERVICES SHOWN AS JOHNNY TIDWELL PREPARES A PLATE, FORM -FITTING TO THEIR MOLDING MACHINES, THAT A PATTERN WILL BE AFFIXED TO. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean are mediated by the mixed layer at the ocean surface. The depth of this layer is determined by wind forcing and heating from the atmosphere. Variations in mixed-layer depth affect the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean, the capacity of the ocean to store heat and carbon and the availability of light and nutrients to support the growth of phytoplankton. However, the response of the Southern Ocean mixed layer to changes in the atmosphere is not well known. Here we analyse temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats to show that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere, leads to large-scale anomalies in mixed-layer depth that are zonally asymmetric. From a simple heat budget of the mixed layer we conclude that meridional winds associated with departures of the SAM from zonal symmetry cause anomalies in heat flux that can, in turn, explain the observed changes of mixed-layer depth and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that changes in the SAM, including recent and projected trends attributed to human activity, drive variations in Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth, with consequences for air-sea exchange, ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, and biological productivity.

  17. Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

    The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

  18. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  19. Southern Africa winter temperature shifts and their link to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatsa, Desmond; Matarira, Caxton; Mushore, Terrence D.; Mudavanhu, Chipo

    2015-11-01

    The main characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of the winter (June-August) observed surface air minimum temperature (SAMT) of southern Africa (Africa south of the equator) were examined from 1960 to 2011. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to extract the dominant mode of SAMT variability. Statistically significant shifts were detected in both the index derived from the spatially averaged regional SAMT and its EOF1 time coefficients. These discontinuities displayed a sharp rise followed by an abrupt drop during the periods around 1988 and 2007 respectively. The years corresponded to change points in the Southern Annular Mode index where the 1988 significant alteration to a relatively more positive index polarity was followed by a sudden weakening during the latter shift. The development of the warm phase coincided with the decoupling of SAM from SAMT. This occurred when the strengthening of the western ridge of the Mascarene High appeared to be coupled to the creation of anomalously low pressure systems over Angola and the region pole-ward of South Africa. In this epoch, the meridional wind over southern Africa reversed to become predominantly northerly and hence was symptomatic of warm temperature advection from the lower latitudes. However the post 2007 era, though still of indeterminate length, is characterized by a partial return to the pre-1988 circulation conditions. This implies that the impacts of SAM's epochal alterations have implications not only for the current climate, but also for the interpretation of climate change over southern Africa.

  20. Southern Oscillation extremes reconstructed from tree rings of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Stahle, D.W.; Cleaveland, M.K. )

    1993-01-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is correlated with climate and tree growth over northern Mexico and the southern Great Plains of the US. Warm events favor moist-cool conditions from October through March (event years 0 and +1), and subsequent tree growth (year +1) in the region tends to be above average. The opposite climate and tree growth conditions prevail with less consistency during cold events. ENSO-sensitive tree-ring chronologies from this region were selected to develop two reconstructions of the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) back to 1699. The calibration and validation results suggest that the 56 climate extremes classified from 1699 to 1965 represent about half of the true number of extremes during this 267-year period, and that each reconstructed extreme has up to a 70% chance of representing a true winter SOI extreme. The most accurate estimates of past winter SOI extremes may be achieved in those years when the regression and classification methods of reconstruction agree, but comparisons with the instrumental data indicate that evidence for a past extreme cannot be disregarded when based on only one method. Both reconstructions indicate an increase in the frequency of winter SOI extremes after ca. 1850. Because the regression and classification errors are randomly distributed through time, these and other reconstructed changes in event frequency may reflect real changes in the extratropical influence of the SO over Mexico and the southern United States, if not in the SO itself. 50 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. 5. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING RAFTER CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN EXTENSION AT LEFT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING RAFTER CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN EXTENSION AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Operational Storage Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  3. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida (USA).

    PubMed

    Potter, Thomas L; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Walter F; Rice, Clifford P; Schaffer, Bruce

    2014-01-15

    The atmosphere is an important transport route for semi-volatile pesticides like endosulfan. Deposition, which depends on physical-chemical properties, use patterns, and climatic conditions, can occur at local, regional, and global scales. Adverse human and ecological impact may result. We measured endosulfan wet deposition in precipitation over a 4-year period within an area of high agricultural use in Southern Florida (USA) and in nearby Biscayne and Everglades National Parks. Endosulfan's two isomers and degradate, endosulfan sulfate, were detected at high frequency with the order of detection and concentration being β-endosulfan>α-endosulfan>endosulfan sulfate. Within the agricultural area, detection frequency (55 to 98%) mean concentrations (5 to 87 ng L(-1)) and total daily deposition (200 ng m(-2) day(-1)) exceeded values at other sites by 5 to 30-fold. Strong seasonal trends were also observed with values at all monitored sites significantly higher during peak endosulfan use periods when vegetable crops were produced. Relatively high deposition in the crop production area and observations that concentrations exceeded aquatic life toxicity thresholds at all sites indicated that endosulfan volatilization and wet deposition are of ecotoxicological concern to the region. This study emphasizes the need to include localized volatilization and deposition of endosulfan and other semi-volatile pesticides in risk assessments in Southern Florida and other areas with similar climatic and crop production profiles. PMID:24055666

  4. Decadal Variations of the Southern Hemisphere Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoly, D. J.; Hope, P.; Jones, P. D.

    1996-07-01

    A data set of monthly mean surface and sea-level pressure observations from a number of stations in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) for the period since 1901 has been used to investigate interannual and interdecadal variations of the SH circulation. A fairly uniform network of 62 stations was selected with data for the period 1955-1985, with a reduced network of 35 stations having data for the longer period 1901-1985. The sparse network has stations mainly on the SH tropical and mid-latitude land masses, with few islands or high-latitude stations.A rotated principal component analysis of the annual mean station pressure anomalies has been used to describe the dominant modes of interannual and interdecadal variations of the SH circulation that can be resolved with the available station network. We show that the sparse station network is able to capture the dominant modes of variability found in the period 1955-1985 using the denser network. The leading mode is associated with the El Nio-Southern Oscillation and is well resolved by the sparse network. This is the leading mode for interannual and interdecadal variations throughout the last century, but there are periods when it has reduced variance and a somewhat different structure, notably 1916-1935. Other modes of interannual variations show marked changes in importance on decadal or longer time-scales.

  5. SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasavage, John P.; Lepine, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present early results from the SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf SURVEY (SSSWDS). Our initial sift of relatively bright (15 < V < 18), white dwarf candidates uses the technique of reduced proper motion with inputs from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database combined with photographic magnitudes. Crude distance estimates from the linear photographic magnitude-color relation of Oppenheimer et al. 2001 are obtained and permit prioritized follow-up. For confirmation of luminosity class, we use the SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon equipped with the Goodman Spectrograph and a moderate resolution grating. In tandem, we acquire multi-epoch, optical Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI photometry using the SMARTS 1.0m telescope atop CTIO. Combined with JHK from 2MASS, we compare the photometric SED to relevant white dwarf model atmospheres to estimate physical parameters (e.g., effective temperature, mass) and distance. For the nearest targets, specifically those within the RECONS (www.recons.org) horizon of 25 pc, we aim to obtain trigonometric parallaxes as part of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) project being conducted at the SMARTS 0.9m telescope. To date, we have confirmed 100 relatively bright, new white dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Of those, 13 are estimated to be within our 25 pc horizon-of-interest, including two that are estimated to be within 15 pc. Ongoing observations will boost these figures by the end of the project.

  6. Modelling Crustal Stress in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, A.; McKinnon, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of stress measurement data from the near-surface to crustal depths in southern Ontario show a misalignment between the direction of tectonic loading and the orientation of the major horizontal principal stress. The compressive stress field appears to be oriented subparallel to the major terrane boundaries such as the Grenville Front, the Central Medisedimentary Belt boundary zone and the Composite Arc Belt boundary zone. This suggests that the stress field has been modified by these deep crustal scale fault zones. In order to test this hypothesis, a geomechanical model was constructed using the three-dimensional discontinuum stress analysis code 3DEC. The model consists of a 45 km thick crust of southern Ontario in which the major crustal scale fault zones are represented as discrete faults. Lateral velocity boundary conditions were applied to the sides of the model in the direction of tectonic loading in order to generate the horizontal compressive stress field. Preliminary results show that for low strength (low friction angle and cohesion), fault slip results in the stress field rotating toward the strike of the faults, consistent with the observed direction of misalignment with the tectonic loading direction. Further analysis of the model may be used to provide constraints on the strength of these faults.

  7. Observations of change in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Stan

    2006-07-15

    The Southern Ocean has been in a state of disequilibrium with its atmosphere and cryosphere during recent decades. Ocean station and drifting float observations have revealed rising temperatures in the upper 3000m. Salinity has declined in intermediate waters and more rapidly in the sparsely sampled high latitudes. Dissolved oxygen levels may also have decreased, but measurement accuracy is inconsistent. Sea ice area increased from 1979 to 1998, particularly in the Ross Sea, while a decline in ice extent since the early 1970s has been led by the Amundsen-Bellingshausen sector. Fresher waters with lower oxygen isotope content on the Pacific-Antarctic continental shelf are consistent with increased melting of continental ice. Newly forming bottom water has become colder and less salty downstream from that region, but generally warmer in the Weddell Sea. Many ice shelves have retreated or thinned, but others have grown and no trend is apparent in the large iceberg calving rate. Warming and isotherm shoaling within the polar gyres may result in part from changes in the Southern Annular Mode, which could facilitate deep-water access to the continental shelves. Sea-level rise over the past half century has a strong eustatic component and has recently accelerated. Observations over longer periods and with better spatial coverage are needed to better understand the processes causing these changes and their links to the Antarctic ice sheet. PMID:16782605

  8. Transient tracer applications in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.

    2014-10-01

    Transient tracers can be used to constrain the Inverse-Gaussian transit time distribution (IG-TTD) and thus provide information about ocean ventilation. Individual transient tracers have different time and application ranges which are defined by their atmospheric history (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). The classification ranges from tracers for highly ventilated water masses, e.g. sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the decay of Tritium (δ3H) and to some extent also dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins, e.g. CFC-12, Argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). The IG-TTD can be empirically constrained by using transient tracer couples with sufficiently different input functions. Each tracer couple has specific characteristics which influence the application limit of the IG-TTD. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and their validity areas within the IG-TTD by using the concept of tracer age differences (TAD). New measured CFC-12 and SF6 data from a section along 10° E in the Southern Ocean in 2012 are presented. These are combined with a similar data set of 1998 along 6° E in the Southern Ocean as well as with 39Ar data from the early 1980s in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea for investigating the application limit of the IG-TTD and to analyze changes in ventilation in the Southern Ocean. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained south to 46° S which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The constrained IG-TTD north of the SAF shows a slight increase in mean ages between 1998 and 2012 in the upper 1200 m between 42-46° S. The absence of SF6 inhibits ventilation analyses below this depth. The time lag analysis between the 1998 and 2012 data shows an increase in ventilation down to 1000 m and a steady ventilation between 2000 m-bottom south of the SAF between 51-55° S.

