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1

Denudation and cooling of the Lake Teletskoye Region in the Altai Mountains (South Siberia) as revealed by apatite fission-track thermochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Teletskoye occupies a narrow graben located in the northwestern sector of the Altai fold belt in South Siberia. The lake basin is thought to have formed during the Pleistocene as a distant result of the Cenozoic collision of India and Eurasia that caused a tectonic reactivation of the Palaeozoic Gorny–Altai (GA) and West Sayan (WS) blocks.The present work reports

Johan De Grave; Peter Van den haute

2002-01-01

2

Meso-Cenozoic Evolution of Mountain Range - Intramontane Basin Systems in the Southern Siberian Altai Mountains by Apatite Fission-Track Thermochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai Mountains form the northern part of the Cenozoic Central Asian intracontinental orogenic system that developed as\\u000a a far-field effect of ongoing India-Eurasia convergence. Our study focuses on the southern Siberian Altai Mountains where\\u000a basement rocks for apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis were sampled. These rocks are mainly Paleozoic granitoids that currently\\u000a outcrop in several high mountain ranges along reactivated

Johan De Grave; Michael M. Buslov; Peter Van den haute; Boris Dehandschutter; Damien Delvaux

3

The significance and chronology of the mega-floods of the Altai Mountains, Southern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the Altai Mountains, in Southern Siberia have become well known for the preservation of landforms and sediments associated with some of the largest floods in Earth History (Baker et al. 1993). These floods may have had significant effects on global climate. If the Ob River overflowed to the south then it would represent a massive transfer of water and energy from Central Asia to the mid latitudes. Alternatively if the floods occurred at a time when the absence of an ice sheet allowed the Ob to flow into the Arctic Ocean this would have had a significant effect on oceanic circulation and the thermohaline. However, the significance of these events is difficult to assess as they are undated. This paper describes a dating program using the cosmogenic isotopes 10Be and 26Al. Rock samples were collected during a joint Exeter University-Tomsk State University expedition in August 2004. The samples were collected from three different geomorphic contexts: (a) Giant dropstones deposited during the short existence of the glacially dammed lakes in the Kuray and Chuya Valleys (Figure 2). (b) Large rock blocks on moraines associated with the damning of the lake basins. (c) Striated rock surfaces created by glacial erosion in the Chagan Valley (Ci), and rock surfaces in a spillway created by catastrophic lake drainage (Cii). Although it is clear that at least sample types (a) & (b) could have complex exposure histories the combination of sample types should bracket the time period involved in the glacial advance, short-lived existence of the lakes and catastrophic lake drainage in the sequence outlined below: T1 type (Ci) striations created by advancing glacier (predating ice-dammed lake) T2 type (b) blocks on moraines marking maximum extent of the glacier slightly predating/contemporaneous with ice-dammed lake T3 type (a) dropstones deposited during the short period of lake existence (from floating ice) T4 type (a) blocks on flood berms immediately postdating the ice-dammed lake and dating the flood(s) T4 type (Cii) bedrock scour immediately post dating the ice-dammed lake and dating The flood(s) This paper discusses the possible global significance of these floods and first-phase dating results.

Brown, A. G.; Rudoy, A. N.

2005-12-01

4

Paleomagnetic and geochronological study of the Halaqiaola basalts, southern margin of the Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang: Constraints on neotectonic convergent patterns north of Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined geochronological and paleomagnetic study is reported from Miocene basalts from Halaqiaola and Paleocene to Eocene red beds from Fuyun at the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang. Three new 40Ar\\/39Ar ages determined by fresh matrix from the Halaqiaola basalts collectively confirm the presence of Cenozoic magmatic activity in the northern Xinjiang. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization identify stable characteristic

Baochun Huang; John D. A. Piper; Huaiyu He; Chunxia Zhang; Rixiang Zhu

2006-01-01

5

Recognition of early Carboniferous alkaline granite in the southern Altai orogen: post-orogenic processes constrained by U-Pb zircon ages, Nd isotopes, and geochemical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai orogen forms the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), the world's largest accretionary orogen. However, its tectonic evolution, particularly during the late Paleozoic, is still not well understood. U-Pb zircon analyses for the Bulgen alkaline granite yield crystallization ages of 358 ± 4 Ma (SHRIMP) and 354 ± 4 Ma (LA-ICP-MS). These ages are significantly younger than published emplacement ages for subduction/collision-related syn-orogenic granitoids (460-375 Ma) in this region. The Bulgen granite has high SiO2, total alkalis, rare earth elements, HFSE (Th, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ce), and low Ba, Sr with pronounced negative anomalies in Eu, Ba, Sr, P, and Ti, showing a clear A-type geochemical signature. The granite records high ?Nd( t) values of +6.3 to +6.4 and young model ages ( T DM) of ca. 600 Ma. The Bulgen alkaline granite is largely undeformed as opposed to the early-middle Paleozoic counterparts, which form elongated deformed bodies parallel to the prevailing tectonic fabric (NW direction). Available data suggest that magmatism in the southern Altai region evolved from early-middle Paleozoic I-type tholeiitic and calc-alkaline granitoids to late Paleozoic A-type alkaline granitoids. The high ?Nd( t) values of the Bulgen alkaline granite indicate a homogeneous juvenile mantle source, whereas the early-middle Paleozoic granitoids are characterized by lower and more variable ?Nd( t) values (-2.6 to +4.2). These differences provide an important insight into the late Paleozoic orogenic processes of the Chinese Altai and indicate a significant change of the tectonic regime from a syn-orogenic regional compression setting to a post-orogenic extensional one. Major tectonic movements in this region ceased after the early Carboniferous.

Tong, Ying; Wang, Tao; Siebel, Wolfgang; Hong, Da-Wei; Sun, Min

2012-06-01

6

Reconstruction and Prediction of Climate and Vegetation Change in the Holocene over the Altai-Sayan Mountains, Southern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountains are a good study area for monitoring and modeling vegetation changes in both the past and future climates because various landscapes from hot and dry lands in lowlands to cold and wet highlands are located across a rather small area. Our goal was to model vegetation redistribution during the Holocene - from 10000 years before present (B.P.) to the year 2100 AD over the Altai-Sayan Mountains using different climate change scenarios and identify how similar/dissimilar was the past vegetation versus future vegetation. We used our mountain bioclimatic vegetation model (MontBioCliM) to predict the paleo and future vegetation distribution coupling MontBioCliM with different climate change scenarios. Our model is an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5 deg. C; negative degree days below 0 deg. C; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). The past climate change scenarios were constructed by comparing current and past vegetation. The past vegetation was reconstructed from fossil data in 10 sites for 3200 B.P.(the Subboreal), 5300 B.P.(the mid-Holocene), 8 000 B.P. (the Boreal), and 10 000 B.P. (the Pre-Boreal). We inversely used MontBioCliM to predict climatic indices for a vegetation type in a paleo time. Paleo vegetation was mapped by coupling MontBioCliM with each of four paleo climate change scenario. To predict future vegetation we coupled MontBioCliM with Hadley HadCM3 A1FI and B1 climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080. An agreement between pairs of vegetation maps for different time slices was found based on kappa statistics. The kappa statistics matrix showed that the vegetation structure in the Altai-Sayan Mountains was similar during the mid-Holocene and the Boreal with warmer and moister climates than nowadays, and the Last Glacial and Subboreal with colder and dryer climates than nowadays. No analogs between future and paleo vegetation distribution were found although in literature the mid-Holocene is suggested to consider as an analog of the current mid-century climate. Climates 5300-8000 B.P. were warmer but also moist compared to dry climates across the 21st century suggested by climate change scenarios from general circulation model projections.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Blyaharchuk, T. A.

2009-04-01

7

Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) consists of many tectonic terranes with distinct origin and complicated evolutionary history. Understanding of individual block is crucial to reconstruct the geodynamic history of the gigantic accetionary collage. This study presents zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for the granitoid rocks in the Russian Altai mountain range (including Gorny Altai, Altai-Mongolian terrane and CTUS suture zone between them), in order to clarify the timing of granitic magmatism, source nature, continental crustal growth and tectonic evolution. Our dating results suggest that granitic magmatism of the Russian Altai mountain range occurred in three major episodes including 445~429 Ma, 410~360 Ma and ~241 Ma. Most of the zircons within the Paleozoic granitoids present comparable positive ?Hf(t) values and Neoproterozoic crustal model ages, which favor the interpretation that the juvenile crustal materials produced in the early stage of CAOB were probably dominant sources for the Paleozoic magmatism in the region. The inference is also supported by widespread occurrence of short-lived juvenile materials including ophiolites, seamount relics and arc assemblages in the north CAOB. Consequently, the Paleozoic massive granitic rocks maybe not represent continental crustal growth at the time when they were emplaced, but rather record reworking of relatively juvenile Proterozoic crustal rocks although mantle-derived mafic magma was possibly involved to sever as heat engine during granitic magma generation. The Early Triassic granitic intrusion may be product in an intra-plate environment, as the case of same type rocks in the adjacent areas. The positive ?Hf(t) values (1.81~7.47) and corresponding Hf model ages (0.80~1.16 Ga) together with evidence of petrology are consistent with the interpretation that the parental magma of the Triassic granitic intrusion was produced from enriched mantle-derived sources under an usually high temperature condition which is likely due to basaltic magma that underplated the lower crust. Our data combined with evidence of the regional geology enable us to conclude that the Gorny Altai and Altai-Mongolian terranes possibly have similar tectonic natures, but represent two separate accretionary systems before Devonian collision. The accretion and amalgamation processes resulted in the Paleozoic granitoid magmatism and caused the two terranes to merge as a composite tectonic domain at the Siberian continental margin.

Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

2014-05-01

8

A Few Issues on the Peat Research in the Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of peat and marsh waters is carried out. The group structure of organic substance of various samples of peat is investigated by the method of Institutes of Peat. The toxic metals of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As were defined by the method of stripping voltammetry. The region of the Altai Mountains is characterized by the contrastive distribution of some heavy metals and arsenic in a soil cover. This is caused by a variety of petrography and granulometry of soil forming material, and also by a landscape and geochemical situation in the system of vertical zoning. The sources of natural accumulation of heavy metals in the ground might be the deposits of polymetals. In this connection the content of the specified toxic elements in the peat under research has been identified. The peat of the Turochak deposit is characterized by a significant ash content - up to 41,9%; the increased ash content is typical of the Kutyush deposit: from 6,1% up to 19, %. The peat of the Northeastern Altai is referred to non-bitumunous: the content of bitumen makes up less than 5%. In comparison with the European peat the peat under study of the transitive and lowland type is characterized by the significant content of easy hydrolysable substances in the amount of 24,8-41,1%. The amount of the non-hydrolysable rest makes up around 4,3 - 7,4 %. The total content of fulvic acids is less than the content of humic acids by 2,9 - 5,8 times. The high content of humic acids which can reach up to 58 % is characteristic of certain deposits. Humic acids extracted from the peat are characterized, as a rule, by similar IR-spectra. The distinctions are shown in an unequal intensity of characteristic absorption bands, in their spreading and some shifts. It is revealed that humic acids of peat with the increase in a degree of decomposition are exposed to transformation; therefore the increase in their structure of functional groups is observed. As a result of the research which was carried out the following elements among heavy metals in the lowland peat of the Altai Mountains are revealed: Cd (2,7 - 30)> Hg (0,67)> Zn (0,22) ~Pb (0,21)> Cu (0,13)> As (0,03). The degree of mobility of chemical elements in the peat varies within the limits of 1,3 - 36%. According to the degree of their mobility these elements form the following line: Zn (36 %)> Pb (18,1 %)> Cd (9,6 %)> Cu (1,3 %). The content and the character of distribution of the heavy metals under study and arsenic in the peat of the Altai Mountains have their unique features in comparison with the same valley analogues. The mountain peat of the Central Altai contains much less Hg than the West Siberian one: 0,078 mg/g and 0,69 mg/g accordingly. Cd represents itself as the concentrator in the lowland peat of the Northeastern and Central Altai, its content is actually the same and makes up approximately 0,3 mg/kg. The lowland Altai and West Siberian peat has the same amount of Pb: 4-5 mg/kg; they have smaller amounts of Zn and Cu in comparison with the European and West Siberian peat. The revealed features of distribution of some toxic metals are the display of specificity of peat genesis in the conditions of a mountain relief. The complex of the data received by us allows to consider the peat of the Altai Mountains as a non-polluting raw source concerning the amount of some natural toxic substances. The possible perspective directions of practical application of the mountain peat can be medicine, veterinary science, and agriculture.

Inisheva, Lydia I.; Larina, Galina; Shurova, Maya

2010-05-01

9

The oldest (Early Ediacaran) Sr isotope record of mid-ocean surface seawater: Chemostratigraphic correlation of a paleo-atoll limestone in southern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By examining Sr isotope stratigraphy of the Ediacaran paleo-atoll limestone in southern Siberia, we first demonstrated the surface seawater information from the lost Ediacaran (late Neoproterozoic) oceans. The Ediacaran Baratal limestone in the Gorny Altai Mountain in Siberia is a remnant of a mid-oceanic paleo-atoll complex developed on a paleo-seamount. Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) from the basal 20 m-thick interval of the Baratal limestone vary mostly by 0.7069-0.7079, and these show a generally increasing trend upsection. The relatively low Sr ratios indicate that mid-oceanic seawater, i.e. global seawater, was more influenced by hydrothermal activities along mid-oceanic ridges rather than continental erosion during the Ediacaran. A chemostratigraphical correlation with the hitherto known secular change in Sr isotope suggests that the basal Baratal limestone was deposited particularly in the Early Ediacaran. This timing corresponds to the immediate aftermath of the Neoproterozoic (Marinoan) snowball Earth event. The relatively low Sr isotope ratios and the increasing trend upsection are concordant with the onset of continental erosion during the deglaciation during the Early Ediacaran.

Nohda, Susumu; Wang, Bo-Shian; You, Chen-Feng; Isozaki, Yukio; Uchio, Yuko; Buslov, Michael M.; Maruyama, Shigenori

2013-11-01

10

The crustal structure from the Altai Mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new crustal section across northwest China based on a seismic refraction profile and geologic mapping. The 1100-km-long section crosses the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Junggar Accretional Belt and eastern Junggar basin, easternmost Tianshan Mountains, and easternmost Tarim basin. The crustal velocity structure and Poisson's ratio (sigma), which provide a constraint on crustal composition, were

Youxue Wang; Walter D. Mooney; Xuecheng Yuan; Robert G. Coleman

2003-01-01

11

The crustal structure from the Altai Mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new crustal section across northwest China based on a seismic refraction profile and geologic mapping. The 1100-km-long section crosses the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Junggar Accretional Belt and eastern Junggar basin, easternmost Tianshan Mountains, and easternmost Tarim basin. The crustal velocity structure and Poisson's ratio (?), which provide a constraint on crustal composition, were

Youxue Wang; Walter D. Mooney; Xuecheng Yuan; Robert G. Coleman

2003-01-01

12

Evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Altai-Sayan Region, Central Asia) and collision of possible Gondwana-derived terranes with the southern marginal part of the Siberian continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and integrates new results on the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and its related geodynamics and geology\\u000a of Altai-Sayan Region (ASR) in Central Asia. A revised terrane classification based on Vendian-Cambrian geodynamic units and\\u000a evolution of terranes is described. Reactivated suture zones along the terrane boundaries are proposed. The obtained data\\u000a suggest the important role of strike-slip

M. M. Buslov; I. Yu. Saphonova; T. Watanabe; O. T. Obut; Y. Fujiwara; K. Iwata; N. N. Semakov; Y. Sugai; L. V. Smirnova; A. Yu. Kazansky

2001-01-01

13

Mountain building processes in intraplate, intracontinental oblique deformation belts: Lessons from the Gobi Altai, Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gobi Altai is an intraplate, intracontinental transpressional orogen in southern Mongolia that formed in the Late Cenozoic as a distant response to the Indo-Eurasia collision. The modern range formed within crust constructed by successive terrane accretion and ocean suturing events and widespread granite plutonism throughout the Palaeozoic. Modern reactivation of the Gobi Altai crust and the kinematics of Quaternary faults are fundamentally controlled by Palaeozoic basement structural trends, the location of rigid Precambrian blocks, orientation of SHmax and possible thermal weakening of the lower crust due to an extensive history of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the region, and the presence of thermally elevated asthenosphere under the Hangay Dome to the north. Modern mountain building processes in the Gobi Altai typically involve reactivation of NW-striking basement structures in thrust mode and development of linking E-W left-lateral strike-slip faults which crosscut basement structures within an overall left-lateral transpressional regime. Restraining bends, other transpressional ridges and thrusted basement blocks are the main range type, but are discontinuously distributed and separated by internally drained basins filling with modern alluvial deposits. Unlike a contractional thrust belt, there is no orogenic foreland or hinterland, and thrusts are both NE and SW directed with no evidence for a basal decollement. Normal faults related to widespread Cretaceous rifting in the region are locally thrust reactivated in the NE Gobi Altai, but elsewhere appear to be unfavourably oriented for Late Cenozoic reactivation despite widespread topographic inversion of Cretaceous basin sequences. The diffuse historical seismicity in the region coupled with a complex system of interacting faults showing evidence for Quaternary movements, suggests that faults may be dormant for long periods and then reactivate. Large earthquakes may be episodic and spatially migrating, therefore inter-plate earthquake recurrence models are unlikely to apply. Because the Gobi Altai is an actively developing youthful mountain range in an arid region with low precipitation rates, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Mountain fronts active in the Quaternary are easily identified by a 'quartet' of geomorphological features including: 1) an aggrading alluvial fan complex directly at the front, 2) a visible fault scarp cutting Quaternary fan sediments, 3) low mountain front sinuosity, 4) low valley floor-width/valley-height ratios in rugged canyons exiting the range along the faulted front. The Gobi Altai provides an excellent opportunity to study the way a continental interior reactivates due to a distant continental collision. In addition, it offers important insights into how other more advanced intracontinental transpressional orogens may have developed during earlier stages of their evolution.

Cunningham, D.

2012-04-01

14

Reflection of climatic changes in Altai phenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decades of the past century showed noticeable climate changes in many parts of the Earth (IPCC, 2007). Numerous models suggest that the climate changes will continue, showing a variable intensity especially in mountain regions. Altai Mountains, located at the boundary of taiga, desert, and semiarid regions of Central Asia, are exposed to intensive climatic and environmental changes. Analysis of changes in phenological parameters is the simplest process for track changes in the ecology of species in response to climate change. We present climatic characteristic and statistical analysis changes of thermal and precipitation regimes in Altai Mountains (Russian and Mongolian Altai), and the response of phenological parameters to these changes. The close correlation between temperature series of the Russian and northern part of Mongolian Altai is determined. At the same time, a correlation between precipitation data is observed only for the cold (November - March) seasons. It was found that the rate of temperature increase for the period under consideration (1940-2012) ranged from 0.15 to 0.55 ° C/10 years, and the most significant increase was registered during the cold seasons. An increase of annual means of precipitation is in the range from 2.32 to 6.37 mm / 10 years. The maximal increase (29 mm / 10 years) was observed in the data from the Kara-Tyureck station, whose location is the highest one of the considered stations (2600 m). During the maximal warming (1980-1999), a 2-4.5 times increase of annual average temperature was observed as compared to the period of 1940 - 1979. The amount of precipitation is increased for Ust'-Koksa (5 times) and Ulgiy (2 times) stations, but it is 3 times lower for Kosh-Agach and Kara-Tyureck stations. The results of the correlation analysis of temperature and precipitation data for the analyzed Russian and Mongolian Altai stations were confirmed and detailed by the wavelet and wavelet coherence / phase analysis. The temperature series variations obtained with the wavelet analysis correspond to the periods of North Atlantic Oscillation and solar activity variation, and precipitation are in good agreement with changes in Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The analyzed climatic change influenced on the beginning of pollination of different plant species in Altai region. If average (for 27 years) of the beginning of pollination of Artemisia gmelinii (a typical representative of Central Asian steppe vegetation) was counted at 24 of August, a mass pollination of this species was at 5th of September. So deviation reached 14 days. Under condition of more cool summer the pollination in most cases (80 %) started later. Additionally we counted average temperature of beginning of pollination of this species which was + 21.5 C0, and sums of action temperatures (+5 C0) = 1675, (+10 C0) = 1491.

Malygina, Natalia; Barlyaeva, Tatiana; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana; Mitrofanova, Elena; Lovtskaya, Olga; Nenasheva, Galina; Otgonbayar, Demberel; Papina, Tatiana; Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Sokolov, Andrey

2014-05-01

15

The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

2009-12-01

16

[Hygienic characteristics of diet of schoolchildren in the Altai region].  

PubMed

Actual nutrition of pupils in Altai Krai was studied. Decreased supply of proteins, fats, vitamins, mineral substances was revealed. Hygienic recommendations on improvement of nutrition of children and adolescents were given. PMID:8076849

Istomin, A V; Rumiantseva, L A

1994-04-01

17

The crustal structure from the Altai Mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a new crustal section across northwest China based on a seismic refraction profile and geologic mapping. The 1100-km-long section crosses the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Junggar Accretional Belt and eastern Junggar basin, easternmost Tianshan Mountains, and easternmost Tarim basin. The crustal velocity structure and Poisson's ratio (??), which provide a constraint on crustal composition, were determined from P and S wave data. Despite the complex geology, the crustal thickness along the entire profile is nearly uniform at 50 km. The thickest crust (56 km) occurs at the northern end of the profile beneath the Altai Mountains and the thinnest (46 km) crust is beneath the Junggar basin. Beneath surficial sediments, the crust is found to have three layers with P wave velocities (Vp) of 6.0-6.3, 6.3-6.6, and 6.9-7.0 km/s, respectively. The southern half of the profile, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin, shows low P wave velocities and ?? = 0.25 to a depth of 30 km, which suggests a quartz-rich, granitic upper crustal composition. The northern half of the profile below the Altai Mountains and Junggar Accretional Belt has a higher Poisson's ratio of ?? = 0.26-0.27 to a depth of 30 km, indicative of an intermediate crustal composition. The entire 1100-km-long profile is underlain by a 15-30 km thick high velocity (6.9-7.0 km/s; ?? = 0.26-0.28) lower-crustal layer that we interpret to have a bulk composition of mafic granulite. At the southern end of the profile, a 5-km-thick midcrustal low-velocity layer (Vp = 5.9 km/s, ?? = 0.25) underlies the Tianshan and the region to the south, and may be indicative of a near-horizontal detachment interface. Pn velocities are ???7.7-7.8 km/s between the Tianshan and the Junggar basin, and ???7.9-8.0 km/s below the Altai Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin. We interpret the consistent three-layer stratification of the crust to indicate that the crust has undergone partial melting and differentiation after Paleozoic terrane accretion. The thickness (50 km) of the crust appears to be related to compression resulting from the Indo-Asian collision.

Wang, Y.; Mooney, W. D.; Yuan, X.; Coleman, R. G.

2003-01-01

18

Biological Ice Core Analysis in Russian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 2003, a 171m long ice core was excavated from top of Belukha glacier (4,200m a. s. l.) in the Russian Altai Mountains. We examined vertical distributions of microorganisms (unicellular green algae, fungal spore, yeast) and pollens for potential use of ice core dating and reconstruction of past climate. Microorganisms have no seasonal variation in pit samples, however 5 genus of pollen (Fir, Spruce, Pine, Birch tree and Mugwort) have seasonality of each dispersed season. Therefore, this ice core can be identified past seasonal layers by pollen distribution. Pollen dating analysis of ice core estimate upper 48m ice core contain 86 years snow and ice, and this dating method well correspond to the 1963 peak in Tritium. This dating analysis is more accurate than other markers (oxygen isotope, dust, chemical concentration and melt percentage). Oxygen isotope trend from 1917 and temperature record of meteorological station near the glacier slightly increased and melt percentage have some anomalies from 1950s show recent temperature rising in this region. Otherwise, microorganisms and pollen have no trend except yeast. Vertical distribution of yeast peaks are well correspond to peaks of melt percentage show that yeast cell can grow in surface snow only in the warm period when liquid water available. In 1970s and 1980s, Nitrate increased and peaked because of anthropogenic emissions. Nitrate is major nutrient of photosynthetic microorganism, however, no clear relationship nitrate between unicellular green algae.

Uetake, J.; Nakazawa, F.; Kohshima, S.; Miyake, T.; Narita, H.; Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Nakawo, M.

2007-12-01

19

Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86°34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. Daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation have been used to identify the predominant atmospheric circulations (elementary circulating mechanisms, or ECMs) generating the entry of biological proxies on the glacier surface. It was shown that the high-resolution records of diatoms, cysts, spores, and plant pollen in the Belukha ice core are the biological proxies for the changes in the structure of precipitation in the Altai region since these records can reflect changes in the contribution of different atmospheric circulation to annual or seasonal precipitation. The joint consideration of the transport ability of the biological species and the data of precipitation allowed us to determine the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. The main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and northern Kazakhstan basins; coniferous tree pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of western Siberia; pollen of deciduous trees and herbs from steppe and forest-steppe vegetation in the northern Altai and eastern Kazakhstan; and cysts and spores of plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace elements in the ice core.

Papina, T.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

2013-10-01

20

Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86° 34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. We used daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation to identify the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. Our analyses revealed that main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and North Kazakhstan basins. Coniferous trees pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of West Siberia and pollen of hardwoods and herbs from steppe and forest steppe vegetation in the Northern Altai and East Kazakhstan. Cysts of algae and spores of inferior plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace species in the ice core.

Papina, T.; Blyacharchyuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

2013-05-01

21

Arsenic in the soil-natural water-plant system of the Altai region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high natural content of total arsenic in the soil cover of the Altai region has been revealed. Natural waters and plants are distinguished by low arsenic concentrations. The intensity of the biogenic and water migration of arsenic does not depend on its total content in the soil. The accumulative distribution of arsenic in the mountainous forest soils of Altai is mainly due to biogenic processes, while in the steppe soils, it is specified by the evaporative concentration. Favorable conditions for arsenic migration are observed in the southeastern Altai during the periods of seasonal moistening. The arsenic content in the soils and plants of technogenic landscapes in the Altai region considerably exceeds the provisional permissible concentrations and the background concentrations of this element.

Puzanov, A. V.; Baboshkina, S. V.

2009-09-01

22

Late Paleozoic faults of the Altai region, Central Asia: tectonic pattern and model of formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present kinematic and dynamic analysis of large-scale strike-slip faults, which enabled the formation of a collage of Altai terranes as a result of two collisional events. The Late Devonian–Early Carboniferous collision of the Gondwana-derived Altai-Mongolian terrane and the Siberian continent resulted in the formation of the Charysh–Terekta system of dextral strike-slip faults and later the Kurai and Kuznetsk–Teletsk–Bashkauss sinistral

M. M. Buslov; T. Watanabe; Y. Fujiwara; K. Iwata; L. V. Smirnova; I. Yu Safonova; N. N. Semakov; A. P. Kiryanova

2004-01-01

23

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

Gonzalez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simon, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpcio

2012-01-01

24

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

25

Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin, (1952 2006) estimated with high resolution imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 °C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area

A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin

2007-01-01

26

Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin, (1952–2006) estimated with high resolution imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 °C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area

A B Surazakov; V B Aizen; E M Aizen; S A Nikitin

2007-01-01

27

Prime Astroarchaeological Researches near Mountain Monastyri in the Western Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Western Altai, 50 km southward from the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk, at the same latitude as the Ak-Baur sanctuary, another interesting complex of ancient objects was examined in 2006-2007. This complex consists of a grotto, ``spotty'' stone and platforms with holes. In the grotto anthropomorphic and geometric drawings madein red ochre were found. The centre of the composition schematically represents human figures with joined hands. One kilometer to the west from the complex there is a sharp-pointed mountain Zhangiztas. In its bottom part a ``zoomorphic'' ledge is visible; it reminds a sideview of a ``head with the opened mouth and tongue''. Observing the sunset on the days of equinox, one can watch the Sun ``setting down'' on the top of Mt. Zhangistas, then ``sliding'' along the right-side slope and finally ``rolling into the mouth''; in other words, it is ``swallowed by a monster''. The ``zoomorphic'' peculiarity of the mountain outliers (monad nocks) of the Monastyri complex as a whole and of their separate rocky juts was comprehended in the antiquity; the evidence for it is the presence of manmade holes near them; these holes might have an astronomical meaning.

Marsadolov, L.; Dmitrieva, N.

2009-08-01

28

Rudny Altai base-metal belt: Localization of massive sulfide mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamic evolution, deep structure, and metallogenic regionalization of the Rudny Altai are considered in terms of plate tectonics. The base-metal massive sulfide deposits are genetically related to the group of basalt-andesite-rhyolite sequences formed in rift or island-arc geodynamic setting in the Devonian at the early stage of Hercynian tectogenesis. Taking into account economic reserves of ore and major metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag), as well as lateral and vertical regional metallogenic zoning of the Rudny Altai, the localization of massive sulfide mineralization in ore-bearing structural elements and particular deposits has been specified. The ore productivity of ore-bearing geochronological levels for base metals and the contribution of these levels to the total reserves of the region are characterized in detail. The Rudny Altai basemetal belt is regarded as a continuous ore-bearing structural unit situated in Russia and Kazakhstan.

Chekalin, V. M.; D'yachkov, B. A.

2013-11-01

29

The isotopic composition of precipitation and surface layers of glaciers in Central Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Please fill in The isotopic composition of precipitation and ice of Altai glaciers can be successfully used to determine the sources of precipitation (water vapor) and trajectories of air masses coming to the Altai territory, to study the modern and paleoclimatic changes in this region and other applied climate and environmental challenges. This paper presents the results of the study of seasonal changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation and surface layers of warm and cold glaciers in Central Altai. The isotopic composition of warm glaciers (North Chui Ridge) significantly (by more than 6.5 ) facilitated relatively mean value of ice core layers from cold Belukha glacier. This difference primarily may be due to: 1) with multiple cryogenic isotope fractionation of warm glaciers surface, which leads to the formation of significantly lighter ice isotopic composition; 2) accumulation of the edge portion of the warm glaciers occurs mainly due to the winter solid precipitation. The isotopic composition of summer precipitation (July 2013) in the Central Altai ranged from -7.55 to -10.28 0/00for ?18O and from -135.20 to -136.04 0/00 for ?D, which indicates that the formation of precipitation fallen on the earth surface of precipitated on the surface glacier great contribution moisture exchange processes arising from the passage of moist Atlantic air masses over the territory of the Aral- Caspian region. Integrated use of data on the trajectory of air masses (model HYSPLIT), synoptic situation and the isotopic composition of precipitation can detect features of the formation of precipitation . For example , it was shown to cause rainfall in the Central Altai July 16, 2013 was the formation of occlusions of Altai, and the moisture in the air mass moving over the continent to weak evaporative fractionation .

Papina, Tatyana; Malygina, Natalia; Eyrikh, Alla

2014-05-01

30

Structure and Geomorphic Expression of the Delüün Fault and Late Cenozoic Transpressional Mountain Building in the Mongolian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Delüün fault (DF) is one of several major active transpressional structures in the Mongolian Altai accommodating far-field stress from the Indo-Asian collision. Late Cenozoic right-lateral oblique slip on the DF resulted in surface uplift of the range to 4 km elevation, about 1.5 to 2 km above regional base level. The DF exhibits evidence for late Quaternary surface rupture along the western Khukh Serkhyn Range piedmont extending 50 km south of Döröö Nuur (Lake). At the southern end of Döröö Nuur, the fault bifurcates into two strands where strain is partitioned onto a western thrust component and an eastern dextral component. The two strands rejoin into a single right-lateral oblique thrust 25 km south of the lake. Both perennial and ephemeral stream channels are dextrally offset along the trace of the fault. Measured strike-slip drainage offsets range from 10 to 1500 m. Prominent shutter ridges are common along the trace of the fault and several alluvial fans and a Late Glacial Maximum terminal moraine preserve evidence of recent fault rupture with scarps, left-stepping en echelon "mole tracks", and tension gashes. Post-glacial strath terraces are preserved along two streams oriented perpendicular to the thrust component. Three mappable straths extend about 1 km up valley from the mountain front along each stream. Individual terraces are vertically separated by 2 ± 0.5 m, and each projects into a small knickpoint in the modern channel. We hypothesize that these straths may represent stream channel response to instantaneous base-level fall resulting from individual surface rupture events along the fault. Cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) geochronology samples were collected from offset alluvial fans along the southern oblique, northern strike- slip, and northwestern thrust strands of the faults. Slip rates from these sites will permit deconvolution of the long-term regional strain field into horizontal and vertical components and provide an opportunity to assess rates of deformation at varying temporal scales. Preliminary slip rates based on surveyed offsets and estimated landform ages (from fan morphology and soil development) suggest about 1 to 2 mm/yr of strike- slip and 0.5 mm/yr of vertical offset along the DF over latest Pleistocene to early Holocene timescales. Short- term rates of deformation from GPS data suggest that about 7 mm/yr (~15%) of the total India-Asia convergence is accommodated by N-S compression and dextral shear in the Altai. Our preliminary slip estimates therefore suggest that the movement along the DF and uplift of the Khukh Serkhyn Range may account for 15 to 30% of the observed shortening.

Wegmann, K. W.; Frankel, K. L.; Bayasgalan, A.; Carson, R. J.; Bader, N. E.; Durfey, C. C.; Erdenebat, B.; Otgonhun, J.; Sprajcar, J. J.; Sweeney, K. E.; Tsolmon, A.

2008-12-01

31

Forest- and agroclimatic potential in the Altai-Sayan ecoregion under climate change during the XXI century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai Sayan ecoregion (ASE), central Asia, is located in Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan, within the window 80-102° E and 42-57° N, north of the territory of Tibet. The ASE is a territory with a great variety of landscapes observed at a short distance: from nival and tundra landscapes at highlands, to taiga (dark-needled and light-needled) and subtaiga at middle elevations, to steppes at lower elevations. This southern part of Siberia is known as having a high agroclimatic potential due to favorable climatic and soil resources. Crops of food, forage, and biofuels primarily reside in steppe and forest-steppe zones and are resistant to frequent droughts and the cold climate. Regional studies over the Altai-Sayan ecoregion have already registered a change in climate at the end of the 20th century: January temperatures increased 1-2°C and July temperatures increased 0.7-1.5°C over the last 50 years in the northern portion of ASE; in the southern, more continental portion of ASE, both January and July temperature increased two times greater, 2-4°C and 1.4-3.2°C,0 respectively. Our goal was to model how mountain vegetation in ASE may be altered in a changing climate through the century to the year 2080 and if the agroclimatic potential in the lowlands of ASE may benefit from climate change. We used our montane bioclimatic vegetation model (MontBioCliM) to predict the future vegetation distribution, coupling MontBioCliM with the HadCM3 A2 and B1 climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. MontBioCliM is an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5C; negative degree days below 0°C; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). Our model runs indicated that by 2080, forest habitats would decrease from 52% to 48% according to the moderate scenario B1 and from 52% to 38% according the harsh A2 scenario. In a warmer climate, grasslands better adapted to hot and dry climates would replace forest which may not be regenerate because of an increased potential for severe and large fires. At the expense of forests, more potential agricultural lands were modeled to appear in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats in foothills and lowlands in ASE. These lands might become suitable for growing traditional crops and introducing new crops. Bioclimatic models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to the above climate change scenarios. Crops were predicted to extend in size and to 2-fold increase. However, due to shortage of water in the future dry climate crops would necessitate irrigation. A new agroclimatic potential of the Altai-Sayan ecoregion was predicted to evolve as climate changes.

