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1

Geology of the Gorny Altai subduction–accretion complex, southern Siberia: Tectonic evolution of an Ediacaran–Cambrian intra-oceanic arc-trench system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gorny Altai region in southern Siberia is one of the key areas in reconstructing the tectonic evolution of the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This region features various orogenic elements of Late Neoproterozoic–Early Paleozoic age, such as an accretionary complex (AC), high-P\\/T metamorphic (HP) rocks, and ophiolite (OP), all formed by ancient subduction–accretion processes. This

Tsutomu Ota; Atsushi Utsunomiya; Yuko Uchio; Yukio Isozaki; Mikhail M. Buslov; Akira Ishikawa; Shigenori Maruyama; Koki Kitajima; Yoshiyuki Kaneko; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Ikuo Katayama

2007-01-01

2

Geology of the Gorny Altai subduction accretion complex, southern Siberia: Tectonic evolution of an Ediacaran Cambrian intra-oceanic arc-trench system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gorny Altai region in southern Siberia is one of the key areas in reconstructing the tectonic evolution of the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This region features various orogenic elements of Late Neoproterozoic Early Paleozoic age, such as an accretionary complex (AC), high-P/T metamorphic (HP) rocks, and ophiolite (OP), all formed by ancient subduction accretion processes. This study investigated the detailed geology of the Upper Neoproterozoic to Lower Paleozoic rocks in a traverse between Gorno-Altaisk city and Lake Teletskoy in the northern part of the region, and in the Kurai to Chagan-Uzun area in the southern part. The tectonic units of the studied areas consist of (1) the Ediacaran (=Vendian) Early Cambrian AC, (2) ca. 630 Ma HP complex, (3) the Ediacaran Early Cambrian OP complex, (4) the Cryogenian Cambrian island arc complex, and (5) the Middle Paleozoic fore-arc sedimentary rocks. The AC consists mostly of paleo-atoll limestone and underlying oceanic island basalt with minor amount of chert and serpentinite. The basaltic lavas show petrochemistry similar to modern oceanic plateau basalt. The 630 Ma HP complex records a maximum peak metamorphism at 660 °C and 2.0 GPa that corresponds to 60 km-deep burial in a subduction zone, and exhumation at ca. 570 Ma. The Cryogenian island arc complex includes boninitic rocks that suggest an incipient stage of arc development. The Upper Neoproterozoic Lower Paleozoic complexes in the Gorno-Altaisk city to Lake Teletskoy and the Kurai to Chagan-Uzun areas are totally involved in a subhorizontal piled-nappe structure, and overprinted by Late Paleozoic strike-slip faulting. The HP complex occurs as a nappe tectonically sandwiched between the non- to weakly metamorphosed AC and the OP complex. These lithologic assemblages and geologic structure newly documented in the Gorny Altai region are essentially similar to those of the circum-Pacific (Miyashiro-type) orogenic belts, such as the Japan Islands in East Asia and the Cordillera in western North America. The Cryogenian boninite-bearing arc volcanism indicates that the initial stage of arc development occurred in a transient setting from a transform zone to an incipient subduction zone. The less abundant of terrigenous clastics from mature continental crust and thick deep-sea chert in the Ediacaran Early Cambrian AC may suggest that the southern Gorny Altai region evolved in an intra-oceanic arc-trench setting like the modern Mariana arc, rather than along the continental arc of a major continental margin. Based on geological, petrochemical, and geochronological data, we synthesize the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic tectonic history of the Gorny Altai region in the western CAOB.

Ota, Tsutomu; Utsunomiya, Atsushi; Uchio, Yuko; Isozaki, Yukio; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Ishikawa, Akira; Maruyama, Shigenori; Kitajima, Koki; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Katayama, Ikuo

2007-07-01

3

A Vendian-Cambrian Island Arc System of the Siberian Continent in Gorny Altai (Russia, Central Asia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extended Vendian-Cambrian island-arc system similar to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana type is described in the Gorny Altai terrane at the margin of the Siberian continent.Three different tectonic stages in the terrane are recognized. (1) A set of ensimatic active margins including subducted oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian ocean, the Uimen-Lebed primitive island arc, oceanic islands and seamounts: the set of rocks

M. M. Buslov; T. Watanabe; I. Yu. Saphonova; K. Iwata; A. Travin; M. Akiyama

2002-01-01

4

The oldest mid-oceanic carbonate buildup complex: Setting and lithofacies of the Vendian (Late Neoproterozoic) Baratal limestone in the Gorny Altai Mountains, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baratal limestone in the Gorny Altai Mountains, southern Siberia, occurs as large allochthonous blocks within a Cambrian accretionary complex that developed around the Siberia craton. Before the final accretion to Siberia in the Cambrian, the terrigenous clastic-free Baratal limestone was deposited directly upon a basaltic basement with a geochemical signature identical to that of modern oceanic plateau. The Baratal limestone with 598+/-25 Ma (Early Vendian) Pb-Pb isochron age consists of three distinct facies; 1) massive lime mudstone with ooids and stromatolites, 2) bedded lime mudstone, and 3) limestone conglomerate/breccia dominated by ooid-bearing lime mudstone clasts. The first represents a shallow marine environment on top of an ancient oceanic plateau, while the latter two represent the deeper slope to bottom-of-slope facies of a plateau. The Vendian Baratal limestone provides the oldest example of a reconstructed shallow marine carbonate buildup complex developed on a plateau/seamount in a mid-ocean.

Uchio, Y.; Isozaki, Y.; Ota, T.; Utsunomiya, A.; Buslov, M. M.; Maruyama, S.

5

A Few Issues on the Peat Research in the Altai Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of

Lydia I. Inisheva; Galina Larina; Maya Shurova

2010-01-01

6

Habitat requirements of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus) in the southern Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-tailed ground squirrels Spermophilus undulatus represent the most abundant burrowing herbivorous species in the southern Altai grasslands and are suggested to play an important role in the maintenance of this mountain ecosystem. The aim of this study was to identify the key features that influence their habitat use in the southern part of the Altai Republic (south-west Siberia, Russia).

V. Ricankova; Z. Fric; J. Chlachula; P. Stastna; A. Faltynkova; F. Zemek

2006-01-01

7

mtDNA Variation in the Altai-Kizhi Population of Southern Siberia: A Synthesis of Genetic Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native peoples of Gorno Altai in southern Siberia represent a genetically diverse population and have been of great interest to anthropological genetics. In particular, the southern Altaian population is argued to be the best candidate for the New World ancestral population. In this study we sampled Altai-Kizhi from the southern Altaian village of Mendur- Sokkon, analyzed mtDNA RFLP markers

Christine Phillips-Krawczak; Eric Jeffrey Devor; Mark Zlojutro; Kristin A. Moffat-Wilson; Michael H. Crawford

2006-01-01

8

[Age-related changes in blood plasma antioxidant activity in population of the southern Altai].  

PubMed

The blood plasma antioxidant activity was studied in the Russian and Kazakh aborigines of the southern Altai low and high mountains. There was established a decrease of the blood plasma antioxidant activity with age and a relatively low plasma antioxidant activity in the mid-mountain population; in its senior age groups, the gender differences of this parameter were revealed. PMID:22645974

Chanchaev, E A; A?zman, R I

9

MtDNA variation in the Altai-Kizhi population of southern Siberia: a synthesis of genetic variation.  

PubMed

The native peoples of Gorno Altai in southern Siberia represent a genetically diverse population and have been of great interest to anthropological genetics. In particular, the southern Altaian population is argued to be the best candidate for the New World ancestral population. In this study we sampled Altai-Kizhi from the southern Altaian village of Mendur-Sokkon, analyzed mtDNA RFLP markers and HVS-I sequences, and compared the results to other published mtDNA data from Derenko et al. (2003) and Shields et al. (1993) encompassing the same region. Because each independent study uses different sampling techniques in characterizing gene pools, in this paper we explore the accuracy and reliability of evolutionary studies on human populations. All the major Native American haplogroups (A, B, C, and D) were identified in the Mendur-Sokkon sample, including a single individual belonging to haplogroup X. The most common mtDNA lineages are C (35.7%) and D (13.3%), which is consistent with the haplogroup profiles of neighboring Siberian groups. The Mendur-Sokkon sample exhibits depressed HVS-I diversity values and neutrality test scores, which starkly differs from the Derenko et al. (2003) data set and more closely resembles the results for neighboring south Siberian groups. Furthermore, the multidimensional scaling plot of DA genetic distances does not cluster the Altai samples, showing different genetic affinities with various Asian groups. The findings underscore the importance of sampling strategy in the reconstruction of evolutionary history at the population level. PMID:17278622

Phillips-Krawczak, Christine; Devor, Eric; Zlojutro, Mark; Moffat-Wilson, Kristin; Crawford, Michael H

2006-08-01

10

Distribution of Active Faults and Recent Earthquake Ruptures along the Gobi-Altai Active Fault Zone, Southern Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gobi-Altai earthquake of 4 December 1957 in southern Mongolia is one of the largest recorded intracontinental earthquakes in the world. The surface ruptures associated with this M8.3 earthquake extend for about 260 km long and 40 km wide, involving strike-slip and reverse faulting (Kurushin et al., 1997). Earthquake ruptures appeared along a limited portion of the entire Gobi-Altai fault zone. West of the 1957 rupture zone, surface ruptures during historical and prehistrical earthquakes have been reported. Khil?fko and others (1985) reported surface deformation along the southern slope of the Bayan Tsagaan Mountains produced during the earthquake of 7 April 1958. They also identified two more Holocene rupture zones: west-northwest of the Bayan Tsagaan rupture near the village of Chandman, and west-northwest of the Chandman rupture near the village of Myangayn. However, previous studies do not discuss relationship between the distributions of active faults and earthquake ruptures along the entire active fault zone, because the exact location of the pre-existing active fault traces has not been mapped on large-scale maps. We have made distribution map of active fault traces based on interpretation of stereo-pair CORONA satellite photographs, which were taken between 1959 and 1972 for military intelligence during Cold War period. We also observed fault scarps in the field and made geomorphic profiles across the fault scarps. We were able to detect a lot of recent surface ruptures including the 1957 earthquake rupture, the Bayan Tsagaan, Chandman and Myangayn ruptures along the active fault traces. Fault scarps of these ruptures cross fluvial terraces of late Pleistocene as well as present riverbeds continuously. This indicates some of the active faults recently ruptured during a relatively short period. On the other hand, there exists an approximately 100-km-long portion between the 1957 and Chandman ruptures that has not displaced recent fluvial terraces, indicating that this portion did not recently rupture, probably during the 19th or 20th century.

Sugito, N.; Goto, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Ishiguro, S.; Hirouchi, D.; Tsutsumi, H.; Enkhtaivan, D.; Batkhishig, O.; Narangerel, S.; Purevsuren, N.; Avirmed, E.; Otgonbayar, M.; Sukhbaatar, O.

2007-12-01

11

Late Glacial and Holocene vegetational changes on the Ulagan high-mountain plateau, Altai Mountains, southern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three well-dated pollen diagrams from 1985 m, 2050 m, and at the tree line at 2150 m asl show the vegetational succession in the central Altai Mountains since 16 cal ka BP. Pioneer vegetation after deglaciation was recorded first at the lowest site. Subsequently, dense dry steppe vegetation developed coincident with the change from silt to organic sediments at the

T. a. Blyakharchuk; H. e. Wright; P. s. Borodavko; W. o. Van Der Knaap; B. Ammann

2004-01-01

12

Late Glacial and Holocene vegetational changes on the Ulagan high-mountain plateau, Altai Mountains, southern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three well-dated pollen diagrams from 1985 m, 2050 m, and at the tree line at 2150 m asl show the vegetational succession in the central Altai Mountains since 16 cal ka BP. Pioneer vegetation after deglaciation was recorded first at the lowest site. Subsequently, dense dry steppe vegetation developed coincident with the change from silt to organic sediments at the

T. A. Blyakharchuka; H. E. Wrightb; B. Ammannd; SB RAS

13

Glacier-dammed lakes and geological work of glacial superfloods in the Late Pleistocene, Southern Siberia, Altai Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quaternary glacier-dammed lakes of Southern Siberia produced cataclysmic superfloods-floodstreams at the initial and final glacial stages, when the ice dams were unstable. Consequently, the initial surface was greatly and geologically instantly transformed. Morphologic associations of mountainous scablands developed, similar to the diluvial complexes of the Channeled Scabland in North America: giant diluvial ramparts and terraces-bars, diluvial berms and giant current

Alexei N Rudoy

2002-01-01

14

The Kalguty complex deposit, the Gorny Altai: Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics and fluid regime of ore formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of detailed mineralogical, geochemical, and thermobarogeochemical studies of the Kalguty complex greisen deposit\\u000a are presented. The chemical compositions of ore veins, greisens, and other geological bodies have been determined. A wide\\u000a range of chemical elements from Li to U (48 elements, including noble metals and REE) has been determined in ore minerals.\\u000a Graphite in association with quartz and

A. A. Potseluev; D. I. Babkin; V. I. Kotegov

2006-01-01

15

The oldest (Early Ediacaran) Sr isotope record of mid-ocean surface seawater: Chemostratigraphic correlation of a paleo-atoll limestone in southern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By examining Sr isotope stratigraphy of the Ediacaran paleo-atoll limestone in southern Siberia, we first demonstrated the surface seawater information from the lost Ediacaran (late Neoproterozoic) oceans. The Ediacaran Baratal limestone in the Gorny Altai Mountain in Siberia is a remnant of a mid-oceanic paleo-atoll complex developed on a paleo-seamount. Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) from the basal 20 m-thick interval of the Baratal limestone vary mostly by 0.7069–0.7079, and these show a generally increasing trend upsection. The relatively low Sr ratios indicate that mid-oceanic seawater, i.e. global seawater, was more influenced by hydrothermal activities along mid-oceanic ridges rather than continental erosion during the Ediacaran. A chemostratigraphical correlation with the hitherto known secular change in Sr isotope suggests that the basal Baratal limestone was deposited particularly in the Early Ediacaran. This timing corresponds to the immediate aftermath of the Neoproterozoic (Marinoan) snowball Earth event. The relatively low Sr isotope ratios and the increasing trend upsection are concordant with the onset of continental erosion during the deglaciation during the Early Ediacaran.

Nohda, Susumu; Wang, Bo-Shian; You, Chen-Feng; Isozaki, Yukio; Uchio, Yuko; Buslov, Michael M.; Maruyama, Shigenori

2013-11-01

16

Polymorphism of the Y-Chromosome Diallelic Loci in Ethnic Groups of the Altai–Sayan Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the data on five diallellic Y-chromosome loci (DYS199,92R7, SRY1532, RBF5, and DYS287) polymorphism, genetic structures of the five Turkic-speaking ethnic groups of the Altai–Sayan upland (Tuvinians, Sojots, Shorians, Khakassians, and Southern Altaians (Altai-Kizhi), were described. The gene pools of the populations examined were characterized by the presence of pronounced paleo-Caucasoid component (92R7-T-lineages). The frequency of this component increased westward,

M. V. Derenko; B. A. Malyarchuk; G. A. Denisova; Ch. M. Dorzhu; O. N. Karamchakova; F. A. Luzina; E. A. Lotosh; I. K. Dambueva; U. N. Ondar; I. A. Zakharov

2002-01-01

17

Evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Altai-Sayan Region, Central Asia) and collision of possible Gondwana-derived terranes with the southern marginal part of the Siberian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and integrates new results on the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and its related geodynamics and geology\\u000a of Altai-Sayan Region (ASR) in Central Asia. A revised terrane classification based on Vendian-Cambrian geodynamic units and\\u000a evolution of terranes is described. Reactivated suture zones along the terrane boundaries are proposed. The obtained data\\u000a suggest the important role of strike-slip

M. M. Buslov; I. Yu. Saphonova; T. Watanabe; O. T. Obut; Y. Fujiwara; K. Iwata; N. N. Semakov; Y. Sugai; L. V. Smirnova; A. Yu. Kazansky

2001-01-01

18

Ice-Period on the Altai Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is generally assumed that in the Altai Range there are no traces of so-called ice-ages. Hitherto, however, only ridges on the borders of the Altai Mountains have been examined. The geological phenomena of the mid-Altaic regions are still almost quite unknown. In the course of last summer it happened to me to visit some parts of the south Altaic

A. Bialoveski

1887-01-01

19

Aktashite Cu6Hg3As4S12 from the Aktash deposit, Altai, Russia: Refinement and crystal chemical analysis of the structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and structure of aktashite from the Aktash deposit, Gorny Altai, Russia, have been studied by electron microprobe and X-ray structural analysis. On the basis of close compositions and crystal structures, the identity of aktashite from the Gal-Khaya and Aktash deposits has been demonstrated. Crystals of aktashite are of trigonal symmetry; the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 13.7500(4), c = 9.3600(3) Å, V = 532.54(8) Å3, space group R3, Z = 3 for the composition of Cu6Hg3As4S12, R = 0.043. The structure of aktashite as a framework of vertex-shared HgS4- and CuS4- tetrahedrons of the same orientation is intimately related to the sphalerite-type structure. The earlier identified uncommon cluster group [As4] has been verified and its parameters have been refined. It is shown that the structure may be represented as construction blocks (As4S12)12- packed according to the law of the distorted cubic I-cell.

Vasil'Ev, V. I.; Pervukhina, N. V.; Borisov, S. V.; Magarill, S. A.; Naumov, D. Yu.; Kurat'eva, N. V.

2010-12-01

20

Mountain building processes in intraplate, intracontinental oblique deformation belts: Lessons from the Gobi Altai, Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gobi Altai is an intraplate, intracontinental transpressional orogen in southern Mongolia that formed in the Late Cenozoic as a distant response to the Indo-Eurasia collision. The modern range formed within crust constructed by successive terrane accretion and ocean suturing events and widespread granite plutonism throughout the Palaeozoic. Modern reactivation of the Gobi Altai crust and the kinematics of Quaternary faults are fundamentally controlled by Palaeozoic basement structural trends, the location of rigid Precambrian blocks, orientation of SHmax and possible thermal weakening of the lower crust due to an extensive history of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the region, and the presence of thermally elevated asthenosphere under the Hangay Dome to the north. Modern mountain building processes in the Gobi Altai typically involve reactivation of NW-striking basement structures in thrust mode and development of linking E-W left-lateral strike-slip faults which crosscut basement structures within an overall left-lateral transpressional regime. Restraining bends, other transpressional ridges and thrusted basement blocks are the main range type, but are discontinuously distributed and separated by internally drained basins filling with modern alluvial deposits. Unlike a contractional thrust belt, there is no orogenic foreland or hinterland, and thrusts are both NE and SW directed with no evidence for a basal decollement. Normal faults related to widespread Cretaceous rifting in the region are locally thrust reactivated in the NE Gobi Altai, but elsewhere appear to be unfavourably oriented for Late Cenozoic reactivation despite widespread topographic inversion of Cretaceous basin sequences. The diffuse historical seismicity in the region coupled with a complex system of interacting faults showing evidence for Quaternary movements, suggests that faults may be dormant for long periods and then reactivate. Large earthquakes may be episodic and spatially migrating, therefore inter-plate earthquake recurrence models are unlikely to apply. Because the Gobi Altai is an actively developing youthful mountain range in an arid region with low precipitation rates, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Mountain fronts active in the Quaternary are easily identified by a 'quartet' of geomorphological features including: 1) an aggrading alluvial fan complex directly at the front, 2) a visible fault scarp cutting Quaternary fan sediments, 3) low mountain front sinuosity, 4) low valley floor-width/valley-height ratios in rugged canyons exiting the range along the faulted front. The Gobi Altai provides an excellent opportunity to study the way a continental interior reactivates due to a distant continental collision. In addition, it offers important insights into how other more advanced intracontinental transpressional orogens may have developed during earlier stages of their evolution.

Cunningham, D.

2012-04-01

21

Structural control on Meso-Cenozoic tectonic reactivation and denudation in the Siberian Altai: Insights from multi-method thermochronometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberian Altai forms part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and currently is an active intracontinental mountain belt. This Siberian Altai orogen was shaped during multiple phases of intense mountain building and associated denudation throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. We performed a multi-method thermochronometric study on the Altai basement in Siberia in order to distinguish these denudation episodes and to place them in an absolute time-frame. Our data shows that inherited suture zones, such as the Charysh-Terekta-Ulagan-Sayan suture, played a dominant role during this episodic deformation in the Altai. Titanite fission track results reveal Late Triassic-Early Jurassic cooling, which is best expressed in intrusions close to the suture zone. Apatite fission track (AFT) results reveal a second phase of steady basement cooling during the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous. In the suture, AFT and additional apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) data reveal a consistent Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene phase of fast cooling. We interpret the Mesozoic cooling signals as far-field effects of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogeny. The intense Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene basement cooling signal in the suture zone can be explained as a result of fault-reactivation during the collapse of this orogen and the subsequent re-organization of crustal blocks. During most of the Palaeogene and Early Neogene, basement cooling stagnated, indicating tectonic quiescence. Neogene AHe ages for the Kurai Range, directly adjacent to the suture may reflect renewed rapid cooling as a result of denudation of the present-day Altai mountains. We interpret this most recent cooling as an indirect consequence of stress-propagation from the India-Eurasia collision into the CAOB interior, which thus reached as far as southern Siberia. This study further demonstrates the importance of thermochrological studies on intrusions along major fault-zones in order to date and distinguish fault-reactivation episodes.

Glorie, S.; De Grave, J.; Buslov, M. M.; Zhimulev, F. I.; Elburg, M. A.; Van den haute, P.

2012-05-01

22

Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Chinese Altai, central Asia: new insights from microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai Orogen, extending from Russia, through northeast Kazakhstan and northwest China, to western and southern Mongolia, occupies a pivotal position in understanding the accretionary process of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and has drawn much attention in recent years. However, its orogenic evolution remains poorly constrained, because previous studies were mainly focused on the geochronological and geochemical signatures and much less work has been done on metamorphic and structural studies. Metamorphic rocks widely occur in the southern Altai Range and have previously been separated into high-T/low-P and medium-P types. Recent studies demonstrated that these two kinds of rocks may have similar protoliths, i.e. early Paleozoic arc-related assemblages, but experienced different metamorphic histories. The development of biotite, garnet, staurolite and kyanite metamorphic zonal sequences in the low- to medium- grade rocks, demonstrate typical medium-pressure metamorphism that has been suggested as a major consequence of the orogenesis. The high-T/low-P metamorphism, represented by the growth of garnet+cordierite+sillimanite+k-feldspar and was accompanied by extensive anatexis, remains its tectonic significance poorly constrained. Field structural investigation in the Chinese Altai reveals that the high-T/low-P metamorphic rocks have major S-L fabrics (defined by the strongly aligned biotite and sillimanite) exactly in the same orientations as those developed in the associated medium-P grade rocks. Geochronological studies constrain the major fabrics in both kinds of rocks developed during mid-Devonian, coeval with the strong magmatism in the region. Micro-structural investigation on both kinds of rocks show similar prograde metamorphic history featured by clockwise P-T path evolution. Phase equilibrium modeling in the MnNCKFMASH system indicates that the development of major fabrics in the medium-P metamorphic rocks mainly recorded the notable increase of pressure and that in the high-T rocks was featured by the significant increase of temperature. The pressure increase could attribute to the progressive crustal thickening that may be correlated to the accretionary regime of the southern Altai in the mid-Devonian and the high temperature conditions most likely imply a significant heat input from the deep depth, consistent with the syn-chronologically emplacement of juvenile magmas on a large scale. Our study indicates the development of high-T metamorphism was genetically linked with that of the medium-P metamorphism and suggests that the crustal thickening during the orogenic process of the Altai region was accompanied by large heat input. This study is supported by Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P), National Science Foundation of China (41273048), IGCP #592 Project "Continental construction in Central Asia" and Research grant of State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SKLIG-KF-12-06) .

Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Jian; Schulmann, Karel; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun

2013-04-01

23

Temperature response in the Altai region lags solar forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the sun on Earth's climate variability is still much debated. Here we present an ice core oxygen isotope record from the continental Siberian Altai, serving as a high-resolution temperature proxy for the last 750 years. The strong correlation between reconstructed temperature and solar activity suggests solar forcing as a main driver for temperature variations during the period

Anja Eichler; Susanne Olivier; Keith Henderson; Andreas Laube; Jürg Beer; Tatyana Papina; Heinz W. Gäggeler; Margit Schwikowski

2009-01-01

24

[Origin of caucasoid-specific mitochondrial DNA lineages in the ethnic populations of the Altai-Sayan region].  

PubMed

The data on sequence variation in the first hypervariable segment (HVSI) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) representing Caucasoid mtDNA lineages in the gene pools of Altaians and Khakassians are presented. Identification of the subgroups of Caucasoid mtDNA lineages found in the gene pools of the ethnic populations of the Altai-Sayan region and the adjacent territories, Altaians, Khakassians, Tuvinians, Buryats, and Yakuts was carried out. All Caucasoid mtDNA lineages belonged to groups H, HV1, J*, J1, J1b1, T1, T4, U1a, U2, U3, U4, U5a1, I, X and N1a. Taking into consideration possible contribution of southern Caucasoid and eastern European components to the formation of the anthropological type of Altai-Sayan ethnic populations, distribution of the revealed Caucasoid mtDNA lineages among the ethnic populations of the Central Asia, Western Asia, Caucasus, and Eastern Europe was examined. The applied approach permitted identification of 60% of mtDNA types the majority of which had southern Caucasoid origin. Less than 10% of mtDNA types were of eastern European origin. The gene pools of Altaians and Khakassians displayed the presence of autochthonous components represented by mtDNA types from subgroups U2 and U4. PMID:12391892

Derenko, M V; Maliarchuk, B A; Zakharov, I A

2002-09-01

25

[Toxocariasis in the Republic of Altai. Geoinformation mapping simulation].  

PubMed

Toxocariasis is one of the most important zooanthroponotic natural-focal parasitic diseases in the Republic of Altai. The prevalence of their invasion among the inhabitants of the Republic has increased by more than 7 times. The data of the authors' observations ofToxocara infection in animals (cats, dogs), soil contamination with helminth eggs, and prevalence of human toxocariasis in the Republic of Altai, by considering the results of tests for antibodies against its pathogen in the inhabitants of the region, were automatically processed using geoinformation mapping simulation, which yielded a mapping model to rank the region's area by morbidity rates. The use of up-to-date computers and geo information systems makes it possible to systematize information on this invasion and to see major foci of the disease to reveal the reasons for their assignment to the specific type of the region's landscape. PMID:23437715

Pautova, E A; Kurepina, N Iu; Dovgalev, A S

26

Prime Astroarchaeological Researches near Mountain Monastyri in the Western Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Western Altai, 50 km southward from the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk, at the same latitude as the Ak-Baur sanctuary, another interesting complex of ancient objects was examined in 2006-2007. This complex consists of a grotto, ``spotty'' stone and platforms with holes. In the grotto anthropomorphic and geometric drawings madein red ochre were found. The centre of the composition schematically

L. Marsadolov; N. Dmitrieva

2009-01-01

27

Altai wolf phylogeography ( Canis lupus L.) studied by microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic positions, origin, and kinship of various forms of the Altai gray wolf remain debatable. A protocol for simple\\u000a sequence repeat analysis, which is among the basic tools in phylogeographical studies, has been developed and tested. The\\u000a study was conducted with 97 gray wolf (Canis lupus L.) individuals from populations inhabiting the plain-steppe, foothill forest-steppe, and mountain-taiga ecotopes of

E. A. Vorobyevskaya; S. N. Baldina

2011-01-01

28

Cryobiological ice core analyses in Altai Mountains, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganism in two shallow ice cores from the Sofiskiy Glacier (25.1m in length, taken at 3,435 m a.s.l.. in Jul, 2001) and the Belukha Glacier (20.94m in length, taken at 4,110m a.s.l. in Jul, 2001), Altai range of Russia, were examined for potential use in ice core analyses of this area. These ice cores and pit samples collected at the

J. Uetake; S. Kohshima; F. Nakazawa; M. Kohno; T. Kameda; K. Suzuki; K. Fujita; N. Takeuchi; V. Aizen; S. Alkhipov; S. A. Nikitin

2004-01-01

29

Microelements in Lowland Peat of the Northeastern Part of the Altai Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest areas of bogs are concentrated in the northeastern part of Altai Republic. This place due to a great amount of precipitation and a powerful accumulation of snow with a little drain in comparison with other areas has plenty of bogs. A quarter of all bogs of the Altai Mountains is concentrated here. The bogs develop mainly in the

M. V. Shurova; G. V. Larina; S. A. Kozlova; L. L. Shagaeva

2010-01-01

30

Deep Structure of the Southwest Altai Region According to Seismological Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1966 the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Geology (VSEGEI) and the Iliisk Geophysical Expedition of the Kazakh Geophysical Trust conducted seismological studies in the Southwest Altai and part of the Kalba region, using the earthquake conver...

N. K. Bulin E. A. Propyakva V. I. Bubnova V. I. Tolmanov E. I. Erglis

1969-01-01

31

Late Paleozoic faults of the Altai region, Central Asia: tectonic pattern and model of formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present kinematic and dynamic analysis of large-scale strike-slip faults, which enabled the formation of a collage of Altai terranes as a result of two collisional events. The Late Devonian–Early Carboniferous collision of the Gondwana-derived Altai-Mongolian terrane and the Siberian continent resulted in the formation of the Charysh–Terekta system of dextral strike-slip faults and later the Kurai and Kuznetsk–Teletsk–Bashkauss sinistral

M. M. Buslov; T. Watanabe; Y. Fujiwara; K. Iwata; L. V. Smirnova; I. Yu Safonova; N. N. Semakov; A. P. Kiryanova

2004-01-01

32

Late Cenozoic transpression in southwestern Mongolia and the Gobi Altai-Tien Shan connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gobi Altai region of southwestern Mongolia is a natural laboratory for studying processes of active, transpressional, intracontinental mountain building at different stages of development. The region is structurally dominated by several major E—W left-lateral strike-slip fault systems. The North Gobi Altai fault system is a seismically active, right-stepping, left-lateral, strike-slip fault system that can be traced along the surface

W. Dickson Cunningham; Brian F. Windley; D. Dorjnamjaa; J. Badamgarov; M. Saandar

1996-01-01

33

Antiviral activity of polyporoid mushrooms (higher Basidiomycetes) from Altai Mountains (Russia).  

PubMed

Antiviral activity against type A influenza virus of birds A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005 (H5N1) and humans A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) was investigated for aqueous extracts from mycelium of 11 basidial fungi species collected in the Altai Mountains (Altai Republic, Russia). The most perspective strains for producing antiviral medicines are studied strains Daedaleopsis confragosa, Datronia mollis, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Trametes gibbosa, T. versicolor, Laricifomes officinalis, and Lenzites betulina. PMID:22339706

Teplyakova, Tamara V; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V; Kosogova, Tatiana A; Mazurkova, Natalia A; Khanin, Viacheslav A; Vlasenko, Viacheslav A

2012-01-01

34

[Radon- and nitrogen-containing thermal waters of the Altai region].  

PubMed

Hydrological and hydrochemical features of the sources of radon- and nitrogen-containing thermal waters of the Altai region are considered. Data on the chemical composition of mineral waters from different sources are presented. Methods for the use of radon- and nitrogen-containing thermal waters from their natural sources of the Altai region for the purpose of sanatorium and spa treatment are described. PMID:21328905

Eliseev, V A

35

Current state of the lowland wisent ( Bison bonasus L., 1758) in Altai republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of the investigation of the lowland wisent state in Altai Republic, submits data on the\\u000a wisent relocation to experimental agricultural farm of SB RAS in Altai Republic. It describes the wisent nursery, its climatic\\u000a and natural conditions, including herbage and forage composition, as well as the dynamics of gender and age structure of animals\\u000a in

A. V. Kushnir; V. A. Popov

2010-01-01

36

Hybrid dysgenesis determinants in a natural Drosophila population from Altai  

SciTech Connect

Localization of mobile elements P and hobo in the genomes of isofemale Drosophila lines obtained from a natural population from Biisk (Altai) was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The average copy number per genome was 27.1 for P and 22.0 for hobo. The highest number of P and hobo copies was recorded in the 3R and 21 chromosomes, respectively. The X chromosome contained the lowest number of hobo copies. For P, this relationship was not shown. Both transposons had preferential localization sites, or {open_quotes}hot spots,{close_quotes} which partly coincided with intercalary heterochromatin regions. Correlation analysis of P and hobo copy number showed independent distribution of these hybrid dysgenesis determinants. The 1A site, which is thought to be associated with the P cytotype expression, was not labelled in any line. 40 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Kozhemyakina, T.A.; Furman, D.P. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

37

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-11-09

38

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

Gonzalez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simon, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpcio

2012-01-01

39

Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin, (1952–2006) estimated with high resolution imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 °C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area

A B Surazakov; V B Aizen; E M Aizen; S A Nikitin

2007-01-01

40

Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin, (1952 2006) estimated with high resolution imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 °C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area

A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin

2007-01-01

41

Prime Astroarchaeological Researches near Mountain Monastyri in the Western Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Western Altai, 50 km southward from the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk, at the same latitude as the Ak-Baur sanctuary, another interesting complex of ancient objects was examined in 2006-2007. This complex consists of a grotto, ``spotty'' stone and platforms with holes. In the grotto anthropomorphic and geometric drawings madein red ochre were found. The centre of the composition schematically represents human figures with joined hands. One kilometer to the west from the complex there is a sharp-pointed mountain Zhangiztas. In its bottom part a ``zoomorphic'' ledge is visible; it reminds a sideview of a ``head with the opened mouth and tongue''. Observing the sunset on the days of equinox, one can watch the Sun ``setting down'' on the top of Mt. Zhangistas, then ``sliding'' along the right-side slope and finally ``rolling into the mouth''; in other words, it is ``swallowed by a monster''. The ``zoomorphic'' peculiarity of the mountain outliers (monad nocks) of the Monastyri complex as a whole and of their separate rocky juts was comprehended in the antiquity; the evidence for it is the presence of manmade holes near them; these holes might have an astronomical meaning.

Marsadolov, L.; Dmitrieva, N.