  9. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes in seismicity arising from magma movement in the crust are characteristic properties of almost all active volcanoes. Meanwhile the study of the seismicity and propagation of elastic waves through the earth have the potential to give us important information about the internal structure of volcanoes. As very little is known of the 3D structure of Katla volcano and in order to define the 3D velocity structure and the geometry of the possible magma chamber, both P and S-wave travel time data from the most active period of seismicity (July-November 2011) are inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D velocity structure by using Local Earthquake Tomography (LET).

  10. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices are limited. Local medical providers reported that the major limitations in care were lack of specialty care, lack of imaging and EEG services, financial barriers to care, long wait times for care, and limited access to additional AEDs. PMID:26312988

  11. Increasing the Resilience to Natural Hazards in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile; Cox, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    Southern California is at great risk for extreme catastrophic losses owing to numerous natural hazards, such as earthquakes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and coastal changes, that occur in this area (fig. 1). Expected losses from these hazards are estimated to exceed $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California.

  12. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ

  13. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  14. LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES. SINGLE PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILWAY BRIDGE (HAER No. IL-156) AT RIGHT OF FRAME. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

  16. 33 CFR 167.155 - Off New York: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a)...

  17. 33 CFR 167.155 - Off New York: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a)...

  18. GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Language, Education and Development: Case Studies from the Southern Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George J. Sefa; Asgharzadeh, Alireza

    2003-01-01

    In many Southern countries, there are multiple and conflicting perspectives regarding the central role of language, particularly in relation to educational and developmental issues. A great number of multilingual, multicultural and multi-ethnic Southern countries are using "English" or some other dominant tongue as their only "official", and/or…

  20. 1. Southeast elevation, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southeast elevation, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northwest (90mm lens). Engine Stores Building (HAER NV-26-A) is at left, Oil House (HAER NV-26-B) is at right. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  1. 10. Interior, Boiler Room, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior, Boiler Room, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northwest (90mm lens). The silver stacks suspended from the ceiling in the background mark the former location of the boilers, and served as steam vents. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. 6. Northeast end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast end, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southwest (135mm lens). The tall freestanding smokestack from the Boiler Room originally stood adjacent to this end of the building. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  3. 76 FR 40721 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing Take notice that on... Regulatory Commission (FERC or the Commission), 18 CFR 385.207 (2011), Southern California Edison...

  4. 14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

  5. 78 FR 22869 - Southern California Gas Company; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Gas Company; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on March 29, 2013, Southern California Gas Company (``SoCalGas'') filed two amendments to its November 21, 2012, petition for rate approval. SoCalGas states that the first amendment is to implement, pursuant...

  6. Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in process that

  7. Aggregation behavior of the southern chinch bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber, forms dense, multigenerational aggregations in St. Augustinegrass lawns leading to grass death from sap feeding. We conducted several bioassays to better understand the signals responsible for the formation and maintenance of southern chinch bug ag...

  8. 75 FR 48323 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... protests and interventions in lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at http://www.ferc.gov . Persons... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing August 4, 2010. Take...,246 (2009) (December 17, Order), Southern California Edison Company filed a compliance...

  9. Research of Education Issues in Southern Regional Education Board States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Legislative Auditor, Baton Rouge.

    This report, which focuses on education in Louisiana, gives the results of research on various education issues in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and provides information on how southern states collect and use different education-related data. The article discusses education costs and revenues, as well as how financial, student,…

  10. New cooperative seismograph networks established in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Southern California has more active faults located close to large, urban population centers than any other region in the United States. Reduction of risk to life and property posed by potential earthquakes along these active faults is a primary motivation for a cooperative earthquake research program between the U.S Geological Survey and major universities in Southern California. 

  11. 76 FR 16603 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  12. 75 FR 30772 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  13. 75 FR 69916 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  14. 75 FR 39655 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  15. 77 FR 49776 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice...

  16. 76 FR 46722 - Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Forest Service Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Socorro, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination...

  17. The Poverty of Trust in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper bridges two lines of research. One line shows that social relations in the southern United States are more "collectivist" than social relations in non-southern regions. The second line of work argues that collectivist social relations generate lower levels of general trust than individualist social relations. At the intersection of…

  18. 33 CFR 167.155 - Off New York: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a)...

  19. 33 CFR 167.155 - Off New York: Southern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a)...

  20. Dust from southern Africa: rate of emission and biogeochemical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune rea...

  1. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)

  3. 77 FR 47059 - Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Illinois Power Cooperative; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 30, 2012, Southern Illinois Power Cooperative filed a Proposed Revenue Requirement for...

  4. Southern Rural Development Center Year in Review, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    The Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) is one of four regional rural development centers in the nation. SRDC coordinates rural development research and extension education programs cooperatively with the 29 land-grant institutions in 13 Southern states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. This annual report outlines activities undertaken by

  5. Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in process that…

  6. ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED TO STORE THEM AND KEEP THEM AVAILABLE FOR THEIR CUSTOMERS ORDERS. THE BARRET/DOUGLAS LIFTING TRUCK IS USED TO REACH AND TRANSPORT PATTERNS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Dust from southern Africa: rates of emission and biogeochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Zobeck, T. M.; Okin, G. S.; Dintwe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune reactivation can potentially make the region an important dust source in the relatively low-dust Southern Hemisphere. We show that emergence of the southern Kalahari as a new dust source may affect ocean biogeochemistry as the soils are rich in soluble iron and the dust from the southern Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean. We investigate the biogeochemical properties of the fine fraction of soil from the Kalahari dunes and compare them to those of currently active dust sources such as the Makgadikgadi and the Etosha pans as well as other smaller pans in the region. Using field measurements of sediment fluxes and satellite images, we calculate the rates of dust emission from the southern Kalahari under different land cover scenarios. To assess the reversibility of dune reactivation in the southern Kalahari, we investigate the resilience of dunefield vegetation by looking at changes in soil nutrients, fine soil fractions, and seed bank in areas affected by intense denudation.

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH SOUTHERN CONSERVATION SYSTEMS CONFERENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The steering committee of the Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture emphasized the need for a systems approach for optimum production and profit with the name change to the Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference held at Florence, SC. During the Florence confe...

  9. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southern California annual marine... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1101 Southern California annual marine events. (a) Special local regulations will be established for the events listed in Table...

  10. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern California annual marine... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1101 Southern California annual marine events. (a) Special local regulations will be established for the events listed in Table...

  11. Physical oceanography and tracer chemistry of the southern ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report considers technical and scientific developments and research questions in studies of the Southern Ocean since its predecessor, /open quotes/Southern Ocean Dynamics--A Strategy for Scientific Exploration 1973-1983/close quotes/ was published. The summary lists key research questions in Southern Ocean oceanography. Chapter 1 describes how Southern Ocean research has evolved to provide the basis for timely research toward more directed objectives. Chapter 2 recommends four research programs, encompassing many of the specific recommendations that follow. Appendix A provides the scientific background and Reference/Bibliography list for this report for: on air-sea-ice interaction; the Antarctic Circumpolar Current; water mass conversion; chemical tracer oceanography; and numerical modeling of the Southern Ocean. Appendix B describes the satellite-based observation systems expected to be active during the next decade. Appendix C is a list of relevant reports published during 1981-1987. 146 refs.

  12. Photographic surveys of the southern sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Parameters of the UK 1.2 meter Schmidt telescope are described. Plates taken with this instrument are in two categories, those for systematic sky surveys and those taken at the request of research users. A collaborative project with the European Southern Observatory was undertaken to obtain a two-color survey of the sky south of -20 deg declination to complement the Palomar survey. A near infrared survey of the Galactic Plane and the Megallanic Clouds is being done. The area south of -20 deg and the zone between 0 deg and -15 deg are also being surveyed. Pending a decision on survey parameters, all available A quality prism plates are being retained to form a basis for systematic survey. Nearly half the plates taken on a service basis for the UK astronomical community are to fulfill nonsurvey requests. Plates taken for surveys which are not of A grade quality are also made available for research purposes.

  13. Multiwavelength studies of southern early type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, A. C.; Perez, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from an in progress program to study early type galaxies are presented. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra of the southern galaxies NGC 1326 and 1808 are presented and compared to IUE archival spectra of four galaxies of approximately similar morphological type. The targets were selected on the basis of their infrared astronomy satellite emission, peculiarities in their dust structure as revealed from charge coupled device frames and the presence of H I from 21 cm data. Preliminary results show large differences in stellar populations, and the presence of early spectral type stars are correlated with UV extinction and IR excess. Interpretation of the data is presented, discussing the correlations between extinction, gas content and stellar populations.

  14. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

  15. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  16. Phytoplankton and cloudiness in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2006-12-01

    The effect of ocean biological productivity on marine clouds is explored over a large phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean with the use of remotely sensed data. Cloud droplet number concentration over the bloom was twice what it was away from the bloom, and cloud effective radius was reduced by 30%. The resulting change in the short-wave radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere was -15 watts per square meter, comparable to the aerosol indirect effect over highly polluted regions. This observed impact of phytoplankton on clouds is attributed to changes in the size distribution and chemical composition of cloud condensation nuclei. We propose that secondary organic aerosol, formed from the oxidation of phytoplankton-produced isoprene, can affect chemical composition of marine cloud condensation nuclei and influence cloud droplet number. Model simulations support this hypothesis, indicating that 100% of the observed changes in cloud properties can be attributed to the isoprene secondary organic aerosol. PMID:17082422

  17. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos

    PubMed Central

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B.; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. PMID:26149859

  18. Locating Microseism Sources in Offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Clayton, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    We use the broadband stations from the S. California network to locate the apparent origin of secondary microseisms energy (5-8 Hz band). The procedure is to grid the offshore region and using each grid point as the source point, predict the response of a Rayleigh wave at each station. These predicted waveforms are then correlated with the data over a time window that is typically a 1/2 hour in length and composited at the grid point. The length of the time window controls a tradeoff between the spatial-temporal resolution of the sources and the robustness on the image. The procedure is valid for multiple sources. This results show that during periods of high microseism activity the sources are distinct at several locations in a region approximately 50-100 km offshore. For an 11/09/2002 Southern Ocean storm, for example, two zones parallel to each other and perpendicular to the coast are imaged.