Parfenova, E. I.; Tchebakova, N.; Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

2012-12-01

32

Geoinformational mapping of foci of Siberian tick-borne rickettsiosis in Altai Krai.  

PubMed

The high rate of Siberian tick-borne rickettsiosis morbidity in Altai Krai calls for research into its causation as well as public heath concern. We constructed a thematic map to assess the medical-geographical situation, reveal disease foci, and define the risk level in the geographical regions covered. PMID:17114706

Kurepina, Nadezhda Yu; Rotanova, Irina N; Obert, Anatoly S; Rudakov, Nikolai V

2006-10-01

33

Interesting findings of rare geometrid species (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in the Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five rare species, Macaria halituaria (Guenée, [1858]), Chelegnophos ravistriolaria (Wehrli, 1922), Ch. tholeraria (Pungeler, 1901), Scotopteryx transbaicalica (Djakonov, 1955), and Xanthorhoe stupida (Alphéraky, 1897), are described. Chelegnophos tholeraria was found for the first time in the territory of Russia, and Ch. ravistriolaria and S. transbaicalica, in the territory of the Altai. Drawings of genitalia are given for all the species

S. V. Vasilenko

2011-01-01

34

Change in biochemical and morphological characteristics of Lonicera caerulea in tectonically active zone of the Dzhazator River Valley (Altai Mountains)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local geophysical and geochemical anomalies affect the polymorphism of taste variations, berry shape, and content of some biologically active substances in Lonicera caerulea leaves in the tectonically active Altai Mountains (Dzhazator River basin).

Boyarskikh, I. G.; Khudyaev, S. A.; Platonova, S. G.; Kolotukhin, S. P.; Shitov, A. V.; Kukushkina, T. A.; Chankina, O. V.

2012-12-01

35

Climate changes and human dynamics in the SE Altai (Russia) during the past 4000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the study of the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (SE Altai) which is the part of the Altai Mountains - the northern segment of the Central Asia collision belt. It represents a combination of landscapes and ecosystems of alpine highlands, vast plateau-topped watersheds and intermountain depressions with unique archeological sites and traditional forms of environmental management of different cultures. The SE Altai has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic but till now the issue of chronology of the archaeological cultures is still debated. From the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, these can be generally regarded as a single economic-cultural type - nomads of arid piedmonts and mountains of temperate zone. The collective evidence indicates the significantly warmer climate in the SE Altai during the early Holocene. The Neoglacial began here about 5000 years BP and includes three periods of glaciers expansions controlled by climate deterioration (Akkem, Historical and Aktru (LIA) stages). Our numerous radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and wood fragments buried in moraines, glaciofluvial sediments and proglacial forefields argue for prolonged and frequent glacier advances separated by shorter glacier recessions. A decrease in the areas occupied by forest vegetation and the reduction in glacier size at each subsequent glacial stage expressed in the topography suggest aridity intensification during the second half of the Holocene. This conclusion is also supported by the absence of a reaction from the glaciers to the thermal minimum of the middle of 19-th century. It is very likely that such glacier dynamics is a common feature for the whole Central Asia. Thus the evolution of Altai nomad cultures, discussed in this paper, corresponds to a period of cooling and aridity intensification. In spite of climate deterioration that was the time of prosperity of the Altai nomadic cultures. It is most richly characterized by numerical dates of archaeological finds and major nature events which control migrations and shifting of Scythian, Hunnu, Turk and later nomadic cultures in the region. We present here an expanded dataset of new radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and charcoals from iron-smelting furnaces, dendrochronologically obtained ages of tree fragments washed up from glaciers in a modern glacial zone as well as lifespan analysis of archeological burial grounds and their spatial distribution within the Kurai and Chuya depressions. All these allowed us to correlate major nature events with the human dynamics in the SE Altai during the second half of the Holocene. Climate together with political and social aspects is one of the major factors that controlled the size of population, evolution and migration of nomadic cultures in the region. The influence of climatic changes on human societies was much stronger than the opposite. Anthropogenic impact is restricted to massive timber cutting which contributed to deforestation of the eastern part of the SE Altai. The study was partly funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grants 13-05-00555 and 13-04-01829).

Agatova, Anna; Nepop, Roman; Nazarov, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Slyusarenko, Igor; Bronnikova, Maria; Orlova, Ljubov

2014-05-01

36

The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of Neanderthals, from which DNA sequences of numerous individuals have now been determined, the number and genetic relationships of other hominin lineages are largely unknown. Here we report a complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence retrieved from a bone excavated in 2008 in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia. It represents a hitherto unknown type

Johannes Krause; Qiaomei Fu; Jeffrey M. Good; Bence Viola; Michael V. Shunkov; Anatoli P. Derevianko; Svante Pääbo

2010-01-01

37

Ancient DNA Analysis Affirms the Canid from Altai as a Primitive Dog  

PubMed Central

The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication.

Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.; Wayne, Robert K.

2013-01-01

38

Response of high-mountain Altai thermal regime to climate global warming of recent decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a brief climatic characteristic and statistical analysis on dynamics of thermal regime in Altai Mountains. The close correlation between temperature series of the Russian and northern part of Mongolian Altai was determined. It was found that the rate of temperature increase for the period under consideration (1940-2008) ranged from 0.19 to 0.53 °?/10 years, and the most significant increase was registered during the cold seasons. During the maximum global warming (1980-1999), a 2-4.5 times increase of annual average temperature was observed as compared to the period of 1940-1979. The temperature series variations obtained with the Welch's method and wavelet analysis correspond to the periods of North Atlantic Oscillation and solar activity variation.

Bezuglova, N. N.; Zinchenko, G. S.; Malygina, N. S.; Papina, T. S.; Barlyaeva, T. V.

2012-12-01

39

Chemical characteristics of snow-firn pack in altai mountains and its environmental significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the chemical characteristics of snow-firn pack in Altai Mountains and its environmental significance, a\\u000a 1.5-m deep snow-firn pack was dug in the accumulation zone (3 300 m a.s.l.) of the Kanas Glacier in August 2009. A total of\\u000a 15 samples were analyzed for major ions. Results show that the concentrations of major ions in the snow-firn

Feiteng Wang; Lin Wang; Jian Kang; Futang Kou

2011-01-01

40

A structural transect across the Mongolian Western Altai: Active transpressional mountain building in central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the first detailed geological transect across the Mongolian Western Altai using modern methods of structural geology and fault kinematic analysis. Our purpose was to document the structures responsible for Cenozoic uplift of the range in order to better understand processes of intracontinental mountain building. Historical right-lateral strike-slip and oblique-slip earthquakes have previously been documented from the

W. Dickson Cunningham; Brian F. Windley; D. Dorjnamjaa; G. Badamgarov; M. Saandar

1996-01-01

41

Zircon fission track thermochronology constraints on mineralization epochs in Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization ages reported in the past in the Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, China, not only are different, but also fall into the Hercynian epoch. This study has achieved 17 zircon fission track analysis results from different ore deposits. The zircon fission track ages range from 134±9Ma to 339±49Ma. We consider that the zircon fission track age could reveal the

Wanming Yuan; Zheng Qiugen; Zengkuan Bao; Jinquan Dong; Andrew Carter; Yinchang An; Jun Deng

2009-01-01

42

Ice Core Reconnaissance in Siberian Altai for Mid-Latitudes Paleo-Climatic and Environmental Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations in Siberian Altai permits to expand our scope from Tibet, Himalayas, Tien Shan and Pamir to the area located at the northeastern edge of the Central Asia Mountain System. Altai forms a natural barrier to the northern and western air masses and therefore affords an opportunity to develop modern paleo-climate records relating to the westerly jet stream, the Siberian High and Pacific monsoon. Moreover, Altai alpine snowice accumulation areas are appropriative for studying air pollution dynamics at the center of Eurasia, eastward from the major Former USSR air pollutants in Kazakhstan, South Siberia and Ural Mountains. During the last century Altai Mountains became extremely contaminated region by heavy metal mining, metallurgy, nuclear test in Semipalatinsk polygon and Baikonur rocket site. Our first field reconnaissance on the West Belukha snow/firn plateau at the Central Altai was carried out in July 2001. Dispute of the large Alatai Mountains glaciation, the West Belukha Plateau (49o48' N, 86o32'E, 4000-4100 m a.s.l.) is only one suitable snow accumulation site in Altai to recover ice-core paleo-climatic and environmental records that is not affected by meltwater percolation. The objective of our first reconnaissance was to find an appropriate deep drilling site by radio-echo sounding survey, to recover shallow ice-core, to identify the annual snow accumulation rate, major ions, heavy metals, radio nuclides and oxygen isotopes level distribution. During 6 days of work on the Plateau, a 22 m shallow firn/ice core has been recovered by PICO hand auger at elevation 4050 m where the results of radio-echo sounding suggests about 150 m ice thickness. In addition to the firn/ice core recovery, five 2.5 meter snow pits were sampled for physical statigraphy, major ions, trace element, and heavy metals analysis to assess spatial variability of the environmental impact in this region. Four automatic snow gauges were installed near proposed deep ice coring site for year around records. The seasonal accumulation at the drilling site was ranged from 250 to 300 ?? with density of 0.34 - 0.40 g cm-3. The ice-core stratigraphy analysis has shown that accumulation area seems to lie in the cold infiltration-recrystallization zone. Geochemical analysis of the shallow ice core, snow pit samples collecting during the 2001 field research will be discussed along with meteorological and synoptic data collected at the nearest to Belukha Plateau Akkem, (2050 m) and Kara -Tyurek (3600 ?) stations. A preliminary result has revealed that variability of elementary synoptic processes over the region impact on the amount of precipitation. North Atlantic Oscillation and West Pacific Oscillation indices have inverse associations with average amount of precipitation in Siberia where Altai is located. >http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/%7eaizen/aizen.html

Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K.; Nikitin, S.; Fujita, K.; Cecil, D.

2001-12-01

43

Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the deformation systems. 2) folded (folded-thrust) deformation systems combine deformation zones with relic lenses of Paleozoid substratum, and predominantly conform systems of the main faults. Despite a high degree of regional deformation the sedimentary-stratified and intrusive-contact relations of geological bodies are stored within the deformation systems, and this differs in the main the collision systems from zones of dynamic metamorphism. 3) regional zones of dynamic metamorphism of Kuznetsk-Altai region are the concentration belts of multiple mechanic deformations and contrast dynamometamorphism of complexes. The formational basis of dynamic metamorphism zones is tectonites of the collision stage. Zones of dynamic metamorphism attract special attention in the structural model of Kuznetsk-Altai region. They not only form the typical tectonic framework of collision sutures, but also contain the main part of ore deposits of this region. Pulse mode of structure formation of Kuznetsk-Altai region is detected. Major collision events in Kuznetsk-Altai region were in the late-Carboniferous-Triassic time (307-310, 295-285, 260-250 and 240-220 Ma). This study was supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 14-05-00117).

Zinoviev, Sergei

2014-05-01

44

Molecular identification of human echinococcosis in the Altai region of Russia.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial haplotypes were determined for Echinococcus species infecting individuals diagnosed with alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) at Altai State Medical University Hospital in Barnaul, Russia during 2008 to 2011. The nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was determined for 31 of 34 AE and 8 of 12 CE cases. All of the AE cases were confirmed to be caused by Asian type Echinococcus multilocularis, while CE cases were caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6). PMID:22609955

Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoikhet, Yakov N; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Ito, Akira

2012-12-01

45

Basin evolution in a folding lithosphere: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan belts in Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia is a classical example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. Both areas have a heterogenous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene-early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that they were initiated in an extensional context and inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. In these basins, fault-controlled deformation alone appears largely insufficient to explain their architecture. Lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence also played an important role. They form typical basins in a folding lithosphere (FLB). Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime, time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results.

Delvaux, D.; Cloetingh, S.; Beekman, F.; Sokoutis, D.; Burov, E.; Buslov, M. M.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.

2013-08-01

46

By the shores of white waters: The Altai and its place in the spiritual geopolitics of Nicholas Roerich  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artist Nicholas Roerich, famous for his expeditions (1925-1928 and 1934-1936) to Central Asia and the Himalayas, was deeply fascinated by the Altai Mountains, which he visited in 1926 (even though he had emigrated from Soviet Russia in 1918). His interest in the region had partly to do with his scholarly theories about the origin of Eurasian cultures. Even more

John McCannon

2002-01-01

47

By the shores of white waters: the Altai and its place in the spiritual geopolitics of Nicholas Roerich  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artist Nicholas Roerich, famous for his expeditions (1925–1928 and 1934–1936) to Central Asia and the Himalayas, was deeply fascinated by the Altai Mountains, which he visited in 1926 (even though he had emigrated from Soviet Russia in 1918). His interest in the region had partly to do with his scholarly theories about the origin of Eurasian cultures. Even more

John McCannon

2002-01-01

48

Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonics and geodynamics of Altai, Tien Shan, and Northern Kazakhstan, from apatite fission-track data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronological modeling as a diagnostic tool for periods of stability (peneplanation) and tectonic activity (orogeny) has been broadly used in tectonic studies of Central Asia in recent years. We discuss more than 100 AFT ages of samples from the Kyrgyz Tien Shan and Altai and compare them with AFT data from northern Kazakhstan. Geological, geomorphological, and AFT

M. M. Buslov; D. A. Kokh; J. De Grave

2008-01-01

49

Constraining the timing of the most recent cataclysmic flood event from ice-dammed lakes in the Russian Altai Mountains, Siberia, using cosmogenic in situ 10Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice-dammed lakes were repeatedly formed in intermontane basins in the Russian Altai Mountains throughout the Pleistocene. These cataclysmic outburst floods, caused by ice-dam failures, were documented as Earth's largest flood waves by other geoscientists. Using in situ 10Be, we successfully dated surfaces of flood-associated boulders located in a former lake basin and downvalley from a former ice dam. Our precise surface exposure ages suggest that all boulders were associated with the most recent out of a number of cataclysmic floods that occurred at 15.8 ± 1.8 ka. The field location of the boulders implies that they were deposited by the largest late Pleistocene flood that drained the Chuya-Katun Lake completely following initial dam failure. A published reconstruction of the late glacial paleoenvironment in the vicinity of the former ice dam indicates that dam failure was likely a result of climatically induced downwasting of glaciers. The failure of the ice dam provides more evidence for the timing of widespread warming during the late glacial in southern Russia. This flooding event in the headwaters of the Ob River coincides with a freshwater peak as recorded in isotopic records of the Kara Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

Reuther, Anne U.; Herget, Jürgen; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Borodavko, Pavel; Kubik, Peter W.; Heine, Klaus

2006-11-01

50

Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai - article no. D05309  

SciTech Connect

In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.

Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

2006-03-07

51

Glaciochemical investigation of an ice core from Belukha glacier, Siberian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summer 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49°48'26''N, 86°34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The englacial temperature of -17°C indicates that this unique glaciochemical record is well preserved and suitable for the reconstruction of air pollution levels in this previously unexplored region. The upper 86 m were dated by 210Pb and cover the period 1862-2001. A lack of strong winter minima was observed in the ?18O record and attributed to the small amount of precipitation during that season and to wind erosion. The ion concentrations are comparable to those observed in Swiss glaciers, except for ammonium and formate, where enhanced concentrations indicate biogenic emissions from Siberian forests. Sulfate, ammonium and nitrate records all show anthropogenic impacts despite the remoteness of this site.

Olivier, Susanne; Schwikowski, Margit; Brütsch, Sabina; Eyrikh, Stella; Gäggeler, Heinz W.; Lüthi, Martin; Papina, Tatyana; Saurer, Matthias; Schotterer, Ulrich; Tobler, Leonhard; Vogel, Edith

2003-10-01

52

Structure and Geomorphic Expression of the Delüün Fault and Late Cenozoic Transpressional Mountain Building in the Mongolian Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Delüün fault (DF) is one of several major active transpressional structures in the Mongolian Altai accommodating far-field stress from the Indo-Asian collision. Late Cenozoic right-lateral oblique slip on the DF resulted in surface uplift of the range to 4 km elevation, about 1.5 to 2 km above regional base level. The DF exhibits evidence for late Quaternary surface rupture

K. W. Wegmann; K. L. Frankel; A. Bayasgalan; R. J. Carson; N. E. Bader; C. C. Durfey; B. Erdenebat; J. Otgonhun; J. J. Sprajcar; K. E. Sweeney; A. Tsolmon

2008-01-01

53

[Phylogeography of Altai osmans (Oreoleuciscus sp., Cyprinidae, Pisces) based on sequence variation of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene].  

PubMed

Representatives of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Altai osmans) from the water bodies of Western Mongolia were examined for sequence polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA fragment containing the cytochrome b (Cyt-b) gene. A total of 17 sequence variants (haplotypes) were discovered, which formed two clusters, A and B, with nonoverlapping geographic localization. Cluster A included haplotypes of Altai osmans from the Valley of Lakes water bodies. Cluster B consisted of two subclusters, the first of which (B1) united sequence variants of the populations from Hollow of the Great Lakes and the lakes of the Great Altai Range. The second subcluster (B2) was formed by the haplotypes originating from the Hollow of the Lake Uvs, some isolated lakes of the Northwestern Khangay region, and the water bodies of the Arctic Ocean Basin (basins of Selenga and Orchon rivers). Based on the genetic divergence estimates and the radiation time of genetic geographic groups identified, the existence of three allopatric species of Altaic osmans in the genus Oreoleuciscus was substantiated. PMID:22946331

Slyn'ko, Iu V; Borovikova, E A

2012-06-01

54

Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin, (1952 2006) estimated with high resolution imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 °C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area changes in the Aktru River basin (44.8 km2), located in the central Altai mountains. We used the 1952, 1966, 1975 and 2006 remote sensed images with 0.6 3.0 m spatial resolution (aerial photographs, Corona and PRISM satellite images) and differential GPS (DGPS) data. From 1952 to 2006, the total glacier area in the Aktru basin shrank by 7.2% (1.2 km2). During the last three decades, the rate of glacier area loss increased by a factor of 1.8, thus resembling trends in other mountain systems of Eurasia (Alps, Tien Shan). The glacier area changes were caused mainly by increase of summer air temperature by 1.03 °C (from 1951 to 2000) at elevations below 2500 m, which intensified the melt of the glacier's ice in the ablation zone. At elevations above 2500 m (upper accumulation zone), the summer air temperature increased by only 0.83 °C.

Surazakov, A. B.; Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Nikitin, S. A.

2007-10-01

55

Ecological structure of recent and last glacial mammalian faunas in northern Eurasia: the case of Altai-Sayan refugium.  

PubMed

Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

Pavelková ?i?ánková, V?ra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

2014-01-01

56

Ecological Structure of Recent and Last Glacial Mammalian Faunas in Northern Eurasia: The Case of Altai-Sayan Refugium  

PubMed Central

Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts.

Pavelkova Ricankova, Vera; Robovsky, Jan; Riegert, Jan

2014-01-01

57

Global warming stops in Altai and Northern Mongolia in 2010-2015.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the cores of bottom sediments of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [1] and Lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [2]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with spatial resolution 0.1 mm using synchrotron radiation [3]. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change.We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: annual T = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2750, 1500, 1015, 825, 615, 500, 375, 325, 290, 230, 215, 203, 190, 157, 135, 109, 88, 65, 48, 37, 24 and 10 years. The sum of 22 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature with the coefficient +0.87 (for more than 3000 points). 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 09-05-13505 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 92 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] I.A.Kalugin et all. Rhythmic fine-grained sediment deposition in Lake Teletskoye... Quaternary International, 136 (2005), 5-13. [2] S. J. Fowell et all. Mid to late Holocene climate evolution of the Lake Telmen Basin . . . // Quaternary Research 59 (2003) 353-363 [3] A. Daryin et all. Use of a scanning XRF analysis on SR beams from VEPP-3 storage ...// Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Physics Research A 543 (2005) 255-258.

Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.

2010-03-01

58

Glacier condition and variation studies in the Mongolian part of the Altai Mountains. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai Mountain Range is located in the central north part of Eurasia. It holds few thousand glaciers in that area, but has not been investigated so much, except on Russian part. The glaciers in Mongolia are not even registered in the World Glacier Inventory. Our group in JAMSTEC started to investigate the glaciers in this region since 2002, with preliminary observation in the first few years. The study consisted of the followings. (1) Study of the glacier distribution using satellite images and topographic map. (2) Measurement of concerned with mass balance. (3) Measurement of parameters related to glacier dynamics. (4) Melting processes including heat balance on glacier surface. The present paper will show the results obtained up to now. The main results are as follows. The number of the glacier in the Mongolian part was approximately 580 (In year 2000), and the area was 423km2. This glacier area is less than the Russian part, but similar to the Chinese part. Based on satellite image of year 2000 and less accurate topographic map developed by aerial photograph taken around 1950, area change was calculated to be around 30% in the 50 years period. Rather high value for Asia continent. Detail observation was made on the longest glacier in this region (Potanin Glacier, Tavan Bogd Massive ), and its flow speed and thickness has been observed. Fastest surface flow speed was 40m/a. The heat balance calculation on ablation area showed, typical continental type distribution of heat source/sinks. Mass balance of whole glacier including the accumulation area was calculated for 2007/2008 year. The specific mass balance was around 1.4 m. and this value was high value compared with other measurements made in Central Asia in the recent years.

Ohata, T.; Kadota, T.; Konya, K.; Yabuki, H.; Gombo, D.

2009-12-01

59

Permian hornblende gabbros in the Chinese Altai not from the Tarim mantle plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Chinese Altai, on the northern side of the Erqis fault, the ~10-m-wide Qiemuerqieke gabbro is composed almost entirely of hornblende and plagioclase. Its relative crystallization sequence is olivine, hornblende, plagioclase, and it shows a narrow compositional range in SiO2 (48.7-50.2 wt%), MgO (6.33-8.54 wt%), FeO (5.27-6.46 wt%), Na2O (3.06-3.71 wt%), and K2O (0.26-0.37 wt%). These contents result in a high Mg# value (68-72) and a low K2O/Na2O ratio of ~0.1. It has (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70339-0.70350, ?Nd(t) values of 4.8-6.0, and zircon ?Hf(t) of 11.4-15.8; these values demonstrate a mantle-derived source, and a whole-rock ?18O of ~6.7‰ suggests a mantle wedge origin. The presence of magmatic hornblende suggests a relatively high water fugacity, and the crystallization temperature (715-826 °C) calculated using Ti-in-zircon thermometry is considerably lower than that of a normal mafi c melt but consistent with an origin from a water-bearing magma. The gabbro has a secondary ion mass spectrometry zircon U-Pb age of 276.0 ± 2.1 Ma, which is coeval with the 275 Ma mantle plume in the northern Tarim craton, but the Qiemuerqieke petrological and geochemical data do not indicate an abnormally high mantle temperature or a deep mantle signature, which would commonly characterize a mantle plume source. Our results integrated with published data support a model of juvenile crustal growth by a subduction-related process.

Wan, Bo

2014-05-01

60

Folded Lithospheric Basins in Central Asia: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan basins in a folding lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia is a classic example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that these basins were initiated in an extensional context and later inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. They deformed by a combination of lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence, together with upper crustal fault-controlled deformation. They are good examples of Folded Lithospheric Basins (FLB) which typically form in a buckling lithosphere. Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime and time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results. Both regions of active lithospheric folding have a heterogeneous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene - early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures.

Delvaux, Damien; Cloetingh, Sierd; Beekman, Fred; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Burov, Evguenii; Buslov, Misha; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbeck

2014-05-01

61

Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.  

PubMed

The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too. PMID:25016250

Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

2014-09-01

62

New methodological aspects of using dendrochronological analysis for dating strong paleoearthquakes (by the example of SE Altai, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dendroseismology has a great potential in a paleoseismological investigation due to utmost precision of dating. Rings of trees - witnesses of seismic events contain both the evidence for the earthquake and its age. These evidences can be created by surface ruptures (sheared off tree roots and trunks, tilted and fallen trees etc.) or by earthquake induced geomorphic processes and/or seismic shaking (tree death or slower growth caused by lost of their crowns, tilted or buried trees caused by landsliding, as well as trees germination on bared surfaces) (McCalpin, 2009). Dendrogeomorphology (Stoffel, 2010) is another young and promising approach which among others studies different aspects of rock fall activity on the basis of wood penetrating injuries of trees. It should be underscored that both techniques are used most efficiently just on times that cover the life span of the last forest stand (about 300-500 years). The main idea of our approach of using dendrochronological analysis for timing strong paleoearthquakes is analyzing of tree-ring anomalies caused by specifically seismically triggered rock falls during the prolonged time interval. SE part of Russian Altai, in this case, is a unique place: 1) seismically induced slope processes intrude into forest stand zone in an immediate vicinity with the modern upper timber limit (which is favorable for carrying out the dendrochronological analysis); 2) arid climate promotes good preservation of wood (up to two thousand years on stone surfaces); 3) 2367-years absolute tree-ring chronology "Mongun" has been developed for SE Altai and Tuva regions (Myglan et al., 2012). We tested this approach during our paleoseismological investigations at the previously unknown complex of earthquake triggered landslides on the northern part of the Chagan-Uzun massif. The south fault boundary of this block was reactivated at the time of the 2003 Chuya earthquake (?s=7.3). We developed 1153 years (856 -2009 AD) local tree ring chronology on Pinus sibirica for this area. In order to provide absolute dates of paleoearthquakes we analyzed the ages of penetrating tree injuries caused by rock falls. Simultaneity of these injuries sustained by trees which grew on different earthquake induced landslides was accepted as a criterion of their seismic origin. The accuracy of such an approach was supported by data obtained from analyzing injuries occurred on trees as a result of rock falls triggered by the 2003 Chuya earthquake. In addition to estimating the upper possible date of creation of this complex of earthquake triggered landslides we have also established with the annual resolution the date of previously unknown strong medieval earthquake. This dendrochronologically obtained data has been independently verified by radiocarbon dating of seismically cut fossil soil overlapped by that undistorted. New data also allows us to specify the recurrence interval of strong earthquakes for SE Altai. Beside the obvious applied importance for local paleoseismological investigations the suggested approach can be used for timing strong paleoearthquakes for regions where instrumental seismic records or historical accounts are not available.

Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Nazarov, Andrey

2013-04-01

63

Forecast of annual temperatures changes in Altai and Northern Mongolia regions for the period 2010-2050 year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of scanning X-ray fluorescent analysis using synchrotron radiation [1,2] investigated sediment cores of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [3] and lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [4]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with resolution 0.1 mm. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change. We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: climate parameter = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature and precipitation change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with step 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2000, 1000, 660, 500, 400, 330, 270, 200, 155, 125, 105, 80, 45, 30 and 10 years. The sum of 15 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature in the time period of 1000-2000 years, with the coefficient 0.89. 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 07-05-92103 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 91 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] K. Zolotarev et all. Scanning SR-XRF beamline for analysis of bottom sediments. // Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. in Physics Research, A470 (2001), 1-2 , P.376-379. [2] A. Daryin et all. Use of a scanning XRF analysis on SR beams from VEPP-3 storage ...// Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Physics Research A 543 (2005) 255-258. [3] I.A.Kalugin et all. Rhythmic fine-grained sediment deposition in Lake Teletskoye... Quaternary International, 136 (2005), 5-13. [4] S. J. Fowell et all. Mid to late Holocene climate evolution of the Lake Telmen Basin …// Quaternary Research 59 (2003) 353-363

Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.; Zolotarev, K.

2009-04-01

64

Spatial variations of the atmospheric electric field and radon emanation in the zone of tectonic faults in the Baikal rift zones and mountains Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of methods for monitoring upper crust geodynamic activity encourages solutions preventing emergencies due to geological events. Using geodetic and seismic data jointly with information on other geophysical fields enables to improve the existing methods. When analyzing perturbations of electric field strength and volumetric Radon concentration, there were used data obtained from geophysical trips to Tunkin rift Basin of Baikal rift zone of southern part of East Siberia, and in the regions of Kuraysky and Chuysky basins in the central part of Altai Mountains (the region of Chuysky earthquake dated 27.09.2003). In Tunkin Basin observations were carried out near Tora settlement - "I", and Arshan settlement - "II". The analysis of Radon volumetric activity evidenced that its variations are influenced by atmospheric pressure and tides, and such influence is different at points 'I' and 'II'. The tidal and atmospheric influence on Radon variations is more pronounced at 'II' if compared to 'I', which can be explained by locations of the registration points. Registration Point 'II' is located close to tectonic faults, while 'I' is in the center of the basin with its quite thick layer of sediments. Axial section observations of spatial inhomogeneities of electric field and Radon emanation were set along and across the Tunkin Basin. Observation points were set 3 to 10 km apart depending on the local relief. Each point was registering for 60 min under the conditions of 'good weather'. There were analysed changes in mean strength of electric field and Radon volumetric activity as a function of distance along the axial section. It was found out that volumetric activity and electric field strength change in phase opposition - radon volumetric activity increase results in more intense ionization in near-surface atmosphere and consequently to decrease in the electric field strength. The concentration of Radon in subsoil atmosphere increases, and electric field strength decreases when approaching to rift zones rimming the Tunkin Basin from North and South. The influence of local increase in radioactive gas concentration on behavior of atmospheric electric field was observed also in Kuraysky and Chuysky basins. 'Good weather' observations near Aktash settlement evidenced long intervals of about a day when electric field strength was negative. Presence of negative electric field under conditions of 'good weather' indicates changed characteristics of near Earth atmosphere. Local increase concentrations of gaseous Radon and Thoron influences the intensity of ion-generation in near Earth atmosphere and leads to creation of negative charges near the surface. Changes at two cross sections through the south-eastern boundaries of Chuysky and Kuraysky basins distinctly show presence of spatial inhomogeneities of electric atmospheric field and Radon concentration. The results of axial section observations can be successfully used when mapping geological inhomogeneities in the Earth's crust.

Soloviev, S.; Loktev, D.

2013-12-01

65

The Altai earthquake response of the measuring systems of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station dam on the Yenisei River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of retrospective analysis of in situ observations in the dam foundation and adjacent bank rocks of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station (SSHPS) during the nucleation and energy release of the Altai earthquake of September 27, 2003, are presented. A group of most reliable precursors of this earthquake is identified in measured parameters monitoring the state of the facility and surrounding bedrock. The correlation is examined between the precursor occurrence time and the energy of the earthquakes recorded in the regional catalog in 1990-2005, in the period of the normal SSHPS operation.

Marchuk, N. A.

2008-03-01

66

Magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Chinese Altai, NW China: insights from the Paleozoic mafic and felsic intrusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese Altai, as a key segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is dominated by variably deformed and metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and plutonic rocks. The plutonic rocks include extensive granites and relatively subordinate mafic intrusions. For instance, mafic dykes in the northwestern region (Habahe area) have an emplacement age of 375.5±4.8Ma and include gabbroic and doleritic dykes. The gabbroic dykes have chondrite-normalized REE patterns similar to N-MORB (La/YbN=0.86~1.1), together with their high ?Nd(t) values (+7.6~+8.1), indicating deriviation from a N-MORB-type depleted asthenospheric mantle. While the doleritic dykes resemble E-MORB (La/YbN= 1.12~2.28) with relatively low ?Nd(t) values (+3.4-+5.4) and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7057-0.7060), suggesting derivation from a mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and/or melts. In contrast, mafic intrusions in the southeastern region (Keketuohai area) occur as a zoned intrusion with an emplacement age of 409±5 Ma, consisting of dunite, olivine gabbro, hornblende gabbro and pyroxene diorite. Their ?Nd(t) values (0 to +2.7) suggest that the parental magma was produced by partial melting of the lithospheric mantle under a high geothermal regime. Zircon U-Pb ages demonstrate that voluminous granitoids were continuously emplaced over more than 30 % area of the Chinese Altai during the period from 447 Ma to 368 Ma with a climax at ca. 400 Ma. Positive ?Hf(t) values (0 to +9) of normal magmatic zircons suggest that the granitoid magmas were derived from juvenile sources. The extensive magmatism at ca. 400 Ma significantly changed the Hf isotopic composition of the magma source by substantial input of juvenile material in a relatively short period. Four representative large S-type granitic intrusions were emplaced from 419 to 393 Ma, consistent with a period of intensive magmatic activities. The S-type granitic magmas were generated by dehydration melting of newly accreted materials, which were possibly brought to at least middle crustal depth by subduction-related activities in an active continental margin. In contrast, Carboniferous rocks were relatively minor and some granodioritic intrusions in the northwestern region have 313±5 Ma emplacement age. They are characterized by distinctively low total REE contents (67-187 ppm) without pronounced negative Eu anomalies and mantle-like whole-rock Nd-Sr isotopic compositions (?Nd(t)=+2.5 to +4.5; (87Sr/86Sr)i =0.7038 to 0.7048) and zircon ?Hf(t) values (+5.93 to +12.9), implying that parental magma was probably derived from an oceanic lithospheric mantle. Magmatism was active continuously from the Early to Middle Paleozoic, and the strongest magmatic activity took place in the Devonian. Mafic and felsic rocks mostly have positive zircon ?Hf(t) values, and show a dramatic change in zircon Hf isotope compositions at ca. 400 Ma, suggesting significant contributions from mantle-derived juvenile materials to the crust. These findings, together with the occurrence of chemically distinctive igneous rocks and the high-T metamorphism, can be collectively accounted for by ridge-trench interaction during the accretionary orogenic process. In contrast, Carboniferous magmatism represents an important transitional episode from subduction-related regime to post-orogenic extension.

Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Zhao, Guochun; Long, Xiaoping

2013-04-01

67

Microclimate affects soil chemical and mineralogical properties of cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation and temperature particularly influence soil properties by affecting the type and rates of chemical, biological, and physical processes. To a great extent, element leaching and weathering rates are governed by these processes. Vegetation growth and decomposition, that depend on temperature and the other environmental factors, influence weathering reactions through the production of acidity and organic ligands that may promote chemical weathering and subsequent elemental leaching. The present work focuses on cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Siberia, Russia). The investigated field site (2380 m asl) is characterised by cold winters (with absolute minimum temperatures of -50°C; a mean temperature in January is -21°C) and cool summers (+8°C mean temperature in July). The mean annual temperature is -5.4°C. Annual precipitations are relatively low (500 mm with 20% of precipitation in July). Permafrost is widespread and occurs sometimes at a depth of 30 to 50 cm. Several studies have shown the influence of slope aspect and the resulting microclimate on soil weathering and development. There is however no unanimous agreement whether weathering is more intense on north- or south-facing slopes and whether small differences in thermal conditions may lead to detectable differences. Higher temperatures do not necessarily lead to higher weathering rates in cold alpine regions as shown by previous investigations in the European Alps. Water fluxes through the soils seemed to be more important. We consequently investigated soils in the cold-alpine environment of the Central Altai Mountains on a very small area close to a local glacier tongue. Half of the investigated soil profiles were south-facing (5) and the other half north-facing (5). The soils have the same parent material (mica-rich till), altitude, topography, and soil age. The vegetation is alpine grassland that is partially intersected with some juniper and mosses, which portion in the soil surface increases towards the hill footslope. Soil chemical properties such as organic C, N, soil organic matter quality (using DRIFT), pH value, (oxy)hydroxides, total elemental contents (XRF), and soil mineralogy (using diagnostic treatments and XRD) were determined. The age constraint of the site was given by geomorphic studies, 14C dating of a nearby peat-bog and of the stable organic matter fraction of the soils. The soils have a Holocene age. The results showed astonishingly clearly - similarly to the European Alps - that the south-facing soils have a lower weathering state. This is expressed by statistically significant lower pH-values, more oxalate and dithionite extractable Fe, Al, Mn, and Si contents, higher C concentrations and stocks and even lower total Si- and Ca-contents at north facing sites. A similar weathering trend was also obtained from the weathering index (Ca+K)/Ti. The geochemical evolution of the soils seems also here to be enhanced at north facing sites, although very severe climatic conditions prevail. We must assume that weathering is not limited by temperature in the active layer but rather by soil moisture that seems to be higher during the warmer period in the north-facing soils. This is furthermore confirmed by the appearance of slightly evident features of an umbric soil horizon at the north-facing sites at the hill footslope. Furthermore, biodegradation seem to be less pronounced on north-facing sites compared to south-facing sites. Poorly degraded organic matter is consequently accumulated on north-facing sites. This finally gives rise to more organic and mobile organic ligands that promote weathering processes.