2009-08-01

42

Reevaluation of the reconstruction of summer temperatures from melt features in Belukha ice cores, Siberian Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, past summer temperatures were reconstructed from melt features in the Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai. We evaluated the climatic representativeness of net accumulation and melt features by comparing two Belukha ice cores retrieved at neighboring sites by different institutions and dated by different methods. Melt features in both cores showed a significant correlation, but the trends

Sachiko Okamoto; Koji Fujita; Hideki Narita; Jun Uetake; Nozomu Takeuchi; Takayuki Miyake; Fumio Nakazawa; Vladimir B. Aizen; Stanislav A. Nikitin; Masayoshi Nakawo

2011-01-01

43

Snow and ice-core stable isotopes time series and precipitation in Altai Mountains (Siberia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai's glaciers provide information on internal and external hydrological cycles over the Eurasia, storing long-term records of fresh water transport from Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Central Asia closed drainage basin. The 22 m firn-ice cores and 3 m snow pits from the Belukha firn Plateau (4109 - 4115 m) were used to recover climatic records through physical

E. M. Aizen; V. B. Aizen; K. Fujita; S. A. Nikitin; K. Kreutz

2003-01-01

44

Genetic and demographic characteristics of rural populations of Altai Republic: The marriage structure dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of population marriage structure in the period from 1951 to 1997 has been studied in three villages of Altai Republic: Kulada (Ongudaisk raion), Beshpeltir (Chemal raion), and Kurmach-Baigol (Turochak raion). These populations have been found to differ from one another in the intensity and direction of migration, as well a its temporal pattern with respect to the birthplaces

A. N. Kucher; V. N. Tadinova; V. P. Puzyrev

2005-01-01

45

Saving the frozen Scythian tombs of the Altai Mountains (Central Asia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frozen tombs of the Scythian civilization, preserved for over 2000 years in the permafrost of the Russian, Mongolian, Chinese and Kazakh Altai Mountains, are a major archaeological find dating back to the 1920s. Inside the tombs lie bodies which have often been so well preserved in the frozen ground that even the tattoos on their skin remain intact. Grave

Jean Bourgeois; Alain De Wulf; Rudi Goossens; Wouter Gheyle

2007-01-01

46

Microelements in Lowland Peat of the Northeastern Part of the Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest areas of bogs are concentrated in the northeastern part of Altai Republic. This place due to a great amount of precipitation and a powerful accumulation of snow with a little drain in comparison with other areas has plenty of bogs. A quarter of all bogs of the Altai Mountains is concentrated here. The bogs develop mainly in the valleys of the rivers. The bogs have a modern origin and the process of bog formation goes at the present time by overgrowing of oxbow and valley lakes, and also by bogging of dry lands - woods and meadows. The area of bogs in relation to the general territory of highlands makes up 1%. Nevertheless, these territories are regarded as complex ecosystems which have economic and scientific value. Let's consider the content of heavy metals in different horizons of the peat under study. The samples of peat of the deposit being examined are characterized by a low total content of zinc: 6,21-44,12 mg/kg. The average amount of zinc in the soils of the Altai Mountains is much larger and makes up 70,3 mg/kg. Quite a significant amount of copper is washed away from peat thickness, its total amount is at the level of 1,58-10,73 mg/kg. The reason for it, probably, lies in the fact that there is a significant amount of fulvic acids in the composition of humic acids which enable the migration of copper beyond the limits of the peat ground in the conditions of the sour environment. A completely different situation is observed in the soils of the Altai mountain area. The biogeochemistry of copper in the soils of the Altai Mountains is thoroughly investigated by M.A.Malgin, A.V.Puzanov, O.A.Yelchininova. Its average amount in the soils of the Altai Mountains makes up 40,6 mg/kg which is twice as much as the abundance ratio in comparison with the world soils. The authors explain this fact as follows: copper is an inactive element in the soils since its ions are easily precipitated by sulfide-, carbonate-, and hydroxide ions, and also are taken up by humic acids of soils. Therefore, notwithstanding the washing type of a water mode, the leaching of copper from the soils of the Altai Mountains is not observed. The amount of cadmium in the investigated lowland peat makes up from 0,12 up to 0,57 mg/kg which is almost two times less than the roughly allowable concentration. Also the monotonous increase of the concentration factor of cadmium upwards on the structure is observed. The peat of the surveyed deposit as far as the amount of cadmium is concerned is actually at the level of the background soils of the Altai mountain area. The amount of lead in the peat under study is not subject to significant fluctuation - from 1,34 up to 10,0 mg/kg which is lower than the average amount characteristic of the soils of the Altai Mountains. The roughly allowable concentration of lead for sour soils makes up 65 mg/kg, therefore the peat under study is non-polluting or lead-free. There is an even distribution of lead in the structure of the axial section. In the distribution of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead in peat thickness there is a contrast between the top layers and the bottom ones. The top layers are characterized by higher concentration of elements. The lowland peat of the northeastern part of Altai Republic in comparison with the West-Siberian peat is characterized by the increased values of zinc and has the same amount of copper and lead.

Shurova, M. V.; Larina, G. V.; Kozlova, S. A.; Shagaeva, L. L.

2010-05-01

47

Current state of the Altai glaciers (Russia) and trends over the period of instrumental observations 1952-2008.  

PubMed

Results of research into climate and glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (Russia) over the period of instrumental observations (1952-2008) are presented in this article. About 1030 glaciers with a total area of 805 km2 and volume of 42.5 km3 have been recorded in the Altai Region. The average summer air temperature in different regions of the Altai has increased during the study period from about 0.2 degrees C (Aktru) to 1.1 degrees C (Akkem). The annual atmospheric precipitation rate has also increased, by 8-10%. Since 1952, the glacier area in different regions of the Altai has decreased by 9-27%, and volume by 12-24%. By 2008, as a result of degradation, the total number of glaciers was 953 with an area of 724 km2 and volume of 38 km3. PMID:21954721

Narozhniy, Yuriy; Zemtsov, Valeriy

2011-09-01

48

Geometry and style of partitioned deformation within a late Cenozoic transpressional zone in the eastern Gobi Altai Mountains, Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gobi Altai is the easternmost extension of the Mongolian Altai and consists of topographically discontinuous E-W-trending ranges with peaks averaging 2000–3000 m in elevation. The region is seismically active and characterized by prominent E-W left-lateral strike-slip faults that localize transpressional deformation and uplift along their lengths and at stepover zones. This report summarizes structural field investigations made in the

W. Dickson Cunningham; Brian F. Windley; Lewis A. Owen; Tiffany Barry; D. Dorjnamjaa; J. Badamgarav

1997-01-01

49

The Middle Asian Element in the Southern Rocky Mountain Flora of the western United States: a critical biogeographical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Presentation of an hypothesis suggesting that the extraordinarily similarity of the Russian Altai and the American Southern Rocky Mountain Flora represents an Oro- boreal Flora; that had to have had an essential continuity across the northern part of the world in the Tertiary period, constituting a highland and steppe component of the better- known Arcto-Tertiary Flora of eastern and

William A. Weber; Herbarium COLO

2003-01-01

50

Climate Change in the Russian Altai Mountains and its Influence on Tree Line and Glacier Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to climate changes. The Russian Altai Mountains are located in the Inner Asia on the border of Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan. The Department of Geography and Geoecology of SPbSU has been organizing annual field expeditions to this region during the last 20 yrs. The uniqueness of the Altai landscapes lies in its great variety as these mountains are higher than 4 km and located on the zonal border between steppes and semi-deserts and between continental and sharply continental climates. This research deals with space-time features of regional climate changes and the dynamics of high-altitude landscapes. The 1940-2004 time series of seasonal air temperature and precipitation from 14 weather stations from 300 to 2600 m a.s.l. were statistically analyzed applying regression, correlation, spectral and cluster analyses. To extend time series over the past 350-400 yrs, mean summer temperature and precipitation were reconstructed applying dendroclimatological methods and using the WSL Dendro data base. Comparing to the Northern Hemisphere tendency of temperature increase in the second half of the 20th century over the Altai has been observed generally earlier, since 1950s. Maximum warming rate in the last quarter of the 20th century is typical to winter in the Altai (0,85°/10 yrs) as well as the entire Northern Hemisphere. Synchronous changes in the Altai and the Northern Hemisphere are observed in all seasons only in 1975-2004. At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries warming rates slow down in the region while temperature level is still high. These changes are partly associated with circulation epochs. Spectral analysis revealed important role of natural cyclical recurrence in climate changes, for example quasi-biennial, solar and Brückner cycles. According to dendrochronological reconstruction mean summer temperature increased from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) to its maximum in the 1990s by approximately 2°C, to the average for the period 1986-2004 - about 1,3°C. As tree line against the other belt borders strongly limited by summer temperature its eventual dynamics since the end of the LIA over the Altai were estimated and tree line position at different stages of modern regional warming was reconstructed. Theoretical evaluation shows that mean summer temperature increase of 1.3°C from the end of the LIA causes tree line to rise maximum by 180-280 m in different localities of the Altai. Glacial complexes of mountain massifs Mongun-Taiga, Tavan-Boghd-Ola, Turgeni-Nuru and Harhira-Nuru located in the South-Eastern Altai are represented by small glaciers mostly on northern and eastern leeward slopes. Being situated in region with dry climatic conditions (250-400 mm/year) glaciers survive only in negative forms of relief with high concentration of snow. Accumulation coefficient is mainly from 2 to 3, and on cirque glaciers is from 6 to 8. Now glaciers retreat rapidly (17% of area loss for the period of 1995-2010 for Mongun-Taiga, 12% in 2002-2009 for Tavan-Boghd-Ola), especially valley glaciers (2-10 m/yr), the number of glaciers increase due to disintegration of larger glaciers. Small forms of glaciation disappear or transform into snow patches and rock glaciers.

Syromyatina, M.; Moskalenko, I.; Ganushkin, D.; Chistyakov, K.

2011-12-01

51

Ancient DNA analysis affirms the canid from Altai as a primitive dog.  

PubMed

The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925

Druzhkova, Anna S; Thalmann, Olaf; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Wayne, Robert K

2013-03-06

52

A structural transect across the Mongolian Western Altai: Active transpressional mountain building in central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the first detailed geological transect across the Mongolian Western Altai using modern methods of structural geology and fault kinematic analysis. Our purpose was to document the structures responsible for Cenozoic uplift of the range in order to better understand processes of intracontinental mountain building. Historical right-lateral strike-slip and oblique-slip earthquakes have previously been documented from the

W. Dickson Cunningham; Brian F. Windley; D. Dorjnamjaa; G. Badamgarov; M. Saandar

1996-01-01

53

Climatic and environmental records from Altai glaciers, Siberia, recovered from ice-cores and snow samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A depth\\/accumulation scale for the Altai glaciers, Siberia, established based on delta18O and deltaD firn-ice cores analysis. In sequences of annual layers in the firn-ice cores recovered in 2001 and 2002, the mean annual snow accumulation was found to be 800 mm at 4115 m of the Belukha Snow-Firn Plateau. The transfer function was developed using the seasonality of accumulation

V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; K. J. Kreutz; K. Fujita; D. Cecil; S. A. Nikitin

2002-01-01

54

Ice Core Reconnaissance in Siberian Altai for Mid-Latitudes Paleo-Climatic and Environmental Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations in Siberian Altai permits to expand our scope from Tibet, Himalayas, Tien Shan and Pamir to the area located at the northeastern edge of the Central Asia Mountain System. Altai forms a natural barrier to the northern and western air masses and therefore affords an opportunity to develop modern paleo-climate records relating to the westerly jet stream, the Siberian High and Pacific monsoon. Moreover, Altai alpine snowice accumulation areas are appropriative for studying air pollution dynamics at the center of Eurasia, eastward from the major Former USSR air pollutants in Kazakhstan, South Siberia and Ural Mountains. During the last century Altai Mountains became extremely contaminated region by heavy metal mining, metallurgy, nuclear test in Semipalatinsk polygon and Baikonur rocket site. Our first field reconnaissance on the West Belukha snow/firn plateau at the Central Altai was carried out in July 2001. Dispute of the large Alatai Mountains glaciation, the West Belukha Plateau (49o48' N, 86o32'E, 4000-4100 m a.s.l.) is only one suitable snow accumulation site in Altai to recover ice-core paleo-climatic and environmental records that is not affected by meltwater percolation. The objective of our first reconnaissance was to find an appropriate deep drilling site by radio-echo sounding survey, to recover shallow ice-core, to identify the annual snow accumulation rate, major ions, heavy metals, radio nuclides and oxygen isotopes level distribution. During 6 days of work on the Plateau, a 22 m shallow firn/ice core has been recovered by PICO hand auger at elevation 4050 m where the results of radio-echo sounding suggests about 150 m ice thickness. In addition to the firn/ice core recovery, five 2.5 meter snow pits were sampled for physical statigraphy, major ions, trace element, and heavy metals analysis to assess spatial variability of the environmental impact in this region. Four automatic snow gauges were installed near proposed deep ice coring site for year around records. The seasonal accumulation at the drilling site was ranged from 250 to 300 ?? with density of 0.34 - 0.40 g cm-3. The ice-core stratigraphy analysis has shown that accumulation area seems to lie in the cold infiltration-recrystallization zone. Geochemical analysis of the shallow ice core, snow pit samples collecting during the 2001 field research will be discussed along with meteorological and synoptic data collected at the nearest to Belukha Plateau Akkem, (2050 m) and Kara -Tyurek (3600 ?) stations. A preliminary result has revealed that variability of elementary synoptic processes over the region impact on the amount of precipitation. North Atlantic Oscillation and West Pacific Oscillation indices have inverse associations with average amount of precipitation in Siberia where Altai is located. >http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/%7eaizen/aizen.html

Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K.; Nikitin, S.; Fujita, K.; Cecil, D.

2001-12-01

55

Isotope\\/Air Temperature Relationships From Snow-Firn Core Time Series at the Northern and Southern Periphery of the Central Asian Mountain System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial variability of stable isotope records from snow pits and snow-firn cores to depths of 21 m are used to examine isotope\\/air temperature relationships for three locations at the northern and southern periphery of the central Asian mountain system: the West Belukha glaciated Plateau in the Altai, the head of Inylchek Glacier in central Tien Shan, and the Bomi glacierized

D. Joswiak; E. Aizen; V. Aizen

2004-01-01

56

Molecular identification of human echinococcosis in the Altai region of Russia.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial haplotypes were determined for Echinococcus species infecting individuals diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) at Altai State Medical University Hospital in Barnaul, Russia during 2008 to 2011. The nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was determined for 31 of 34 AE and 8 of 12 CE cases. All of the AE cases were confirmed to be caused by Asian type Echinococcus multilocularis, while CE cases were caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6). PMID:22609955

Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoikhet, Yakov N; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Ito, Akira

2012-05-18

57

[Increased resistance to hypoxia under the effect of the mixture of herbs from the Altai].  

PubMed

We investigated the antihypoxic effect of herb mixture from the Altai in an experiment with rats. This mixture of herbs contains bioflavonoids. Also, it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, angioprotective and antiplatelet properties. The animals received decoction of herbs into the stomach through a tube. Courses lasted 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. Resistance to acute hypobaric hypoxia evaluated by time of animal life in modeling rise to a height of 11,500 meters above sea level. In result, a significant antihypoxic effect was observed in rats treated with decoction of herbs for 21 days. Shorter courses of treatment were not effective. PMID:24000712

Kulikov, V P; Chupikova, I A; Sanarov, E M; Voloboy, N L

58

Central Asian Water Cycle Variability over the past Century from Ice-core Isotope Records (Altai, Tien Shan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai and Tien Shan ice cores records are expanding our understanding of the inter-Hemispheric water cycle and climate dynamics: the moisture advection from Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and from Aral-Caspian closed drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean defining the interaction over time between the westerly jet stream, and the Asian monsoon, Siberian and Tibetan Highs and deciphering local verses

V. Aizen; E. Aizen; P. Mayewski; K. Kreutz; D. Joswiak; N. Takeuchi; K. Fujita

2004-01-01

59

Late-Quaternary Diluvial Floodstreams in the Mountains of Altai and Tuva (Paleoglaciological Base, Geological Effect, Level of Problem Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russian works on geological consequences of giant ice-dammed lake outbursts in Altai were first published 20 years ago. Recent expeditions have shown that diluvial formations in regions of America and Eurasia must be characteristic of all areas that experienced quaternary glaciation.

A. N. Rudoy

2002-01-01

60

Late-Quaternary Diluvial Floodstreams in the Mountains of Altai and Tuva (Paleoglaciological Base, Geological Effect, Level of Problem Study)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russian works on geological consequences of giant ice-dammed lake outbursts in Altai were first published 20 years ago. Recent expeditions have shown that diluvial formations in regions of America and Eurasia must be characteristic of all areas that experienced quaternary glaciation.

Rudoy, A. N.

2002-03-01

61

Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai - article no. D05309  

SciTech Connect

In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.

Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

2006-03-07

62

A snow algal community on Akkem glacier in the Russian Altai mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow algae are cold-tolerant algae growing on snow and ice and have been reported on glaciers in many parts of the world. Blooms of snow algae can reduce the surface albedo of snow and ice and significantly affect their melting. In addition, snow algae found in ice cores can be potential indicators of the paleo-environment, making them of great interest both to the biology and the geophysics of glaciers. A snow algal community was investigated in 2002 and 2003 on Akkem glacier in the Russian Altai mountains, where no information on its biological community has previously been available. Five species of snow algae including green algae and cyanobacteria were observed on the glacier. Red snow due to a bloom of algae (Chloromonas sp.) was visually apparent in the snow area during our study periods. The total algal cell-volume biomass on the glacier ranged from 97 to 1156 ?L m-2, which is equivalent to that reported previously on glaciers in the Himalaya and Alaska. The community structure showed that Mesotaenium berggrenii and/or Ancylonema nordenskioeldii, which are common species on glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere, were dominant in the ice area, while Chloromonas sp. was dominant in the snow area. Such community structures are similar to those on Alaskan and Arctic glaciers but differ from those on Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers, even though the Altai mountains are geographically closer to the Himalaya and Tibet than to Alaska. The difference in algal communities between the Altaic and other glaciers is discussed together with physical and chemical conditions affecting the algae.

Takeuchi, Nozomu; Uetake, Jun; Fujita, Koji; Aizen, Vladimir B.; Nikitin, Stanislav D.

63

Glaciochemical investigation of an ice core from Belukha Glacier,Siberian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about climatic change and paleo-atmospheric composition in Siberia. The Altai is the only alpine region in this area covered by glaciers that might serve as archives for such studies. Moreover, it is located close to air pollution sources in East Kazakhstan and South Siberia (heavy metal mining, metallurgy) as well as to the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk (release of radionuclides into the atmosphere). In order to reconstruct air pollution levels in the Altai region, a 140-meter ice core down to bedrock was recovered from the Belukha glacier (N49^o48'26", E86^o34'43", 4062 m asl) in July 2001. This site was selected based on the results of an exploratory study conducted in 2000. So far, the concentrations of major ionic species and the stable isotope ratio ?18O were determined in the approx. 90 topmost meters of the ice core covering about 200 years. Dating of the upper part of the ice core was performed by a combination of methods that include e.g. nuclear techniques and annual-layer counting. The annual net accumulation amounts to about 0.53 m weq. and indicates that snow at the Belukha glacier might be partly eroded by wind, a situation that is often observed for a glacier saddle. The borehole temperature (-16 ^oC at 80 m depth), the discernible fluctuations of the stable isotope and chemistry records as well as the linearity of the decrease of the log. 210Pb activities with depth indicate that the glaciochemical record is well preserved and not significantly altered by melting processes. In pre-industrial ice concentrations of carboxylic acids and ammonium are high, suggesting the surrounding forest as source of biogenic emissions.

Olivier, S.; Schwikowski, S.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Lüthi, M.; Eyrik, S.; Blaser, C.; Saurer, M.; Schotterer, U.

2003-04-01

64

Origin of Caucasoid-Specific Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in the Ethnic Groups of the Altai–Sayan Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on sequence variation in the first hypervariable segment (HVSI) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) representing Caucasoid mtDNA lineages in the gene pools of Altaians and Khakassians are presented. Identification of the subgroups of Caucasoid mtDNA lineages found in the gene pools of the ethnic groups of the Altai–Sayan region and the adjacent territories, Altaians, Khakassians, Tuvinians, Buryats, and

M. V. Derenko; B. A. Malyarchuk; I. A. Zakharov

2002-01-01

65

[The peculiarities of adaptation of a woman organism to the conditions of the Altai medium height altitude zones].  

PubMed

A comparative analysis on the morphological features, the duration of the reproduction period and antioxidant activity of blood plasma of the female population living in the Altai low and medium height altitude zones has been conducted. As a result we have discovered that women living in the unfavorable conditions of medium height altitude zones have a tendency to raise the body mass index, a shorter reproduction period and lower level of blood plasma antioxidant activity. PMID:21957598

Chanchaeva, E A

2011-01-01

66

A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site\\u000a (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about\\u000a individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation,

Ya. N. Shoikhet; V. I. Kiselev; E. V. Zaitsev; I. B. Kolyado; B. Yu. Konovalov; S. Bauer; B. Grosche; W. Burkart

1999-01-01

67

Climatic and atmospheric circulation pattern variability from ice-core isotope\\/geochemistry records (Altai, Tien Shan and Tibet)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several firn\\/ice cores were recovered from the Siberian Altai (Belukha plateau), central Tien Shan (Inilchek glacier) and the Tibetan Plateau (Zuoqiupu glacier, Bomi) from 1998 to 2003. The comparison analyses of stable-isotope\\/geochemistry records obtained from these firn\\/ice cores identified the physical links controlling the climate-related signals at the seasonal-scale variability. The core data related to physical stratigraphy, meteorology and synoptic

Vladimir B. Aizen; Elena M. Aizen; Daniel R. Joswiak; Koji Fujita; Nozomu Takeuchi; Stanislav A. Nikitin

2006-01-01

68

Stable-Isotope Time Series and Precipitation Origin from Firn-Core and Snow Samples, Altai Glaciers, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the summers of 2001 and 2002, glacio-climatological research was performed at 4110-4120 m a.s.l. on the Belukha snow\\/firn plateau, Siberian Altai. Hundreds of samples from snow pits and a 21 m snow\\/firn core were collected to establish the annual\\/seasonal\\/monthly depth-accumulation scale, based on stable-isotope records, stratigraphic analyses and meteorological and synoptic data. The fluctuations of water stable-isotope records show

Vladimir B. Aizen; Elena M. Aizen; Koji Fujita; Stanislav A. Nikitin; Karl J. Kreutz; L. Nozomu Takeuchi

2005-01-01

69

Genetic and demographic characteristics of rural populations of Altai Republic: Sex-Age composition, surname and tribal structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex, age, tribal, and surname compositions of the populations of three villages of Altai Republic, Kulada (Ongudaisk raion), Beshpeltir (Chemal raion), and Kurmach-Baigol (Turochak raion) have been studied. Altaian populations are characterized by a high proportion of persons under 20 years of age (35.3–46.1%); however, there is a tendency towards a narrow base of the sex-age pyramid. The sex

A. N. Kucher; V. N. Tadinova; V. P. Puzyrev

2005-01-01

70

Variation, Variability, and the Origin of the Avian Endocranium: Insights from the Anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve). Also

Gabe S. Bever; Stephen L. Brusatte; Amy M. Balanoff; Mark A. Norell

2011-01-01

71

Geochronology, petrogenesis and tectonic significance of peraluminous granites from the Chinese Altai, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleozoic granites in the Chinese Altai are important for the study of tectonic evolution and crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Four representative peraluminous granitic intrusions were selected for systematic studies of zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic compositions and whole-rock geochemical and Nd-Sr isotopic analyses. These rocks have high ASI (Alumina Saturation Index, Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O) = 1.01-1.46 molecular ratios), with 0.6-5.6 wt.% of normative corundum, and are characterized by moderately negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.38-0.98) and strong depletion in Ba, Nb and Sr elements. Our data suggest that these intrusions were emplaced from 419 to 393 Ma, consistent with a period of intensive magmatic activities and high temperature metamorphism in the Chinese Altai. While in situ zircon Hf isotopic analyses for these granites give predominantly positive ?Hf(t) values (+ 0.8 to + 12.8), a few inherited zircons yield negative ?Hf(t) values from - 12.5 to - 1.53. The U-Pb age and Hf isotopic data of these inherited zircons are similar to that of the widespread metasediments. In addition, the peraluminous granitic rocks have near-zero or negative ?Nd(t) values (- 3.3 to - 0.5) and relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7079-0.7266), distinct from those of the I-type granites in the study region, but similar to the Early Paleozoic Habahe sediments. These isotopic compositions suggest that the newly accreted metasediments of Habahe Group may be the major source rock of the peraluminous granites. The geochemical compositions indicate that their precursor magmas were derived from a relatively shallow crustal level (P ? 5 kbar) and zircon saturation temperatures suggest that these granitic intrusions were emplaced at 672-861 °C. The peraluminous granitic magmas were generated by dehydration melting of newly accreted materials, which were possibly brought to at least middle crustal depth by subduction-related processes in an active margin, and were subsequently molten by strikingly high ambient temperature probably caused by upwelling of the hot asthenosphere associated with ridge subduction in the Paleozoic.

Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Yuan, Chao; Zhao, Guochun; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Wu, Fuyuan

2011-11-01

72

DNA analysis for section identification of individual Pinus pollen grains from Belukha glacier, Altai Mountains, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen taxon in sediment samples can be identified by analyzing pollen morphology. Identification of related species based on pollen morphology is difficult and is limited primarily to genus or family. Because pollen grains of various ages are preserved at below 0?°C in glaciers and thus are more likely to remain intact or to suffer little DNA fragmentation, genetic information from such pollen grains should enable identification of plant taxa below the genus level. However, no published studies have attempted detailed identification using DNA sequences obtained from pollen found in glaciers. As a preliminary step, this study attempted to analyze the DNA of Pinus pollen grains extracted from surface snow collected from the Belukha glacier in the Altai Mountains of Russia in the summer of 2003. A 150-bp rpoB fragment from the chloroplast genome in each Pinus pollen grain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA products were sequenced to identify them at the section level. A total of 105 pollen grains were used for the test, and sequences were obtained from eight grains. From the sequences obtained, the pollen grains were identified as belonging to the section Quinquefoliae. Trees of the extant species Pinus sibirica in the section Quinquefoliae are currently found surrounding the glacier. The consistency of results for this section suggests that the pollen in the glacier originated from the same Pinus trees as those found in the immediate surroundings.

Nakazawa, Fumio; Uetake, Jun; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Ryo; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

73

A multi-proxy approach for revealing recent climatic changes in the Russian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time we present a multi-proxy data set for the Russian Altai, consisting of Siberian larch tree-ring width (TRW), latewood density (MXD), ?13C and ?18O in cellulose chronologies obtained for the period 1779-2007 and cell wall thickness (CWT) for 1900-2008. All of these parameters agree well between each other in the high-frequency variability, while the low-frequency climate information shows systematic differences. The correlation analysis with temperature and precipitation data from the closest weather station and gridded data revealed that annual TRW, MXD, CWT, and ?13C data contain a strong summer temperature signal, while ?18O in cellulose represents a mixed summer and winter temperature and precipitation signal. The temperature and precipitation reconstructions from the Belukha ice core and Teletskoe lake sediments were used to investigate the correspondence of different independent proxies. Low frequency patterns in TRW and ?13C chronologies are consistent with temperature reconstructions from nearby Belukha ice core and Teletskoe lake sediments showing a pronounced warming trend in the last century. Their combination could be used for the regional temperature reconstruction. The long-term ?18O trend agrees with the precipitation reconstruction from the Teletskoe lake sediment indicating more humid conditions during the twentieth century. Therefore, these two proxies could be combined for the precipitation reconstruction.

Sidorova, Olga V.; Saurer, Matthias; Myglan, Vladimir S.; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski, Margit; Kirdyanov, Aleksander V.; Bryukhanova, Marina V.; Gerasimova, Oksana V.; Kalugin, Ivan A.; Daryin, Andrey V.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

2012-01-01

74

Reconstruction of the depositional environment upstream of Potanin Glacier, Mongolian Altai, from pollen analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed pollen in snow pits dug in September 2008 and September 2009 upstream of Potanin Glacier in the Mongolian Altai Mountains, which is a summer accumulation-type glacier, to investigate the environment for recent snow deposits. The snow pit observations in both years were carried out at sites 0 and 4, which are 3752 and 3890 m above sea level, respectively. Seasonal layers of the pits were identified according to the taxon of pollen scattered during different seasons. In the 2007 and 2008 layers, concentration peaks of pollen taxa scattered from spring to summer were found at the same depth. Thus, the summer melt reached the spring layer such that pollen grains in the melted layer became concentrated on the summer melt surface and caused the pollen peaks. In contrast, the concentration peaks associated with each season appeared at different depths in the 2009 layer, suggesting that the degree of melting in 2009 was less than that in 2007 and 2008. This interpretation was supported by summer temperature data (June-August) for this region. Deviations in summer air temperatures from mean monthly temperatures for the summers of 1990-2009 were negative in 2009, whereas they were positive in 2007 and 2008.

Nakazawa, Fumio; Konya, Keiko; Kadota, Tsutomu; Ohata, Tetsuo

2012-09-01

75

Sulfidogenesis in hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia).  

PubMed

The activity and culturable diversity of sulfidogens were investigated in anoxic sediments of four hypersaline lakes with pH 7.6-8.2 in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia). Sulfate reduction rates were low, varying from 0.1 to 6.0 nmol HS(-) /(cm(3) h) with a maximum in the top 10 cm layer. Potential sulfidogenic rates with thiosulfate and sulfur as the e-acceptors were higher than with sulfate and were stimulated by formate, lactate, and acetate. Sulfidogenesis was optimal at salt concentrations below 2 M NaCl. Cultivation at 2 M NaCl resulted in the isolation of several strains of moderately halophilic SRB, but no growth of SRB was observed at 4 M NaCl. At lithotrophic conditions (i.e., with formate or H(2) as e-donors), several closely related alkalitolerant strains belonging to the genus Desulfonatronovibrio were isolated. Enrichments at heterotrophic conditions with lactate, propionate, acetate, or butyrate using sulfate or thiosulfate as e-acceptors yielded isolates related to Desulfosalsimonas propionicica, Desulfohalobium utahense, and Desulfocella halophila. Sulfur-reducing enrichments at 2 M NaCl with ethanol produced a member of the genus Halanaerobium, while enrichments at 4 M NaCl with acetate were dominated by archaea, demonstrating for the first time such type of catabolism in haloarchaea. PMID:22092787

Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Zacharova, Elena E; Pimenov, Nikolai V; Tourova, Tatjana P; Panteleeva, Anjela N; Muyzer, Gerard

2011-11-09

76

Carbonic fluid inclusions in amphibolite-facies pelitic schists from Bodonch area, western Mongolian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report first fluid inclusion data on amphibolite-facies pelitic schists from Bodonch area of western Mongolian Altai in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Three categories of fluid inclusions have been observed in quartz: dominant primary and secondary inclusions, and least dominant pseudosecondary inclusions. The melting temperatures of all the categories of inclusions lie in the narrow range of -57.5 °C to -56.6 °C, close to the triple point of pure CO2. Homogenization of fluids occurs into liquid phase at temperature between -33.3 °C to +19.4 °C, which convert into densities in the range of 0.78 g/cm3 to 1.09 g/cm3. The estimated CO2 isochores for primary and pseudosecondary high-density inclusions is broadly consistent with the peak metamorphic condition of the studied area (6.3-7.3 kbar at 655 °C). The results of this study, together with the primary and pseudosecondary nature of the inclusions, indicate CO2 was the dominant fluid component during the peak amphibolite-facies metamorphism of the study area. The examined quartz grains are texturally associated with biotite, kyanite and staurolite, which are regarded as high-grade minerals formed during prograde to peak metamorphism. Therefore quartz probably formed by high-grade metamorphism and the primary fluid inclusions trapped in the minerals probably preserve fluids at around peak metamorphism.

Zorigtkhuu, Oyun-Erdene; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Dash, Batulzii

77

Central Asian Water Cycle Variability over the past Century from Ice-core Isotope Records (Altai, Tien Shan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai and Tien Shan ice cores records are expanding our understanding of the inter-Hemispheric water cycle and climate dynamics: the moisture advection from Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and from Aral-Caspian closed drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean defining the interaction over time between the westerly jet stream, and the Asian monsoon, Siberian and Tibetan Highs and deciphering local verses regional change over the temperate and high latitudes. The multi-parameter high-resolution (i.e., sub-seasonal) glacio-climatic and environmental records from the upper fifty meter of the 175 m surface to bottom ice core recovered in 2003 from the Belukha snow-firn plateau at 4115 m (Altai Mts.) and the upper 20 m of the 160 m deep ice-core recovered in 2000 from the head of Inylchek Glacier at 5200 m (Tien Shan Mts.) were developed and evaluated. The long-term meteorological, synoptic, dust storm and forest fire records and physical stratigraphy data were the basis for calibration, validation and interpretation. The mean annual snow accumulation on the Inylchek glacier for the period from 1992 to 1998 was found to be 116 g cm-2/yr. Validation of the Altai ice core records through the marker horizon of volcanic eruptions showed monthly accordance in the dating century accumulation ice core records with the mean accumulation rate of 650 g cm-2/yr. The ? 18O, ? D and d excess records showed well-preserved seasonal variation, which is significantly controlled by air temperature, by share of cold/or warm season precipitation amount and origin, transport and recycling of moisture. The ? 18O-? D relationship in the upper 50 m of the Altai ice core records has the same slope to the co-variance as that of the global meteoric water line (i.e., 8), while the Tien Shan ice-core records has lower slope (i.e., 7). The snow accumulation of central Asian glaciers was formed from oceanic precipitation and the moisture originated over Aral-Caspian sources. The Northern Atlantic contributed 15% of moisture, while Black and Eastern Mediterranean Seas 32% to the 20 m Inylchek accumulation. The rest precipitation on the Tien Shan glacier has inter-continental origin. The d-excess show means maximum in winter and minimum in summer in both ice-cores records. About 70% of the Altai snow firn core d-excess records vary within 6% and 15% with maximum of more than 40% within the range from 8% to 13% with the shift to higher values in the upper part of ice core pointing on increased share of moisture recycled over intercontinental Asia. More than half of accumulation on the Altai records had Atlantic Ocean origin. Precipitation from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans had the smallest deuterium excess and their share in total accumulation is increasing. Ice core analysis of the composition of ? 18O reflected different synoptic situations, which will be reconstructed along with air temperature for about the century of ice core records.

Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Mayewski, P.; Kreutz, K.; Joswiak, D.; Takeuchi, N.; Fujita, K.

2004-12-01

78

[Efficiency of iodine and selenium enriched drinking water use to prevent deficiency states in population of the Altai Territory].  

PubMed

Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between the quality of drinking water and human health. The Altai Territory is a biogeochemical province characterized by deficiency of many trace elements, including iodine and selenium. The measures implemented in organized children's collectives to prevent iodine- and selenium-enriched deficiency states, by providing the supply of drinking waters enriched with iodine and selenium, have demonstrated a more marked effect in preventing iodine deficiency states than that of the water corrected only for the iodine composition. PMID:20373706

Mantler, N N; Kir'ianova, L F; Saldan, I P; Bekker, V N

79

Variations of the tree line and glaciers in the Central and Eastern Altai regions in the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the tree line position and glacier activity in the Central and Eastern Altai regions in the Holocene were reconstructed on the basis of analysis of sixty radiocarbon and eighteen dendrochronological dates. The tree line was higher than now in the Early and Middle Holocene, and the climate was warmer and, likely, more humid. Glaciers advanced in the forests 300, 1400, and 3000-6000 years ago. In the last millennium the forest decline at the upper tree limit occurred in 1206-1256, 1445-1501, and 1642-1736.