  19. Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

    1986-06-01

    The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

  20. Antineoplastic constituents of some Southern African plants.

    PubMed

    Charlson, A J

    1980-12-01

    Extracts of several Southern African plants which have been used in folk remedies have been prepared, and the extracts were tested in a variety of experimental tumour test-systems. Raphionacme hirsuta and Cheilanthes contracta have been used in African anticancer medicines. Extracts of these plants showed antitumor activity in some rodent test-systems, but the results were not confirmed. In the folk-lore, Haemanthus natalensis has been used in emetics and Urginea capitata preparations have been used to vaccinate African chiefs. Extracts of these plants showed significant cytotoxicity in the KB cell culture test-system. Infusions of Brunsvigia radulosa have been used as folk remedies for abdominal troubles. An extract of this Amaryllis plant increased the life span of P-388 leukaemic mice. Amaryllis bellandonna has also been investigated. Extracts of Amaryllis belladonna had to be fractionated in order to produce significant antitumour activity in the P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia test-system. PMID:7421280

  1. Southern marl prairies conceptual ecological model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S.M.; Loftus, W.F.; Gaiser, E.E.; Huffman, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    About 190,000 ha of higher-elevation marl prairies flank either side of Shark River Slough in the southern Everglades. Water levels typically drop below the ground surface each year in this landscape. Consequently, peat soil accretion is inhibited, and substrates consist either of calcitic marl produced by algal periphyton mats or exposed limestone bedrock. The southern marl prairies support complex mosaics of wet prairie, sawgrass sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), tree islands, and tropical hammock communities and a high diversity of plant species. However, relatively short hydroperiods and annual dry downs provide stressful conditions for aquatic fauna, affecting survival in the dry season when surface water is absent. Here, we present a conceptual ecological model developed for this landscape through scientific concensus, use of empirical data, and modeling. The two major societal drivers affecting the southern marl prairies are water management practices and agricultural and urban development. These drivers lead to five groups of ecosystem stressors: loss of spatial extent and connectivity, shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity, extended hydroperiod and drying pattern reversals, introduction and spread of non-native trees, and introduction and spread of non-native fishes. Major ecological attributes include periphyton mats, plant species diversity and community mosaic, Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna prey base, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and wading bird early dry season foraging. Water management and development are hypothesized to have a negative effect on the ecological attributes of the southern marl prairies in the following ways. Periphyton mats have decreased in cover in areas where hydroperiod has been significantly reduced and changed in community composition due to inverse responses to increased nutrient availability. Plant species diversity and community mosaics have changed due to shifting gradients to more terrestrial or more aquatic communities, displacement of native communities by non-natives, expansion of woody plants, high-intensity dry season fires, tree-island burnout, and reduced microtopography resulting from alligator population decline. Cape Sable seaside sparrow populations are threatened by nest destruction resulting from extended hydroperiods, drying pattern reversals, and high intensity dry season fires, as well as by the expansion of woody plants into graminoid wetland habitats. Populations of marsh fishes and associated aquatic fauna that constitute the aquatic prey base for higher vertebrates have decreased in density and changed in species composition and size structure due to loss of wetland spatial extent, shortened hydroperiod, increased drought severity, loss of aquatic drought refugia in solution holes and alligator holes, and spread of exotic fishes. American alligator populations have declined in the Rocky Glades, and alligator holes have filled with sediment, as a result of shortened hydroperiod and increased drought severity. Habitat options for wading birds to forage during the early dry season and during unusually wet years have been reduced due to loss of spatial extent and shortened hydroperiod.

  2. SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimeter for an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in about two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy ≤ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar Explosions and Solar System, among others. The polarimeter is currently being built and its optics and electronics assembled. We will describe the current status of the project. This project is supported by FAPESP. AMM is also supported by CNPq.

  3. Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  4. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, José G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

    2004-01-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  5. Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, A.J. ); Portilla, O. )

    1994-05-23

    The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

  6. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.

  7. Ebasco leads team for Southern California project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California has awarded a $37.6 million contract to Ebasco Services Inc. to construct the Domenigoni Valley Reservoir Project in Riverside County, Calif. Ebasco leads a project team that includes Black Veatch, Wahler Associates, and Woodward-Clyde Consultants. The project will feature two earthfill dams, a 40-MW pump-generating plant, and a 22-MW conventional hydro plant. The dams will be 180 and 280 feet tall and 2.2 miles and 1.8 miles long. Combined, the dams will contain more than 84 million cubic yards of earthfill and large rock. They will impound a 4,410-acre reservoir holding 800,000 acre-feet. Work began in November and will be completed by 2000.

  8. Causes of Fever in Rural Southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-09-01

    The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. PMID:26149859

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

  10. Plastic ingestion by Procellariiformes in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Barquete, Viviane; Domingues, Beatriz S; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2009-01-01

    The Procellariiformes are the birds most affected by plastic pollution. Plastic fragments and pellets were the most frequent items found in the digestive tract of eight species of Procellariiformes incidentally caught by longline fisheries as well as beached birds in Southern Brazil. Plastic objects were found in 62% of the petrels and 12% of the albatrosses. The Great shearwater, Manx shearwater, Cory's shearwater and Antarctic fulmar were found to have greater quantities and frequencies of occurrence of plastic. There was no significant difference in the number of plastics between the birds from longline fisheries and beached birds. No correlation was found between the number of prey and number of plastics in the digestive tract of the birds analyzed, but this does not discard the hypothesis that, in some cases, the presence of plastic in the digestive tract has a negative effect on the feeding efficiency of these birds. PMID:18840384

  11. 76 FR 68393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the translocation of southern sea otters...

  12. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written comments.... Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract: The Bureau of Ocean...

  13. Structure and Anisotropy Beneath Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeler, A.; Gu, Y. J.; Steckler, M. S.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-12-01

    The crust and upper mantle structures beneath southern Italy are often associated with rollback and fragmentation of the Western Mediterranean subduction zone in the past 30 million years. In this study, we utilize broadband records from the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction Collision-Accretion Network (CAT/SCAN) to probe the effect of the past and on-going plate motions beneath this region. Waveforms from two distinct frequency ranges are examined in detail using both forward and inverse waveform modeling approaches, and the resulting 1-D models for each path are subjected to a Monte-Carlo uncertainty test. By analyzing the Love and Rayleigh waves from two regional earthquakes during the temporary deployment between 2003 and 2005, we are able to retrieve information on the anisotropic seismic structure down to 200-km depth. Our study shows that the average seismic structure beneath Calabria/Apulia is significantly faster than that beneath the Apenninic mountain chain. Sharp changes in seismic velocities, regardless of wave polarizations, lend strong support for the distinct geologic histories of the major tectonic units. The difference between Love- and Rayleigh-wave models provides further constraints on the dynamic processes and crust/mantle fabric beneath the study area. Our preliminary results show relatively minor anisotropy beneath the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea and Calabrian Arc region, which could be partially explained by the rapid changes in the alignment of olivine fast crystallographic-axes due to the complex arc geometry. The ray paths connecting the Ionian Sea and the Southern Apennines reveal strong anisotropy, where transversely polarized waves travel at higher speeds than vertically polarized waves. Both "frozen-in" and flow-induced anisotropy could contribute to the observed waveform differences between the Love and Rayleigh waves sampling this region.

  14. Cooling and eutrophication of southern Chilean lakes.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Jaime; Vergara, Pablo M; Cerda, Sergio; Briones, Daniela

    2016-01-15

    Understanding the impacts of global warming and human-disturbances on lakes is required for implementing management strategies aimed at mitigating the decline of the quality and availability of water for humans. We assessed temporal trends in water parameters, and the contribution of land use to the eutrophication of the largest lakes of central-southern Chile. The mean values of water parameters varied seasonally, with lakes Chapo and Caburgua exhibiting lower pH, temperature, and N/P ratio values. Over the assessed period (19 years), we found a temporal reduction in water conductivity and temperature of the lakes. The concentration of NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P and dissolved oxygen increased in all the lakes, but pH increased in eight out of the ten lakes. The negative temporal trend in temperature was more pronounced as the depth level increased. Lakes whose basins had a higher percentage of forest plantation and urban areas had larger values of Chlorophyll a and pH, as well as, smaller values of dissolved oxygen. Lakes whose basins included larger percentages of native forest had smaller nutrient (NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-)-P) concentrations. Our findings suggest that decreased rainfall in central-southern Chile due to climate change may cause a decrease of particulate material that is carried by tributaries into the lakes. The observed temporal decrease in temperature, especially at the deeper levels, may be explained by the rapid melting of glaciers. Although the studied lakes are classified as oligotrophic, deforestation and expansion of urban areas around the lakes have led to increased nutrient input, thus accelerating their eutrophication. PMID:26437345

  15. Smoke from Fires in Southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 2, 2002, numerous fires in southern Mexico sent smoke drifting northward over the Gulf of Mexico. These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer illustrate the smoke extent over parts of the Gulf and the southern Mexican states of Tabasco, Campeche and Chiapas. At the same time, dozens of other fires were also burning in the Yucatan Peninsula and across Central America. A similar situation occurred in May and June of 1998, when Central American fires resulted in air quality warnings for several U.S. States.

    The image on the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Smoke is visible, but sunglint in some ocean areas makes detection difficult. The middle image, on the other hand, is a natural color view acquired by MISR's 70-degree backward-viewing camera; its oblique view angle simultaneously suppresses sunglint and enhances the smoke. A map of aerosol optical depth, a measurement of the abundance of atmospheric particulates, is provided on the right. This quantity is retrieved using an automated computer algorithm that takes advantage of MISR's multi-angle capability. Areas where no retrieval occurred are shown in black.

    The images each represent an area of about 380 kilometers x 1550 kilometers and were captured during Terra orbit 12616.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. A New Teleconnection : The Australian Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Liess, S.; Kawale, J.; Steinhaeuser, K.; Ormsby, D.; Kumar, V.; Chatterjee, S.

    2012-12-01

    A possibly new teleconnection has been discovered off the east coast of Australia in the region around Tasman sea and Southern Ocean. Found in pressure anomalies using a novel graph based approach called Shared Reciprocal Nearest Neighbors, this dipole appears in reanalysis datasets such as NCEP, JRA, ERA and MERRA. The HadSLP2 observation data shows the new dipole, despite of limited observations in the Tasman Sea. Tests are performed in order to understand the uniqueness of the dipole and its relationship to existing well known phenomena. The dipole index is correlated with known dipole indices such as the SO (Southern Oscillation), AAO (Antarctic Oscillation) with which it shares a higher correlation of less than 0.4 and other northern teleconnections with which it is shown to have a poor relationship. Seasonal analysis is done to look at the variation in strength as well as its influence on other variables such as TAS (Temperature at Surface), OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation). We discover the dipole and also look at composite maps and do significance tests at different geopotential heights - 700 hPa, 500 hPa and 50 hPa to determine the significant regions in these maps. We also determine regions that are solely influenced by the new dipole index only and determine if the dipole is a sea surface phenomenon like the SO or an upper atmospheric phenomenon like the AAO. Our tests have shown that we may indeed be looking at a new phenomenon and further tests are being conducted to confirm that. This work was supported by NSF grants IIS-1029711.