Egli, Markus; Lessovaia, Sofia; Chistyakov, Kirill; Inozemzev, Svyatoslav

2013-04-01

68

Siberian regional climate change recorded in annually-laminated lake sediments (Lake Shira, Khakassia, Lake Kucherla, Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During field work in 2009 were sampled cores of bottom sediments of Lake Shira (Khakassia) and Lake Kucherla (Altai). Sediments contain annually laminated layers (varves). The average thickness of layers in the Lake Shira sediments is 1.3 mm, in the Lake Kucherla sediments - 2.3 mm. Cores were impregnated with epoxy resin and then are prepared solid samples thickness of 2 mm for X-ray scan. X-ray scanning was carried out in the Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (Budker Institute of nuclear physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk) using the excitation energies of 18 and 24 keV by the methods described in papers [1, 2]. Scanning X-ray fluorescence analysis on synchrotron radiation (SR-XRFA) as a high-efficiency method of microelement analysis is adapted to determine more than 35 elements with minimal step 0.1 mm. A detailed study of the varves with a spatial resolution of 100 microns showed seasonal variation of trace-element composition within the annual layers. It was counting the number of annual layers using the geochemical variations of sediment. Key geochemical indicators of terrigenous (Ti, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr) and organogenic (Zn, Br, U) components of sediments were identified. Comparison of meteorological data for the past 50 years with the lithological and geochemical parameters of sediments showed a stable dependence of trace-element composition of sediments with the climate variation in the region. Investigated lakes contain high-resolution records of regional climate changes. [1] K.V. Zolotarev et all. Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A470 (2001),376. [2] A.V. Daryin et all. Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A 543 (2005) 255.

Darin, Andrey; Kalugin, Ivan; Maksimova, Natalya; Ovchinikov, Dmitrii; Rakshun, Yiakov

2010-05-01

69

Pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectra of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Eastern Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single finding of this taxa can be important in the interpretation of fossil spectra. Recent spectra don not reflect present vegetation communities. Pollen of arboreal taxa predominates over non-arboreal taxa ( Pinus amounts to 80 %), among herbaceous pollen taxa Poaceae are most abundance ( pollen content may reach 20%). Participation of Poaceae pollen is strongly overestimated. Subfossil spectra better reflects major vegetation communities occurring today in researching area. Non-arboreal taxa predominates over arboreal taxa, among herbaceous pollen taxa Artemisia (6-20%), Cyperaceae (3-40 %), Poaceae (1-12%) are most abundance. So in general pollen assemblages of subfossil spectra correspond to structure of the described vegetation communities. This research will help in climate reconstructions in this mountain region.

Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.

2011-12-01

70

[The involvement of some flea species in the epizootic process in the Gorno-Altai natural plague focus: spatial and temporary characteristics].  

PubMed

The relative number of plague pathogen strains isolated from some flea species in different Gorno-Altai natural plague foci substantially varies; this indicator also varies with time. These patterns are due to the difference in the structure of multispecies communities of ectoparasites in these areas and their long-term transformation. As of now, the three species Paradoxopsyllus scorodumovi, Ctenophyllus hirticrus, and Amphalius runatus are widely involved in pathogen transmission in all three foci. These ectoparasites should be referred to as main plague vectors. In each focus, they are joined by other flea species, such as Rhadinopsylla dahurica and Amphipsylla primaris in the Ulandryk focus, Frontopsylla hetera, R. dahurica, Paradoxopsyllus kalabukhovi, and Paramonopsyllus scalodae in the Tarkhatin focus, and P. scalonae and P. kalabukhovi in the Kurai focus, which should be classified as an additional vector. PMID:24738224

2014-01-01

71

Studying the association of polymorphic variants of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes with breast cancer in female residents of Altai Krai.  

PubMed

The incidence of homozygote deletion of glutathione S-transferase genes M1 and T1 (null genotypes; or GSTM1"-" and GSTT1"-") was studied in breast cancer patients living in Altai Krai. DNA was isolated from blood samples of 695 breast cancer patients (291 patients with familial cancer and 404 patients with sporadic cancer) and 263 women without history of tumor diseases. The frequency of GSTM1"-" and GSTT1"-" genotypes was estimated in breast cancer patients (47.2 and 19.1%, respectively) and non-cancer participants (46.8 and 19.0%, respectively). No differences were found in the frequency of genotypes. The frequency of genotype combination GSTM1"-"+GSTT1"-" in patients with sporadic breast cancer (11.6%, 47 of 404 patients) was higher than in the control (6.1%, 16 of 263 patients; OR=2.03; 95% CI=2.09-3.83; p=0.02). The genotype frequency of genes in the control group did not differ from that in European residents of the Caucasian race. PMID:19902106

Kostrykina, N A; Pechkovskii, E V; Mishukova, O V; Khripko, U I; Zarubina, N A; Selezneva, I A; Sinkina, T V; Terekhova, S A; Lazarev, A F; Petrova, V D; Filipenko, M L

2009-07-01

72

A new approach for reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mongolian Altai: The high-resolution ?13C records of TOC and pollen complexes in Hoton-Nur Lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?13C of total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen grain, TOC, C/N ratio, and ?15N of total organic nitrogen (TON) in a 2.57-m long core from Hoton-Nur Lake in Mongolian Altai have been measured for reconstruction of the Holocene climates. The ?13C values of TOC and pollen carbon have similar average values but different ranges. Pollen ?13C has negative correlation with %AP (arboreal taxa pollen) and positive correlation with %NAP (herbaceous pollen and spores) that are connected with conditions of humidity in the area. Taiga-biome has lighter ?13C than steppe-biome. Hence, pollen ?13C composition is more sensitive to changes of humidity in the analogous spectra than palynotaxonomical structure and ?13C of TOC. Based on our results, the Holocene climates in Mongolian Altai are: (1) dry conditions prior to 11.5 kyr BP; (2) wet conditions between 11.5 and 6.0 kyr BP; (3) a relatively dry/cool episode during 6-4 kyr BP; (4) stable cool and semiarid conditions with moderately effective moisture during the past 4000 years. Two abrupt climatic changes occurred at ˜7.45 kyr BP and ˜11.5 kyr BP might be related to glacial activities. The Holocene climatic trend in Mongolian Altai which is controlled by the Westerlies is similar to the trend of monsoonal climate shown by the Chinese speleothem records as well as the lake/sand dune evidence in the deserts of NW China. The contact of the two climatic systems and shift of the monsoonal boundary during the past need to be further studied.

Rudaya, Natalia; Li, Hong-Chun

2013-06-01

73

Application of remote sensing and GIS in glacier monitoring: Glacier variability in Central Asia (Tien Shan and Altai) during the last 30--60 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to estimate glacier changes in the two mountain systems of Central Asia - Tien Shan and Altai, during the last 30-60 years as a consequence of regional climatic changes using remote sensing and GIS methods. To this goal two methodological studies were undertaken demonstrating the potential of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and declassified KH-9 Hexagon images for estimation of glacier changes. Glacier area and volume changes were estimated in three pilot basins in Tien Shan and Altai: Akshiirak, Ala-Archa and Aktru using data from historical geodetic surveys, topographic maps, aerial photography, declassified KH-9 Hexagon photographs, ASTER and ALOS/PRISM satellite images, SRTM and IceSAT elevation data and DGPS in situ measurements. Using SRTM data and a DEM from 1:25,000 topographic map glacier surface changes can be estimated with error about 8.2 m. In spite of SRTM error and the occasional absence of data on steep slopes, major long-term changes on relatively flat ablation and accumulation areas are clearly identifiable. Furthermore, the presence of local areas of rebound on glacier surfaces allowed decoupling of dynamic and climatic components of glacier changes that are not available solely from planimetric data. The high metric qualities of KH-9 imagery demonstrated a unique opportunity to extend high-resolution land cover/land use change studies to early 70s on regional to global scales. An IDL program was developed for automatic geometric preprocessing of KH-9 images. The distortions of scanned KH-9 film frames were about 6 mum (maximum 47.32 mum) with non uniform local patterns that had to be removed by local interpolation. In bundle triangulation of KH-9 images horizontal accuracies below 8 m were achieved. The KH-9 DEM vertical accuracy over flat terrain was about 6 m and 30 m over high mountains. The triple overlap of the KH-9 images enabled good DEM definition and accuracy on both north and south facing steep mountain slopes. From 1952 to 2006 the Aktru basin glaciers lost 7.2% of their area. During the last three decades, the rate of area loss accelerated by a factor of 1.8 (from 0.9% to 1.6% per decade). The changes were caused mainly by the increase of summer air temperature by 1.03°C at elevations below 2500 m and 0.83°C at elevations over 2500 m from 1951 to 2000. The glaciers in Ala-Archa and Tien Shan retreated up to 3 km between the 1860s and 2003, the surface of their ablation areas lowered more than 130 m. The area of the Ala Archa glaciers shrunk by 15.8% over the last 40 yr. The Akshiirak glacierized massif lost about 10 km3 of glacier ice and 12.5% of glacier area between 1943 and 2000. From 1977 to 2003 the rate of volume loss of the Akshiirak glaciers accelerated by a factor of 2.7. Continuous growth of spring and autumn air temperatures in northern Tien Shan and increase of summer air temperature in Central Tien Shan since the middle of 1970's without increase of precipitation may further accelerate glacier recession and intensify desertification processes in the Central Asia and northwestern China.

Surazakov, Arzhan

74

Southern Italy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This rare cloud free view of southern Italy (41.0N, 16.0E) shows almost all of the famous `boot' configuration of the peninsula up to just north of Naples and Mount Vesuvius. The land mass of this historic peninsula contrasts sharply with the sparkling blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea.

1973-01-01

75

Extent and timing of paleoglaciation in the Kanas Valley, Altai Mountains, China, based on remote sensing, field investigations and multiple dating methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructions of the timing and extent of past glaciation provide key constraints for paleoclimate and numerical modeling of past glacier behavior. As part of the multinational Central Asian Paleoglaciology Project we are reconstructing the timing and extent of past glaciation along and across a series of mountain ranges in central Asia using consistent methods for mapping, field investigations and numerical dating. Here we report on new findings for the Kanas Valley in northwest China, a large glaciated valley system on the south side of the Altai Mountains. Previous studies have concluded that the Kanas Valley has been shaped by a series of major glacial advances that produced overdeepened basins, a U-shaped valley cross profile, and extensive glacial and glaciofluvial deposits. Existing Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating results suggest major glaciation in the Kanas Valley during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 3, 5, and 6, but very limited MIS 2 glaciation. Limited MIS 2 glaciation has also been suggested for other parts of central Asia, and this contrasts with extensive MIS 2 glaciation in Europe and North America. Field studies in 2013 provided new evidence for the highest elevation extent of glaciation in the Kanas Valley in the vicinity of the 20-km long Lake Kanas, with the upper limit of distinct erratics on the valley sidewalls indicating past ice thicknesses here up to 1000 m. Upper limits of erratics extending from Lake Kanas to the mapped maximum down-valley extent of glaciation suggest an ice surface slope of 1.8 degrees for the lower half of the paleoglacier in the Kanas Valley, assuming that all the erratics were deposited at the same time. Systematic sampling of glacial erratics, basal till, terminal moraines, glacially eroded bedrock, and glaciofluvial deposits provided material that is being used for cosmogenic radionuclide, OSL and ESR dating of the glacial chronology, and for dating intercomparisons.

Zhang, Wei; Harbor, Jon; Cui, Zhijiu; Liu, Liang; Liu, Beibei; Fu, Yanjing; Shi, Yuanhuang; Gribenski, Natacha; Blomdin, Robin; Stroeven, Arjen; Caffee, Marc; Jansson, Krister

2014-05-01

76

Composition and formations conditions of andalusite-kyanite-sillimanite pegmatoid segregstions in metamorphic rocks of the Tseel block (Mongolian Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz veins and pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications often occur in metamorphic complexes. Metapelites abound in various combinations of two Al2SiO5 polymorphs, e.g., andalusite + sillimanite and sillimanite + kyanite (Kerrick, 1990). Rocks with three polymorphs are much scarcer; they result from subsequent crystallization during progressive metamorphism or combined regional and contact metamorphism or from metastable crystallization (Kerrick, 1990). Study of veins containing various Al2SiO5 modifications can give insight into the PT-conditions of metamorphism and their temporal changes. The Tsel block is localized in the basins of the Tseliyn, Hudjertiyn, Sharin, and Deresetuin Rivers and is part of the Hercynides structure on the southern flank of Mongolian Altay. Pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications were discovered in the vicinity of the western contact of one of the largest basic-rock massifs, Buren-Hairhan.They are hosted by schists bearing paragenesis Bt + Ms + St + Grt + Ky + Sill + And + Fibr + Pl + Qtz. Visual examination of the pegmatoid segregations showed the presence of large (up to 4-5 cm) mineral aggregates —kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. They are prismatic, with rhombic sections, and are composed of chaotically arranged kyanite crystals with irregular-shaped andalusite relics between them. The samples also contain large (1 cm) muscovite plates localized between the pseudomorphs as well as quartz grains. The pegmatoid segregations bear the following mineral assemblage: And + Ky + Sil + Fibr + Ms + Qtz + Pl + St +Grt + Bt. Predominant minerals are Al2SiO5 polymorphs (30-50 vol.%), muscovite (30-60 vol.%), and quartz (up to 20 vol.%). Biotite and plagioclase are present in small amounts; staurolite and garnet are occasional. Based on the observed mineral correlations, the following sequence of formation of Al2SiO5 polymorphs has been established: First, andalusite was replaced by kyanite to form pseudomorphs; then, fibrolite was produced, which, in turn, gave way to prismatic sillimanite. The fact that fibrolite formed after kyanite is proved by its presence in muscovite developed after the latter mineral. Sillimanite was, most likely, produced later than or synchronously with large muscovite replacing andalusite grains and kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. 2. Though the estimated P and T values are close to those of the triple point (Pattison, 1992), the studied rocks bear evidence for the replacement of andalusite by kyanite and sillimanite. The mineral assemblages pointing to the kyanitesillimanite type of metamorphism of the host rocks and the presence of andalusite relics in the latter suggest that the andalusite formed during earlier metamorphic events. This polymorph formation sequence agrees with Kozakov's (1986) data on change of the regional metamorphism from andalusite-sillimanite to kyanite-sillimanite one. 3. The great amounts of muscovite in veins containing Al2SiO5 polymorphs and its presence at phase contacts suggest a great role of muscovite in the phase transitions between different polymorphs. Since phases other than Al2SiO5 and muscovite are present in negligible amounts, it is not ruled out that the polymorphs were transformed by the ion exchange mechanism (Carmichael, 1969). 1. Carmichael, D.M., 1969. On the mechanism of prograde metamorphic reaction in quartz-bearing pelitic rocks. Contr. Miner. Petrol. 20, 244-267. 2. Kerrick, D.M., 1990. The Al2SiO5 polymorphs. Rev. Miner. 22, p. 406. 3. Kozakov, I.K., 1986. Precambrian infrastructure complexes of Mongolia [in Russian]. Nauka, Leningrad. 4. Pattison, D.R.M., 1992. Stability of andalusite and sillimanite and the Al2SiO5 triple point: constraints from the Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. J. Geol. 100, 423-446.

Sukhorukov, Vasiliy

2010-05-01

77

Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

78

The Southern Supercluster  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Supercluster is described using data compiled from five catalogs, reduced to a homogeneous system following RC2. In terms of mass, luminosity, and mass-to-light ratio, the Southern Supercluster compares well with the Coma and Hercules superclusters, but is less massive than the Local Supercluster. It is shown that, even though the Southern Supercluster is the nearest supercluster to the Local Supercluster, it is well separated from the Local Supercluster. However, there is evidence of a tenuous stream of galaxies connecting the Southern Supercluster with the Perseus Supercluster. 30 refs.

Mitra, Shyamal (Texas Univ., Austin (USA))

1989-10-01

79

Uranium in saline lakes of Northwestern Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of major- and trace-element compositions of water in hypersaline soda closed basin lakes of Northwestern Mongolia and Chuya basin (Gorny Altai) shows high enrichment in 238U (up to 1 mg/l). Proceeding from new data, uranium accumulation in water has been attributed to (i) location of the lakes and their watersheds in potential provinces of U-bearing rocks and (ii) uranium complexing with carbonate in presence of carbonate (bicarbonate) anions. Among the explored hypersaline soda lakes of the area, the greatest uranium resources are stored in Lake Hyargas Nuur (about 6000 ton).

Isupov, V. P.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Lyakhov, N. Z.; Shvartsev, S. L.; Ariunbileg, S.; Kolpakova, M. N.; Shatskaya, S. S.; Chupakhina, L. E.; Kuibida, L. V.; Moroz, E. N.

2011-03-01

80

Southern Changes Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From 1978 to 2003, the Atlanta-based Southern Regional Council published "Southern Changes," a journal featuring social research, cultural analysis, reportage, interviews, and commentary. Recently, the Southern Regional Council teamed up with the Beck Center for Electronic Collections at Emory University to digitize the complete run of the journal. The journal covered topics such as desegregation, racial equality, housing issues, and a myriad of other issues. Visitors can browse the collection by issue date or keyword search the entire archive. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the issues from 1999, as there is interesting coverage of the national health care movement, the upcoming Census, and public schools.

81

Palaeoclimate: A southern misfit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature reconstructions of the past millennium rely heavily on Northern Hemisphere data. Now a Southern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction is available and sheds light on the complexity of the interhemispheric temperature relationship.

Cobb, Kim M.

2014-05-01

82

Southern hemisphere observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

Orchiston, Wayne

83

Southern Kyushu, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This dramatic infrared view of Southern Kyushu, Japan (31.5N, 130.5E) shows the vegetation on the island as a red or pink, depending upon its lushness. The small islands of Yaku Jima and Tanega Shima are almost totally cloud covered. The port city of Kagoshima with its active volcano, Sakura Jimai in the middle of the harbor, is at the extreme southern tip of Kyushu. This volcano has erupted almost continuously for over 1,200 years.

1989-01-01

84

Multilingualism in Southern Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

1997-01-01

85

SOUTHERN CONE RUST  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE PATHOGEN AND ITS LIFE CYCLE. Southern cone rust is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust fungus Cronartium strobilinum (Arth.) Hedgc. & Hahn (formerly, Caeoma strobilina Arth.) (1,5). pycnial and aecial spore stages are produced on infected cones of susceptible pines while the uredial and telial stages are produced on the leaves of evergreen oaks which serve as alternate hosts;

E. L. Barnard; J. T. Englishl

86

Southern Foodways Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Residents of the American South love food and various culinary delights, and have performed Epicurean wonders with everything from okra all the way to the legendary barbecue pits that can be found along just about every highway and byway in the region. Working with the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi, the Southern Foodways Alliance is dedicated to preserving and cultivating the various food cultures of the American South. These programs include an ongoing oral history project, recipe books, a series of field trips, and the annual Keeper of the Flame award, which is given to a foodways tradition "bearer of note." The site's features section includes tributes to jambalaya, South Georgia cheese, and some fine essays on legendary BBQ locales. The oral history initiative area is truly a wonder, as visitors can browse through two sections, one devoted to barbecue, and the other to the foodways traditions of the Mississippi Delta region.

87

Accretion of southern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

Hillhouse, J. W.

1987-01-01

88

Brushfires in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of brushfires in Southern Africa, exact location unknown, raises questions concerning the overall global environmental effect of large scale biomass burning as an indicator of large scale conversion of tropical, closed canopy forests to pastoral and agricultural uses. Other concerns relate to the reduction of the biotic and genetic diversity in the global tropics and the relationship of biomass burning to atmospheric chemistries.

1990-01-01

89

Southern Bahian moist forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moist forests of southern Bahia, although occupying less than 10% of the original cover, represent one of the last strongholds\\u000a of lowland forest in eastern Brazil. Friedrich Sellow (1815) and K. F. P. von Martius (1818) were the first botanists to make\\u000a significant collections in the region, a tradition which has been intensified by the efforts of the staff

Scott A. Mori; Brian M. Boom; André M. de Carvalho; Talmón S. dos Santos

1983-01-01

90

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

1999-01-01

91

Smoke in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences

2002-01-01

92

Southern tip of Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Between the Arctic Ocean to the North and the Atlantic to the South, the island of Greenland remains covered in snow and ice throughout the year except for small portions of the coast line that thaw briefly in the summer. This true-color image from November 2, 2001, shows that even the southern tip of Greenland is back to winter, with even the rugged coastline snow-covered once again. About halfway up the western coastline, a phytoplankton bloom is occurring in the Davis Strait, coloring the water blue-green.

2002-01-01

93

Southern Sky Redshift Survey  

SciTech Connect

The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

1988-04-01

94

Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

O'Meara, Stephen James

2013-05-01

95

Plant Disease Lesson: Southern blight, Southern stem blight, White mold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on southern blight, Southern stem blight, white mold (caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Jackie Mullen (Auburn University;)

2001-01-04

96

Astrophysics in Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

Whitelock, Patricia

2008-03-01

97

The Southern Coalsack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Coalsack is the most prominent, isolated dark cloud in the southern Milky Way. It is situated on the Galactic equator at l=303° and has a diameter of about 6°. The visual extinction over the cloud varies by between 1 and 3 magnitudes but can be much higher in small condensations and globules. From photometric studies the distance to the Coalsack has been estimated to ˜ 150 pc. A CO (1-0) survey of the whole cloud showed that it is very fragmented, consisting of clumps and filaments, and the total mass is estimated to ˜ 3500 M_{sun}. A cloud of this size and mass would be expected to contain young stars, but so far none has been found, although searches have been made for T Tauri stars, flare stars, HH objects, and IRAS point sources with color-color characteristics of young stars. The Coalsack may not be forming stars because it contains an unusually small amount of dense gas compared to typical star-forming clouds, as indicated by a ^{13}CO survey, or it is a young molecular cloud complex, implied by the fact that the densest globule is not centrally condensed, which is normally the case for globules and star-forming cores.

Nyman, L.-Å.

2008-12-01

98

Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that

B. P. V. Hunt; E. A. Pakhomov; G. W. Hosie; V. Siegel; P. Ward; K. Bernard

2008-01-01

99

Guns, Southernness, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

1993-01-01

100

New Zealand's Southern Alps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National Park, which occupies the far southwest of the island, is largely under cloud.

Prominent along the east coast are the Canterbury Plains, approximately 180 kilometers long and extending inland from the coast to the foothills of the Southern Alps. This is the largest area of flatland in New Zealand, and a rich agricultural region renowned for its wheat, wool, and livestock. Here the distance between the east and west coasts is little more than 150 kilometers.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

101

Mercury's Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Southern Hemisphere

The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet.

The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission.

The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

2001-01-01

102

Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

103

The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment  

SciTech Connect

Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA); Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA (USA); California Univ., Los Angeles (USA); CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping (Australia); Sydney Univ. (Australia); Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank (England))

1989-07-01

104

European Southern Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.

105

Snowfall in Southern Appalachia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The snowstorm which swept across the eastern United States on December 4 and 5 also brought the season's first snow to parts of the south and southern Appalachia. The extent of snow cover over central Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina and Virginia are apparent in this view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). This natural-color image was captured by MISR's downward-looking (nadir) camera on December 7, 2002.

The Appalachians are bounded by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher elevation areas retain the green and reddish-brown hues of autumn, and many rivers and lakes appear blue and unfrozen. The highest peak in the eastern United States, Mount Mitchell, is found in North Carolina's western tip, near the Great Smoky Mountains (the dark-colored range at lower right).

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 15805. The image covers an area of 347 kilometers x 279 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 60 to 62 within World Reference System-2 path 19.

2002-01-01

106

Southern Bald Eagles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

1992-01-01

107

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

108

Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative website is from the School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences at Auburn University. On the site, users will find articles detailing everything from seedlings, weed control, transplanting to name only a few. The site also has a number depth breakdown of nursery management related tasks in terms of time and cost. This site is an excellent resource for nursery management in general and with specifics as related to the Southern forest region of the United States.

2006-12-23

109

Tectospheric structure beneath southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

P-wave and S-wave delay times from the broad- band data of the southern Africa seismic experiment have been inverted to obtain three-dimensional images of velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath southern Africa. High velocity mantle roots appear to extend to depths of at least 250 km, and locally to depths of 300 km beneath the Kaap- vaal and Zimbabwe cratons.

D. E. James; M. J. Fouch; J. C. VanDecar; S. van der Lee

2001-01-01

110

Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

1985-01-01

111

Central and southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

McGrew, H.J.

1981-10-01

112

Glacier Area and River Runoff Changes in the Head of Ob River Basins During the Last 50 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai mountains in Siberia define southern periphery of the Asian Arctic Basin, and the Ob River is a major Siberian river fed by fresh water from Altai glaciers. Intensification of glacier melt in the head of Ob River since the middle of 20th century may have a considerable influence on the water resources and hydrological regime of Siberian rivers,

A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin; J. K. Narojniy

2006-01-01

113

DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

114

Southern Africa-A Climatological Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a climatological study of Southern Africa, a region that comprises The Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Madagascar and the southern parts of Mozambique, Angola, Zaire, and Zambia. After describing t...

K. M. Traxler R. D. Arnold J. W. Louer M. T. Gilford J. L. Harding

1994-01-01

115

27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9...feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly...along the Southern Pacific Railway line to the rail...

2013-04-01

116

Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course o...

P. A. Newman E. R. Nash

2003-01-01

117

Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey: Southern Saskatchewan, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2006 Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey of Southern Saskatchewan was conducted 5-25 May and was consistent in design and coverage to previous surveys. Wetland and upland habitat conditions were variable across Southern Saskatchewan durin...

2006-01-01

118

Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey: Southern Saskatchewan, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2005 Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey of Southern Saskatchewan was conducted 5-31 May and was consistent in design and coverage to previous years surveys. Wetland and upland habitat conditions were variable across Southern Saskatchewan...

2005-01-01

119

RESOURCES FOR SOUTHERN MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INFORMATION ABOUT LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT TRAINING RESOURCES, IN 15 SOUTHERN STATES, WAS ANALYZED TO DETERMINE PROGRAMS WHICH WOULD EFFECTIVELY INCREASE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES. SOCIAL SCIENTISTS (1) TALKED WITH MORE THAN 360 STAFF MEMBERS IN 58 SCHOOLS, (2) CONTACTED FEDERAL, STATE, LABOR, AND PRIVATE…

BRINKER, PAUL; RUSSELL, WENDELL H.

120

NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

121

Polynyas in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of large regions of open ocean in the pack ice near Antarctica called polynyas is discussed. The role of the meridional circulation pattern of the Southern Ocean, of buoyancy, and of wind in the formation of polynyas is shown. The different characteristics and causes of coastal and open-ocean polynyas are pointed out.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Comiso, Josefino C.

1988-01-01

122

Southern California Aviation System Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of three covering a two-year study of Southern California's 1995 air travel needs. Existing and planned air-carrier airports (Los Angeles International, Ontario, Burbank, John Wayne/Orange County, Long Beach, Palmdale, and Palm Springs)...

L. H. Goldman J. T. Merwin L. D. Murphy W. E. Gillfillan

1980-01-01

123

Petroleum geology of Southern Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface relations of the Albian rocks in Southern Iraq are postulated from the study of lithofacies, electrical well logs, petroleum occurrences, geothermal source rocks maturation, and hydrogeologic mapping. From these studies an evaluation of the commercial potential for oil in the Nahr Umr Formation became feasible. It appears that a petroliferous belt exists in the marine-marginal facies of the lower

1983-01-01

124

Petroleum geology of southern Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface relations of the Albian rocks in southern Iraq are postulated from the study of lithofacies, electrical well logs, petroleum occurrences, geothermal source rocks maturation, and hydrogeologic mapping. From these studies an evaluation of the commercial potential for oil in the Nahr Umr Formation became feasible. It appears that a petroliferous belt exists in the marine-marginal facies of the lower

1983-01-01

125

Typhoon preparedness in southern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although typhoons have not occurred frequently in Southern Vietnam, they caused huge damage for this region. Their effects are on human deaths, injuries, and infrastructure caused by cyclonic winds, storm surges and heavy rains. In this thesis the likely reasons for this damage are explored and the extent to which these hazards could have been prevented by comparing the typhoon

T. H. Vo

2009-01-01

126

New atlas focuses on Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maps, graphs, and computer-generated contour distributions based on physical and chemical data for the southern ocean are presented in Southern Ocean Atlas, a new publication by Columbia University Press. The atlas organizes the wealth of scientific information on the southern ocean that has been gathered by direct hydrographic observations, primarily under the circumpolar survey conducted by the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory

null Anonumous

1982-01-01

127

Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires. The haze aerosols sampled were more heat-absorbing than expected, which means the haze layer may have a significant warming influence on the region's atmosphere. For more information, see the press release Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Visualization Studio

2002-01-01

128

Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and Synthesis of Southern Ocean Natural Iron Fertilization; Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 27--29 June 2011; For many years a major paradox in ocean science was the existence of regions where the major nutrients are present in nonlimiting concentrations yet phytoplankton biomass is low. Pioneering experiments in the 1990s firmly established that the likely cause of this high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition is

Matt Charette; Richard Sanders; Meng Zhou

2011-01-01

129

Historic Earthquakes in Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a map of southern California with epicenters of earthquakes shown as circles of different sizes and colors. The size and color of each earthquake symbol corresponds to its magnitude, as indicated by a scale on the map. Clicking on an epicenter takes the user to a page of information about that earthquake. Earthquakes dating back to 1812 are shown. Also available on this page are links to fault maps, earthquake animations, and other indexes of seismological information.

2011-04-06

130

Geothermal resources of southern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150 C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications. A majority of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. The largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grang View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107 C and an energy of 4.5 x 10 to the 20th power joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system was found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures was not found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90 and 150 C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain.

Mabey, D.R.

1983-01-01

131

Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field campaigns such as Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A), Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Since those large international efforts, satellites have matured enough to enable quantifiable measurements of regional land surface, atmosphere, and ocean. In addition, global and chemical transport models have also been advanced to incorporate various data. Thus, the timing of the workshop was right for a full-fledged re-assessment of the chemistry, physics, and socio-economical impacts caused by pollution in the region, including a characterization of sources, deposition, and feedbacks with climate change.

Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

2011-01-01

132

Comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the seismotectonic deformation orientations for southern Siberia area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent geodynamics of southern Siberia is under influence of external and internal factors. First, fields of tension arise on borders of a large earth's plates during their interaction caused by lateral movement. Second, processes in the sublithospheric part of the upper mantle of the region. To study influence of these factors we carried out the comparison of various geophysical methods results, with taking into account available geological data on a faults structure of the region. The joint analysis included results of seismotomographic modeling, determinations of seismotectonic deformation (STD) principal axes orientation, and data of numerical thermogravitational modeling of upper mantle convection with considering influence on its structure of a local overheat under surrounding thick lithosphere blocks. The 3D model of seismic P-waves anomalies distribution in the upper mantle of southern Siberia and adjacent areas is updated by addition to calculations a new data from the ISC catalog. It is calculated by a technique developed during the previous researches (Koulakov, Bushenkova, 2010). Thickness estimates of a «seismic lithosphere» are made in the same way, as in work (Bushenkova, etc., 2008). The received estimates are used for specification of boundary conditions for a numerical thermogravitational modeling (Chervov, Chernykh, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, in press). A principal axes STD orientations are calculated on Riznichenko&Kostrov's method by data of focal mechanisms solution about 770 earthquakes with magnitude of 3.5 - 7.3 which have occurred in the crust of Altai-Sayan area from 1970 to 2007. We have executed a comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the principal axes STD orientations for the southern Siberia and adjacent territories. The following features were found. It is possible to observe a tendency to azimuthal change of the principal axes STD orientations along borders of positive and negative seismic velocity anomalies in the obtained seismotomographic model. We observe obvious correlation of the principal exes STD orientations distribution and convection flows distribution in the obtained numerical thermogravitational model of the upper mantle structure. Namely, orientations of an extension are mainly located along descending flow (in the plan), whereas orientations of a shortening - across them respectively. Further with approach to an ascending flow it is possible to observe a tendency to change of the direction of the STD orientations of an extension axes around its center, and on radii - directly over the center of this ascending flow. We consider that, due to stability of the observed tendencies, in other areas with similar block structure of a lithosphere, it will be possible to predict orientations of a principal axes seismotectonic deformations for the subsequent seismic events in similar regions. Work is performed with partial support of the RFBR #13-05-00054 and IP SB RAS #76.

Bushenkova, Natalia; Kuchay, Olga; Chervov, Victor

2014-05-01

133

Mollusk shells from burials of tuzovskiye bugry-1 As indicators of ethno-cultural processes In southern siberia and western central asia In the 3rd millennium bc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on adornments made of mollusk shells from graves of the Tuzovskiye Bugry-1 burial ground in the Altai Territory. The collection includes bivalve shells: Corbicula ferghanensis Kurs. et Star. currently inhabiting the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins; Corbicula tibetensis Prash. inhabiting the mountain regions of Central Asia, Eastern Kazakhstan, and the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins;

Yu. F. Kiryushin; K. Yu. Kiryushin; A. V. Schmidt; D. V. Kuzmenkin; M. T. Abdulganeyev

2011-01-01

134

Southern California Earthquake Data Center Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern California Eathquake Center features a variety of links to information on recent and historic earthquakes and faults, as well as seismological data from analog and digital stations and instruments. Materials include an interactive map of southern California showing recent earthquake activity (last hour, last day, last week), a searchable catalog of data on earthquakes from 1932-present, an interactive map of faults in southern California, and interactive map showing historic earthquakes for the region as far back as 1812.

2010-06-18

135

Rural migration in southern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

1993-08-01

136

Tectonic deformation in southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

Jackson, David D.

1993-01-01

137

Neogene paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change in southern temperate ecosystems — a southern perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a greatly increased number of macrofossil and pollen analytical records from Australasia and southern South America has permitted, for the first time, a comprehensive overview of past vegetation and climate change in southern temperate ecosystems. While the course of Neogene climatic change has been comparable to that of the temperate northern hemisphere, a distinctive southern hemisphere vegetation has evolved,

Vera Markgraf; Matt McGlone; Geoff Hope

1995-01-01

138

Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-year of data set from 1982 through 1998. We correlate the polar climate anomalies with the Southern...

