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1

Results of meteorological monitoring in Gorny Altai before and after the Chuya earthquake in 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the dynamics of some meteorological parameters in Gorny Altai from 2000 to 2011. We analyzed the variations in the meteorological parameters related to the strong Chuya earthquake (September 27, 2003). A number of anomalies were revealed in the time series. Before this strong earthquake, the winter temperatures at the nearest meteorological station to the earthquake source increased by 8-10°C (by 2009 they returned to the mean values), while the air humidity in winter decreased. In the winter of 2002, we observed a long negative anomaly in the time series of the atmospheric pressure. At the same time, the decrease in the released seismic energy was replaced by the tendency to its increase. Using wavelet analysis we revealed the synchronism in the dynamics of the atmospheric parameters, variations in the solar and geomagnetic activities, and geodynamic processes. We also discuss the relationship of the atmospheric and geodynamic processes and the comfort conditions of the population in the climate analyzed here.

Aptikaeva, O. I.; Shitov, A. V.

2014-12-01

2

First native silica findings in bismuth from garnet skarns of Ribny Log - 2 gold ore target in Topolninsk ore deposit (Gorny Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanomineralogic investigation results of ore minerals in metasomatites (garnet skarns) of Ribny Log- 2 gold ore in Topolninsk ore deposit (Gorny Altai) revealed the native silica impurities (Si) of 1 - 5 nm within the grains of native bismuth (Bi). Polished sections were examined by using Tescan Vega 3 scanning electron microscope (SEM) with Oxford energy-dispersive spectrometer at the Department of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Institute of Natural Resources, Tomsk Polytechnic University.

Cherkasova, T.; Timkin, T.; Savinova, O.

2015-02-01

3

[The prospects for the development of therapeutic and health-promoting tourism in Gorny Altai].  

PubMed

The present balneological survey made it possible to identify the promising areas with a high potential for the health resort, recreational and touristic activities including the foothill, low-mountain, mid-mountain valleys and hollows of Northern, Northwestern, Central and Eastern bioclimatic provinces of Mountainous Altai. Recommendations have been proposed for the development of therapeutic and health-improving tourism in the Shebalinsk, Ust'-Kansk and Ulagansk districts of the Altai Republic. PMID:25087422

Dzhabarova, N K; Iakovenko, É S; Sidorina, N G; Firsova, I A

2014-01-01

4

Major earthquakes of the southern Gornyi Altai in the Holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes geological and geomorphological features of ancient major earthquakes that occurred in the Holocene in\\u000a the zone of the Altai earthquake of September 27, 2003 (southern Gornyi Altai). Fossil earthquakes occurred in the regions\\u000a of the Northern and Southern Chuya ridges and Chuya and Kurai basins; their sources reached the surface and formed systems\\u000a of coseismic ruptures oriented

E. A. Rogozhin; A. N. Ovsyuchenko; A. V. Marakhanov

2008-01-01

5

A Few Issues on the Peat Research in the Altai Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of

Lydia I. Inisheva; Galina Larina; Maya Shurova

2010-01-01

6

mtDNA Variation in the Altai-Kizhi Population of Southern Siberia: A Synthesis of Genetic Variation  

E-print Network

The native peoples of Gorno Altai in southern Siberia represent a genetically diverse population and have been of great interest to anthropological genetics. In particular, the southern Altaian population is argued to be the best candidate...

Phillips-Krawczak, Christine; Devor, Eric; Zlojutro, Mark; Moffat-Wilson, Kristin; Crawford, Michael H.

2006-01-01

7

Low-temperature thermo-tectonic evolution of the Altai-Sayan mountains, South Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai-Sayan (AS) mountains are part of the vast intracontinental Central Asian Deformation Zone (CADZ), stretching out in front of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system. The Russian (South Siberian) part of the AS mountains is composed of tectonic terranes (e.g. Gorny Altai, West Sayan) which collided with the Siberian craton during the Late Paleozoic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Strain and

J. de Grave; B. Dehandschutter; P. van den Haute; M. M. Buslov; A. Boven

2003-01-01

8

The significance and chronology of the mega-floods of the Altai Mountains, Southern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the Altai Mountains, in Southern Siberia have become well known for the preservation of landforms and sediments associated with some of the largest floods in Earth History (Baker et al. 1993). These floods may have had significant effects on global climate. If the Ob River overflowed to the south then it would represent a massive transfer of water and energy from Central Asia to the mid latitudes. Alternatively if the floods occurred at a time when the absence of an ice sheet allowed the Ob to flow into the Arctic Ocean this would have had a significant effect on oceanic circulation and the thermohaline. However, the significance of these events is difficult to assess as they are undated. This paper describes a dating program using the cosmogenic isotopes 10Be and 26Al. Rock samples were collected during a joint Exeter University-Tomsk State University expedition in August 2004. The samples were collected from three different geomorphic contexts: (a) Giant dropstones deposited during the short existence of the glacially dammed lakes in the Kuray and Chuya Valleys (Figure 2). (b) Large rock blocks on moraines associated with the damning of the lake basins. (c) Striated rock surfaces created by glacial erosion in the Chagan Valley (Ci), and rock surfaces in a spillway created by catastrophic lake drainage (Cii). Although it is clear that at least sample types (a) & (b) could have complex exposure histories the combination of sample types should bracket the time period involved in the glacial advance, short-lived existence of the lakes and catastrophic lake drainage in the sequence outlined below: T1 type (Ci) striations created by advancing glacier (predating ice-dammed lake) T2 type (b) blocks on moraines marking maximum extent of the glacier slightly predating/contemporaneous with ice-dammed lake T3 type (a) dropstones deposited during the short period of lake existence (from floating ice) T4 type (a) blocks on flood berms immediately postdating the ice-dammed lake and dating the flood(s) T4 type (Cii) bedrock scour immediately post dating the ice-dammed lake and dating The flood(s) This paper discusses the possible global significance of these floods and first-phase dating results.

Brown, A. G.; Rudoy, A. N.

2005-12-01

9

Distribution of Active Faults and Recent Earthquake Ruptures along the Gobi-Altai Active Fault Zone, Southern Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gobi-Altai earthquake of 4 December 1957 in southern Mongolia is one of the largest recorded intracontinental earthquakes in the world. The surface ruptures associated with this M8.3 earthquake extend for about 260 km long and 40 km wide, involving strike-slip and reverse faulting (Kurushin et al., 1997). Earthquake ruptures appeared along a limited portion of the entire Gobi-Altai fault zone. West of the 1957 rupture zone, surface ruptures during historical and prehistrical earthquakes have been reported. Khil?fko and others (1985) reported surface deformation along the southern slope of the Bayan Tsagaan Mountains produced during the earthquake of 7 April 1958. They also identified two more Holocene rupture zones: west-northwest of the Bayan Tsagaan rupture near the village of Chandman, and west-northwest of the Chandman rupture near the village of Myangayn. However, previous studies do not discuss relationship between the distributions of active faults and earthquake ruptures along the entire active fault zone, because the exact location of the pre-existing active fault traces has not been mapped on large-scale maps. We have made distribution map of active fault traces based on interpretation of stereo-pair CORONA satellite photographs, which were taken between 1959 and 1972 for military intelligence during Cold War period. We also observed fault scarps in the field and made geomorphic profiles across the fault scarps. We were able to detect a lot of recent surface ruptures including the 1957 earthquake rupture, the Bayan Tsagaan, Chandman and Myangayn ruptures along the active fault traces. Fault scarps of these ruptures cross fluvial terraces of late Pleistocene as well as present riverbeds continuously. This indicates some of the active faults recently ruptured during a relatively short period. On the other hand, there exists an approximately 100-km-long portion between the 1957 and Chandman ruptures that has not displaced recent fluvial terraces, indicating that this portion did not recently rupture, probably during the 19th or 20th century.

Sugito, N.; Goto, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Ishiguro, S.; Hirouchi, D.; Tsutsumi, H.; Enkhtaivan, D.; Batkhishig, O.; Narangerel, S.; Purevsuren, N.; Avirmed, E.; Otgonbayar, M.; Sukhbaatar, O.

2007-12-01

10

Origin of Permian gabbroic intrusions in the southern margin of the Altai Orogenic belt: A possible link to the Permian Tarim mantle plume?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic compositions, whole-rock and mineral geochemistry, as well as field and petrographic observations, are reported for the Permian gabbroic intrusions in the southern margin of the Altai orogenic belt. Similar zircon ages (~ 280 Ma) of these intrusions to that of the Permian Tarim mantle plume suggest a possible link to the Tarim plume. Olivine grains from the intrusions have Fo contents ranging from 69 to 81 and NiO from 0.05 to 0.21 wt.%, indicating the crystallization from evolved mafic magmas. Clinopyroxene grains from the intrusions have 0.3 to 1.5 wt.% TiO2 and display a rift- to arc-like affinity. The intrusions are tholeiitic and have slightly LREE-depleted to LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns. Zircons from the intrusions have ?Hf(t) values higher than + 8.0, whereas the whole-rock ?Nd(t) values range from + 2.7 to + 7.0. Rocks from the intrusions have Nb/La of 0.2 to 0.8, consistent with the derivation from a depleted sub-lithospheric mantle with variable degrees of crustal contamination. The presence of primary hornblende and/or biotite in the rocks indicates metasomatism by slab-derived fluids/melts in the mantle source. We propose that upwelling of asthenospheric mantle in the Permian Tarim mantle plume along the Irtish suture zone, resulted in partial melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Based on a comparison between the Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing Kalatongke complex and un-mineralized intrusions, we suggest that Ni-Cu sulfide mineralized intrusions in the Altai orogenic belt are characterized by the enrichments of LREEs and LILEs and by the presence of primary water-bearing minerals.

Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Zou, Hai-Bo; Yao, Chun-Yan; Dong, Yong-Guan

2014-09-01

11

Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) consists of many tectonic terranes with distinct origin and complicated evolutionary history. Understanding of individual block is crucial to reconstruct the geodynamic history of the gigantic accetionary collage. This study presents zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for the granitoid rocks in the Russian Altai mountain range (including Gorny Altai, Altai-Mongolian terrane and CTUS suture zone between them), in order to clarify the timing of granitic magmatism, source nature, continental crustal growth and tectonic evolution. Our dating results suggest that granitic magmatism of the Russian Altai mountain range occurred in three major episodes including 445~429 Ma, 410~360 Ma and ~241 Ma. Most of the zircons within the Paleozoic granitoids present comparable positive ?Hf(t) values and Neoproterozoic crustal model ages, which favor the interpretation that the juvenile crustal materials produced in the early stage of CAOB were probably dominant sources for the Paleozoic magmatism in the region. The inference is also supported by widespread occurrence of short-lived juvenile materials including ophiolites, seamount relics and arc assemblages in the north CAOB. Consequently, the Paleozoic massive granitic rocks maybe not represent continental crustal growth at the time when they were emplaced, but rather record reworking of relatively juvenile Proterozoic crustal rocks although mantle-derived mafic magma was possibly involved to sever as heat engine during granitic magma generation. The Early Triassic granitic intrusion may be product in an intra-plate environment, as the case of same type rocks in the adjacent areas. The positive ?Hf(t) values (1.81~7.47) and corresponding Hf model ages (0.80~1.16 Ga) together with evidence of petrology are consistent with the interpretation that the parental magma of the Triassic granitic intrusion was produced from enriched mantle-derived sources under an usually high temperature condition which is likely due to basaltic magma that underplated the lower crust. Our data combined with evidence of the regional geology enable us to conclude that the Gorny Altai and Altai-Mongolian terranes possibly have similar tectonic natures, but represent two separate accretionary systems before Devonian collision. The accretion and amalgamation processes resulted in the Paleozoic granitoid magmatism and caused the two terranes to merge as a composite tectonic domain at the Siberian continental margin.

Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

2014-05-01

12

Humus of soils of the Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the humus composition and specific features of soils in the Altai Mountains obtained in the long-term studies initiated by R.V. Kovalev are discussed. The average statistical values for the content of the main humus components and their ratios in different soil types were obtained by processing the data on 307 soil pits. The comparison of the soils belonging to the same type and occurring in the northwestern, central, and southeastern regions of the Altai Mountains in terms of the C ha/C fa ratio (one of the integral indices of the humus composition) showed that there were no significant differences between them. The overlapping intervals of the average values of this ratio testified to this fact. For instance, the average C ha/C fa ratios in the mountain tundra soils of the regions mentioned amounted to 0.70 ± 0.03; 0.72 ± 0.02; and 0.69 ± 0.03, respectively, and, in the mountain meadow soils, they amounted to 0.67 ± 0.03; 0.69 ± 0.04; and 0.67 ± 0.03, respectively. The mountain brown forest soils that are components of the soil cover only in the northwestern and central regions also differ insignificantly by this parameter (0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.89 ± 0.03, respectively). In the soils of the Altai Mountains, the dependence between the portion of humic acids and the mean annual air temperature (HA (%) = 29.54 + 1.06 T(°C), r = 0.71) and the ratio of the portion of fulvic acids to the mean annual precipitation (FA (%) = 9.70 + 0.029 W, r = 0.74) was shown to be similar to those in all the soils of mountainous southern Siberia. These facts enabled us to apply regression equations for a quantitative reconstruction of the paleoclimate components according to the humus composition.

Dergacheva, M. I.; Kovaleva, E. I.; Ryabova, N. N.

2007-12-01

13

[Haplotype diversity in mtDNA and Y-chromosome in populations of Altai-Sayan region].  

PubMed

Polymorphism of mtDNA was examined in five ethnic populations that belong to the Turkic language group and inhabit the territory of the Altai-Sayan upland (N = 1007). Most of the haplogroups identified in the examined populations belonged to East Eurasian lineages. In all five populations, only three haplogroups, C, D, and F, were prevailing. The frequencies of the other six haplogroups (A, B, G, M, Y, and Z) varied in the range from 1.1 to 6.5%. Among West Eurasian haplogrous, the most common were haplogroups H, J, T, and U. An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups in 407 individuals showed that only two haplogroups, N* and R1a1, were present in all five populations examined. Moreover, in different ethnic groups, the highest frequencies were observed for C-M130, N-P43, and N-Tat haplogroups. The differences in the distribution patterns of ancient West Eurasian and East Eurasian haplotypes from Gorny Altai in the present-day populations from the northern part of Eurasia revealed can be explained in terms of the multistage expansion of humans across these territories. The ubiquity of haplotypes from haplogroup H and cluster U across the wide territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean can indicate directional human expansion, which most likely occurred out of Central Asia as early as in the Paleolithic era, and took place in several waves with the glacier retreat. PMID:23755537

Gubina, M A; Damba, L D; Babenko, L; Romashchenko, V N; Voevoda, A G

2013-03-01

14

A Few Issues on the Peat Research in the Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of peat and marsh waters is carried out. The group structure of organic substance of various samples of peat is investigated by the method of Institutes of Peat. The toxic metals of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As were defined by the method of stripping voltammetry. The region of the Altai Mountains is characterized by the contrastive distribution of some heavy metals and arsenic in a soil cover. This is caused by a variety of petrography and granulometry of soil forming material, and also by a landscape and geochemical situation in the system of vertical zoning. The sources of natural accumulation of heavy metals in the ground might be the deposits of polymetals. In this connection the content of the specified toxic elements in the peat under research has been identified. The peat of the Turochak deposit is characterized by a significant ash content - up to 41,9%; the increased ash content is typical of the Kutyush deposit: from 6,1% up to 19, %. The peat of the Northeastern Altai is referred to non-bitumunous: the content of bitumen makes up less than 5%. In comparison with the European peat the peat under study of the transitive and lowland type is characterized by the significant content of easy hydrolysable substances in the amount of 24,8-41,1%. The amount of the non-hydrolysable rest makes up around 4,3 - 7,4 %. The total content of fulvic acids is less than the content of humic acids by 2,9 - 5,8 times. The high content of humic acids which can reach up to 58 % is characteristic of certain deposits. Humic acids extracted from the peat are characterized, as a rule, by similar IR-spectra. The distinctions are shown in an unequal intensity of characteristic absorption bands, in their spreading and some shifts. It is revealed that humic acids of peat with the increase in a degree of decomposition are exposed to transformation; therefore the increase in their structure of functional groups is observed. As a result of the research which was carried out the following elements among heavy metals in the lowland peat of the Altai Mountains are revealed: Cd (2,7 - 30)> Hg (0,67)> Zn (0,22) ~Pb (0,21)> Cu (0,13)> As (0,03). The degree of mobility of chemical elements in the peat varies within the limits of 1,3 - 36%. According to the degree of their mobility these elements form the following line: Zn (36 %)> Pb (18,1 %)> Cd (9,6 %)> Cu (1,3 %). The content and the character of distribution of the heavy metals under study and arsenic in the peat of the Altai Mountains have their unique features in comparison with the same valley analogues. The mountain peat of the Central Altai contains much less Hg than the West Siberian one: 0,078 mg/g and 0,69 mg/g accordingly. Cd represents itself as the concentrator in the lowland peat of the Northeastern and Central Altai, its content is actually the same and makes up approximately 0,3 mg/kg. The lowland Altai and West Siberian peat has the same amount of Pb: 4-5 mg/kg; they have smaller amounts of Zn and Cu in comparison with the European and West Siberian peat. The revealed features of distribution of some toxic metals are the display of specificity of peat genesis in the conditions of a mountain relief. The complex of the data received by us allows to consider the peat of the Altai Mountains as a non-polluting raw source concerning the amount of some natural toxic substances. The possible perspective directions of practical application of the mountain peat can be medicine, veterinary science, and agriculture.

Inisheva, Lydia I.; Larina, Galina; Shurova, Maya

2010-05-01

15

Objective and Subjective Data on Altai and Kazakh Ethnolinguistic Vitality in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the ethnolinguistic vitality of Altai and Kazakh as compared to Russian in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai. Data were gathered by document analysis, interviews with experts and by conducting a subjective ethnolinguistic vitality questionnaire. The data showed that Altai and Kazakh, as a consequence of a long-lasting…

Yagmur, Kutlay; Kroon, Sjaak

2006-01-01

16

Reflection of climatic changes in Altai phenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decades of the past century showed noticeable climate changes in many parts of the Earth (IPCC, 2007). Numerous models suggest that the climate changes will continue, showing a variable intensity especially in mountain regions. Altai Mountains, located at the boundary of taiga, desert, and semiarid regions of Central Asia, are exposed to intensive climatic and environmental changes. Analysis of changes in phenological parameters is the simplest process for track changes in the ecology of species in response to climate change. We present climatic characteristic and statistical analysis changes of thermal and precipitation regimes in Altai Mountains (Russian and Mongolian Altai), and the response of phenological parameters to these changes. The close correlation between temperature series of the Russian and northern part of Mongolian Altai is determined. At the same time, a correlation between precipitation data is observed only for the cold (November - March) seasons. It was found that the rate of temperature increase for the period under consideration (1940-2012) ranged from 0.15 to 0.55 ° C/10 years, and the most significant increase was registered during the cold seasons. An increase of annual means of precipitation is in the range from 2.32 to 6.37 mm / 10 years. The maximal increase (29 mm / 10 years) was observed in the data from the Kara-Tyureck station, whose location is the highest one of the considered stations (2600 m). During the maximal warming (1980-1999), a 2-4.5 times increase of annual average temperature was observed as compared to the period of 1940 - 1979. The amount of precipitation is increased for Ust'-Koksa (5 times) and Ulgiy (2 times) stations, but it is 3 times lower for Kosh-Agach and Kara-Tyureck stations. The results of the correlation analysis of temperature and precipitation data for the analyzed Russian and Mongolian Altai stations were confirmed and detailed by the wavelet and wavelet coherence / phase analysis. The temperature series variations obtained with the wavelet analysis correspond to the periods of North Atlantic Oscillation and solar activity variation, and precipitation are in good agreement with changes in Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The analyzed climatic change influenced on the beginning of pollination of different plant species in Altai region. If average (for 27 years) of the beginning of pollination of Artemisia gmelinii (a typical representative of Central Asian steppe vegetation) was counted at 24 of August, a mass pollination of this species was at 5th of September. So deviation reached 14 days. Under condition of more cool summer the pollination in most cases (80 %) started later. Additionally we counted average temperature of beginning of pollination of this species which was + 21.5 C0, and sums of action temperatures (+5 C0) = 1675, (+10 C0) = 1491.