Nazarov, A. N.; Solomina, O. N.; Myglan, V. S.

2012-06-01

80

How lithosphere and asthenosphere interact during the formation of an accretionary orogen - a case study from the Chinese Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Chinese Altai, we discovered a ca. 440 Ma ophiolitic belt which reveals both the very dynamic nature of asthenosphere-lithosphere interaction. The ophiolite is composed of three geochemically distinct groups - SSZ, MORB and OIB. In its vicinity, coeval rocks including adakites, Nb-enriched basalts, boninites and picrites were found cropping out extensively. Petrogenetically, this rock assemblage is best illustrated by a ridge subduction model. When the spreading ridge of Ob-Zaisan ocean was subducted beneath the Chinese Altai, opening of slab window allowed influx of heterogenous asthenospheric material at the fore-arc region. Though overprinted with SSZ signatures by slab-derived fluids, metasomatized mantle wedge and recycled pelagic sediments, this upwelling mantle formed new lithosphere with mainly MORB and OIB signatures. As the combined effect of the decompression and raised geotherm caused by the injection of hot lower mantle, refractory peridotites at the melted and produced the boninites and the picrites. At the two edges of the torn-apart ridge, the young lithosphere underwent partial melting. While melts from the lower half reacted with the hotter and thicker ambient mantle during ascent and formed the Nb-enriched basalts, those from the upper half passed through the thinner and cooler peridotites without much reaction and were preserved as the adakites. In the orogenetic point of view, this ridge subduction had a very important role as it bridged up the two major tectonomagmatic events that built the Chinese Altai - the pre-450 Ma arc magmatism and the post-430 Ma regional extension. Our tectonic model suggests that the abrupt transition could be result of the ridge subduction. Formation of slab window around 440 Ma first cut off the sediment supply and thus shut down the pre-450 Ma arc. As the gap continued to develop, the lower half of the subducted lithosphere was finally detached from the upper one. Cessation of slab pull then caused the lithosphere to undergo large scale anatexis that gave rise to the widespread granitoids. Meanwhile, the upward mantle flow triggered by the slab detachment contributed not only to the regional extension, but also the increased input of asthenspheric materials manifested by the occurrence of bimodal volcanics, the high whole rock ?Nd and the positive ?Hf of all igneous zircons from the post-430 Ma episode. Overall, it’s the very rigorous interaction between asthenosphere and lithosphere that governed the evolution of the Chinese Altai orogen.

Wong, P.; Sun, M.; Zhao, G.; Yuan, C.; Xiao, W.

2009-12-01

81

Sulfidogenesis under extremely haloalkaline conditions in soda lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia).  

PubMed

Sulfidogenic activity (SA) in anoxic sediments of several soda lakes with variable salinity in south Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) has been investigated. The study included in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries in which sulfate, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur were used as electron acceptors. Despite the extreme conditions (high salt concentrations and high pH), the SA values were relatively high (ranging from 0.02 to 1.20 micromol HS(-) cm(-3) h(-1)), and only hampered under salt-saturated conditions. The highest SA was observed with elemental sulfur, followed by thiosulfate, while the lowest SA was determined in the presence of sulfate. Of all the electron donors tested, the addition of formate resulted in the highest SA with all three sulfur electron acceptors. Surprisingly, hydrogen as an electron donor had very little effect. Acetate was utilized as an electron donor only under sulfur-reducing conditions. Indigenous populations of sulfidogens in soda lake sediments showed an obligately alkaliphilic pH response of SA, showing a pattern that corresponded well to the in situ pH conditions. Sulfate reduction was much more susceptible to salt inhibition than thiosulfate and sulfur reduction. Microbiological investigations indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the orders Desulfovibrionales and Desulfobacterales could very likely be responsible for the SA with sulfate and thiosulfate as electron acceptors at moderate salt concentrations. Sulfur reduction at moderate salinity was carried out by a specialized group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-reducing bacteria that utilize volatile fatty acids. In saturated soda brine, extremely natronophilic representatives of the order Halanaerobiales were responsible for the sulfur-dependent respiration. PMID:20500526

Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Rusanov, Igor I; Pimenov, Nikolai V; Tourova, Tatjana P; Abbas, Ben; Muyzer, Gerard

2010-05-04

82

Holocene glaciers in the Mongolian Altai: An example from the Turgen-Kharkhiraa Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about the dynamics of modern glaciers is relevant for evaluating climatic change. However, there is very little and conflicting information about the extent of modern glaciers in northwestern Mongolia. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present detailed data about the extent of modern glaciers in the Turgen-Kharkhiraa Mountains in the northwestern part of the Mongolian Altai and to distinguish three main phases of ice extent: in 1991, in 1948, and back to the Holocene glacial epoch including the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) — a worldwide cooling period beginning in the 16th century and lasting until the end of the 19th century (Grove, 1988). Based on field work, topographic maps and aerial photographs of this region, the investigations have shown glacier retreat in 1991, since 1948, as compared to Holocene glaciations including the so-called Little Ice Age period. Using the toe-to-summit altitude (TSAM) method, the overall modern snowline can be calculated at about 3537-3559 m asl; the area of present glaciers can be calculated to be 33.8 km2 for the Turgen Mountains and 39.5 km2 for the Kharkhiraa Mountains. This is more than 25% of the glaciated area of Mongolia. The LIA snowline was about ˜80 m lower (3461-3480 m asl), whereby the glaciated areas during the LIA was 76.8 km2 and 80.8 km2 in the two mountain systems, respectively. In conclusion, there has been a remarkable glacier retreat from this Holocene and Little Ice Age compared to the glaciation in 1948 and 1991. This glacier retreat coincides with an increase in the snowlines.

Lehmkuhl, Frank

2012-06-01

83

A New Comprehensive Dataset on Glacier Area Changes From 1960s to 2008 in Altai-Sayan, Tien Shan And Pamir Mountain Systems of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain glaciers are a vital source of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. To quantify glacier loss due to climate change during the last 42 years and use this information in water resources estimation, we have completed a comprehensive database of the glacier area changes in Altai-Sayan (AS), Tien Shan (TS) and Pamir (PA) mountains. A

A. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. Aizen; S. Nikitin

2010-01-01

84

Glacier Evolution in the Altai Mountains, South-West Siberia, for the Last Half Century (with use of Geo-Informational Catalogue)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To systemize and analyze the information for the period from 1835 to present on altitudinal distributions of glaciers, exposition, their numbers and surface areas in basins, volumes, genetic classification, location of lower and upper level of glaciers, average firn line position and main morphometric characteristics, DataBase on glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (AGDB) has been developed in ArcGIS Format

A. B. Surazakov; Y. K. Narojniy; S. A. Nikitin; V. B. Aizen

2003-01-01

85

[Detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ticks collected in a natural focus of Gornyi Altai].  

PubMed

Enzyme immunoassay of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE) in the samples of Ixodes ticks collected in the outskirts of the settlement of Manzherok, Maiminsk District, Republic of Altai, revealed TBE antigen in 16.9 +/- 1.9% of the talga ticks. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with specific fluorescent probes and phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of RT-RCR products corresponding to 5'-terminal fragment of the E gene of TBE, all the virus strains isolated from the ticks collected in Gomyi Altai were referred to as the Siberian genetic type that was dominant in virus-carrying ticks in the majority of endemic areas of Russia and near abroad. Viral load assays using the real-time RT-PCR with the probes indicated the threshold cycles Ct = 25.34-28.98, which, with regard to the efficiency of RNA identification and reverse transcription, was equal to about 10(4)-10(5) viral RNA copies per tick. PMID:21545036

Morozova, O V; Grishechkin, A E; Karan, L S; Isayeva, E I; Shchuchinova, L D; Loginova, N V; Zlobin, V I

86

Early Paleozoic alkaline magmatism of the Altai Mountains: 40Ar-39Ar geochronology data for the Edel'veis complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic age by40Ar-39Ar (506.8 ± 3.5 Ma) was determined for the rock-forming phlogopite from the alkaline carbonatite-containing Edel’veis complex in the southeast of the Altai Mountains. Based on this, the complex development is attributed to the formation of a large magmatic province at the Early Paleozoic stage (Caledonian, ˜510-470 My ago) of the development of the Central Asian folded belt. By the features of substantial composition and the time of appearance, the Edel’veis complex is considered as a product of the primary phase of the activity of the mantle plume promoting the multiform magmatism of Central Asia in the Early and Middle Paleozoic. In view of the new geochronology data obtained, for the geodynamic evolution of the Gorno-Altai terrain, the authors propose to distinguish the three stages of the appearance of magmatism of increased alkalinity: the Early Paleozoic (Cambrian), Middle Paleozoic (Devonian), and Early Mesozoic (Triassic) stages.

Vrublevskii, V. V.; Izokh, A. E.; Polyakov, G. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Yudin, D. S.; Krupchatnikov, V. I.

2009-07-01

87

Abrupt Change in Zircon Hf Isotopic Compositions at ~420 Ma: Implications for Early Paleozoic Ridge Subduction in the Chinese Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zircon minerals were separated from granitoids, sedimentary rocks, and gneisses from the Chinese Altai. Those with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios are interpreted to have an igneous origin, and were analyzed for their U-Pb and Hf isotopic compositions. These zircons yielded U-Pb ages from 280 to 2800 MaCindicating a long evolutionary history of magmnatic activity in the region. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show an abrupt change at ~420 Ma, indicating magma sources of both ancient and juvenile materials prior to 420 Ma, but juvenile materials were predominant in the magma sources after 420 Ma. This may imply a large amount of juvenile materials were added to the lithosphere at ~420 Ma and significantly modified the composition of the lithosphere of the Chinese Altai. We use a ridge subduction model to explain such a dramatic change, which can also explain the emplacement of the huge amount of coeval granitic intrusions with depleted isotopic characteristics, the basaltic rocks with complicated chemical compositions, the association of adakite-high Mg andesite-boninite-High Nb basalt, and the high T regional metamorphism. This study was supported by Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (HKU704307P, HKU7040/04P), National Basic Research Program of China (2007CB411308), and the University of Hong Kong.

Sun, M.; Yuan, C.; Long, X.; Cai, K.; Jiang, Y.; Wong, K.; Xiao, W.; Zhao, G.; Wu, F.

2009-05-01

88

Cosiesmic slope mass movements and its contribution to the Holocene landscape denudation: geological evidences and numerical estimations from SE Altai (Russia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong earthquakes deform Earth's surface and affect the topography of mountain terrains. They can also induce widespread mass wasting which often cause most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the earthquakes. Their abundant occurrence and large volumes of displaced material also indicate a great influence of seismically induced landslides on landscape denudation. Estimating earthquake magnitudes and topography changes using instrumental data and historic accounts can give information about regional seismicity during relatively short time period. At the same time the evolution of paleoseismogeological studies clearly demonstrates that in order to properly understand the seismic potential of a region, and to assess the associated topography changes, extensive studies are necessary to take full advantage from the geological evidence of past earthquakes. The key point of this investigation is detailed study of geomorphologically expressed surface displacement of evidently seismic origin. The Altai neotectonic uplift is the part of Central-Asian collision belt and is a transpressional zone formed due to oblique thrusting. Russian Altai is the northern extension of Mongolian Altai which is known by its high seismicity. As a result SE Altai is the most seismically active part of Russian Altai. This was evidenced by the 2003 Chuya earthquake (MS = 7.3). Strong Holocene earthquakes left the most enduring imprint on landforms of Russian Altai. Giant landslides have been well preserved in topography here due to arid climate. The leading factor in generation of such landslides is seismic excitation. Our field observations of the ground effects of strong modern and prehistoric earthquakes reveal regional criteria that indicate seismic origin of Altai paleolandslides. Unconsolidated Cenozoic sediments presented in the most active areas at the depression-range transition along fault boundaries of landforms provide geological conditions of landsliding in this active mountain terrain. Paleoseismogeological study of SE Altai reveal a number of strong Holocene earthquakes (shaking intensity IX - X according MSK-64 scale). These events generated a lot of ruptures and giant landslides. Paleolandslide's close location in the modern earthquake's epicenter zone shows that the source areas of large earthquakes in SE Altai were repeatedly reactivated. Strong prehistoric earthquakes with magnitudes M>6.9 occurred here. Besides, this fact also argues the hypothesis of the identity of historic and Holocene earthquake's mechanisms in a region. Thus unilateral displacement of tectonic blocks along the bounders of the Chuya-Kurai intermountain depressions took place at least from the beginning of the Holocene. In our researches we mainly focused on the largest earthquake triggered landslides. These giant paleolandslides already in itself evidence to high regional seismicity. Using data from 15 strong modern earthquakes worldwide we have calculated the correlation between earthquake magnitude and the volume of the largest triggered landslide. We have also modified correlation between earthquake magnitude and the total volume of generated landslides. All these allow us to estimate magnitudes of prehistoric earthquakes, calculated the total volume of earthquake triggered landslides, the contribution of landslides caused by aftershocks and the Holocene erosion rate due to seismically induced landslides for SE Altai.

Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna

2010-05-01

89

Present condition of the coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of North-Chuya ridge (Central Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of high-mountain regions which are characterized by extreme climate conditions are of current importance since the response of environmental ecosystems to climate changes is clearly expressed there. The work presented was performed on the territory of two mountain glacial basins located on the northern macroslope of North-Chuya ridge (Russia, Central Altai). High-mountain vegetation of the area being considered didn't undergo an anthropogenic impact. It should be noted that investigations of coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of Aktru and Korumdu mountain glacial basins (2200-2500 m ab. s.l.) haven't been conducted before. A climatic representativeness of Aktru basin was proved by numerous data (Tronov et all, 1965, Sevastianov, 1998). The goal of the work was studying of condition and adaptations of young Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Larix sibirica Ledeb. to forest-tundra ecotone conditions. These species form the treeline on many ridges of Central Altai (Kuminova, 1960), including North-Chuya (Timoshok, 2004). It is shown that the number of young Siberian stone pines and larches in the forest-tundra ecotone is not big, Siberian stone pine being found more often than larch. A considerable quantity of young Siberian stone pines grows in sheltered sites (near big stones, boulders, stumps, etc.). During the research period dead young trees have been found in single cases. The maximum percentage of Siberian stone pine trees (42.4%) growing in sheltered sites was registered in Aktru basin on the east-southeast slope whereas on the west-northwest slope the maximum percentage of Siberian stone pines growing in clusters has been revealed (34.4%). Also on the west-northwest slope the maximum quantity of Siberian stone pines that changed their terminal shoots have been found (62.5%). During the investigation young trees with signs of diseases were registered. Chermes (Pineus cembrae Chol.) has been found on shoots and needles. On the west-northwest slope the corresponding damage constitutes about 3.2% of target Siberian stone pine trees. In forest-tundra ecotone of Aktru basin young larches, often single, grow on exposed sites, and theirs stems often change terminal shoots. There are no diseased trees discovered. For Korumdu mountain glacial basin high percentage of Siberian stone pine trees (41.4%) was registered on the west-northwest slope growing in sheltered sites, as well as trees in clusters (7,2%). On this slope 100% of Siberian stone pines change their terminal shoots meanwhile for the east-southeast slope this characteristic constitutes just 57%. Siberian stone pines with diseases have been registered for the west-northwest slope (7.2%). Thus, considering forest-tundra ecotone of North-Chuya ridge one can conclude that the Siberian stone pine undergrowth condition is more viable on east-southeast slopes than on the west-northwest slopes. The larch undergrowth is not as viable as the Siberian stone pine's one. The work presented is supposed to be used as a basis for detecting response and adaptations of high-mountain coniferous undergrowth to regional climate changes. References 1. Tronov M.V., Tronova L.B., Belova N.I. Basic features of climate of mountain glacial basin Aktru. // Glaciology of Altai, 1965. Vol. 4. P. 3-48. 2. Sevastyanov V.V. The climate of high-mountains of Altai and Sayan. - Tomsk: TGU, 1998. - 199 pp. 3. Kuminova A.V. Vegetation of the Altai. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1960. - 450 pp. 4. Timoshok E.E. Estimation and conservation of vegetation cover biodiversity in high-mountain glacial basin Aktru. - Tomsk, 2004, - 72 pp.

Propastilova, Olga; Timoshok, Elena

2010-05-01

90

[Prospects for the development of health resort and recreational resources in southern Siberia].  

PubMed

Long-term monitoring natural health remedial factors of southern Siberia provided materials for the comparative evaluation of bioclimatic characteristics of sanatorium-and-spa facilities in major health and recreational areas of this region. The most promising localities for climatic balneotherapy, tourist and recreational activities have been identified at the territory of the Altai-Sayan mountain system. The database of sanatorium-and-spa facilities, health and recreational sites located in this region is presented. The rational exploitation of mountainous landscapes including strict constraints on nature use activities is recommended as a basis for the further development of recreational industry. PMID:20364689

Dzhabarova, N K; Iakovenko, E S; Levitski?, E F; Lukovskaia, I A

91

Central Asia Climate Change: Altai, Tien Shan And Pamir Ice Cores Contemporary And Paleo-Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some speculations that central Asia (CA) glaciers will disappear in the next two decades or so. The existing climate models predict that a substantial warming will occur in continental interiors, such as CA, both in summer and especially in winter. However, the climate instrumental records barely cover the last 100 years in CA and longer period of proxy data could be recovered only from the high elevation snow glacier ice fields. To evaluate the threshold climatic conditions we analyzed the stable isotopes and chemistry series from 170m surface to bedrock ice core recovered from Belukha ice-cap (4120masl, 49°48’N, 86°33’E) in Siberian Altai (SA). The enriched isotope transition with thermal maximum of about -7.3‰ let us expect that Siberian glaciers survived during the Holocene Climate Optimum with much warmer period than modern (?18O mean of -14.25‰). Two periods of cold snap with ?18O mean of -18.49‰ and depleted to -23.7‰ were found in the ice core records prior to occurrence of thermal maximum. One of them was the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial followed by 8.2 kiloyear event, a cold snap episode with mean of -16.23‰ depleted to -19.4‰, relate to the signs of increased droughts. Rapid changes in d-excess records during transition from cold periods to thermal maximum periods could be associated with changes in atmospheric circulation and transferring from external oceanic moisture sources to internal. Based on developed transfer function, we roughly estimated temperature rise during the thermal maximum. We also analyzed the major ions, their relations and deviations from seawater ratios during different periods of the Siberian glaciation development, degradation, checked the dust input, and strong covariance cold snap period stands out as having much higher dust concentration. The surface to bottom SA ice cores did not contain organic material at the glacier bedrock, because during the thermal maximum and other warm interstadial periods (e.g., Hypsithermal and Medival, Bolling-Allerod (BA)) occurred in the SA, it was significantly dryer and maybe cooler than in the Tien Shan (TS) mountains. The 14C analysis of organic soil obtained from the bottom of ice-core recovered from the Grigoriev Ice-cap, at 4700masl, 41°58’N, 77°55’E The Grigoriev ice-core (1200 km to the South from SA) dated of 10640 14C years, close to the onset of the YD cold period. This result may conclude that glaciers did not exist in the BA period in TS at elevations up to 5000masl because it was significantly warmer. Formation of organic soil requires wet and warm conditions during hundreds/thousands of years thus, much warmer and wet climate rather than arid climate caused the TS glacial recession in the BA period that we did not revealed in the SA. We assume that threshold climate changes occurred prior to YD in the TS (warmer and more wet) and in the SA (much warmer, but dry) was not observed in the Pamir. Differences in prevailing atmospheric circulation, maintaining Pamir glaciers from modern and historical climatic thresholds, occurred in central TS and SA and while the Pamir glaciers might be remnants of the LGM.

Aizen, E.; Aizen, V. B.; Takeuchi, N.; Mayewski, P. A.; Grigholm, B. O.; Fujita, K.; Joswiak, D.

2010-12-01

92

Increase in the number of the B-chromosomes and variants of their system in mouse Apodemus peninsulae in Mountain Altai population over 26 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new evolutionary genetic phenomenon—increase in the number of B-chromosomes (almost threefold) accompanied by change in\\u000a B chromosome morphotypes—was discovered in the Artybash population of East Asian mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Mountain Altai) over a historically short period (22 years), comparable with a small number of mouse generations (ten generations).\\u000a The process of increase in the number of A. peninsulae B-chromosomes

Yu. M. Borisov

2008-01-01

93

Multi-Decadal Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Loading Based on Major Ion and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Glacial Ice From the Siberian Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of a deep alpine ice core from the mid-latitude Siberian Altai is presented. The 170m core in storage and processing at the University of Idaho is examined to 50m on the basis of annual layer identification and dating, visual stratigraphy, major ion concentration, stable (delta18O,delta2H) and radiogenic (delta3H) isotope variability using multivariate and time series statistical methods. The core

D. Joswiak; E. Aizen; V. Aizen

2006-01-01

94

Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49°48?26?N, 86°34?43?E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly

S. Olivier; C. Blaser; S. Brütsch; N. Frolova; H. W. Gäggeler; K. A. Henderson; A. S. Palmer; T. Papina; M. Schwikowski

2006-01-01

95

[Increase in the number of the B-chromosomes and variants of their system in mouse Apodemus peninsulae in Mountain Altai population over 26 years].  

PubMed

A new evolutionary genetic phenomenon - increase in the number of B-chromosomes (almost threefold) accompanied by change in B chromosome morphotypes - was discovered in the Artybash population of East Asian mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Mountain Altai) over a historically short period (22 years), comparable with a small number of mouse generations (ten generations). The process of increase in the number of A. peninsulae B-chromosomes in Mountain Altai has been monitored over 26 years (1980, 1986, 1988, 1990, 2002, and 2006). A concept of a new type of genomic mutations - mutations in the number of B-chromosomes-has been substantiated. The phenomenon of genomic mutations in pro-B-chromosomes has been discovered only in the Mountain Altai populations. This region differs from the remaining A. peninsulae dwelling localities by pollution with unspent liquid propellant (UDMH, heptyl). It is assumed that the variants of mouse B chromosome system in the studied A. peninsulae populations in the overall habitation area over long-term periods are likely to remain relatively stable and that their variation is controlled by homeostatic processes. Disturbance of these processes, in particular, due to anthropogenic load, can disrupt the cyclic pattern of increase and decrease in the number of A. peninsulae B-chromosomes in individual years. PMID:18846820

Borisov, Iu M

2008-09-01

96

[Population-based study of tear production in healthy individuals and patients with dry eye syndrome in Altai Republic].  

PubMed

For the first time population-based study of tear production was performed, prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome (DES) were determined in native ethnic group of Altai Republic--tubalars. Authors examined 673 people, representing 44% of the whole tubalar population. The mean total tear production (Shirmer test I) was 13,3 +/- 0,3 mm in healthy (without DES signs) tubalars. It ranges in 22,6% of healthy tubalars from 0 to 5 mm, in 20,8%--6 to 11 mm, in 20,5%--12 to 17 mm, in 34,5%-- > 17 mm. Prevalence of DES in tubalar population is 86,18 per thousand. Total tear production (Shirmer test I) in tubalars with DES ranges from 0 to 5 mm in 34%, 6-11 mm in 31,5%, 12-17 mm in 21% and > 17 mm in 13% of eyes. This results showed Shirmer test I to be nonspecific in diagnosis of DES. In author's opinion this test may be useful for follow-up and for assessment of treatment efficacy. PMID:23210341

Onishchenko, A L; Kolbasko, A V; Shirina, M A

97

Variation, variability, and the origin of the avian endocranium: insights from the anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea).  

PubMed

The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve). Also present are features intermediate between the basal theropod and avialan conditions that optimize as the ancestral condition for Coelurosauria--a diverse group of derived theropods that includes modern birds. The expression of several primitive theropod features as derived character states within Tyrannosauroidea establishes previously unrecognized evolutionary complexity and morphological plasticity at the base of Coelurosauria. It also demonstrates the critical role heterochrony may have played in driving patterns of endocranial variability within the group and potentially reveals stages in the evolution of neuroanatomical development that could not be inferred based solely on developmental observations of the major archosaurian crown clades. We discuss the integration of paleontology with variability studies, especially as applied to the nature of morphological transformations along the phylogenetically long branches that tend to separate the crown clades of major vertebrate groups. PMID:21853125

Bever, Gabe S; Brusatte, Stephen L; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

2011-08-10

98

The Altai earthquake response of the measuring systems of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station dam on the Yenisei River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of retrospective analysis of in situ observations in the dam foundation and adjacent bank rocks of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station (SSHPS) during the nucleation and energy release of the Altai earthquake of September 27, 2003, are presented. A group of most reliable precursors of this earthquake is identified in measured parameters monitoring the state of the facility and surrounding bedrock. The correlation is examined between the precursor occurrence time and the energy of the earthquakes recorded in the regional catalog in 1990-2005, in the period of the normal SSHPS operation.

Marchuk, N. A.

2008-03-01

99

Mineralogical and geochemical features of promising types of gold mineralization in the western Altai-Sayany folded region (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Altai-Sayany folded region is one of the oldest mining regions of Russia. Typical gold deposits are quartz-viens and skarns, which formation is associated with intrusion of island-arc and collision granitoids. Due to the fact that the traditional gold ore base of the region has already been largely worked out, the necessity of prospecting for new gold deposits has arisen. On the basis of available data, one may state that the outlook for the development of gold-mining industry of the Altai-Sayany region is concerned with gold mineralization in weathering crusts, epithermal gold-silver, gold-porhyry and gold-sulfide formations. The total gold resource potential of these object types is estimated by us at the level of 2000 t. The gold mineralization of epithermal gold-silver formation is confined to Early-Middle Devonian volcanic-plutonic belt. Here, gold-bearing zones of beresitization, argillization, sulfidization and silicification are discovered among volcanites. Maximum contents of noble metals are found in quartz-sulfide veins among sulfidized (arsenic pyrite, pyrite, galenite, sphalerite and fahlore, etc.) and silicified volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Ore zones are marked by anomalously high content of Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Hg not only in bedrocks, but also in haloes of dispersion in loose deposits. Gold-sulfide mineralization in terrigenous carbonaceous strata is confined to Late Riphean, Early Cambrian and Devonian metamorphosed complexes. This rocks were formed in the marginal sea basins. Metamorphism and repeated tectono-magmatic activation in the region resulted in redistribution and accumulation of gold. Gold-ore zones are marked by intensive silicification and sulfidization and are characterized mostly by occurrences of multiple generations of pyrite and arsenic pyrite. Gold occurs both in free state and in sulphides. Geochemistry of gold-ore zones can be characterized by associated elevated content of As, Ag, Sb, Cu, Hg. Gold-sulfide mineralization in terrigenous-carbonate strata (Karline type) is confined to Vendian and Late Devonian-Carboniferous carbonaceous dolomite and limestone. Formation of such epithermal mineralization is associated with Mesozoic Siberian plume evolution. Gold mineralization is confined to major tectonic zones, it is accompanied by listwenite, jasperoid and argillizated rock as well as barite, polymetal and mercury mineralization. Geochemistry of gold-ore zones can be characterized by associated elevated content of As, Ag, Sb, Pb, Zn, Hg Tl. Gold-porphyritic mineralization is confined to the areas of distribution of small massifs and dyke fields composed of diorite, granitoid, monzonite, and syenitoid. It is significant that gold is closely associated with copper and molybdenum reflecting general regularities in formation of porphyry orogenic systems. Gold-ore zones are accompanied by kalifeldsparization, silicification and sulfidization. The most widely distributed minerals in ore zones are chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, molybdenite, fahlores etc. Gold in crusts of weathering is found in Cretaceous-Paleogene clay and clay-rubbly deposits distributed predominantly among Early Cambrian gold-bearing sulfidized vulcanogenic-sedimentary rocks. Average content of gold in the crusts of weathering is 0.5-1.5 g/t. The gold is of high fineness, with little silver admixture, predominantly free, recoverable by gravity separation, fine in some areas, and associated with clay particles.

Chernykh, Alexandr

2013-04-01

100

Siberian regional climate change recorded in annually-laminated lake sediments (Lake Shira, Khakassia, Lake Kucherla, Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During field work in 2009 were sampled cores of bottom sediments of Lake Shira (Khakassia) and Lake Kucherla (Altai). Sediments contain annually laminated layers (varves). The average thickness of layers in the Lake Shira sediments is 1.3 mm, in the Lake Kucherla sediments - 2.3 mm. Cores were impregnated with epoxy resin and then are prepared solid samples thickness of 2 mm for X-ray scan. X-ray scanning was carried out in the Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (Budker Institute of nuclear physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk) using the excitation energies of 18 and 24 keV by the methods described in papers [1, 2]. Scanning X-ray fluorescence analysis on synchrotron radiation (SR-XRFA) as a high-efficiency method of microelement analysis is adapted to determine more than 35 elements with minimal step 0.1 mm. A detailed study of the varves with a spatial resolution of 100 microns showed seasonal variation of trace-element composition within the annual layers. It was counting the number of annual layers using the geochemical variations of sediment. Key geochemical indicators of terrigenous (Ti, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr) and organogenic (Zn, Br, U) components of sediments were identified. Comparison of meteorological data for the past 50 years with the lithological and geochemical parameters of sediments showed a stable dependence of trace-element composition of sediments with the climate variation in the region. Investigated lakes contain high-resolution records of regional climate changes. [1] K.V. Zolotarev et all. Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A470 (2001),376. [2] A.V. Daryin et all. Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A 543 (2005) 255.

Darin, Andrey; Kalugin, Ivan; Maksimova, Natalya; Ovchinikov, Dmitrii; Rakshun, Yiakov

2010-05-01

101

Pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectra of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Eastern Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single finding of this taxa can be important in the interpretation of fossil spectra. Recent spectra don not reflect present vegetation communities. Pollen of arboreal taxa predominates over non-arboreal taxa ( Pinus amounts to 80 %), among herbaceous pollen taxa Poaceae are most abundance ( pollen content may reach 20%). Participation of Poaceae pollen is strongly overestimated. Subfossil spectra better reflects major vegetation communities occurring today in researching area. Non-arboreal taxa predominates over arboreal taxa, among herbaceous pollen taxa Artemisia (6-20%), Cyperaceae (3-40 %), Poaceae (1-12%) are most abundance. So in general pollen assemblages of subfossil spectra correspond to structure of the described vegetation communities. This research will help in climate reconstructions in this mountain region.

Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.

2011-12-01

102

Atmospheric circulation patterns and geochemistry time series from ice/firn cores and snow samples of central Asian glaciers (Pamir, Tien Shan and Altai).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combination of high mountain ice-core isotope-geochemistry, ground based aerosol monitoring, NASA remote sensed and a NOAA atmospheric pressure distribution data were used to receive information on sources of dust/loess transport, their time and spatial extension in modern and pre-industrial time. Hundreds of samples from snow pits and ice/firn cores obtained from central Asian glaciers were collected, processed and analyzed. The NASA RS products address the gap in interpretation of available snow, firn and ice records by providing the spatial resolution necessary for identifying possible local and regional-scale dust sources, transport routes and depositions. NOAA Hypslit program modeled the air back-trajectories allowed to found association between the ice core geochemistry records and aerosol sources. To find the circulation patterns, which are closely associated with geochemistry ice core/snow pit records, the correlation coefficients between the Empirical Orthogonal Functions of the atmospheric circulation patterns and geochemistry time coefficients for first two unrotated scores were computed. The loess / dust storm sources with corresponding geo-chemical composition (trace elements, major ions and dust particles) in western, central and northern Asia were identified: 1. Tajik loess deposition and Iran, Afghanistan /Turkmenistan sands are for the Pamir. For example, the Pamir ice core records that associated with Tajikistan loess deposition are characterized by high concentrations of REEs and Al, high or median content of Ca, and a background S concentration. Samples from the Pamir Mountains differed in having low concentrations of Gadolinium. Occasional intrusions of Chinese loess to Pamir glaciers are not excluded. REE profile of pilot Pamir cores documented one of the most extreme droughts of 2001 and 2002 that developed in south-west Asia. 2. Chinese loess deposition in the Takla Makhan, sands in the Tajikistan Deserts and western Gobi, and dust aerosols from Aral region are for the Tien Shan; 3. Western and central Gobi and Kazakhstan dust are for the Altai. The Aral region is the source of dust aerosol for Altai also. Based on in-situ data in the western Central Asia and Altai ice core records of particle number content there is tendency on decrease of dust storms frequency from the 30th in central and eastern Asia.

Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Joswiak, D. R.; Mayewski, P. A.

2008-12-01

103

Detail climate reconstructions based on combined geochemistry of lake sediments and tree-ring data by the example of Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of climate change with associated forcing during the last thousand-years remains limited because that cannot be studied thoroughly by instrumental data. So it is an actual task to find high resolution paleoclimate records and to compare it with recent patterns of short-period oscillations. Combination of lake sediments and tree rings appears to be effective for understanding of regional climate variability. The Altai mountain range in Central Asia has a climate divide between Siberian forests in the North and arid areas of Central Asia in the South. This region is characterized by the highest degree of continentality. In winter, due to the prevailing stable Siberian High, cold and dry arctic air masses are predominant. In summer, humid air masses from the Atlantic Ocean as well as recycled moisture are the main sources of precipitation. There are several dendrochronologies (up to 1700 years long) and annual reconstructions by Teletskoye Lake sediments (3000 years) in Altai region. They are calibrated by data from 14 local weather stations (time series up to 80 years) and Barnaul station (170 years) as well. The frequencies analysis of tree-ring width chronologies from Altai using by the spectral analysis shows that high frequencies are dominate. Most of cycles have periodicity up to 40 years. Maximum amplitude were found for 32.3, 142,9 and 200 year. High frequencies (2-40 years) are explain more 60% variability of tree-ring width chronologies. Decadal variabilities are found for 32.3, 40.0 and 43.5 years. Last two cycles are the same as Brikner cycle and could explain decadal moisture variability in Altai and Central Asia. Typical mountains lakes - Teletskoye and Kucherla - with accumulation rate of the fine-grained sediments 0,5-2 mm/year and free of human impact are selected to take sediment cores. A new generation of X-Ray Fluorescence instruments - the XRF scanner on Synchrotron Radiation - allows providing extraordinary high-resolution (up to 0.1 mm) records of elemental composition due to low threshold of detectability of many elements from Al to U. XRF scanning realizes rapid and non-destructive determinations, making sedimentary cores comparable with tree-rings. Also thin-sections are studied to examine the nature of laminas in order to better understand signals extracted. Time series of lithological-geochemical indicators of climate change based on dating by 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb are calibrated by instrumental hydrometeorological data to obtain the functions as environmental reconstructions. About 10 elements determined in sediments remain valid as climatic proxies after preliminary testing of analytical accuracy and variability. Set of elements depends on sediment composition, which is differing in sampled lakes. Organophillic elements have larger coefficients in equations for temperature reconstructions, but clastophillic ones are greater in formulas of multiple regression for precipitation. Good correlation between sedimentary-geochemical reconstructions and local dendrochronologies is revealed. So we used tree-ring series together with element contents as an additional proxy for calculation of transfer function, considering that tree-ring series are responsed to summer temperature in this climatic zone. Such combined version allows taking one more independent environmental indication for objective reconstructions. Another direction for use is detailed elaboration for sparse pollen or diatoms sequences. Multi-elemental geochemical matrix also allows prolongation of many instrumental time-series such as lake level, runoff, tree rings, atmospheric pressure, wind direction, solar activity etc.