R. Kwok J. C. Comiso

2001-01-01

139

Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-yr dataset from 1982 to 1998. The polar climate anomalies are correlated with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and the composites of these anomalies are examined under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 >

R. Kwok; J. C. Comiso

2002-01-01

140

Climate Projections for Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present regional climate projections for Southern Africa for 2036-2060 with a focus on the impacts in the Orange River basin. The scenario used was SRES A1B. With an area of almost 1 million km2 the Orange River is the largest river basin in Southern Africa. The basin spreads across four nations (South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia and Botswana), impacting the livelihood of about 19 million people. It plays a crucial role in the region's ecology and economy. The projections were obtained by a two-fold approach: we used a STatistical Analogue Re-sampling Scheme (STARS) and a dynamical regional climate model (CCLM - COSMO in CLimate Mode). As a first step we performed a cross-validation experiment for the years 1976-2000 in order to determine the viability of either method. CCLM which downscaled results from the global MPI-ECHAM5 model, showed good performance regarding the 2 m temperature, but the reproduction of precipitation was rather poor. STARS produced very good results for both of these variables. The climate projections of both models showed a considerable temperature increase, especially in the inland of the simulation area. However, while CCLM projected a general decrease in precipitation, STARS indicated a strong precipitation decrease in the already dry eastern part of the region and a precipitation increase in the west during the rainy season. The precipitation increase was even more pronounced during the dry season.

Lutz, J.; Gerstengarbe, F. W.; Volkholz, J.

2012-12-01

141

Airborne Particulates over Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This map shows the abundance of airborne particulates, or aerosols, over Southern Africa during the period August 14 - September 29, 2000. Low particle concentrations are shown in shades of blue, and high concentrations in shades of red. The results were generated from MISR imagery acquired over this time period, and processed using MISR's automated software system. The approach for deriving aerosol amount makes use of the variation of scene brightness and contrast as a function of observation angle. Black areas over the land area correspond to places where a result was not obtained, for example, due to the presence of clouds.

Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. Vegetation availability increases northward, hence the greater abundance of haze and smoke in Angola and southern Zaire. The lower aerosol abundance around Lesotho and southeastern South Africa is consistent with the higher terrain elevations near the Drakensberg Mountains.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

142

SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This is the second quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others.

Ashley D. Williamson

2001-04-01

143

Investing in Our Future: A Southern Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the role Southern philanthropy can play in addressing racism, poverty, and inequality by supporting education and workforce improvement. "Framing the Conversation" takes input from George Autry (MDC), William Bynum (Enterprise Corporation of the Delta), Lynn Walker Huntley (Southern Education Foundation), and Martin Lehfeldt…

Notes From the Field, 1998

1998-01-01

144

Stratigraphic Columns Across Southern Western Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website depicts stratigraphic columns of exposed rocks in southwestern regions of the United States. A general explanation of symbols used in the columns is provided for reference, and the columns indicate rock type, formation names and geologic time periods. The areas covered include the Grand Canyon, central and southern Arizona, southern Utah and Nevada, and western New Mexico and Colorado.

Blakey, Ronald

145

Southern Rural Access Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Rural Access Program, a grant program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in eight southern states, funds projects that nurture rural and disadvantaged students in health-care fields; build state, regional, or community capacity to recruit and retain rural health professionals; support rural health networks; and provide loans to…

Beachler, Michael; Holloman, Curtis; Herman, James

2003-01-01

146

Wave Climate of the Southern Baltic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wave climate of the southern Baltic is rather mild, with a mean energy flux of 5-6kW/m. A comparison is done between wave data from two measuring sites in the southern Baltic. The comparison shows that south of Oland, at Olands sodra grund (OSS), ther...

N. Martensson L. Bergdahl

1987-01-01

147

Introducing Southern Dialects to Children through Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the origins and characteristics of six southern dialects: (1) South Midland; (2) Florida Cracker; (3) Gullah; (4) Southern Black Dialect; (5) Acadian French; and (6) Cajun English. Suggests books representative of each that can be used to introduce these dialects to elementary children. (NH)

Cross, Kathy; Aldridge, Jerry

1989-01-01

148

Southern Maryland Heritage Area Plan, February 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Southern Maryland Heritage Area Plan is to develop a public and private partnership which recognizes the unique assets of Southern Maryland as a heritage area and creates a plan of action which will: (1) balance preservation, conservati...

1997-01-01

149

Aseismic uplift in Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary examination of the historic geodetic record has disclosed crustal uplift of 0.15 to 0.25 meter that apparently began around 1960 and has since grown to include at least 12,000 square kilometers of southern California. This uplift extends at least ISO kilometers west-northwestward along the San Andreas Fault from Cajon to Maricopa, southward from the San Andreas into the northern Transverse Ranges, and eastward from Lebec into and including much of the western Mojave block. It seems to have grown spasmodically eastward from a center near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults and has occurred largely within an area that has remained virtually aseismic since at least 1932. Although much of this area has been characterized by crustal mobility since at least the turn of the century, the described uplift seems to be an Uhusually large and probably unique event superimposed on the existing pattern of continuing deformation.

Castle, R. O.; Church, J. P.; Elliott, M. R.

1976-01-01

150

Trends in the Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The station data of monthly mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature as well as monthly mean upper air rawinsonde observations were used to study the trends in the southern winter (June, July and August) and summer (December, January and February). This study covers the period 1951 to 1981. Most of the surface data have continuous 31 year records, however, for some high latitude stations, both surface and upper air records started in 1957 or even later. The normalized anomaly for a given variable Z is defined as the departure from the 1951 to 1981 grand mean divided by the standard deviation during the same period. To eliminate the large fluctuations in the data, the 1-3-1 smoothing was applied to the time series of normalized anomalies. The trends of monthly mean temperatures and height from the surface to 200 mb level is documented.

Mo, K. C.; Vanloon, H.

1985-01-01

151

Discussing epigenetics in Southern California  

PubMed Central

With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu).

2012-01-01

152

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center, aims to reduce earthquake hazard by defining the locations of future earthquakes, calculating expected ground motions, and conveying this information to the general public. The SCECùs homepage contains access to research and data, including links to databases for strong motion and seismograms, and a searchable and sortable bibliographic database of publications. Also available are GPS data and a network of GPS stations. A link to the Earthquake Information Network provides a searchable list of up-to-date internet earthquakes resources. Note, in order to access the SCEC Publications Database, a username and password are required. Use your own name for the username, and enter -webview as the password. SCEC is a first rate resource for earthquake engineers.

153

A Southern African positron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first stage of a state of the art positron beam, being constructed at the University of Cape Town, is currently being brought into operation. This is the first positron beam on the African continent, as well as being the first positron beam dedicated to solid and surface studies in the southern hemisphere. The project also contains a high proportion of local development, including the encapsulated 22Na positron source developed by our collaboration. Novel features in the design include a purely magnetic in-line deflector, working in the solenoidal guiding field, to eliminate unmoderated positrons and block the direct line of sight to the source. A combined magnetic projector and single pole probe forming lens is being implemented in the second phase of construction to achieve a spot size of ˜ 10 ?m without remoderation.

Britton, D. T.; Härting, M.; Teemane, M. R. B.; Mills, S.; Nortier, F. M.; Van der Walt, T. N.

1997-05-01

154

Climatology of extreme winds in southern California  

SciTech Connect

A climatology of annual extreme winds in southern California has been prepared. The climatology includes a description of extreme wind regions, defined on the basis of observed winds and topography. Extreme wind distribution parameters have been estimated for 46 locations using data obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Probabilities associated with extreme winds have been estimated for these locations. The results of the analysis are generally consistent with previous estimates of extreme winds in southern California. Although in several instances the current estimates are significantly higher than previous estimates. The data examined do not indicate that there has been a significant change in the extreme wind climate of southern California.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Hubbe, J.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Holladay, C.G.

1987-01-01

155

Southern Hemisphere Polygonal Patterned Ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Earth, periglacial is a term that refers to regions and processes where cold climate contributes to the evolution of landforms and landscapes. Common in periglacial environments on Earth, such as the arctic of northern Canada,Siberia, and Alaska, is a phenomenon called patterned ground. The 'patterns' in patterned ground often take the form of large polygons, each bounded by either troughs or ridges made up of rock particles different in size from those seen in the interior of the polygon. On Earth, many polygons in periglacial environments are directly linked to water: they typically form from stresses induced by repeated freezing and thawing of water, contraction from stress induced by changing temperatures, and sorting of rocks brought to the surface along polygon boundaries by the freeze-thaw processes. Although not exclusively formed by freezing and thawing of water, that is often the dominant mechanism on Earth.

Polygons similar to those found in Earth's arctic and antarctic regions are also found in the polar regions of Mars. Typically, they occur on crater floors, or on intercrater plains, between about 60o and 80o latitude. The polygons are best seen when bright frost or dark sand has been trapped in the troughs that form the polygon boundaries. Three examples of martian polygons seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are shown here. Each is located in the southern hemisphere:(left) Polygon troughs highlighted by frost as the south polar cap retreats during spring. The circular features are the locations of buried craters that were originally formed by meteor impact. This image, E09-00029, is located at 75.1oS, 331.3oW, and was acquired on 1 October 2001.(center) Summertime view of polygons, highlighted by dark, windblown sand, on the floor of a crater at 71.2oS, 282.6oW. The image, E12-02319, was obtained on 21January 2002.(right) Polygon troughs highlighted by the retreating south polar frost cap during southern summer near 80.7oS, 70.4oW. This picture, M11-01795, was taken by MOC on 13 January 2000.Some Mars researchers assume that polygons on the Red Planet are key indictors that ground ice is present or was present in the recent past. However, whether these polygons actually required water ice to form is, in fact, unknown, since dry processes are also known on Earth for form similar polygons.

2002-01-01

156

Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

2009-01-01

157

Southern Hemisphere meteor stream determinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteor orbits have been deduced from radio observations of meteor trails carried out at Adelaide, Australia, using a combined multistation CW and pulse radar system operating at 27 MHz. The orbits of 1667 meteors have been determined down to a limiting radio magnitude of +8. The data have been systematically searched for stream meteors, and the significance of minor associations has been appraised. Altogether, 40.4% of the orbits were found to be associated with at least one other orbit, and 29.8% with two or more. Numerous minor streams with high inclination and low eccentricity have been found at deep southern declinations from December to March, with little activity in this quarter during June and October. In addition to confirming several previously established cometary associations, a comprehensive search has indicated that 34 of the meteor associations may be related to 17 comets. Associations between several long-period comets and low-eccentricity high-inclination streams appear to be indisputable, and they confirm the origin of at least some of the 'toroidal group' meteors.

Gartrell, G.; Elford, W. G.

1975-01-01

158

Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A morphology of riometer auroral absorption is derived from hourly values, determined at several Southern Hemisphere stations, located both near the centre of the auroral absorption zone and at higher and lower latitude fringes of the zone. Since spatial ...

A. J. Foppiano

2006-01-01

159

Employment Pattern of Southern University Graduates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The broad objective of the study was to ascertain factual data concerning the employment pattern of Southern University 1964 graduates. More specifically, the objectives of this study were: (1) To determine the family characteristics of the graduates, (2)...

F. C. Temple T. T. Williams

1966-01-01

160

Control of Overloading in Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes a description of the principles and conditions of an efficient overload control system and a review of the present systems applied in the 9 Southern Africa Transport and Communications Commission (SATCC) countries. Recommendations aime...

J. Filseth

1987-01-01

161

East and Southern Africa English Accents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses English pronunciation features in the anglophone countries of East and Southern Africa. Focus is on restructuring of the STRUT vowel to /a/,/i/, and /e/ epenthesis, and short tone groups.(Author/VWL)

Bobda, Augustin Simo

2001-01-01

162

Propagation characteristics of thunderstorms in southern Germany.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The propagation of thunderstorms in southern Germany was investigated. The thunderstorms were observed by a lightning position system during the summer months of the years 1992 to 1996. On average every second day thunderstorms were observed anywhere in s...

M. Hagen B. Bartenschlager U. Finke

1998-01-01

163

Acid rain: Impact on Southern industries  

SciTech Connect

These papers deal with the urgent problem of acid rain. Of particular interest to the conference was the impact on Southern industries. Papers deal with control technology, government policies, and industrial concerns.

Not Available

1986-01-01

164

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Southern Kingfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop marine and estuarine habitat models for Southern Kingfish (Menticirrhus americanus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 ...

W. B. Sikora J. P. Sikora

1982-01-01

165

Pfalz-Southern Hessen Climatological Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pamphlet provides both meteorologists and operations personnel a ready climatological and planning reference for the Pfalz-Southern Hessen area. Charts show average monthly frequencies and limits of weather phenomena computed from observations taken o...

W. Laun

1974-01-01

166

Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (MESDA) website, southern antiques were ignored and dismissed by collectors and scholars in the first half of the 20th century. However, in 1965, a museum dedicated to "the preservation, scholarship, and connoisseurship of southern decorative arts and material culture" opened in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, curated by a pioneering mother and son. Visitors should definitely check out the Exhibits and Collections links for high quality photos of many of the museum's holdings, as well as brief descriptions of the pieces, including the craftsperson and materials. Some pieces also include a map showing the region of the state where the piece was made. Current and past exhibits include "Our Spirited Ancestors: The Decorative Art of Drink," "Southern Silver: Style and Substance." and "'The Neatest Pieces of Any Description': Furniture Pieces of Piedmont, North Carolina."

2012-03-02

167

STAND DENSITY MANAGEMENT OF SOUTHERN BOTTOMLAND HARDWOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present tools to guide stand density management of southern bottomiand hardwoods and we provide guidance in their implementation. We present stocking guides for southern bottomland hardwoods and variants for associated forest types, water tupelo (N~~ssa aquarica L.) and sweetgum (Liquidumbar sryrucifzua L.). The A-line represents 100% stocking, and can be used to identify stands that will benefit from thinning.

J. C. G. Goelz; J. S. Meadows

168

Archean sedimentation and tectonics in southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also assessed was whether there was evidence for a significant component of shallow-water-deposited sedimentary rocks in the parent materials of the Limpopo belt. The nature of a largehigh strain zone on the southern margin of the central Limpopo belt was examined.

Kidd, W. S. F.

1984-01-01

169

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

170

Meteor showers of the southern hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of an exhaustive meteor shower search in the southern hemisphere. The underlying data set is a subset of the IMO Video Meteor Database comprising 50,000 single station meteors obtained by three Australian cameras between 2001 and 2012. The detection technique was similar to previous single station analysis. In the data set we find 4 major and 6 minor northern hemisphere meteor showers, and 12 segments of the Antihelion source (including the Northern and Southern Taurids and six streams from the MDC working list). We present details for 14 southern hemisphere showers plus the Centaurid and Puppid-Velid complex, with the ? Aquariids and the Southern ? Aquariids being the strongest southern showers. Two of the showers (?^2 Sagittariids and ? Cetids) were previously unknown and have received preliminary designations by the MDC. Overall we find that the fraction of southern meteor showers south of -30deg declination (roughly 25%) is clearly smaller than the fraction of northern meteor showers north of +30deg declination (more than 50%) obtained in our previous analysis.

Molau, Sirko; Kerr, Steve

2014-04-01

171

The Southern Ocean: Source and sink?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.

Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.

2011-03-01

172

Unusual Southern Hemisphere tree growth patterns induced by changes in the Southern Annular Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent changes in the summer climate of the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics are primarily related to the dominance of the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode. This shift in the behaviour of the Southern Annular Mode--essentially a measure of the pressure gradient between Southern Hemisphere mid and high latitudes--has been predominantly induced by polar stratospheric ozone depletion. The concomitant southward expansion of the dry subtropical belts could have consequences for forest growth. Here, we use tree-ring records from over 3,000 trees in South America, Tasmania and New Zealand to identify dominant patterns of tree growth in recent centuries. We show that the foremost patterns of growth between 1950 and 2000 differed significantly from those in the previous 250 years. Specifically, growth was higher than the long-term average in the subalpine forests of Tasmania and New Zealand, but lower in the dry-mesic forests of Patagonia. We further demonstrate that variations in the Southern Annular Mode can explain 12-48% of the tree growth anomalies in the latter half of the twentieth century. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of summer Southern Annular Mode indices suggest that the high frequency of the positive phase since the 1950s is unprecedented in the past 600 years. We propose that changes in the Southern Annular Mode have significantly altered tree growth patterns in the Southern Hemisphere.

Villalba, Ricardo; Lara, Antonio; Masiokas, Mariano H.; Urrutia, Rocío; Luckman, Brian H.; Marshall, Gareth J.; Mundo, Ignacio A.; Christie, Duncan A.; Cook, Edward R.; Neukom, Raphael; Allen, Kathryn; Fenwick, Pavla; Boninsegna, José A.; Srur, Ana M.; Morales, Mariano S.; Araneo, Diego; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Cuq, Emilio; Aravena, Juan C.; Holz, Andrés; Lequesne, Carlos

2012-11-01

173

Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

174

A kinematic model of southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A kinematic model for southern California, based on late-Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region, is proposed. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. Relative to North America, most of California west of the San Andreas fault is moving parallel to the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges and not parallel to the motion of the Pacific plate. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths in southern California that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion, implying the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California.

Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.

1986-01-01

175

Adjoint tomography of the southern California crust.  

PubMed

Using an inversion strategy based on adjoint methods, we developed a three-dimensional seismological model of the southern California crust. The resulting model involved 16 tomographic iterations, which required 6800 wavefield simulations and a total of 0.8 million central processing unit hours. The new crustal model reveals strong heterogeneity, including local changes of +/-30% with respect to the initial three-dimensional model provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The model illuminates shallow features such as sedimentary basins and compositional contrasts across faults. It also reveals crustal features at depth that aid in the tectonic reconstruction of southern California, such as subduction-captured oceanic crustal fragments. The new model enables more realistic and accurate assessments of seismic hazard. PMID:19696349

Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Maggi, Alessia; Tromp, Jeroen

2009-08-21

176

Crustal deformation measured in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies at the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) are suggesting that postseismic deformation is significant and long lasting. This seems the case, at least, in a region whose dimension is comparable to the fault rupture length. Researchers at SCEC found strong spatial correlation between the high strain rates and the past large earthquakes at the epicentral areas of the 1952 Kern County, 1971 Imperial, and 1992 Landers earthquakes.Southern California spans a plate boundary composed of hundreds of faults, major and minor, over a region hundreds of km wide. Measuring the crustal deformation field across this broad and complex plate boundary poses a great challenge. The Crustal Deformation Working Group of the SCEC orchestrated a major effort to provide, for the first time, a unified geodetic crustal deformation field covering southern California.

Shen, Zheng-kang; Dong, Danan; Herring, Thomas; Hudnut, Kenneth; Jackson, David; King, Robert; McClusky, Simon; Sung, Li-yu

177

A Naturalist's Tour of Southern Lake Michigan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the sorts of places you would least expect it, author Joel Greenberg reveals an abundance of life and bio-diversity in his A Naturalist's Tour of Southern Lake Michigan. Highlighting areas around the rim of southern Lake Michigan, Greenberg's work discusses some state parks and other nature preserves. Serving as a guide, he signals to his readers small outcroppings of nature that have survived and endured, in spite of civilization. Fox example, Mr. Greenberg calls attention to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and State Park. A wet, grassy plain full of plantlife, the park sits north of the industrial southern tip of Lake Michigan, exactly where one might have failed to look for a park that, with the exceptions of the Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains, has more types of plants than any other national park.

Greenberg, Joel (Joel R.).

2002-01-01

178

The Southern Kalahari: a potential new dust source in the Southern Hemisphere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the Northern Hemisphere. The lower dust emissions in the Southern Hemisphere in part limit the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity. Climate and land use change can alter the current distribution of dust source regions on Earth. Can new dust sources be activated in the Southern Hemisphere? Here we show that vegetation loss and dune remobilization in the Southern Kalahari can promote dust emissions comparable to those observed from major contemporary dust sources in the Southern African region. Dust generation experiments support the hypothesis that, in the Southern Kalahari, aeolian deposits that are currently mostly stabilized by savanna vegetation are capable of emitting substantial amounts of dust from interdune areas. We show that dust from these areas is relatively rich in soluble iron, an important micronutrient for ocean productivity. Trajectory analyses show that dust from the Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean and could therefore enhance its productivity.

Bhattachan, Abinash; D'Odorico, Paolo; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Cassar, Nicolas

2012-06-01

179

Global Climate Change: The Southern Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica, is a key region in determining global climate. This video lecture presents data revealing that the Southern Ocean is undergoing an alarming warming trend that may affect climates in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. What does the Antarctic region tell us about our future? Is Antarctica especially sensitive, so that now it serves as an early warning system for catastrophic change? The speaker questions the belief that human input is local not global. The video is 9 minutes in length.

Gille, Sarah

180

A new fault lineament in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows a 50-mile wide tectonic zone across Southern California oriented about 15 deg to the structures of the Transverse Ranges or with an azimuth of 70 deg. The zone is delineated on the imagery by terrian alignments and vegetational differences. A previously undisclosed tectonic lineament extends across the Mojave Desert and appears as a line of crustal upwarping. Pressure which would have caused this plus the occurrence of many thrust faults with the 70 deg azimuth indicate this to be a zone of crustal compression. Recent earthquake epicenters appear to be related to this compression zone rather than the traditional fault network of Southern California.

Pease, R. W.; Johnson, C. W.

1973-01-01

181

Vendian reference section of southern Middle Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological, chemo-, and biostratigraphic data indicate that the Vendian section of the Ura uplift is the most complete one in southern Middle Siberia and contains analogs of main units of the Vendian stratotype. This section is well known having been investigated by several generations of geologists, well exposed, and easily accessible; therefore, it is proposed to serve as a regional reference section for Vendian deposits of the entire southern Middle Siberia. Its description is accompanied by presentation of new biostratigraphic and radioisotopic data. The section is correlated with other Vendian sections of the Baikal-Patom and some other world regions.

Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Sergeev, V. N.

2013-07-01

182

Physical Oceanography and Tracer Chemistry of the Southern Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers technical and scientific developments and research questions in studies of the Southern Ocean since its predecessor, 'Southern Ocean Dynamics--A Strategy for Scientific Exploration 1973-1983' was published. The summary lists key rese...

1988-01-01

183

3. EAST SIDE SHOWING RECREATION PATIO ADDITION AT SOUTHERN END. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EAST SIDE SHOWING RECREATION PATIO ADDITION AT SOUTHERN END. TWO-STORY PORTION AT SOUTHERN END CONTAINS 'RIGGING LOFT.' - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

184

Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away  

NSF Publications Database

... of this News Tip: Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away Ocean Drilling Program ... Technology Research Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away The blue crab harvest needs ...

185

New species of Ruellia (Acanthaceae) from southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species ofRuellia,R. epallocaulos from northeastern Argentina, southern Brazil, and eastern Paraguay, andR. kleinii from southern Brazil, are described, illustrated and compared to related species.

Cecilia Ezcurra; Dieter C. Wasshausen

1992-01-01

186

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

187

Overview of southeast corner of Southern Pacific Railroad Depot and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of southeast corner of Southern Pacific Railroad Depot and American Railway Express Building from front parking lot, facing northeast - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

188

Overview of Southern Pacific Railroad American Railway Express Building from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of Southern Pacific Railroad American Railway Express Building from southeast side of Fifth Street, facing northwest - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

189

OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

190

Roses in the Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two best known satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, are located in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years. They host many giant nebular complexes with very hot and luminous stars whose intense ultraviolet radiation causes the surrounding interstellar gas to glow. The intricate and colourful nebulae are produced by ionised gas [1] that shines as electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei recombine, emitting a cascade of photons at well defined wavelengths. Such nebulae are called "H II regions", signifying ionised hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen atoms that have lost one electron (protons). Their spectra are characterized by emission lines whose relative intensities carry useful information about the composition of the emitting gas, its temperature, as well as the mechanisms that cause the ionisation. Since the wavelengths of these spectral lines correspond to different colours, these alone are already very informative about the physical conditions of the gas. N44 [2] in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a spectacular example of such a giant H II region. Having observed it in 1999 (see ESO PR Photos 26a-d/99), a team of European astronomers [3] again used the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, pointing this 67-million pixel digital camera to the same sky region in order to provide another striking - and scientifically extremely rich - image of this complex of nebulae. With a size of roughly 1,000 light-years, the peculiar shape of N44 clearly outlines a ring that includes a bright stellar association of about 40 very luminous and bluish stars. These stars are the origin of powerful "stellar winds" that blow away the surrounding gas, piling it up and creating gigantic interstellar bubbles. Such massive stars end their lives as exploding supernovae that expel their outer layers at high speeds, typically about 10,000 km/sec. It is quite likely that some supernovae have already exploded in N44 during the past few million years, thereby "sweeping" away the surrounding gas. Smaller bubbles, filaments, bright knots, and other structures in the gas together testify to the extremely complex structures in this region, kept in continuous motion by the fast outflows from the most massive stars in the area. The new WFI image of N44 The colours reproduced in the new image of N44, shown in PR Photo 31a/03 (with smaller fields in more detail in PR Photos 31b-e/03) sample three strong spectral emission lines. The blue colour is mainly contributed by emission from singly-ionised oxygen atoms (shining at the ultraviolet wavelength 372.7 nm), while the green colour comes from doubly-ionised oxygen atoms (wavelength 500.7 nm). The red colour is due to the H-alpha line of hydrogen (wavelength 656.2 nm), emitted when protons and electrons combine to form hydrogen atoms. The red colour therefore traces the extremely complex distribution of ionised hydrogen within the nebulae while the difference between the blue and the green colour indicates regions of different temperatures: the hotter the gas, the more doubly-ionised oxygen it contains and, hence, the greener the colour is. The composite photo produced in this way approximates the real colours of the nebula. Most of the region appears with a pinkish colour (a mixture of blue and red) since, under the normal temperature conditions that characterize most of this H II region, the red light emitted in the H-alpha line and the blue light emitted in the line of singly-ionised oxygen are more intense than that emitted in the line of the doubly-ionised oxygen (green). However, some regions stand out because of their distinctly greener shade and their high brightness. Each of these regions contains at least one extremely hot star with a temperature somewhere between 30,000 and 70,000 degrees. Its intense ultraviolet radiation heats the surrounding gas to a higher temperature, whereby more oxygen atoms are doubly ionised and the emission of green light is correspondingly stronger, cf. P

2003-11-01

191

Lower tropospheric transport over the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon and particle concentrations obtained at Macquarie Island, halfway between Australia and Antarctica, and on Tasmania's north-west coast at Cape Grim during 1987 are examined. Four-day trajectories based on 12 hourly analyses over the Australian region are used to explore the transport of continental material across the Southern Ocean. This study suggests that at least 25% of the variance of

A. Downey; J. D. Jasper; J. J. Gras; S. Whittlestone

1990-01-01

192

Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major…

Brown, Frank

2004-01-01

193

Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.  

PubMed

After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2014-02-01

194

Library Staff Needs in Southern Appalachian Schools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a shortage of trained personnel to man school media centers in the Southern Appalachian Region. In order to prepare a detailed plan to alleviate this shortage, there was an urgency to study the needs of the region for professional librarians and ...

J. B. Ayers

1972-01-01

195

Streamlined Strategies to Better Visualize Southern Blotting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.

Dean, Derek M.

2012-01-01

196

Primary production in Southern Ocean waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean forms a link between major ocean basins, is the site of deep and intermediate water ventilation, and is one of the few areas where macronutrients are underutilized by phytoplankton. Paradoxically, prior estimates of annual primary production are insufficient to support the Antarctic food web. Here we present results from a primary production algorithm based upon monthly climatological

Kevin R. Arrigo; Denise Worthen; Anthony Schnell; Michael P. Lizotte

1998-01-01

197

Inorganic carbon uptake by Southern Ocean phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of laboratory and field studies examining inorganic carbon (Ci) utilization by Southern Ocean phytoplankton. Both in monospecific laboratory cultures of diatoms and Phaeocystis antarctica and in natural assemblages in the Ross Sea, Ci uptake by phytoplankton was dominated by direct HCO { 3 transport. The contribution of HCO { 3 transport to total Ci uptake ranged

Philippe D. Tortell; Chris Payne; Celine Gueguen; Robert F. Strzepek; Philip W. Boyd; Bjorn Rost

2008-01-01

198

Intrahousehold Allocation of Food in Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of intrahousehold food allocation among rural families in Southern Ethiopia. Individual food sufficiency is measured by the total calorie intake of each individual divided by the Recommended Dietary Allowance of calories. This is divided by the household total of this variable to get the individual's share in household food resources.

Kimhi Ayal; Nathan Sosner

2000-01-01

199

Marine Traffic Data of Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data was recorded on the marine traffic and VHF-FM marine communications channel usage along the southern California coast during the period of 31 January 1977 to 13 March 1977. The marine traffic data was recorded by means of time-lapse photography of a ...

J. J. Cherny D. E. Watson R. A. Silva B. H. Charters G. A. Napert

1978-01-01

200

Rain Rate Statistics in Southern New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.

Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen

1997-01-01

201

Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate variability in the high latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) is dominated by the SH annular mode, a large scale pattern of variability characterized by fluctuations in the strength of the circumpolar vortex. We present evidence that recent trends in the SH tropospheric circulation can be interpreted as a bias towards the high index polarity of this pattern, with stronger westerly

David W. J. Thompson; Susan Solomon

2002-01-01

202

Southern Ocean: Its involvement in global change  

SciTech Connect

Southern Ocean is the site of considerable water mass formation which cools and ventilates the modern world ocean. At the polar front zone, formation of cool, low salinity water sinks and spreads northward at intermediate depths limiting the downward penetration of the thermocline. Within the seasonal sea ice zone and along the margins of Antarctica, convection injects very cold oxygenated water into the deep and bottom ocean. These conditions developed as Antarctica shifted into its present configuration and grew a persistent glacial ice sheet, about 14 million years ago. The potential of the Southern Ocean to ventilate the deep and bottom ocean layers is related to occurrence of polynyas that form within the winter sea ice cover. Global climate changes would be expected to alter the polynya size and frequency. Under greenhouse-induced warming offshore polynyas may become less common as the static stability of the Southern Ocean mixed layer increases. This would diminish the Southern Ocean's cooling influence on the deep layers of the world ocean, resulting in a warmer deep ocean. The fate of coastal polynyas is less clear.

Gordon, A.L.

1992-03-01

203

THINNING GUIDELINES FOR SOUTHERN BOTTOMLAND HARDWOOD FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinnings, improvement cuttings, and other partial cuttings in southern bottomland hardwood forests are generally designed to enhance the growth and development of those species favored for management objectives. Hardwood tree classes and stocking guides can be used as tools to aid in planning and conducting partial cuttings in hardwood forests. Two disadvantages associated with any partial cutting in hardwood stands

James S. Meadows

204

Electricity and Ethanol Options in Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A joint U.S. Trade and Development Program/A.I.D. team visited five southern African nations to identify potential project opportunities in electricity and ethanol development in the sugarcane industry. Major findings of the study include the following: I...

H. Steingass K. Wentzel M. Kappaz F. Schaffer R. Schwandt

1988-01-01

205

Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

2002-01-01

206

Desiccation tolerant vascular plants of southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought tolerance limits are given for 36 new ‘resurrection plants’, sufficient to double the number of desiccation tolerant plants reported from southern Africa. Tolerance limits for angiosperm examples are usually better than those for ferns. Air-dry foliage survives for 1\\/2 to 5 years or more, unless stored in humidities above 50% RHAbbreviation: RH = relative humidity. Dehydration is sufficiently slow

D. F. Gaff

1977-01-01

207

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AUTOMATED CATALOGING PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A CENTER FOR PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOGS FOR ORGANIZATIONS IN EIGHT COUNTIES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA WAS STUDIED. TO DETERMINE THE PROBLEMS AND COSTS INVOLVED, STANDARDS WERE DEVELOPED FOR INPUT OF MATERIAL THAT COULD BE USED IN A COMPUTER, PAGE LAYOUTS FOR A CATALOG WERE DESIGNED, A NUMBER OF CATALOGS…

MCMURRY, GLENN

208

Spatialized ecosystem indicators in the southern Benguela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on published distribution maps of 15 key fish species, foraging areas of three top predators during their breeding season, and fishing grounds of the main commercial fleets in the southern Benguela ecosystem, seven spatialized ecosystem indicators are derived: biodiversity, connectivity, mean ratio of fished area and area of distribution by species, exploited fraction of the ecosystem surface area, total

Pierre Freon; Laurent Drapeau; Jeremy H. M. David; A FERNANDEZMORENO; Rob W. Leslie; W. Herman Oosthuizen; Lynne J. Shannon; C VANDERLINGEN

2005-01-01

209

Broadband Seismic Studies In Southern Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are continuing efforts to develop 3-D velocity models for southern Asia through the collection and analysis of broadband waveform data acquired on the Indian subcontinent. The geology of India is diverse, but can be divided into three main regions: the...

J. F. Lewkowicz J. L. Bonner K. Priestley S. S. Rai V. K. Gaur

2001-01-01

210

Aerosols from 2003 Southern California Fires (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A devastating series of fires occurred in Southern California during October 2003. The effects of these fires were detectable from space. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument measures aerosol particles (microscopic airborne dust and smoke). TOMS was able to detect aerosols from these fires moving West over the Pacific Ocean and East over the continental United States.

Delabeaujardiere, Jeff; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2005-03-14

211

Island wakes in the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind- and current-induced island wakes were investigated using a multiplatform approach of in situ, remote sensing, and numerical model simulations for the Southern California Bight (SCB). Island wind wakes are a result of sheltering from the wind, with weak wind mixing, strong heat storage, and consequent high sea surface temperature (SST). Wind wakes around Santa Catalina Island are most persistent

R. M. A. Caldeira; P. Marchesiello; N. P. Nezlin; P. M. DiGiacomo; J. C. McWilliams

2005-01-01

212

Landforms and uplift history of southern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a review of previous ideas on the morphogenesis of southern Norway, a description of relief features is presented and a comparison with the suite of landforms occurring at the passive continental margin of eastern Australia is performed. Major landscape features such as high plateaux, a great escarpment, and a coastal plain are similar in the two areas. Glacial erosion

Karna Lidmar-Bergström; C. D Ollier; J. R Sulebak

2000-01-01

213

Higher Education Opportunities For Southern Negroes 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pamphlet contains a list of public and private programs that offer educational opportunities and financial support for low-income and minority group students, particularly Southern Negroes. Summer activities, designed to prepare students for college, include intensive study of several subjects, individual and group tutorial services,…

Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

214

Southern Reference Star Catalogue (Smith+ 1988)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positions are the combined results of observations of all participants in the Southern Reference Star (SRS) observing campaign from 1961 tO 1973. Preliminary catalogs were compiled at both the U.S. Naval Observatory (Washington) and the Pulkovo Observatory (Leningrad). The two compilations were compared, reconciled and combined to give the catalog described here. The proper motions have been culled from

C. A. Smith Jr.; E. S. Jackson; T. E. Corbin; J. A. Hughes; E. V. Khrutskaya; A. D. Polojentsev; D. D. Polojentsev; L. I. Yagudin; M. S. Zverev

1992-01-01

215

Cottage Grove Fault System in Southern Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cottage Grove Fault System is one of the major tectonic fault systems in southern Illinois. It extends from the Saline-Gallatin County line westward at least as far as Campbell Hill in Jackson County, a distance of about 70 miles. The zone of faulting...