  17. Magnetotelluric Study of the Southern Pamir, Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevski, W.; Ritter, O.; Weckmann, U.; Rybin, A.; Matiukov, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Pamir region at the western prolongation of the Tibet-Himalaya orogen is a high plateau which accommodated the India-Asia collision by crustal shortening and thickening. The same east-west-trending orogenic belts, corresponding to continental terranes which amalgamated with Asia prior to the collision with India, wrap around the Pamir and Tibet. The southern Pamir is equivalent to the Lhasa terrane in Tibet and consists of Paleozoic-Mesozoic meta-sedimentary rocks, rare Proterozoic gneisses, and voluminous Creaceous-Palaeogene granitoids. The Pamir, however, has been displaced northward by approximately 600km with respect to the Tarim Basin. Today, there is strong geophysical evidence that a slab of Asian lithosphere has been underthrust south-southeastward beneath the Pamir. In summer 2013 we installed 85 broad-band magnetotelluric (MT) stations in the southern Pamir covering a 200km wide and 100km long area between Murghab and Khorugh, with a site spacing of approximately 8km. MT data quality is excellent in the sparsely populated southeastern Pamir plateau and heterogeneous or even strongly disturbed by electromagnetic noise in the populated southwestern Pamir. The magnetotelluric survey was part of the interdisciplinary TIPTIMON (Tien-Shan-Pamir Monitoring Program) project. 3D inversion of the data reveals a prominent low-resistivity zone at a depth of approx. 10 km. This anomaly, with resistivities below 10 Ωm, extends across the entire southeastern Pamir and appears to be limited to the West by the Shakdara dome. The crystalline basement of the Shakdara dome is imaged as resistive material. We interpret the observed low resistivity of the southeastern Pamir is as partially molten felsic material at middle to lower crustal levels.

  18. Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkin, Randolph J.; Mahoney, J. B.; Baker, Judith; Kiessling, Mark; Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2002-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5°, I = 60.1°, k = 304.7, α95 = 3.2° after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8°, I = 61.5°, k = 39.3, α95 = 3.4° (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8°N, 359.2°E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8°. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 +/- 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

  19. Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enkin, R.J.; Mahoney, J.B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

  20. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and annual malaria incidence in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabaso, Musawenkosi L H; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Sharp, Brian; Smith, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    We evaluated the association between annual malaria incidence and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as measured by the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) in five countries in Southern Africa from 1988 to 1999. Below normal incidence of malaria synchronised with a negative SOI (El Niño) and above normal incidence with a positive SOI (La Niña), which lead to dry and wet weather conditions, respectively. In most countries there was a positive relationship between SOI and annual malaria incidence, especially where Anopheles arabiensis is a major vector. This mosquito breeds in temporary rain pools and is highly sensitive to fluctuations in weather conditions. South Africa and Swaziland have the most reliable data and showed the strongest associations, but the picture there may also be compounded by the moderating effect of other oscillatory systems in the Indian Ocean. The impact of ENSO also varies over time within countries, depending on existing malaria control efforts and response capacity. There remains a need for quantitative studies that at the same time consider both ENSO-driven climate anomalies and non-ENSO factors influencing epidemic risk potential to assess their relative importance in order to provide an empirical basis for malaria epidemic forecasting models. PMID:17064744

  1. Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana

    SciTech Connect

    Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

  2. Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".

    PubMed

    Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted. PMID:24884999

  3. Constructing a Model of a Dipping Southern San Andreas Fault, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D.; Fuis, G.; Langenheim, V.

    2007-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) in southern California is predominantly non-vertical, based on potential field observations, deep seismic imaging, and earthquake focal-mechanisms, aftershocks, and microseismicity. Dip values of the southern SAF vary systematically along its length. Between the Carrizo Plain and Lake Hughes (~180 km distance), dips are consistently to the southwest and range between 55° and 80°; between Lake Hughes and Wrightwood (~70 km), dips are essentially vertical; between Wrightwood and the Salton Sea (~220 km), dips are consistently to the northeast and vary between 37° and 75°. In the structurally complex San Gorgonio Pass area, the dip of one of the strands of the SAF in the uppermost 1-2 km may be as low as 10°. In all, 13 sites that are unequally-spaced along the southern SAF provide well-constrained observations of fault dip. Uncertainties of the fault dip observations are less than ±10°, and in some cases less than ±5°, although the different types of observations have different sensitivities to age and depth of features indicating dip. Gravity and magnetic models are sensitive to the structures that result from millions of years of strike-slip motion at shallow and intermediate crustal levels (<10-15 km); earthquake studies reflect motions at seismogenic depths since the start of the seismic catalogs (<50 years); deep seismic imaging is sensitive to the integrated history throughout the crust. Notwithstanding the different sources of observations, a self-consistent model of the fault surface may be constructed by interpolating between points with well-defined dips and assembling with three-dimensional modeling software. The three-dimensional form of this fault surface is crudely reminiscent of a propeller. The steepest sections (>75°) of the southern SAF correspond to locations where the fault trace is straightest. Where the SAF trace bends, dips are generally <75°. The variation of dip and strike of the SAF implies that strike-slip motion along the fault surface must be accompanied by changes in topography and that partial accommodation of long-term plate motion by adjacent faults may be important. Calculation of shaking potential for scenario major earthquakes on the southern SAF and calculation of geodetic deformation from buried slip on the SAF may be inaccurate unless the non-vertical dip of the fault is taken into account.

  4. Constructing a Model of a Dipping Southern San Andreas Fault, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D.; Fuis, G.; Langenheim, V.

    2004-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) in southern California is predominantly non-vertical, based on potential field observations, deep seismic imaging, and earthquake focal-mechanisms, aftershocks, and microseismicity. Dip values of the southern SAF vary systematically along its length. Between the Carrizo Plain and Lake Hughes (~180 km distance), dips are consistently to the southwest and range between 55° and 80°; between Lake Hughes and Wrightwood (~70 km), dips are essentially vertical; between Wrightwood and the Salton Sea (~220 km), dips are consistently to the northeast and vary between 37° and 75°. In the structurally complex San Gorgonio Pass area, the dip of one of the strands of the SAF in the uppermost 1-2 km may be as low as 10°. In all, 13 sites that are unequally-spaced along the southern SAF provide well-constrained observations of fault dip. Uncertainties of the fault dip observations are less than ±10°, and in some cases less than ±5°, although the different types of observations have different sensitivities to age and depth of features indicating dip. Gravity and magnetic models are sensitive to the structures that result from millions of years of strike-slip motion at shallow and intermediate crustal levels (<10-15 km); earthquake studies reflect motions at seismogenic depths since the start of the seismic catalogs (<50 years); deep seismic imaging is sensitive to the integrated history throughout the crust. Notwithstanding the different sources of observations, a self-consistent model of the fault surface may be constructed by interpolating between points with well-defined dips and assembling with three-dimensional modeling software. The three-dimensional form of this fault surface is crudely reminiscent of a propeller. The steepest sections (>75°) of the southern SAF correspond to locations where the fault trace is straightest. Where the SAF trace bends, dips are generally <75°. The variation of dip and strike of the SAF implies that strike-slip motion along the fault surface must be accompanied by changes in topography and that partial accommodation of long-term plate motion by adjacent faults may be important. Calculation of shaking potential for scenario major earthquakes on the southern SAF and calculation of geodetic deformation from buried slip on the SAF may be inaccurate unless the non-vertical dip of the fault is taken into account.

  5. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling positions along one transect. This transect consisted of 18 stations on the zero meridian proper from 51°57' S until 69°24'S, and 4 stations somewhat to the northeast towards Cape Town from 42°20'S, 09°E to 50°17'S, 01°27'E. The actual concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean were lower than previously reported. The concentration of Al in the upper 25 m was relatively elevated with an average concentration of 0.71 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.43 nM), most likely due to atmospheric input by a suggested combination of direct atmospheric (wet and dry) input and indirect atmospheric input via melting sea ice. Below the surface waters there was a distinct Al minimum with an average concentration of 0.33 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.13 nM) at an average depth of 120 m. In the deep southernmost Weddell Basin the concentration of Al increased with depth to ˜0.8 nM at 4000 m, and a higher concentration of ˜1.5 nM in the ˜4500-5200 m deep Weddell Sea Bottom Water. Over the Bouvet triple junction region, where three deep ocean ridges meet, the concentration of Al increased to ˜1.4 nM at about 2000 m depth over the ridge crest. In the deep basin north of the Bouvet region the concentration of Al increased to higher deep values of 4-6 nM due to influence of North Atlantic Deep Water. In general the intermediate and deep distribution of Al results from the mixing of water masses with different origins, the formation of deep water and additional input from sedimentary sources at sea floor elevations. No significant correlation between Al and silicate (Si) was observed. This is in contrast to some other ocean regions. In the Southern Ocean the supply of Al is extremely low and any signal from Al uptake and dissolution with biogenic silica is undetectable against the high dissolved Si and low dissolved Al concentrations. Here the Al-Si relation in the deep ocean is uncoupled. This is due to the scavenging and subsequent loss of the water column of Al, whereas the concentration of Si increases in the deep ocean due to its input from deep dissolution of biogenic diatom frustules settling from the surface layer.

  6. Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in both sites. However during spring biogenic influence increased. In addition to source analysis this behaviour was visible in enhanced diurnal cycles of VOCs (Patokoski et al., 2014, in press). We will present important sources and source areas for Southern Finland's concentrations. References: Patokoski, J., Ruuskanen, T.M., Hellén, H., Taipale, R., Grönholm, T., Kajos, M.K., Petäjä, T., Hakola, H., Kulmala, M. & Rinne, J., 2014. Winter to spring transition and diurnal variation of VOCs in Finland at an urban background site and a rural site. Boreal Env. Res. 19. In press.

  7. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure.

    CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials -- leading to new understanding of the climate.

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.

  8. Early holocene openlands in southern New England.

    PubMed

    Faison, E K; Foster, D R; Oswald, W W; Hansen, B C S; Doughty, E

    2006-10-01

    The pre-historical vegetation structure in temperate forest regions is much debated among European and North American ecologists and conservationists. Frans Vera's recent hypothesis that large mammals created mosaics of forest and openland vegetation in both regions throughout the Holocene has been particularly controversial and has provoked new approaches to conservation management. Thirty years earlier, American paleoecologists Herb Wright and Margaret Davis debated whether abundant ragweed pollen at Rogers Lake, Connecticut at 9500 yr BP signified local forest openings or long-distance transport of pollen from Midwestern prairies. Using new pollen records from Harvard Forest and the North American Pollen Database, we address this question and offer insights to the openland discussion. Ragweed and other forbs exceed 3.5% at five sites in a restricted area of southern New England between 10,100 and 7700 yr BP. Strong evidence suggests this pollen originated from the landscapes surrounding these sites (supporting Davis), as ragweed pollen percentages do not increase with longitude from New England to the Midwest. Ragweed pollen percentages are also unrelated to basin size and therefore unrelated to the proportion of extraregional pollen in New England. High forbs values were associated with increases in oak, decreases in white pine, and relatively high charcoal values. Modern pollen records with similar forb and tree percentages occur along the Prairie Peninsula region of the Upper Midwest. However, the closest analogue to the southern New England early Holocene assemblages comes from Massachusetts' Walden Pond in the early 18th century. These results and the affiliation of ragweed for open, disturbed habitats suggest that oak-pine forests with large openings persisted for over 2000 years due to dry conditions and perhaps increased fire frequency. This conclusion is corroborated by independent lake level and climate reconstructions. Because these early Holocene openlands have no detectable analogue in New England for the past 7000 years before European settlement, we suggest that all important openlands today are almost exclusively a legacy of Colonial agriculture and should be managed accordingly. Nonetheless, our results may have implications for forest dynamics accompanying projected climate change to more arid conditions in New England over the next century. PMID:17089662

  9. Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedegar, K. V.

    Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations with other creatures: wild dogs, warthogs, wildebeests, swallows, cuckoos and cicadas. In each case the visibility of a star will synchronize with a behavior of the associated species. Together, stars and species informed man of the order and unity of an African cosmos — a worldview that must have been as satisfying as it was beautiful.

  10. Floods of September 2010 in Southern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Mitton, Gregory B.; Kruse, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    During September 22-24, 2010, heavy rainfall ranging from 3 inches to more than 10 inches caused severe flooding across southern Minnesota. The floods were exacerbated by wet antecedent conditions, where summer rainfall totals were as high as 20 inches, exceeding the historical average by more than 4 inches. Widespread flooding that occurred as a result of the heavy rainfall caused evacuations of hundreds of residents, and damages in excess of 64 million dollars to residences, businesses, and infrastructure. In all, 21 counties in southern Minnesota were declared Federal disaster areas. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at nine U.S. Geological Survey and three Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages as a result of the heavy rainfall. Flood-peak gage heights, peak streamflows, and annual exceedance probabilities were tabulated for 27 U.S. Geological Survey and 5 Minnesota Department of Natural Resources streamgages and 5 ungaged sites. Flood-peak streamflows in 2010 had annual exceedance probabilities estimated to be less than 0.2 percent (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) at 7 streamgages and less than 1 percent (recurrence interval greater than 100 years) at 5 streamgages and 4 ungaged sites. High-water marks were identified and tabulated for the most severely affected communities of Faribault along the Cannon and Straight Rivers, Owatonna along the Straight River and Maple Creek, Pine Island along the North Branch and Middle Fork Zumbro River, and Zumbro Falls along the Zumbro River. The nearby communities of Hammond, Henderson, Millville, Oronoco, Pipestone, and Rapidan also received extensive flooding and damage but were not surveyed for high-water marks. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles for the four most severely affected communities were constructed in a geographic information system by combining high-water-mark data with the highest resolution digital elevation model data available. The flood maps and profiles show the extent and height of flooding through the communities and can be used for flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

  11. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  12. Distribution of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, P.S.; Da Costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Huchra, J.P.; Latham, D.W. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-03-01

    Observations in the southern galactic hemisphere in the declination range between -17.5 and 2.5 degrees are combined with other available observation. The data set is used to study the spatial distribution of galaxies of a contiguous area of 3.13 sr of the Southern Galactic Cap. An approximately homogeneous magnitude-limited sample of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap is constructed from different catalogs. The resulting large scale structure is similar to that of previous surveys in which bright galaxies are distributed on surfaces which intersect at sharp corners and nearly surround voids that are almost empty of galaxies. 29 refs.

  13. Circulation and transport processes in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, C.; Marino-Tapia, I.

    2013-05-01

    Transport processes in the southern Gulf of Mexico are determined from numerous combined forcing processes and have important environmental implications affecting the health and balance of this semi-enclosed system. The hydrodynamics and dispersion patterns resulting from different meteorological and oceanographic conditions in the southern Gulf of Mexico are studied through numerical modeling and in situ measurements. The numerical results using the baroclinic DELFT3D model, confirm general circulation patterns previously reported for the GOM and furthermore, revealed transport patterns previously unknown to occur in the southern GOM showing the high relevance of intense wind events in the surface currents and dispersion.

  14. Southern Sudan: an opportunity for NTD control and elimination?

    PubMed

    Rumunu, John; Brooker, Simon; Hopkins, Adrian; Chane, Fasil; Emerson, Paul; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2009-07-01

    Southern Sudan has been ravaged by decades of conflict and is thought to have one of the highest burdens of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in the world. Health care delivery, including efforts to control or eliminate NTDs, is severely hampered by a lack of infrastructure and health systems. However, the post-conflict environment and Southern Sudan's emerging health sector provide the unprecedented opportunity to build new, innovative programmes to target NTDs. This article describes the current status of NTDs and their control in Southern Sudan and outlines the opportunities for the development of evidence-based, innovative implementation of NTD control. PMID:19540164

  15. Distribution of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellegrini, P. S.; Da Costa, L. Nicolaci; Willmer, C. N. A.; Huchra, J. P.; Latham, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Observations in the southern galactic hemisphere in the declination range between -17.5 and 2.5 degrees are combined with other available observation. The data set is used to study the spatial distribution of galaxies of a contiguous area of 3.13 sr of the Southern Galactic Cap. An approximately homogeneous magnitude-limited sample of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap is constructed from different catalogs. The resulting large scale structure is similar to that of previous surveys in which bright galaxies are distributed on surfaces which intersect at sharp corners and nearly surround voids that are almost empty of galaxies.

  16. Menu of Gravettian people from southern Moravia.

    PubMed

    Nývltová-Fisáková, M

    2000-01-01

    There are a number of Upper Palaeolithic sites of Gravettian people in the southern Moravia. These people had eaten animals and their bones were used for creating artefacts. Their food was based on several species that lived in the vicinity of their settlement unit. The sites Dolní Vĕstonice II (Under Western Slope--UWS), IIa and III and Pavlov (1952, 1953, 1957 and 1958) have been studied to obtain a picture of the menu of Gravettian people in this region. Hunted animals fall into two groups, the first one includes those species hunted consistently and the second group those hunted occasionally. The following animals rank among the first group: mammoth, reindeer, horse, wolf, hare and fox. The second group includes bear, lion, wolverine, wildcat, lynx, deer, woolly rhinoceros and birds. The carnivores were hunted for their hides, fur and bones. The long bones of hunted animals were crushed for marrow. The proximal parts of bones were used for creating tools since distal parts of bones have been found predominantly. Teams of several hunters hunted herd animals. The rest of the species was hunted accidentally, some of them probably by hunting nets. PMID:15828198

  17. Observations of southern emission-line stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.

    1976-01-01

    A catalog of 1929 stars showing H-alpha emission on photographic plates is presented which covers the entire southern sky south of declination -25 deg to a red limiting magnitude of about 11.0. The catalog provides previous designations of known emission-line stars equatorial (1900) and galactic coordinates, visual and photographic magnitudes, H-alpha emission parameters, spectral types, and notes on unusual spectral features. The objects listed include 16 M stars, 25 S stars, 37 carbon stars, 20 symbiotic stars, 40 confirmed or suspected T Tauri stars, 16 novae, 14 planetary nebulae, 11 P Cygni stars, 9 Bep stars, 87 confirmed or suspected Wolf-Rayet stars, and 26 'peculiar' stars. Two new T associations are discovered, one in Lupus and one in Chamaeleon. Objects with variations in continuum or H-alpha intensity are noted, and the distribution by spectral type is analyzed. It is found that the sky distribution of these emission-line stars shows significant concentrations in the region of the small Sagittarius cloud and in the Carina region.

  18. Hydrocarbon prospects offshore southern West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, J.A.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Bate, K.J.; Whittaker, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Interpretation of regional seismic data acquired in the 1990s together with a re-appraisal of the wells drilled in the 1970s has lead to an appreciation that the southern West Greenland Basin is underexplored and may contain large quantities of hydrocarbons. The regional structure and stratigraphy of the basin has been worked out. An early phase of extension, probably in the Early Cretaceous, was followed by a thermal subsidence phase in the Late Cretaceous during which thick mudstones were deposited. Renewed extension and strike-slip faulting associated with the onset of sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea in the Early Tertiary lead to the formation of large structures capable of trapping large quantities of hydrocarbons. Flat spots have been identified in several prospects in the Fylla Structural Complex, which is presently open for licensing, and other large structural traps exist on the Kang{cflx a}miut Ridge and in the Ikermiut area. Stratigraphic traps exist in a large syn-rift fan of mid-Cretaceous age and in Lower Tertiary basin-floor fans. All of these after structures are found in an area with an {open_quotes}open-door{close_quotes} licensing policy.

  19. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  20. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  1. Remote Control Southern Hemisphere SSA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Sang, J.

    2013-09-01

    EOS Space Systems (EOSSS) is a research and development company which has developed custom observatories, camera and telescope systems for space surveillance since 1996, as well as creating several evolutions of systems control software for control of observatories and laser tracking systems. Our primary reserach observatory is the Space Reserach Centre (SRC) at Mount Stromlo Asutralia. The current SRC control systems are designed such that remote control can be offered for real time data collection, noise filtering and flexible session management. Several imaging fields of view are available simultaneously for tracking orbiting objects, with real time imaging to Mag 18. Orbiting objects can have the centroids post processed into orbital determination/ orbital projection (OD/OP) elements. With or without laser tracking of orbiting objects, they can be tracked in terminator conditions and their OD/OP data created, then enhanced by proprietary methods involving ballistic coefficient estimation and OD convergence pinning, using a priori radar elements. Sensors in development include a thermal imager for satellite thermal signature detection. Extending laser tracking range by use of adaptive optics beam control is also in development now. This Southern Hemisphere observatory is in a unique position to facilitate the study of space debris, either stand-alone or as part of a network such as Falcon. Current national and international contracts will enhance the remote control capabilities further, creating a resource ready to go for a wide variety of SSA missions.

  2. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

  4. Hydrocarbons exploration in east Siberia southern basins

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, V.S. )

    1991-08-01

    The vast Lena-Tunguska province in the heart of Siberia is among the world's largest and least explored frontier basins. Some encouraging exploration has nevertheless been carried out in the four southern subbasins: PrePatom (PreBaykal) trough, Nepa-Botuobin anticlise, PreSayan-Yenisey basin, and Angara-Lena terrace. Source rocks are essentially Proterozoic, but younger sediments may contribute about 10% of the region's oil potential. Riphean-Cambrian subsalt reservoirs contribute more than 90% of the hydrocarbons discovered, whereas Cambrian salt provides the most common regional seals. The main hydrocarbon later migration occurred in Vendian-Cambrian. Traps include clastic wedging out along favorable structures and carbonate reef-like buildups. Many traps were transformed or destroyed by the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic volcanic activity, whereas Hercynian overthrust tectonics developed new traps in the PrePatom trough. About 30 discoveries, mainly gas and condensates, have been made in the area, but operations are hampered by poor logistics and limited infrastructure.

  5. A model El Nino-Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebiak, Stephen E.; Cane, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean model is developed and used to study the ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) phenomenon. With no anomalous external forcing, the coupled model reproduces certain key features of the observed phenomenon, including the recurrence of warm events at irregular intervals with a preference for three to four years. It is shown that the mean sea surface temperature, wind and ocean current fields determine the characteristic spatial structure of ENSO anomalies. The tendency for phase-locking of anomalies is explained in terms of a variation in coupling strength associated with the annual cycle in the mean fields. Sensitivity studies reveal that both the amplitude and the time scale of the oscillation are sensitive to several parameters that affect the strength of the atmosphere-ocean coupling. Stronger coupling implies larger oscillations with a longer timescale. A critical element of the model oscillation is the variability in the equatorial heat content of the upper ocean. Equatorial heat content increases prior to warm events and decreases sharply during the events. A theory for this variability and the associated transitions between non-El Nino and El Nino states is presented. Implications of the model results for the prediction of El Nino events are discussed.