Kalugin, Ivan; Darin, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Holodova, Lyudmila

2010-05-01

104

Fragments of Vendian-Early Carboniferous Oceanic Crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Foldbelts of the Altai-Sayan Region of Central Asia: Geochemistry, Biostratigraphy and Structural Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed geological, geochemical and biostratigraphic studies of rocks from basaltic-sedimentary terranes in the Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges (Vendian-Middle Cambrian units), the Charysh-Terekta strike-slip zone (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician units), and the Chara ophiolite-bearing strike-slip zone (Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous units) have been undertaken. The Early Cambrian accretionary wedges record a stage of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc evolution. The Charysh-Terekta strike-slip zone

I. Yu. Safonova; M. M. Buslov; K. Iwata; D. A. Kokh

2004-01-01

105

[Phylogenetic analysis of Altai osmans of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Pisces, Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae), based on the analysis of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (Co-1) sequence].  

PubMed

Molecular genetic analysis of Altai osmans of the genus Oreoleuciscus from two different parts of the range was carried out. In this study, based on the mitochondrial Co-1 gene sequence, a total of 25 fish specimens belonging to four genera were examined: (1) O. humilis, 2 specimens; O. potanini, 13 specimens; (2) Pseudaspius leptocephalus, 1 specimen; (3) Tribolodon brandtii, T. hakonensis, and T. sachalinensis from the GenBank database, 8 speciens; and (4) Leuciscus waleckii, 1 specimen (used as an outgroup). The p-distances were very low both within and between the species: (1) 0.20 +/- 0.03%; (2) 0.40 +/- 0.12%; and (1-2) 0.80 +/- 0.04%. To visualize the relationships among all of the species examined, the neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), Bayesian (BA), and maximum likelihood (ML) trees were constructed. The results obtained using these methods were very similar. It was demonstrated that species assignment of the individuals (barcoding) with the help Co-1 gene was effective, despite of very low divergence of the two osman taxa, which was comparable with typical intraspecific values in other animal groups. Taxonomic status of O. potanini and O. humilis requires further investigation with paying attention to low genetic distances between these species along with the lack of material from sympatric parts of the ranges. PMID:22232921

Batishcheva, N M; Kartavtsev, Iu F; Bogutskaia, N G

2011-10-01

106

Southern blotting.  

PubMed

Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. PMID:18432697

Brown, T

2001-05-01

107

Application of remote sensing and GIS in glacier monitoring: Glacier variability in Central Asia (Tien Shan and Altai) during the last 30--60 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to estimate glacier changes in the two mountain systems of Central Asia - Tien Shan and Altai, during the last 30-60 years as a consequence of regional climatic changes using remote sensing and GIS methods. To this goal two methodological studies were undertaken demonstrating the potential of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and declassified KH-9 Hexagon images for estimation of glacier changes. Glacier area and volume changes were estimated in three pilot basins in Tien Shan and Altai: Akshiirak, Ala-Archa and Aktru using data from historical geodetic surveys, topographic maps, aerial photography, declassified KH-9 Hexagon photographs, ASTER and ALOS/PRISM satellite images, SRTM and IceSAT elevation data and DGPS in situ measurements. Using SRTM data and a DEM from 1:25,000 topographic map glacier surface changes can be estimated with error about 8.2 m. In spite of SRTM error and the occasional absence of data on steep slopes, major long-term changes on relatively flat ablation and accumulation areas are clearly identifiable. Furthermore, the presence of local areas of rebound on glacier surfaces allowed decoupling of dynamic and climatic components of glacier changes that are not available solely from planimetric data. The high metric qualities of KH-9 imagery demonstrated a unique opportunity to extend high-resolution land cover/land use change studies to early 70s on regional to global scales. An IDL program was developed for automatic geometric preprocessing of KH-9 images. The distortions of scanned KH-9 film frames were about 6 mum (maximum 47.32 mum) with non uniform local patterns that had to be removed by local interpolation. In bundle triangulation of KH-9 images horizontal accuracies below 8 m were achieved. The KH-9 DEM vertical accuracy over flat terrain was about 6 m and 30 m over high mountains. The triple overlap of the KH-9 images enabled good DEM definition and accuracy on both north and south facing steep mountain slopes. From 1952 to 2006 the Aktru basin glaciers lost 7.2% of their area. During the last three decades, the rate of area loss accelerated by a factor of 1.8 (from 0.9% to 1.6% per decade). The changes were caused mainly by the increase of summer air temperature by 1.03°C at elevations below 2500 m and 0.83°C at elevations over 2500 m from 1951 to 2000. The glaciers in Ala-Archa and Tien Shan retreated up to 3 km between the 1860s and 2003, the surface of their ablation areas lowered more than 130 m. The area of the Ala Archa glaciers shrunk by 15.8% over the last 40 yr. The Akshiirak glacierized massif lost about 10 km3 of glacier ice and 12.5% of glacier area between 1943 and 2000. From 1977 to 2003 the rate of volume loss of the Akshiirak glaciers accelerated by a factor of 2.7. Continuous growth of spring and autumn air temperatures in northern Tien Shan and increase of summer air temperature in Central Tien Shan since the middle of 1970's without increase of precipitation may further accelerate glacier recession and intensify desertification processes in the Central Asia and northwestern China.

Surazakov, Arzhan

108

Southern blotting.  

PubMed

Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid than the basic protocol and can result in more complete transfer. Although the ease and reliability of capillary transfer methods makes this far and away the most popular system for Southern blotting with agarose gels, it unfortunately does not work with polyacrylamide gels, whose smaller pore size impedes the transverse movement of the DNA molecules. The third alternate protocol describes an electroblotting procedure that is currently the most reliable method for transfer of DNA from a polyacrylamide gel. Dot and slot blotting are also described. PMID:18429082

Brown, T

2001-05-01

109

Southern Spaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring the American South is a splendid idea, and this online journal is a great way to think about the "real and imagined places" of this unique cultural region. Southern Spaces is a peer-reviewed Internet journal and forum that "provides open access to essays, interviews and performances, events and conferences, gateways, timescapes, and annotated links about real and imagined spaces and places of the U.S. South." Their work is supported by the Robert W. Woodruff Library of Emory University, and visitors will want to browse around the site more than once. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at interactive features like "Negotiating Gender Lines: Women's Movement across Atlanta Mosques" and "The Other Side of Paradise: Glimpsing Slavery in the University's Utopian Landscapes". The site also includes information about the journal's editorial board and a set of thematically organized weblinks.

110

Composition and formations conditions of andalusite-kyanite-sillimanite pegmatoid segregstions in metamorphic rocks of the Tseel block (Mongolian Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz veins and pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications often occur in metamorphic complexes. Metapelites abound in various combinations of two Al2SiO5 polymorphs, e.g., andalusite + sillimanite and sillimanite + kyanite (Kerrick, 1990). Rocks with three polymorphs are much scarcer; they result from subsequent crystallization during progressive metamorphism or combined regional and contact metamorphism or from metastable crystallization (Kerrick, 1990). Study of veins containing various Al2SiO5 modifications can give insight into the PT-conditions of metamorphism and their temporal changes. The Tsel block is localized in the basins of the Tseliyn, Hudjertiyn, Sharin, and Deresetuin Rivers and is part of the Hercynides structure on the southern flank of Mongolian Altay. Pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications were discovered in the vicinity of the western contact of one of the largest basic-rock massifs, Buren-Hairhan.They are hosted by schists bearing paragenesis Bt + Ms + St + Grt + Ky + Sill + And + Fibr + Pl + Qtz. Visual examination of the pegmatoid segregations showed the presence of large (up to 4-5 cm) mineral aggregates —kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. They are prismatic, with rhombic sections, and are composed of chaotically arranged kyanite crystals with irregular-shaped andalusite relics between them. The samples also contain large (1 cm) muscovite plates localized between the pseudomorphs as well as quartz grains. The pegmatoid segregations bear the following mineral assemblage: And + Ky + Sil + Fibr + Ms + Qtz + Pl + St +Grt + Bt. Predominant minerals are Al2SiO5 polymorphs (30-50 vol.%), muscovite (30-60 vol.%), and quartz (up to 20 vol.%). Biotite and plagioclase are present in small amounts; staurolite and garnet are occasional. Based on the observed mineral correlations, the following sequence of formation of Al2SiO5 polymorphs has been established: First, andalusite was replaced by kyanite to form pseudomorphs; then, fibrolite was produced, which, in turn, gave way to prismatic sillimanite. The fact that fibrolite formed after kyanite is proved by its presence in muscovite developed after the latter mineral. Sillimanite was, most likely, produced later than or synchronously with large muscovite replacing andalusite grains and kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. 2. Though the estimated P and T values are close to those of the triple point (Pattison, 1992), the studied rocks bear evidence for the replacement of andalusite by kyanite and sillimanite. The mineral assemblages pointing to the kyanitesillimanite type of metamorphism of the host rocks and the presence of andalusite relics in the latter suggest that the andalusite formed during earlier metamorphic events. This polymorph formation sequence agrees with Kozakov's (1986) data on change of the regional metamorphism from andalusite-sillimanite to kyanite-sillimanite one. 3. The great amounts of muscovite in veins containing Al2SiO5 polymorphs and its presence at phase contacts suggest a great role of muscovite in the phase transitions between different polymorphs. Since phases other than Al2SiO5 and muscovite are present in negligible amounts, it is not ruled out that the polymorphs were transformed by the ion exchange mechanism (Carmichael, 1969). 1. Carmichael, D.M., 1969. On the mechanism of prograde metamorphic reaction in quartz-bearing pelitic rocks. Contr. Miner. Petrol. 20, 244-267. 2. Kerrick, D.M., 1990. The Al2SiO5 polymorphs. Rev. Miner. 22, p. 406. 3. Kozakov, I.K., 1986. Precambrian infrastructure complexes of Mongolia [in Russian]. Nauka, Leningrad. 4. Pattison, D.R.M., 1992. Stability of andalusite and sillimanite and the Al2SiO5 triple point: constraints from the Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. J. Geol. 100, 423-446.

Sukhorukov, Vasiliy

2010-05-01

111

Late Pleistocene to Holocene palaeoclimate reconstruction of a sediment core from the Bayan Tohomiin Nuur dry lake (southern Mongolia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reconstruction of Late Quaternary landscape evolution and paleoclimate development in southern Mongolia is the main interest of a research project (RWTH Aachen, University of Cologne, University Mainz, Mongolian Academy of Sciences) funded by the DFG (2007-2010). The study area is situated in the southern part of Mongolia comprising the mountains of the southern Khangay, Gobi Altai and endorheic basins of the Gobi Desert. Here we present results of a 7m sediment core taken from the Bayan Tohomiin Nuur dry lake, serving as an archive for geomorphic, palaeoecologic and palaeoclimatic processes during the last 13 ka cal BP. The multiparameter analysis of the core includes geochemical, palynological and granulometric methods in order to reconstruct sedimentation, weathering processes, vegetation cover and palaeoclimate within the catchment area of the lake. First results show a dominance of dry conditions with low lake levels between 13 ka and 8 ka being interrupted by shorter periods of lake extension and sediment input at 11,8-11 ka and 10,3 - 9,3 ka. An increased sediment input and lake level rise between 8,5-8 ka is consistent with the global 8,2 cooling event. Due to the fragmentary data younger than 8 ka, environmental conditions could only be estimated, though indicating a transition to dry conditions. The analysis of the grain size distribution of the lacustrine sediments yielded signals of dune activity from the nearby located Khongoryn Els dune field showing several activity phases at 12,5-12 ka and 10,5 ka. The aeolian input caused by remobilization of the youngest dunes could also be verified in the uppermost samples of the core.

Felauer, T.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Murad, W.; Schlütz, F.; Stolz, C.; Hempelmann, N.; Grunert, J.; Hülle, D.; Hilgers, A.

2009-04-01

112

Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

Lauder, Tracy

2012-01-01

113

Southern hemisphere observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

Orchiston, Wayne

114

Pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the Mongolian Altai in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: evidence from mineral equilibrium modeling and fluid inclusion studies on amphibolite-facies rocks from western Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), also known as Altaids, located between the Archean Siberian Craton to the north and the Tarim and North China Cratons to the south, is regarded as one of the largest accretionary and collisional orogen in the world. Detailed petrological studies on the CAOB therefore provide useful information of pressure-temperature (P-T) history of the orogeny as well as the tectonic evolution of East Asia. This study reports detailed petrological data, particularly the results of phase equilibrium modeling and fluid inclusion analysis, of pelitic schists and amphibolites from Bodonch area, southwestern Mongolia, which occupies a significant part of the Paleozoic history of the Altai Orogen in the southwestern margin of the CAOB, and discuss pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the area. The dominant mineral assemblages of pelitic schist in Bodonch area are garnet + kyanite + staurolite + biotite + plagioclase, garnet + biotite + staurolite + cordierite, and garnet + biotite + sillimanite + plagioclase with quartz and ilmenite, while amphibolite contains calcic amphibole + quartz + plagioclase + garnet + ilmenite assemblage. Application of conventional garnet-biotite and garnet-cordierite geothermometers as well as GASP geobarometer gave metamorphic conditions of 615-635°C/8.2-8.9 kbar from kyanite-bearing pelitic schist samples. Slightly higher P-T condition of 640-690°C/6.3-10.7 kbar was obtained by mineral equilibrium modeling of garnet-kyanite-staurolite and garnet-staurolite-cordierite assemblages using Theriak-Domino software. The calculation was made in the system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCKFMASH). We constructed a clockwise P-T path staring from high-pressure amphibolite facies condition within the stability field of kyanite (approximately 650°C/9 kbar) possibly through the stability field of sillimanite by post-peak decompressional cooling. Our petrographical observations of fluid inclusions in pelitic schists identified primary, secondary and pseudosecondary fluid inclusions trapped in quartz grains. The melting temperatures of all the categories of inclusions lie in the narrow range of -57.5 to-56.6°C, close to the triple point of pure CO2. Homogenization of fluids occurs into liquid phase at temperature between -33.3 to +19.4 °C, which convert into densities in the range of 0.78 to 1.09 g/cm3. The estimated CO2 isochores for primary and pseudosecondary high-density inclusions is broadly consistent with the peak metamorphic condition of the studied area. The results, together with the primary and pseudosecondary nature of the inclusions, indicate CO2 was the dominant fluid component during the peak amphibolite-facies metamorphism of the study area. The common occurrences of carbonates and graphite in the study area suggest the origin of CO2 either by oxidation of organic carbon or devolatilization of carbonates in the protolith sedimentary rocks. Key words: P-T condition; geothermobarometry; mineral equilibrium modeling; fluid inclusion; Altai Orogeny; Central Asian Orogenic Belt; Mongolia

Zorigtkhuu, O.-E.

2012-04-01

115

Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Memphis State University has monitored the seismicity of the southern Appalachian area since late 1979 by means of the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN), which has provided good spatial coverage for earthquake location. Activity is mor...

S. C. C. Chiu A. Johnston J. M. Chiu

1994-01-01

116

Trouble at Texas Southern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

Asquith, Christina

2006-01-01

117

Trouble at Texas Southern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

Asquith, Christina

2006-01-01

118

Southern Vietnam since 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses social and political changes in southern Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. Describes anti-U.S. propaganda used in the schools and media in the years immediately following the war. Contends that younger Vietnamese look forward to a closer relationship with the United States and its people. (CFR)

Dat, Bao

1995-01-01

119

Southern Foodways Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Residents of the American South love food and various culinary delights, and have performed Epicurean wonders with everything from okra all the way to the legendary barbecue pits that can be found along just about every highway and byway in the region. Working with the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi, the Southern Foodways Alliance is dedicated to preserving and cultivating the various food cultures of the American South. These programs include an ongoing oral history project, recipe books, a series of field trips, and the annual Keeper of the Flame award, which is given to a foodways tradition "bearer of note." The site's features section includes tributes to jambalaya, South Georgia cheese, and some fine essays on legendary BBQ locales. The oral history initiative area is truly a wonder, as visitors can browse through two sections, one devoted to barbecue, and the other to the foodways traditions of the Mississippi Delta region.

120

Crustaceans of Southern Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing resource on the Crustaceans of Southern Australia is provided by Dr. Gary Poore of the Museum of Victoria. Hundreds of images offer a peak into the diverse and colorful underwaters of Australia; images are accompanied by concise text, offering solid introductory information on the biology of marine crustaceans. Users will find this a worthy educational tool to learn more about Australian crustaceans from barnacles to crabs, ghost shrimps to lobsters.

1998-01-01

121

Faults of Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map displays faults for five regions in Southern California. Clicking on a region links to an enlarged relief map of the area, with local faults highlighted in colors. Users can click on individual faults to access pages with more detailed information, such as type, length, nearest communities, and a written description. In all of the maps, the segment of the San Andreas fault that is visible is highlighted in red, and scales for distances and elevations are provided. There is also a link to an alphabetical listing of faults by name.

122

Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

O'Meara, Stephen James

2013-05-01

123

Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that

B. P. V. Hunt; E. A. Pakhomov; G. W. Hosie; V. Siegel; P. Ward; K. Bernard

2008-01-01

124

DNA Hybridization: Southern Blot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students "explore partial and complete hybridization, manipulate binding with temperature, and design their own probe." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment of demonstrations, illustrations, and models they can manipulate. The content of the module is divided into five sections: an Introduction, Hydrogen Bonds, Denaturation and Hybridization, Designing a DNA probe, and Southern Blot. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview, a test and rubric, textbooks references, and correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

2008-12-09

125

The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment  

SciTech Connect

Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA); Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA (USA); California Univ., Los Angeles (USA); CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping (Australia); Sydney Univ. (Australia); Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank (England))

1989-07-01

126

Southern Ocean Mapping Program Restarts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) mapping program restarted at the end of 2006 after a 2-year break. The program is based at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, in Bremerhaven, Germany.

Ott, Norbert; Schenke, Hans Werner

2007-07-01

127

Summer Thunderstorms over Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten-day fire weather records from forestry lookouts in the southern California mountains are used to describe summer thunderstorm activity. The distribution of thunderstorms during a typical season closely resembles rainy-day frequencies for summer precip...

A. M. Tubbs

1972-01-01

128

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching �Spoken Memories�, which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the �Interview of the Month� feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP�s collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

129

European Southern Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.

2010-07-09

130

Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

1993-05-01

131

Glacier Area and River Runoff Changes in the Head of Ob River Basins During the Last 50 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai mountains in Siberia define southern periphery of the Asian Arctic Basin, and the Ob River is a major Siberian river fed by fresh water from Altai glaciers. Intensification of glacier melt in the head of Ob River since the middle of 20th century may have a considerable influence on the water resources and hydrological regime of Siberian rivers,

A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin; J. K. Narojniy

2006-01-01

132

Kinematic model of southern California  

SciTech Connect

A kinematic model for southern California, based on late-Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region, is proposed. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. Relative to North America, most of California west of the San Andreas fault is moving parallel to the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges and not parallel to the motion of the Pacific plate. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths in southern California that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion, implying the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California. 70 references.

Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.

1986-02-01

133

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

134

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

135

Southern Forest Resource Assessment - Summary Report  

Treesearch

Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research ... increasing numbers of satellite chip mills, forest pests, and changing air quality. ... forces of change affecting southern forests and the changes they produce.

136

Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course o...

P. A. Newman E. R. Nash

2003-01-01

137

Solar energy in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the state of solar energy research and application in Southern Africa. The history of energy and solar energy, the requirements at present and various predictions for the future are outlined. Wind, wave, wood, and similar solar energy resources are also briefly discussed.

B. G. A. Schaller

1978-01-01

138

Southern Horizons in Italian History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meridionalismo attitudes and policy vis-à-vis Southern Italy is a conceptual sphere approached from a wide range of viewpoints by people concerned with the fortunes of the Italian regions together with other, broader preoccupations. How are we to account for the success of this concept in politics and historiography? The Author views the long historical profile to highlight the essentially political

Leandra DAntone

2002-01-01

139

Quaternary uplift of southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dramatic coastline changes demonstrate rapid Quaternary uplift of Calabria in southern Italy. Because most of the west (Tyrrhenian Sea) coast is normal fault bounded, previous work has asserted that its uplift is local footwall uplift related to extension. However, the east (Ionian Sea) coast is also uplifting but is not normal fault bounded. This reanalysis, based on original field work

Rob Westaway

1993-01-01

140

Rural tourism in Southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review reveals a multitude of different ideas as to what constitutes rural tourism. A model is suggested that places farm, rural, and non-urban tourism into context. Based on a survey of rural operators and tourists in Southern Germany, several aspects of rural tourism are discussed. The main market segments are families with children and older couples, and their

Martin Oppermann

1996-01-01

141

Southern California Aviation System Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of three covering a two-year study of Southern California's 1995 air travel needs. Existing and planned air-carrier airports (Los Angeles International, Ontario, Burbank, John Wayne/Orange County, Long Beach, Palmdale, and Palm Springs)...

L. H. Goldman J. T. Merwin L. D. Murphy W. E. Gillfillan

1980-01-01

142

The Southern California Fault Activity Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Fault Activity Database (SCFAD) will supply WEB-accessible data about active faults throughout southern California, an essential resource for basic research and earthquake hazard mitigation. The SCFAD is funded by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) to compile and summarize published data pertaining to each fault's slip rate, recurrence interval, slip per event, and known damaging earthquakes, as

S. C. Perry; M. P. Silva

2001-01-01

143

Southern Elements in Ellison's "Invisible Man."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the extent to which Ralph Ellison is properly considered a Southern, as well as a Black author. Using "Invisible Man" as an example, shows that Ellison was concerned with Southern issues, such as the agrarian movement of the 1920s and 1930s, and used stereotyped characters of Southern fiction. (DMM)

Tewarie, Bhoendradatt

1983-01-01

144

The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO2 and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO2 balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO2 and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

Marinov, I.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Sarmiento, J. L.

2006-06-01

145

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state`s designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

146

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state's designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

147

Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

2009-12-01

148

Combustion Metamorphism in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several places in Southern California bituminous sediments of the Monterey Formation-siliceous shales, phosphatic rocks, dolomites, and arkoses-were affected during the Pleistocene and as late as the 19th century by spontaneous subsurface combustion of organic matter, during which temperatures up to 1600 degrees C were reached. This oxidative heating (combustion metamorphism) affected rock complexes over areas of tens of square

Y. K. Bentor; M. Kastner

1976-01-01

149

Landscape: A Southern Hemisphere perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well into the Mesozoic Era, Africa, South America, India and Australia were joined to Antarctica in one supercontinent—Gondwanaland. The northern continents were also joined to form the supercontinent Laurasia. Southern Hemisphere land masses, especially Australia, have been characterised by a long period of relative geological stability and a short period of glaciation during the Quaternary. These circumstances have led to the development of quite old landscapes, developed on surfaces subjected to the processes of weathering for millions of years. Unlike the Gondwanaland continents, much of the Northern Hemisphere has been tectonically active with orogenic processes producing young uplifted surfaces subjected to active erosion. The Northern Hemisphere has experienced four extensive and intense Pleistocene glaciations. The consequence of these periods of glaciation is that present-day landscapes are substantially the product of climate over the past 10,000 years and commonly have not undergone extensive weathering. The applicability therefore of Northern Hemisphere-derived models to explain things as diverse as landforms, stream patterns and processes, soil genesis and ecological theory in the Southern Hemisphere has increasingly come into question. Because southern landscapes have a physiography and palaeohistory quite different from that of the Northern Hemisphere, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop new concepts and theories which may have implications for the whole globe.

Squires, V. R.

1988-12-01

150

Geothermal resources of southern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150 C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications. A majority of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. The largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grang View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107 C and an energy of 4.5 x 10 to the 20th power joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system was found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures was not found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90 and 150 C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain.

Mabey, D.R.

1983-01-01

151

Coal Mining in Southern Illinois  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After graduating from high school in 1936, C. William "Doc" Horrell received a $12 camera from his mother. Horrell was immediately bitten by the photography bug, and created a dark room in his mother's walk-in-closet. He attended Southern Illinois Normal University (now the Southern Illinois University Carbondale), and after his time in the armed services, he opened up his own photography studio in Anna, Illinois. In the 1960s, Doc began wandering around southern Illinois to document the region's coal mining industry. Over the next few years, he took thousands of photographs, some of which formed the heart of his 1973 book, "The Land Between the Rivers". The good folks at SIU Carbondale have created this online exhibit to introduce users to Horrell's work. Visitors can make their way through the exhibit, and they may find themselves gravitating to the complete online collection, which contains over 750 items. It's a tremendous find, and it includes images of abandoned coal mining facilities, men at work, and coal trains.

152

Southern California Earthquake Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To say that there are a few earthquake research centers in Southern California is a bit like saying that Chicago sits on a lake of some size. It's a bit of an obvious remark, but given that there are a number of such projects, it's important to take a look at some of the more compelling ones out there. One such important resource is the Southern California Earthquake Data Center, sponsored by a host of organizations, including the California Institute of Technology and the United States Geological Survey. Visitors to the project site can peruse some of its recent work, which includes a clickable map of the region that features information on recent earthquakes in California and Nevada. Equally compelling is the clickable fault map of Southern California where visitors can learn about the local faults and recent activity along each fault. Another key element of the site is the historical earthquake database, which may be of interest to both the general public and those who are studying this area.

2005-11-03

153

Mollusk shells from burials of tuzovskiye bugry-1 As indicators of ethno-cultural processes In southern siberia and western central asia In the 3rd millennium bc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on adornments made of mollusk shells from graves of the Tuzovskiye Bugry-1 burial ground in the Altai Territory. The collection includes bivalve shells: Corbicula ferghanensis Kurs. et Star. currently inhabiting the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins; Corbicula tibetensis Prash. inhabiting the mountain regions of Central Asia, Eastern Kazakhstan, and the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins;

Yu. F. Kiryushin; K. Yu. Kiryushin; A. V. Schmidt; D. V. Kuzmenkin; M. T. Abdulganeyev

2011-01-01

154

Maternal mortality in southern israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Between 1969 and 1991 there were 166,410 births in Southern Israel with 13 maternal deaths (7.8\\/100,000). In the Jewish population\\u000a there were 119,130 deliveries with 7 maternal deaths (5.9\\/100,000), and the Bedouins had 47,280 deliveries with 6 maternal\\u000a deaths (12.7\\/100,000). Prenatal care was an important preventive factor. 7 maternal deaths occurred among 151,088 women who\\u000a had received prenatal care (4.6\\/100,000),

J. R. Leiberman; D. Fraser; M. Mazor; M. Glezerman

1993-01-01

155

TTVs study in southern stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we present 4 complete planetary transits observed with the 40-cm telescope ``Horacio Ghielmetti'' located in San Juan(Argentina). These objects correspond to a continuous photometric monitoring program of Southern planet host-stars that we are carrying out since mid-2011. The goal of this project is to detect additional planetary mass objects around stars with known transiting-planets through Transit Timing Variations (TTVs). For all 4 transits the depth and duration are in good agreement with the values published in the discovery papers.

Petrucci, Romina; Jofré, Emiliano; Schwartz, Martín; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo

2012-07-01

156

New Southern Research Station Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station provides this growing database of online, full-text articles that have appeared in print. Covering everything from mountain roads and water quality, to carbohydrate metabolism of peaches, to reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers, this collection of scientific articles and book chapters is updated frequently. The Products section contains the 100 Most Recent Publications page lists papers in order of their addition to the database. All articles are in .pdf format, and may be downloaded from the page (click on title).

2008-05-09

157

New Southern Research Station Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station provides over 1,500 online, full-text articles that have recently appeared in print. Covering everything from mountain roads and water quality, to carbohydrate metabolism of peaches, to reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers, this collection of scientific articles and book chapters is updated frequently. The Recent Publications page lists papers in order of their addition to the database. All articles are in .pdf format, and may be downloaded from the page (click on title).

158

Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-yr dataset from 1982 to 1998. The polar climate anomalies are correlated with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and the composites of these anomalies are examined under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 >

R. Kwok; J. C. Comiso

2002-01-01

159

Materials Physics in Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the developing world, southern Africa is trying to adapt to meet the challenges of the modern global economy. While the subcontinent is rich in mineral and energy resources, it is recognized that knowledge- based activities, leading to technological innovation, are essential in order to provide opportunities for its people. Materials science and technology have been identified as areas in which research should be encouraged . A number of initiatives have been launched in order to facilitate developments in these areas. The National Science Foundation is playing an important role in providing assistance for various new undertakings. A summary of the steps taken will be presented. While facilities for materials preparation and characterization exist in the region, there is much room for improvement. Centralized facilities, plus international collaborations and agreements, can help by providing access to state-of-the-art equipment. In order to ensure local expertise and the training of young scientists for the future, it is recognized that strong fundamental research activities in areas such as condensed matter and materials science are necessary. Furthermore, to prevent the loss of skilled young people to developed countries, it is important to provide opportunities for high quality research through visiting scientist programs at major laboratories in the US , Europe and other developed regions of the world. An overview of southern African materials physics research facilities and activities, with information on certain high-tech industrial research programs, will be given.

Hoch, Michael

2003-03-01

160

Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

2012-03-01

161

Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (SO GasEx) is the third in a series of US-led open ocean process studies aimed at quantifying air-sea gas exchange. SO GasEx took place in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean near South Georgia Island from February 29 to April 12, 2008. The main objectives of the experiment are to 1) improve quantification of the gas transfer velocity in a high wind and wave environment; and 2) determine whether there are unique controls on the gas transfer velocity in this significant CO2 sink region. An important goal of these efforts is to improve the quantification of gas transfer velocities on regional scales so that more accurate global air-sea CO2 fluxes can be determined. A systematic approach was followed during the cruise and will be continued after the cruise to accomplish this goal: 1) Perform direct flux measurements to obtain short-term estimates of local gas transfer velocities; 2) Combine integrated measurements of gas transfer velocities using 3He/SF6 dual tracer technique with short-term estimates and water column budgets; 3) Understand the mechanisms controlling ocean mixed layer pCO2 on short time and space scales; 4) Elucidate the forcing functions controlling gas transfer; and 5) Relate forcing functions to parameters that can be detected by remote sensing.

Ho, D. T.; Sabine, C. L.

2008-12-01

162

75 FR 48323 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EL10-1-002] Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing August 4...Declaratory Order, Southern California Edison Co., 129 FERC ] 61,246 (2009) (December 17, Order), Southern California Edison Company filed a compliance filing...

2010-08-10

163

76 FR 70437 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EL11-48-000] Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing Take notice...September 26, 2011, Southern California Edison Company filed its compliance filing...1\\ Southern California Edison Company, Order on Waiver Request...

2011-11-14

164

How Southerners Gave Up Jim Crow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes White Southern attitudes toward desegregation from the 1950s to the 1980s and traces how support for segregation of the races gradually decreased. Argues that supporters of segregation now comprise an inconsequential fringe group and suggests that Southern racial relations are today no better or worse than those in other regions. (KH)|

Reed, John Shelton; Black, Merle

1985-01-01

165

Southern Rural Access Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Southern Rural Access Program, a grant program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in eight southern states, funds projects that nurture rural and disadvantaged students in health-care fields; build state, regional, or community capacity to recruit and retain rural health professionals; support rural health networks; and provide loans to…

Beachler, Michael; Holloman, Curtis; Herman, James

2003-01-01

166

27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...southwesterly along southbound Interstate 5 to its junction with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the Southern Pacific Railway line to the rail...

2013-04-01

167

PALEOBIOGEOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE DECAPOD CRUSTACEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleobiogeographic patterns of decapod crustaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, based upon 441 species-level records arrayed in 154 genera, document global patterns of distribution that can be compared to those previously published on decapods from the North Pacific and Central American regions. All known records of decapods from the Southern Hemisphere spanning the Early Triassic to Pleistocene have been compiled, nearly

RODNEY M. FELDMANN; CARRIE E. SCHWEITZER

2006-01-01

168

Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the

Paolo Maria Guarrera; Leporatti Maria Lucia

2007-01-01

169

Southern California Water Markets: Potential and Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the potential and limitations for Southern California water marketsusing an economic-engineering network flow optimization model, CALVIN. CALVIN is usedto estimate how a market would affect overall Southern California water use, to preliminarilyassess the economic benefit of more flexible water allocation policies, and to explore thecharacteristics of an ideal market. Results from CALVIN suggest substantial economic andreliability benefits

Brad D. Newlin; Marion W. Jenkins; Jay R. Lund; Richard E. Howitt

2002-01-01

170

Discussing epigenetics in Southern California  

PubMed Central

With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu).

2012-01-01

171

Southern Nevada: The Boomtown Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent collection from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Libraries brings together a wide range of primary documents that narrate the history and social milieu of the famed boomtowns of southern Nevada. The collection brings together materials from a number of institutions, and all told, there are over 1500 items here. The most well known sections of this collection are the photographs and photograph albums which span the region in the late 19th and early 20th century. Additionally, the site contains business records, maps, surveys, and stock certificates. What is most compelling here may be the correspondence between officials of the Union Pacific railroad and their local agents. Visitors can view a list of boomtowns by county, look over the teaching resources here, and also learn more about the mining activities which transformed these places forever.

172

Maternal mortality in southern Israel.  