W. J. Nelson H. F. Krausse H. M. Bristol

1981-01-01

216

The Soviet Union and Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memorandum considers Soviet policy toward the Southern African region as a whole. The author analyzes such issues as the objectives which the USSR seeks to achieve in the region; the instruments of policy which the Soviet Union employs; the degree of...

D. S. Papp

1980-01-01

217

United States Policy for Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Southern Africa is a region that is of major (not vital) interest to the United States. It is a region dominated by South Africa, possessing vast mineral resources and torn by armed conflict. This paper outlines a proposed US national security policy for ...

P. E. Stein

1986-01-01

218

REMAGNETIZED CRATONIC CAMBRIAN STRATA FROM SOUTHERN NEVADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic sections of Cambrian magnetic data from coeval strata in the geosyn- strata in southeastern Nevada are akin to thin, cline and on the craton. The Colorado Plateau cratonic facies exposed in the Grand Canyon; region has nearly 'layer cake' stratigraphy; in their structural setting is much more compli- contrast, the structure of southern Nevada is cated, however, from Mesozoic

Stephen L. Gillettl

1982-01-01

219

Teaching Gerontological Nursing in Southern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of associate degree and baccalaureate nursing programs in 15 southern states (n=211) determined the current status of gerontological nursing programs. Findings indicate that, although there are areas of improvement, the status of gerontological nursing education and practice in the undergraduate curriculum is not equal to that of other…

Brower, H. Terri; Yurchuck, E. Ruth

1993-01-01

220

ASPECTS OF COWBIRD PARASITISM IN SOUTHERN OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPECTS of the parasitic breedin, u habits of the Brown-headed Cowbird (IMoZothrus ater) have been documented extensively by Friedmann (1929)) Laskey (1950)) Berger (1951)) Norris (1947), and others. It was the purpose of this study to investigate some of the major aspects of such parasitism in the breeding avifauna of southern Oklahoma. Particular em- phasis was placed on observation of

JOHN A. WIENS

221

Southern Ute and Ute Mountain Tribes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Ute and Ute Mountain tribes have developed a joint vocational rehabilitation program that incorporates cultural values and traditions and uses traditional healers and elders as job coaches. Eleven reasons explain why the new program is succeeding where the previous state program did not. (SV)

Trujillo, Caren

1992-01-01

222

Optimum Mountain Catchment Management in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the application of concepts of systems analysis to mountain catchment management. Mountain catchments are defined as subsystems which have a specified minimum rate of runoff and are situated above a certain height above sea level. Mountain catchments, so defined, occupy 12% of Southern Africa but deliver 53% of the runoff. Certain systems techniques, such as goal

D. W. van der Zel

1981-01-01

223

List of Fauna Inhabiting the Sea Water of Southern Sakhalin and the Southern Kurile Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species collected by the Kurile-Sakhalin expedition during 1947-1949 are listed in taxonomical order. Their distribution over seven areas in Southern Sakhalin and Kurile regions is also pointed out.

G. U. Lindberg

1967-01-01

224

Southern Ocean mass variation studies using GRACE and satellite altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean is a major link between the world oceans via complicated processes associated with the melting and accumulation of the vast Antarctic ice sheets and the surrounding sea ice. The Southern Ocean sea level is poorly observed except from recent near-polar orbiting space geodetic satellites. In this study, the Southern Ocean mass variations at the seasonal scale are

C.-Y. Kuo; C. K. Shum; J. Guo; Y. Yi; A. Braun; I. Fukumori; K. Matsumoto; T. Sato; K. Shibuya

2008-01-01

225

Holocene Sedimentation History in the Southern Novaya Zemlya Trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that sediments accumulated in the Southern Novaya Zemlya Trench at both deglaciation and marine stages. Permanent sea ice sheet existed during the deglaciation, and glacier meltwater was intensely delivered to the bottom layer. Along with the dominant sediment supply from the Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya, southern continental sources also played a noticeable role at that stage.

M. A. Levitan; N. A. Belyaev; M. V. Burtman; J.-C. Duplessy; T. A. Khusid

2003-01-01

226

Tenacious Southern Progressives: Confounding Mencken's Myth of Mediocrity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the scholars…

Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine

227

Seismic and Eustatic cycles in the southern Apenine deformation front : Case example of Basilicate (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed tectonic analyses and geological mapping in muddy fold-belt front is a hard target. Using both fieldwork and GIS software associated to new soil datations of the different marine terrassic levels of the Tarento Gulf (Southern Italy) we were able to re-interprete from an active tectonic point of view the deformation front of southern Apenines. Furthermore by combining our data with the known eustatic curve of the mediteranean sea along the southern italian shore, we were able to decipher the landscape evolution of the southern Apenines deformation front and we are now able to differenciate the geomorphic signal of both active tectonic and eustatic processes and their related geomorphic features on the Tarento Gulf marine terrasses. Therefore the two passed seismic cycle of the Southern Apenine deformation front are revealed herein and appear to be coherent with both a regular intersismic linear creep period (time =240 ka/uplift=70m) and a rapid cosismic uplift (time :10Ka/uplift = 45m). This study give us new inputs to better understand the deformation front of Southern Apenine (Italy) which is of prime importance today in European Geoscience as well as italian "Protezione Civile Nazionale".

Deffontaines, Benoit; Fortunato, Gerardo; Magalhaes, Samuel

2013-04-01

228

Fires in Central and Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire scars and smoke plumes result from biomass burning in the savannas of southern Democratic Republic of Congo. Astronauts aboard the International Space Station observed the seasonal increase in savanna burning, which traditionally peaks in June in southern Democratic Republic of Congo. This image, taken on May 16, 2002, is centered near 8.6S, 27.4 E. These fires, likely the result of human activities, are thought to contribute significant emissions to the atmosphere (Cahoon, et al, 1992). The darker area in the foreground is a more heavily wooded hillside; most burning occurs in the grassier savannas which appear red-brown. Credits: Astronaut photograph ISS004-E-11958 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

229

Sharp View of Gullies in Southern Winter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

20 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.

2006-01-01

230

The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (www.sccoos.org) is one of 11 eleven regional associations developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the United States. IOOS is a recognized initiative identified in the U.S. Ocean Action Plan and is considered one of the U.S. contributions to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). At the local level, SCCOOS

E. Terrill; S. Peck; L. Hazard; R. E. Davis; P. M. DiGiacomo; B. H. Jones; C. Keen; M. Moline; J. Qrcutt; K. Stolzenbach; L. Washburn; H. Helling; J. Long; S. Magdziarz; M. Laughlin; J. Kasschau

2006-01-01

231

USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database contains publications in support of this group\\'s mission to create the science and technology needed to sustain and enhance southern forest ecosystems and the benefits they provide. The database can be searched by author, title, keyword, date range, and publication origin; publication number; and by the most recent publications added to the database. There are also online versions of Compass, a publication catalog of research products from scientists at SRS.

2007-02-17

232

Fires in Central and Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Across central and southern Africa, numerous fires (red dots) are burning throughout Democratic Republic of Congo (west of Lake Tanganyika), and Tanzania (east). Heavy smoke hangs over the northern half of the image, at least some of which is from the the eruption of Nyamuragira volcano on July 26, 2002. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on July 28, 2002. Credits: Image by Jesse Allen, based on data from the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

233

Arbuckle group depositional cycles, southern Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrop and\\/or subsurface core studies of Butterly Dolomite, Cool Creek, Kindblade, and West Spring Creek formations reveal most of the Arbuckle Group to have been deposited as a series of storm-dominated, shallowing-upward sequences. They were deposited upon an extremely broad, nearly flat carbonate ramp that formed the southern margin of the North American craton (Knox, Arbuckle, Ellenburger, and El Paso

R. F. Lindsay; K. M. Koskelin

1990-01-01

234

Adjoint Tomography of the Southern California Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adjoint tomography utilizes 3D simulations of seismic wave propagation in conjunction with a tomographic technique based on adjoint methods. We begin with an initial 3D model of shear and compressional wavespeeds for southern California provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC; model CVM-H), extending to a depth of 60~km. We use the spectral-element method to simulate 140 good-quality local earthquakes, each recorded by as many as 160 stations. We compute misfits between observed and synthetic seismograms by using a new automated time-window selection algorithm that picks any time window within which the data and 3D synthetics are reasonably similar (e.g., P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves). For each record with a measurement, we compute an adjoint source that is used to create an adjoint wavefield. The interaction between the adjoint wavefield and the regular wavefield forms the gradient of the misfit function for one event. These gradients are combined using a source subspace projection method to compute a model update. We present a seismic wavespeed model for the southern California crust and uppermost mantle. Over the course of 16 iterations, we have applied net changes in excess of ± 30% from the initial 3D model. With each iteration, the changes in wavespeeds have improved the data fit, and we are able to include additional seismograms whose fits to the data for previous model iterations were too poor for selection. The tomographic results compare well with surface geology, the most striking features being the low wavespeeds of the southern San Joaquin basin, the high wavespeeds beneath the western Transverse Ranges, the low wavespeeds in the Coast Ranges, the low wavespeeds in the eastern Mojave region, and the sharp contrast at the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada due to volcanism in the Coso Junction area. Several dramatic improvements of three-component seismic waveforms highlight the power of the iterative approach.

Tape, C.; Liu, Q.; Maggi, A.; Tromp, J.

2009-05-01

235

Climate and desertification in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term changes in the general circulation of the atmosphere, which may lead to prolonged periods of drought, are catalysts for producing accelerated desertification. In southern Africa the northeastward thrust of desertification from the western and central arid and semi-arid areas (the Karoo) has long been recognised, but up til 1970 research failed to demonstrate a clear-cut relationship between the process

P. D. Tyson

1981-01-01

236

ENDEMIC FLUOROSIS IN SOUTHERN RAJASTHAN, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Chronic fluoride intoxication in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was investigated in 21 villages of Banswara, Dungarpur, and Udaipur districts of southern Rajasthan, where fluoride (F) concentrations in drinking waters range from 1.5 to 4.0 ppm. Interestingly, a variable prevalence of fluorosis was observed in villages having almost the same F concentrations. At 1.5 ppm, 21.3, 25.6, and 38.9%

SL Choubisa

237

Cloud structure of Saturn's Southern Hemisphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a photometric study of Saturn's Southern Hemisphere based on the Hubble Space Telescope yearly campaigns in the 1990's. Calibrated images taken with the WFPC2 in a wide spectral coverage (218nm-1042nm) were used in order to constrain the properties and the temporal changes of the atmospheric particles and the optical depths of clouds and hazes in the stratosphere and

S. Pérez-Hoyos; A. Sánchez-Lavega; J. F. Rojas; J. R. Acarreta; R. G. French

2002-01-01

238

Land Degradation Management in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all eight out of the ten countries constituting Southern Africa region most people live in rural areas and depend on subsistence\\u000a agriculture for their livelihoods. In the region land degradation occurs mostly from soil erosion, chemical degradation (loss\\u000a of nutrients, depletion of organic matter and acidification) and biological depletion. Other factors which contribute to land\\u000a degradation in the region

Josephine Philip Msangi

239

New southern galaxies with active nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A list of AGN candidates, identified from optical spectra taken as part of an ongoing redshift survey of southern galaxies, is presented. The identification, coordinates, morphological type, measured heliocentric radial velocity, and proposed emission type are given for the galaxies showing evidence of nonstellar nuclear activity. Using standard diagnostics, several new Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear-emission regions (LINERs) are identified among the emission-line galaxies observed. 14 references.

Maia, M.A.G.; Da costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Rite, C.

1987-03-01

240

Gulf of Antalya, Southern Turkish Coastline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historic and strategic southern Turkish coastline and Gulf of Antalya (37.0N, 31.0E) has, since ancient times, served as the classic land and sea invasion routes to the riches of the Near East as Persian, Greek, Roman and later European Crusader armies traveled the familiar routes of conquest. Even in modern times, this area is still the seat of political and military unrest as diverse cultural groups still strive for regional control.

1984-01-01

241

Thermal fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the weekly measurements made by the advanced very high resolution radiometers of NOAA satellites were used to investigate the structure and space-time variability of large-scale fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean (30-60S and 20-150E) during the period of 1997-1999. Monthly SST gradient gave an overall view of five basic fronts: the North and South

A. G. Kostianoy; A. I. Ginzburg; M. Frankignoulle; B. Delille

2003-01-01

242

Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage. The Southern Ocean mixed layer samples from this study and Abouchami et al. (2011) define a clear but broad 'HNLC trend' in a plot of ?Cd114/110 versus [Cd], which is primarily a consequence of isotopic fractionation associated with biological uptake (?Cd114/110 is the deviation of the 114Cd/110Cd ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 3108 Cd in parts per 10,000). The trend is especially apparent in comparison to the large range of values shown by a global set of seawater Cd data for shallow depths. The Southern Ocean samples are also distinguished by their relatively high Cd concentrations (typically 0.2 to 0.6 nmol/kg) and moderately fractionated ?Cd114/110 (generally between +4 and +8) that reflect the limited biological productivity of this region. Detailed assessment reveals fine structure within the 'HNLC trend', which may record differences in the biological fractionation factor, different scenarios of closed and open system isotope fractionation, and/or distinct source water compositions.

Xue, Zichen; Rehkämper, Mark; Horner, Tristan J.; Abouchami, Wafa; Middag, Rob; van de Flierd, Tina; de Baar, Hein J. W.

2013-11-01

243

Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

Kimura, K.

2013-12-01

244

Seasonal Changes in Titan's Southern Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.

Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.

2012-01-01

245

Industrial Physics---Southern California Style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

Leslie, Stuart

2013-03-01

246

Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters yield much higher short-term resolution to a period of about 1 year, a single continuous GPS site is significantly less expensive than a single strain meter and probably has better long-term stability beyond a 1-year period. Compared to less frequent field measurements, continuous GPS provides the means to better characterize the errors in GPS position measurements and thereby obtain more realistic estimates of derived parameters such as site velocities.

Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

1998-01-01

247

Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of educational and interpretive programs within Federal, State, and private agencies; and tourists and residents of the Southern Appalachian region who want to know more about the area. The map is companion to the DVD, 'The Southern Appalachians, a Changing World' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/so_app/) and the Teacher's Guide and brochure, 'Birth of the Mountains' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/birth). The map shows the location of sites that are featured in these publications.

Clark, Sandra H. B.

2008-01-01

248

Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.  

PubMed

Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales aggregating there. As a result, much of the Southern Ocean pelagic whaling was concentrated at the edge of the marginal ice zone. The extent and duration of sea ice fluctuate periodically under the influence of global climatic phenomena including the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Life cycles of some associated species may reflect this periodicity. With evidence for climatic warming in some regions of Antarctica, there is concern that ecosystem change may be induced by changes in sea-ice extent. The relative abundance of krill and salps appears to change interannually with sea-ice extent, and in warm years, when salps proliferate, krill are scarce and dependent predators suffer severely. Further research on the Southern Ocean sea-ice system is required, not only to further our basic understanding of the ecology, but also to provide ecosystem managers with the information necessary for the development of strategies in response to short- and medium-term environmental changes in Antarctica. Technological advances are delivering new sampling platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles that are improving vastly our ability to sample the Antarctic under sea-ice environment. Data from such platforms will enhance greatly our understanding of the globally important Southern Ocean sea-ice ecosystem. PMID:12154613

Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

2002-01-01

249

Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

1985-01-01

250

Glacial Productivity Regimes in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contemporary Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is a weak CO2 sink despite high nutrient levels because productivity is limited by iron availability. During glacial periods much greater iron availability should have significantly enhanced productivity and CO2 drawdown. However, there is ongoing debate on the physical and biological mechanisms in the Southern Ocean causing the lowering of the glacial CO2 concentrations. Most paleochemical proxies indicate a latitudinal shift in the zone of enhanced glacial primary productivity and intensified CO2 drawdown but no overall increase in biogenic export. Other lines of explanation involve physical mechanisms restricting the Southern Ocean/atmosphere gas exchange via surface water stratification or sea ice coverage. However, the validity of such hypotheses to represent the major or sole mechanism steering the CO2 draw-down, has been questioned, based on theoretical grounds and numerical modeling, respectively. Here we present evidence for last glacial Southern Ocean conditions from biological proxies. We could detect resting spores of the diatom genus Chaetoceros as a proxy to indicate iron induced extensive diatom blooms across the entire Atlantic sector of the ACC, particularly in the seasonal sea-ice covered zone (SIZ) during the last glacial. In addition, we used the ecological information of the radiolarian Cycladophora davisiana gathered from plankton and surface sediment investigations of the Sea of Okhotsk to notify high glacial phytodetritus export in this area. The areal and downcore distribution patterns of these primary producer and phytodetritus feeding, deep living protozoans point to the occurrence of a high productive biological regime, dominated by fast growing thin-walled diatoms and non siliceous primary producer (e.g. Phaeocystis), which lead to high export of organic matter to the deep ocean. The dominance of the deep living radiolarian Cyladophora davisiana in glacial SIZ sediments indicates that organic carbon export to mesopelagic depths was at least ten-fold higher than today.

Abelmann, A.; Rainer, G.; Victor, S.

2006-12-01

251

Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

2008-01-01

252

SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN THEIR MOLDS. AS A JOBBING FOUNDRY MAKING CASTINGS ON AN CONTRACTUAL-ORDER BASIS, THEIR CUSTOMERS PROVIDE, OR CONTRACT FOR PATTERN CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES, HOWEVER, PROVIDE REPAIR SERVICES SHOWN AS JOHNNY TIDWELL PREPARES A PLATE, FORM -FITTING TO THEIR MOLDING MACHINES, THAT A PATTERN WILL BE AFFIXED TO. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

253

Southern Illinois University: Surfaces and Contact Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Advanced Friction Studies at Southern Illinois University developed a sequence of supplementary materials for graduate-level physics and engineering classes about surfaces and contact mechanics. Divided into a series of lectures, students and educators can find helpful figures and text about many aspects of surfaces and their characteristics such as surface stress, electron optics, and profilmetry. The website also covers two lessons concerning mechanical properties of materials: the classical theory of elastic deformation and the general formulation of elastic strain and stress. To help guide users about where to search for additional materials, the site provides a lengthy reference list.

254

South Pol: Revealing the polarized southern sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimetric module at an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile, in late 2012. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy <~ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar explosions and Solar System, among others.

Magalha~es, A. M.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Carciofi, A.; Costa, R.; Dal Pino, E. M. G.; Diaz, M.; Ferrari, T.; Fernandez, C.; Gomes, A. L.; Marrara, L.; Pereyrac, A.; Ribeiro, N. L.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Rubinho, M. S.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Taylor, K.

2012-05-01

255

No Hexagonal Wave around Saturn's Southern Pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images (1997-2002) do not show a hexagonal wave in the south pole that is a counterpart of the northern one (D. A. Godfrey 1988, Icarus76, 335-356). However, a polar jet similar to that in which the north polar hexagonal wave is embedded has been discovered in the southern hemisphere. The HST images also reveal the existence of a small polar "cap" about 2000 km in diameter that marks the rotational pole of the planet, as well as unexpected changes in the nearby cloud structure on a timescale of years.

Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Acarreta, J. R.; French, R. G.

2002-11-01

256

Potato Seed Requirements for Southern Growers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  As a means of improving the various sources of certified Bliss Triumph seed potatoes quite generally used in the general Southern\\u000a states, I would suggest:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The testing of the strains, being recommended by the various certification authorities for certification in their home states,\\u000a at some central point in the South, by a disinterested party, such as the Federal Substation

J. W. Weston

1932-01-01

257

Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area.

White, R.M.

1999-05-18

258

Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

259

INTERIOR VIEW, ORIGINAL BRICK INTERIOR WALL, FACING NORTHEAST. Southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, ORIGINAL BRICK INTERIOR WALL, FACING NORTHEAST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 72, Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

260

DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad ( Bufo terrestris ) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

261

Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

262

Wood energy in eastern and southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

This paper has outlined a learning curve in dealing with the wood energy situation in eastern and southern Africa. The curve began in total ignorance when wood energy was not considered part of the energy problem. Dominance of wood fuel, throughout the region, became immediately apparent on calculation of national energy balances. The discovery of this other energy crisis'' was, again, to prove that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing, since the emphasis on project intervention was at a national, not local, level. In evaluating the success and failure of energy intervention strategies it was increasingly apparent that the wood energy problem was but another symptom of the problems of subsistence production in Africa. Wood energy, in effect, was simply the rubbish that was left from a wider utilization of biomass, and trying to grow woodfuel per se, especially as a full-price monetary good, was impossible so long as the major relationships and the subsistence system remained outside the market. The failures, however, have allowed the identification of a range of methods for woody biomass intervention in eastern and southern Africa, from which wood energy could be an offtake.

O'Keefe, P. (School of Geography and Environmental Studies, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Great Britian)); Soussan, J. (Dept. of Geography, Reading Univ., Reading, Berkshire (Great Britian)); Munslow, B. (Centre for African Studies, Liverpool Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Spence, D. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom))

1989-01-01

263

Snake venom poisoning in Southern California.  

PubMed

The annual incidence of rattlesnake bite in Southern California is approximately 1 per 75,000 population. The case fatality rate is 1.5 per cent. The snakes implicated in the greatest number of injuries are the southern Pacific rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake and the sidewinder. Rattlesnake venom produces deleterious changes in the blood cells, defects in blood coagulation, injury to the intimal linings of vessels, damage to the heart muscle, alterations in the respiratory cycle and, to a lesser extent, changes in neuromuscular conduction. The most frequently observed symptoms and signs following ophidiasis in this area are swelling and edema, pain, ecchymosis, swelling of the regional lymph nodes, weakness, sweating, increased body temperature, faintness, and hemorrhagic vesiculations. First aid treatment consists of immobilization of the affected part, application of a constriction band, incision and suction with subsequent local application of ice packs. Treatment in hospital consists of administration of antivenin, antitetanus agent and antibiotic. Transfusions, oxygen and a corticosteroid may be indicated in some cases. PMID:13744840

RUSSELL, F E

1960-12-01

264

SNAKE VENOM POISONING IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

PubMed Central

The annual incidence of rattlesnake bite in Southern California is approximately 1 per 75,000 population. The case fatality rate is 1.5 per cent. The snakes implicated in the greatest number of injuries are the southern Pacific rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake and the sidewinder. Rattlesnake venom produces deleterious changes in the blood cells, defects in blood coagulation, injury to the intimal linings of vessels, damage to the heart muscle, alterations in the respiratory cycle and, to a lesser extent, changes in neuromuscular conduction. The most frequently observed symptoms and signs following ophidiasis in this area are swelling and edema, pain, ecchymosis, swelling of the regional lymph nodes, weakness, sweating, increased body temperature, faintness, and hemorrhagic vesiculations. First aid treatment consists of immobilization of the affected part, application of a constriction band, incision and suction with subsequent local application of ice packs. Treatment in hospital consists of administration of antivenin, antitetanus agent and antibiotic. Transfusions, oxygen and a corticosteroid may be indicated in some cases.

Russell, Findlay E.

1960-01-01

265

Pointing sources for southern submm telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a 230 GHz survey of quasars and BL Lacertae objects performed with the SEST. The sample consists of objects with flat radio spectra and is taken from various radio surveys. Repeated observations for individual sources indicates variability by factors of 2-5 within a single night. Comparing measurements over longer periods, even changes by factors of 10-25 at 230 GHz have been observed. The present catalog contains the 130 brightest objects whose 230 GHz flux densities are above 500 mJy most of the time. This, and their declination below +20o, makes them useful candidates for future pointing sources at southern submillimeter telescopes. First measurements of flux densities at 345 GHz are given for six objects. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/376/1123

Adraou, A.; Chini, R.; Albrecht, M.; Lemke, R.; Shaver, P. A.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Booth, R. S.

2001-09-01

266

Seroprevalence of Chikungunya in Southern Odisha  

PubMed Central

Background: The emergence of chikungunya (CHIK) infection was observed in Odisha, India in 2006. Thereafter many cases with symptoms suggestive of CHIK were reported from different districts of Southern-Odisha. This study was aimed to know the seroprevalence, clinical presentations and seasonal trends of CHIK infection in this region. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital of this region. Serum samples received in the Department of Microbiology from various districts of Southern-Odisha from April 2011 to March 2012 were included in the study. The samples were tested for CHIK and dengue Immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and malaria parasite by immunochromatographic test (ICT) method. Results: Out of the 678 serum samples tested, 174 were positive for CHIK, 15 for dengue and two samples were positive for both CHIK and dengue IgM antibodies. The most affected age group was 16-45 years. Females were more affected than males. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of CHIK among the suspected cases was 25.7%. Co-infection with CHIK and dengue was found to be 1.15%. The infection had spread to new areas during this outbreak.

Mohanty, Indrani; Dash, Muktikesh; Sahu, Susmita; Narasimham, M.V.; Panda, Pritilata; Padhi, Sanghamitra

2013-01-01

267

Language, Education and Development: Case Studies from the Southern Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many Southern countries, there are multiple and conflicting perspectives regarding the central role of language, particularly in relation to educational and developmental issues. A great number of multilingual, multicultural and multi-ethnic Southern countries are using "English" or some other dominant tongue as their only "official", and/or…

Dei, George J. Sefa; Asgharzadeh, Alireza

2003-01-01

268

Suspended Sediment over Redondo Submarine Canyon and Vicinity, Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Redondo Canyon, which is the southern half of Santa Monica Bay, is one of several deeply-incised submarine valleys which cross the nearshore shelf off southern California. Sediments in the vicinity of the canyon consist primarily of fine sands and sandy s...

R. M. Beer

1969-01-01

269

Climatological analysis of precipitation patterns over Mount Baldo (Southern Alps)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain range of Mount Baldo is an elongated chain in the southern Prealps. Bounded on the western side by Lake Garda, and on the eastern side by the parallel-running deep furrow of the River Adige Valley, the whole Mount Baldo range stretches in the direction southwest-northeast for about 40 km, from the southern highlands of Caprino Veronese up to

G. Poletti; D. Zardi; M. de Franceschi

2010-01-01

270

Increasing the Resilience to Natural Hazards in Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southern California is at great risk for extreme catastrophic losses owing to numerous natural hazards, such as earthquakes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and coastal changes, that occur in this area (fig. 1). Expected losses from these hazards are estimated to exceed $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California.

Jones, Lucile; Cox, Dale A.

2007-01-01

271

Air quality impacts of the October 2003 Southern California wildfires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Southern California, dry summers followed by hot and dry westerly wind conditions contribute to the region's autumn fire season. In late October 2003, 13 large Southern California wildfires burned more than 750,000 acres of land, destroyed over 3500 structures, and displaced approximately 100,000 people. The fire episode was declared the deadliest and most devastating in more than a decade,

Harish C. Phuleria; Philip M. Fine; Yifang Zhu; Constantinos Sioutas

2005-01-01

272

Southern California Air Quality Study: Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN) Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) have been carried out as part of the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study. While PAN has long been observed in Southern California air, the authors study yielded for the first time information on the spatia...

E. L. Williams D. Grosjean

1989-01-01

273

14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL

274

Parental investment in southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern elephant seal is among the most sexually dimorphic and polygynous of all mammals: males may be more than 10 times the weight of reproducing females and only the largest 2–3% of males are likely to breed. Current optimization theories of sexual selection predict that evolution would favor greater parental investment in individual males than in females. Because southern

T. S. McCann; M. A. Fedak; J. Harwood

1989-01-01

275

Common Shrubs of Chaparral and Associated Ecosystems of Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Guide presents taxonomic keys based on vegetative features of 132 southern California shrub and subshrub species found in a area bounded by the southern part of the coast ranges, the north and east sides of the transverse and peninsular ranges, and Me...

C. E. Conrad

1987-01-01

276

Carbon and oxygen isotope variations in southern African carbonatites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C and O isotope composition of 54 carbonate samples from 18 carbonatite localities throughout southern Africa was determined. Sample frequency distributions indicate a dependence of the ?13C and ?18O values of southern African carbonatites on their carbonate mineralogy. The calcite carbonatite samples fall into the range ?8% to ?4% for ?13C and 6% to + 10% for ?18O, which

Uwe E Horstmann; Wilhelm J Verwoerd

1997-01-01

277

Southern Institute on Children and Families 1997 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1997, in cooperation with 17 southern states and the District of Columbia, the Southern Institute on Children and Families held site visits to identify ways to uncomplicate the delivery of health coverage, child care and other benefits to assist low wage families. This report presents key findings and recommended actions states can take to…

Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

278

Pliocene - Quaternary Faults and Potential Seismic Hazards in Southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known Quaternary faults in the Central Basin & Range Province (CBR) have a southern limit at about 35 degrees 30' N latitude, south of Las Vegas, NV. The boundary is generally aligned with the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and strike-slip faults, such as those in Death Valley, that accommodate the right-lateral motion transferred from the plate boundary to

W. J. Taylor; J. Wagoner; C. M. Depolo; B. Luke; J. Louie

2005-01-01

279

Welfare Regimes, Welfare Systems and Housing in Southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are housing provision systems in southern Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece) different from those in northern Europe? Answering this question requires a way of theorizing housing systems, which locates them within their broader societal contexts. After setting out some of the key empirical differences between northern and southern, the paper reanalyses Esping-Andersen's work on welfare regimes and reviews housing-specific

Judith Allen

2006-01-01

280

Water Scarcity and Institutional Reform in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The situation in Southern Africa with regard to water scarcity is particularly acute. Southern Africa has historically been an area of extreme tension in the wake of post-colonial exploitation and the delineation of boundaries for countries that often defy ethnic differences. It is also a region that has endured economic disparities of an extreme kind, ranging from the despicable practice

Saleem H. Ali

1999-01-01

281

Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in process that…

Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

2012-01-01

282

Late Quaternary paleohydrologic and paleotemperature change in southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleo-spring discharge activity in the southern Great Basin responded to changes in recharge, hence climate changes, in high mountain areas during the late Quaternary. In our study, we examined four stratigraphic sections in southern Nevada in order to reconstruct paleohydrologic change spanning the last two major discharge cycles. The largest discharge event in those sections is expressed as extensive wetland

Jay Quade; Richard M. Forester; Joseph F. Whelan

283

ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED TO STORE THEM AND KEEP THEM AVAILABLE FOR THEIR CUSTOMERS ORDERS. THE BARRET/DOUGLAS LIFTING TRUCK IS USED TO REACH AND TRANSPORT PATTERNS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

284

Wealth Redistribution, Race and Southern Public Schools, 1880-1910.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measured the wealth redistribution effected by southern schools and the taxes that supported them using data from a large sample of southern states for 1880 through 1910. When taxes and expenditures are considered, the separate but equal school system appears to have provided a net transfer to black students. Public schooling in the South was a…

Ng, Kenneth

2001-01-01

285

The Poverty of Trust in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper bridges two lines of research. One line shows that social relations in the southern United States are more "collectivist" than social relations in non-southern regions. The second line of work argues that collectivist social relations generate lower levels of general trust than individualist social relations. At the intersection of…

Simpson, Brent

2006-01-01

286

LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES. SINGLE PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILWAY BRIDGE (HAER No. IL-156) AT RIGHT OF FRAME. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

287

Seismotectonic implications of sand blows in the southern Mississippi Embayment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore seismically-induced sand blows from the southern Mississippi Embayment and their implications in resolving the question of near or distal epicentral source region. This was accomplished using aerial photography, field excavations, and cone penetration tests. Our analysis shows that three sand blow fields exhibit a distinct chronology of strong ground motion for the southern embayment: (1) The Ashley County,

R. T. Cox; A. A. Hill; D. Larsen; T. Holzer; S. L Forman; T. Noce; C. Gardner; J. Morat

2007-01-01

288

Area selection for diamonds using magnetotellurics: Examples from southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Africa, particularly the Kaapvaal Craton, is one of the world's best natural laboratories for studying the lithospheric mantle given the wealth of xenolith and seismic data that exist for it. The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) was launched to complement these databases and provide further constraints on physical parameters and conditions by obtaining information about electrical conductivity variations laterally

Alan G. Jones; Rob L. Evans; Mark R. Muller; Mark P. Hamilton; Marion P. Miensopust; Xavier Garcia; Patrick Cole; Tiyapo Ngwisanyi; David Hutchins; C. J. S. Fourie; Hielke Jelsma; Shane Evans; Theo Aravanis; Wayne Pettit; Sue Webb; Jan Wasborg

2009-01-01

289

Magma Piracy in the Southern Mariana Backarc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1997 the southern Mariana convergent margin system has been mapped with Hydrosweep, MR-1, and SeaBeam swath sonar systems on five cruises resulting in 168,500 km2 of bathymetry data and 186,800 km2 of sidescan data, revealing anomalous processes relative to the rest of the Mariana region. Most of the Mariana Arc is characterized by arc volcanism dominated by large, central volcanoes located at the boundary between a backarc basin with slow-spreading ridge morphology and a nonaccretionary forearc composed of Eocene volcanic arc rocks But southwest of Tracey Seamount, the southernmost large central arc volcano, the character of the arc and backarc changes dramatically. The arc volcanoes become small or nonexistent, but those that do occur lie along relict spreading fabric within the backarc basin. Furthermore, the spreading center appears to have an inflated, fast-spreading morphology, including dueling propagator fabric, and this southern backarc basin forms a shallow plateau overall. The spreading center then becomes less well-defined west of 143oE, and the volcanism appears to cease altogether west of 142oE in an area of amagmatic rifting, an observation supported by earthquake focal mechanisms and magnetics. The inflated morphology of the spreading axis, along with the absence or reduced size of nearby arc volcanoes suggests that arc magmas have been entrained into the backarc-spreading magmatic system. This "magma piracy" would result in arc magma being erupted at the backarc spreading center, therefore the backarc crust would be formed in part from arc magmas. Dredge samples from along the active ridge show compositions consistent with this suggestion. We suggest that this magma piracy has dominated the southern backarc basin for at least the last 3 m.y. since the robust spreading began. We suggest that the apparently higher magma production rate and the hybridized crust could account for the shallowness of the basin, as the more evolved arc-lavas would be generally more buoyant than backarc basin basalt alone.

Becker, N. C.; Fryer, P.; Martinez, F.; Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.

2001-12-01

290

Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes in seismicity arising from magma movement in the crust are characteristic properties of almost all active volcanoes. Meanwhile the study of the seismicity and propagation of elastic waves through the earth have the potential to give us important information about the internal structure of volcanoes. As very little is known of the 3D structure of Katla volcano and in order to define the 3D velocity structure and the geometry of the possible magma chamber, both P and S-wave travel time data from the most active period of seismicity (July-November 2011) are inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D velocity structure by using Local Earthquake Tomography (LET).

jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology group

2014-05-01

291

77 FR 32075 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Habitat for the Southern Selkirk Mountains Population of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus...habitat for the southern Selkirk Mountains population of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus...habitat for the southern Selkirk Mountains population of woodland caribou that was...

2012-05-31

292

76 FR 34859 - Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA AGENCY...Georgia during the Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race. The Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race will consist of a series of...

2011-06-15

293

50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). 226.206 Section...habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca ). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this section....

2012-10-01

294

50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). 226.206 Section...habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca ). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this section....