Malygina, Natalia; Barlyaeva, Tatiana; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana; Mitrofanova, Elena; Lovtskaya, Olga; Nenasheva, Galina; Otgonbayar, Demberel; Papina, Tatiana; Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Sokolov, Andrey

2014-05-01

17

OSL dating of glacier extent during the Last Glacial and the Kanas Lake basin formation in Kanas River valley, Altai Mountains, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kanas River originates on the southern slope of Youyi Peak, the largest center of modern glaciers in Altai Mountains, China. Three sets of moraines and associated glacial sediments are well preserved near the Kanas Lake outlet, recording a complex history and landscape evolution during the Last Glacial. Dating the moraines allows the temporal and spatial glacier shift and climate

Xiangke Xu; Jianqiang Yang; Guocheng Dong; Liqiang Wang; Lee Miller

2009-01-01

18

Uplift History of the Altai and Hangay in Mongolia and Impact on Central Asian Aridification: Evidence from Paleosol Stable Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the Cenozoic, Central Asia has become increasingly arid, though the mechanisms behind this aridification remain unresolved. Much attention has focused on the influence and uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau; however, the role of ranges linked to India-Asia convergence but well north of the Plateau--including the Altai, Sayan, and Hangay--in creating the arid climate of Central Asia remains poorly understood. Today, these ranges create a prominent rain-shadow, effectively separating the boreal forest to the north from the deserts of Central Asia. To explore the role of these mountains in modifying climate over the past 35 My, we measured oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in paleosol carbonates collected from three sections located along the northern edge of the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and in the lee of the Altai and Hangay mountains. We combined this with HYSPLIT air-parcel back-trajectory modeling to understand regional moisture transport pathways at each section. Our HYSPLIT modeling demonstrates that, in the modern, the Altai block westerly moisture from reaching western Mongolia and the Valley of Lakes. In contrast, the Hangay block southward-flowing moisture from Siberia, creating a rain-shadow on its southern, leeward flank. Our paleosol carbonate data show increasing ?13C at all 3 sections, with the largest increase in western Mongolia. The first ?13C increase occurs in central and southwestern Mongolia in the Oligocene. ?13C again increases from the upper Miocene to the present in western and southwestern Mongolia. Given the lack of C4 vegetation in modern Mongolia, these ?13C increases are likely linked to declines in soil respiration driven by decreases in precipitation. We attribute these changes to differential uplift of the Hangay and Altai. Uplift in the Hangay began by the early Oligocene, blocking Siberian moisture and aridifying central and southwestern Mongolia. Subsequently, uplift of the Altai began in the late Miocene, blocking westerly moisture. Thus, the northern Gobi became increasingly arid over the past 35 My, first in central Mongolia and then western Mongolia, likely driven by uplift in the Hangay during the early Oligocene and the Altai in the late Miocene.

Caves, J. K.; Sjostrom, D.; Mix, H.; Winnick, M. J.; Chamberlain, C.

2013-12-01

19

Distribution of extreme temperatures in the Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a comparison of the values obtained during 30-year periods from 1951 to1980 and from 1981 to 2010 at the stations of the Altai Mountains with regard to series of daily air temperatures to assess present-day changes in temperature conditions. We obtained extreme temperature values at the territory - the average minimum/maximum air temperatures on 10% of the days per year. Based on the results of this work we can say that there are significant changes of the thermal regime from the point of view of local climate formation at the territory of the Altai Mountains.

Sokolov, K. I.; Sharapova, A. A.

2014-11-01

20

Ice Core Reconnaissance in Siberian Altai for Mid-Latitudes Paleo-Climatic and Environmental Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations in Siberian Altai permits to expand our scope from Tibet, Himalayas, Tien Shan and Pamir to the area located at the northeastern edge of the Central Asia Mountain System. Altai forms a natural barrier to the northern and western air masses and therefore affords an opportunity to develop modern paleo-climate records relating to the westerly jet stream, the Siberian

V. Aizen; E. Aizen; K. Kreutz; S. Nikitin; K. Fujita; D. Cecil

2001-01-01

21

OSL dating of glacier extent during the Last Glacial and the Kanas Lake basin formation in Kanas River valley, Altai Mountains, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kanas River originates on the southern slope of Youyi Peak, the largest center of modern glaciers in Altai Mountains, China. Three sets of moraines and associated glacial sediments are well preserved near the Kanas Lake outlet, recording a complex history and landscape evolution during the Last Glacial. Dating the moraines allows the temporal and spatial glacier shift and climate during the Last Glacial to be determined, and then constrains when and how the Kanas Lake basin was formed. Dating of the glacial tills was undertaken by utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method. Results date four samples from the three sets of moraines to 28.0, 34.4, 38.1, and 49.9 ka and one sample from outwash sediment to 6.8 ka. The Kanas Lake basin is a downfaulted basin and was eroded by glacier before 28.0 ka, and the glacial moraines blocked the glacier-melt water after the glacier retreat, which made the present-day Kanas Lake eventually form at least before 6.8 ka BP. In Altai Mountains, the glacier advance was more extensive in Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 than MIS 2, probably because the mid-latitude westerlies shifted northward and/or intensified during the MIS 3, resulting in a more positive glacier mass balance. Nevertheless, the Siberian High dominated the Altai Mountains in MIS 2, resulting in a relative decrease in precipitation.

Xu, Xiangke; Yang, Jianqiang; Dong, Guocheng; Wang, Liqiang; Miller, Lee

2009-11-01

22

Space geodetic investigation of the coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2003 Mw7.2 Altai earthquake: Implications for the local lithospheric rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar data and SPOT optical imagery to investigate the coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 27 September 2003, Mw7.2 Altai earthquake, which occurred in the Chuya Basin near the Russia-China-Mongolia border. On the basis of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and SPOT data, we determined the rupture location and developed a coseismic slip model for the Altai earthquake. The inferred rupture location is in a good agreement with field observations, and the geodetic moment from our slip model is consistent with the seismic moment determined from the teleseismic data. While the epicentral area of the Altai earthquake is not optimal for radar interferometry (in particular, due to temporal decorrelation), we were able to detect a transient signal over a time period of 3 years following the earthquake. The signal is robust in that it allows us to discriminate among several commonly assumed mechanisms of postseismic relaxation. We find that the postearthquake interferometric SAR data do not warrant poroelastic rebound in the upper crust. The observed deformation also disagrees with linear viscoelastic relaxation in the upper mantle or lower crust, giving rise to a lower bound on the dynamic viscosity of the lower crust of the order of 1019 Pa s. The data can be explained in terms of fault slip within the seismogenic zone, on the periphery of areas with high coseismic slip. Most of the postseismic deformation can be explained in terms of seismic moment release in aftershocks; some shallow slip may have also occurred aseismically. Therefore the observed postseismic deformation due to the Altai earthquake is qualitatively different from deformation due to other similarly sized earthquakes, in particular, the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes in the Mojave desert, southern California. The observed variations in the deformation pattern may be indicative of different rheologic structure of the continental lithosphere in different tectonically active areas.

Barbot, Sylvain; Hamiel, Yariv; Fialko, Yuri

2008-03-01

23

Space geodetic investigation of the co- and post-seismic deformation due to the 2003 Mw7.3 Altai (Russia) earthquake: Implications for the local lithospheric rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar data and SPOT optical imagery to investigate the co- seismic and post-seismic deformation due to the September 27th 2003, Mw7.3 Altai earthquake that occurred in the Chuya Basin area near the Russia-China-Mongolia border. Based on the SAR and SPOT data we determined the location of the ruptured fault trace and developed a co-seismic slip model for the Altai earthquake. The geodetic moment from our slip model was found to be consistent with the seismic moment determined from the teleseismic data. While the epicentral area of the Altai earthquake is not optimal for radar interferometry (in particular, due to temporal decorrelation), we were able to detect the post-seismic relaxation signal over a time period of 2.5 years following the earthquake. The signal is robust in that it allows us to discriminate between several commonly considered mechanisms of post-seismic relaxation. We find that the post-earthquake InSAR data do not warrant poro-elastic rebound in the upper crust, or simple Maxwellian visco-elastic relaxation in the upper mantle. The data can be explained in terms of afterslip on a downdip extension of the earthquake rupture, non-linear visco-elastic rheology of the ductile substrate (kinematically, similar to afterslip at early stages of relaxation), or the bulk visco-elastic relaxation in the lower crust. Continued InSAR observations may further constrain the mechanisms driving the post-seismic relaxation. The observed post-seismic deformation due to the Altai earthquake is qualitatively different from deformation due to other similar-size earthquakes (in particular, the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes in the Mojave desert, southern California). These variations in the deformation pattern may be indicative of different rheologic structure of the continental lithosphere in different tectonically active areas.

Hamiel, Y.; Barbot, S.; Fialko, Y.

2006-12-01

24

Space geodetic investigation of the co- and post-seismic deformation due to the 2003 Mw 7.3 Altai earthquake: Implications for the local lithospheric rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar data and SPOT optical imagery to investigate the co- seismic and post-seismic deformation due to the September 27th 2003, Mw7.3 Altai earthquake, which occurred in the Chuya Basin near the Russia-China-Mongolia border. Based on the SAR and SPOT data, we determined the rupture location and developed a co-seismic slip model for the Altai earthquake. The inferred rupture location is in good agreement with field observations, and the geodetic moment from our slip model is consistent with the seismic moment determined from the tele-seismic data. While the epicentral area of the Altai earthquake is not optimal for radar interferometry (in particular, due to temporal decorrelation), we were able to detect a transient signal over a time period of 3 years following the earthquake. The signal is robust in that it allows us to discriminate among several commonly assumed mechanisms of post-seismic relaxation. We find that the post-earthquake InSAR data do not warrant poro-elastic rebound in the upper crust. The observed deformation also disagrees with linear viscous-elastic relaxation in the upper-mantle or lower-crust. The data can be explained in terms of fault slip in the seismogenic zone, at the margin of areas with high co-seismic slip. Most of the postseismic deformation can be explained in terms of seismic moment release in aftershocks, however, some slip may have occurred aseismically. The observed post-seismic deformation due to the Altai earthquake is qualitatively different from deformation due to other similar-size earthquakes, in particular, the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes in the Mojave desert, southern California. The observed variations in the deformation pattern may be indicative of different rheologic structure of the continental lithosphere in different tectonically active areas.

Barbot, S. D.; Hamiel, Y.; Fialko, Y.

2007-05-01

25

Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86°34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. Daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation have been used to identify the predominant atmospheric circulations (elementary circulating mechanisms, or ECMs) generating the entry of biological proxies on the glacier surface. It was shown that the high-resolution records of diatoms, cysts, spores, and plant pollen in the Belukha ice core are the biological proxies for the changes in the structure of precipitation in the Altai region since these records can reflect changes in the contribution of different atmospheric circulation to annual or seasonal precipitation. The joint consideration of the transport ability of the biological species and the data of precipitation allowed us to determine the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. The main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and northern Kazakhstan basins; coniferous tree pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of western Siberia; pollen of deciduous trees and herbs from steppe and forest-steppe vegetation in the northern Altai and eastern Kazakhstan; and cysts and spores of plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace elements in the ice core.