PubMed

Between 1969 and 1991 there were 166,410 births in Southern Israel with 13 maternal deaths (7.8/100,000). In the Jewish population there were 119,130 deliveries with 7 maternal deaths (5.9/100,000), and the Bedouins had 47,280 deliveries with 6 maternal deaths (12.7/100,000). Prenatal care was an important preventive factor. 7 maternal deaths occurred among 151,088 women who had received prenatal care (4.6/100,000), whereas 6 such deaths occurred among 15,322 without prenatal care (39.1/100,000) (P value 0.0005). Ten of the 13 women who died were over 24 years old. Eight of the 13 patients were multiparous. Live births occurred in 6 patients and stillbirths in 5 patients. Hemorrhage, preeclampsia-eclampsia and pulmonary embolism were the leading causes of maternal death. PMID:8512350

Leiberman, J R; Fraser, D; Mazor, M; Glezerman, M

1993-01-01

173

Aseismic uplift in Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary examination of the historic geodetic record has disclosed crustal uplift of 0.15 to 0.25 meter that apparently began around 1960 and has since grown to include at least 12,000 square kilometers of southern California. This uplift extends at least ISO kilometers west-northwestward along the San Andreas Fault from Cajon to Maricopa, southward from the San Andreas into the northern Transverse Ranges, and eastward from Lebec into and including much of the western Mojave block. It seems to have grown spasmodically eastward from a center near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults and has occurred largely within an area that has remained virtually aseismic since at least 1932. Although much of this area has been characterized by crustal mobility since at least the turn of the century, the described uplift seems to be an Uhusually large and probably unique event superimposed on the existing pattern of continuing deformation.

Castle, R. O.; Church, J. P.; Elliott, M. R.

1976-01-01

174

Climatology of extreme winds in southern California  

SciTech Connect

A climatology of annual extreme winds in southern California has been prepared. The climatology includes a description of extreme wind regions, defined on the basis of observed winds and topography. Extreme wind distribution parameters have been estimated for 46 locations using data obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Probabilities associated with extreme winds have been estimated for these locations. The results of the analysis are generally consistent with previous estimates of extreme winds in southern California. Although in several instances the current estimates are significantly higher than previous estimates. The data examined do not indicate that there has been a significant change in the extreme wind climate of southern California.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Hubbe, J.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Holladay, C.G.

1987-01-01

175

Mercury in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the first mercury speciation study in the water column of the Southern Ocean, using a high-resolution south-to-north section (27 stations from 65.50°S to 44.00°S) with up to 15 depths (0-4440 m) between Antarctica and Tasmania (Australia) along the 140°E meridian. In addition, in order to explore the role of sea ice in Hg cycling, a study of mercury speciation in the "snow-sea ice-seawater" continuum was conducted at a coastal site, near the Australian Casey station (66.40°S; 101.14°E). In the open ocean waters, total Hg (Hg T) concentrations varied from 0.63 to 2.76 pmol L -1 with "transient-type" vertical profiles and a latitudinal distribution suggesting an atmospheric mercury source south of the Southern Polar Front (SPF) and a surface removal north of the Subantartic Front (SAF). Slightly higher mean Hg T concentrations (1.35 ± 0.39 pmol L -1) were measured in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) compared to Antarctic Intermediate water (AAIW) (1.15 ± 0.22 pmol L -1). Labile Hg (Hg R) concentrations varied from 0.01 to 2.28 pmol L -1, with a distribution showing that the Hg T enrichment south of the SPF consisted mainly of Hg R (67 ± 23%), whereas, in contrast, the percentage was half that in surface waters north of PFZ (33 ± 23%). Methylated mercury species (MeHg T) concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.86 pmol L -1. All vertical MeHg T profiles exhibited roughly the same pattern, with low concentrations observed in the surface layer and increasing concentrations with depth up to an intermediate depth maximum. As for Hg T, low mean MeHg T concentrations were associated with AAIW, and higher ones with AABW. The maximum of MeHg T concentration at each station was systematically observed within the oxygen minimum zone, with a statistically significant MeHg Tvs Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) relationship ( p < 0.001). The proportion of Hg T as methylated species was lower than 5% in the surface waters, around 50% in deep waters below 1000 m, reaching a maximum of 78% south of the SPF. At Casey coastal station Hg T and Hg R concentrations found in the "snow-sea ice-seawater" continuum were one order of magnitude higher than those measured in open ocean waters. The distribution of Hg T there suggests an atmospheric Hg deposition with snow and a fractionation process during sea ice formation, which excludes Hg from the ice with a parallel Hg enrichment of brine, probably concurring with the Hg enrichment of AABW observed in the open ocean waters. Contrastingly, MeHg T concentrations in the sea ice environment were in the same range as in the open ocean waters, remaining below 0.45 pmol L -1. The MeHg T vertical profile through the continuum suggests different sources, including atmosphere, seawater and methylation in basal ice. Whereas Hg T concentrations in the water samples collected between the Antarctic continent and Tasmania are comparable to recent measurements made in the other parts of the World Ocean (e.g., Soerensen et al., 2010), the Hg species distribution suggests distinct features in the Southern Ocean Hg cycle: (i) a net atmospheric Hg deposition on surface water near the ice edge, (ii) the Hg enrichment in brine during sea ice formation, and (iii) a net methylation of Hg south of the SPF.

Cossa, Daniel; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Lannuzel, Delphine; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Butler, Edward C. V.; Bowie, Andrew R.; Averty, Bernard; Watson, Roslyn J.; Remenyi, Tomas

2011-07-01

176

Acid rain: Impact on Southern industries  

SciTech Connect

These papers deal with the urgent problem of acid rain. Of particular interest to the conference was the impact on Southern industries. Papers deal with control technology, government policies, and industrial concerns.

Not Available

1986-01-01

177

Women, Peace and Development in Southern Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Peace and development efforts among women in Southern Africa have been prompted by socioeconomic and political problems, cultural differences, poor communication, and lack of education. Meaningful solutions must start from women's cultural contexts, communities, nations, and regions. (SK)|

Machila, Margaret

1989-01-01

178

Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2  

Treesearch

Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and ... This chapter provides background information on the stressors affecting southern Nevada's ...

179

Southern Mexico: Counterinsurgency and Electoral Politics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; The Growing Crisis in Rural Mexico; The U.S. Role; The Political Context for the Insurgencies; The Rebellion in Chiapas; Electoral Conflict in Chiapas; The Conflict in Guerrero and Oaxaca; The Deepening Conflict in Southern Mexico ...

M. W. Foley

1999-01-01

180

Guide to Southern Pine Seed Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The selection of an appropriate seed source is critical for successful southern pine plantations. Guides for selection of seed sources are presented for loblolly, slash, longleaf, Virginia, shortleaf, and sand pines. Separate recommendations are given for...

C. W. Lantz J. F. Kraus

1987-01-01

181

Employment Pattern of Southern University Graduates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The broad objective of the study was to ascertain factual data concerning the employment pattern of Southern University 1964 graduates. More specifically, the objectives of this study were: (1) To determine the family characteristics of the graduates, (2)...

F. C. Temple T. T. Williams

1966-01-01

182

Archean Sedimentation and Tectonics in Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also ass...

W. S. F. Kidd

1984-01-01

183

Southern Ocean: Its Involvement in Global Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Southern Ocean is the site of considerable water mass formation which cools and ventilates the modern world ocean. At the polar front zone, formation of cool, low salinity water sinks and spreads northward at intermediate depths limiting the downward pene...

A. L. Gordon

1992-01-01

184

East and Southern Africa English Accents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses English pronunciation features in the anglophone countries of East and Southern Africa. Focus is on restructuring of the STRUT vowel to /a/,/i/, and /e/ epenthesis, and short tone groups.(Author/VWL)|

Bobda, Augustin Simo

2001-01-01

185

Clouds Over the Southern Indian Ocean  

NASA Website

across the southern Indian Ocean in early March 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite acquired this natural-color image on March 11, as a striking band of clouds ran roughly northwest to ...

186

CO2 sensitivity of Southern Ocean phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean exerts a strong impact on marine biogeochemical cycles and global air-sea CO2 fluxes. Over the coming century, large increases in surface ocean CO2 levels, combined with increased upper water column temperatures and stratification, are expected to diminish Southern Ocean CO2 uptake. These effects could be significantly modulated by concomitant CO2-dependent changes in the region's biological carbon pump.

Philippe D. Tortell; Christopher D. Payne; Yingyu Li; Scarlett Trimborn; Björn Rost; Walker O. Smith; Christina Riesselman; Robert B. Dunbar; Pete Sedwick; Giacomo R. DiTullio

2008-01-01

187

New Moho Map for onshore southern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

PA recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed\\u000a that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not\\u000a isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are\\u000a close to average for continental crust with elevations of similar to 1\\u000a km. Evidence from new seismic data indicate that beneath the highest\\u000a topography Moho depths are

Wanda Stratford; Hans Thybo; Jan Inge Faleide; Odleiv Olesen; Ari Tryggvason

2009-01-01

188

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

189

SOUTHERN OCEAN OBSERVING SYSTEM (SOOS): RATIONALE AND STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINED OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

By connecting the ocean basins and the upper and lower limbs of the ocean overturning circulation, the Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles and climate. Limited observations suggest the Southern Ocean is changing: the region is warming more rapidly than the global ocean average; salinity changes driven by changes in precipitation and ice

S. R. Rintoul; K. Speer; M. Sparrow; M. Meredith; E. Hofmann; E. Fahrbach; C. Summerhayes; Y. Fukamachi; A. Naveira Garabato; K. Alverson; V. Ryabinin

190

Unusual Southern Hemisphere tree growth patterns induced by changes in the Southern Annular Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent changes in the summer climate of the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics are primarily related to the dominance of the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode. This shift in the behaviour of the Southern Annular Mode--essentially a measure of the pressure gradient between Southern Hemisphere mid and high latitudes--has been predominantly induced by polar stratospheric ozone depletion. The concomitant southward expansion of the dry subtropical belts could have consequences for forest growth. Here, we use tree-ring records from over 3,000 trees in South America, Tasmania and New Zealand to identify dominant patterns of tree growth in recent centuries. We show that the foremost patterns of growth between 1950 and 2000 differed significantly from those in the previous 250 years. Specifically, growth was higher than the long-term average in the subalpine forests of Tasmania and New Zealand, but lower in the dry-mesic forests of Patagonia. We further demonstrate that variations in the Southern Annular Mode can explain 12-48% of the tree growth anomalies in the latter half of the twentieth century. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of summer Southern Annular Mode indices suggest that the high frequency of the positive phase since the 1950s is unprecedented in the past 600 years. We propose that changes in the Southern Annular Mode have significantly altered tree growth patterns in the Southern Hemisphere.

Villalba, Ricardo; Lara, Antonio; Masiokas, Mariano H.; Urrutia, Rocío; Luckman, Brian H.; Marshall, Gareth J.; Mundo, Ignacio A.; Christie, Duncan A.; Cook, Edward R.; Neukom, Raphael; Allen, Kathryn; Fenwick, Pavla; Boninsegna, José A.; Srur, Ana M.; Morales, Mariano S.; Araneo, Diego; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Cuq, Emilio; Aravena, Juan C.; Holz, Andrés; Lequesne, Carlos

2012-11-01

191

The Southern Kalahari: A potential new dust source in the southern hemisphere?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most of the sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the northern hemisphere. The relatively less dust emission in the southern hemisphere in part limits the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity and ability to seque...

192

Southern Oscillation Extremes Reconstructed from Tree Rings of the Sierra Madre Occidental and Southern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Niñio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is correlated with climate and tree growth over northern Mexico and the southern Great Plains of the USA. Warm events favor moist-cool conditions from October through March (event years 0 and +1), and subsequent tree growth (year +1) in the region tends to be above average. The opposite climate and tree growth conditions prevail with

David W. Stahle; Malcolm K. Cleaveland

1993-01-01

193

Adjoint tomography of the southern California crust.  

PubMed

Using an inversion strategy based on adjoint methods, we developed a three-dimensional seismological model of the southern California crust. The resulting model involved 16 tomographic iterations, which required 6800 wavefield simulations and a total of 0.8 million central processing unit hours. The new crustal model reveals strong heterogeneity, including local changes of +/-30% with respect to the initial three-dimensional model provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The model illuminates shallow features such as sedimentary basins and compositional contrasts across faults. It also reveals crustal features at depth that aid in the tectonic reconstruction of southern California, such as subduction-captured oceanic crustal fragments. The new model enables more realistic and accurate assessments of seismic hazard. PMID:19696349

Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Maggi, Alessia; Tromp, Jeroen

2009-08-21

194

The Southern Kalahari: a potential new dust source in the Southern Hemisphere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the Northern Hemisphere. The lower dust emissions in the Southern Hemisphere in part limit the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity. Climate and land use change can alter the current distribution of dust source regions on Earth. Can new dust sources be activated in the Southern Hemisphere? Here we show that vegetation loss and dune remobilization in the Southern Kalahari can promote dust emissions comparable to those observed from major contemporary dust sources in the Southern African region. Dust generation experiments support the hypothesis that, in the Southern Kalahari, aeolian deposits that are currently mostly stabilized by savanna vegetation are capable of emitting substantial amounts of dust from interdune areas. We show that dust from these areas is relatively rich in soluble iron, an important micronutrient for ocean productivity. Trajectory analyses show that dust from the Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean and could therefore enhance its productivity.

Bhattachan, Abinash; D'Odorico, Paolo; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Cassar, Nicolas

2012-06-01

195

Optical identifications of southern compact radio sources  

SciTech Connect

Optical identifications are presented for 158 radio sources, mostly from the Southern Hemisphere, based on the coincidence between the position of the optical object and the compact milliarcsecond radio nucleus. Radio positions with an accuracy of typically 0.3 arcsec rms were measured from the observed delay and fringe rate of VLBI observations at 2.29 GHz on an Australia-to-South Africa baseline. Optical identifications and positions were measured from the UK Schmidt Telescope deep IIIa-J Southern Sky Survey plates, where available. 16 refs.

Jauncey, D.L.; Savage, A.; Morabito, D.D.; Preston, R.A.; Nicolson, G.C. (CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping (Australia); Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (Scotland); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA); Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Johannesburg (South Africa))

1989-07-01

196

Global Climate Change: The Southern Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica, is a key region in determining global climate. This video lecture presents data revealing that the Southern Ocean is undergoing an alarming warming trend that may affect climates in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. What does the Antarctic region tell us about our future? Is Antarctica especially sensitive, so that now it serves as an early warning system for catastrophic change? The speaker questions the belief that human input is local not global. The video is 9 minutes in length.

Gille, Sarah

197

Vendian reference section of southern Middle Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological, chemo-, and biostratigraphic data indicate that the Vendian section of the Ura uplift is the most complete one in southern Middle Siberia and contains analogs of main units of the Vendian stratotype. This section is well known having been investigated by several generations of geologists, well exposed, and easily accessible; therefore, it is proposed to serve as a regional reference section for Vendian deposits of the entire southern Middle Siberia. Its description is accompanied by presentation of new biostratigraphic and radioisotopic data. The section is correlated with other Vendian sections of the Baikal-Patom and some other world regions.

Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Sergeev, V. N.

2013-07-01

198

6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN CONCRETE BRIDGE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN CONCRETE BRIDGE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, INCLUDING REINFORCED CONCRETE STRINGERS AND CROSS BEAM SUPPORTS. FACING SOUTH. - Easley Bridge, Spanning Norfolk Southern Corporation railroad tracks on Poplar Street, Bluefield, Mercer County, WV

199

12. OVERALL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF SOUTHERN AVENUE, WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. OVERALL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF SOUTHERN AVENUE, WITH JEREMIAH MAHONEY HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Workingmen's Houses, Locust, South Locust & Dodge Streets & Southern Avenue, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

200

14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

201

The red-cockaded woodpecker's role in the southern pine ...  

Treesearch

Title: The red-cockaded woodpecker's role in the southern pine ecosystem, population trends and relationships with southern pine beetles ... Historically, populations of this woodpecker and other cavity dependent species decreased ...

202

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

203

Physical Oceanography and Tracer Chemistry of the Southern Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers technical and scientific developments and research questions in studies of the Southern Ocean since its predecessor, 'Southern Ocean Dynamics--A Strategy for Scientific Exploration 1973-1983' was published. The summary lists key rese...

1988-01-01

204

Annual net snow accumulation over southern Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of NASA's Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA), extensive ice core measurements of annual net water-equivalent accumu- lation have been made recently around the southern Greenland ice sheet. Analysis of these measurements demonstrates that annual and seasonal accumulation pat- terns are sometimes regional, with temporal variability in accumulation correlated over large areas. Using this unique, widely distributed

Joseph R. McConnell; Gregg Lamorey; Edward Hanna; Ellen Mosley-Thompson; Roger C. Bales; Deirdre Belle-Oudry; Jay D. Kyne

2001-01-01

205

Library Staff Needs in Southern Appalachian Schools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a shortage of trained personnel to man school media centers in the Southern Appalachian Region. In order to prepare a detailed plan to alleviate this shortage, there was an urgency to study the needs of the region for professional librarians and ...

J. B. Ayers

1972-01-01

206

Central Milk Programs in Southern Food Chains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of a survey of food chains in the southern region of the extent and characteristics of central milk programs, a type of vertical integration of food chain operations. Central milk programs were reported by 196 of the 330 food chain su...

H. W. Lough R. F. Fallert

1977-01-01

207

REGIONALIZATION: USDA-ARS SOUTHERN HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Southern Horticultural Laboratory evolved from the USDA Small Fruit Research Station located at Poplarville, MS. A short history of the research facility and present horticultural research directions will be discussed. Emphases will be on past and present cooperative regional research efforts ...

208

Epidemic dengue transmission in southern Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of dengue fever (DF), dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in the city of Palembang, south Sumatra, Indonesia was investigated to (i) validate epidemic occurrence, (ii) confirm dengue virus aetiology and associated serotype(s), (iii) provide a demonstrable measure of community impact, and (iv) identify causative relationship (if any) with climatic El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

Andrew Lee Corwin; Ria Purwita Larasati; Michael J. Bangs; Suharyono Wuryadi; Sumarjati Arjoso; Nono Sukri; Erlin Listyaningsih; Sri Hartati; Rozali Namursa; Zarkasih Anwar; Surya Chandra; Benny Loho; Holani Ahmad; James R. Campbell; Kevin R. Porter

2001-01-01

209

2009 Summit of Southern Women Leaders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 4-6, 2008, approximately 140 women political leaders with vastly different experiences and points of view came together for two days of discussions at St. Simons Island, Georgia. This first ever Summit of Southern Women Leaders generated incredible...

2009-01-01

210

Direction of stress, southern Sydney Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of in?situ measurements, seismic studies of the Robertson Earthquake of 1961 and the Burragorang Earthquake of 1973, geological observations made during construction of Warragamba Dam and the Pipe Head?Potts Hill Tunnel, and foundation investigations into dams in other catchment areas, do not indicate agreement as to the direction of maximum horizontal stress in the southern part of the

N. M. Gray

1982-01-01

211

Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) has been robustly documented in the last several years. It has altered the atmospheric circulation in a surprising number of ways: a rising global tropopause, a poleward intensification of the westerly jet, a poleward shift in storm tracks, a poleward expansion of the Hadley cell, and many others. While these changes have been

Seok-Woo Son; Neil F. Tandon; Lorenzo M. Polvani; Darryn W. Waugh

2009-01-01

212

Southern Growth Trends, 1970-1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the South's population and economic gains in the 1970-1976 period, details the places in the South where growth is occurring and projects some possible patterns for the future. Southern growth in this decade can be best characterized a...

E. E. Brunson T. D. Bever

1977-01-01

213

Southern Regional Research and Information Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program is to define and formulate an approach to help direct the growth of the South on a regional as opposed to a local basis. Through the use of a questionnaire and personal interviews, Southern opinion leaders from business, govern...

1978-01-01

214

Walraven photometry of nearby southern OB associations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous Walraven (VBLUW) photometry is presented for 5260 stars in the regions of five nearby southern OB associations: Scorpio Centaurus (Sco OB2), Orion OB1, Canis Major OB1, Monoceros OB1, and Scutum OB2. Derived V and (B - V) in the Johnson system are included.

de Geus, E. J.; Lub, J.; van de Grift, E.

1990-10-01

215

Streamlined Strategies to Better Visualize Southern Blotting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.|

Dean, Derek M.

2012-01-01

216

Impact bruise assessment of southern highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium darrowi ' V. corymbosum) are currently mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 1,100 h/ha) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are under way to develop ...

217

DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last year, Southern Africa was host to two contradictory events. The first, the World Summit on Sustainable Development, optimistically aimed to map forward a path to global sustainability. The second, the launching of a series of international humanitarian assistance appeals, aimed more fundamentally at averting the devastating consequences of regional famine. That these events, one promising to ensure our future

ALISA HOLLOWAY

2003-01-01

218

El Nino --- Southern Oscillation Impact Prediction  

SciTech Connect

The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon affects the atmosphere and ocean over much of the globe. The resultant atmospheric and oceanic anomalies can produce a variety of biological and societal impacts. Three examples of impacts that may be predictable by monitoring simple indices of ENSO are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such direct'' prediction of impacts are considered.

Nicholls, N. (Bureau of Meterology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia)

1988-02-01

219

DRAINAGE DEVELOPMENT, SOUTHERN SACRAMENTO MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field mapping some years ago in the Surveyors Canyon area of the southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, revealed an unusually well-developed set of barbed tributaries. Later visits to adjoining areas, and a study of topographic maps and air photographs, have disclosed many other evidences of stream capture and diversion. Several of these features are described in this paper, and sugges-

ROBERT L. BATES

220

Gravel mulching in vineyards of Southern Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing awareness of the potential of traditional agricultural techniques has resulted in a recent scientific interest in these techniques. As modernisation and mechanisation often lead to the abandonment of these measures, it is vital to document them. Gravel mulching is such a traditional technique that is still practised in Chamoson (southern Switzerland). As no written information about this technique

Jeroen Nachtergaele; Jean Poesen; Bas van Wesemael

1998-01-01

221

SOUTHERN EAST REGIONAL AFLATOXON TEST (SERAT)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A testing network has been established to identify corn germplasm that contributes resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in grain to hybrid performance across multiple environments. Southern East Regional Aflatoxin Test (SERAT) is a multi-organization, multi-state evaluation of the most promising ger...

222

Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from southern African savannas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions were investigated at two field sites in the Republic of South Africa that include five important southern African savanna landscapes. Tropical savannas are a globally important biome with a high potential for biogenic emissions but no NMHC emission measurements in these regions or in any part of Africa have been reported. Landscape average hydrocarbon emissions

Alex Guenther; Luanne Otter; Patrick Zimmerman; Jim Greenberg; Robert Scholes; Mary Scholes

1996-01-01

223

DIETS OF SYMPATRIC RAPTORS IN SOUTHERN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the diets of four sympatric raptor species in Torres del Paine National Park, Magallanes region, Chile. This assemblage includes some of the least-known raptors in southern South America. Two strigids, Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba), had the most generalized diets. The Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) preyed primarily on birds and lizards, and

AGUSTIN IRIARTE; WILLIAM L. FRANKLIN; WARREN E. JOHNSON

1990-01-01

224

Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rainin combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt--resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the ...

P. J. Lombard

2009-01-01

225

ASPECTS OF COWBIRD PARASITISM IN SOUTHERN OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPECTS of the parasitic breedin, u habits of the Brown-headed Cowbird (IMoZothrus ater) have been documented extensively by Friedmann (1929)) Laskey (1950)) Berger (1951)) Norris (1947), and others. It was the purpose of this study to investigate some of the major aspects of such parasitism in the breeding avifauna of southern Oklahoma. Particular em- phasis was placed on observation of

JOHN A. WIENS

226

Building the Southern California Earthquake Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kei Aki was the founding director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a multi-institutional collaboration formed in 1991 as a Science and Technology Center (STC) under the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Aki and his colleagues articulated a system-level vision for the Center: investigations by disciplinary working groups would be woven together into

T. H. Jordan; T. Henyey; J. K. McRaney

2004-01-01

227

Southern Wood Density Survey, 1965 Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this publication is to provide interested State, private, and Federal agencies with the most complete and up-to-date basic information now available on the specific gravity of southern pines. The report consists largely of tables an...

1965-01-01

228

Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and

David Malin; David J. Frew

1995-01-01

229

Ocean models and the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean, because of its size and remoteness, has proved to be one of the most difficult oceans for the experimentalists to study and understand. Partly as a result of this, it has also been the ocean where large-scale ocean models have made some of the most interesting and useful contributions. In this review talk I aim to review

D. J. Webb

2003-01-01

230

Optical studies in the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Austral summer of 1997 1998, measurements of absorption, attenuation, downwelling and upwelling irradiance were made in the Southern Ocean along a S N transect at 6°E. Measurements were made to quantify the penetration of ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) in the water column and daily doses of UVBR at different water depths, to study the attenuation of photosynthetically active

K. E. Rasmus; W. Granéli; S.-Å. Wängberg

2004-01-01

231

Recent climate trends in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to describe and explain climate variability from 1901 to 2003 in southern hemisphere Africa. The monthly mean data used in this study are global grids for temperature and precipitation (0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution) sea level pressure (SLP, 5° x 5°) and sea surface temperature (SST, 1° x 1°). The analyses of climate trends,

J. Rathmann; J. Jacobeit

2009-01-01

232

An Investigation of Southern California Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has directions for a classroom activity in which students plot locations of major Southern California earthquakes on a map. A table listing major earthquakes, when they occurred, their locations and their magnitudes is included. There is also a set of questions for the students to answer once they have plotted the earthquake data on their map. This site is in PDF format.

233

Competitive Dynamics of Southern California's Clothing Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general outline of the functional and spatial characteristics of the clothing industry in Southern California is sketched out. Two important trends are noted: (a) the increasing design- and knowledge-intensive structure of the industry and (b) the marked increase in offshore subcontracting by local manufacturers that has occurred in recent years. The predicaments and promises of this situation are explored.

Allen J. Scott

2005-01-01

234

Late Pleistocene Faunal Extinctions in Southern Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major environmental changes recorded in pollen records from various sites in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego are also reflected in pollen and cuticle data from dung of the late Pleistocene groundsloth. The most prominent change was the large-scale reduction of steppe environment about 10,000 years ago, which coincides with the latest dates for extinctions of many large grazers such

Vera Markgraf

1985-01-01

235

Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain lion (Puma concolor) depredation incidents on livestock herds were recorded at 15 ranches in southern Brazil from 1993 to 1995. Maximum losses to mountain lions were 78% for goats, 84% for sheep, and 16% for cattle. Cattle mortality arising from causes other than depredation assumed a greater importance in herd productivity. In contrast, attacks on sheep and goats were

Marcelo Mazzolli; Mauricio E. Graipel; Nigel Dunstone

2002-01-01

236

Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Southern Balkans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this thesis is to investigate nationalism as the main source of instability and ethnic conflict in the sub-region of Southern Balkans -Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). It starts with a b...

C. Pavloudis

2002-01-01

237

Human resource management in Southern African libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review human resource management (HRM) in the selected, mainly academic libraries of Southern Africa. It is to determine the level at, and manner by which, HRM issues are handled in those libraries and their parent organisations. The paper seeks to discuss the transition from the traditional personnel administration to an HRM

Matšeliso M. Moshoeshoe-Chadzingwa

2010-01-01

238

Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of

1996-01-01

239

The evolving security architecture in (Southern) Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals first with recent developments at the Organization of African Unity (OAU), in particular discussing developments regarding preventive diplomacy, the greater use of observer missions and general attempts to build capacity towards conflict avoidance and mediation within that organization. This section is followed by an analysis of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), in particular the recently?established Organ

Jakkie Cilliers

1996-01-01

240

Island wakes in the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

2005-01-01

241

Luminous phenomena and earthquakes in southern Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Luminous phenomena, mostly nocturnal lights, are associated with very small earthquakes in southern Washington state. The phenomena seem to be electrical in nature, related to earthquake lights, and tend to occur when the locus of earthquake activity moves across an active fault in an area of compressional stress.

J. S. Derr; M. A. Persinger

1986-01-01

242

Perceived Occupational Goal Blocks of Southern Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The perceived occupational goal blocks of 614 employed young adults from five Southern States were examined in 1972 and compared with goal deflection data derived from the same sample in 1966. Respondents were asked to rate 10 goal block items on a 1 to 4 scale. These 10 items were ranked according to total scores and percents of possible high…

Sollie, Ray; Lightsey, Mike

243

Recent Elevation Change in Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Velocities of elevation change for two time periods have been determined from Southern California leveling data. Two periods were selected for study: 1906 through 1962 and 1959 through 1976. The study area extends from San Pedro north to latitude 35.5 deg...

S. R. Holdahl

1977-01-01

244

EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork…

Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

245

Emergency Food Providers in Southern Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines emergency food provider networks in rural southern Illinois. An overview focuses on recent research reports on hunger in America, official federal emergency food assistance policy and criticisms of that policy, and the role of the private sector in emergency food distribution. The review details the disagreements on policy and…

O'Hara, Mary

246

Flame characteristics for fires in southern fuels  

Treesearch

Asheville, NC: USDA-Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment Station. ... Approximate solutions are used to express flame lengths, angles, heights, and tip velocities of ... controlled burns in southern fuels and with data from the literature. Keywords: Flame length, flame velocity, flame angle, fire intensity, buoyant flames.

247

Plastic ingestion by Procellariiformes in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Procellariiformes are the birds most affected by plastic pollution. Plastic fragments and pellets were the most frequent items found in the digestive tract of eight species of Procellariiformes incidentally caught by longline fisheries as well as beached birds in Southern Brazil. Plastic objects were found in 62% of the petrels and 12% of the albatrosses. The Great shearwater, Manx

Fernanda I. Colabuono; Viviane Barquete; Beatriz S. Domingues; Rosalinda C. Montone

2009-01-01

248

Aerosols from 2003 Southern California Fires (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A devastating series of fires occurred in Southern California during October 2003. The effects of these fires were detectable from space. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument measures aerosol particles (microscopic airborne dust and smoke). TOMS was able to detect aerosols from these fires moving West over the Pacific Ocean and East over the continental United States.

Delabeaujardiere, Jeff; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2005-03-14

249

Sexual Risks Among Southern Thai Drug Injectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual risks for HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs) in Thailand are not well characterized. We surveyed 272 male IDUs about their background, sexual behaviors, and drug use at drug treatment clinics in southern Thailand. HIV seroprevalence was determined using enzyme immunoassay. Fifty-six percent of participants were sexually active, of whom 88% had sex mostly with a noninjecting regular

Pajongsil Perngmark; David D. Celentano; Surinda Kawichai

2004-01-01

250

Salinity Variations in the Southern California Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrographic observations southwestward of the Southern California Bight in the period 1937-99 show that temperature and salinity variations have very different interannual variability. Temperature varies within and above the thermocline and is correlated with climate indices of El Niño, the Pacific decadal oscillation, and local upwelling. Salinity variability is largest in the surface layers of the offshore salinity minimum and

Niklas Schneider; Emanuele di Lorenzo; Pearn P. Niiler

2005-01-01

251

The International Politics of Southern Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now a major policy convergence among the major nations of southern Asia: all are pro- economic growth, pro-international trade, against the retention of excessive governmentally-imposed barriers to trade and growth, and generally against tensions and conflicts that may inhibit trade and growth. These policies are backed by a common commitment to economic liberalization at home and to employing

Steven A. Hoffmann

1998-01-01

252

Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented. PMID:21412620

Mentz, Márcia Bohrer; Procianoy, Fernando; Maestri, Marcelo Krieger; Rott, Marilise Brittes

253

Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination

David G Fricker; Noboru H Komiyama; Seth GN Grant

2010-01-01

254

Coastal aeolian dune development, Sólheimasandur, southern Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coastal aeolian dune field on the distal parts of Sólheimasandur, southern Iceland is currently undergoing active construction. Ongoing sand deflation in the foreshore is demonstrated by the preservation of sand ridges in the downwind lee of obstacles, while a backshore sandsheet is characterised by actively accumulating long-wavelength wind ripples. The main region of aeolian accumulation is in the immediate

Nigel P. Mountney; Andrew J. Russell

2006-01-01

255

Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005–2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection.

Perera, David; Ooi, Mong How; Last, Anna; Kumar, Ravi; Desai, Anita; Begum, Ashia; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Shankar, M. Veera; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

2010-01-01

256

The Historical Ecology of the Southern Appalachians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological history of the southern Appalachians encompasses an enormous area. Western North Carolina alone encompasses events occurring in an area of 6000 square miles, more than 3.8 million acres. Where we begin to tell this story depends upon what we mean by history and what questions we expect history to answer for us. My question is how did forests

Gary B. Blank

257

Impact bruise assessment of southern highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southern highbush blueberries are currently mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours per acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are underway to develop “crispy” genotypes that will ...

258

Southern Research Station - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

... the non-growing season leads to a reduced subsoil zone, which restricts root ... To address these issues, we established ten research sites in southern Arkansas. ... CO2 assimilation were collected during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. ... Loblolly Pine Seedlings Under Different Cultural Practices on Poorly Drained ...

259

Southern Ocean: Its involvement in global change  

SciTech Connect

Southern Ocean is the site of considerable water mass formation which cools and ventilates the modern world ocean. At the polar front zone, formation of cool, low salinity water sinks and spreads northward at intermediate depths limiting the downward penetration of the thermocline. Within the seasonal sea ice zone and along the margins of Antarctica, convection injects very cold oxygenated water into the deep and bottom ocean. These conditions developed as Antarctica shifted into its present configuration and grew a persistent glacial ice sheet, about 14 million years ago. The potential of the Southern Ocean to ventilate the deep and bottom ocean layers is related to occurrence of polynyas that form within the winter sea ice cover. Global climate changes would be expected to alter the polynya size and frequency. Under greenhouse-induced warming offshore polynyas may become less common as the static stability of the Southern Ocean mixed layer increases. This would diminish the Southern Ocean's cooling influence on the deep layers of the world ocean, resulting in a warmer deep ocean. The fate of coastal polynyas is less clear.

Gordon, A.L.

1992-03-01

260

Germanium geochemistry in the Southern California Borderlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Ge(OH) 4 (denoted as Ge i , or inorganic germanium) and Si(OH) 4 were measured in water column and pore water samples from San Pedro and San Nicolas Basins in the Southern California Borderlands. There is a characteristic linear relationship between Ge i and Si in the water column which implies that the distributions of germanium and silica

R. J. Murnane; B. Leslie; D. E. Hammond; R. F. Stallard

1989-01-01

261

Educational Excellence Study, Texas Southern University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A proposed plan for review of the mission and goals of Texas Southern University (TSU) is presented that deals with improvements and resources needed to strengthen the university, unnecessary program duplication with other universities, new programs, institutional goals and timetables, improved planning at TSU, and sound human relations…

Texas Southern Univ., Houston.

262

27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interstate 5 to its junction with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet...and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the Southern Pacific...rail line's intersection with Hugo Road at the town of Hugo; then southwesterly along...

2010-04-01

263

27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interstate 5 to its junction with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet...and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the Southern Pacific...rail line's intersection with Hugo Road at the town of Hugo; then southwesterly along...