2011-10-01

295

40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.152 Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

296

Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

2010-12-01

297

Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

298

Preliminary Parallaxes for Southern Nearby Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here on our on-going program to measure the parallaxes of stars in the southern hemisphere. These are a sample of stars lacking parallaxes selected from the Catalog of Nearby Stars (CNS3, Gliese and Jahreiss). The objects include LHS 22, 317, 337, 493, 2739, 2813, 3064, 3242, 3317, 3378, and 3418. Their magnitude range is from m_R = 11.5 to 14.2, and all are color class `m' in the LHS Catalogue with the exception of LHS 3317 which has a `k' color class. The CCD observations are obtained with the Siding Spring Observatory 1-m reflector in the Cousins R or I passbands using an EEV P88500; the focal plane scale is 25.4 arcsec/mm (0.57 arcsec/pixel). This work is supported by the Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, the National Science Foundation, and the Estate of Leander J. McCormick.

Ianna, P. A.; Begam, M. C.; Mullis, C. R.

1994-12-01

299

Mycobacteria and disease in southern Africa.  

PubMed

The genus Mycobacterium consists of over 120 known species, some of which (e.g. M. bovis and M. tuberculosis) contribute extensively to the burden of infectious disease in humans and animals, whilst others are commonly found in the environment but may rarely if ever be disease-causing. This paper reviews the mycobacteria found in southern Africa, focussing on those in the M. tuberculosis complex as well as the non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), identifying those found in the area and including those causing disease in humans and animals, and outlines some recent reports describing the distribution and prevalence of the disease in Africa. Difficulties in diagnosis, host preference and reaction, immunology and transmission are discussed. PMID:24171860

Botha, L; van Pittius, N C Gey; van Helden, P D

2013-11-01

300

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

1986-06-01

301

Intersexuality and sexual rights in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper reports of the socio-medical management of intersexuality in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Findings reveal that the 'search for sex' in the body treats sex as a medical-diagnostic category constructed during decision-making negotiations. In the course of the various bodily 'regulations' and 'corrections' imposed, the insufficiency of a model in which categories are based around a sexual dichotomy is revealed. By questioning this dichotomy, it is possible to examine theoretical and ethical limits circumscribing the field of bioethics and the notion of sexual rights as human rights. The paper also explores the tensions that can arise from the application of sexual rights to health issues in general, and the medical sphere in particular. PMID:19296306

Machado, Paula

2009-04-01

302

Blindness and visual impairment in southern Malawi  

PubMed Central

There is a paucity of reliable information on the prevalence and causes of blindness in sub-Saharan Africa, and this produces problems in designing and evaluating blindness prevention programmes. To address this problem and to provide baseline data for the evaluation of such programmes, the government of Malawi, in conjunction with a number of agencies, conducted a population-based prevalence survey of ocular disease in the Lower Shire River Valley in southern Malawi, an area where blindness is common. The prevalence of bilateral blindness found (1.27%) is similar to that in other developing countries and represents a significant public health problem. At least 60% of this blindness is preventable or easily reversible.

Chirambo, M. C.; Tielsch, J. M.; West, K. P.; Katz, J.; Tizazu, T.; Schwab, L.; Johnson, G.; Swartwood, J.; Taylor, H. R.; Sommer, A.

1986-01-01

303

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans.

Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

2004-01-01

304

The effect of Antarctic sea ice on the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere during the southern summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the influence of Antarctic sea ice distribution on the large scale circulation of the Southern Hemisphere using a fully coupled GCM where the sea ice submodel is replaced by a climatology of observed extremes in sea ice concentration. Three 150-year simulations were completed for maximum, minimum and average sea ice concentrations and the results for the austral summer (January-March) were compared using the surface temperatures forced by the sea ice distributions as a filter for creating the composite differences. The results indicate that in the austral summer the polar cell expands (contracts) under minimum (maximum) sea ice conditions with corresponding shifts in the midlatitude Ferrell cell. We suggest that this response occurs because sea ice lies in the margin between the polar and midlatitude cells. The polarity of the Southern Hemisphere Annular (SAM) mode is also influenced such that when sea ice is at a minimum (maximum) the polarity of the SAM tends to be negative (positive).

Raphael, M. N.; Hobbs, W.; Wainer, I.

2011-04-01

305

The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III  

PubMed Central

The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California (USC) was initiated in 1984 and continues to provide an important resource for studies investigating genetic and environmental influences on human behavior. This article provides an update on the current register and its potential for future twin studies using recruitment through school district databases and voter records. An overview is also provided for an ongoing longitudinal twin study investigating the development of externalizing psychopathology from childhood to young adulthood, the USC Study of Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, including recruitment and participation rates, as well as attrition analyses and a summary of key findings to date.

Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Gomez, Karina; Bezdjian, Serena; Niv, Sharon; Raine, Adrian

2013-01-01

306

Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.

Parts of the Yorke Peninsula and a portion of the Murray-Darling River basin are visible between the clouds near the top of the left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes.

Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for region allow-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation.

These views were acquired on October 11, 2001 during Terra orbit 9650, and represent an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers.

2001-01-01

307

Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

308

Climate signal propagation in southern California aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western United States is marked by limited water resources and a fast-growing population. Increasing climate variability as well as a growing demand on water resources highlights the need for improved understanding of connections between regional climate, surface water dynamics, and groundwater recharge. The current study focuses on the linkages between climate variability and groundwater levels in Calleguas Creek watershed located in southern California. The Calleguas Creek groundwater system serves as a critical source of water supply for agricultural and industrial use. Precipitation time series and groundwater levels were analyzed throughout the Calleguas Creek watershed for the period 1975-2004. Water level variability was analyzed for over 311 individual wells with a subset of 20 wells selected for further analysis. A correlation matrix was computed to establish well locations (or groups) with similar hydrologic behavior. Prewhitening methods were used to evaluate the effect of time series autocorrelation on the test statistics for trend detection using the Mann-Kendall test. Both climate and selected groundwater level (well) data were subjected to frequency analysis using fast Fourier transform. The time series of precipitation, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, and well levels were analyzed. A strong persistence was observed in the groundwater level time series, ranging from 66% to 99%. Results suggest the existence of significant periodicities between 2.0 and 7.0 years in both the precipitation and the well level data that are partially coincident with ENSO modes. A decadal oscillation was also observed in the well level data, which partially corresponds with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Assessment of the complex interactions between climate variability and groundwater levels will facilitate improved water resources planning and management in water-stressed regions where marginal changes in hydrologic budgets have significant implications.

Barco, Janet; Hogue, Terri S.; Girotto, Manuela; Kendall, Donald R.; Putti, Mario

2010-11-01

309

The H I Southern Galactic Plane Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS), a survey of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the inner Milky Way. The SGPS is a survey of the H I spectral line and 21 cm continuum emission in the fourth quadrant of the plane of the Galaxy. It covers 210 square degrees, spanning the region l = 253°-358° and | b| <= 1° at an angular resolution of ~2 arcmin, a velocity resolution of 0.8 km s-1 and to a sensitivity limit of ~2 K. High resolution data were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and combined with data obtained with the Parkes Radio Telescope for complete coverage of structures ranging in angular size from 2 arcmin to 2 degrees. In addition, the low resolution Parkes survey was expanded to |b| <= 10° for sensitivity to extremely large-scale structures. The survey is part of a large scale effort to understand the structure, dynamics and thermal phases of the ISM throughout the Milky Way. We use the SGPS dataset to study the properties of large scale emission structures in the ISM, specifically H I shells, supershells, and chimneys. H I shells are among the largest objects in the ISM with radii between tens of parsecs and kiloparsecs. As such, they are a major constituent in the Galactic energy budget and drive much of the dynamics of the ISM. H I shells, which are formed through the combined effects of stellar winds and supernovae, outlast the radiative lifetimes of their parent H II regions and supernova remnants and thereby provide lasting fossils of the effects of massive stars on the ISM. In order to explore these effects, we here present a new catalog of large H I shells in the Southern Milky Way. We discuss their individual and global properties as well as their distribution in an attempt to probe deeper into the feedback processes of stellar life and death and the circulation of matter between the Galactic disk and halo.

McClure-Griffiths, Naomi Melissa

310

Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

2004-12-01

311

?- and ?-Thalassemia intermedia in Basra, Southern Iraq.  

PubMed

Hemoglobinopathies are common in Iraq and ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) is a leading health problem in Basra, Southern Iraq. However, ?- and ?-thalassemia intermedia (?- and ?-TI) have not been so well studied. This is a descriptive study of 152 consecutive ?- and ?-TI patients registered at the Centre for Hereditary Blood Diseases (CHBD) in Basra, Southern Iraq from October 1 2010 through June 30 2012 including age at diagnosis, blood transfusions and complications. ?-Thalassemia intermedia was found in 80 (52.6%) patients with a mean age at diagnosis of 7.10 ± 8.0 years. This was significantly different from that of Hb H (?4) disease (12.95 ± 14.8 years), p <0.05. Patients with ?-TI received significantly more blood transfusions (3.39 ± 3.85)/year compared to those with Hb H disease (1.07 ± 1.39)/year, p <0.05. Short stature, extramedullary erythropoiesis, pulmonary hypertension and iron overload were significantly higher among patients with ?-TI compared to those with Hb H disease, p <0.05. Iron overload is a significant risk factor for growth retardation among patients with Hb H and ?-TI. While age is a significant risk factor for osteoporosis in both types of thalassemia intermedia. Both ?- and ?-thalassemia (?- and ?-thal) have been reported in Basra. Although ?-TI is associated with a more severe disease than ?-TI, both are associated with considerable complications. Thus, genetic studies are needed to determine the types of mutation producing ?-TI and the exact ?-thal determinants producing Hb H disease as they are important in the prediction of the phenotype severity. PMID:23944608

Abdulwahid, Dhurgham A; Hassan, Mea'ad K

2013-01-01

312

Online Geophysical Databases for the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through the Data Link web browser interface (http://www.marine-geo.org/link/) which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The free, platform-independent data visualization tool GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/) supports dynamic exploration of a wide range of data sets on a Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seafloor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. The GMRT global digital elevation model is served freely as a Web Map Service layer and is available for viewing with OGC-compliant clients including Google Earth (http://www.marine-geo.org/Data4GoogleEarth.html). To promote interoperability and data sharing, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. We are also taking on the US Antarctic Data Coordination Center function, assisting NSF-funded investigators in documenting and archiving their data in accordance with the IPY Data Policy.

Goodwillie, A.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S.; Ryan, W.; Melkonian, A.; Ferrini, V.; Weissel, R.; Bonczkowski, J.

2007-12-01

313

Complementation of the Host Range Restriction of Southern Cowpea Mosaic Virus in Bean by Southern Bean Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) are permissive hosts for southern cowpea mosaic virus (SCPMV) and southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), respectively. Neither of these two sobemoviruses systemically infects the permissive host of the other. Although bean cells are permissive for SCPMV RNA synthesis, they do not support the assembly of this virus. Thus, the host range restriction

David L. Hacker; Benjamin C. Fowler

2000-01-01

314

Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

Enkin, R. J.; Mahoney, J. B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R. A.

2002-01-01

315

Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana  

SciTech Connect

Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

Yemane, K. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

316

Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling positions along one transect. This transect consisted of 18 stations on the zero meridian proper from 51°57' S until 69°24'S, and 4 stations somewhat to the northeast towards Cape Town from 42°20'S, 09°E to 50°17'S, 01°27'E. The actual concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean were lower than previously reported. The concentration of Al in the upper 25 m was relatively elevated with an average concentration of 0.71 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.43 nM), most likely due to atmospheric input by a suggested combination of direct atmospheric (wet and dry) input and indirect atmospheric input via melting sea ice. Below the surface waters there was a distinct Al minimum with an average concentration of 0.33 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.13 nM) at an average depth of 120 m. In the deep southernmost Weddell Basin the concentration of Al increased with depth to ˜0.8 nM at 4000 m, and a higher concentration of ˜1.5 nM in the ˜4500-5200 m deep Weddell Sea Bottom Water. Over the Bouvet triple junction region, where three deep ocean ridges meet, the concentration of Al increased to ˜1.4 nM at about 2000 m depth over the ridge crest. In the deep basin north of the Bouvet region the concentration of Al increased to higher deep values of 4-6 nM due to influence of North Atlantic Deep Water. In general the intermediate and deep distribution of Al results from the mixing of water masses with different origins, the formation of deep water and additional input from sedimentary sources at sea floor elevations. No significant correlation between Al and silicate (Si) was observed. This is in contrast to some other ocean regions. In the Southern Ocean the supply of Al is extremely low and any signal from Al uptake and dissolution with biogenic silica is undetectable against the high dissolved Si and low dissolved Al concentrations. Here the Al-Si relation in the deep ocean is uncoupled. This is due to the scavenging and subsequent loss of the water column of Al, whereas the concentration of Si increases in the deep ocean due to its input from deep dissolution of biogenic diatom frustules settling from the surface layer.

Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

2011-12-01

317

Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2003-01-01

318

Distribution of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap  

SciTech Connect

Observations in the southern galactic hemisphere in the declination range between -17.5 and 2.5 degrees are combined with other available observation. The data set is used to study the spatial distribution of galaxies of a contiguous area of 3.13 sr of the Southern Galactic Cap. An approximately homogeneous magnitude-limited sample of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap is constructed from different catalogs. The resulting large scale structure is similar to that of previous surveys in which bright galaxies are distributed on surfaces which intersect at sharp corners and nearly surround voids that are almost empty of galaxies. 29 refs.

Pellegrini, P.S.; Da Costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Huchra, J.P.; Latham, D.W. (Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-03-01

319

Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in both sites. However during spring biogenic influence increased. In addition to source analysis this behaviour was visible in enhanced diurnal cycles of VOCs (Patokoski et al., 2014, in press). We will present important sources and source areas for Southern Finland's concentrations. References: Patokoski, J., Ruuskanen, T.M., Hellén, H., Taipale, R., Grönholm, T., Kajos, M.K., Petäjä, T., Hakola, H., Kulmala, M. & Rinne, J., 2014. Winter to spring transition and diurnal variation of VOCs in Finland at an urban background site and a rural site. Boreal Env. Res. 19. In press.

Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

2014-05-01

320

Physical properties of Southern infrared dark clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: What are the mechanisms by which massive stars form? What are the initial conditions for these processes? It is commonly assumed that cold and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) represent the birth-sites of massive stars. Therefore, these clouds have been receiving an increasing amount of attention, and their analysis offers the opportunity to tackle the afore mentioned questions. Aims: To enlarge the sample of well-characterised IRDCs in the southern hemisphere, where ALMA will play a major role in the near future, we have developed a program to study the gas and dust of southern infrared dark clouds. The present paper attempts to characterize the continuum properties of this sample of IRDCs. Methods: We cross-correlated 1.2 mm continuum data from SIMBA bolometer array mounted on SEST telescope with Spitzer/GLIMPSE images to establish the connection between emission sources at millimeter wavelengths and the IRDCs that we observe at 8 ?m in absorption against the bright PAH background. Analysing the dust emission and extinction enables us to determine the masses and column densities, which are important quantities in characterizing the initial conditions of massive star formation. We also evaluated the limitations of the emission and extinction methods. Results: The morphology of the 1.2 mm continuum emission is in all cases in close agreement with the mid-infrared extinction. The total masses of the IRDCs were found to range from 150 to 1150 M_? (emission data) and from 300 to 1750 M_? (extinction data). We derived peak column densities of between 0.9 and 4.6 × 1022 cm-2 (emission data) and 2.1 and 5.4 × 1022 cm-2 (extinction data). We demonstrate that the extinction method is unreliable at very high extinction values (and column densities) beyond AV values of roughly 75 mag according to the Weingartner & Draine (2001) extinction relation RV = 5.5 model B (around 200 mag when following the common Mathis (1990, ApJ, 548, 296) extinction calibration). By taking the spatial resolution effects into account and restoring the column densities derived from the dust emission to a linear resolution of 0.01 pc, peak column densities of 3-19 × 1023 cm-2 are obtained, which are much higher than typical values for low-mass cores. Conclusions: Taking into account the spatial resolution effects, the derived column densities are beyond the column density threshold of 3.0 × 1023 cm-2 required by theoretical considerations for massive star formation. We conclude that the values of column densities derived for the selected IRDC sample imply that these objects are excellent candidates for objects in the earliest stages of massive star formation.

Vasyunina, T.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Stecklum, B.; Klose, S.; Nyman, L.-Å.

2009-05-01

321

Mars Atmospheric Water Vapor: 2000 Southern Summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1998-2000 extensive ground-based observations yielded 133 continuous, H2O vapor profiles across the Martian disk. High-dispersion, CCD echelle spectra sampled Martian atmospheric water vapor from northern spring through the start of summer in the southern hemisphere. The slit was placed either in the N-S direction along the central meridian to study the latitudinal distribution or E-W to study the diurnal behavior. Abundances will be presented for the late spring-early summer season in the southern hemisphere. Supported by NASA grant NAG5-7791. Martian Water Vapor Spectra: 1998-2000 Apparition Date Slit Slit Ls SubS Martian SubE Mars (UTC) pos pos Lat Long Lat Dia. 1998 N-S E-W (o) (o) (o) (o) (") Nov 10-12 6 - 56 20.5 88-163 25.1 4.8 Dec 8-9 3 3 68 23.3 136-180 24.2 5.4 1999 Jan 12-13 6 3 83 25.2 167-200 20.8 6.8 Jan 20-1 4 2 91 25.5 357-48 18.6 7.9 Mar 16-17 2 11 111 23.8 227-306 15.0 12.1 Mar 29 2 - 116 22.7 122-137 15.4 13.7 Jun 1-2 1 5 148 13.7 170-212 22.7 14.4 Jun 22 1 1 158 9.1 323-351 22.8 12.3 Jul 7-10 6 13 168 5.8 140-207 22.0 11.0 Jul 27-28 3 3 178 1.1 318-11 19.6 8.0 Aug 30-31 2 7 197 -7.1 314-37 12.7 8.0 Sep 23-24 5 5 212 -12.9 77-125 6.0 7.1 Nov 8-9 4 6 242 -21.9 336-33 -8.7 6.0 Nov 29-2 10 7 254 -24.3 86-161 -15.3 5.6 2000 Jan 16-17 11 - 284 -24.7 0-44 -25.4 4.8 Feb 9 4 - 298 -22.2 123-148 -26.3 4.5

Barker, E.

2000-12-01

322

Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises ? and ? Crucis and ? and ? Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations with other creatures: wild dogs, warthogs, wildebeests, swallows, cuckoos and cicadas. In each case the visibility of a star will synchronize with a behavior of the associated species. Together, stars and species informed man of the order and unity of an African cosmos — a worldview that must have been as satisfying as it was beautiful.

Snedegar, K. V.

323

Early holocene openlands in southern New England.  

PubMed

The pre-historical vegetation structure in temperate forest regions is much debated among European and North American ecologists and conservationists. Frans Vera's recent hypothesis that large mammals created mosaics of forest and openland vegetation in both regions throughout the Holocene has been particularly controversial and has provoked new approaches to conservation management. Thirty years earlier, American paleoecologists Herb Wright and Margaret Davis debated whether abundant ragweed pollen at Rogers Lake, Connecticut at 9500 yr BP signified local forest openings or long-distance transport of pollen from Midwestern prairies. Using new pollen records from Harvard Forest and the North American Pollen Database, we address this question and offer insights to the openland discussion. Ragweed and other forbs exceed 3.5% at five sites in a restricted area of southern New England between 10,100 and 7700 yr BP. Strong evidence suggests this pollen originated from the landscapes surrounding these sites (supporting Davis), as ragweed pollen percentages do not increase with longitude from New England to the Midwest. Ragweed pollen percentages are also unrelated to basin size and therefore unrelated to the proportion of extraregional pollen in New England. High forbs values were associated with increases in oak, decreases in white pine, and relatively high charcoal values. Modern pollen records with similar forb and tree percentages occur along the Prairie Peninsula region of the Upper Midwest. However, the closest analogue to the southern New England early Holocene assemblages comes from Massachusetts' Walden Pond in the early 18th century. These results and the affiliation of ragweed for open, disturbed habitats suggest that oak-pine forests with large openings persisted for over 2000 years due to dry conditions and perhaps increased fire frequency. This conclusion is corroborated by independent lake level and climate reconstructions. Because these early Holocene openlands have no detectable analogue in New England for the past 7000 years before European settlement, we suggest that all important openlands today are almost exclusively a legacy of Colonial agriculture and should be managed accordingly. Nonetheless, our results may have implications for forest dynamics accompanying projected climate change to more arid conditions in New England over the next century. PMID:17089662

Faison, E K; Foster, D R; Oswald, W W; Hansen, B C S; Doughty, E

2006-10-01

324

Hydrocarbon prospects offshore southern West Greenland  

SciTech Connect

Interpretation of regional seismic data acquired in the 1990s together with a re-appraisal of the wells drilled in the 1970s has lead to an appreciation that the southern West Greenland Basin is underexplored and may contain large quantities of hydrocarbons. The regional structure and stratigraphy of the basin has been worked out. An early phase of extension, probably in the Early Cretaceous, was followed by a thermal subsidence phase in the Late Cretaceous during which thick mudstones were deposited. Renewed extension and strike-slip faulting associated with the onset of sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea in the Early Tertiary lead to the formation of large structures capable of trapping large quantities of hydrocarbons. Flat spots have been identified in several prospects in the Fylla Structural Complex, which is presently open for licensing, and other large structural traps exist on the Kang[cflx a]miut Ridge and in the Ikermiut area. Stratigraphic traps exist in a large syn-rift fan of mid-Cretaceous age and in Lower Tertiary basin-floor fans. All of these after structures are found in an area with an [open quotes]open-door[close quotes] licensing policy.

Chalmers, J.A.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Bate, K.J.; Whittaker, R.C. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

1996-01-01

325

Photosynthetically active sunlight at high southern latitudes.  

PubMed

A network of scanning spectroradiometers has acquired a multiyear database of visible solar irradiance, covering wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm, at four sites in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere, from 55 degrees S to 90 degrees S. Monthly irradiations computed from the hourly measurements reveal the character of the seasonal cycle and illustrate the role of cloudiness as functions of latitude. Near summer solstice, the combined influences of solar elevation and the duration of daylight would produce a monthly irradiation with little latitude dependence under clear skies. However, the attenuation associated with local cloudiness varies geographically, with the greatest effect at the most northern locations, Ushuaia, Argentina and Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula. Near summer solstice, the South Pole experiences the largest monthly irradiation of the sites studied, where relatively clear skies contribute to this result. Scaling factors derived from radiative-transfer calculations combined with the measured 400-600 nm irradiances allow estimating irradiances integrated over the wavelength band 400-700 nm. This produces a climatology of photosynthetically active radiation for each month of the year at each site. PMID:15689179

Frederick, John E; Liao, Yixiang

2005-01-01

326

Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01 : View of the SIMBA instrument First observations with SIMBA SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") was built and installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at La Silla (Chile) within an international collaboration between the University of Bochum and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Germany, the Swedish National Facility for Radio Astronomy and ESO . The SIMBA ("Lion" in Swahili) instrument detects radiation at a wavelength of 1.2 mm . It has 37 "horns" and acts like a camera with 37 picture elements (pixels). By changing the pointing direction of the telescope, relatively large sky fields can be imaged. As the first and only imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere , SIMBA now looks up towards rich and virgin hunting grounds in the sky. Observations at millimetre wavelengths are particularly useful for studies of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar clouds that are impenetrable to optical light. Other objects for which SIMBA is especially suited include planet-forming disks of cold dust around nearby stars and extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , still in the stage of formation. During the first observations, SIMBA was used to study the gas and dust content of star-forming regions in our own Milky Way Galaxy, as well as in the Magellanic Clouds and more distant galaxies. It was also used to record emission from planetary nebulae , clouds of matter ejected by dying stars. Moreover, attempts were made to detect distant galaxies and quasars radiating at mm-wavelengths and located in two well-studied sky fields, the "Hubble Deep Field South" and the "Chandra Deep Field" [1]. Observations with SEST and SIMBA also serve to identify objects that can be observed at higher resolution and at shorter wavelengths with future southern submm telescopes and interferometers such as APEX (see MPG Press Release 07/01 of 6 July 2001) and ALMA. SIMBA images regions of high-mass star formation ESO PR Photo 28a/01 ESO PR Photo 28

2001-08-01

327

Eddy stirring in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an ongoing debate concerning the distribution of eddy stirring across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the nature of its controlling processes. The problem is addressed here by estimating the isentropic eddy diffusivity ? from a collection of hydrographic and altimetric observations, analyzed in a mixing length theoretical framework. It is shown that, typically, ? is suppressed by an order of magnitude in the upper kilometer of the ACC frontal jets relative to their surroundings, primarily as a result of a local reduction of the mixing length. This observation is reproduced by a quasi-geostrophic theory of eddy stirring across a broad barotropic jet based on the scaling law derived by Ferrari and Nikurashin (2010). The theory interprets the observed widespread suppression of the mixing length and ? in the upper layers of frontal jets as the kinematic consequence of eddy propagation relative to the mean flow within jet cores. Deviations from the prevalent regime of mixing suppression in the core of upper-ocean jets are encountered in a few special sites. Such `leaky jet' segments appear to be associated with sharp stationary meanders of the mean flow that are generated by the interaction of the ACC with major topographic features. It is contended that the characteristic thermohaline structure of the Southern Ocean, consisting of multiple upper-ocean thermohaline fronts separated and underlaid by regions of homogenized properties, is largely a result of the widespread suppression of eddy stirring by parallel jets.

Naveira Garabato, A. C.; Ferrari, R.; Polzin, K. L.

2011-09-01

328

Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

None

2012-08-24

329

Central corneal thickness in southern Egypt.  

PubMed

The study aimed to determine mean central corneal thickness (CCT) in a southern Egyptian population according to gender and age using ultrasonic pachymetry and to compare these CCT measurements to different populations. A prospective, observational, consecutive case series of 4,368 non-glaucomatous subjects (emmetropes and myopes) aged 16-70 years was carried out from August 2010 to March 2013 at the outpatient ophthalmology clinic in Sohag University Hospital and the Laser Vision Center in Sohag City, Egypt. Refraction, keratometry, slit-lamp examination, and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were obtained for all subjects. CCT was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry. The average CCT was 530.06 ± 38.03 ?m. Average CCT was 532.6 ± 33.3 ?m in emmetropes, 531.5 ± 31.3 ?m in myopes <6 diopters (D), 531.1 ± 31.4 ?m in myopes >6 D and 533 ± 33 ?m in hyperopes, with no statistically significant difference between the groups. There was a statistically significant difference in CCT between age groups and gender. There was a strong correlation between CCT and IOP among the non-glaucomatous population. CCT was found to be lower in Egyptians than in Caucasian, Hispanic, and Japanese populations but comparable to African and African American populations. PMID:24272277

Mostafa, Engy Mohamed

2014-08-01

330

Airborne Cupressaceae pollen in southern Italy.  

PubMed

The allergenic airborne pollen of Cupressaceae was surveyed in the area of Bari (Southern Italy) over an 8-year period (1982-1989). A Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap was used for the aerobiologic investigation. The results showed a notable annual pollinic presence of airborne Cupressaceae pollen, the largest amount recorded in winter and early spring. Remarkable fluctuations of the Cupressaceae pollen counts in a 2-year cycle were also observed. The features of the main pollen season are described. In particular, its duration was found to be on average 45 days. A study of Cupressaceae trees distribution indicated that the most widespread genus was Cupressus, represented in particular by the species Cupressus arizonica Green and Cupressus Sempervirens L. The employment of these trees for reforestation and garden-use has increased considerably in the last 40 years. These findings can also be of interest in other countries where Cupressaceae allergy has been reported, particularly in the Mediterranean basin and in North America. PMID:8328713

Caiaffa, M F; Macchia, L; Strada, S; Bariletto, G; Scarpelli, F; Tursi, A

1993-07-01

331

Arbuckle group depositional cycles, southern Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Outcrop and/or subsurface core studies of Butterly Dolomite, Cool Creek, Kindblade, and West Spring Creek formations reveal most of the Arbuckle Group to have been deposited as a series of storm-dominated, shallowing-upward sequences. They were deposited upon an extremely broad, nearly flat carbonate ramp that formed the southern margin of the North American craton (Knox, Arbuckle, Ellenburger, and El Paso groups) in the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician. Shallowing-upward sequences were deposited in a cyclic manner, with individual fifth-order cycles only a few feet to tens of feet thick. These cycles record abrupt transgressions, caused by quick sea level rise, followed by progradation of a paleoshoreline as sea level gradually fell. Each cycle is divided into subtidal and tidal-flat components. Subtidal and tidal-flat components can be of equal thickness or can be skewed with one component becoming dominant and the other subordinate. Only half of all cycles are complete shallowing-upward sequences. Once understood the vertical stacking of facies in a cycle is predictable so that complete vs. incomplete cycles can be easily recognized. These distinctions are very important to recognize because well-developed subtidal portions of a cycle can form reservoir intervals when dolomitized.

Lindsay, R.F. (Chevron Inc., Hobbs, NM (USA)); Koskelin, K.M. (Chevron Inc., Denver, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

332

Quaternary glaciations of the southern Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Andes comprise the southernmost portion of the Andean Cordillera, beginning at the edge of the Puna Altiplano (lat.27°S) and ending at Isla de los Estados (lat.55°S). The late Cainozoic glacial record of these mountains spans the interval from the Late Miocene to the present and is one of the most complete to be found anywhere in the world. This has arisen for several reasons: (i) the conterminous mountain ice cap extended to the piedmont zone on both flanks of the range, where the sedimentary and morphological record has been well preserved; (ii) periodic volcanism, mainly from monogenetic fissure eruptions of basalt east of the range and from central tephra-producing cones along the mountain crest, has provided opportunity for the preservation and radiometric dating of interbedded glacial deposits; (iii) a tectonically-induced interval of stream incision in the Mid Pleistocene and simultaneous uplift has preserved glacial sediments on interfluves; (iv) in the Chilean lakes region west of the mountains, Late Quaternary glaciers terminated in a well-vegetated landscape, thus creating scope for radiocarbon dating of interbedded and incorporated organic materials; consequently, the last glaciation in the Llanquihue area of Chile is one of the best dated sequences in South America; thus the 'Llanquihue' Glaciation is proposed as the South American equivalent of the 'Wisconsin' and 'Weichsel' glaciations of North America and north west Europe respectively.

Rabassa, Jorge; Clapperton, Chalmers M.

333

Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.  

PubMed

Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern. PMID:17838033

Henry, D O

1994-07-15

334

Intense look at Virgo Southern Extension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected data on radial velocities and distances of galaxies to elucidate structure and kinematics of the filament attached to the Virgo cluster from south. In the region RA = [12{. ^{ {h}}}5{-}13{. ^{ {h}}}5], Dec. = [-20°,0°] there are 171 galaxies with radial velocities VLG < 2000 km s-1, and 98 of them have distance estimates. This galaxy cloud, called as `Virgo Southern Extension', is situated just on the edge of the Virgo `zero-velocity surface'. The mean distance to Virgo SEx, 17 ± 2 Mpc, and the average radial velocity, 1172 ± 23 km s-1, are very close to the Virgo cluster ones. In supergalactic coordinates the Virgo SEx dimensions are 15 × 7 × 2 Mpc, where the major axis is directed along the line of sight, the second major axis is directed towards the Virgo core and the minor one is perpendicular to the supergalactic plane. This flattened cloud consists of a dozen virialized groups with the total K-band luminosity of 1.7 × 1012 L? and the total virial mass of 6.3 × 1013 M?, having a typical dark matter-to-stellar matter ratio of 37. The Hubble diagram for Virgo SEx galaxies exhibits a tendency of a Z-shaped wave with a velocity amplitude of ˜250 km s-1 that may be caused by a mass overdensity of ˜6 × 1013 M?, and in order of magnitude agrees with the sum of virial masses of the groups.

Karachentsev, I. D.; Nasonova, O. G.

2013-03-01

335

Methane Emissions Inventory Verification in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to report and verify the statewide greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions inventory. In support of this program, CARB installed an air quality monitoring station near the Mt. Wilson Observatory to study GHG emissions in Southern California. Methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been measured since the spring of 2007. Both compounds are considered to be non-reactive on the time scale of dispersion and sources of both gases are likely to be similarly distributed (e.g., with population) and subject to similar scales of atmospheric transport and dilution. Therefore, the relationship of CH4 and CO allows scaling the CH4 emissions to the well known CO emissions. Using this approach, a "top-down" CH4 inventory was developed for South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), based on measurements at Mt. Wilson. We compared this estimate with CARB's "official" GHG emissions inventory which is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recommended methodologies. The CH4 emissions inventory estimated from the observations at Mt. Wilson is approximately 14% to 33% greater than CARB's CH4 emissions inventory. Considering the uncertainties in both methodologies, the two CH4 emissions inventories are reasonably close.

Hsu, Y.; Vancuren, R.; Blake, D.

2008-12-01

336

Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina  

PubMed Central

Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded.

Cantoni, Gustavo E.; Calanni, Liliana M.; Resa, Amanda J.; Herrero, Eduardo R.; Iacono, Marisa A.; Enria, Delia A.; Cappa, Stella M. Gonzalez

2007-01-01

337

Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin  

SciTech Connect

Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

1981-05-04

338

Hydrocarbons exploration in east Siberia southern basins  

SciTech Connect

The vast Lena-Tunguska province in the heart of Siberia is among the world's largest and least explored frontier basins. Some encouraging exploration has nevertheless been carried out in the four southern subbasins: PrePatom (PreBaykal) trough, Nepa-Botuobin anticlise, PreSayan-Yenisey basin, and Angara-Lena terrace. Source rocks are essentially Proterozoic, but younger sediments may contribute about 10% of the region's oil potential. Riphean-Cambrian subsalt reservoirs contribute more than 90% of the hydrocarbons discovered, whereas Cambrian salt provides the most common regional seals. The main hydrocarbon later migration occurred in Vendian-Cambrian. Traps include clastic wedging out along favorable structures and carbonate reef-like buildups. Many traps were transformed or destroyed by the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic volcanic activity, whereas Hercynian overthrust tectonics developed new traps in the PrePatom trough. About 30 discoveries, mainly gas and condensates, have been made in the area, but operations are hampered by poor logistics and limited infrastructure.

Resnick, V.S. (Petroconsultants Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-08-01

339

Frequent flash floods in southern Switzerland: Why?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the causes of frequent flash floods observed in the Maggia River catchment, a 900 km2 watershed located in southern Switzerland. During the heaviest floods, river discharge rates can increase by as much as 1400 m3/s in less than 3 hours! High-resolution volumetric radar data and sounding profiles are extensively used to investigate the environmental conditions and mesoscale precipitation mechanisms producing floods for the last 8 years in the catchment. The events causing the highest discharge rates in the river are typically due to orographic convection, which is absent from storm events that produce lower peak flow rates. During the heaviest floods, individual convective cells are repeatedly advected over the Maggia watershed, producing excessive rainfall and river discharge rates. At larger temporal scales, precipitation patterns assume the form of quasi-stationary, elongated bands of rainfall. The results of this work provide a conceptual model for orographic convection development in sheared flows, depicting a mechanism which is likely to be observed over other mountainous chains of the world.

Panziera, Luca; James, Curtis; Germann, Urs

2014-05-01

340

The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

2013-04-01

341

Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.

Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.