Papina, T.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

2013-10-01

26

Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86° 34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. We used daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation to identify the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. Our analyses revealed that main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and North Kazakhstan basins. Coniferous trees pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of West Siberia and pollen of hardwoods and herbs from steppe and forest steppe vegetation in the Northern Altai and East Kazakhstan. Cysts of algae and spores of inferior plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace species in the ice core.

Papina, T.; Blyacharchyuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

2013-05-01

27

Provenance of Early Paleozoic metasediments in the central Chinese Altai: Implications for tectonic affinity of the Altai-Mongolia terrane in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese Altai is one of the most typical segments of the Altai-Mongolia terrane, of which the tectonic evolution and affinity are hotly disputed and still not well constrained. Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks are extensive in the Altai-Mongolia terrane and their provenance is a key to unravelling the tectonic history of this terrane. Metasediments from Kulumuti Group were collected from the central Chinese Altai for geochemical study. They have low Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 52-54) and high Index of Compositional Variability (ICV = 0.81-1.19) values, different from the mature post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS), indicating relatively weak chemical weathering and a source compositionally dominated by immature material that lacks alumina-rich minerals. These rocks are moderately enriched in light rare earth element (LREE) and show relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.36-9.80, GdN/YbN = 1.31-2.45). Compared with PAAS, they mostly have lower large ion lithophile element concentrations (e.g. Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U and Pb) and similar contents of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf and Y), but with lower Nb and Ta. The metasediments have high Rb concentrations (> 50 ppm), relatively high K2O (> 1.1 wt.%) and low REE contents with negative Eu/Eu* anomalies, indicating that these rocks were derived from an acid-intermediate igneous source. The rocks have slightly enriched Nd isotopic compositions with calculated initial ?Nd(t) values mostly ranging from - 4.3 to - 0.2 and TDM2 model ages between 1.22 and 1.56 Ga. Detrital zircons from two samples of the Kulumuti metasediments have similar age spectra, dominated by Early Paleozoic to latest Neoproterozoic zircons (465-576 Ma) with a few older grains formed between 766-972 Ma and 1321-2572 Ma, remarkably consistent with those from the low-grade metamorphic Habahe Group in the western Chinese Altai. In combination with previous published data, the detrital zircons from Early Paleozoic metasediments in the Chinese Altai dominantly formed between 430-580 and 750-950 Ma, with only a minor population of Meso- to Paleoproterozoic grains. When compared with adjacent terranes, the age spectrum of the Chinese Altai is most similar to that of the Tarim Craton. This craton provided Precambrian materials for the Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks now exposed in the Chinese Altai, and therefore suggests that the whole Altai-Mongolia terrane has a close tectonic affinity to the Tarim Craton.

Wang, Yujing; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Xu, Huilong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Cai, Keda

2014-12-01

28

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

29

Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin, (1952 2006) estimated with high resolution imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 °C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area

A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin

2007-01-01

30

Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin, (1952–2006) estimated with high resolution imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 °C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area

A B Surazakov; V B Aizen; E M Aizen; S A Nikitin

2007-01-01

31

Rudny Altai base-metal belt: Localization of massive sulfide mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamic evolution, deep structure, and metallogenic regionalization of the Rudny Altai are considered in terms of plate tectonics. The base-metal massive sulfide deposits are genetically related to the group of basalt-andesite-rhyolite sequences formed in rift or island-arc geodynamic setting in the Devonian at the early stage of Hercynian tectogenesis. Taking into account economic reserves of ore and major metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag), as well as lateral and vertical regional metallogenic zoning of the Rudny Altai, the localization of massive sulfide mineralization in ore-bearing structural elements and particular deposits has been specified. The ore productivity of ore-bearing geochronological levels for base metals and the contribution of these levels to the total reserves of the region are characterized in detail. The Rudny Altai basemetal belt is regarded as a continuous ore-bearing structural unit situated in Russia and Kazakhstan.

Chekalin, V. M.; D'yachkov, B. A.

2013-11-01

32

Forest- and agroclimatic potential in the Altai-Sayan ecoregion under climate change during the XXI century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai Sayan ecoregion (ASE), central Asia, is located in Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan, within the window 80-102° E and 42-57° N, north of the territory of Tibet. The ASE is a territory with a great variety of landscapes observed at a short distance: from nival and tundra landscapes at highlands, to taiga (dark-needled and light-needled) and subtaiga at middle elevations, to steppes at lower elevations. This southern part of Siberia is known as having a high agroclimatic potential due to favorable climatic and soil resources. Crops of food, forage, and biofuels primarily reside in steppe and forest-steppe zones and are resistant to frequent droughts and the cold climate. Regional studies over the Altai-Sayan ecoregion have already registered a change in climate at the end of the 20th century: January temperatures increased 1-2°C and July temperatures increased 0.7-1.5°C over the last 50 years in the northern portion of ASE; in the southern, more continental portion of ASE, both January and July temperature increased two times greater, 2-4°C and 1.4-3.2°C,0 respectively. Our goal was to model how mountain vegetation in ASE may be altered in a changing climate through the century to the year 2080 and if the agroclimatic potential in the lowlands of ASE may benefit from climate change. We used our montane bioclimatic vegetation model (MontBioCliM) to predict the future vegetation distribution, coupling MontBioCliM with the HadCM3 A2 and B1 climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. MontBioCliM is an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5C; negative degree days below 0°C; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). Our model runs indicated that by 2080, forest habitats would decrease from 52% to 48% according to the moderate scenario B1 and from 52% to 38% according the harsh A2 scenario. In a warmer climate, grasslands better adapted to hot and dry climates would replace forest which may not be regenerate because of an increased potential for severe and large fires. At the expense of forests, more potential agricultural lands were modeled to appear in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats in foothills and lowlands in ASE. These lands might become suitable for growing traditional crops and introducing new crops. Bioclimatic models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to the above climate change scenarios. Crops were predicted to extend in size and to 2-fold increase. However, due to shortage of water in the future dry climate crops would necessitate irrigation. A new agroclimatic potential of the Altai-Sayan ecoregion was predicted to evolve as climate changes.

Parfenova, E. I.; Tchebakova, N.; Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

2012-12-01

33

Reevaluation of the reconstruction of summer temperatures from melt features in Belukha ice cores, Siberian Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, past summer temperatures were reconstructed from melt features in the Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai. We evaluated the climatic representativeness of net accumulation and melt features by comparing two Belukha ice cores retrieved at neighboring sites by different institutions and dated by different methods. Melt features in both cores showed a significant correlation, but the trends

Sachiko Okamoto; Koji Fujita; Hideki Narita; Jun Uetake; Nozomu Takeuchi; Takayuki Miyake; Fumio Nakazawa; Vladimir B. Aizen; Stanislav A. Nikitin; Masayoshi Nakawo

2011-01-01

34

Glacier condition and variation studies in the Mongolian part of the Altai Mountains. (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai Mountain Range is located in the central north part of Eurasia. It holds few thousand glaciers in that area, but has not been investigated so much, except on Russian part. The glaciers in Mongolia are not even registered in the World Glacier Inventory. Our group in JAMSTEC started to investigate the glaciers in this region since 2002, with

T. Ohata; T. Kadota; K. Konya; H. Yabuki; D. Gombo

2009-01-01

35

Seasonal variation in semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal effects on semen quality of Gorno Altai cashmere goats and South African indigenous goats were studied in this experiment. A definite breeding season for the two breeds was determined. Semen quality parameters that were quantified include semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, percentage live sperm, dead sperm and scrotal circumference. Scrotal circumference, semen volume, concentration and sperm concentration of

E. C. Webb; M. H. Dombo; M. Roets

36

Climate changes and human dynamics in the SE Altai (Russia) during the past 4000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the study of the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (SE Altai) which is the part of the Altai Mountains - the northern segment of the Central Asia collision belt. It represents a combination of landscapes and ecosystems of alpine highlands, vast plateau-topped watersheds and intermountain depressions with unique archeological sites and traditional forms of environmental management of different cultures. The SE Altai has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic but till now the issue of chronology of the archaeological cultures is still debated. From the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, these can be generally regarded as a single economic-cultural type - nomads of arid piedmonts and mountains of temperate zone. The collective evidence indicates the significantly warmer climate in the SE Altai during the early Holocene. The Neoglacial began here about 5000 years BP and includes three periods of glaciers expansions controlled by climate deterioration (Akkem, Historical and Aktru (LIA) stages). Our numerous radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and wood fragments buried in moraines, glaciofluvial sediments and proglacial forefields argue for prolonged and frequent glacier advances separated by shorter glacier recessions. A decrease in the areas occupied by forest vegetation and the reduction in glacier size at each subsequent glacial stage expressed in the topography suggest aridity intensification during the second half of the Holocene. This conclusion is also supported by the absence of a reaction from the glaciers to the thermal minimum of the middle of 19-th century. It is very likely that such glacier dynamics is a common feature for the whole Central Asia. Thus the evolution of Altai nomad cultures, discussed in this paper, corresponds to a period of cooling and aridity intensification. In spite of climate deterioration that was the time of prosperity of the Altai nomadic cultures. It is most richly characterized by numerical dates of archaeological finds and major nature events which control migrations and shifting of Scythian, Hunnu, Turk and later nomadic cultures in the region. We present here an expanded dataset of new radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and charcoals from iron-smelting furnaces, dendrochronologically obtained ages of tree fragments washed up from glaciers in a modern glacial zone as well as lifespan analysis of archeological burial grounds and their spatial distribution within the Kurai and Chuya depressions. All these allowed us to correlate major nature events with the human dynamics in the SE Altai during the second half of the Holocene. Climate together with political and social aspects is one of the major factors that controlled the size of population, evolution and migration of nomadic cultures in the region. The influence of climatic changes on human societies was much stronger than the opposite. Anthropogenic impact is restricted to massive timber cutting which contributed to deforestation of the eastern part of the SE Altai. The study was partly funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grants 13-05-00555 and 13-04-01829).