2009-04-01

264

Volcanism at Hualca Hualca Volcano, Southern Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nevado Hualca Hualca (6025m), in southern Peru, is the northernmost edifice in a north-south trending chain of 3 volcanoes that includes Ampato and the active Sabancaya stratovolcano. The oldest in the chain and considered extinct, virtually no research exists about the history of this large volcano. The summit of the volcano shows deep incision by glaciation, which from aerial photographs

B. Burkett

2005-01-01

265

Roses in the Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two best known satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, are located in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years. They host many giant nebular complexes with very hot and luminous stars whose intense ultraviolet radiation causes the surrounding interstellar gas to glow. The intricate and colourful nebulae are produced by ionised gas [1] that shines as electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei recombine, emitting a cascade of photons at well defined wavelengths. Such nebulae are called "H II regions", signifying ionised hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen atoms that have lost one electron (protons). Their spectra are characterized by emission lines whose relative intensities carry useful information about the composition of the emitting gas, its temperature, as well as the mechanisms that cause the ionisation. Since the wavelengths of these spectral lines correspond to different colours, these alone are already very informative about the physical conditions of the gas. N44 [2] in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a spectacular example of such a giant H II region. Having observed it in 1999 (see ESO PR Photos 26a-d/99), a team of European astronomers [3] again used the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, pointing this 67-million pixel digital camera to the same sky region in order to provide another striking - and scientifically extremely rich - image of this complex of nebulae. With a size of roughly 1,000 light-years, the peculiar shape of N44 clearly outlines a ring that includes a bright stellar association of about 40 very luminous and bluish stars. These stars are the origin of powerful "stellar winds" that blow away the surrounding gas, piling it up and creating gigantic interstellar bubbles. Such massive stars end their lives as exploding supernovae that expel their outer layers at high speeds, typically about 10,000 km/sec. It is quite likely that some supernovae have already exploded in N44 during the past few million years, thereby "sweeping" away the surrounding gas. Smaller bubbles, filaments, bright knots, and other structures in the gas together testify to the extremely complex structures in this region, kept in continuous motion by the fast outflows from the most massive stars in the area. The new WFI image of N44 The colours reproduced in the new image of N44, shown in PR Photo 31a/03 (with smaller fields in more detail in PR Photos 31b-e/03) sample three strong spectral emission lines. The blue colour is mainly contributed by emission from singly-ionised oxygen atoms (shining at the ultraviolet wavelength 372.7 nm), while the green colour comes from doubly-ionised oxygen atoms (wavelength 500.7 nm). The red colour is due to the H-alpha line of hydrogen (wavelength 656.2 nm), emitted when protons and electrons combine to form hydrogen atoms. The red colour therefore traces the extremely complex distribution of ionised hydrogen within the nebulae while the difference between the blue and the green colour indicates regions of different temperatures: the hotter the gas, the more doubly-ionised oxygen it contains and, hence, the greener the colour is. The composite photo produced in this way approximates the real colours of the nebula. Most of the region appears with a pinkish colour (a mixture of blue and red) since, under the normal temperature conditions that characterize most of this H II region, the red light emitted in the H-alpha line and the blue light emitted in the line of singly-ionised oxygen are more intense than that emitted in the line of the doubly-ionised oxygen (green). However, some regions stand out because of their distinctly greener shade and their high brightness. Each of these regions contains at least one extremely hot star with a temperature somewhere between 30,000 and 70,000 degrees. Its intense ultraviolet radiation heats the surrounding gas to a higher temperature, whereby more oxygen atoms are doubly ionised and the emission of green light is correspondingly stronger, cf. P

2003-11-01

266

List of Fauna Inhabiting the Sea Water of Southern Sakhalin and the Southern Kurile Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species collected by the Kurile-Sakhalin expedition during 1947-1949 are listed in taxonomical order. Their distribution over seven areas in Southern Sakhalin and Kurile regions is also pointed out.

G. U. Lindberg

1967-01-01

267

Southern Pine Beetle Handbook. How to Identify Common Insect Associates of the Southern Pine Beetle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heavy timber damage by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontails Zimmermann) (SPB) and recent intensive research have resulted in the need to identify this subcorticular insect and its insect associates. Associates include insects reported to be pr...

2005-01-01

268

Southern Taiwan - an Evolving "Coastal Range"?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the TAIGER research, existing tectonic concepts are continuously being reviewed in light of new data and for experimental design. One of the critical areas for understanding the tectonics of Taiwan is southern Taiwan. Seismicity and recent tomographic imaging confirm that the tectonics of Taiwan is controlled by the subduction and collision of two plates: the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and the Eurasian plate (EUR). In northern and central Taiwan the PSP is in collision with EUR, and at the same time subducts northward under northern Taiwan [Wu et al., 2008]. Before the PSP subducts to sufficient depth, the collision of PSP and EUR produced the Foothills and the Central Range on the EUR and the Coastal Range on the PSP side. For southern Taiwan, with 22.7°N as a rough demarcation, the tectonic interpretation is at variance and still in debate. To the east of southern Taiwan the inactive andesitic volcanic islands of Lutao and Lanhsu mark the top of the Luzon arc, separated from Taiwan by a somewhat deformed fore-arc basin [McIntosh et al., 2005]. To its west the Manila Trench is the western limit of a series of trend-parallel small thrusts on the ocean floor [Lunberg et al., 1997]. As the Trench approaches the continental shelf from the south it gradually loses its bathymetric signature. Southern Taiwan itself is commonly viewed as a part of the accretionary prism, and yet is also considered a continuation of the Central Range, produced by the collision of the Luzon arc and continental shelf. Suppe [1981] and many others had long recognized the central Taiwan orogeny, as a result of the collision of the Luzon Arc with the EUR continental shelf and Central Range, is built from rocks of the continental shelf. Inspection of a map of bathymetry around Taiwan shows that the continental shelf turns noticeably westward offshore of southwestern Taiwan, and that southern Taiwan is situated off the continental shelf. The presence of the Benioff zone under southern Taiwan and the normal faulting earthquakes (M7) west of Hengchun in 2006 indicate that southern Taiwan is a part of the PSP that is moving over the subducting EUR. It appears that southern Taiwan has not yet fully engaged in collision with EUR. This interpretation implies that the high topography of southern Taiwan is not created in the same manner as the Central Range. But how was it created? Where is the boundary between the EUR and PSP on land? If southern Taiwan does move westward as a part of PSP then when it collides with the continental shelf it will become a part of a new coastal range. A reexamination is timely as new sea-land, local and teleseismic tomography, more detailed seismicity, and dense GPS data are becoming available, and when there are chances to enhance experiments early next year for testing ideas. References Lunberg et al., 1997. Tectonophysics 274, 5-23. McIntosh et al., 2005. Tectonophysics, 401,23-54. Suppe, J., 1981. Geol. Soc. China, Mem. 4, 67- 89. Wu et al., 2008. Manuscript submitted to JGR.

Wu, F. T.; McIntosh, K.; Lavier, L. L.

2008-12-01

269

Ethics Instruction in Community College Leadership Programs: Southern Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to discover which southern universities have graduate preparatory programs in community college leadership and how, if at all, ethics is addressed in their curricula and in instruction. Surveys were mailed to 38 southern universities located in the Southern Regional Education Board member states. Of the 21 responses…

Ware, Nikisha Green

2011-01-01

270

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now

Nathan A. Niemi; Michael Oskin; Thomas K. Rockwell

2008-01-01

271

DETECTION METHODS FOR MINING EXPLOSIONS IN SOUTHERN ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weston Geophysical maintains a high-quality seismic research database for southern Asia consisting of detailed mining information together with seismograms recorded from mine blasts in northwestern India, southern Pakistan and the surrounding regions. This digital mining database contains data on more than 260 mines and mineral deposits in southern Asia, including information on location, geology, commodities, production, mineralogy, references, operator, and

Ileana M. Tibuleac; James Britton; David B. Harris; Terri Hauk; Heather Hooper; Jessie L. Bonner

272

OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, B&P, AND BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC MOLDING MACHINES. OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT, SOUTHERN DUCTILE MAINTAINS AN AUTOMATED LAEMPE COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

273

Chapter 8 The Southern Midcontinent, Permian Basin, and Ouachitas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is concerned with the southern portion of the craton, the southern craton margin, and its geological relationship with the Ouachita Orogeny. The southern continental margin was shaped by extensional and transform faulting, during the breakup of Rodinia, and includes the Oklahoma Basin, a basin formed by transtensional faulting. Carbonate reef systems flourished along the entire continental margin from

Andrew D. Miall

2008-01-01

274

Holocene rainfall variability in southern Chile: a marine record of latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and clay mineral parameters of a high accumulation marine sediment core from the Chilean continental slope (41°S) provide a 7700 yr record of rainfall variability in southern Chile related to the position of the Southern Westerlies. We especially use the iron content, measured with a time-resolution of ca. 10 yr on average, of 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry dated marine sediments

Frank Lamy; Dierk Hebbeln; Ursula Röhl; Gerold Wefer

2001-01-01

275

THE FROZEN TOMBS OF THE ALTAI MOUNTAINS INVENTARISATION AND CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of frozen tombs lie scattered across an a rea straddling Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China. These tombs, a major archaeological find dating back to the 1920s, belon g to the lost Scythian civilization which flourishe d 2500 years ago. Inside the tombs lie bodies which have often been so well pre¬ served in the frozen ground that even the

Rudi Goossens; Jean Bourgeois; Wouter Gheyle; Benjamin Van Bever; Matthijs Vanommeslaeghe; Dries Dossche; Dennis Devriendt

276

Annual Southern Ocean heat flux measured for first time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean makes up nearly a quarter of the global ocean by surface area and plays a powerful role in regulating Earth's climate by affecting ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns. Modeled representations of the Southern Ocean, however, are plagued by uncertainty. Obtaining direct observations of Southern Ocean properties with which to confirm the modeled estimates is difficult in such hostile polar conditions. To help overcome this shortfall, the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS), the first moored sensor array to ever be successfully deployed in the Southern Ocean, was set up south of Australia.

Schultz, Colin

2012-10-01

277

Transport and Impact of Southern African Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric circulations over southern Africa are responsible for aerosol and trace gas transports. Three major types of low and mid level (surface to 500 hPa) air parcel transports are found during the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) of August -October of 1992: (1) easterly direct and indirect; (2) westerly direct and indirect; and (3) recirculation within anticyclonic gyres. Air parcel transports off of southern Africa during SAFARI are overwhelmingly to the east (> 95%) and rise once away from the vertical controls of spatially ubiqitous and temporally persistent layers of absolute stability. The remaining westerly transports (~5%) are subsident in nature due to the effective capping of the stable layers. Average daily regional SAFARI air parcel volume transports for ENP approach 2.5 times 10^{14 } m^3/d and 1.6 times 10^{14} m ^3/d for westerly and easterly transports, respectively. Average daily SAFARI depositional fluxes of surface particulates are on the order of 0.15 kg/ha/d and 0.1 kg/ha/d for easterly and westerly transports. Average SAFARI daily depositional fluxes for the following nutritive species, rm K^+, NO_sp {3}{-}, NH_sp{4} {+}, and PO_sp{4} {3-}, range from 0.02 g/ha/d for rm PO_sp{4}{3-} to 0.9 g/ha/d for rm NO_sp{3 }{-} and NH_sp{4 }{+}. Annually, total southern African aerosol mass transports due to the dominant circulations are approximately 135 Mtons, with 29 Mtons transported to the south Atlantic, 45 Mtons to the Indian Ocean and 60 Mtons recirculated over southern Africa. Organic and inorganic geochemical techniques delineate between biomass burning/biogenic debris, industrial and mineral emissions. Average surface particulate concentrations at ENP during SAFARI are approximately 55 mu g/m^3 and range from 40 mug/m^3 to 65 mug/m^3 depending on circulation type. Bulk stable carbon isotope analyses of surface particulates result in signatures characteristic of biogenic (biomass burning/debris (-23 to -28perthous)) and industrial emissions (<-29perthous). Significantly different mass ratios of ENP surface particulates, K/C_2O_4, SO_4/C_2O_4, and rm NH_4/C_2O_4 are found with lower values (<2, <3, and <10, respectively) indicative of biomass burning/biomass debris and higher mass ratios (>5, >8, and >20, respectively) characteristic of industrial emissions. Results of bulk stable nitrogen isotope analyses of total particulate nitrogen are explored with respect to the existence of a stable nitrogen isotope gradient across southern Africa.

Swap, Robert John

278

Vortex modes in southern Lake Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current velocities and water temperatures were observed in southern Lake Michigan with an array of AMF vector-averaging current meters during late spring, summer and fall 1976. Analyses of the recorded current data have revealed that persistent oscillations of nearly 4 days in period were at least as energetic as inertial oscillations in the kinetic energy spectra and current hodographs.The 4-day

James H. Saylor; Joseph C. K. Huang; Robert O. Reid

1980-01-01

279

Notes on earth fissures in southern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes earth fissures at six sites in southern Arizona. These notes are preliminary to a more extensive study and detailed analysis being prepared by hydrologists in the Water Resources Division. Earth fissures were first recorded in Arizona in 1927, and have been noticed with increasing frequency since 1949. Fissures at Black Canyon, Bowie, Chandler Heights, Luke Air Force Base, Picacho, and Sells are discussed and illustrated with photographs.

Robinson, G. M.; Peterson, D. E.

1962-01-01

280

HIV-1 infection in Juba, southern Sudan.  

PubMed

Thirty years of civil war in the Sudan have resulted in the isolation of the southern provinces which border Central and East Africa. Consequently, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in this region. To estimate the prevalence of HIV-1 infection in southern Sudan and the risk factors associated with disease transmission, a seroepidemiologic survey was conducted in the township of Juba. Study subjects invited to participate in this study included medical outpatients, inpatients hospitalized for active tuberculosis, and female prostitutes. A total of 401 subjects participated in the study. HIV-1 infection was confirmed in 25 subjects. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 19% (8/42) among tuberculosis patients, 16% (8/50) among prostitutes, and 3% (9/309) among outpatients. A significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was found among female prostitutes when compared to female outpatients: 16% (8/50) vs. 2% (4/178), P < 0.001. Correspondingly, the prevalence of seropositives was significantly higher among male outpatients reporting a history of sexual relations with prostitutes during the prior 10 years compared to male outpatients denying relations with prostitutes: 14% (5/37) vs. 0% (0/94), P = 0.0011. A history of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) was also associated with HIV-1 infection among male outpatients. The findings of this study indicate that HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in southern Sudan and that prostitutes and their sexual partners represent a major reservoir of HIV infection in this population. This epidemiologic pattern resembles that seen in the African nations neighboring southern Sudan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7623001

McCarthy, M C; Khalid, I O; El Tigani, A

1995-05-01

281

Lipids and buoyancy in Southern Ocean pteropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipids of Clione limacina, a Southern Ocean pteropod (order Gymnosomata), contain 28% diacylglyceryl ether (DAGE) (as percentage of total lipid) whereas\\u000a the pteropod Limacina helicina (order Thecosomata) lacks DAGE. The alkyl glyceryl ether diols (1-O-alkyl glycerols, GE) of Clione DAGE are dominated by 16?0 (60%) and 15?0 (21%), in contrast with deep-sea shark liver DAGE, which is dominated by

Charles F. Phleger; Peter D. Nichols; Patti Virtue

1997-01-01

282

Ground Motion Scaling in Southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantify the attenuation of ground motion with distance in southern Spain, using 4946 vertical component velocity recordings from 1015 local and regional earthquakes recorded at the Andalusian short-period network. Epicentral distances range from 3.19 to 600 km and magnitudes from 1.0 to 5.1. We evaluate the 0.5 to 14 Hz frequency band, and we parameterize the diminution of seismic

F. Mancilla; R. B. Herrmann; J. Morales

2003-01-01

283

Attenuation tomography of the Southern Apennines (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to improve our knowledge of the attenuation structure in the Southern Apennines using a new amplitude\\u000a ratio tomography method (Phillips et al., Geophys Res Lett 32(21):L21301, 2005) applied on both direct and coda envelope measurements\\u000a derived from 150 events recorded by 47 stations of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia National Seismic Network

F. Zolezzi; P. Morasca; K. Mayeda; W. S. Phillips; C. Eva

2008-01-01

284

Optical studies in the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Austral summer of 1997–1998, measurements of absorption, attenuation, downwelling and upwelling irradiance were made in the Southern Ocean along a S–N transect at 6°E. Measurements were made to quantify the penetration of ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) in the water column and daily doses of UVBR at different water depths, to study the attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR),

K. E. Rasmus; W. Granéli; S.-Å. Wängberg

2004-01-01

285

Recent climate trends in Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to describe and explain climate variability from 1901 to 2003 in southern hemisphere Africa. The monthly mean data used in this study are global grids for temperature and precipitation (0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution) sea level pressure (SLP, 5° x 5°) and sea surface temperature (SST, 1° x 1°). The analyses of climate trends, based on linear regressions, were performed for several 30-year periods (1901-1930, 1931-1960, 1961-1990, 1974-2003) as well as for the whole 103-year period. Different monthly trend patterns could be pointed out on a regional scale. Maximum warming could be identified for central southern Africa during the MAM season and a slight cooling trend in Madagascar (in SON). Significant (95% level) precipitation trends were hardly found for the whole period due to the high precipitation variability. But during the shorter 30-year sub-periods, particular regions with significant trends could be pointed out. Negative precipitation trends during recent decades, however, seem to be weaker than previously reported. Highly significant long-term SST-trends reach highest values in mid- to higher southern latitudes. Concerning the SLP-data, trend analyses provide remarkable positive trends in the southern realm of the subtropical high-pressure systems. This can be interpreted as enforced trade winds. Monthly t-mode Principal Component Analyses for all available data sets have been applied in order to investigate the atmospheric dynamics which cause these climate trend patterns. The results of these t-mode PCAs confirm an intensified circulation in the subtropical regions, which is reflected by enforced subtropical high pressure-systems. The PC-time coefficients of these patterns depict strong positive trends.

Rathmann, J.; Jacobeit, J.

2009-04-01

286

Chinook salmon invade southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the invasion of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to southern South America providing historical, current and future perspectives. We conducted field sampling, angler surveys,\\u000a and analyzed all written records, and found evidence of reproductive populations in more than ten Andean (and many more coastal)\\u000a watersheds draining mainly to the Pacific Ocean in Chile (39°–53° S), but also to the Atlantic

Cristián Correa; Mart R. Gross

2008-01-01

287

Acid mine tailings in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment and water samples were collected along the Guadiamar river in southern Spain on 1–3 May and on 24–25 May 1998, following the release of acid sludge from the Los Frailes zinc mine near Aznalcollar on 25 April 1998. A maximum Zn concentration of 12 mg\\/g in the sediment was measured approximately 10 km south of the mine. The low

A. van GeenU; R. Takesue; Z. Chase

1999-01-01

288

USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database contains publications in support of this group\\'s mission to create the science and technology needed to sustain and enhance southern forest ecosystems and the benefits they provide. The database can be searched by author, title, keyword, date range, and publication origin; publication number; and by the most recent publications added to the database. There are also online versions of Compass, a publication catalog of research products from scientists at SRS.

2007-02-17

289

Experimental Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of the Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exactly dated tree-ring chronologies from ENSO-sensitive regions in subtropical North America and Indonesia to- gether register the strongest ENSO signal yet detected in tree-ring data worldwide and have been used to reconstruct the winter Southern Oscillation index (SOI) from 1706 to 1977. This reconstruction explains 53% of the variance in the instrumental winter SOI during the boreal cool season (December-February)

D. W. Stahle; M. K. Cleaveland; M. D. Therrell; D. A. Gay; R. D. D'Arrigo; P. J. Krusic; E. R. Cook; R. J. Allan; J. E. Cole; R. B. Dunbar; M. D. Moore; M. A. Stokes; B. T. Burns; J. Villanueva-Diaz; L. G. Thompson

1998-01-01

290

New southern galaxies with active nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A list of AGN candidates, identified from optical spectra taken as part of an ongoing redshift survey of southern galaxies, is presented. The identification, coordinates, morphological type, measured heliocentric radial velocity, and proposed emission type are given for the galaxies showing evidence of nonstellar nuclear activity. Using standard diagnostics, several new Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear-emission regions (LINERs) are identified among the emission-line galaxies observed. 14 references.

Maia, M.A.G.; Da costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Rite, C.

1987-03-01

291

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23° and 28°31'N, and from long. 66°E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery

V. U. N. Quadri; S. M. Shuaib

1986-01-01

292

The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (www.sccoos.org) is one of 11 eleven regional associations developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the United States. IOOS is a recognized initiative identified in the U.S. Ocean Action Plan and is considered one of the U.S. contributions to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). At the local level, SCCOOS

E. Terrill; S. Peck; L. Hazard; R. E. Davis; P. M. DiGiacomo; B. H. Jones; C. Keen; M. Moline; J. Qrcutt; K. Stolzenbach; L. Washburn; H. Helling; J. Long; S. Magdziarz; M. Laughlin; J. Kasschau

2006-01-01

293

Climatically driven fluctuations in Southern Ocean ecosystems.  

PubMed

Determining how climate fluctuations affect ocean ecosystems requires an understanding of how biological and physical processes interact across a wide range of scales. Here we examine the role of physical and biological processes in generating fluctuations in the ecosystem around South Georgia in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean have previously been shown to be generated through atmospheric teleconnections with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related processes. These SST anomalies are propagated via the Antarctic Circumpolar Current into the South Atlantic (on time scales of more than 1 year), where ENSO and Southern Annular Mode-related atmospheric processes have a direct influence on short (less than six months) time scales. We find that across the South Atlantic sector, these changes in SST, and related fluctuations in winter sea ice extent, affect the recruitment and dispersal of Antarctic krill. This oceanographically driven variation in krill population dynamics and abundance in turn affects the breeding success of seabird and marine mammal predators that depend on krill as food. Such propagating anomalies, mediated through physical and trophic interactions, are likely to be an important component of variation in ocean ecosystems and affect responses to longer term change. Population models derived on the basis of these oceanic fluctuations indicate that plausible rates of regional warming of 1oC over the next 100 years could lead to more than a 95% reduction in the biomass and abundance of krill across the Scotia Sea by the end of the century. PMID:17939986

Murphy, Eugene J; Trathan, Philip N; Watkins, Jon L; Reid, Keith; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Thorpe, Sally E; Johnston, Nadine M; Rothery, Peter

2007-12-22

294

Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage. The Southern Ocean mixed layer samples from this study and Abouchami et al. (2011) define a clear but broad 'HNLC trend' in a plot of ?Cd114/110 versus [Cd], which is primarily a consequence of isotopic fractionation associated with biological uptake (?Cd114/110 is the deviation of the 114Cd/110Cd ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 3108 Cd in parts per 10,000). The trend is especially apparent in comparison to the large range of values shown by a global set of seawater Cd data for shallow depths. The Southern Ocean samples are also distinguished by their relatively high Cd concentrations (typically 0.2 to 0.6 nmol/kg) and moderately fractionated ?Cd114/110 (generally between +4 and +8) that reflect the limited biological productivity of this region. Detailed assessment reveals fine structure within the 'HNLC trend', which may record differences in the biological fractionation factor, different scenarios of closed and open system isotope fractionation, and/or distinct source water compositions.

Xue, Zichen; Rehkämper, Mark; Horner, Tristan J.; Abouchami, Wafa; Middag, Rob; van de Flierd, Tina; de Baar, Hein J. W.

2013-11-01

295

Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

1985-01-01

296

Glacial Productivity Regimes in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contemporary Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is a weak CO2 sink despite high nutrient levels because productivity is limited by iron availability. During glacial periods much greater iron availability should have significantly enhanced productivity and CO2 drawdown. However, there is ongoing debate on the physical and biological mechanisms in the Southern Ocean causing the lowering of the glacial CO2 concentrations. Most paleochemical proxies indicate a latitudinal shift in the zone of enhanced glacial primary productivity and intensified CO2 drawdown but no overall increase in biogenic export. Other lines of explanation involve physical mechanisms restricting the Southern Ocean/atmosphere gas exchange via surface water stratification or sea ice coverage. However, the validity of such hypotheses to represent the major or sole mechanism steering the CO2 draw-down, has been questioned, based on theoretical grounds and numerical modeling, respectively. Here we present evidence for last glacial Southern Ocean conditions from biological proxies. We could detect resting spores of the diatom genus Chaetoceros as a proxy to indicate iron induced extensive diatom blooms across the entire Atlantic sector of the ACC, particularly in the seasonal sea-ice covered zone (SIZ) during the last glacial. In addition, we used the ecological information of the radiolarian Cycladophora davisiana gathered from plankton and surface sediment investigations of the Sea of Okhotsk to notify high glacial phytodetritus export in this area. The areal and downcore distribution patterns of these primary producer and phytodetritus feeding, deep living protozoans point to the occurrence of a high productive biological regime, dominated by fast growing thin-walled diatoms and non siliceous primary producer (e.g. Phaeocystis), which lead to high export of organic matter to the deep ocean. The dominance of the deep living radiolarian Cyladophora davisiana in glacial SIZ sediments indicates that organic carbon export to mesopelagic depths was at least ten-fold higher than today.

Abelmann, A.; Rainer, G.; Victor, S.

2006-12-01

297

Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

2008-01-01

298

The Southern California Fault Activity Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Fault Activity Database (SCFAD) will supply WEB-accessible data about active faults throughout southern California, an essential resource for basic research and earthquake hazard mitigation. The SCFAD is funded by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) to compile and summarize published data pertaining to each fault's slip rate, recurrence interval, slip per event, and known damaging earthquakes, as well as fault location, orientation, and sense of movement. It is based predominantly, but not exclusively, on paleoseismic studies. In addition, the SCFAD archives publications and unpublished data, provides a forum for continuing discussion about fault activity, and highlights needed future research directions. A key goal is to develop a single, consistent representation of the region's faults. Thus, the SCFAD has contributed to, and is designed to coordinate with, databases of the California Division of Mines and Geology, the National Hazard Mapping Program, and 3-D fault geometry models of SCEC's Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project. The SCFAD builds on several existing databases, particularly a Web-based database of Los Angeles basin faults constructed by Ponti, Hecker, Kendrick, and Hamilton at the U. S. Geological Survey. The SCFAD is implemented using FileMaker Pro (v. 5) as a database management system (DBMS) which resides on a Windows 2000 server. The SCFAD will soon be available on-line, viewable through any W3C-compliant Internet browser. Please keep apprised of SCFAD progress at www.relm.org. Collaborations are fundamental to the SCFAD's mission, and we encourage you to participate in the SCFAD's continued growth through use, contributions, and comments.

Perry, S. C.; Silva, M. P.

2001-12-01

299

Article: Adverse Events in Children Following 2010 Southern ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics; Animal & Veterinary; Cosmetics; ... Events in Children Following 2010 Southern Hemisphere Influenza Vaccination. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/pediatricadvisorycommittee

300

Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

301

Late pleistocene faunal extinctions in southern patagonia.  

PubMed

Major environmental changes recorded in pollen records from various sites in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego are also reflected in pollen and cuticle data from dung of the late Pleistocene groundsloth. The most prominent change was the large-scale reduction of steppe environment about 10,000 years ago, which coincides with the latest dates for extinctions of many large grazers such as the giant groundsloth. Stress on food resources for all the large grazers may well have hastened their extinction. Hunting pressure by paleoindians may have been the final blow. PMID:17737905

Markgraf, V

1985-05-31

302

University of Southern California: Tsunami Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California "is actively involved with all aspects of tsunami research; inundation field surveys, numerical and analytical modeling, and hazard assessment, mitigation and planning." The website supplies interactive maps and chilling images of the destruction caused by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Visitors can find out the latest tsunami news and research. Students and educators can view animations of seismic activity, landslides, and additional tsunami-related activity in various locations across the globe. Researchers can find abstracts and lists of publications of papers discussing field surveys, physical models, numerical methods, tsunami hazards, and more.

303

River Knick Points of Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful interpretation of the longitudinal profiles of rivers in southern Africa requires identification of the relative roles of bedrock geology, tectonics, river capture history, climatic change and eustasy. Knick points, expressed as waterfalls or as changes in gradient, are examined for the Kunene, Orange, Zambezi and Shire Rivers utilising Shuttle Imaging Radar topographic data, Gtopo 30 topographic data, Hydro 1K drainage data, satellite imagery, zoogeography and fieldwork. The results provide insights into what can, and cannot, be inferred about the uplift history of Africa.

Crossley, R.; Markwick, P.

2005-12-01

304

Gravity atlas of the southern ocean available  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution gravity fields for the Southern Ocean compiled exclusively from GEOSAT satellite radar altimeter, both Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data, and the recently declassified U.S. Navy's Geodetic Mission (GM) data, are presented in this color atlas. The circum-Antarctic region between 60°S and 72°S is divided into six geographic regions each spanning 60° longitude. For each of these regions three high-quality color images are provided that include ascending and descending deflections of the vertical, as well as computed gravity anomalies. Also provided for each region are plots of the GEOSAT ground track coverage (both ERM and GM) and ETOPO5 seafloor bathymetry.

305

Redshifts of four southern Abell clusters  

SciTech Connect

Redshifts have been measured for galaxies in four southern Abell clusters: A266, A2361, A2362, and A2661. Their average heliocentric values are: 28473, 18418, 18127, and 19060 km/s, respectively. A2361 and A2362 have a projected separation of just 1.3/h Mpc, which would make them among the tightest known binary clusters. Unless the single galaxy measured is in the foreground, A2661 is much closer than its D = 6 classification suggests. This casts further doubt on the reality of the putative association of distant rich clusters of which it was thought to be a member. 12 references.

Kirshner, R.P.; Feigelson, E.D.; Newberry, M.V.

1987-12-01

306

Photocells, photomultipliers, and southern-hemisphere photometry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three aspects of the historical development of photoelectric photometry in astronomy are discussed. The first is the era of the diode photocell in astronomical photometry, which represents the forerunner of the application of the photomultiplier, and was the first serious attempt to use electronics at the telescope. Secondly, the early days of the photomultiplier are discussed, which, after World War II, brought about an instant revolution in the practice of photoelectric photometry. And finally, the arrival of photomultiplier photometry in the southern hemisphere from about 1950 will be discussed.

Hearnshaw, J. B.

1996-11-01

307

Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy  

PubMed Central

Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken into consideration not only from the anthropological or cultural point of view, but also for further phyto-chemical investigation. Our studies, as well as those of other authors, try to provide an original picture of the local ethno-biodiversity.

Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

2007-01-01

308

Atmospheric carboxylic acids in southern California  

SciTech Connect

Intensive measurements of organic acids, inorganic acids, aldehydes and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in urban air were carried out at a Southern California smog receptor site, Glendora, CA, August 12-22, 1986. The objective of this project was to augment the data base regarding organic acids in urban air and to assess their role with emphasis on ambient levels, diurnal variations, phase distribution, emissions, in-situ formation and removal. The relative abundance of organic acids and inorganic acids was determined for the first time from simultaneous measurements carried out during this study.

Van Neste, A.; Williams, E.L. II; Grosjean, D. (DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (USA))

1988-09-01

309

Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

310

Southern Oscillation extremes reconstructed from tree rings of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is correlated with climate and tree growth over northern Mexico and the southern Great Plains of the US. Warm events favor moist-cool conditions from October through March (event years 0 and +1), and subsequent tree growth (year +1) in the region tends to be above average. The opposite climate and tree growth conditions prevail with less consistency during cold events. ENSO-sensitive tree-ring chronologies from this region were selected to develop two reconstructions of the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) back to 1699. The calibration and validation results suggest that the 56 climate extremes classified from 1699 to 1965 represent about half of the true number of extremes during this 267-year period, and that each reconstructed extreme has up to a 70% chance of representing a true winter SOI extreme. The most accurate estimates of past winter SOI extremes may be achieved in those years when the regression and classification methods of reconstruction agree, but comparisons with the instrumental data indicate that evidence for a past extreme cannot be disregarded when based on only one method. Both reconstructions indicate an increase in the frequency of winter SOI extremes after ca. 1850. Because the regression and classification errors are randomly distributed through time, these and other reconstructed changes in event frequency may reflect real changes in the extratropical influence of the SO over Mexico and the southern United States, if not in the SO itself. 50 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Stahle, D.W.; Cleaveland, M.K. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

1993-01-01

311

The impact of school and college expenditures on the wages of southern and non-southern workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous evidence of diminishing earnings returns to greater educational expenditures, the hypothesis that southern\\u000a schools and colleges have greater returns than non-southern schools and colleges is tested but is not accepted. Per pupil\\u000a expenditures for both school and college, however, significantly raise earnings for southern male full-time workers. The elasticity\\u000a of expenditure with respect to the wage for

Carol Horton Tremblay

1986-01-01

312

Blue-stain Fungi Associated with Roots of Southern Pine Trees Attacked by the Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otrosina, W. J.. Hess, N. J., Zamoch. S. J.. Perry, T. J., and Jones, J. P 1997. Blue-stain fungi associated with roots of southem'pine trees attacked by the southern pine beetle, Dendmctonus front&s. Plant Dis. 81942945. Forty paired plots were established from eastern Texas to Alabama to study root-infecting, blue- stain fungi in southern pine stands undergoing southern pine beetle

William J. Otrosina; Nolan J. Hess; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Thelma J. Perry; John P. Jones

1997-01-01

313

Vortex modes in southern Lake Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Current velocities and water temperatures were observed in southern Lake Michigan with an array of AMF vector-averaging current meters during late spring, summer and fall 1976. Analyses of the recorded current data have revealed that persistent oscillations of nearly 4 days in period were at least as energetic as inertial oscillations in the kinetic energy spectra and current hodographs.The 4-day oscillations were present at all stations, including a very clear signal at stations near the center of the lake basin. This lake-wide oscillation was present during both stratified and unstratified seasons and current vectors rotated cyclonically near the center of the lake and anticyclonically elsewhere. The observed rotational oscillations closely fit the characteristics of barotropic second-class motions of a basin with variable depth first described by Lamb (1932). While such topographic vortex modes are of the same class as low-frequency shelf waves, their kinematic properties and natural period are governed by the lake shape as well as the bathymetry. Moreover, the gravest mode is unique among these waves in having nonzero velocity at the lake center. The present observations give clear evidence for the existence of the gravest mode of such oscillations in southern Lake Michigan.

Saylor, J.H.; Huang, J.C.K.; Reid, R.O.

1980-11-01

314

SkyMapper: Surveying the Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SkyMapper is a 1.3m telescope built by the Australian National University as a replacement for the Great Melbourne Telescope lost in the fires that destroyed Mt Stromlo Observatory in 2003. The telescope features an 8sq-degree FOV, which when coupled with a new 16kx16k array, yields 5.7sq-degree sampled at 0.5" per pixel. SkyMapper is undertaking a comprehensive 6-colour, 6-epoch survey of the southern celestial hemisphere - the Southern Sky Survey, as well as a shallow full hemispheric survey to provide photometric and astrometric calibrations to 16mag. Additional time will be used to undertake a limited number of other science programs, including a supernova survey that will help imprive Dark Energy constraints. In addition to reviewing the telescope and its surveys, I will show the first results of the telescope, and discuss how others can work with our team and use the SkyMapper dataset on their own scientific programs.