1993-01-01

342

Southern California Fires, Oct 26, 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several massive wildfires were raging across southern California over the weekend of October 25, 2003. Whipped by the hot, dry Santa Ana winds that blow toward the coast from interior deserts, at least one fire grew 10,000 acres in just 6 hours. Moving northwest to southeast along the coast, the first cluster of red dots is a combination of the Piru, Verdale, and the Simi Incident Fires; The next cluster-to the east of Los Angeles-is the Grand Prix (west) and Old (east) Fires; To their south is the Roblar 2 Fire; Next is the Paradise Fire; Then the massive Cedar Fire, whose thick smoke is completely overshadowing the coastal city of San Diego; Finally, at the California-Mexico border is the Otay Fire. At least 13 people have lost their lives because of these fires, which officials are reporting were caused by carelessness and arson. Thousands have been evacuated across the region and hundreds of homes have been lost.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Salomonson, Vincent

2003-10-27

343

Carboniferous sedimentation and tectonics in southern Morocco  

SciTech Connect

The Carboniferous rocks of southern Morocco record the gradual change from the extensional tectonic style of the early Paleozoic to a compressional regime. During the Tournaisian and early Visean, northwest compression formed a rising anticline in the Anti-Atlas, which provided sediments to shallow marine basins formed in the flanking synclines. During the late Visean, tectonic activity increased markedly, and northward-downthrowing normal/oblique slip faulting formed submarine fault scarps. Turbidity currents and debris flows together with giant exotic blocks were shed northward from these scarps. The turbidity currents were deflected eastward to flow down the axes of these small easterly plunging marine basins. A late Visean phase of minor folding with locally developed cleavage and quartz veining closed these basins. The folded sequences are unconformably overlain by uppermost Visean fluvial sediments deposited from northward and eastward-flowing rivers. During the Pennsylvanian, collisional tectonics recorded in the Moroccan Meseta to the north were probably responsible for thrust faulting and the formation of a high-angle cleavage. Thick (up to 4.5 km) sandstones and conglomerates with red mudstones, paleosols, and coals are preserved on the fringes of the area. These were deposited by southeast-flowing rivers and are interpreted as the eroded remnants of a syn-postorogenic molasse deposited in a major foredeep south of the main orogen.

Harris, J.P.; Crossley, R.; Aktas, G.; Matthews, S.J.; Boudda, A.

1988-08-01

344

Observations of southern emission-line stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalog of 1929 stars showing H-alpha emission on photographic plates is presented which covers the entire southern sky south of declination -25 deg to a red limiting magnitude of about 11.0. The catalog provides previous designations of known emission-line stars equatorial (1900) and galactic coordinates, visual and photographic magnitudes, H-alpha emission parameters, spectral types, and notes on unusual spectral features. The objects listed include 16 M stars, 25 S stars, 37 carbon stars, 20 symbiotic stars, 40 confirmed or suspected T Tauri stars, 16 novae, 14 planetary nebulae, 11 P Cygni stars, 9 Bep stars, 87 confirmed or suspected Wolf-Rayet stars, and 26 'peculiar' stars. Two new T associations are discovered, one in Lupus and one in Chamaeleon. Objects with variations in continuum or H-alpha intensity are noted, and the distribution by spectral type is analyzed. It is found that the sky distribution of these emission-line stars shows significant concentrations in the region of the small Sagittarius cloud and in the Carina region.

Henize, K. G.

1976-01-01

345

Antarctic ice sheet fertilises the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Ocean (SO) marine primary productivity (PP) is strongly influenced by the availability of iron in surface waters, which is thought to exert a significant control upon atmospheric CO2 concentrations on glacial/interglacial timescales. The zone bordering the Antarctic Ice Sheet exhibits high PP and seasonal plankton blooms in response to light and variations in iron availability. The sources of iron stimulating elevated SO PP are in debate. Established contributors include dust, coastal sediments/upwelling, icebergs and sea ice. Subglacial meltwater exported at the ice margin is a more recent suggestion, arising from intense iron cycling beneath the ice sheet. Icebergs and subglacial meltwater may supply a large amount of bioavailable iron to the SO, estimated in this study at 0.07-0.2 Tg yr-1. Here we apply the MIT global ocean model (Follows et al., 2007) to determine the potential impact of this level of iron export from the ice sheet upon SO PP. The export of iron from the ice sheet raises modelled SO PP by up to 40%, and provides one plausible explanation for seasonally very high in situ measurements of PP in the near-coastal zone. The impact on SO PP is greatest in coastal regions, which are also areas of high measured marine PP. These results suggest that the export of Antarctic runoff and icebergs may have an important impact on SO PP and should be included in future biogeochemical modelling.

Death, R.; Wadham, J. L.; Monteiro, F.; Le Brocq, A. M.; Tranter, M.; Ridgwell, A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Raiswell, R.

2014-05-01

346

Solid Waste Disposal by Land Burial in Southern Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were made of selected landfills in Southern Indiana to determine their effect on ground and surface waters. The purpose was to define field models of the geohydrologic systems, determine ground and surface water movement, analyze changes in water ...

D. B. Waldrip R. V. Ruhe

1974-01-01

347

65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR THE HOT BLAST STOVES OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

348

View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; Altamont Creek at left between railroad and bridge; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

349

Meteorological Modeling for the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer-based modeling done as part of an integrated environmental impact assessment sponsored by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) can be classified into four categories: (1) emissions, (2) meteorological, (3) air quality (atmospheric...

B. Timin D. E. McNally K. Doty S. F. Mueller T. W. Tesche

2002-01-01

350

22. Span 1, detail view, spring of southern arch rib ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Span 1, detail view, spring of southern arch rib at west abutment; view to northwest. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA

351

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions...

1989-01-01

352

8. Detail, southern third of west elevation, showing archedsoffit Tbeams ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail, southern third of west elevation, showing arched-soffit T-beams on squat piers; view to southeast. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA

353

Southern Africa Development Coordinating Conference and Its Security Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Political independence to the nine black states in Southern Africa came in various forms. For countries like Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zambia the transition was fairly peaceful. In contrast, for Angola, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, independen...

L. M. Fisher

1989-01-01

354

U.S. Foreign Policy in Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is designed to demonstrate analytically three propositions: First, that the U.S. has maintained a foreign policy toward southern Africa which has been unevenly implemented and even neglected by various administrations, due to perceptual differ...

R. J. Mahlum

1980-01-01

355

Southern California Origin-Destination Survey, 1991: Summary Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Summary Report presents preliminary findings from the 1991 Origin- Destination Survey coordinated by the Southern California Association of Governments on behalf of the five participating counties: Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and ...

1991-01-01

356

Black-White Occupational Differentials in Southern Metropolitan Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the extent to which market and labor force characteristics, in addition to overt discrimination of employers, contribute to relative occupational position differences between blacks and whites in 25 Southern metropolitan areas. (MF)

Adams, Arvil V.

1972-01-01

357

PARASITES IN SOUTHERN SLUDGES AND DISINFECTION BY STANDARD SLUDGE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Major objectives were to: (a) assess types and densities of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges in the southern United States, (b) investigate the inactivation of parasites by lime stabilization of sewage sludges seeded with selected intestinal parasites, (c) assess convent...

358

Geologic Study Southern Louisiana Salt Domes. Volume III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 12 Southern Louisiana domes (Lake Hermitage, Lake Washington, Leeville, Napoleonville, Potash, Bayou Blue, Bayou Choctaw, Bully Camp, Chacahoula, Clovelly, Sorrento, and White Castle) discussed in this report were found to possess the following genera...

1979-01-01

359

PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE IN SOUTHERN LAKE HURON  

EPA Science Inventory

Southern Lake Huron contains a diversity of phytoplankton assemblage types ranging from assemblages characteristic of oligotrophic waters to those which usually occur under highly eutrophic conditions. The offshore waters are generally characterized by oligotrophic associations a...

360

26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

361

21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955 on Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

362

Zooplankton Community Composition in Nearshore Waters of Southern Lake Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zooplankton samples collected in 1977 in the nearshore waters of southern Lake Michigan (0.4 km from shore) were analyzed to provide a bench mark on zooplankton community composition for comparison with future studies. Species composition, abundance, and ...

J. E. Gannon F. J. Bricker K. S. Bricker

1983-01-01

363

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

364

Facility no. 170, interior of southern portion, being used as ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Facility no. 170, interior of southern portion, being used as carpentry shop - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Inert Ammunition Storehouses, Avocet and Kingfisher Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

365

INTERIOR OF MAIN SPACE, SHOWING MEZZANINE IN SOUTHERN SECTION, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF MAIN SPACE, SHOWING MEZZANINE IN SOUTHERN SECTION, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Torpedo & Bombsight Shop & Storehouse, Midway Street between Enterprise & Ranger Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

366

New Species of Culex (Melanoconion) from Southern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Culex (Melanoconion) lopesi, a new species from Municipio Iguape, Estado Sao Paulo, southern Brazil is recognized. The adult male, the only known stage of this species, is described and its genitalia are illustrated.

S. Sirivanakarn W. L. Jakob

1979-01-01

367

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

368

View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; note collision walls, provision for two tracks; view to north-northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

369

Intertidal Macrobiology of Selected Sandy Beaches in Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is designed to provide information about the intertidal macrofauna of representative sandy beaches in southern California, along with the factors affecting their distribution. Nine beaches between Coal Oil Point in the north and Deheny State Par...

M. M. Patterson

1974-01-01

370

BOILER HOUSE AND STEAM TURBINE STATION (SOUTHERN DIVISION). PHOTOCOPY FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILER HOUSE AND STEAM TURBINE STATION (SOUTHERN DIVISION). PHOTOCOPY FROM c. 1910 VIEW LOOKING EAST. From the collection of the Manchester Historic Association, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

371

Controlling the Southern Pine Beetle: Small Landowner Perceptions and Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is one of the most serious threats to pine forest health in the South. Once a forest stand is infested, there are few options for immediate elimination and isolation of...

J. J. Molnar J. Schelhas C. Holeski

2003-01-01

372

9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN ROCKFACED DRESSED AND MORTARED STONE ABUTMENT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN ROCKFACED DRESSED AND MORTARED STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING STEEL CROSSBEAMS, TORSIONAL DIAGONAL STRUTS, AND WOODEN STRINGERS. FACING SOUTHWEST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

373

5. DETAIL OF SOUTHERN ARCH. PIER AND ABUTMENTS HAVE BEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL OF SOUTHERN ARCH. PIER AND ABUTMENTS HAVE BEEN REINFORCED WITH CONCRETE. INTRADOS HAS BEEN PARGED WITH MORTAR. - Core Creek County Bridge, Spanning Core Creek, approximately 1 mile South of State Route 332 (Newtown Bypass), Newtown, Bucks County, PA

374

5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

375

SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, WHICH DID NOT EXIST ON DURING SHIP BUILDING DAYS. NOTE VEHICLE ELEVATOR. ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT IS SHIP BUILDING BALCONY. - B Building, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

376

21. View of southern span showing operating strut extending through ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View of southern span showing operating strut extending through the center channel in the concrete counterweight (see also photograph 20). - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

377

76 FR 770 - Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...approximately 5 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Pima County Parks and Recreation Department, 3500 West River Road, Tucson, AZ 85741. Send written comments to Jennifer Ruyle, RAC Coordinator, Southern Arizona Resource...

2011-01-06

378

INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF WINDOW MODIFICATION, FACING WEST Southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF WINDOW MODIFICATION, FACING WEST - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers , Building 61, North side of Harris Avenue at its intersection with Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

379

TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TYPICAL VIEW OF WEST BRANCH COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL OPEN CHANNEL BETWEEN WEST BRANCH DROP AND GERKING FLUME. LOOKING SOUTH/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

380

Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

Gary, Bruce L.

2008-01-01

381

The Southern Cone: A critical element in North American geology  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific and Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico continental margins converge towards southern Mexico, delimiting the Southern Cone of North American. The margins are controlled by late Precambrian to early Paleozoic rift systems. The Neoproterozoic rifts along the Pacific margin truncate the 1.3--1.0 Ga Grenville-Llano front and still older structural boundaries within the craton, such as the Snowbird line. The Atlantic margin originated by separation from another continent within the Grenville orogen near the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Gulf of Mexico margin was initiated with rifting at that time, but appears to truncate the Ordovician Taconian orogen in Georgia. The continental margins of the Southern Cone may prove critical in understanding the origin of North America as a discrete continent. A possible continuation of the Grenville-Llano front has now been identified along the Pacific margin of the East Antarctic craton; the opposite side of the Grenville orogen may be present in South America and East Antarctic; a southern continuation of the Taconic Appalachians may have been identified in southern South American and Antarctica (L. Dalla Salda et al., Geology, 1992 a;b: I. Dalziel, Geology, 1991, and GSA Today, 1992; P. Hoffman, Science, 1991; E. Moores, Geology, 1991). Thus the geology of the Southern Cone of North America provides opportunities for critical testing of these globally important hypotheses, notably through geochronometry, isotope geochemistry, stratigraphy, and paleobiogeography. Conversely, East Antarctica, southern Africa, and the proto-Andean margin of South America may offer exciting opportunities to further understanding of pre-Pangea geology across southern North America.

Dalziel, I.W.D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics)

1993-02-01

382

Ozone over southern Africa during SAFARI92\\/TRACE A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of total O3 in southern Africa and over the adjacent Atlantic during the IGAC\\/STARE\\/SAFARI-92\\/TRACE A (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry\\/South Tropical Atlantic Regional Experiment\\/Southern African Fire Atmospheric Research Initiative\\/Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic) field experiments are described. Most of the analysis is based on data from the Nimbus 7\\/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) gridded O3 data archive (version

A. M. Thompson; R. D. Diab; G. E. Bodeker; M. Zunckel; G. J. R. Coetzee; C. B. Archer; D. P. McNamara; K. E. Pickering; J. Combrink; J. Fishman; D. Nganga

1996-01-01

383

Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methyl halides, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and methyl iodide (CH3I), were measured in regional air samples and smoke from savanna fires in southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative-92 (SAFARI-92) experiment (August-October 1992). All three species were significantly enhanced in the smoke plumes relative to the regional background. Good correlations were found between the methyl

M. O. Andreae; E. Atlas; G. W. Harris; G. Helas; A. de Kock; R. Koppmann; W. Maenhaut; S. Manø; W. H. Pollock; J. Rudolph; D. Scharffe; G. Schebeske; M. Welling

1996-01-01

384

Evolution of Pangea: paleomagnetic constraints from the Southern Alps, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new early Late Triassic paleopole for Adria has been obtained from the Val Sabbia Sandstone in the Southern Alps. As Early Permian and Jurassic-Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from para-autochthonous regions of Adria such as the Southern Alps are consistent with ‘African’ APWPs[1–2], paleomagnetic data from this region can be used to bolster the West Gondwana APWP in the poorly known

Giovanni Muttoni; Dennis V. Kent; James E. T. Channell

1996-01-01

385

Observations of infrasound from surf in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observe 10,000's of infrasound signals annually, in the frequency range from 1–5 Hz, at the I57US infrasound array in Southern California. 75% of these signals arrive at I57US at azimuths between 260 and 320 degrees. There is a good correlation between the amplitudes of signals from 260–320° and wave height measurements offshore Southern California, providing firm evidence that the

Stephen J. Arrowsmith; Michael A. H. Hedlin

2005-01-01

386

Transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa to the neighboring Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the dry season (May–October) of 2000 is characterized using ground, ozonesonde, and aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) in and around southern Africa, together with the GEOS-CHEM global model of tropospheric chemistry. The model shows a positive bias of ?20%

Parikhit Sinha; Lyatt Jaeglé; Peter V. Hobbs; Qing Liang

2004-01-01

387

Transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa to the neighboring Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the dry season (May-October) of 2000 is characterized using ground, ozonesonde, and aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) in and around southern Africa, together with the GEOS-CHEM global model of tropospheric chemistry. The model shows a positive bias of ~20%

Parikhit Sinha; Lyatt Jaeglé; Peter V. Hobbs; Qing Liang

2004-01-01

388

Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

1981-01-01

389

Southern Africa: Evolving Regional Water Law and Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers the governance of transboundary water resources in southern Africa. The emerging regional water law\\u000a as well as trends in water sector reforms are described, illustrating the interplay of persisting customary practices, the\\u000a inherited colonial law, and post-colonial legal reforms. The establishment of the Southern African Development Community is\\u000a a landmark development that created an enabling environment for

Pieter van der Zaag

390

Recovery plan for an exploited species, southern bluefin tuna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) were heavily depleted in the mid-1980s, and the fishing quota has been restricted since 1985.\\u000a As a result of this restriction and protection of immature individuals, spawning stock biomass (SSB) recently has shown a\\u000a slight increase. The Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT) has the target of recovering SSB to\\u000a the 1980 level

Mitsuyo Mori; Toshio Katsukawa; Hiroyuki Matsuda

2001-01-01

391

Holocene climatic trends and rhythms in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Africa’s unique mid-latitude oceanic position invites broad comparisons with palaeoclimatic records across the PEP\\u000a III transect including long-distance thermohaline circulation teleconnections. Atmospheric and oceanic circulation systems\\u000a around Southern Africa (Fig. 1) are linked (Lutjeharms et al. 2001). They interact to influence distribution of biomes including\\u000a prominence of C4 and C3 grasses in the summer-rain and winter rain regions respectively

Louis Scott; Julia A. Lee-Thorp

392

The hydrothermal system in southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southern Grass Valley is typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163-173C. This report discusses results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations used in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system. (USGS)

Welch, Alan H.; Sorey, M. L.; Olmsted, F. H.

1981-01-01

393

Synchronicity of historical dry spells in the Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shift in climate occurred during the mid-1970s that affected the hydroclimate of the Southern Hemisphere resulting in drying trends across continental regions including Australia, New Zealand and southern and western Africa. There is also anecdotal evidence of other periods of climatic synchronicity in the Southern Hemisphere (e.g., the 1920s and 1940s), indicating that the mid-1970s event may not be anomalous. This paper identifies periods within the last ~120 years using statistical analysis where dry spells (in terms of annual to multi-decadal rainfall deficiencies) have coincided across the continental Southern Hemisphere in order to characterize temporal consistency. It is shown that synchronicity of dry spells is (a) most likely common over the last 120 years and (b) associated with changes in the large-scale climate modes of the Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans. Importantly, the findings presented in this paper have marked implications for drought management and drought forecasting studies in the Southern Hemisphere.

Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

2014-06-01

394

Synchronicity of historical dry spells in the Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shift in climate occurred during the mid-1970s that affected the hydroclimate of the Southern Hemisphere resulting in drying trends across continental regions including Australia, New Zealand and southern and western Africa. There is also anecdotal evidence of other periods of climatic synchronicity in the Southern Hemisphere (e.g. the 1920s and 1940s), indicating that the mid 1970s event may not be anomalous. This paper identifies periods within the last ~120 yr using statistical analysis where dry spells (in terms of annual to multi-decadal rainfall deficiencies) have coincided across the continental Southern Hemisphere in order to characterize temporal consistency. It is shown that synchronicity of dry spells is (a) most likely common over the last 120 yr and (b) associated with changes in the large-scale climate modes of the Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans. Importantly, the findings presented in this paper have marked implications for drought management and drought forecasting studies in the Southern Hemisphere.

Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

2013-12-01

395

77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant...imposed in Norfolk & Western Railway--Trackage Rights-- Burlington...modified in Mendocino Coast Railway, Inc.--Lease & Operate...Jr., Senior Counsel, Rail America, Inc., 7411 Fullerton...

2012-03-23

396

Data on the Reproduction and Development of Some Fish Species Inhabiting the Southern Sakhalin and Southern Kurile Regions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some thermophilic species of the genera Engraulis, Cololabis and Calliongmus are found farther north than was assumed. Engraulis japonicus inhabits the southern Kurile area, Cololabis saira was found off the west coast of Sakhalin and in Zaliv Aniva, whil...

I. I. Kazanova

1967-01-01

397

The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: II  

PubMed Central

The Southern California Twin Register was initiated in 1984 at the University of Southern California, and continues to grow. This article provides an update of the register since it was described in the 2002 special issue of this journal. The register has expanded considerably in the past 4 years, primarily as a result of recent access to Los Angeles County birth records and voter registration databases. Currently, this register contains nearly 5000 twin pairs, the majority of whom are school age. The potential for further expansion in adult twins using voter registration records is also described. Using the Los Angeles County voter registration database, we can identify a large group of individuals with a high probability of having a twin who also resides in Los Angeles County. In addition to describing the expansion of register, this article provides an overview of an ongoing investigation of 605 twin pairs who are participating in a longitudinal study of behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, indicating baseline rates of conduct problems, depression and anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnoses which are comparable to nontwins in this age range.

Baker, Laura A.; Barton, Mafalda; Lozano, Dora Isabel; Raine, Adrian; Fowler, James H.

2007-01-01

398

Seasonally different carbon flux changes in the Southern Ocean in response to the southern annular mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric ozone depletion and emission of greenhouse gases lead to a trend of the southern annular mode (SAM) toward its high-index polarity. The positive phase of the SAM is characterized by stronger than usual westerly winds that induce changes in the physical carbon transport. Changes in the natural carbon budget of the upper 100 m of the Southern Ocean in response to a positive SAM phase are explored with a coupled ecosystem-general circulation model and regression analysis. Previously overlooked processes that are important for the upper ocean carbon budget during a positive SAM period are identified, namely, export production and downward transport of carbon north of the polar front (PF) as large as the upwelling in the south. The limiting micronutrient iron is brought into the surface layer by upwelling and stimulates phytoplankton growth and export production but only in summer. This leads to a drawdown of carbon and less summertime outgassing (or more uptake) of natural CO2. In winter, biological mechanisms are inactive, and the surface ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere by releasing CO2. In the annual mean, the upper ocean region south of the PF loses more carbon by additional export production than by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere, highlighting the role of the biological carbon pump in response to a positive SAM event.

Hauck, J.; Völker, C.; Wang, T.; Hoppema, M.; Losch, M.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.

2013-12-01

399

Interannual Variability and Trends of Extratropical Ozone, Part II: Southern Hemisphere. Part 2; Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) total column ozone following the method established for analyzing the data in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in a companion paper. The interannual variability (IAV) of extratropical O-3 in the SH is characterized by four main modes, which account for 75% of the total variance. The first two leading modes are approximately zonally symmetric and relate to the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the quasi-biennial oscillation. The third and fourth modes exhibit wavenumber-1 structures. Contrary to the Northern Hemisphere, the third and fourth are nor related to stationary waves. Similar results obtained for the 30 100-hPa geopotential thickness.The decreasing O3 trend in the SH is captured in the first mode. The largest trend is at the South Pole, with value similar to-2 Dobson Units (DU)/yr. Both the spatial pattern and trends in the column ozone are captured by the Goddard Earth Observation System chemistry-climate model (GEOS-CCM) in the SH.

Yung, Y. L.

2008-01-01

400

Southern California Shaded Relief, Color as Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the desert to the mountains to the sea,' this image shows in striking detail the varied topography of Southern California. The data, which cover an area one and a half times the size of New Jersey, were acquired in 15 seconds by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The large V-shape across the center of the image is the intersection of the mountains uplifted along two major faults. The San Andreas Fault is the lower part of the 'V' and the Garlock Fault is the upper part. Between the faults is the western Mojave Desert, including the alternate landing site for the Shuttle at Edwards Air Force Base, near the center of the image. The Pacific Coast appears in the lower left of the image, from Oxnard at the left center edge, curving southeast to Los Angeles. The flat blue area along the top is the southern end of California's Central Valley. Along the right edge of the image is NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Tracking Station. Scientists will use data like these to study a broad range of topics, including ecology, the environment, geology, as well as to make assessments of seismic, flood, and wildfire hazards.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 3000 meters (10,000 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 250 km (155 miles) x 150 km (93 miles) Location: 34.8 deg. North lat., 118.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

2000-01-01

401

Enhanced CO 2 outgassing in the Southern Ocean from a positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) We investigate the interannual variability in the flux of CO2 between the atmosphere and the Southern Ocean on the basis of hindcast simulations with a coupled physical-biogeochemical-ecological model with particular emphasis on the role of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). The simulations are run under either pre-industrial or historical CO2 concentrations, permitting us to separately investigate natural, anthropogenic, and

Nicole S. Lovenduski; Nicolas Gruber; Scott C. Doney; Ivan D. Lima

2007-01-01

402

Oscillation of Saturn's southern auroral oval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-planetary-period oscillations in the Cassini plasma and magnetic field data have been observed throughout Saturn's magnetosphere despite the fact that Saturn's internal magnetic field is apparently highly axisymmetric. In addition, the period of the Saturn kilometric radiation has been shown to vary over time. In this paper we present results from the recent Hubble Space Telescope observations of Saturn's southern ultraviolet auroral emission. We show that the center of the auroral oval oscillates with period 10.76 h ± 0.15 h for both January 2007 and February 2008, i.e., close to the periods determined for oscillations in other magnetospheric phenomena. The motion of the oval center is described for 2007 by an ellipse with semimajor axis ˜1.4° ± 0.3° oriented toward ˜09-21 h LT, eccentricity ˜0.93, and center offset from the spin axis by ˜1.8° toward ˜04 h LT. For 2008 the oscillation is consistent with an ellipse with semimajor axis ˜2.2° ± 0.3° oriented toward ˜09-21 h LT, eccentricity ˜0.99, and a center offset from the spin axis by ˜2.2° toward ˜03 h LT. The motion of the auroral oval is thus highly elliptical in both cases, and the major oscillation axis is oriented toward prenoon/premidnight. This result places an independent constraint on the magnitude of the planet's dipole tilt and may also indicate the presence of an external current system that imposes an asymmetry in the ionospheric field modulated close to the planetary period.

Nichols, J. D.; Clarke, J. T.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Duval, J.; Farmer, A. J.; GéRard, J.-C.; Grodent, D.; Wannawichian, S.

2008-11-01

403

Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.  

PubMed

A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:21983478

Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

2012-01-01

404

Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE.

Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

1997-06-01

405

Jurassic hydrocarbon exploration of southern Florida  

SciTech Connect

South Florida Jurassic exploration has been overlooked as a viable exploration target due to lack of data and plate-tectonics application. In Florida, {open_quotes}basement{close_quotes} is defined as crystalline, igneous, metamorphic, and unmetamorphosed sediments of Paleozoic age. Age-dating of zircons has proven that the Florida lower Paleozoic terrane is not akin to that of North America but is part of the West African Guinean shield. Previous published reconstructions of late Paleozoic fits of crustal plates and continents have failed to account for the differences in peninsula Florida basement and the geologic and tectonic continuities of peninsula Florida, Yucatan, Cuba, Hispaniola, and Bahamas. Pre-Atlantic reconstruction of the Gulf of Mexico in this study proposes that there was a Florida connection to Yucatan-Cuba-Africa during the Triassic. This reconstruction also shows that the Jurassic sediments that are well known in the northern Gulf Coast should have been deposited in similar depositional environments in southern Florida. Deep drilling on the Florida peninsula has confirmed this hypothesis. By using plate tectonic reconstruction based on the rising of the North Atlantic Ocean and evidence from petrology of basement samples from deep wells together with petrographic analyses of Jurassic sediments, a Smackover-equivalent exploration play can be developed. Petrographic and petrophysical analysis of these wells that have encountered Jurassic marine shales, anhydrite, dolomite, carbonate, and elastic sediments has determined that these sediments are from shallow-water subtidal, tidal, intertidal, and supratidal environments. Excellent gas shows, oil stain in the pores and high TOC values in the marine shales, indicate that large accumulations of hydrocarbon are present.

Mitchell-Tapping, H.J. [Retog, Inc., DeSoto, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

406

Moho interface beneath Yakutat terrane, southern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

use air gun shots recorded by ocean-bottom and land seismometers to constrain a 3-D velocity structure and a Moho interface depth for the Yakutat terrane in southern Alaska. We use a tomographic inversion of ~61,000 first-arrival picks from 64 receivers to create a 3-D velocity model. The average velocity-depth function north of the coastline has velocities at the surface of ~4-5 km/s, increasing to velocities of >6 km/s at ~12-13 km below the surface. Average velocities at the surface are slower near the coast (3.8 km/s) than under the highest topography (4.7 km/s). We carry out an interface inversion of ~19,000 PmP reflection picks from 50 receivers to constrain a 2-D Moho interface model. The average Moho depth of the Yakutat terrane in the marine portion of our study area is ~30 km, but depth rapidly increases onshore to 40-45 km beneath the high topography of the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains. Moho depths are consistent with Airy isostasy beneath the orogen. Our data set supports a continuous Moho at the base of the Yakutat terrane, with no evidence for Pacific oceanic crust underthrusting the Yakutat terrane. We present several geologic models for crustal thickening beneath the Chugach-St. Elias orogen that are consistent with the seismic observations and surface geology and compare these models with geologic mapping in the region. We argue that crustal thickening and topography at the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains is obtained via a duplex system that produces a vertically growing antiformal stack of sedimentary and metasedimentary material.

Christeson, G. L.; Van Avendonk, H. J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Reece, R. S.; Pavlis, G. L.; Pavlis, T. L.

2013-09-01

407

Suggestions for a large southern radio telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A southern partner is needed for the Arecibo telescope (213 m illuminated aperture, 38°N to 2°S declination range with up to 5° vignetting). We ask for a similar design: spherical primary fixed to ground, a movable focal system with two shaped Gregorian ancillaries, and 213 m aperture. But we want a larger declination range without any vignetting, optimized for minimum primary surface. Three special designs are suggested, for different requirements. First, a minimum tracking time of one hour can simply be given by a rotating asymmetrical illumination offset of 32 m (7.5°); the EW diameter of the primary, 215 m, is thus defined by the aperture itself. In order to give 4° overlap with Arecibo and to cover both Magellanic clouds, a declination range of 78° is needed, provided by a NS diameter of 436 m, and a shift of the focal system along a fixed NS arm 143 m long. Second, for planetary radar up to Saturn, a tracking time of three hours is needed, which calls for a rotating azimuth arm as at Arecibo. The minimum EW diameter, 308 m, is obtained with 47 m (11.25°) offset; and 78° declination range has a NS diameter of 418 m. Third, if polarization purity is required, a completely symmetrical system with smaller radius of curvature but a large secondary is suggested; and 321 m EW and 369 m NS diameter for the same pointing range, 45°EW and 78°NS. The last two systems are more expensive than the first one, or their NS range must be reduced, say, to 45° (14° south of Galactic center).

von Hoerner, Sebastian

408

The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results from a new carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the southern Galactic plane being conducted with the Mopra radio telescope in Australia. The 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 1-0 lines are being mapped over the l = 305° - 345°, b = ± 0.5° portion of the fourth quadrant of the Galaxy, at 35 arcsec spatial and 0.1 km s-1 spectral resolution. The survey is being undertaken with two principal science objectives: (i) to determine where and how molecular clouds are forming in the Galaxy and (ii) to probe the connection between molecular clouds and the `missing' gas inferred from gamma-ray observations. We describe the motivation for the survey, the instrumentation and observing techniques being applied, and the data reduction and analysis methodology. In this paper, we present the data from the first degree surveyed, l = 323° - 324°, b = ± 0.5°. We compare the data to the previous CO survey of this region and present metrics quantifying the performance being achieved; the rms sensitivity per 0.1 km s-1 velocity channel is 1.5 K for 12CO and 0.7 K for the other lines. We also present some results from the region surveyed, including line fluxes, column densities, molecular masses, 12CO/13CO line ratios, and 12CO optical depths. We also examine how these quantities vary as a function of distance from the Sun when averaged over the 1 square degree survey area. Approximately 2 × 106M? of molecular gas is found along the G323 sightline, with an average H2 number density of n_{H_2} ˜ 1 cm-3 within the Solar circle. The CO data cubes will be made publicly available as they are published.

Burton, Michael G.; Braiding, C.; Glueck, C.; Goldsmith, P.; Hawkes, J.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Kulesa, C.; Martin, C. L.; Pineda, J. L.; Rowell, G.; Simon, R.; Stark, A. A.; Stutzki, J.; Tothill, N. J. H.; Urquhart, J. S.; Walker, C.; Walsh, A. J.; Wolfire, M.

2013-08-01

409

Attenuation tomography of the Southern Apennines (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to improve our knowledge of the attenuation structure in the Southern Apennines using a new amplitude ratio tomography method (Phillips et al., Geophys Res Lett 32(21):L21301, 2005) applied on both direct and coda envelope measurements derived from 150 events recorded by 47 stations of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale Centralizzata). The two-dimensional (2-D) analysis allows us to take into account lateral crustal variations and heterogeneities of this region. Using the same event and station distribution, we also applied a simple 1-D methodology, and the performance of the 1-D and 2-D path assumptions is tested by comparing the average interstation variance for the path-corrected amplitudes using coda and direct waves. In general, coda measurement results are more stable than using direct waves when the same methodology is applied. Using the 2-D approach, we observe more stable results for both waves. However, the improvement is quite small, probably because the crustal heterogeneity is weak. This means that, for this region, the 1-D path assumption is a good approximation of the attenuation characteristics of the region. A comparison between Q tomography images obtained using direct and coda amplitudes shows similar results, consistent with the geology of the region. In fact, we observe low Q along the Apennine chain toward the Tyrrhenian Sea and higher values to the east, in correspondence with the Gargano zone that is related to the Apulia Carbonate Platform. Finally, we compared our results with the coda Q values proposed by Bianco et al. (Geophys J Int 150:10 22, 2002) for the same region. The good agreement validates our results as the authors used a completely independent methodology.

Zolezzi, F.; Morasca, P.; Mayeda, K.; Phillips, W. S.; Eva, C.

2008-07-01

410

Thermal fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the weekly measurements made by the advanced very high resolution radiometers of NOAA satellites were used to investigate the structure and space-time variability of large-scale fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean (30-60S and 20-150E) during the period of 1997-1999. Monthly SST gradient gave an overall view of five basic fronts: the North and South Subtropical fronts (NSTF and SSTF, respectively), the Agulhas Front (AF), the Subantarctic Front (SAF), and the Polar Front (PF). Mean location of the fronts and related SST and SST gradients with corresponding standard deviations were calculated at each 10 deg.-spaced longitude. A double structure of the NSTF, SAF and PF was demonstrated as well as the meandering of all fronts with amplitudes of 2-5 deg. in latitude and wavelength of several degrees in longitude. Convergence and transient interaction between neighboring fronts appear to occur not only in the Crozet and Kerguelen regions, but in other regions as well. The mean locations and SST range of every front are in good agreement with previous work based on hydrographic surveys (Belkin and Gordon, 1996), although some details are different (in particular the larger zonal expansion of the NSTF and the wider frontal SST ranges than previously observed). A good correspondence of the measurement made in the course of two hydrographic surveys in the Kerguelen region (22 January - 3 February 1999) and in the Tasmania region (3-22 March 1998) with satellite SST and SST gradient maps was found.

Kostianoy, A. G.; Ginzburg, A. I.; Frankignoulle, M.; Delille, B.