Agatova, Anna; Nepop, Roman; Nazarov, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Slyusarenko, Igor; Bronnikova, Maria; Orlova, Ljubov

2014-05-01

37

Climate Change in the Russian Altai Mountains and its Influence on Tree Line and Glacier Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to climate changes. The Russian Altai Mountains are located in the Inner Asia on the border of Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan. The Department of Geography and Geoecology of SPbSU has been organizing annual field expeditions to this region during the last 20 yrs. The uniqueness of the Altai landscapes lies in its great variety as these mountains are higher than 4 km and located on the zonal border between steppes and semi-deserts and between continental and sharply continental climates. This research deals with space-time features of regional climate changes and the dynamics of high-altitude landscapes. The 1940-2004 time series of seasonal air temperature and precipitation from 14 weather stations from 300 to 2600 m a.s.l. were statistically analyzed applying regression, correlation, spectral and cluster analyses. To extend time series over the past 350-400 yrs, mean summer temperature and precipitation were reconstructed applying dendroclimatological methods and using the WSL Dendro data base. Comparing to the Northern Hemisphere tendency of temperature increase in the second half of the 20th century over the Altai has been observed generally earlier, since 1950s. Maximum warming rate in the last quarter of the 20th century is typical to winter in the Altai (0,85°/10 yrs) as well as the entire Northern Hemisphere. Synchronous changes in the Altai and the Northern Hemisphere are observed in all seasons only in 1975-2004. At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries warming rates slow down in the region while temperature level is still high. These changes are partly associated with circulation epochs. Spectral analysis revealed important role of natural cyclical recurrence in climate changes, for example quasi-biennial, solar and Brückner cycles. According to dendrochronological reconstruction mean summer temperature increased from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) to its maximum in the 1990s by approximately 2°C, to the average for the period 1986-2004 - about 1,3°C. As tree line against the other belt borders strongly limited by summer temperature its eventual dynamics since the end of the LIA over the Altai were estimated and tree line position at different stages of modern regional warming was reconstructed. Theoretical evaluation shows that mean summer temperature increase of 1.3°C from the end of the LIA causes tree line to rise maximum by 180-280 m in different localities of the Altai. Glacial complexes of mountain massifs Mongun-Taiga, Tavan-Boghd-Ola, Turgeni-Nuru and Harhira-Nuru located in the South-Eastern Altai are represented by small glaciers mostly on northern and eastern leeward slopes. Being situated in region with dry climatic conditions (250-400 mm/year) glaciers survive only in negative forms of relief with high concentration of snow. Accumulation coefficient is mainly from 2 to 3, and on cirque glaciers is from 6 to 8. Now glaciers retreat rapidly (17% of area loss for the period of 1995-2010 for Mongun-Taiga, 12% in 2002-2009 for Tavan-Boghd-Ola), especially valley glaciers (2-10 m/yr), the number of glaciers increase due to disintegration of larger glaciers. Small forms of glaciation disappear or transform into snow patches and rock glaciers.

Syromyatina, M.; Moskalenko, I.; Ganushkin, D.; Chistyakov, K.

2011-12-01

38

Ice Core Reconnaissance in Siberian Altai for Mid-Latitudes Paleo-Climatic and Environmental Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations in Siberian Altai permits to expand our scope from Tibet, Himalayas, Tien Shan and Pamir to the area located at the northeastern edge of the Central Asia Mountain System. Altai forms a natural barrier to the northern and western air masses and therefore affords an opportunity to develop modern paleo-climate records relating to the westerly jet stream, the Siberian High and Pacific monsoon. Moreover, Altai alpine snowice accumulation areas are appropriative for studying air pollution dynamics at the center of Eurasia, eastward from the major Former USSR air pollutants in Kazakhstan, South Siberia and Ural Mountains. During the last century Altai Mountains became extremely contaminated region by heavy metal mining, metallurgy, nuclear test in Semipalatinsk polygon and Baikonur rocket site. Our first field reconnaissance on the West Belukha snow/firn plateau at the Central Altai was carried out in July 2001. Dispute of the large Alatai Mountains glaciation, the West Belukha Plateau (49o48' N, 86o32'E, 4000-4100 m a.s.l.) is only one suitable snow accumulation site in Altai to recover ice-core paleo-climatic and environmental records that is not affected by meltwater percolation. The objective of our first reconnaissance was to find an appropriate deep drilling site by radio-echo sounding survey, to recover shallow ice-core, to identify the annual snow accumulation rate, major ions, heavy metals, radio nuclides and oxygen isotopes level distribution. During 6 days of work on the Plateau, a 22 m shallow firn/ice core has been recovered by PICO hand auger at elevation 4050 m where the results of radio-echo sounding suggests about 150 m ice thickness. In addition to the firn/ice core recovery, five 2.5 meter snow pits were sampled for physical statigraphy, major ions, trace element, and heavy metals analysis to assess spatial variability of the environmental impact in this region. Four automatic snow gauges were installed near proposed deep ice coring site for year around records. The seasonal accumulation at the drilling site was ranged from 250 to 300 ?? with density of 0.34 - 0.40 g cm-3. The ice-core stratigraphy analysis has shown that accumulation area seems to lie in the cold infiltration-recrystallization zone. Geochemical analysis of the shallow ice core, snow pit samples collecting during the 2001 field research will be discussed along with meteorological and synoptic data collected at the nearest to Belukha Plateau Akkem, (2050 m) and Kara -Tyurek (3600 ?) stations. A preliminary result has revealed that variability of elementary synoptic processes over the region impact on the amount of precipitation. North Atlantic Oscillation and West Pacific Oscillation indices have inverse associations with average amount of precipitation in Siberia where Altai is located. >http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/%7eaizen/aizen.html

Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K.; Nikitin, S.; Fujita, K.; Cecil, D.

2001-12-01

39

Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the deformation systems. 2) folded (folded-thrust) deformation systems combine deformation zones with relic lenses of Paleozoid substratum, and predominantly conform systems of the main faults. Despite a high degree of regional deformation the sedimentary-stratified and intrusive-contact relations of geological bodies are stored within the deformation systems, and this differs in the main the collision systems from zones of dynamic metamorphism. 3) regional zones of dynamic metamorphism of Kuznetsk-Altai region are the concentration belts of multiple mechanic deformations and contrast dynamometamorphism of complexes. The formational basis of dynamic metamorphism zones is tectonites of the collision stage. Zones of dynamic metamorphism attract special attention in the structural model of Kuznetsk-Altai region. They not only form the typical tectonic framework of collision sutures, but also contain the main part of ore deposits of this region. Pulse mode of structure formation of Kuznetsk-Altai region is detected. Major collision events in Kuznetsk-Altai region were in the late-Carboniferous-Triassic time (307-310, 295-285, 260-250 and 240-220 Ma). This study was supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 14-05-00117).

Zinoviev, Sergei

2014-05-01

40

Habitat requirements of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Spermophilus undulatus) in the southern Altai  

E-print Network

sequence of altitudinal vegetation zones from steppe, forest-steppe, forest, sub-alpine and alpine tundra. Our results suggest that S. undulatus prefers short-grass steppes, near the water source importance, as they encompass biological features from Siberian taiga to Central Asian mountain, steppe

Fric, Zdenek

41

Glacier shrinkage and climatic change in the Russian Altai from the mid20th century: An assessment using remote sensing  

E-print Network

Glacier shrinkage and climatic change in the Russian Altai from the mid20th century: An assessment 2010; published 20 August 2010. [1] This paper examines changes in the surface area of glaciers variations. The glacier surface areas for 2004 were derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

42

Constraining the timing of the most recent cataclysmic flood event from ice-dammed lakes in the Russian Altai Mountains, Siberia, using cosmogenic in situ 10Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice-dammed lakes were repeatedly formed in intermontane basins in the Russian Altai Mountains throughout the Pleistocene. These cataclysmic outburst floods, caused by ice-dam failures, were documented as Earth's largest flood waves by other geoscientists. Using in situ 10Be, we successfully dated surfaces of flood-associated boulders located in a former lake basin and downvalley from a former ice dam. Our precise surface exposure ages suggest that all boulders were associated with the most recent out of a number of cataclysmic floods that occurred at 15.8 ± 1.8 ka. The field location of the boulders implies that they were deposited by the largest late Pleistocene flood that drained the Chuya-Katun Lake completely following initial dam failure. A published reconstruction of the late glacial paleoenvironment in the vicinity of the former ice dam indicates that dam failure was likely a result of climatically induced downwasting of glaciers. The failure of the ice dam provides more evidence for the timing of widespread warming during the late glacial in southern Russia. This flooding event in the headwaters of the Ob River coincides with a freshwater peak as recorded in isotopic records of the Kara Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

Reuther, Anne U.; Herget, Jürgen; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Borodavko, Pavel; Kubik, Peter W.; Heine, Klaus

2006-11-01

43

Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai - article no. D05309  

SciTech Connect

In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.

Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

2006-03-07

44

A survey of canine echinococcosis in Gobi Altai Province of Mongolia by coproantigen detection.  

PubMed

Few studies have been carried out for the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Mongolia. This study was designed to elucidate a preliminary information of the prevalence from feces collected in the field. Sixty-seven fecal samples from dogs and 2 red foxes in Altai town were collected and examined for Echinococcus coproantigen and eggs. Coproantigen detection was performed by a sandwich ELISA using a monoclonal antibody EmA9 raised against Echinococcus multilocularis somatic antigen. Of the dog samples examined, 17 (25.4%) were positive by the ELISA. One out of two foxes was positive, too. Taeniid egg-positive feces were recognized in 12 dog feces. Only 6 samples were both coproantigen and egg positive. Eggs of Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris sp.; and Capillaria sp.; were also registered. PMID:11590920

Zoljargal, P; Ganzorig, S; Nonaka, N; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

2001-08-01

45

Ecological structure of recent and last glacial mammalian faunas in northern Eurasia: the case of Altai-Sayan refugium.  

PubMed

Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

Pavelková ?i?ánková, V?ra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

2014-01-01

46

[The soil content of cesium-137 in the Republic of Altai due to nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk testing site].  