Schmidt, Brian P.

2012-05-01

315

Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on time scales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through existing parameterizations in coarser climate models.

Thompson, A. F.; Richards, K. J.

2011-12-01

316

Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on timescales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through parameterizations in coarser climate models.

Thompson, Andrew F.; Richards, Kelvin J.

2011-09-01

317

Petroleum prospectivity of Australia's southern margin  

SciTech Connect

Australia's southern margin extends for almost 4000 km, from the Naturaliste Plateau in the west to the South Tasman Rise in the southeast, and developed from the Gondwana rift system which also gave rise to the Bass basin and prolific Gippsland basin of southeastern Australia. It incorporates six major sedimentary basins - Bremer, Eyre, Great Australian Bight (GAB), Duntroon, Otway, and Sorell - which are the products of Gondwana fragmentation. Exploration targets generated by this complex tectonic history include fault blocks and associated rollovers; wrench-related anticlines and flower structures, often developed over reactivated transfer faults; strongly eroded unconformities; and deltas of Neocomian and Maastrichtian-Cenomanian age. The southern margin basins contain several sandstone units with good reservoir potential. Hydrocarbons are being actively generated, at least within the Otway and Sorell basins, as indicated by abnormally high concentrations of thermogenic gases in surface sediment samples and the presence of free oil in the Cape Sorell 1 well. Deposits containing oil-prone type I organic matter occur in the Lower Cretaceous section of the Otway basin. To date, exploration has been light, with 17 of the total 27 wells having been sited in the Otway basin. The huge GAB basin (/approximately/ 400 /times/ 200 /times/ 10 km thick) contains only one exploration well, sited near the northern margin of the basin, and this basin is an obvious focus for further exploration effort.

Willcox, J.B.; Stagg, H.M.J.

1989-03-01

318

Pointing sources for southern submm telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a 230 GHz survey of quasars and BL Lacertae objects performed with the SEST. The sample consists of objects with flat radio spectra and is taken from various radio surveys. Repeated observations for individual sources indicates variability by factors of 2-5 within a single night. Comparing measurements over longer periods, even changes by factors of 10-25 at 230 GHz have been observed. The present catalog contains the 130 brightest objects whose 230 GHz flux densities are above 500 mJy most of the time. This, and their declination below +20o, makes them useful candidates for future pointing sources at southern submillimeter telescopes. First measurements of flux densities at 345 GHz are given for six objects. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/376/1123

Adraou, A.; Chini, R.; Albrecht, M.; Lemke, R.; Shaver, P. A.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Booth, R. S.

2001-09-01

319

Sangiovese and its offspring in southern Italy.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the importance of different approaches such as ampelography, historical researches, and molecular analysis to reveal direct parent-child relationship. The aim of this paper was to highlight the degree of relationship to five varieties spread in southern Italy, through ampelographic and molecular characterization: Sangiovese, Mantonico di Bianco, Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese. Molecular characterization was carried out through 52 SSR molecular markers, showing that Sangiovese and Mantonico di Bianco are the parents of Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese. Ampelographic description was performed using the method developed by the Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin. This analysis identifies three distinct groups: the first brings together Sangiovese and the two offspring Nerello Mascalese and Gaglioppo di Cirò, while Mantonico di Bianco and Mantonicone are positioned at a distance from the first and between them. Using molecular characterization, supported by the ampelographic one, we showed that Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese, three varieties recovered in the southern regions of Italy, such as Calabria and Sicily, originated by the cross between a nationally spread grape variety as Sangiovese and a Calabria autochthonous vine as Mantonico di Bianco. PMID:23001829

Gasparro, Marica; Caputo, Angelo Raffaele; Bergamini, Carlo; Crupi, Pasquale; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Perniola, Rocco; Antonacci, Donato

2013-06-01

320

Ground Motion Scaling in Southern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantify the attenuation of ground motion with distance in southern Spain, using 4946 vertical component velocity recordings from 1015 local and regional earthquakes recorded at the Andalusian short-period network. Epicentral distances range from 3.19 to 600 km and magnitudes from 1.0 to 5.1. We evaluate the 0.5 to 14 Hz frequency band, and we parameterize the diminution of seismic wave amplitude with distance in a two step process: first, specification of Peak S-wave motions in terms of EXCITATION, DISTANCE and SITE terms, followed by modeling in terms of geometrical spreading, frequency dependent Q, and distance dependent duration. We compare our results with previous results obtained in Italy using the same methodology. This determination is an important component of seismic hazard estimation for the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Recent seismicity in the region is characterized by low-to-moderate magnitudes (Mw<5.5) and a diffuse geographical distribution. From historical records, however, the seismic hazard at this portion of the Africa-Eurasian plate boundary is potencially high. Since 1500, southern Spain experienced 10 earthquakes with maximun intensities of IX or X (MSK scale), and the largest shallow event in the last century was the 1910 (mb = 6.3) Adra earthquake.

Mancilla, F.; Herrmann, R. B.; Morales, J.

2003-12-01

321

Oceanic fronts around southern New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulation and distribution of fronts around southern New Zealand are strongly controlled by the extensive New Zealand bathymetric platform. The Subtropical Convergence is continous around southern New Zealand, passing from southwest of New Zealand northeastwards through the Snares Depression, 300 km south of Stewart Island, along the continental shelf of the east coast of South Island and through the Mernoo Saddle (at 43°40'S) as the Southland Front, and then eastwards along the Chatham Rise. East of the Chatham Rise the Subtropical Convergence projects southwards as a tongue-like feature. The Subantarctic Front (Australasian Subantarctic Front) extends around the souther and southeastern flank of the Campbell Plateau then westward from the near the Pukaki Saddle, at 50°S, to pass south of the southward extension of the Subtropical Convergence near 170°W east of the Chatham Rise. Both the Subtropical Convergence and Subantarctic Front have associated relatively strong water movements. The relatively weak thermal structure of the Australasian Subantarctic Water over the Campbell Plateau is conducive to the production of Subantarctic Mode Water and probably leads to the sharp decrease in temperature of the Subantarctic Mode thermostad from west to east south of New Zealand.

Heath, R. A.

1981-06-01

322

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

323

76 FR 68393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...statement on the translocation of southern sea otters (revised draft SEIS) in the...

2011-11-04

324

77 FR 67302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Final Supplemental...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters (final SEIS). The final SEIS...

2012-11-09

325

40 CFR 81.235 - Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control...Regions § 81.235 Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

326

76 FR 43803 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northeastern Arizona and Southern Colorado...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Northeastern Arizona and Southern Colorado Appropriated Fund Federal Wage System...the Northeastern Arizona and Southern Colorado appropriated fund Federal Wage System...Gunnison County, CO, from the Southern Colorado wage area to the Northeastern...

2011-07-22

327

76 FR 9348 - Southern California Edison Company, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Diego Gas & Electric...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EL11-19-000] Southern California Edison Company, Pacific Gas and Electric Company...PURPA),\\1\\ Southern California Edison Company (SCE), Pacific Gas and Electric...Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, and San Diego Gas &...

2011-02-17

328

76 FR 57029 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 67-126] Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Application for Amendment...d. Applicant: Southern California Edison Company. e. Name of Project: Big Creek...Michael Murphy, Southern California Edison Company, P.O. Box 100, Big...

2011-09-15

329

75 FR 70220 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 344-023] Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Application Accepted...d. Applicants: Southern California Edison Company. e. Name of Projects: San Gorgonio...Power Production, Southern California Edison Company, 300 N. Lone Hill Ave.,...

2010-11-17

330

40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.152 Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

331

50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). 226.206 Section 226...for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca ). Critical habitat is...the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this...

2009-10-01

332

40 CFR 81.178 - Southern Delaware Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southern Delaware Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.178 Southern Delaware Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Delaware Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

333

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section...transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or...

2010-07-01

334

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section...transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or...

2009-07-01

335

75 FR 40802 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP10-2-001] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application...Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2010-07-14

336

76 FR 67160 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-001] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On October 19, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2011-10-31

337

77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-73-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2012-03-12

338

78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP13-531-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2013-08-30

339

77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-475-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-06-28

340

77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-07-17

341

75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP10-48-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2010-02-23

342

77 FR 28867 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-285-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application...Take notice that on April 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-05-16

343

78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP13-179-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2013-04-30

344

76 FR 31599 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On May 13, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2011-06-01

345

78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CP13-76-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box 20010,...

2013-02-28

346

Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

Templer, Donald I.

2012-01-01

347

Research of Education Issues in Southern Regional Education Board States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, which focuses on education in Louisiana, gives the results of research on various education issues in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and provides information on how southern states collect and use different education-related data. The article discusses education costs and revenues, as well as how financial, student,…

Louisiana State Legislative Auditor, Baton Rouge.

348

Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in process that…

Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

2012-01-01

349

Welfare Regimes, Welfare Systems and Housing in Southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are housing provision systems in southern Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece) different from those in northern Europe? Answering this question requires a way of theorizing housing systems, which locates them within their broader societal contexts. After setting out some of the key empirical differences between northern and southern, the paper reanalyses Esping-Andersen's work on welfare regimes and reviews housing-specific

Judith Allen

2006-01-01

350

Recharge into Southern High Plains aquifer - Possible mechanisms, unresolved questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Plains aquifer in the Southern High Plains (Texas and New Mexico), consisting of Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Triassic formations, has traditionally been considered to be recharged by its uppermost water-bearing unit the Tertiary Ogallala aquifer. This article provides hydrologic, chemical and isotopic evidence that in the Southern High Plains: (1) Cretaceous rocks actually contain independent recharge sources; (2) Triassic

Nativ

2009-01-01

351

Offshore oil and gas development: southern California. Volume two  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes in detail the specific effects of OCS development in southern California. Volume I of the report examines localized adverse effects of OCS development and examines the potential for development. The report specifically makes recommendations concerning the currently pending southern California OCS Lease Sale No. 48. Volume II contains additional information in 8 appendices. These are entitled: Oil

C. Buckner; K. Monroe; R. B. Read

1977-01-01

352

Wealth Redistribution, Race and Southern Public Schools, 1880-1910.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Measured the wealth redistribution effected by southern schools and the taxes that supported them using data from a large sample of southern states for 1880 through 1910. When taxes and expenditures are considered, the separate but equal school system appears to have provided a net transfer to black students. Public schooling in the South was a…

Ng, Kenneth

2001-01-01

353

Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in process that…

Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

2012-01-01

354

Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

Templer, Donald I.

2012-01-01

355

GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that gender role attitudes are more traditional in the southern United States than elsewhere in the nation. We examine this notion, using eight gender-related questions from the NORC General Social Survey data. Responses to these questions suggest that Southerners tend to hold more conservative opinions on questions about women in politics and employed women. On questions

TOM W. RICE; DIANE L. COATES

1995-01-01

356

DETECTION OF MINING EXPLOSIONS FOR A SOUTHERN ASIA SEISMIC DATABASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weston Geophysical maintains a high-quality seismic research database for southern Asia consisting of detailed mining information together with seismograms recorded from mine blasts in India, Pakistan, Iran, and the surrounding regions. This digital mining database contains data on more than 240 mines and mineral deposits in southern Asia, including information on location, geology, commodities, production, mineralogy, references, operator, and mining

James M. Britton; David B. Harris; Ileana M. Tibuleac; Jessie L. Bonner

357

Southern Rural Development Center Annual Progress Report, FY 1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1974 the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) has provided support staff for capacity building and innovative programming for the experiment stations and extension services of 28 land-grant universities in 13 southern states and Puerto Rico. The Center exists to provide the best possible information and assistance to extension and…

Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

358

16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

359

14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

360

10. Photocopy of photograph (original print located at Southern California ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of photograph (original print located at Southern California Edison Company Corporate Offices, Rosemead, California). Photographer unknown, about 1908. CLUB HOUSE LOCATED AT THE SOUTHERN END OF THE MAIN PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL STREET. THE CLUB HOUSE WAS REMOVED IN THE 1970s. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

361

76 FR 40721 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. EL11-48-000] Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 30, 2011...Commission), 18 CFR 385.207 (2011), Southern California Edison Company filed a petition for a limited historical waiver...

2011-07-11

362

ALLUVIAL SCRUB VEGETATION IN COASTAL SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain floodplain systems in southern Cali- fornia sustain a unique scrub vegetation rather than ri- parian woodlands due to a lack of perennial water. Allu- vial scrub occurs on outwash fans and riverine deposits along the coastal side of major mountains of southern California. This vegetation type is adapted to severe floods and erosion, nutrient-poor substrates, and the presence of

Ted L. Hanes; Richard D. Friesen; Kathy Keane

363

Endothall Species Selectivity Evaluation: Southern Latitude Aquatic Plant Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species selectivity of the aquatic herbicide endothall as the formulation Aquathol® K was evaluated on a variety of plant species commonly found in southern latitude United States aquatic plant communities. Submersed species includ- ed hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.), wild celery ( Val- lisneria americana L.), American pondweed ( Potamogeton nodosus Poiret), southern naiad ( Najas guadalupensis (Spren- gel)

JOHN G. SKOGERBOE; KURT D. GETSINGER

364

Language, Education and Development: Case Studies from the Southern Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many Southern countries, there are multiple and conflicting perspectives regarding the central role of language, particularly in relation to educational and developmental issues. A great number of multilingual, multicultural and multi-ethnic Southern countries are using "English" or some other dominant tongue as their only "official", and/or…

Dei, George J. Sefa; Asgharzadeh, Alireza

2003-01-01

365

Rabbits as a keystone species in southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A keystone species is one that is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of their ecological communities. We tested the idea that rabbits act as a keystone species in southern Europe by exploring relationships between rabbit abundance and the abundance and diversity of raptor species. At 20 sites in southern Spain we assessed rabbit abundance through counts of animals

Miguel Delibes-Mateos; Steve M. Redpath; Elena Angulo; Pablo Ferreras; Rafael Villafuerte

2007-01-01

366

Parental investment in southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern elephant seal is among the most sexually dimorphic and polygynous of all mammals: males may be more than 10 times the weight of reproducing females and only the largest 2–3% of males are likely to breed. Current optimization theories of sexual selection predict that evolution would favor greater parental investment in individual males than in females. Because southern

T. S. McCann; M. A. Fedak; J. Harwood

1989-01-01

367

The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC): Update for 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the first deployment of the USArray transportable array (Big Foot) begins in Southern California. 40 stations of the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) will be used as the initial start. The 40 stations will be recorded by USArray as part of their archive, and they will also continue to contribute to the data archive at SCEDC to be

V. L. Appel; R. W. Clayton

2004-01-01

368

GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

369

Moho depth variation in southern California from teleseismic receiver functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of broadband three-component seismic stations in southern California has more than tripled recently. In this study we use the teleseismic receiver function technique to determine the crustal thicknesses and Vp\\/Vs ratios for these stations and map out the lateral variation of Moho depth under southern California. It is shown that a receiver function can provide a very good

Lupei Zhu; Hiroo Kanamori

2000-01-01

370

Preliminary SPM catalog of positions in the Southern Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a preliminary catalog of the Southern Proper Motion program (SPM) first-epoch positions containing over 30 million stars. The goal of this work is to provide precise positions at the mean epoch of ~1970 in support of the UCAC, and any other large catalog requiring earlier epoch positions for proper motions. The catalog covers about 80% of the Southern

I. Platais; T. M. Girard; W. F. van Altena; D. G. Monet; S. E. Urban; G. L. Wycoff; N. Zacharias

2001-01-01

371

The Yale\\/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal goal of the Yale\\/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Program (SPM, which is the southern extension of the Lick Observatory Northern Proper Motion Program, NPM), is the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to faint galaxies, which can then be compared with Fundamental-Program proper motions of the same stars. This paper discusses the instrumentation of the SPM, together

William F. van Altena; Terrence Girard; Carlos E. Lopez

1991-01-01

372

Southern California Air Quality Study: Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) have been carried out as part of the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study. While PAN has long been observed in Southern California air, the authors study yielded for the first time information on the spatia...

E. L. Williams D. Grosjean

1989-01-01

373

Flexural strength and stiffness of southern pine plywood  

Microsoft Academic Search

New information is presented that concerns flexural strength and stiffness of southern pine plywood and verification of a method developed by the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory for predicting properties of plywood. This method can predict, with sufficient accuracy, properties of southern pine plywood despite the large natural variability of veneer of this species and other variables. Strength and stiffness

Evangelos J. Biblis; Yen-Ming Chiu

1970-01-01

374

Late Quaternary paleohydrologic and paleotemperature change in southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleo-spring discharge activity in the southern Great Basin responded to changes in recharge, hence climate changes, in high mountain areas during the late Quaternary. In our study, we examined four stratigraphic sections in southern Nevada in order to reconstruct paleohydrologic change spanning the last two major discharge cycles. The largest discharge event in those sections is expressed as extensive wetland

Jay Quade; Richard M. Forester; Joseph F. Whelan

375

Synthetic regional flow duration curve for southern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study is to develop the regional flow duration curves for southern Taiwan. To define homogeneous regions for developing regional flow duration curves, multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was applied to daily flow data from 34 stream-gauged stations in southern Taiwan. Two kinds of clustering variables, the dimensionless flow duration curve and specific

Pao-Shan Yu; Tao-Chang Yang

1996-01-01

376

TWO NEW TAXA IN CYRTOPODIUM (ORCHIDACEAE) FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batista, J. A. N. & Bianchetti, L. B. 2005. Two new taxa in Cyrtopodium (Orchidaceae) from southern Brazil. Darwiniana 43(1-4): 74-83. Cyrtopodium kleinii and C. brandonianum subsp. lageanum (Cyrtopodiinae, Cymbidieae, Orchidaceae) from southern Brazil are described and illustrated. Cyrtopodium kleinii is similar to a group of terrestrial species characterized by their small pseudobulbs, buried underground, and small flowers, but it

JOÃO A. N. BATISTA; LUCIANO B. BIANCHETTI

377

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH SOUTHERN CONSERVATION SYSTEMS CONFERENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The steering committee of the Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture emphasized the need for a systems approach for optimum production and profit with the name change to the Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference held at Florence, SC. During the Florence confe...

378

Reconstructions: The contemporary Southern landscape by its photographers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the work of landscape photographers living and working in the Southern region of the United States and to explore what their images visually communicate about their relationship to the Southern land and its distinctive history. This objective is accomplished through an analysis of the work of three contemporary landscape photographers who reside

Natalie Kersey Gillis

2008-01-01

379

Acute diarrhea during army field exercise in southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: During emergency period, infectious diseases can be a major threat to military forces. During field training in southern China, diarrhea is the main cause of nonbattle injury. To evaluate the causes of and risk factors for diarrhea in emergency period, we collected clinical and epidemiological data from the People's Liberation Army (PLA) during field training in southern China.

Yang Bai; Ying-Chun Dai; Jian-Dong Li; Jun Nie; Qing Chen; Hong Wang; Yong-Yu Rui; Ya-Li Zhang; Shou-Yi Yu

2004-01-01

380

Extensional faulting in southern Klamath Mountains, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large northeast striking normal faults in the southern Klamath Mountains may indicate that substantial crustal extension occurred during Tertiary time. Some of these faults form grabens in the Jurassic and older bedrock of the province. The grabens contain continental Oligocene or Miocene deposits (Weaverville Formation), and in two of them the Oligocene or Miocene is underlain by Lower Cretaceous marine formations (Great Valley sequence). At the La Grange gold placer mine the Oligocene or Miocene strata dip northwest into the gently southeast dipping mylonitic footwall surface of the La Grange fault. The large normal displacement required by the relations at the La Grange mine is also suggested by omission of several kilometers of structural thickness of bedrock units across the northeast continuation of the La Grange fault, as well as by significant changes in bedrock across some northeast striking faults elsewhere in the Central Metamorphic and Eastern Klamath belts. The Trinity ultramafic sheet crops out in the Eastern Klamath terrane as part of a broad northeast trending arch that may be structurally analogous to the domed lower plate of metamorphic core complexes found in eastern parts of the Cordillera. The northeast continuation of the La Grange fault bounds the southeastern side of the Trinity arch in the Eastern Klamath terrane and locally cuts out substantial lower parts of adjacent Paleozoic strata of the Redding section. Faults bounding the northwestern side of the Trinity arch generally trend northeast and juxtapose stacked thrust sheets of lower Paleozoic strata of the Yreka terrane against the Trinity ultramafic sheet. Geometric relations suggest that the Tertiary extension of the southern Klamath Mountains was in NW-SE directions and that the Redding section and the southern part of the Central Metamorphic terrane may be a large Tertiary allochthon detached from the Trinity ultramafic sheet. Paleomagnetic data indicate a lack of rotation about a vertical axis during the extension. We propose that the Trinity ultramafic sheet is structurally analogous to a metamorphic core complex; if so, it is the first core complex to be described that involves ultramafic rocks. We infer that Mesozoic terrane accretion produced a large gravitational instability in the crust that spread laterally during Tertiary extension.

Schweickert, Richard A.; Irwin, William P.

1989-02-01

381

Magma Piracy in the Southern Mariana Backarc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1997 the southern Mariana convergent margin system has been mapped with Hydrosweep, MR-1, and SeaBeam swath sonar systems on five cruises resulting in 168,500 km2 of bathymetry data and 186,800 km2 of sidescan data, revealing anomalous processes relative to the rest of the Mariana region. Most of the Mariana Arc is characterized by arc volcanism dominated by large, central volcanoes located at the boundary between a backarc basin with slow-spreading ridge morphology and a nonaccretionary forearc composed of Eocene volcanic arc rocks But southwest of Tracey Seamount, the southernmost large central arc volcano, the character of the arc and backarc changes dramatically. The arc volcanoes become small or nonexistent, but those that do occur lie along relict spreading fabric within the backarc basin. Furthermore, the spreading center appears to have an inflated, fast-spreading morphology, including dueling propagator fabric, and this southern backarc basin forms a shallow plateau overall. The spreading center then becomes less well-defined west of 143oE, and the volcanism appears to cease altogether west of 142oE in an area of amagmatic rifting, an observation supported by earthquake focal mechanisms and magnetics. The inflated morphology of the spreading axis, along with the absence or reduced size of nearby arc volcanoes suggests that arc magmas have been entrained into the backarc-spreading magmatic system. This "magma piracy" would result in arc magma being erupted at the backarc spreading center, therefore the backarc crust would be formed in part from arc magmas. Dredge samples from along the active ridge show compositions consistent with this suggestion. We suggest that this magma piracy has dominated the southern backarc basin for at least the last 3 m.y. since the robust spreading began. We suggest that the apparently higher magma production rate and the hybridized crust could account for the shallowness of the basin, as the more evolved arc-lavas would be generally more buoyant than backarc basin basalt alone.

Becker, N. C.; Fryer, P.; Martinez, F.; Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.

2001-12-01

382

Intra-archipelago moult dispersion of southern elephant seals at the Prince Edward Islands, southern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

During three summer surveys at Prince Edward Island (PEI), southern Indian Ocean (2001, 2004 and 2008), 416 southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina were inspected for identification tags. In all, 42 seals that had been tagged as weaned pups at their natal site were found on Marion Island (MI), 38 of which could be individually identified by resighting their tag numbers.

W. C. Oosthuizen; M. N. Bester; P JN de Bruyn; G JG Hofmeyr

2009-01-01

383

The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III.  

PubMed

The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California (USC) was initiated in 1984 and continues to provide an important resource for studies investigating genetic and environmental influences on human behavior. This article provides an update on the current register and its potential for future twin studies using recruitment through school district databases and voter records. An overview is also provided for an ongoing longitudinal twin study investigating the development of externalizing psychopathology from childhood to young adulthood, the USC Study of Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, including recruitment and participation rates, as well as attrition analyses and a summary of key findings to date. PMID:23394193

Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Gomez, Karina; Bezdjian, Serena; Niv, Sharon; Raine, Adrian

2013-02-01

384

Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention  

SciTech Connect

The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

Matthews, A.J. (Intera Information Technologies Ltd., Henley (United Kingdom)); Portilla, O. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

1994-05-23

385

Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

2010-12-01

386

Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak.

Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

2004-01-01

387

Yellow fever outbreak, Imatong, southern Sudan.  

PubMed

In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus-reactive primers and yellow fever virus-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

Onyango, Clayton O; Ofula, Victor O; Sang, Rosemary C; Konongoi, Sanson L; Sow, Abourahmane; De Cock, Kenin M; Tukei, Peter M; Okoth, Fredrick A; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J; Waters, Norman C; Coldren, Rodney L

2004-06-01

388

Southern New Hampshire University Academic Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several years, Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) has continued to increase their digital offerings, and this collection is one of their more notable additions. This particular collection is focused on publications and documents created by some of their academic communities on campus, including the Faculty Center for Innovation and Excellence in Teaching and their Community Economic Development program. In the "Community Economic Development" area, visitors can view thesis projects and dissertations from past years, and these works touch on everything from brownfield redevelopment and minority-owned businesses. While some of the documents in this collection are not publicly available, most of them are open-access. Visitors are also encouraged to submit their own comments on the site as well.

389

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans.

Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

2004-01-01

390

Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1.

Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

1995-01-01

391

Southern California Edison instrument setpoint program  

SciTech Connect

In November of 1989, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted an electrical safety system functional inspection (ESSFI) at the San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS), which was followed by an NRC audit on instrument setpoint methodology in January 1991. Units 2 and 3 at SONGS are 1100-MW(electric) Combustion Engineering (C-E) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operated by Southern California Edison (SCE). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the NRC audit and SCE's follow-up activities. The NRC team inspection reinforced the need to address several areas relative to the SCE setpoint program. The calculations withstood the intensive examination of four NRC inspectors for 2 weeks and only a few minor editorial-type problems were noted. Not one of the calculated plant protections system setpoints will change as a result of the audit. There were no questions raised relative to setpoint methodology.

Bockhorst, R.M. (Southern California Edison Co., San Clemente (United States)); Quinn, E.L.

1991-01-01

392

Spatiotemporal dynamics of dengue epidemics, southern Vietnam.  

PubMed

An improved understanding of heterogeneities in dengue virus transmission might provide insights into biological and ecologic drivers and facilitate predictions of the magnitude, timing, and location of future dengue epidemics. To investigate dengue dynamics in urban Ho Chi Minh City and neighboring rural provinces in Vietnam, we analyzed a 10-year monthly time series of dengue surveillance data from southern Vietnam. The per capita incidence of dengue was lower in Ho Chi Minh City than in most rural provinces; annual epidemics occurred 1-3 months later in Ho Chi Minh City than elsewhere. The timing and the magnitude of annual epidemics were significantly more correlated in nearby districts than in remote districts, suggesting that local biological and ecologic drivers operate at a scale of 50-100 km. Dengue incidence during the dry season accounted for 63% of variability in epidemic magnitude. These findings can aid the targeting of vector-control interventions and the planning for dengue vaccine implementation. PMID:23735713

Cuong, Hoang Quoc; Vu, Nguyen Thanh; Cazelles, Bernard; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Khoa T D; Rabaa, Maia A; Quang, Luong Chan; Simmons, Cameron P; Huu, Tran Ngoc; Anders, Katherine L

2013-06-01

393

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

1986-06-01

394

Phytoplankton and cloudiness in the Southern Ocean.  

PubMed

The effect of ocean biological productivity on marine clouds is explored over a large phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean with the use of remotely sensed data. Cloud droplet number concentration over the bloom was twice what it was away from the bloom, and cloud effective radius was reduced by 30%. The resulting change in the short-wave radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere was -15 watts per square meter, comparable to the aerosol indirect effect over highly polluted regions. This observed impact of phytoplankton on clouds is attributed to changes in the size distribution and chemical composition of cloud condensation nuclei. We propose that secondary organic aerosol, formed from the oxidation of phytoplankton-produced isoprene, can affect chemical composition of marine cloud condensation nuclei and influence cloud droplet number. Model simulations support this hypothesis, indicating that 100% of the observed changes in cloud properties can be attributed to the isoprene secondary organic aerosol. PMID:17082422

Meskhidze, Nicholas; Nenes, Athanasios

2006-11-02

395

Online Geophysical Databases for the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through the Data Link web browser interface (http://www.marine-geo.org/link/) which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The free, platform-independent data visualization tool GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/) supports dynamic exploration of a wide range of data sets on a Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seafloor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. The GMRT global digital elevation model is served freely as a Web Map Service layer and is available for viewing with OGC-compliant clients including Google Earth (http://www.marine-geo.org/Data4GoogleEarth.html). To promote interoperability and data sharing, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. We are also taking on the US Antarctic Data Coordination Center function, assisting NSF-funded investigators in documenting and archiving their data in accordance with the IPY Data Policy.

Goodwillie, A.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S.; Ryan, W.; Melkonian, A.; Ferrini, V.; Weissel, R.; Bonczkowski, J.

2007-12-01

396

Climate signal propagation in southern California aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western United States is marked by limited water resources and a fast-growing population. Increasing climate variability as well as a growing demand on water resources highlights the need for improved understanding of connections between regional climate, surface water dynamics, and groundwater recharge. The current study focuses on the linkages between climate variability and groundwater levels in Calleguas Creek watershed located in southern California. The Calleguas Creek groundwater system serves as a critical source of water supply for agricultural and industrial use. Precipitation time series and groundwater levels were analyzed throughout the Calleguas Creek watershed for the period 1975-2004. Water level variability was analyzed for over 311 individual wells with a subset of 20 wells selected for further analysis. A correlation matrix was computed to establish well locations (or groups) with similar hydrologic behavior. Prewhitening methods were used to evaluate the effect of time series autocorrelation on the test statistics for trend detection using the Mann-Kendall test. Both climate and selected groundwater level (well) data were subjected to frequency analysis using fast Fourier transform. The time series of precipitation, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, and well levels were analyzed. A strong persistence was observed in the groundwater level time series, ranging from 66% to 99%. Results suggest the existence of significant periodicities between 2.0 and 7.0 years in both the precipitation and the well level data that are partially coincident with ENSO modes. A decadal oscillation was also observed in the well level data, which partially corresponds with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Assessment of the complex interactions between climate variability and groundwater levels will facilitate improved water resources planning and management in water-stressed regions where marginal changes in hydrologic budgets have significant implications.

Barco, Janet; Hogue, Terri S.; Girotto, Manuela; Kendall, Donald R.; Putti, Mario

2010-11-01

397

Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

2004-12-01

398

Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

Enkin, R. J.; Mahoney, J. B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R. A.

2002-01-01

399

Investigation of the Southern Annular Mode and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant mode of climate variability across the Southern Hemisphere is the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM); however other modes associated with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability also play a significant role. Notably, recent studies demonstrate significant correlation between ENSO and the SAM, primarily during austral summer in the 1980s and 1990s, and austral spring in the 1990s. The analysis presented here expands upon these studies to examine historical evidence of their coupling and the mechanisms that generate the shared variability. Using the methodology similar to previous studies, reconstructed indices of the SAM are calculated for each season and for the annual mean spanning nearly 150 years. Using these new SAM reconstructions, it was determined that the relationship between SAM and ENSO is quite variable in the historical record, and that periods similar to the 1990s when the two were strongly correlated in austral summer have occurred in the past. Using wavelet and spectral analyses, it was shown that the positive correlation between the SAM and ENSO is generated by interactions with 3-7 year periods. Stationary and transient eddies of heat and momentum are examined and reveal that during periods when the two climate modes are positively correlated, a band of E-P flux convergence during El Nino events (divergence during La Nina), associated with changes in the storm track and southern branch of the ENSO horseshoe pattern, extend from Indonesia to the high latitude south Pacific where the maximum teleconnection occurs. When the modes are positively correlated, the changes to the aforementioned storm track exist in a continuous fashion from the Rossby source region to the South Pacific where they interact with similar storm track anomalies forced by the SAM. The interaction of the storm tracks allows the tropical signal to penetrate deeper into the high southern latitudes and maintain a stronger anomaly, compared to periods when the two modes are anticorrelated and opposing storm track anomalies block the propagation of the tropical signal into the high latitudes.

Fogt, Ryan L.

400

Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling positions along one transect. This transect consisted of 18 stations on the zero meridian proper from 51°57' S until 69°24'S, and 4 stations somewhat to the northeast towards Cape Town from 42°20'S, 09°E to 50°17'S, 01°27'E. The actual concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean were lower than previously reported. The concentration of Al in the upper 25 m was relatively elevated with an average concentration of 0.71 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.43 nM), most likely due to atmospheric input by a suggested combination of direct atmospheric (wet and dry) input and indirect atmospheric input via melting sea ice. Below the surface waters there was a distinct Al minimum with an average concentration of 0.33 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.13 nM) at an average depth of 120 m. In the deep southernmost Weddell Basin the concentration of Al increased with depth to ˜0.8 nM at 4000 m, and a higher concentration of ˜1.5 nM in the ˜4500-5200 m deep Weddell Sea Bottom Water. Over the Bouvet triple junction region, where three deep ocean ridges meet, the concentration of Al increased to ˜1.4 nM at about 2000 m depth over the ridge crest. In the deep basin north of the Bouvet region the concentration of Al increased to higher deep values of 4-6 nM due to influence of North Atlantic Deep Water. In general the intermediate and deep distribution of Al results from the mixing of water masses with different origins, the formation of deep water and additional input from sedimentary sources at sea floor elevations. No significant correlation between Al and silicate (Si) was observed. This is in contrast to some other ocean regions. In the Southern Ocean the supply of Al is extremely low and any signal from Al uptake and dissolution with biogenic silica is undetectable against the high dissolved Si and low dissolved Al concentrations. Here the Al-Si relation in the deep ocean is uncoupled. This is due to the scavenging and subsequent loss of the water column of Al, whereas the concentration of Si increases in the deep ocean due to its input from deep dissolution of biogenic diatom frustules settling from the surface layer.

Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

2011-12-01

401

Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the pre-colonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa , the giraffes, comprises and Crucis and and Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means &;rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations with other creatures: wild dogs, warthogs, wildebeests, swallows, cuckoos and cicadas. In each case the visibility of a star will synchronize with a behavior of the associated species. Together, stars and species informed man of the order and unity of an African cosmos -- a worldview that must have been as satisfying as it was beautiful.

Snedegar, K. V.