2003-04-01

411

Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions from Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa to the neighboring Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the dry season (May-October) of 2000 is characterized using ground, ozonesonde, and aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) in and around southern Africa, together with the GEOS-CHEM global model of tropospheric chemistry. The model shows a positive bias of approximately 20% for CO and a negative bias of approximately 10-25% for O3 at oceanic sites downwind of fire emissions. Near areas of active fire emissions the model shows a negative bias of approximately 60% and approximately 30% for CO and O3, respectively, likely due to the coarse spatial (2 deg. x 2.5 deg.) and temporal (monthly) resolution of the model compared to that of active fires. On average, from 1994 to 2000, approximately 60 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO) from biomass burning in southern Africa was transported eastward to the Indian Ocean across the latitude band 0 deg. -60 S during the 6 months of the dry season. Over the same time period, approximately 40 Tg of CO from southern African biomass burning was transported westward to the Atlantic Ocean over the latitudes 0 deg. -20 S during the 6-month dry season, but most of that amount was transported back eastward over higher latitudes to the south (21 deg. -60 S). Eastward transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa enhances CO concentrations by approximately 4- 13 ppbv per month over the southern subtropical Indian Ocean during the dry season, with peak enhancements in September. Carbon monoxide from southern African and South American biomass burning is seen in the model simulations as far away as Australia, contributing approximately 8 ppbv and approximately 12-15 ppbv CO, respectively, and thus explaining the approximately 20- 25 ppbv observed enhancement of CO over Melbourne in mid-September 2000.

Sinha, Parikhit; Jaegle,Lyatt; Hobbs, Peter V.; Liang, Qing

2004-01-01

412

Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-year of data set from 1982 through 1998. We correlate the polar climate anomalies with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and examine the composites of these anomalies under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 > SOI > -1), and negative (SOI < -1) phases of SOL The climate data set consists of sea-level pressure, wind, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature fields, while the sea ice data set describes its extent, concentration, motion, and surface temperature. The analysis depicts, for the first time, the spatial variability in the relationship of the above variables and the SOL The strongest correlation between the SOI and the polar climate anomalies are found in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen and Ross sea sectors. The composite fields reveal anomalies that are organized in distinct large-scale spatial patterns with opposing polarities at the two extremes of SOI, and suggest oscillating climate anomalies that are closely linked to the SO. Within these sectors, positive (negative) phases of the SOI are generally associated with lower (higher) sea-level pressure, cooler (warmer) surface air temperature, and cooler (warmer) sea surface temperature in these sectors. Associations between these climate anomalies and the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover are clearly evident. Recent anomalies in the sea ice cover that are apparently associated with the SOI include: the record decrease in the sea ice extent in the Bellingshausen Sea from mid- 1988 through early 199 1; the relationship between Ross Sea SST and ENSO signal, and reduced sea ice concentration in the Ross Sea; and, the shortening of the ice season in the eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, far western Weddell Sea, and the lengthening of the ice season in the western Ross Sea, Bellingshausen Sea and central Weddell Sea gyre over the period 1988-1994. Four ENSO episodes over the last 17 years contributed to a negative mean in the SOI (-0.5). In each of these episodes, significant retreats in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Sea were observed providing direct confirmation of the impact of SO on the Antarctic sea ice cover.

Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.

2001-01-01

413

Southern Florida, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The very low topography of southern Florida is evident in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the left is a standard view, with the green colors indicating low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. In this exaggerated view even those highest elevations are only about 60 meters (197 feet) above sea level.

For the view on the right, elevations below 5 meters (16 feet) above sea level have been colored dark blue, and lighter blue indicates elevations below 10 meters (33 feet). This is a dramatic demonstration of how Florida's low topography, especially along the coastline, make it especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 27 degrees north latitude, 81 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 397 by 445 kilometers (246 by 276 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

414

Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data and cannot resolve the difference between eastern and western Madagascar. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the prominent Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone which is thought to have been formed during Gondwanaland assembly. The array recorded the magnitude 5.3 earthquake of January 25, 2013 which occurred just off its western edge. In addition, in May 2013 we have deployed 25 short period sensors in the eastern part of the study area, where there is some so-far poorly characterised seismicity. We will present preliminary results on the lithospheric crust and mantle structure based on surface wave dispersion and waveform modelling, focussing on the contrast between the metamorphic areas in the east and the presumably stretched regions in the west. Station distribution Red diamonds: Temporary Broadband Light red squares: Short period Green: permanent stations Other temporary experiments: Open dark blue boxes: RHUM-RUM stations Open light blue boxes: MACOMO stations

Tilmann, F. J.; Yuan, X.; Rumpker, G.; Heit, B.; Rambolamana, G.; Rindraharisaona, E.; Priestley, K. F.

2013-12-01

415

Measurement of Wetland Evapotranspiration in Southern Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET) is defined as a composite flux of surface water directly evaporated by solar energy, and ground water transpired by plants. Factors limiting ET include the available energy, available water, and the vapor transport resistance offered by the atmosphere and vegetation. ET is surprisingly understudied considering its dominance in the hydrologic cycle transporting as much as 80% to over 100% of rainfall back into the atmosphere as water vapor. Uncertainties in spatial and temporal ET estimates limit the reliability of hydrologic water budgets and therefore can complicate development of sustainable water-use strategies and resolution of conflicts over water. In response to ET uncertainties, a monitoring station was constructed over a wet-prairie wetland in Big Cypress National Preserve in southern Florida to measure latent heat flux (the energy equivalent of ET), rainfall, air and water temperature, wind speed and direction, wind gusts, solar radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, relative humidity, and depth-of-water above or below land surface. The monitoring station was located on a 12' tower for atmospheric sampling at distances roughly 6' to 8' above the wet prairie canopy. Data are presented for a full year; specifically, June 16th, 2007 to June 16th, 2008. The eddy covariance method was applied to measure ET. The mean daily ET total was about 2.8 millimeters per day. Maximum values of about 3.5 to 5 millimeters per day were measured during the summer months (April to September) when solar radiation was greatest. Minimum values of 0 to about 2.5 millimeters per day were measured during the winter months (October to March) when solar radiation was relatively small. Sub-daily ET variations were explained mostly by available energy; formulated as the difference between net radiation, the soil-heat flux, and changes in heat-energy stored in the soil and surface-water. The annual ET total was about 1050 millimeters per year (41 inches per year). This compared to a rainfall total of about 955 millimeters per year (38 inches per year). Thus, the net atmospheric input (Rainfall - ET) was about -100 mm per year (-3 inches per year) at the wet prairie site for the year.

Bernier, T.; Lopez, C.; Shoemaker, W. B.

2009-12-01

416

Volcanism at Hualca Hualca Volcano, Southern Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nevado Hualca Hualca (6025m), in southern Peru, is the northernmost edifice in a north-south trending chain of 3 volcanoes that includes Ampato and the active Sabancaya stratovolcano. The oldest in the chain and considered extinct, virtually no research exists about the history of this large volcano. The summit of the volcano shows deep incision by glaciation, which from aerial photographs appears unaffected by later volcanism. Its north slope, however, possesses numerous volcanic domes, extensive lava flows with distinct levees and transverse ridges, and pyroclastic flow deposits. Deposits on the northwestern slope of Hualca Hualca include breadcrust-rich block-and-ash flows (BAF), several dacite lava flows including one with an identifiable source dome about 15km from the summit, and a sequence of small pyroclastic flow deposits with minor associated tephra. Analyses of these deposits show a restricted range of compositions (63-68 wt% SiO2). The PF sequence has an upward decrease in SiO2 and basaltic andesite (56 wt% SiO2) inclusions occur in the uppermost PFs. Principal phenocrysts include plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, and sphene. Fine grained, angular to sub-rounded magmatic enclaves occur within the breadcrust-rich BAF deposits and the youngest lava flow. They are characterized by randomly oriented acicular hornblende, lack of chilled margins, and a few voids indicative of a quench texture. Plagioclase crystals with "dusty" rims or cores present in most of the deposits suggest resorption caused by magma recharge. These features imply a stratified magma chamber subject to magma recharge events and mingling to produce the quench texture enclaves. Chemical analyses indicate that the volcanic products result from magma mixing processes; the basaltic andesite inclusions may represent the mafic end-member of the mixing process. The physical characteristics of the deposits and chemical analyses were compared with data from the 1990-98 eruptive episode of Sabancaya volcano. Quench-texture enclaves and dusty-rimmed plagioclase exist in practically all of the Sabancaya deposits. The Sabancaya chemical analyses plot in line with those from the Hualca Hualca deposits; the Hualca Hualca samples are more evolved in almost every case except for the basaltic-andesite inclusions. This indicates a common formational history for the products of these two volcanoes and suggests a longer crustal storage time for the more evolved Hualca Hualca volcanics.

Burkett, B.

2005-12-01

417

Sea Ice on the Southern Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Year-round satellite records of sea ice distribution now extend over more than two decades, providing a valuable tool to investigate related characteristics and circulations in the Southern Ocean. We have studied a variety of features indicative of oceanic and atmospheric interactions with Antarctic sea ice. In the Amundsen & Bellingshausen Seas, sea ice extent was found to have decreased by approximately 20% from 1973 through the early 1990's. This change coincided with and probably contributed to recently warmer surface conditions on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula, where air temperatures have increased by approximately 0.5 C/decade since the mid-1940's. The sea ice decline included multiyear cycles of several years in length superimposed on high interannual variability. The retreat was strongest in summer, and would have lowered the regional mean ice thickness, with attendant impacts upon vertical heat flux and the formation of snow ice and brine. The cause of the regional warming and loss of sea ice is believed to be linked to large-scale circulation changes in the atmosphere and ocean. At the eastern end of the Weddell Gyre, the Cosmonaut Polyna revealed greater activity since 1986, a recurrence pattern during recent winters and two possible modes of formation. Persistence in polynya location was noted off Cape Ann, where the coastal current can interact more strongly with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As a result of vorticity conservation, locally enhanced upwelling brings warmer deep water into the mixed layer, causing divergence and melting. In the Ross Sea, ice extent fluctuates over periods of several years, with summer minima and winter maxima roughly in phase. This leads to large interannual cycles of sea ice range, which correlate positively with meridinal winds, regional air temperatures and subsequent shelf water salinities. Deep shelf waters display considerable interannual variability, but have freshened by approximately 0.03/decade since the late 1950's. That could have slowed the thermohaline circulation beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the properties or volume of local bottom water production.

Jacobs, Stanley S.

1998-01-01

418

Southern rim of Isidis Planitia basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 11 April 2002) The Science This image, crossing the southern rim of the Isidis Planitia basin, displays the contrasting morphologies of the relatively rough highland terrain (in the lower portion of the image) and the relatively smooth materials of the basin (at top). Upon closer viewing, the basin materials display an extensive record of cratering, including a small cluster of craters just north and west of the two prominent craters in the upper part of the image. This cluster of craters may represent what are called 'secondary' craters, which are craters that form as a result of the ejection of debris from a nearby impact. Alternatively, these craters may have formed simultaneously by the impact of many pieces of a larger meteoroid that broke up upon entry into Mars' atmosphere. The large craters in the image are approximately 800 meters (875 yards) in diameter. Also visible in the image are dark streaks on the east-facing side of the north-south trending ridge. These streaks are likely the result of debris movement down slope. A dark patch of material is visible at the left of the image; dark materials are typically mobile sands, and linear dune forms are apparent within the dark patch. The Story Battered and beaten up, the surface of Mars reads like a history book to geologists, who want to study what has happened to the red planet over its geological history. Look for two larger craters diagonal from one another in the northern part of this image, and then for the smattering of tinier craters near them. How did these smaller craters come to be? Did a large meteoroid streak in through the Martian atmosphere and get broken up as it passed through, pummeling Mars moments later with its smaller, scattered pieces? Or were rocks and dirt blasted off the surface when the two larger craters were formed, only to rain down again on Mars shortly afterwards? No one quite knows for sure.... Another enigmatic-looking feature is near the left center of this image. Dark and shadowy-seeming, it looks something like an exclamation point with the small crater just below it. Look closely, and you'll see dunes within the large, dark, blurry patch, which is itself probably composed of moving sands. Dark, streaky features also appear on the eastern side of the ridge that runs down the right side of the image, showing how debris once tumbled down its steepened slopes.

2002-01-01

419

Blinding Trachoma in Postconflict Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Reports from eye surgery camps and anecdotal data indicated that blinding trachoma is a serious cause of visual impairment in Mankien payam (district) of southern Sudan. We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of trachoma, estimate targets for interventions, and establish a baseline for monitoring and evaluation. Methods and Findings A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2005. A two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample population. Participants were examined for trachoma by experienced graders using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. A total of 3,567 persons were examined (89.7% of those enumerated) of whom 2,017 were children aged less than 15 y and 1,550 were aged 15 y and above. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1–9 y was: trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) = 57.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.5%–60.4%); trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) = 39.8% (95% CI, 36.3%–43.5%); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma) = 63.3% (95% CI, 60.1%–66.4%). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis was 9.6% (95% CI, 8.4%–10.9%) in all ages, 2.3% (95% CI, 1.6%–3.2%) in children aged under 15 y, and 19.2% (95% CI, 17.0%–21.7%) in adults. Men were equally affected by trichiasis as women: odds ratio = 1.09 (95% CI, 0.81%–1.47%). It is estimated that there are up to 5,344 persons requiring trichiasis surgery in Mankien payam. Conclusions Trachoma is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and the high prevalence of trichiasis in children underscores the severity of blinding trachoma. There is an urgent need to implement the surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change (SAFE) strategy for trachoma control in Mankien payam, and the end of the 21-y civil war affords an opportunity to do this.

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

2006-01-01

420

Flood of April 2007 in Southern Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Up to 8.5 inches of rain fell from April 15 through 18, 2007, in southern Maine. The rain - in combination with up to an inch of water from snowmelt - resulted in extensive flooding. York County, Maine, was declared a presidential disaster area following the event. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), determined peak streamflows and recurrence intervals at 24 locations and peak water-surface elevations at 63 sites following the April 2007 flood. Peak streamflows were determined with data from continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations where available and through hydraulic models where station data were not available. The flood resulted in peak streamflows with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years throughout most of York County, and recurrence intervals up to 50 years in Cumberland County. Peak flows for selected recurrence intervals varied from less than 10 percent to greater than 100 percent different than those in the current FEMA flood-insurance studies due to additional data or newer regression equations. Water-surface elevations observed during the April 2007 flood were bracketed by elevation profiles in FEMA flood-insurance studies with the same recurrence intervals as the recurrence intervals bracketing the observed peak streamflows at seven sites, with higher elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at six sites, and with lower elevation-profile recurrence intervals than streamflow recurrence intervals at one site. The April 2007 flood resulted in higher peak flows and water-surface elevations than the flood of May 2006 in coastal locations in York County, and lower peak flows and water-surface elevations than the May 2006 flood further from the coast and in Cumberland County. The Mousam River watershed with over 13 dams and reservoirs was severely impacted by both events. Analyses indicate that the April 2007 peak streamflows in the Mousam River watershed occurred despite the fact that up to 287 million ft3 of runoff was stored by 13 dams and reservoirs.

Lombard, Pamela J.

2009-01-01

421

Spectral quantification of Southern Baltic seabed roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the fast and efficient tool for seafloor classification, where scales and shapes of geomorphological forms were taken into account. The precise bathymetry and seafloor texture was developed with multibeam echosounder at six different areas of size up to 10 by 20 km. This areas demonstrate typical geomorphological seafloor features of bottom relief at the southern Baltic Sea coastal waters. The acoustical measurements were accompanied by geological sampling and video inspection. High resolution mosaic maps were obtained as a result of multi-survey measurements with maximal spatial resolution of 0.05m. Such accuracy of the measurements allows to observe small geomorphologic forms as ripplemarks or pebbles. The most investigated polygons have bottom relief of polygenetic origin with relicts of periglacial forms together with contemporary forms of marine origin. In the studied areas different forms of sand accumulation were found, beginning with small ripplemarks ending at big sandy waves. In the seabed erosion zones the bottom surface is rough and varied with clearly formed embankments, abrasive platforms, inselbergs and stony gravely abrasive pavements on the bottom surface. Such geomorphic diversity of the bottom surface has allowed for development of consistent geomorphological classification system based mainly on spectral properties of seafloor roughness. Each analysed area was divided into squares (200 by 200 m) with an overlap between adjacent subareas of 75% a square size. Next, subdivided areas were spectrally transformed using a two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D FFT). The spectral parameters as maximal value of spectral density function, spectral exponent and strength, spectral moments, mean frequency, spectral width and skewness for each characteristic type of bottom surface were determined relaying on the calculated 2D spectra. Moreover, other features characterised the corrugated surface as fractal dimension, radius of autocorrelation, elevation slope, statistical and wavelet transformation parameters were estimated. The set of parameters was the input to the Principal Component Analysis and next to the unsupervised neural network algorithm which produced maps containing morphologically classified seabed areas. The obtained results revealed that acoustical technique provides very useful capabilities for the seafloor characterisation.

Szefler, K.; Tegowski, J.; Nowak, J.

2012-12-01

422

Surface Deformation in Imperial Valley, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Imperial Valley in southern California is subjected to significant tectonic deformation resulting from the relative movement of the North American and Pacific plates. It is characterized by large earthquakes, frequent swarm activity, and aseismic events. High heat flow makes possible the operation of geothermal fields, some of which cause man-made surface displacements superimposed on the tectonic deformation. We apply radar interferometry (InSAR) to analyze Envisat ASAR data for the period 2003-2010. The SqueeSAR technique is used to obtain deformation time series and annual rates at numerous locations of permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS). SqueeSAR works very well in agricultural areas, where conventional differential InSAR (DinSAR) fails. We observe differential movements marking the Superstition Hills, San Andreas, and Imperial faults. The Imperial fault traverses agricultural fields, where DInSAR does not work and thus our SqueeSAR observations are the first for this fault (Fig. 1). We also observe steps in the deformation time series around the Superstition Hills fault from an October 2006 aseismic event and the April 2010 M7.2 earthquake south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Significant annual deformation rates are detected in the current geothermal fields. For example, subsidence of up to -50 mm/year is seen at the Salton Sea field (Fig. 2), and both subsidence and uplift are seen at Heber. We also determine the deformation baseline at prospective geothermal fields, thus making it possible in the future to distinguish between man-made and tectonic causes of surface deformation. Fig. 1. Line-of-sight (LOS) deformation indicates differential displacement on both sides of Imperial Fault. Movements away from the satellite are shown in yellow to red, and towards the satellite in blue. Larger deformation is associated with two geothermal fields, Heber (to the south-west) and East Mesa (to the east). Fig. 2. Subsidence in the Salton Sea geothermal field and superimposed M?1 earthquake epicenters for the period January 1981 - June 2011.

Eneva, M.; Adams, D.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.

2013-12-01

423

Southern Australian high-resolution mid Holocene to present climate change in relation to Southern Hemisphere climate drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The south-eastern (SEA) margin of Australia has many reported palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions from lacustrine environments spanning the Holocene. However, only recently have multi-proxy, high-resolution records with detailed chronologies been reported from this region. In contrast, only one record from the southern margin of Western Australia (SWA) has been published that is of sufficient quality for high-resolution palaeoclimatic interpretation from this region. Historical climate data from SWA and SEA indicate that the precipitation recorded in the two regions is controlled in large part by the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind System (WWS) and the associated Indian Ocean Sector - Southern Annular Mode (IOS-SAM). The historical climate of SEA is also significantly affected by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and to a lesser extent the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, whereas these two climate drivers have a negligible effect on the climate of SWA. Here we present a comparison of the palaeoclimatic histories of the two regions from the mid-Holocene (7.4 ka to present), and correlate the changes in the climatic histories these with large scale Southern Hemisphere climatic drivers. Both the SEA and SWA regions show a general trend towards aridity which is associated with the southerly migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) that progressively displaced the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude sub-tropical ridge to the south. This in association with a shift to more positive IOS-SAM-like conditions shifted the precipitation-bearing frontal belt to a more mean southerly location resulting in decreased precipitation across southern Australia. The establishment of a significant phase of positive IOD between 5.6 and 4.3 ka uncouples the climate between SWA and SEA. The establishment of modern ENSO and it's co-relationship with the IOD have contributed significantly to the late Holocene history of SEA, whereas SWA only records variation in the IOS-SAM.

De Deckker, P.; Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A. D.; Wilkins, D.

2012-12-01

424

Structure of the southern Rio Grande rift from gravity interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional Bouguer gravity anomalies in southern New Mexico have been analyzed by two-dimensional wave number filtering and poly-nomial trend surface analysis of the observed gravity field. A prominent, regional oval-shaped positive gravity anomaly was found to be associated with the southern Rio Grande rift. Computer modeling of three regional gravity profiles suggests that this anomaly is due to crustal thinning beneath the southern Rio Grande rift. These models indicate a 25 to 26-km minimum crustal thickness within the rift and suggest that the rift is underlain by a broad zone of anomalously low-density upper mantle. The southern terminus of the anomalous zone is approximately 50 km southwest of El Paso, Texas. A thinning of the rifted crust of 2-3 km relative to the adjacent Basin and Range province indicates an extension of about 9 percent during the formation of the modern southern Rio Grande rift. This extension estimate is consistent with estimates from other data sources. The crustal thinning and anomalous mantle is thought to result from magmatic activity related to surface volcanism and high heat flow in this area.

Daggett, P. H.; Keller, G. R.; Wen, C.-L.; Morgan, P.

1986-01-01

425

Ozone depletion leading force for Southern Ocean change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have suggested that key aspects of the Southern Ocean are affected by elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, which strengthen surface winds over much of the Southern Ocean, may increase flow rates in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), induce a temperature disparity between the northern and central Southern Ocean, and affect the strength of the meridional ocean circulation (MOC). But GHGs are not the only set of compounds arising from human activity that can trigger these changes. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to such ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) as chlorofluorocarbons, whose production and use were heavily regulated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol, results in similar changes. Using an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model that allows for detailed calculations of stratospheric chemistry, Sigmond et al. simulated past and future changes for the Southern Ocean due to both GHGs and ODSs. Their model calculations suggest that ODSs, which peaked in concentration in 1995, will be the dominant driver of changes in ACC until the second quarter of the 21st century, at which point the monotonically increasing GHG levels will take over. Further, they found that the peak impact of ODSs on ACC will occur a few decades after their peak concentration. The authors suggest that future research needs to take into account the effects of ozone depletion—something not ordinarily done in investigations of Southern Ocean behavior. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047120, 2011)

Schultz, Colin

2011-08-01

426

An observing system simulation for Southern Ocean carbon dioxide uptake.  

PubMed

The Southern Ocean is critically important to the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Up to half of the excess CO2 currently in the ocean entered through the Southern Ocean. That uptake helps to maintain the global carbon balance and buffers transient climate change from fossil fuel emissions. However, the future evolution of the uptake is uncertain, because our understanding of the dynamics that govern the Southern Ocean CO2 uptake is incomplete. Sparse observations and incomplete model formulations limit our ability to constrain the monthly and annual uptake, interannual variability and long-term trends. Float-based sampling of ocean biogeochemistry provides an opportunity for transforming our understanding of the Southern Ocean CO2 flux. In this work, we review current estimates of the CO2 uptake in the Southern Ocean and projections of its response to climate change. We then show, via an observational system simulation experiment, that float-based sampling provides a significant opportunity for measuring the mean fluxes and monitoring the mean uptake over decadal scales. PMID:24891388

Majkut, Joseph D; Carter, Brendan R; Frölicher, Thomas L; Dufour, Carolina O; Rodgers, Keith B; Sarmiento, Jorge L

2014-07-13

427

[Vaccines: producers in countries of the Southern hemisphere].  

PubMed

Vaccine producers in southern hemisphere countries now contribute significantly to global output. In 2006 southern hemisphere countries accounted for more than 10% of the total worldwide production with a progression approximately 70% greater than all producers combined in the two-year period between 2004 and 2006. Though difficult to measure, production in volume is higher due to lower prices practiced in most of these countries. For many years before the 1980s, production was scattered among numerous limited-scale companies. Most were founded at the initiative of governments striving to cover the needs of the population for essential vaccines. A number of institutions and private structures such as Institut Pasteur Production, Connaught Laboratories, and Institut Merieux have also set up production facilities. Today's producers can be divided into two categories, i.e., local producers that produce mainly monovalent vaccines and worldwide producers with strong R&D investment programs. Local producers are located mainly in large southern hemisphere countries such as China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia as well as in eastern countries. For the most dynamic companies, international development is focused on southern hemisphere countries excluding North America and Europe. With the support international organization such as WHO, UNICEF and GAVI, alliances are now being formed and networks are being organized in an effort to ensure reliable supplies of high quality vaccines at affordable prices in developing countries. The contribution of these producers will increase for the greater benefit of the people living in the southern hemisphere. PMID:17926792

Bertrand, J J

2007-08-01

428

Effects of the El Niño--Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle on mosquito populations in southern California.  

PubMed

The abundance and species composition of adult mosquitoes collected by carbon dioxide-baited suction traps and gravid traps in western Los Angeles County, CA, were compared before and during a strong El Niño--Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle from December 1996 until November 1999. Following El Niño conditions in the winter 1997-1998, adult host-seeking mosquito abundance during spring was twice that observed during spring 1997 and species composition favored cool-weather mosquitoes such as Culiseta incidens and Culex tarsalis. The comparatively cool temperatures from early April until early June and increased rainfall of the 1998 El Niño negatively affected warm-weather mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus that inhabit eutrophic habitats such as urban storm drains. Gravid mosquito abundance during the early summer following El Niño conditions also increased 2- to 3-fold relative to 1997, but gravid mosquito species composition was not significantly affected by ENSO cycles, reflecting an inherent bias of gravid traps to collect predominantly Cx. quinquefasciatus. Relative to spring 1997, host-seeking and gravid mosquito abundances were reduced 3- to 7-fold from March until June 1999 under the comparatively dry La Niña conditions. The increased abundance and prolonged host-seeking activity of Cx. tarsalis during the spring and early summer following a strong El Niño may have a significant impact on public health in urban southern California because this mosquito is an important arbovirus vector and constructed wetlands in urban areas may increase suitable, comparatively permanent developmental sites for important mosquito vectors such as Cx. tarsalis that are usually rare in urban environments. PMID:18697303

Heft, David E; Walton, William E

2008-06-01

429

The influence of Atlantic hurricanes on Southern Ontario's precipitation extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the influence of hurricanes on precipitation extremes (PEs) in Southern Ontario, Canada. We examine PEs and their spatial-temporal link with hurricanes events in Southern Ontario during the period of 1950-2000. On average, 5.4 PEs or 11 % of the 50 wettest days in the selected five locations occurred under the influence of hurricanes within this 51-year period. Our results indicate hurricane-influenced PEs are most frequent in September and derive from storms that had reached major hurricane status (>50 m/s) at some point during their lifetime. An absence of landfalling hurricanes in Southern Ontario during the 1960s to 1980s suggests either that the direct impact of hurricanes occurs on a multidecadal time scale or that recent years are experiencing unprecedented change.

Jien, Jerry Y.; Gough, William A.

2013-10-01

430

Notes on southern Africa Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Sia).  

PubMed

The Old World Jerusalem cricket (JC) subfamily Siinae contains one genus, Sia, with two subgenera: Sia (Sia) with two fully winged species from southeast Asia, and Sia (Maxentius) with four wingless species from southern Africa. Because there is a dearth of published data about the behavior and biology of these insects, we present new field and laboratory research on southern African Sia (Maxentius), gather museum and literature information, and present guidelines for collecting and rearing specimens. While we make no taxonomic decisions, this review should be useful for future studies, including a needed taxonomic revision. We also compare results from these southern African JCs with recent investigations on related New World taxa, where fascinating biological traits and extensive cryptic biodiversity have been uncovered. DNA analysis reveals that these Old and New World JCs are polyphyletic. PMID:24758791

Weissman, David B; Bazelet, Corinna S

2013-01-01

431

Human influence on extratropical Southern Hemisphere summer precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of extratropical Southern Hemisphere austral summer precipitation over recent decades show mid-latitude drying and high-latitude moistening. Here we show that the observed precipitation trends in two datasets are inconsistent with simulated internal variability, but are closely consistent with trends simulated in response to historical changes in anthropogenic and natural forcings. Simulations with individual anthropogenic and natural forcings suggest that the observed pattern of precipitation change is substantially forced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas and ozone changes, with an opposing influence from aerosols. Our results demonstrate that human influence had a significant impact on precipitation across the mid and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, changes which are expected to have a profound impact on Southern Ocean stratification and hence on ocean-atmosphere heat and carbon fluxes.

Fyfe, J. C.; Gillett, N. P.; Marshall, G. J.

2012-12-01

432

Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5  

SciTech Connect

This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

NONE

1996-07-01

433

Assessment of Southern California environment from ERTS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 imagery is a useful source of data for evaluation of earth resources in Southern California. The improving quality of ERTS-1 imagery, and our increasing ability to enhance the imagery has resulted in studies of a variety of phenomena in several Southern California environments. These investigations have produced several significant results of varying detail. They include the detection and identification of macro-scale tectonic and vegetational patterns, as well as detailed analysis of urban and agricultural processes. The sequential nature of ERTS-1 imagery has allowed these studies to monitor significant changes in the environment. In addiation, some preliminary work has begun directed toward assessing the impact of expanding recreation, agriculture and urbanization into the fragile desert environment. Refinement of enhancement and mapping techniques and more intensive analysis of ERTS-1 imagery should lead to a greater capability to extract detailed information for more precise evaluations and more accurate monitoring of earth resources in Southern California.

Bowden, L. W.; Viellenave, J. H.

1973-01-01

434

Transport of fine ash in the southern hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the transport and fate of fine ash (<32 µm) from volcanic eruptions in the Southern Hemisphere. This is mostly due to the lack of good observations in a region of the world mostly covered by ocean. Since the start of the satellite era (~1960s) it has been possible to make global observations of the spread of ash and aerosols from large eruptions, such as El Chichón, Mexico, Mt St Helens, USA and Pinatubo, Philippines. All of these eruptions took place in the northern hemisphere and were observed mostly through the aerosol signal (related to SO2 emissions). In August 1991 Cerro Hudson, in southern Chile erupted ash and gas that was transported in the westerly winds and circumvented the southern hemisphere reaching Australia. Ash deposits from these Andean eruptions typically span the width of Argentina and extend out into the Atlantic Ocean. The proportion of the ash deposit which is unaccounted for (the "missing" ash fraction) remains poorly constrained as "ultra"-distal fallout is often over the oceans. During the recent eruptions of Chaitén and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (both in southern Chile) stratospheric ash dispersion was tracked for many 1000s km for several weeks as far as Australia, and numerical models were able to capture the main aspects of the transport. Here we investigate important aspects of ash transport, mostly using new measurements from satellites, to estimate ash production, sedimentological analysis of ash fallout over Argentina, and the analysis of collocation of ash and SO2 from Southern Hemisphere eruptions. The sedimentology of ash layers identified in ocean sediments in the Southern Hemisphere has been compared with satellite measurements from recent eruptions, and model simulations of ash deposition. The importance of long-range transport of ash is emphasised in the light of recent concern over the hazard presented to aviation from volcanic ash encounters. The measurements may also be used to guide future stratigraphic studies in the South Atlantic focussed on ocean sediment analysis.

Prata, G.; Durant, A.; Prata, F.; Villarosa, G.; Viramonte, J.; Mather, T.; Pyle, D.

2012-04-01

435

Intraseasonal teleconnections between South America and southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleconnections are detected for different seasons in the intraseasonal precipitation variability of South America and southern Africa. Observed daily precipitation data from both continents in the period 1979-1999 are gridded to 1°, and a bandpass Lanczos filter is applied to each grid point, retaining only intraseasonal oscillations. Correlation analysis is carried out between filtered precipitation series in each 1° x 1° grid box with data over South America and precipitation averaged over several relatively homogeneous regions in southern Africa. Lags from 0 up to 5 days are applied to the African data, in order to disclose convective anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with the precipitation anomalies over southern Africa. The atmospheric conditions associated with the beginning of a positive (or negative) phase of intraseasonal oscillations in each selected region in southern Africa are assessed through the composites of 200 hPa streamfunction anomalies observed in the first days of these phases, when the daily precipitation anomaly starts exceeding 1 standard deviation in the filtered series. These composite fields show wavetrains connecting both continents, with strongest cyclonic anomaly centered southwest of the African regions under focus, as expected. An influence function analysis of the target points in the center of these cyclonic anomalies indicates that perturbations of the upper level divergence associated with anomalous convection over South America are able to produce the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with enhanced precipitation in those regions of southern Africa. Simulations with a vorticity equation model that includes the divergence of the basic state and the vorticity advection by the anomalous divergent wind confirm the observed connection. Therefore, although internal atmospheric variability may be associated with the intraseasonal oscillations of precipitation in South America and southern Africa, the anomalous convection over South America can enhance these oscillations. Strongest contributions seem to occur in transition seasons by convection anomalies in the beginning or demise of the South American summer monsoon.

Grimm, Alice

2013-04-01

436

Microbiome of Yermic Regosol in southern Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological activity is of utmost importance for the genesis of extremely arid desert soils. The soil surface in arid regions is often covered by biofilms representing a complex biocenosis of algae, bacteria, micromycetes, and, sometimes, mosses or lichens. Biofilms of extremely arid soils form a significant part of the living matter in the desert ecosystems and play the central role in their dynamics. Study of the genetic material recovered directly from the soil samples is the main approach in soil metagenomics. Modern sequencing methods were used to describe the diversity of the microorganisms in soil samples. For the first time, such data were obtained for the extremely arid desert soil (Yermic Regosol) in southern Kazakhstan (flat alluvial plain; 43° 42'53.2" N; 79°25'29.1" E; 615 m asl). Taxonomic identification of nucleotide sequences and comparative analysis of microbial communities were performed using VAMPS. The classification of the sequences was performed using RDP. As the primers used were based on the sequences of 16S-rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea, we could analyze the prokaryotic community. Along with bacteria and archaea with established systematic position, all soil samples contained unidentified sequences (5.2-5.3%). Bacteria predominated at the domain level (65.9-74.9%), although their portion was much lower in comparison with that in less arid soils, where it reached 94-100%. Archaea were present as minor components (0.3-0.5%). Dominant groups of bacteria were represented by Proteobacteria (43.9-50.8%), Actinobacteria (9.5-10%), Firmicutes (0.8-2.4%), Verrucomicrobia (1.1-3%), Acidobacteria (1.1-2%), Bacteroidetes (1.2-1.4%). The portion of other phyla was less than 1%. Thus, bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria constitute the core component of the microbiome. Archaea are represented by phylum Crenarchaeota. A key feature of the extremely arid soils is the presence of large numbers (24.7-33.6%) of cyanobacteria in the composition of DNA of the microbial community. Cyanobacteria play the major role in immobilization of carbon in the course of their photosynthetic activity. The biogenome of the studied soil consists of 27 families including dominant: Cyanobacteria (24.7-33.6%), Enterobacteriaceae from the class Gammaproteobacteria (13.0-15.6%), Pseudomonadaceae (1.6-11.7%), order Myxococcales (0.9-13.2%), which is found only in desert soils, and Moraxellaceae (0.7-8.1%) and Acetobacteraceae (2.9-3.2%) (also endemic organisms). Unclassified (at family level) bacteria from the order Burkholderiales were found in the soil samples (36 and 54 sequences, or 1.2-2.1%). We suppose that these are DNA of iron bacteria Leptothrix, whose presence in the soils was identified using the method of fouling glasses. The data on the biodiversity and genomic characterization of extremely arid desert soils in Kazakhstan reflect the actual species diversity of soil microorganisms. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 12-04-00990a.

Kutovaya, Olga; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

2014-05-01

437

Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the p