PubMed

Radioactive fall-outs from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests carried out at the Semipalatinsk testing site have resulted in local soil pollution with 137Cs in the Republic of Altai. The subjects of the investigations were the main types of soils from North and Central Altai. In the Republic of Altai, the share of 137Cs in the upper (0-5 cm) soil layer has been established to be 54.6% in the Turochaksky district to 92.1% in the Ulagansky district. By taking into account the fact that the major activity of 137Cs has been accumulated in the 0.5-cm surface layer, its may be expected that there will be its rather separation with a fine-dispersed surface material In this connection, 137Cs can enter the organism with inhaled dust due to deflation during soil eolation. The inhalation of 137Cs by the dwellers of the areas that have been exposed to irradiation during nuclear weapon tests at the Semipalatinsk testing site continues to be also important today. PMID:20000090

Meshkov, N A; Val'tseva, E A

2009-01-01

47

[Phylogeography of Altai osmans (Oreoleuciscus sp., Cyprinidae, Pisces) based on sequence variation of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene].  

PubMed

Representatives of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Altai osmans) from the water bodies of Western Mongolia were examined for sequence polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA fragment containing the cytochrome b (Cyt-b) gene. A total of 17 sequence variants (haplotypes) were discovered, which formed two clusters, A and B, with nonoverlapping geographic localization. Cluster A included haplotypes of Altai osmans from the Valley of Lakes water bodies. Cluster B consisted of two subclusters, the first of which (B1) united sequence variants of the populations from Hollow of the Great Lakes and the lakes of the Great Altai Range. The second subcluster (B2) was formed by the haplotypes originating from the Hollow of the Lake Uvs, some isolated lakes of the Northwestern Khangay region, and the water bodies of the Arctic Ocean Basin (basins of Selenga and Orchon rivers). Based on the genetic divergence estimates and the radiation time of genetic geographic groups identified, the existence of three allopatric species of Altaic osmans in the genus Oreoleuciscus was substantiated. PMID:22946331

Slyn'ko, Iu V; Borovikova, E A

2012-06-01

48

Ecological Structure of Recent and Last Glacial Mammalian Faunas in Northern Eurasia: The Case of Altai-Sayan Refugium  

PubMed Central

Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

Pavelková ?i?ánková, V?ra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

2014-01-01

49

Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin, (1952 2006) estimated with high resolution imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 °C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area changes in the Aktru River basin (44.8 km2), located in the central Altai mountains. We used the 1952, 1966, 1975 and 2006 remote sensed images with 0.6 3.0 m spatial resolution (aerial photographs, Corona and PRISM satellite images) and differential GPS (DGPS) data. From 1952 to 2006, the total glacier area in the Aktru basin shrank by 7.2% (1.2 km2). During the last three decades, the rate of glacier area loss increased by a factor of 1.8, thus resembling trends in other mountain systems of Eurasia (Alps, Tien Shan). The glacier area changes were caused mainly by increase of summer air temperature by 1.03 °C (from 1951 to 2000) at elevations below 2500 m, which intensified the melt of the glacier's ice in the ablation zone. At elevations above 2500 m (upper accumulation zone), the summer air temperature increased by only 0.83 °C.

Surazakov, A. B.; Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Nikitin, S. A.

2007-10-01

50

A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum  

PubMed Central

Background Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris) come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000–9000 calendar years ago, cal BP), with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500–19,000 cal BP). The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia). Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides) and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old), and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. Conclusions/Significance The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial – early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim) and Siberia (Razboinichya), separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of origin (as some DNA data have suggested) and subsequent spread. PMID:21829526

Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Crockford, Susan J.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; van der Plicht, Johannes

2011-01-01

51

DNA analysis for section identification of individual Pinus pollen grains from Belukha glacier, Altai Mountains, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen taxon in sediment samples can be identified by analyzing pollen morphology. Identification of related species based on pollen morphology is difficult and is limited primarily to genus or family. Because pollen grains of various ages are preserved at below 0?°C in glaciers and thus are more likely to remain intact or to suffer little DNA fragmentation, genetic information from such pollen grains should enable identification of plant taxa below the genus level. However, no published studies have attempted detailed identification using DNA sequences obtained from pollen found in glaciers. As a preliminary step, this study attempted to analyze the DNA of Pinus pollen grains extracted from surface snow collected from the Belukha glacier in the Altai Mountains of Russia in the summer of 2003. A 150-bp rpoB fragment from the chloroplast genome in each Pinus pollen grain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA products were sequenced to identify them at the section level. A total of 105 pollen grains were used for the test, and sequences were obtained from eight grains. From the sequences obtained, the pollen grains were identified as belonging to the section Quinquefoliae. Trees of the extant species Pinus sibirica in the section Quinquefoliae are currently found surrounding the glacier. The consistency of results for this section suggests that the pollen in the glacier originated from the same Pinus trees as those found in the immediate surroundings.

Nakazawa, Fumio; Uetake, Jun; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Ryo; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

52

Geology, geochemistry and age constraints on the Mengku skarn iron deposit in Xinjiang Altai, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mengku iron deposit (110 Mt at 44% Fe) in the eastern extension of the Rudnyi Altai mineral belt, Xinjiang, NW China, is hosted in an Early Devonian volcano-sedimentary sequence affected by prograde skarn formation (clinopyroxene, garnet, scapolite and albite) and retrograde alteration (actinolite, epidote, chlorite and apatite). Ore minerals are magnetite, with minor chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and pyrite. Gangue minerals include predominantly diopside, andradite, epidote, chlorite, quartz and calcite. Fluid inclusions in garnet and clinopyroxene yield homogenization temperatures (Th) of 241-500 °C, and salinities of 9.6-13.0 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusions in quartz consist of two varieties: (1) liquid-vapor-solid inclusions with (Th) of 348-458 °C and salinities of 38.2-57.1 wt.%, and (2) two-phase inclusions with (Th) of 166-382 °C and salinities of 9.6-13.0 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Two-phase inclusions in calcite vary from 145 to 265 °C, with salinities of 1.2-9.6 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The fluid evolution progressed from high temperature and moderate salinity (prograde skarn stage) to moderate T and salinity (retrograde stage), to low T and salinity (sulfide stage). Stable isotope data of quartz and calcite (-84‰ to -110‰ ?D, 5.5-7.0‰ ? 18O SMOW, and -3.8‰ to -6.1‰ ? 13C PDB) reflect late-stage interaction of meteoric water with granitic rocks. Skarn formation was likely related to a Late Devonian tonalite (378 ± 7 Ma, U-Pb zircon age). The geological and geochemical evidence suggests magnetite skarn formation from granite-related fluids which reacted with andesitic to mafic volcanics and their intercalated carbonate beds and lenses, contrary to earlier interpretations of the deposit as of synsedimentary-exhalative origin or related to iron-oxide magma.

Lingang, Xu; Jingwen, Mao; Fuquan, Yang; Hennig, Daniel; Jianmin, Zheng

2010-10-01

53

Glacier condition and variation studies in the Mongolian part of the Altai Mountains. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai Mountain Range is located in the central north part of Eurasia. It holds few thousand glaciers in that area, but has not been investigated so much, except on Russian part. The glaciers in Mongolia are not even registered in the World Glacier Inventory. Our group in JAMSTEC started to investigate the glaciers in this region since 2002, with preliminary observation in the first few years. The study consisted of the followings. (1) Study of the glacier distribution using satellite images and topographic map. (2) Measurement of concerned with mass balance. (3) Measurement of parameters related to glacier dynamics. (4) Melting processes including heat balance on glacier surface. The present paper will show the results obtained up to now. The main results are as follows. The number of the glacier in the Mongolian part was approximately 580 (In year 2000), and the area was 423km2. This glacier area is less than the Russian part, but similar to the Chinese part. Based on satellite image of year 2000 and less accurate topographic map developed by aerial photograph taken around 1950, area change was calculated to be around 30% in the 50 years period. Rather high value for Asia continent. Detail observation was made on the longest glacier in this region (Potanin Glacier, Tavan Bogd Massive ), and its flow speed and thickness has been observed. Fastest surface flow speed was 40m/a. The heat balance calculation on ablation area showed, typical continental type distribution of heat source/sinks. Mass balance of whole glacier including the accumulation area was calculated for 2007/2008 year. The specific mass balance was around 1.4 m. and this value was high value compared with other measurements made in Central Asia in the recent years.

Ohata, T.; Kadota, T.; Konya, K.; Yabuki, H.; Gombo, D.

2009-12-01

54

Folded Lithospheric Basins in Central Asia: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan basins in a folding lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia is a classic example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that these basins were initiated in an extensional context and later inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. They deformed by a combination of lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence, together with upper crustal fault-controlled deformation. They are good examples of Folded Lithospheric Basins (FLB) which typically form in a buckling lithosphere. Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime and time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results. Both regions of active lithospheric folding have a heterogeneous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene - early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures.

Delvaux, Damien; Cloetingh, Sierd; Beekman, Fred; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Burov, Evguenii; Buslov, Misha; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbeck

2014-05-01

55

Present condition of the coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of North-Chuya ridge (Central Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of high-mountain regions which are characterized by extreme climate conditions are of current importance since the response of environmental ecosystems to climate changes is clearly expressed there. The work presented was performed on the territory of two mountain glacial basins located on the northern macroslope of North-Chuya ridge (Russia, Central Altai). High-mountain vegetation of the area being considered didn't undergo an anthropogenic impact. It should be noted that investigations of coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of Aktru and Korumdu mountain glacial basins (2200-2500 m ab. s.l.) haven't been conducted before. A climatic representativeness of Aktru basin was proved by numerous data (Tronov et all, 1965, Sevastianov, 1998). The goal of the work was studying of condition and adaptations of young Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Larix sibirica Ledeb. to forest-tundra ecotone conditions. These species form the treeline on many ridges of Central Altai (Kuminova, 1960), including North-Chuya (Timoshok, 2004). It is shown that the number of young Siberian stone pines and larches in the forest-tundra ecotone is not big, Siberian stone pine being found more often than larch. A considerable quantity of young Siberian stone pines grows in sheltered sites (near big stones, boulders, stumps, etc.). During the research period dead young trees have been found in single cases. The maximum percentage of Siberian stone pine trees (42.4%) growing in sheltered sites was registered in Aktru basin on the east-southeast slope whereas on the west-northwest slope the maximum percentage of Siberian stone pines growing in clusters has been revealed (34.4%). Also on the west-northwest slope the maximum quantity of Siberian stone pines that changed their terminal shoots have been found (62.5%). During the investigation young trees with signs of diseases were registered. Chermes (Pineus cembrae Chol.) has been found on shoots and needles. On the west-northwest slope the corresponding damage constitutes about 3.2% of target Siberian stone pine trees. In forest-tundra ecotone of Aktru basin young larches, often single, grow on exposed sites, and theirs stems often change terminal shoots. There are no diseased trees discovered. For Korumdu mountain glacial basin high percentage of Siberian stone pine trees (41.4%) was registered on the west-northwest slope growing in sheltered sites, as well as trees in clusters (7,2%). On this slope 100% of Siberian stone pines change their terminal shoots meanwhile for the east-southeast slope this characteristic constitutes just 57%. Siberian stone pines with diseases have been registered for the west-northwest slope (7.2%). Thus, considering forest-tundra ecotone of North-Chuya ridge one can conclude that the Siberian stone pine undergrowth condition is more viable on east-southeast slopes than on the west-northwest slopes. The larch undergrowth is not as viable as the Siberian stone pine's one. The work presented is supposed to be used as a basis for detecting response and adaptations of high-mountain coniferous undergrowth to regional climate changes. References 1. Tronov M.V., Tronova L.B., Belova N.I. Basic features of climate of mountain glacial basin Aktru. // Glaciology of Altai, 1965. Vol. 4. P. 3-48. 2. Sevastyanov V.V. The climate of high-mountains of Altai and Sayan. - Tomsk: TGU, 1998. - 199 pp. 3. Kuminova A.V. Vegetation of the Altai. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1960. - 450 pp. 4. Timoshok E.E. Estimation and conservation of vegetation cover biodiversity in high-mountain glacial basin Aktru. - Tomsk, 2004, - 72 pp.