  6. ICESat Observations of Southern Alaska Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Molnia, Bruce F.; Mitchell, Darius

    2003-01-01

    In late February and March, 2003, the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) measured ice and land elevations along profiles across southern Alaska. During this initial data acquisition stage ICESat observations were made on 8-day repeat tracks to enable calibration and validation of the ICESat data products. Each profile consists of a series of single point values derived from centroid elevations of an $\\approx$70 m diameter laser footprint. The points are s4pakated by $\\approx$172 m along track. Data siets of 8-day observations (an ascending and descending ground track) crossed the Bering and Malaspina Glacier. Following its 1993--1995 surge; the Bering Glacier has undergone major terminus retreat as well as ike thinning in the abtation zone. During the later part of the 20th century, parts of the Malaspina thinned by about 1 m/yr. The multiple observation profiles across the Bering and Malaspina piedmont lobes obtained in February/March are being geolocated on Landsat images and the elevation profiles will be used for a number o scientific objectives. Based on our simulations of ICESat performance over the varied ice surface of the Jakobshavn Glacier of GReenland, 2003, we expect to measure annual, and possibly seasonal, ice elevation changes on the large Alaskan glaciers. Using elevation data obtained from a second laser, we plan to estimate ice elevation changes on the Bering Glacier between March and October 2003.

  7. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, C.; Murphy, T.; Ravi, V.; Hobbs, G.; Lo, K.; Ward, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 Southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1-2)R*, magnetic field inclination 20°-80°, field strength ˜10-200 G, and power-law electron density ˜104-108 cm-3. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio frequencies to 222. Analysing general trends of the radio emission for this sample of 15 sources, we find that the radio activity increases for later spectral types and more rapidly rotating objects. Furthermore, comparing the ratio of the radio to X-ray luminosities for these sources, we find 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544 violate the Güdel-Benz relation by more than two orders of magnitude.

  8. The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2013-04-01

    Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

  9. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Trey; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; Bania, Thomas M.; Balser, Dana S.; Dawson, Joanne; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass (OB-type) stars. They are among the brightest objects in the sky at radio wavelengths. HII regions provide a useful tool in constraining the Galactic morphological structure, chemical structure, and star formation rate. We describe the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), an Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) survey that discovered ~80 new HII regions (so far) in the Galactic longitude range 230 degrees to 360 degrees. This project is an extension of the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS), Arecibo HRDS, and GBT Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) HRDS, which together discovered ~800 new HII regions in the Galactic longitude range -20 degrees to 270 degrees. Similar to those surveys, candidate HII regions were chosen from 20 micron emission (from WISE) coincident with 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (SGPS) emission. By using the ATCA to detect radio continuum and radio recombination line emission from a subset of these candidates, we have added to the population of known Galactic HII regions.

  10. Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-24

    The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

  11. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  12. Nitrogen transformations in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. B.

    1987-06-01

    Oxidation and assimilation of ammonium and nitrate were measured in profiles from the surface to 1000 m at four stations in the Southern California Bight. Assimilative processes dominated the turnover of these nitrogen compounds in the nutrient depleted photic zone; however, at the bottom of the photic zone, nitrification and assimilation were equally important in the turnover of both compounds. Although ammonium oxidation was strongly inhibited by light in the surface samples, nitrification probably contributed to rapid nitrogen cycling within the photic zone. Assimilation of ammonium and nitrite, integrated over the photic zone, was about 3-fold greater than calculated regenerated production, estimated from 14CO 2 uptake measurements. Integrated nitrification rates below the photic zone usually exceeded new primary production estimates. Most ammonium oxidation occured in a discrete maximum around the depth of 0.2% surface light intensity; rates within the maximum exceeded rates in shallower and deeper samples by up to 80-fold. Nitrite oxidation rates exceeded ammonium oxidation rates, and did not display the prominent subsurface maximum found in the former. Abundance of both ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria varied less with depth than did oxidation rates. Autotrophic activity of the nitrifiers, measured by 14C-autoradiography combined with immunofluorescent counts, was minimal in the surface samples, and increased with depth, but was not directly correlated with nitrification rates, measured by 15N techniques.

  13. Going home: migration careers of southern Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Peil, M; Ekpenyong, S K; Oyeneye, O Y

    1988-01-01

    Using data on the career migration histories of 533 residents (over 60 years old) of 3 southern Nigerian cities and 471 residents (over 60 years old) of 21 villages within 30 km of these cities, this study compares nonmigrants, returnees, and immigrants on educational and occupational background and ages at 1st and last migration. Findings show that 1) a large majority intend to return home, but many never do; 2) the majority of returnees go home before retirement; 3) migrants over age 65, and especially over age 75, are unlikely to return home; 4) as education and opportunities expand, it is likely that the majority of present cohorts of migrants will spend most of their working lives away from home; 5) economic success may be used to build a house in the city to which one has migrated or to retire in one's home village; 6) most Nigerians look forward to self-employment which facilitates migration and a return home; 7) more widespread wage-employment, with compulsory retirement at age 60, may greatly change the age pattern of returns; and 8) automatic village care is declining as a large proportion of villagers spend their mature years away and those who remain behind may be unable to cope with the increasing number of old people, returnees, and nonmigrants; thus, movement to towns in old age is increasing, especially among women. PMID:12282085

  14. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  15. Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

    1981-05-04

    Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

  16. Lower Mississippian trilobites from southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three species of trilobites are recognized in the lower Mississippian Caballero and Lake Valley Formations of southern New Mexico. Species exhibit a segregation into shelf and off-shelf faunas, and can be subdivided into three distinct stratigraphic faunas. Species found in the Caballero Formation are similar to those found in the Chouteau Formation of Missouri. A second fauna, comprising species found in the Alamogordo, Nunn, and Tierra Blanca Members of the Lake Valley Formation, is correlated with the Fern Glen and Burlington Formations of Missouri. The third fauna found in the Arcente and Dona Aha Members of the Lake Valley Formation is correlated with the Warsaw and Salem Formations of the United States midcontinent region. Named species from the Kinderhookian Caballero Formation include: Dixiphopyge armata (Vogdes, 1891), Comptonaspis swallowi (Shumard, 1855), Brachymetopus indianwellsensis new species, Ameropiltonia perplexa new species, Griffithidella caballeroensis new species, and Kollarcephalus granatai new genus and new species. Named species from the Lake Valley Formation include: Pudoproetus fernglenensis (Weller, 1909), Breviphillipsia semiteretis Hessler, 1963, Griffithidella doris (Hall 1860), Phillibole planucauda (Brezinski, 1998), Piltonia carlakertisae new species, Australosutura llanoensis Brezinski, 1998, Thigriffides triangulatus new species, Thigriffides? alamogordoensis new species, Namuropyge newmexicoensis new species, Nunnaspis stitti new genus and new species, Hesslerides arcentensis new genus and new species, as well as an unnamed species of Proetides Hessler, 1962, Namuropyge Brezinski, 1988, and Thigriffides Hessler, 1965.

  17. Positive trends in Southern Hemisphere carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremser, Stefanie; Jones, Nicholas B.; Palm, Mathias; Lejeune, Bernard; Wang, Yuting; Smale, Dan; Deutscher, Nicholas M.

    2015-11-01

    Transport of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) from the troposphere to the stratosphere contributes sulfur to the stratospheric aerosol layer, which reflects incoming short-wave solar radiation, cooling the climate system. Previous analyses of OCS observations have shown no significant trend, suggesting that OCS is unlikely to be a major contributor to the reported increases in stratospheric aerosol loading and indicating a balanced OCS budget. Here we present analyses of ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer measurements of OCS at three Southern Hemisphere sites spanning 34.45°S to 77.80°S. At all three sites statistically significant positive trends are seen from 2001 to 2014 with an observed overall trend in total column OCS at Wollongong of 0.73 ± 0.03%/yr, at Lauder of 0.43 ± 0.02%/yr, and at Arrival Heights of 0.45 ± 0.05%/yr. These observed trends in OCS imply that the OCS budget is not balanced and could contribute to constraints on current estimates of sources and sinks.

  18. Southern meridional atmospheric circulation associated with IOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Chen, Hongxia

    2006-04-01

    Using the monthly wind and sea surface temperature (SST) data, southern meridional atmospheric circulation cells associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode (IOD) events in the Indian Ocean are for the first time described and examined. The divergent wind and pressure vertical velocity are employed for the identification of atmospheric circulation cells. During the four different phases of the positive IOD events, the anomalous meridional Hadley circulation over the western Indian Ocean shows that the air rises in the tropics, flows poleward in the upper troposphere, sinks in the subtropics, and returns back to the tropics in the lower troposphere. The anomalous Hadley circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean is opposite to that over the western Indian Ocean. During positive IOD events, the meridional Hadley circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean is weakened while it is strengthened over the western Indian Ocean. Correlation analysis between the IOD index and the indices of the Hadley cells also proves that, the atmospheric circulation patterns are evident in every IOD event over the period of record.

  19. A Southern Ocean mode of multidecadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bars, D.; Viebahn, J. P.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2016-03-01

    A 250 year simulation of a strongly eddying global version of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model reveals a new mode of intrinsic multidecadal variability, the Southern Ocean Mode (SOM), with a period of 40-50 year. The peak-to-peak difference in the global ocean heat content within a multidecadal cycle is up to 60 ZJ. This change results from surface heat flux variations in the South Atlantic and propagation of temperature anomalies along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and into the Weddell gyre around 30°E. The temperature anomalies propagate as deep as 5000 m along the isopycnals between 50°S and 30°S and induce multidecadal changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. A positive feedback loop between the generation of eddies through baroclinic instability and the dynamics of the mean circulation is essential for the existence of the SOM. The dominant physics appears similar to that responsible for variability found in a three-layer quasi-geostrophic eddy-resolving model. This combined with the fact that the SOM is not found in a noneddying version of the same global POP model further suggests that eddy processes are crucial for its existence and/or excitation.

  20. Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.