402

Physical properties of Southern infrared dark clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: What are the mechanisms by which massive stars form? What are the initial conditions for these processes? It is commonly assumed that cold and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) represent the birth-sites of massive stars. Therefore, these clouds have been receiving an increasing amount of attention, and their analysis offers the opportunity to tackle the afore mentioned questions. Aims: To enlarge the sample of well-characterised IRDCs in the southern hemisphere, where ALMA will play a major role in the near future, we have developed a program to study the gas and dust of southern infrared dark clouds. The present paper attempts to characterize the continuum properties of this sample of IRDCs. Methods: We cross-correlated 1.2 mm continuum data from SIMBA bolometer array mounted on SEST telescope with Spitzer/GLIMPSE images to establish the connection between emission sources at millimeter wavelengths and the IRDCs that we observe at 8 ?m in absorption against the bright PAH background. Analysing the dust emission and extinction enables us to determine the masses and column densities, which are important quantities in characterizing the initial conditions of massive star formation. We also evaluated the limitations of the emission and extinction methods. Results: The morphology of the 1.2 mm continuum emission is in all cases in close agreement with the mid-infrared extinction. The total masses of the IRDCs were found to range from 150 to 1150 M_? (emission data) and from 300 to 1750 M_? (extinction data). We derived peak column densities of between 0.9 and 4.6 × 1022 cm-2 (emission data) and 2.1 and 5.4 × 1022 cm-2 (extinction data). We demonstrate that the extinction method is unreliable at very high extinction values (and column densities) beyond AV values of roughly 75 mag according to the Weingartner & Draine (2001) extinction relation RV = 5.5 model B (around 200 mag when following the common Mathis (1990, ApJ, 548, 296) extinction calibration). By taking the spatial resolution effects into account and restoring the column densities derived from the dust emission to a linear resolution of 0.01 pc, peak column densities of 3-19 × 1023 cm-2 are obtained, which are much higher than typical values for low-mass cores. Conclusions: Taking into account the spatial resolution effects, the derived column densities are beyond the column density threshold of 3.0 × 1023 cm-2 required by theoretical considerations for massive star formation. We conclude that the values of column densities derived for the selected IRDC sample imply that these objects are excellent candidates for objects in the earliest stages of massive star formation.

Vasyunina, T.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Stecklum, B.; Klose, S.; Nyman, L.-Å.

2009-05-01

403

Marine Science Technology Program at Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The source book provides information, guide lines, and recommendations regarding the Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute's involvement in the field of marine science technology. Towards this objective, the report focuses on the existing and futu...

T. Banerjee

1969-01-01

404

13. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEARING SEAT ON SOUTHERN PIER AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEARING SEAT ON SOUTHERN PIER AND CONNECTION OF END POST AND LOWER CHORD; FACING SOUTHWEST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River in Klamath National Forest, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

405

Fire history, effects, and management in southern Nevada [Chapter 5  

Treesearch

Jul 21, 2013 ... Fire can also pose hazards to human life and property, particularly in the ... change, invasive species, altered fire regimes, water resources, species of ... to support land management in Southern Nevada - Executive Summary.

406

The Italo-Albanian Villages of Southern Italy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since ancient times, various peoples have settled in southern Italy: ancient Greeks, Byzantine Greeks, Arabs, Waldenses, and Albanians. Of these, only the Albanians have survived as an ethnic group. Aside from minor troubles and suspicions, they have live...

G. N. Nasse

1964-01-01

407

10. SOUTH PLANT SOUTHERN EDGE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. Rocky ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SOUTH PLANT SOUTHERN EDGE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

408

Interior detail of office at southern corner of first floor; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior detail of office at southern corner of first floor; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Equipment & Recruitment Storehouse, Waterfront Avenue, northwest corner of Waterfront Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

409

3. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE PARKING LOT SHOWING THE SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE PARKING LOT SHOWING THE SOUTHERN FACE OF THE WATER TOWER STRUCTURE - Town of Lake Water Tower & Municipal Building, 4001 South Sixth Street, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

410

FORECE: A Forest Succession Model for Southern Central Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general forest succession model that simulates forest stand development for the most common site conditions in the southern part of Central Europe (with emphasis on Switzerland) is described. The model provides a useful tool for testing hypotheses about...

F. Kienast

1987-01-01

411

Facility no. 170, interior of southern portion, being used as ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Facility no. 170, interior of southern portion, being used as carpentry shop - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Inert Ammunition Storehouses, Avocet and Kingfisher Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

412

Display Research at the University of Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Southern California and its collaborative research partner, Fakespace Labs, are participating in a number of research programs to invent and implement new forms of display technologies for immersive and semi- immersive applications. This...

I. McDowall J. Pair K. Haynes M. Bolas

2006-01-01

413

PRODUCTION IN COASTAL SALT MARSHES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Production ecology in southern California coastal salt marshes was investigated by harvesting macrophytes and monitoring environmental factors (substrate salinity, pH, nitrogen, redox, water content, temperature, and tide level) at four locations--Sweetwater River Estuary, Los Pe...

414

Quaternary Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments, Santa Monica Bay, Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles were used in conjunction with 51 vibracores to examine the Quaternary stratigraphy of the Santa Monica Shelf, southern California. Upper Pleistocene strata are confined to the central part of the shelf between t...

R. H. Osborne R. C. Scheidemann T. R. Nardin A. S. Harper

1980-01-01

415

The Southern Appalachians: A History of the Landscape  

Treesearch

The first Europeans and Africans reached the Southern Appalachians in the 1500's. Their arrival disrupted American Indian societies with new forms of trade, ... After reversals during the Civil War, mining, lumbering, and tourism emerged as ...

416

Ethnic Violence in Southern Thailand: The Anomaly of Satun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research uses a historical comparative analysis to investigate the differences between two specific Muslimmajority regions of Thailand: the province of Satun, along the western coast of southern Thailand, and provinces of Yala, Narathiwat, Pattani, a...

K. T. Conlon

2012-01-01

417

A History of Forestry Research in the Southern United States  

Treesearch

Title: A History of Forestry Research in the Southern United States ... in part to research scientists who provided scientific knowledge and practical technology for ... Improved methods for managing forest lands for timber and other uses, better ...

418

Southern State Governments and Higher Education for Negroes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Southern state governments bear a heavy responsibility in view of the historic dualism at all levels of education in insuring equal higher educational opportunities and eliminating discrimination. (Author/SD)

Godwin, Winfred L.

1971-01-01

419

European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations  

PubMed Central

Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern” population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the “northern” population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the “southern” population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies.

Seldin, Michael F; Shigeta, Russell; Villoslada, Pablo; Selmi, Carlo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K

2006-01-01

420

Manpower Research at Southern Methodist University Supplementary Report, May 1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Institutional grant research at Southern Methodist University is geared toward generating new information on education and productivity, on data analysis techniques, and on manpower issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border. (Author)

T. Johnson

1972-01-01

421

5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

422

6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY TOWARD UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

423

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

424

Strategy to Protect and Strengthen Development in Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper offers an overarching strategy for the United States (U.S.) and USAFRICOM in protecting and strengthening social economic development in central and southern Africa. First, this paper provides a background of the recent and current political co...

R. K. Carlson

2009-01-01

425

Zooplankton Community Composition in Nearshore Waters of Southern Lake Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zooplankton samples collected in 1977 in the nearshore waters of southern Lake Michigan (0.4 km from shore) were analyzed to provide a bench mark on zooplankton community composition for comparison with future studies. Species composition, abundance, and ...

J. E. Gannon F. J. Bricker K. S. Bricker

1983-01-01

426

Geologic Study Southern Louisiana Salt Domes. Volume III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 12 Southern Louisiana domes (Lake Hermitage, Lake Washington, Leeville, Napoleonville, Potash, Bayou Blue, Bayou Choctaw, Bully Camp, Chacahoula, Clovelly, Sorrento, and White Castle) discussed in this report were found to possess the following genera...

1979-01-01

427

60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON CO., APR. 28, 1910, REVISED MAY 12, 1910. SCE drawing no. 4500. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

428

The Southern Ocean biological response to aeolian iron deposition.  

PubMed

Biogeochemical rate processes in the Southern Ocean have an important impact on the global environment. Here, we summarize an extensive set of published and new data that establishes the pattern of gross primary production and net community production over large areas of the Southern Ocean. We compare these rates with model estimates of dissolved iron that is added to surface waters by aerosols. This comparison shows that net community production, which is comparable to export production, is proportional to modeled input of soluble iron in aerosols. Our results strengthen the evidence that the addition of aerosol iron fertilizes export production in the Southern Ocean. The data also show that aerosol iron input particularly enhances gross primary production over the large area of the Southern Ocean downwind of dry continental areas. PMID:17717181

Cassar, Nicolas; Bender, Michael L; Barnett, Bruce A; Fan, Songmiao; Moxim, Walter J; Levy, Hiram; Tilbrook, Bronte

2007-08-24

429

Biotechnology in the Southern Research Station: A Problem Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We provide an analysis of opportunities and challenges for biotechnology in forest research in the southern United States. Four major areas of biotechnology were identified and described and then rated for priority among three groups of researchers-privat...

C. D. Nelson F. E. Bridgwater

2006-01-01

430

17. Detail view of the southern half of the loft ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Detail view of the southern half of the loft in the west side of the barn, looking toward the barrels and center post - Chellberg Farm, Barn, 900 North Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Porter County, IN

431

PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE IN SOUTHERN LAKE HURON  

EPA Science Inventory

Southern Lake Huron contains a diversity of phytoplankton assemblage types ranging from assemblages characteristic of oligotrophic waters to those which usually occur under highly eutrophic conditions. The offshore waters are generally characterized by oligotrophic associations a...

432

5. BUILDING 432, INTERIOR, EASTCENTRAL STOREROOM 'B', FROM SOUTHERN WALL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BUILDING 432, INTERIOR, EAST-CENTRAL STOREROOM 'B', FROM SOUTHERN WALL, LOOKING NORTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Paint & Oil Storehouses, Between G & I Streets, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

433

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

434

Implications of global climate change for Southern forests: Can we ...  

Treesearch

Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern ... Uncertainties arise when the Earth's biological responses to climate change are to be ... Model outputs for the South show a fairly wide range of potential changes under ...

435

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

436

Responding to Domestic Violence in Southern Illinois. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is a process evaluation conducted by researchers from the Center for the Study of Crime, Delinquency, and Corrections at Southern Illinois University, entering into partnership with the organizations in the city of Carbondale and Jackson Coun...

J. Garofalo J. L. Kelley K. Barrick M. J. McDermott

2003-01-01

437

Responding to Domestic Violence in Southern Illinois. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research is a process evaluation conducted by researchers from Southern Illinois University, entering into partnership with agencies in the city of Carbondale and Jackson County to examine activities funded under Pro-Arrest grants. The agencies invol...

J. Garofalo J. L. Kelley K. Barrick M. J. McDermott

2003-01-01

438

Southern State Governments and Higher Education for Negroes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Southern state governments bear a heavy responsibility in view of the historic dualism at all levels of education in insuring equal higher educational opportunities and eliminating discrimination. (Author/SD)|

Godwin, Winfred L.

1971-01-01

439

Exploring the Southern Ocean Response to Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to couple a regional (Southern Ocean) ocean/sea ice model to the existing Goddard Institute for Space Science (GISS) atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). This modification recognizes: the relative isolation of the S...

D. G. Martinson D. Rind C. Parkinson

1993-01-01

440

21. View of southern span showing operating strut extending through ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View of southern span showing operating strut extending through the center channel in the concrete counterweight (see also photograph 20). - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

441

93. (Credit CBF) Red River syphon running along the southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

93. (Credit CBF) Red River syphon running along the southern shore of Douglas island, adjacent to Cross Bayou, March 1913. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

442

Exterior view of southern half of east porch, showing entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior view of southern half of east porch, showing entrance to second story of la casa, view towards the west - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

443

SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, WHICH DID NOT EXIST ON DURING SHIP BUILDING DAYS. NOTE VEHICLE ELEVATOR. ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT IS SHIP BUILDING BALCONY. - B Building, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

444

Economic Development Action Program, Southern West Virginia, Economic Development District.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a twelve month program of technical assistance to help southern West Virginia implement certain key aspects of its overall economic development program. Two major subject areas comprised the scope of the project. These w...

1969-01-01

445

Recreation use on federal lands in southern Nevada [Chapter 10  

Treesearch

Title: Recreation use on federal lands in southern Nevada [Chapter 10] ... challenge for the Federal agencies that manage the majority of the area (fig. ... the Federal government, which is the highest percentage in the nation (DeLoney 2004).

446

Lineaments in Basement Terrane of the Peninsular Ranges Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS and Skylab images reveal a number of prominent lineaments in the basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges, Southern California. The major, well-known, active, northwest trending, right-sli...

P. M. Merifield D. L. Lamar

1974-01-01

447

Systematics and Identification of Southern Appalachian Phanerogams: An Indexed Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography was developed to provide researchers and naturalists with an up-to-date list of the literature on Southern Appalachian phanerogams. The subject matter includes the monographic, systematic, nomenclatural, and taxonomic literature of the p...

B. G. Wofford P. S. White

1981-01-01

448

26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

449

Concept for southern pine plantation operation in the year 2020  

Treesearch

Research & Development ... Title: Concept for southern pine plantation operation in the year 2020 ... close spacing, very early thinning, and application of new harvesting and manufacturing technology could yield- over a 35-year rotation - 146 ...

450

Studies on the livestock of southern Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on egg production, egg hatchability and fertility, live-weight and growth characteristics of domestic fowls, Muscovy ducks and pigeons kept under simulated traditional conditions in Southern Darfur.

R. T. Wilson

1979-01-01

451

Magnesium Bisulfite Pulping and Papermaking with Southern Pine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Describes magnesium bisulfite pulping and paper-making with southern pine in which two-ply linerboard, various printing and writing papers, toweling, and tissue paper of good quality were produced. (Author)

E. L. Keller D. J. Fahey

1967-01-01

452

Noise in GPS displacement measurements from Southern California and Southern Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series of position changes estimated from data from 236 continuously recording GPS receivers operating in Southern California and Southern Nevada are evaluated for noise models that characterize their temporal correlations. The lengths of the time series range between 3.5 and 10 years. After adjusting these data for postseismic deformation, offsets, and annual periodicities, I find that about one-half of the time series have temporal correlations that are categorized as either flicker or random-walk noise. The remaining time series can be best categorized as either a combination of flicker and random-walk; power law noise; first-order Gauss-Markov plus random-walk noise; or power law plus broadband, seasonal noise. A variety of geodetic monuments are used in Southern California and Nevada, including deeply braced designs, cement piers, pins drilled in outcrop, and buildings. When I evaluate the noise for each time series in terms of an estimate of the standard error in velocity, I find that the sites with the smallest errors are those located in Nevada using deeply braced monuments. Sites that are installed within regions of active pumping, both for groundwater and oil, had the largest standard errors in velocity. Comparison of monument stability, as measured by standard error in rate, with average, annual rainfall nearby indicates a marginally significant correlation. In addition, even though regional filtering removed much of the common-mode signals in these time series, there still remains a common-mode seasonal signal which can and should be removed.

Langbein, John

2008-05-01

453

Sediment Dynamics and Southern Steelhead Habitat (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Matilija Creek Watershed, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matilija Creek, one of two principal forks of the Ventura River, drains 142 km2 in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. Thanks to rapid tectonic uplift and weak clastic rocks, sediment yields exceed 1200 m3/km2 annually. Matilija Dam was built in 1947 with an initial capacity of 8 million m3 and is now nearly full of sediment. The dam is structurally unsafe, blocks anadromous fish migration, and is being considered for removal. The Ventura River has one of the southernmost runs of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with an average of approximately 2,500 annually migrating up Matilija Creek before the dam was built. The high sediment yields and highly variable flow regime have raised questions about the interactions among high flows, sediment transfer from lower order tributaries to the third order channels used by the fish, and fish life history. Previous studies in Southern California have documented sediment yields (especially following debris flows and fires, and mostly in the San Gabriel Mountains), but the interaction of geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in this highly episodic environment is not well understood. We used a combination of mapping and survey techniques, sediment traps, grain size analysis, lithologic analysis and scour rods to study intra-annual geomorphic processes and sediment dynamics affecting Southern Steelhead habitat in the Matilija Creek area in 16 study pools over the 2002 and 2003 flow seasons (dry and "normal", respectively) and found little sediment was deposited or scoured from pools. However, other processes not previously recognized significantly affected the steelhead habitat in the study pools including tufa cementation (carbonate deposition) and alder root growth in spawning gravels, as well as seasonal desiccation of some reaches. Removal of Matilija Dam will reopen suitable habitat to steelhead trout, but managers should recognize that habitat quality is likely to vary considerably from year-to-year, especially in response to episodic events.

Minear, J. T.; Kondolf, G. M.

2003-12-01

454

Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas  

PubMed Central

From 2008–2010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance.

Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2011-01-01

455

Particle Populations in the Southern Ocean During the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The particle size distribution conveys information about the size and number of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and potentially bubbles suspended in the water column. Here, we present measurements with the LISST-100X (Sequoia Scientific) of in-situ, non-disturbed suspended particle size distributions made during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange experiment. Measurements were obtained in the open ocean Southern Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean and in waters surrounding South Georgia Island. The resulting slope of the particle size distribution is estimated for particles ranging from 6-250 ?m assuming a Jungian or power law distribution. Data from vertical profiles conducted within the water column will be presented. Slopes of the particle size distribution (PSD) vary from 3.31 to 3.96 within the range of theoretical values. The PSD slopes showed three statistically distinct areas corresponding to the two patch locations and the waters near South Georgia Island. In the waters surrounding South Georgia Island, the PSD slope was steeper than that in the open ocean sector indicating an increased prevalence of smaller particles. The particle volume concentrations ranged from 13 to 639 ?l/L. The lowest particle volume concentrations occurred in the waters near South Georgia Island. The mixed layer showed higher particle volume concentrations for particle sizes below 50 microns compared to deeper waters. For particle sizes above 50 microns, there was no significant difference in the particle volume concentrations between the mixed layer and deeper waters. The relationship between the PSD slope and chlorophyll concentration is compared with data collected from other regions of the world's oceans. Overall, the relationship follows an inverse correlation where increasing chlorophyll concentration corresponds to a decrease in the particle size distribution slope.

Buonassissi, C. J.; Dierssen, H.

2008-12-01

456

Reconnaissance study of stream sedimentation, southern Guam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study uses limited available data to estimate sediment yields for three basins in southern Guam. The flow-duration sediment-rating curve method, reservoir survey data, and Pacific southwest Inter-Agency Committee (PSIAC) formula were used. Daily suspended-sediment samples were collected at USGS gaging stations on the Ylig and Ugum Rivers for one year. Intermittent samples were collected from the Talofofo River for six months. Although limited, these data are used in the flow-duration sediment-rating-curve method to estimate mean suspended-sediment yields. Fena Reservoir sedimentation data are used to test the applicability of the PSIAC formula in the three basins. Estimates of suspended-sediment yields are 467 to 845, 678 to 977, and 634 to 855 tons per year per square mile for the Talofofo, Ylig, and Ugum basins, respectively. PSIAC estimates of total sediment yield are 1,200 tons/yr/mi2 for the Talofofo, 1,385 tons/yr/mi2 for the Ylig, and 1,210 tons/yr/mi2 for the Ugum basins. These values are comparable to estimates of sediment yields from several similar basins on Oahu, Hawaii. It appears that the PSIAC method can be a useful tool in estimating sediment yields in some tropical areas. (USGS)

Shade, P. J.

1983-01-01

457

Eddy stirring in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an ongoing debate concerning the distribution of eddy stirring across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the nature of its controlling processes. The problem is addressed here by estimating the isentropic eddy diffusivity ? from a collection of hydrographic and altimetric observations, analyzed in a mixing length theoretical framework. It is shown that, typically, ? is suppressed by an order of magnitude in the upper kilometer of the ACC frontal jets relative to their surroundings, primarily as a result of a local reduction of the mixing length. This observation is reproduced by a quasi-geostrophic theory of eddy stirring across a broad barotropic jet based on the scaling law derived by Ferrari and Nikurashin (2010). The theory interprets the observed widespread suppression of the mixing length and ? in the upper layers of frontal jets as the kinematic consequence of eddy propagation relative to the mean flow within jet cores. Deviations from the prevalent regime of mixing suppression in the core of upper-ocean jets are encountered in a few special sites. Such `leaky jet' segments appear to be associated with sharp stationary meanders of the mean flow that are generated by the interaction of the ACC with major topographic features. It is contended that the characteristic thermohaline structure of the Southern Ocean, consisting of multiple upper-ocean thermohaline fronts separated and underlaid by regions of homogenized properties, is largely a result of the widespread suppression of eddy stirring by parallel jets.

Naveira Garabato, A. C.; Ferrari, R.; Polzin, K. L.

2011-09-01

458

Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus isolates from AIDS patients in southern California were characterized by molecular analyses. Pheromone MF?1 and MFa1 gene fragments were polymerase chain reaction–amplified with fluorescently labeled primers and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) on DNA analyzer. CE–fragment-length analyses (CE-FLAs) and CE–single-strand conformation polymorphisms (CE-SSCPs) were used to determine Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), C. neoformans (Cn) varieties neoformans (CnVN) and grubii (CnVG), mating types, and hybrids. Corroborative tests carried out in parallel included growth on specialized media and serotyping with a commercial kit. All 276 clinical strains tested as haploid MAT? by CE-FLA. CE-SSCP analyses of MF?1 showed 219 (79.3%) CnVG, 23 (8.3%) CnVN, and 34 (12.3%) Cg isolates. CE-FLA and CE-SSCP are promising tools for high-throughput screening of Cryptococcus isolates. The high prevalence of Cg was noteworthy, in view of its sporadic reports from AIDS patients in North America and its recent emergence as a primary pathogen on Vancouver Island, Canada.

Chaturvedi, Sudha; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Larsen, Robert A.

2005-01-01

459

Low frequency earthquakes below southern Vancouver Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature and distribution of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) in subduction zones provide insight into plate boundary deformation downdip of the locked seismogenic zone. We employ network autocorrelation detection to identify LFE families beneath southern Vancouver Island and environs. An initial suite of 5775 LFEs detected in 2004 and 2005 at a select set of 7 stations is grouped into 140 families using waveform cluster analysis. These families are used as templates within an iterative network cross correlation scheme to detect LFEs across different tremor episodes, incorporate new stations, and improve LFE template signal-to-noise ratio. As in southwest Japan, representative LFE locations define a relatively tight, dipping surface several km above the locus of intraslab seismicity, within a prominent, dipping low-velocity zone (LVZ). LFE polarizations for near-vertical source-receiver geometries possess a remarkably uniform dipolar signature indicative of point-source, double-couple excitation. Focal mechanisms determined fromP-wave first motions are characterized by a combination of strike-slip and thrust faulting. We suggest that LFEs and regular intraslab seismicity occur in distinct structural and stress regimes. The LVZ, inferred to represent weak, overpressured, porous and mylonitized metabasalts of oceanic crustal Layer 2, separates LFEs manifesting deformation within a plate boundary shear zone from intraslab earthquakes generated by tensional stresses and dehydration embrittlement within a more competent lower oceanic crustal Layer 3 and underlying mantle.

Bostock, M. G.; Royer, A. A.; Hearn, E. H.; Peacock, S. M.

2012-11-01

460

NH3 observations of southern cold cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an NH3 spectral line study of southern massive star formation sources that have been mapped in millimetre continuum emission using the SIMBA bolometer on the SEST. Following a multiwavelength investigation into these cores, using followup and existing submillimetre continuum observations as well as archival infrared data, we have drawn spectral energy distribution (SED) diagrams for the cores. SED profiling reveals source specific parameters such as their temperature and luminosity. Analysis of our SED fits indicates a differentiation in temperature for cores devoid of methanol maser sources and/or UC HII regions compared to those associated with these objects. This has led us to propose that this temperature differentiation is indicative of an evolutionary sequence for the cores in our sample. We now need an independent determination of the temperature of the cores in order to test the robustness of our SED fits and hypotheses drawn from these fits. A systematic determination of the temperature of all the cores in the sample will allow determination of the temperature and subsequent analysis of cores without enough data to SED profile. Ammonia is an excellent molecular cloud thermometer and is perfectly suited to this work.

Hill, Tracey; Cunningham, Maria; Burton, Michael; Minier, Vincent

2008-04-01

461

Menu of Gravettian people from southern Moravia.  

PubMed

There are a number of Upper Palaeolithic sites of Gravettian people in the southern Moravia. These people had eaten animals and their bones were used for creating artefacts. Their food was based on several species that lived in the vicinity of their settlement unit. The sites Dolní V?stonice II (Under Western Slope--UWS), IIa and III and Pavlov (1952, 1953, 1957 and 1958) have been studied to obtain a picture of the menu of Gravettian people in this region. Hunted animals fall into two groups, the first one includes those species hunted consistently and the second group those hunted occasionally. The following animals rank among the first group: mammoth, reindeer, horse, wolf, hare and fox. The second group includes bear, lion, wolverine, wildcat, lynx, deer, woolly rhinoceros and birds. The carnivores were hunted for their hides, fur and bones. The long bones of hunted animals were crushed for marrow. The proximal parts of bones were used for creating tools since distal parts of bones have been found predominantly. Teams of several hunters hunted herd animals. The rest of the species was hunted accidentally, some of them probably by hunting nets. PMID:15828198

Nývltová-Fisáková, M

2000-01-01

462

Germanium geochemistry in the Southern California Borderlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of Ge(OH) 4 (denoted as Ge i, or inorganic germanium) and Si(OH) 4 were measured in water column and pore water samples from San Pedro and San Nicolas Basins in the Southern California Borderlands. There is a characteristic linear relationship between Ge i and Si in the water column which implies that the distributions of germanium and silica are controlled by similar processes. In contrast, the pore water chemistry of germanium appears to differ from that of silica, particularly in the reducing, organic-rich sediments of San Pedro Basin. Silica concentrations in San Pedro Basin pore water asymptotically increase to 480 ?M at 35-40 cm depth. Ge i concentrations in the topmost 2 cm of pore water from San Pedro Basin are an order of magnitude greater than bottom water concentrations. Below 2 cm, Ge i concentrations decrease exponentially with a half-distance of about 8 cm. Cycling of ferric oxyhydroxides at a redox boundary is the most likely cause of the Ge i enrichment in San Pedro Basin pore water, while authigenic pyrite formation with the concomitant inclusion of germanium is a probable, but undocumented, cause of the downcore decrease in Ge i. Pore water Ge i and silica concentrations in sediments of San Nicolas Basin are generally greater than bottom water concentrations but vary irregularly with depth, probably due to irrigation.

Murnane, R. J.; Leslie, B.; Hammond, D. E.; Stallard, R. F.

1989-11-01

463

Southern California Fires, Oct 26, 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several massive wildfires were raging across southern California over the weekend of October 25, 2003. Whipped by the hot, dry Santa Ana winds that blow toward the coast from interior deserts, at least one fire grew 10,000 acres in just 6 hours. Moving northwest to southeast along the coast, the first cluster of red dots is a combination of the Piru, Verdale, and the Simi Incident Fires; The next cluster-to the east of Los Angeles-is the Grand Prix (west) and Old (east) Fires; To their south is the Roblar 2 Fire; Next is the Paradise Fire; Then the massive Cedar Fire, whose thick smoke is completely overshadowing the coastal city of San Diego; Finally, at the California-Mexico border is the Otay Fire. At least 13 people have lost their lives because of these fires, which officials are reporting were caused by carelessness and arson. Thousands have been evacuated across the region and hundreds of homes have been lost.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Salomonson, Vincent

2003-10-27

464

Hydrocarbon prospects offshore southern West Greenland  

SciTech Connect

Interpretation of regional seismic data acquired in the 1990s together with a re-appraisal of the wells drilled in the 1970s has lead to an appreciation that the southern West Greenland Basin is underexplored and may contain large quantities of hydrocarbons. The regional structure and stratigraphy of the basin has been worked out. An early phase of extension, probably in the Early Cretaceous, was followed by a thermal subsidence phase in the Late Cretaceous during which thick mudstones were deposited. Renewed extension and strike-slip faulting associated with the onset of sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea in the Early Tertiary lead to the formation of large structures capable of trapping large quantities of hydrocarbons. Flat spots have been identified in several prospects in the Fylla Structural Complex, which is presently open for licensing, and other large structural traps exist on the Kang[cflx a]miut Ridge and in the Ikermiut area. Stratigraphic traps exist in a large syn-rift fan of mid-Cretaceous age and in Lower Tertiary basin-floor fans. All of these after structures are found in an area with an [open quotes]open-door[close quotes] licensing policy.

Chalmers, J.A.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Bate, K.J.; Whittaker, R.C. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

1996-01-01

465

Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

1996-05-01

466

Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

None

2012-08-24

467

The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

2013-04-01

468

Hydrocarbons exploration in east Siberia southern basins  

SciTech Connect

The vast Lena-Tunguska province in the heart of Siberia is among the world's largest and least explored frontier basins. Some encouraging exploration has nevertheless been carried out in the four southern subbasins: PrePatom (PreBaykal) trough, Nepa-Botuobin anticlise, PreSayan-Yenisey basin, and Angara-Lena terrace. Source rocks are essentially Proterozoic, but younger sediments may contribute about 10% of the region's oil potential. Riphean-Cambrian subsalt reservoirs contribute more than 90% of the hydrocarbons discovered, whereas Cambrian salt provides the most common regional seals. The main hydrocarbon later migration occurred in Vendian-Cambrian. Traps include clastic wedging out along favorable structures and carbonate reef-like buildups. Many traps were transformed or destroyed by the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic volcanic activity, whereas Hercynian overthrust tectonics developed new traps in the PrePatom trough. About 30 discoveries, mainly gas and condensates, have been made in the area, but operations are hampered by poor logistics and limited infrastructure.

Resnick, V.S. (Petroconsultants Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-08-01

469

Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin  

SciTech Connect

Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

1981-05-04

470

Indications for eye removal in southern Nigeria.  

PubMed

To determine the trend in frequency and clinical indications of surgical removal of eyes in a tertiary eye centre in Calabar, Nigeria. This is a 10-year retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical removal of eyes in a tertiary centre. The clinical records were reviewed (between Jan 2001 and Dec 2010) for demographic data, type of surgery, and clinical indications. A total of 137 eyes were surgically removed within the study period. Of these 46 were children (<16 years). There were 85 males and 52 females giving a M:F ratio of 1.6:1. Clinical indications for surgical eye removal include infective causes (32.1 %; perforated corneal ulcers, endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis), trauma (21.2 %), tumours (21.2 %), anterior staphyloma (13.1 %), and painful blind eyes (9.5 %). Phthisis bulbi, expulsive haemorrhage and aphakic bullous keratopathy accounted for the remaining 2.8 %. The eyes were removed by evisceration (63.5 %), enucleation (29.9 %) and modified exenteration (6.6 %). The commonest indication for eye removal in children was tumour (retinoblastoma). Eye removal in southern Nigeria is often due to infective causes (panophthalmitis and endophthalmitis), perforated corneal ulcer, mechanical trauma (blunt or open globe injury from gunshots or direct trauma), chemical burns, tumours, persistently painful blind eye and anterior staphyloma. Other indications for eye removal were phthisis bulbi, expulsive haemorrhage and aphakic bullous keratopathy. PMID:23275188

Ibanga, Affiong; Asana, Uduak; Nkanga, Dennis; Duke, Roseline; Etim, Bassey; Oworu, Olugbemisola

2012-12-29

471

Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reviews Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary formations in the Inter-Andean region of southern Ecuador (between 2°S and 4°20?S) in order to develop a geodynamic model of the region. The formations occur in the southern shallow prolongation of the Inter-Andean Valley between the Cordillera Real to the east, and the Cordillera Occidental and Amotape–Tahu??n Provinces to the west. One

Dominik Hungerbühler; Michael Steinmann; Wilfried Winkler; Diane Seward; Arturo Egüez; Dawn E. Peterson; Urs Helg; Cliff Hammer

2002-01-01

472

Modeling the mudslide aftermath of the 2007 Southern California Wildfires  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is made of the influence of fire-caused deforestation on precipitation-triggered, shallow landslide susceptibilities\\u000a in southern California, using a scalable and extensible geo-fluid model (SEGMENT), that accounts for soil mechanics, root\\u000a distribution, and relevant hydrologic processes. SEGMENT is applicable to variable regional topography, soil thickness profiles,\\u000a and vegetation coverage. In this study, for southern California following the 2007 wildfires,

Diandong Ren; Rong Fu; Lance M. Leslie; Robert E. Dickinson

2011-01-01

473

A new look for the Southern Hemisphere jet stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new jet stream description, defined as the geostrophic streamline of maximum average velocity is proposed. An objective\\u000a algorithm for detecting and tracking the jet has been developed, tested and applied to the NCEP\\/NCAR 200-hPa geopotential\\u000a height in the Southern Hemisphere for the period 1958–2002. The results show the variability of the double character of the\\u000a Southern Hemisphere jet, with

David Gallego; Pedro Ribera; Ricardo Garcia-Herrera; Emiliano Hernandez; Luis Gimeno

2005-01-01

474

Southern Sudan on the road to independence and democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aftermath of Southern Sudan’s successful January referendum has been characterised by enthusiasm and a lack of violence.\\u000a Yet the scale of the tasks ahead is still daunting. Political pluralism, the question of citizenship, oil revenues, sharing\\u000a of debt, creating a Southern identity in an extremely ethnically diverse country are only some of the tremendous issues the\\u000a South has to

Mariya Nedelcheva

2011-01-01

475

Evolution of Pangea: paleomagnetic constraints from the Southern Alps, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new early Late Triassic paleopole for Adria has been obtained from the Val Sabbia Sandstone in the Southern Alps. As Early Permian and Jurassic-Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from para-autochthonous regions of Adria such as the Southern Alps are consistent with ‘African’ APWPs[1–2], paleomagnetic data from this region can be used to bolster the West Gondwana APWP in the poorly known

Giovanni Muttoni; Dennis V. Kent; James E. T. Channell

1996-01-01

476

The state of the upper mantle beneath southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new upper mantle seismic model for southern Africa based on the fitting of a large (3622 waveforms) multi-mode surface wave data set with propagation paths significantly shorter (?6000 km) than those in globally-derived surface wave models. The seismic lithosphere beneath the cratonic region of southern Africa in this model is about 175±25 km thick, consistent with other

Keith Priestley; Dan McKenzie; Eric Debayle

2006-01-01

477

Modelling Water Trade in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Productivity Commission staff working paper, 'Modelling Water Trade in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin', was released in November 2004. It examines the likely economic impacts of expanding water trade in the southern Murray-Darling Basin. The paper uses TERM-Water, a bottoms-up regional CGE model of the Australian economy, to examine the regional effects of expanding trade of irrigation water in the

Deborah Peterson; Gavan Dwyer; David Appels; Jane M. Fry

2004-01-01

478

Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

1981-01-01

479

15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

480

Development of Aquaculture Methods for Southern Flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed spawning and larval rearing protocol for the production of southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, is presented. The protocol is based on the results of spawning, larval culture and fingerling production trials with the southern flounder, which were completed during 1998 and 1999. Seventy-six brood fish (0.1-3.8 kg) were collected from the wild, acclimated to captivity, and stocked in matura

Daniel D. Benetti; Scott W. Grabe; Michael W. Feeley; Owen M. Stevens; Tina M. Powell; Andrew J. Leingang; Kevan L. Main

2001-01-01