Propastilova, Olga; Timoshok, Elena

2010-05-01

56

Cosiesmic slope mass movements and its contribution to the Holocene landscape denudation: geological evidences and numerical estimations from SE Altai (Russia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong earthquakes deform Earth's surface and affect the topography of mountain terrains. They can also induce widespread mass wasting which often cause most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the earthquakes. Their abundant occurrence and large volumes of displaced material also indicate a great influence of seismically induced landslides on landscape denudation. Estimating earthquake magnitudes and topography changes using instrumental data and historic accounts can give information about regional seismicity during relatively short time period. At the same time the evolution of paleoseismogeological studies clearly demonstrates that in order to properly understand the seismic potential of a region, and to assess the associated topography changes, extensive studies are necessary to take full advantage from the geological evidence of past earthquakes. The key point of this investigation is detailed study of geomorphologically expressed surface displacement of evidently seismic origin. The Altai neotectonic uplift is the part of Central-Asian collision belt and is a transpressional zone formed due to oblique thrusting. Russian Altai is the northern extension of Mongolian Altai which is known by its high seismicity. As a result SE Altai is the most seismically active part of Russian Altai. This was evidenced by the 2003 Chuya earthquake (MS = 7.3). Strong Holocene earthquakes left the most enduring imprint on landforms of Russian Altai. Giant landslides have been well preserved in topography here due to arid climate. The leading factor in generation of such landslides is seismic excitation. Our field observations of the ground effects of strong modern and prehistoric earthquakes reveal regional criteria that indicate seismic origin of Altai paleolandslides. Unconsolidated Cenozoic sediments presented in the most active areas at the depression-range transition along fault boundaries of landforms provide geological conditions of landsliding in this active mountain terrain. Paleoseismogeological study of SE Altai reveal a number of strong Holocene earthquakes (shaking intensity IX - X according MSK-64 scale). These events generated a lot of ruptures and giant landslides. Paleolandslide's close location in the modern earthquake's epicenter zone shows that the source areas of large earthquakes in SE Altai were repeatedly reactivated. Strong prehistoric earthquakes with magnitudes M>6.9 occurred here. Besides, this fact also argues the hypothesis of the identity of historic and Holocene earthquake's mechanisms in a region. Thus unilateral displacement of tectonic blocks along the bounders of the Chuya-Kurai intermountain depressions took place at least from the beginning of the Holocene. In our researches we mainly focused on the largest earthquake triggered landslides. These giant paleolandslides already in itself evidence to high regional seismicity. Using data from 15 strong modern earthquakes worldwide we have calculated the correlation between earthquake magnitude and the volume of the largest triggered landslide. We have also modified correlation between earthquake magnitude and the total volume of generated landslides. All these allow us to estimate magnitudes of prehistoric earthquakes, calculated the total volume of earthquake triggered landslides, the contribution of landslides caused by aftershocks and the Holocene erosion rate due to seismically induced landslides for SE Altai.

Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna

2010-05-01

57

Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.  

PubMed

The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too. PMID:25016250

Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

2014-09-01

58

Teleseismic Body Wave Analysis for the 27 September 2003 Altai, Earthquake (Mw7.4) and Large Aftershocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the kinematics of the rupture process for the September 27, 2003, Mw7.3, Altai earthquake and its associated large aftershocks. This is the largest earthquake striking the Altai mountains within the last 50 years, which provides important constraints on the ongoing tectonics. The fault plane solution obtained by teleseismic body waveform modeling indicated a predominantly strike-slip event (strike=130, dip=75, rake 170), Scalar moment for the main shock ranges from 0.688 to 1.196E+20 N m, a source duration of about 20 to 42 s, and an average centroid depth of 10 km. Source duration would indicate a fault length of about 130 - 270 km. The main shock was followed closely by two aftershocks (Mw5.7, Mw6.4) occurred the same day, another aftershock (Mw6.7) occurred on 1 October , 2003. We also modeled the second aftershock (Mw6.4) to asses geometric similarities during their respective rupture process. This aftershock occurred spatially very close to the mainshock and possesses a similar fault plane solution (strike=128, dip=71, rake=154), and centroid depth (13 km). Several local conditions, such as the crustal model and fault geometry, affect the correct estimation of some source parameters. We perfume a sensitivity evaluation of several parameters, including centroid depth, scalar moment and source duration, based on a point and finite source modeling. The point source approximation results are the departure parameters for the finite source exploration. We evaluate the different reported parameters to discard poor constrained models. In addition, deformation data acquired by InSAR are also included in the analysis.

Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Mellors, R.

2007-05-01

59

Reconstruction and prediction of climate and vegetation change in the Holocene in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two quantitative methods were used to reconstruct paleoenvironments and vegetation in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia, during the Holocene. The 'biomization' method of Prentice et al (1996 Clim. Dyn. 12 185-96), applied to the surface pollen record, worked fairly well in the reconstructions of current vegetation. Applying this method to fossil pollen data, we reconstructed site paleovegetation. Our montane bioclimatic model, MontBioCliM, was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. The differences between site paleo and current climates served as past climate change scenarios. The climatic anomalies for 2020, 2050, and 2080 derived from HadCM3 A1FI and B1 of the Hadley Centre, UK, served as climate change scenarios in the 21st century. MontBioCliM was applied directly to all climate scenarios through the Holocene to map past and future mountain vegetation over the Altai-Sayan mountains. Our results suggest that the early Holocene ca 10 000 BP was cold and dry; the period between 8000 and 5300 BP was warm and moist; and the time slice ca 3200 BP was cooler and drier than the present. Using kappa statistics, we showed that the vegetation at 8000 BP and 5300 BP was similar, as was the vegetation at 10 000 BP and 3200 BP, while future vegetation was predicted to be dissimilar to any of the paleovegetation reconstructions. The mid-Holocene is frequently hypothesized to be an analog of future climate warming; however, being known as warm and moist in Siberia, the mid-Holocene climate would likely impact terrestrial ecosystems differently from the projected warm and dry mid-century climate.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Blyakharchuk, T. A.; Parfenova, E. I.

2009-10-01

60

Central Asia Climate Change: Altai, Tien Shan And Pamir Ice Cores Contemporary And Paleo-Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some speculations that central Asia (CA) glaciers will disappear in the next two decades or so. The existing climate models predict that a substantial warming will occur in continental interiors, such as CA, both in summer and especially in winter. However, the climate instrumental records barely cover the last 100 years in CA and longer period of proxy data could be recovered only from the high elevation snow glacier ice fields. To evaluate the threshold climatic conditions we analyzed the stable isotopes and chemistry series from 170m surface to bedrock ice core recovered from Belukha ice-cap (4120masl, 49°48’N, 86°33’E) in Siberian Altai (SA). The enriched isotope transition with thermal maximum of about -7.3‰ let us expect that Siberian glaciers survived during the Holocene Climate Optimum with much warmer period than modern (?18O mean of -14.25‰). Two periods of cold snap with ?18O mean of -18.49‰ and depleted to -23.7‰ were found in the ice core records prior to occurrence of thermal maximum. One of them was the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial followed by 8.2 kiloyear event, a cold snap episode with mean of -16.23‰ depleted to -19.4‰, relate to the signs of increased droughts. Rapid changes in d-excess records during transition from cold periods to thermal maximum periods could be associated with changes in atmospheric circulation and transferring from external oceanic moisture sources to internal. Based on developed transfer function, we roughly estimated temperature rise during the thermal maximum. We also analyzed the major ions, their relations and deviations from seawater ratios during different periods of the Siberian glaciation development, degradation, checked the dust input, and strong covariance cold snap period stands out as having much higher dust concentration. The surface to bottom SA ice cores did not contain organic material at the glacier bedrock, because during the thermal maximum and other warm interstadial periods (e.g., Hypsithermal and Medival, Bolling-Allerod (BA)) occurred in the SA, it was significantly dryer and maybe cooler than in the Tien Shan (TS) mountains. The 14C analysis of organic soil obtained from the bottom of ice-core recovered from the Grigoriev Ice-cap, at 4700masl, 41°58’N, 77°55’E The Grigoriev ice-core (1200 km to the South from SA) dated of 10640 14C years, close to the onset of the YD cold period. This result may conclude that glaciers did not exist in the BA period in TS at elevations up to 5000masl because it was significantly warmer. Formation of organic soil requires wet and warm conditions during hundreds/thousands of years thus, much warmer and wet climate rather than arid climate caused the TS glacial recession in the BA period that we did not revealed in the SA. We assume that threshold climate changes occurred prior to YD in the TS (warmer and more wet) and in the SA (much warmer, but dry) was not observed in the Pamir. Differences in prevailing atmospheric circulation, maintaining Pamir glaciers from modern and historical climatic thresholds, occurred in central TS and SA and while the Pamir glaciers might be remnants of the LGM.

Aizen, E.; Aizen, V. B.; Takeuchi, N.; Mayewski, P. A.; Grigholm, B. O.; Fujita, K.; Joswiak, D.