  1. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry. PMID:27026233

  2. The Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Schofield, C J; Dias, J C

    1999-01-01

    Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis) is now ranked as the most serious parasitic disease of the Americas, with an economic impact far outranking the combined effects of other parasitic diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Although the chronic infection remains virtually incurable, transmission can be halted by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and screening blood donors to avoid transfusional transmission. In line with this strategy, governments of the six Southern Cone countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay) launched in 1991 an ambitious initiative to control Chagas disease through elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans, and large-scale screening of blood donors. Now at its mid-point, the programme has achieved remarkable success, with transmission halted over vast areas of the previously endemic regions. Well over 2 million rural houses have been sprayed to eliminate T. infestans, and the programme has already shown significant economic rates of return in addition to the medical and social benefits. PMID:10050271

  3. Subtropical dipole mode in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.

    2010-12-01

    A global wavenumber-3 dipole SST mode is showed to exist in the Southern Hemisphere subtropical climate variability in austral summer. A positive (negative) phase of the mode is characterized by cool (warm) SST anomalies in the east and warm (cool) SST anomalies in the southwest of the south Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, respectively. This coherent dipole structure is largely a response of ocean mixed layer to the atmospheric forcing characterized by migration and modulation of the subtropical high-pressures, in which the latent heat flux play a leading role through wind-induced evaporation, although ocean dynamics may also be crucial in forming SST anomalies attached to the continents. Exploratory analyses suggest that this mode is strongly damped by the negative heat flux feedback, with a persistence time about three months and no spectral peak at interannual to decadal time scales. As the subtropical dipole mode is linearly independent of ENSO and SAM, whether it represents an additional source of climate predictability should be further studied.

  4. Intensifying groundwater acidification at Birkenes, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice

    1995-08-01

    Groundwater chemical data from Birkenes, southern Norway, collected during the period October 1980 to November 1993, reveal intensifying acidification in the 1990s, as evidenced by decreases in pH, acid-neutralising capacity and alkalinity, and increases in hardness/alkalinity ratio, 'acidification', nitrate, non-marine sulphate (SO 4∗), non-marine hardness (Ca ∗ + Mg ∗) and dissolved aluminium. The whole monitoring period is characterised by slopes of four or more on a plot of (Ca ∗ + Mg ∗) vs. alkalinity. Owing to its proximity to the sea, the Birkenes catchment receives seasalt-influenced precipitation, which results in episodic, natural acidification of the groundwater via cation exchange of marine Na + with soil-bound H + and/or Al 3+. However, it is uncertain whether all of the recent groundwater acidification can be attributed to intensifying seasalt deposition alone: the steep slopes on the (Ca ∗ + Mg ∗) vs. alkalinity plot and the increase in groundwater SO 4∗ suggest that strong acids, of possible anthropogenic origin, may be involved. Additionally, seasalt deposition appears not to have increased during the 1990s: Cl - content in precipitation has not increased significantly and river water pH has not decreased significantly over the period 1990-1993. The suggestion is made that the observed intensification in groundwater acidification at Birkenes partly results from the exhaustion or weakening of an acid buffering system caused by soil acidification, under persisting, even if abating, anthropogenic acid loading.

  5. Central corneal thickness in southern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Engy Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to determine mean central corneal thickness (CCT) in a southern Egyptian population according to gender and age using ultrasonic pachymetry and to compare these CCT measurements to different populations. A prospective, observational, consecutive case series of 4,368 non-glaucomatous subjects (emmetropes and myopes) aged 16-70 years was carried out from August 2010 to March 2013 at the outpatient ophthalmology clinic in Sohag University Hospital and the Laser Vision Center in Sohag City, Egypt. Refraction, keratometry, slit-lamp examination, and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were obtained for all subjects. CCT was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry. The average CCT was 530.06 ± 38.03 μm. Average CCT was 532.6 ± 33.3 μm in emmetropes, 531.5 ± 31.3 μm in myopes <6 diopters (D), 531.1 ± 31.4 μm in myopes >6 D and 533 ± 33 μm in hyperopes, with no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was a statistically significant difference in CCT between age groups and gender. There was a strong correlation between CCT and IOP among the non-glaucomatous population. CCT was found to be lower in Egyptians than in Caucasian, Hispanic, and Japanese populations but comparable to African and African American populations. PMID:24272277

  6. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  7. Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    From 2008–2010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:22108764

  8. Southern Ocean thermal response to the interrannual variability of the Southern Annular Mode.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sommer, J.; Penduff, T.; Treguier, A.-M.; Barnier, B.

    2009-04-01

    A major climate signal in the Southern Hemisphere is the strengthening and southward shift of the westerly wind belt associated with the SAM trend. The southern ocean response to this trend appears to be more complex than what low resolution ocean climate model would predict, with mesoscale eddies turning out to be a key ingredient in shaping the southern ocean thermal response to a higher SAM index. Nonetheless there is still much debate about the vertical structure of this eddy-induced response. In this study, we use a 50 years 1/4 hindcast ocean simulation performed during the DRAKKAR project to assess the role of the SAM and ENSO in driving the interrannual variability of heat and buoyancy budgets along streamlines in the ACC. A novel diagnostic approach related to ertel potential vorticity budgets is developed which allows for the estimation of tracer budgets along closed streamlines in a recirculating flow. This new technique is applied to establish budgets of heat and buoyancy for fictitious fluid parcels traveling at constant depth along the path of the ACC. The resulting budgets involve contributions associated with surface fluxes, eddy fluxes, local mixing, geostrophic advection and Ekman flow. At a given depth, interranual variations of tracers are due to one of these contributions deviating the fluid parcel from a natural state of balance. In the ACC belt, three different regimes corresponding respectively to the surface layers, to intermediate layers and to deep layers are identified and discussed. In particular, the diabatic contribution of mesoscale eddies is shown to be a key contribution to buoyancy budgets in the surface layers.

  9. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Kendrick, Katherine; Salin, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/-2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/-1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/-0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25-35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  10. Noise in GPS displacement measurements from Southern California and Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, John

    2008-05-01

    Time series of position changes estimated from data from 236 continuously recording GPS receivers operating in Southern California and Southern Nevada are evaluated for noise models that characterize their temporal correlations. The lengths of the time series range between 3.5 and 10 years. After adjusting these data for postseismic deformation, offsets, and annual periodicities, I find that about one-half of the time series have temporal correlations that are categorized as either flicker or random-walk noise. The remaining time series can be best categorized as either a combination of flicker and random-walk; power law noise; first-order Gauss-Markov plus random-walk noise; or power law plus broadband, seasonal noise. A variety of geodetic monuments are used in Southern California and Nevada, including deeply braced designs, cement piers, pins drilled in outcrop, and buildings. When I evaluate the noise for each time series in terms of an estimate of the standard error in velocity, I find that the sites with the smallest errors are those located in Nevada using deeply braced monuments. Sites that are installed within regions of active pumping, both for groundwater and oil, had the largest standard errors in velocity. Comparison of monument stability, as measured by standard error in rate, with average, annual rainfall nearby indicates a marginally significant correlation. In addition, even though regional filtering removed much of the common-mode signals in these time series, there still remains a common-mode seasonal signal which can and should be removed.

  11. Sediment Dynamics and Southern Steelhead Habitat (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Matilija Creek Watershed, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minear, J. T.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    Matilija Creek, one of two principal forks of the Ventura River, drains 142 km2 in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. Thanks to rapid tectonic uplift and weak clastic rocks, sediment yields exceed 1200 m3/km2 annually. Matilija Dam was built in 1947 with an initial capacity of 8 million m3 and is now nearly full of sediment. The dam is structurally unsafe, blocks anadromous fish migration, and is being considered for removal. The Ventura River has one of the southernmost runs of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with an average of approximately 2,500 annually migrating up Matilija Creek before the dam was built. The high sediment yields and highly variable flow regime have raised questions about the interactions among high flows, sediment transfer from lower order tributaries to the third order channels used by the fish, and fish life history. Previous studies in Southern California have documented sediment yields (especially following debris flows and fires, and mostly in the San Gabriel Mountains), but the interaction of geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in this highly episodic environment is not well understood. We used a combination of mapping and survey techniques, sediment traps, grain size analysis, lithologic analysis and scour rods to study intra-annual geomorphic processes and sediment dynamics affecting Southern Steelhead habitat in the Matilija Creek area in 16 study pools over the 2002 and 2003 flow seasons (dry and "normal", respectively) and found little sediment was deposited or scoured from pools. However, other processes not previously recognized significantly affected the steelhead habitat in the study pools including tufa cementation (carbonate deposition) and alder root growth in spawning gravels, as well as seasonal desiccation of some reaches. Removal of Matilija Dam will reopen suitable habitat to steelhead trout, but managers should recognize that habitat quality is likely to vary considerably from year-to-year, especially in response to episodic events.

  12. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    PubMed

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society. PMID:24646505

  13. 1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of southern quarry wall, facing west, showing multiple drill holes on face - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  15. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  16. VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  17. 5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the southeast portal looking north - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  18. The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Haumann, F Alexander; Rödenbeck, Christian; Bakker, Dorothee C E; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Metzl, Nicolas; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2015-09-11

    Several studies have suggested that the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean-the ocean's strongest region for the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 -has weakened in recent decades. We demonstrated, on the basis of multidecadal analyses of surface ocean CO2 observations, that this weakening trend stopped around 2002, and by 2012, the Southern Ocean had regained its expected strength based on the growth of atmospheric CO2. All three Southern Ocean sectors have contributed to this reinvigoration of the carbon sink, yet differences in the processes between sectors exist, related to a tendency toward a zonally more asymmetric atmospheric circulation. The large decadal variations in the Southern Ocean carbon sink suggest a rather dynamic ocean carbon cycle that varies more in time than previously recognized. PMID:26359401

  19. Exterior view of southern half of east porch, showing entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of southern half of east porch, showing entrance to second story of la casa, view towards the west - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  20. 10. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN HALF OF THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN HALF OF THE EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  1. 9. SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST SIDE, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST SIDE, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 221, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, South of D Street between First & Second Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 75 FR 60066 - Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...The Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Tucson, Arizona. The purpose of the meeting is for the committee members to discuss committee protocols, operating guidelines, and project proposal...

  3. 45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK TRUSSES AND CORRUGATED METAL SHEETING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR THE HOT BLAST STOVES OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 13. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEARING SEAT ON SOUTHERN PIER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEARING SEAT ON SOUTHERN PIER AND CONNECTION OF END POST AND LOWER CHORD; FACING SOUTHWEST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  6. Health Care Issues in Southern Rural Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Henrie M.

    1986-01-01

    High infant and maternal mortality, poverty, isolation, a shortage of health professionals, inadequate health care facilities, and difficult geographic access to care are some of the health-related problems that plague Black rural southerners. (GC)

  7. 21. View of southern span showing operating strut extending through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of southern span showing operating strut extending through the center channel in the concrete counterweight (see also photograph 20). - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation Company) ca. 1916, photographer unknown VIEW OF ORIGINAL PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY LYNWOOD SHELTER SHED - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING THE SOUTHERN FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING THE SOUTHERN FACADE OF THE NORTHERN-MOST CAR BARN (CONSTRUCTED 1893) AT CENTRAL AVENUE AND BOND STREET - Johnstown Passenger Railway Company, Car Barns, 726 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  10. 8. VIEW OF THREE BOATHOUSES FROM SOUTHERN END OF 'PENN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THREE BOATHOUSES FROM SOUTHERN END OF 'PENN AC ROWING ASSN' TO 'VESPER' RIVER FACADE, LOOKING EAST FROM WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER - Boathouse Row, East River Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  12. 3. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE PARKING LOT SHOWING THE SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE PARKING LOT SHOWING THE SOUTHERN FACE OF THE WATER TOWER STRUCTURE - Town of Lake Water Tower & Municipal Building, 4001 South Sixth Street, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  13. 30. Bronze plaque located on southern inner wall at east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Bronze plaque located on southern inner wall at east end of south pier taken looking southeast - Duluth Ship Canal, South Pier, North end of Minnesota Point & Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  14. 11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 75 FR 52715 - Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...The Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Tucson, Arizona. The purpose of the meeting is for the committee members to discuss committee protocols, operating guidelines, and project proposal...

  16. 4. DETAIL OF SOUTHERN MOST ARCHES, EASTERN ELEVATION. OPEN FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF SOUTHERN MOST ARCHES, EASTERN ELEVATION. OPEN FLOOD GATE VISIBLE WITHIN ARCH. VIEW TAKEN FROM UNDER 14TH STREET BRIDGE. - Tidal Reservoir, Outlet, Spanning Tidal Reservoir Outlet at Fourteenth Street Bridge, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 2. View northwest, east wall and south facade Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northwest, east wall and south facade - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Bakery, Between Harris & Black Avenues 0.1 mile west of McClellan Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  18. Satellite Movie Sees Southern California Storms - Duration: 43 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Jan. 5 through Jan 7 shows the progression of storm systems in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that hit southern California and generated flooding a...

  19. 20. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD HALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD HALL CONNECTING WITH CENTRAL ROOM. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  20. 31. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD TENSIONER DEVICE LOCATED ABOVE SOUTHERN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF OVERHEAD TENSIONER DEVICE LOCATED ABOVE SOUTHERN DOOR OF BUILDING 1. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  1. 9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD SOUTHERN SIDES OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT RIGHT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  2. 7. WINDOW DETAIL SOUTHERN WALL OF BUILDING. (SOUTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WINDOW DETAIL SOUTHERN WALL OF BUILDING. (SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 4 IS NOW WITHIN BUILDING 40 GARAGE.) - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  3. 22. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD DOORS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD DOORS AND WINDOWS. EARLY TENSION DEVICE VISIBLE ABOVE DOORWAY. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  4. 6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTH TOWARD SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 1. GARAGE ADDITION AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  5. 37. Mark A. Bookspan, photographer DOORS TO SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Mark A. Bookspan, photographer DOORS TO SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY OFFICE, EXIT HALL, LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. High HIV Rates for Gay Men in Some Southern Cities

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158914.html High HIV Rates for Gay Men in Some Southern Cities ... WEDNESDAY, May 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Rates of HIV infection among gay and bisexual men are approaching ...

  7. SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, WHICH DID NOT EXIST ON DURING SHIP BUILDING DAYS. NOTE VEHICLE ELEVATOR. ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT IS SHIP BUILDING BALCONY. - B Building, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  8. PARASITES IN SOUTHERN SLUDGES AND DISINFECTION BY STANDARD SLUDGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Major objectives were to: (a) assess types and densities of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges in the southern United States, (b) investigate the inactivation of parasites by lime stabilization of sewage sludges seeded with selected intestinal parasites, (c) assess convent...

  9. 6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY TOWARD UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  10. 23. VIEW SHOWING BROWN CONCRETE BLOCK STRUCTURES AND SOUTHERN EDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING BROWN CONCRETE BLOCK STRUCTURES AND SOUTHERN EDGE OF RADAR SITE Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Southern State Governments and Higher Education for Negroes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Winfred L.

    1971-01-01

    Southern state governments bear a heavy responsibility in view of the historic dualism at all levels of education in insuring equal higher educational opportunities and eliminating discrimination. (Author/SD)

  12. 8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  13. PRODUCTION IN COASTAL SALT MARSHES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Production ecology in southern California coastal salt marshes was investigated by harvesting macrophytes and monitoring environmental factors (substrate salinity, pH, nitrogen, redox, water content, temperature, and tide level) at four locations--Sweetwater River Estuary, Los Pe...

  14. TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL BETWEEN WEST BRANCH DROP AND GERKING FLUME. LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  15. 21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955 on Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  16. 26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  17. A theory for El Nino and the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Zebiak, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean model is presented for El Nino and the Southern Oscillation that reproduces its major features, including its recurrence at irregular intervals. The interannual El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle is maintained by deterministic interactions in the tropical Pacific region. Ocean dynamics alter sea-surface temperature, changing the atmospheric heating; the resulting changes in surface wind alter the ocean dynamics. Annually varying mean conditions largely determine the spatial pattern and temporal evolution of El Nino events.

  18. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  19. The Southern Cone: A critical element in North American geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D. . Inst. for Geophysics)

    1993-02-01

    The Pacific and Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico continental margins converge towards southern Mexico, delimiting the Southern Cone of North American. The margins are controlled by late Precambrian to early Paleozoic rift systems. The Neoproterozoic rifts along the Pacific margin truncate the 1.3--1.0 Ga Grenville-Llano front and still older structural boundaries within the craton, such as the Snowbird line. The Atlantic margin originated by separation from another continent within the Grenville orogen near the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Gulf of Mexico margin was initiated with rifting at that time, but appears to truncate the Ordovician Taconian orogen in Georgia. The continental margins of the Southern Cone may prove critical in understanding the origin of North America as a discrete continent. A possible continuation of the Grenville-Llano front has now been identified along the Pacific margin of the East Antarctic craton; the opposite side of the Grenville orogen may be present in South America and East Antarctic; a southern continuation of the Taconic Appalachians may have been identified in southern South American and Antarctica (L. Dalla Salda et al., Geology, 1992 a;b: I. Dalziel, Geology, 1991, and GSA Today, 1992; P. Hoffman, Science, 1991; E. Moores, Geology, 1991). Thus the geology of the Southern Cone of North America provides opportunities for critical testing of these globally important hypotheses, notably through geochronometry, isotope geochemistry, stratigraphy, and paleobiogeography. Conversely, East Antarctica, southern Africa, and the proto-Andean margin of South America may offer exciting opportunities to further understanding of pre-Pangea geology across southern North America.

  20. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  1. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563... Regulatory, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209 at...

  3. 78 FR 14400 - Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2013. It appears to the... securities of Southern USA Resources, Inc. (``Southern USA'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of... company's outstanding shares. Southern USA's securities are quoted on the OTC Link, operated by...

  4. 76 FR 31599 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On May 13, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... buffer zone at Southern Star's existing Alden Gas Storage Field located in Rice County, Kansas....

  5. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... is on file with the Commission and open for public inspection. Specifically, Southern Star...

  6. 75 FR 40802 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application July 8, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700... certificate issued on May 20, 2010 in docket number CP10-2-000. Specifically, Southern Star proposes...

  7. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star...). Southern Star seeks authorization to increase the Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) of its Waynoka...

  8. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star..., Chautauqua and Montgomery Counties, Kansas. Southern Star's prior notice request is more fully set forth...

  9. 77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56... Oklahoma and Logan Counties, Oklahoma (Line V). Southern Star states that due to the age of Line V and...

  10. 76 FR 67160 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On October 19, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy... vertically at Southern Star's existing Alden Gas Storage Field located in Rice County, Kansas. Subsequent...

  11. 78 FR 66915 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. Take notice that on October 21, 2013 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... in Johnson and Pettis Counties, Missouri, under authorization issued to Southern Star in Docket...

  12. 77 FR 28867 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56... buffer zone by 160 acres at Southern Star's existing McLouth Gas Storage Field in Jefferson...

  13. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... City, Missouri. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to replace 3 miles of 12-inch diameter XT...

  14. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to abandon...

  15. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  16. 76 FR 78636 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To... Alden Gas Storage Field by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County...?'' was attached to the project notice Southern Star provided to landowners and owners of mineral...

  17. 77 FR 59184 - Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory... Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Enbridge Pipelines (Southern Lights) LLC, filed a... committed capacity on the Southern Lights Pipeline, as set forth in Section 6.06 of the Southern...

  18. The Southern Ocean overturning: Parametrized Versus Permitted Eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, J. P.; Saenko, O.; Eby, M.; Weaver, A.

    2008-12-01

    Four versions of the same global climate model, with horizontal resolution ranging from 1.8 (degrees latitude) x 3.6 (degrees longitude) to 0.2x0.4, are employed to evaluate the resolution dependence of the Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation. At coarse resolutions North Atlantic deepwater tends to upwell diabatically at low-latitudes, so that the Southern Ocean is weakly coupled with the rest of the ocean. As resolution increases and eddy effects become less parametrized the interior circulation becomes nearly adiabatic and deep water increasingly upwells by flowing along isopycnals in the Southern Ocean, despite each model having the same vertical diffusivity profile. Separating the overturning circulation into mean and eddy-induced components demonstrates that the circulation induced by the permitted eddies also tends to be nearly adiabatic in the interior. In contrast, the circulation induced by the eddy parametrization scheme can have a strong diapycnal component and consequently may not represent the circulation pathway induced by permitted eddies. Changes in the Southern Ocean overturning in response to poleward intensifying southern hemisphere winds concomitant with increasing atmospheric CO2 through the 21st century are also investigated. Results suggest that the circulation associated with the formation of Antarctic Intermediate Water is likely to strengthen, or stay essentially unchanged, rather than to slow down. It is also found that for some density classes the transformation rate derived from surface buoyancy fluxes can provide a proxy for the meridional transport in the upper Southern Ocean.

  19. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: II

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura A.; Barton, Mafalda; Lozano, Dora Isabel; Raine, Adrian; Fowler, James H.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register was initiated in 1984 at the University of Southern California, and continues to grow. This article provides an update of the register since it was described in the 2002 special issue of this journal. The register has expanded considerably in the past 4 years, primarily as a result of recent access to Los Angeles County birth records and voter registration databases. Currently, this register contains nearly 5000 twin pairs, the majority of whom are school age. The potential for further expansion in adult twins using voter registration records is also described. Using the Los Angeles County voter registration database, we can identify a large group of individuals with a high probability of having a twin who also resides in Los Angeles County. In addition to describing the expansion of register, this article provides an overview of an ongoing investigation of 605 twin pairs who are participating in a longitudinal study of behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, indicating baseline rates of conduct problems, depression and anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnoses which are comparable to nontwins in this age range. PMID:17254433

  20. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: II.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura A; Barton, Mafalda; Lozano, Dora Isabel; Raine, Adrian; Fowler, James H

    2006-12-01

    The Southern California Twin Register was initiated in 1984 at the University of Southern California, and continues to grow. This article provides an update of the register since it was described in the 2002 special issue of this journal. The register has expanded considerably in the past 4 years, primarily as a result of recent access to Los Angeles County birth records and voter registration databases. Currently, this register contains nearly 5000 twin pairs, the majority of whom are school age. The potential for further expansion in adult twins using voter registration records is also described. Using the Los Angeles County voter registration database, we can identify a large group of individuals with a high probability of having a twin who also resides in Los Angeles County. In addition to describing the expansion of register, this article provides an overview of an ongoing investigation of 605 twin pairs who are participating in a longitudinal study of behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, indicating baseline rates of conduct problems, depression and anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnoses which are comparable to non-twins in this age range. PMID:17254433