2010-12-01

61

Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49°48'26''N, 86°34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly

S. Olivier; C. Blaser; S. Brütsch; N. Frolova; H. W. Gäggeler; K. A. Henderson; A. S. Palmer; T. Papina; M. Schwikowski

2006-01-01

62

New methodological aspects of using dendrochronological analysis for dating strong paleoearthquakes (by the example of SE Altai, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dendroseismology has a great potential in a paleoseismological investigation due to utmost precision of dating. Rings of trees - witnesses of seismic events contain both the evidence for the earthquake and its age. These evidences can be created by surface ruptures (sheared off tree roots and trunks, tilted and fallen trees etc.) or by earthquake induced geomorphic processes and/or seismic shaking (tree death or slower growth caused by lost of their crowns, tilted or buried trees caused by landsliding, as well as trees germination on bared surfaces) (McCalpin, 2009). Dendrogeomorphology (Stoffel, 2010) is another young and promising approach which among others studies different aspects of rock fall activity on the basis of wood penetrating injuries of trees. It should be underscored that both techniques are used most efficiently just on times that cover the life span of the last forest stand (about 300-500 years). The main idea of our approach of using dendrochronological analysis for timing strong paleoearthquakes is analyzing of tree-ring anomalies caused by specifically seismically triggered rock falls during the prolonged time interval. SE part of Russian Altai, in this case, is a unique place: 1) seismically induced slope processes intrude into forest stand zone in an immediate vicinity with the modern upper timber limit (which is favorable for carrying out the dendrochronological analysis); 2) arid climate promotes good preservation of wood (up to two thousand years on stone surfaces); 3) 2367-years absolute tree-ring chronology "Mongun" has been developed for SE Altai and Tuva regions (Myglan et al., 2012). We tested this approach during our paleoseismological investigations at the previously unknown complex of earthquake triggered landslides on the northern part of the Chagan-Uzun massif. The south fault boundary of this block was reactivated at the time of the 2003 Chuya earthquake (?s=7.3). We developed 1153 years (856 -2009 AD) local tree ring chronology on Pinus sibirica for this area. In order to provide absolute dates of paleoearthquakes we analyzed the ages of penetrating tree injuries caused by rock falls. Simultaneity of these injuries sustained by trees which grew on different earthquake induced landslides was accepted as a criterion of their seismic origin. The accuracy of such an approach was supported by data obtained from analyzing injuries occurred on trees as a result of rock falls triggered by the 2003 Chuya earthquake. In addition to estimating the upper possible date of creation of this complex of earthquake triggered landslides we have also established with the annual resolution the date of previously unknown strong medieval earthquake. This dendrochronologically obtained data has been independently verified by radiocarbon dating of seismically cut fossil soil overlapped by that undistorted. New data also allows us to specify the recurrence interval of strong earthquakes for SE Altai. Beside the obvious applied importance for local paleoseismological investigations the suggested approach can be used for timing strong paleoearthquakes for regions where instrumental seismic records or historical accounts are not available.

Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Nazarov, Andrey

2013-04-01

63

Spatial variations of the atmospheric electric field and radon emanation in the zone of tectonic faults in the Baikal rift zones and mountains Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of methods for monitoring upper crust geodynamic activity encourages solutions preventing emergencies due to geological events. Using geodetic and seismic data jointly with information on other geophysical fields enables to improve the existing methods. When analyzing perturbations of electric field strength and volumetric Radon concentration, there were used data obtained from geophysical trips to Tunkin rift Basin of Baikal rift zone of southern part of East Siberia, and in the regions of Kuraysky and Chuysky basins in the central part of Altai Mountains (the region of Chuysky earthquake dated 27.09.2003). In Tunkin Basin observations were carried out near Tora settlement - "I", and Arshan settlement - "II". The analysis of Radon volumetric activity evidenced that its variations are influenced by atmospheric pressure and tides, and such influence is different at points 'I' and 'II'. The tidal and atmospheric influence on Radon variations is more pronounced at 'II' if compared to 'I', which can be explained by locations of the registration points. Registration Point 'II' is located close to tectonic faults, while 'I' is in the center of the basin with its quite thick layer of sediments. Axial section observations of spatial inhomogeneities of electric field and Radon emanation were set along and across the Tunkin Basin. Observation points were set 3 to 10 km apart depending on the local relief. Each point was registering for 60 min under the conditions of 'good weather'. There were analysed changes in mean strength of electric field and Radon volumetric activity as a function of distance along the axial section. It was found out that volumetric activity and electric field strength change in phase opposition - radon volumetric activity increase results in more intense ionization in near-surface atmosphere and consequently to decrease in the electric field strength. The concentration of Radon in subsoil atmosphere increases, and electric field strength decreases when approaching to rift zones rimming the Tunkin Basin from North and South. The influence of local increase in radioactive gas concentration on behavior of atmospheric electric field was observed also in Kuraysky and Chuysky basins. 'Good weather' observations near Aktash settlement evidenced long intervals of about a day when electric field strength was negative. Presence of negative electric field under conditions of 'good weather' indicates changed characteristics of near Earth atmosphere. Local increase concentrations of gaseous Radon and Thoron influences the intensity of ion-generation in near Earth atmosphere and leads to creation of negative charges near the surface. Changes at two cross sections through the south-eastern boundaries of Chuysky and Kuraysky basins distinctly show presence of spatial inhomogeneities of electric atmospheric field and Radon concentration. The results of axial section observations can be successfully used when mapping geological inhomogeneities in the Earth's crust.

Soloviev, S.; Loktev, D.

2013-12-01

64

Geochemical study of the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern Altai-Mongolian terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Implications on the provenance and tectonic setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai-Mongolian terrane (AM) is a key component of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), but its tectonic nature has been poorly constrained. This paper reports geochemical compositions of Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM to trace their source nature and depositional setting, which in turn place constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the AM. The Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM show variable major-element compositions, with negative correlation between SiO2 and TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3T, MgO and K2O. Their high ICV values (1.18-2.53) and relatively low CIA values (37.9-76.3) indicate that the sediments were immature and probably underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering. The low-SiO2 samples are characterized by relatively restricted SiO2/Al2O3 (mostly 2.60-6.07) and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.02-1.89), implying their proximal deposition without obvious sedimentary sorting and recycling. In contrast, the high-SiO2 samples show much higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratios (15.4-19.9) possibly due to sedimentary sorting and/or silicification. All these samples yield relatively high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios (15.6-22.8), strong LREEs/HREEs differentiation ((La/Yb)N = 4.86-10.7) and obvious negative Eu anomalies (?Eu = 0.61-0.83). Combined with their Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, La/Th and Co/Th ratios comparable with intermediate-acidic magmatic rocks, we infer that these kinds of magmatic rocks served as a major source for the investigated meta-sedimentary rocks. The TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3T + MgO concentrations are mostly higher than typical sediments from passive margin, and the Th/U, La/Sc, Th/Sc, Eu/Eu?, Zr/Hf, Zr/Th and La/Th ratios are quite similar to sediments from continental arcs. These data suggest that the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM were most likely deposited in an environment related to a continental arc setting rather than a passive regime. These rocks show strong similarities to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai (CA, southern AM) and Tseel terrane (southeastern extension of the CA in western Mongolia) in terms of geochemical compositions and depositional setting. With combination of recent isotopic studies for detrital zircons, our data suggest that the AM probably represented a coherent accretionary prism along a continental arc in the early Paleozoic.

Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.

2014-12-01

65

The Altai earthquake response of the measuring systems of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station dam on the Yenisei River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of retrospective analysis of in situ observations in the dam foundation and adjacent bank rocks of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station (SSHPS) during the nucleation and energy release of the Altai earthquake of September 27, 2003, are presented. A group of most reliable precursors of this earthquake is identified in measured parameters monitoring the state of the facility and surrounding bedrock. The correlation is examined between the precursor occurrence time and the energy of the earthquakes recorded in the regional catalog in 1990-2005, in the period of the normal SSHPS operation.

Marchuk, N. A.

2008-03-01

66

Mineralogical and geochemical features of promising types of gold mineralization in the western Altai-Sayany folded region (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Altai-Sayany folded region is one of the oldest mining regions of Russia. Typical gold deposits are quartz-viens and skarns, which formation is associated with intrusion of island-arc and collision granitoids. Due to the fact that the traditional gold ore base of the region has already been largely worked out, the necessity of prospecting for new gold deposits has arisen. On the basis of available data, one may state that the outlook for the development of gold-mining industry of the Altai-Sayany region is concerned with gold mineralization in weathering crusts, epithermal gold-silver, gold-porhyry and gold-sulfide formations. The total gold resource potential of these object types is estimated by us at the level of 2000 t. The gold mineralization of epithermal gold-silver formation is confined to Early-Middle Devonian volcanic-plutonic belt. Here, gold-bearing zones of beresitization, argillization, sulfidization and silicification are discovered among volcanites. Maximum contents of noble metals are found in quartz-sulfide veins among sulfidized (arsenic pyrite, pyrite, galenite, sphalerite and fahlore, etc.) and silicified volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Ore zones are marked by anomalously high content of Au, Ag, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, Hg not only in bedrocks, but also in haloes of dispersion in loose deposits. Gold-sulfide mineralization in terrigenous carbonaceous strata is confined to Late Riphean, Early Cambrian and Devonian metamorphosed complexes. This rocks were formed in the marginal sea basins. Metamorphism and repeated tectono-magmatic activation in the region resulted in redistribution and accumulation of gold. Gold-ore zones are marked by intensive silicification and sulfidization and are characterized mostly by occurrences of multiple generations of pyrite and arsenic pyrite. Gold occurs both in free state and in sulphides. Geochemistry of gold-ore zones can be characterized by associated elevated content of As, Ag, Sb, Cu, Hg. Gold-sulfide mineralization in terrigenous-carbonate strata (Karline type) is confined to Vendian and Late Devonian-Carboniferous carbonaceous dolomite and limestone. Formation of such epithermal mineralization is associated with Mesozoic Siberian plume evolution. Gold mineralization is confined to major tectonic zones, it is accompanied by listwenite, jasperoid and argillizated rock as well as barite, polymetal and mercury mineralization. Geochemistry of gold-ore zones can be characterized by associated elevated content of As, Ag, Sb, Pb, Zn, Hg Tl. Gold-porphyritic mineralization is confined to the areas of distribution of small massifs and dyke fields composed of diorite, granitoid, monzonite, and syenitoid. It is significant that gold is closely associated with copper and molybdenum reflecting general regularities in formation of porphyry orogenic systems. Gold-ore zones are accompanied by kalifeldsparization, silicification and sulfidization. The most widely distributed minerals in ore zones are chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, molybdenite, fahlores etc. Gold in crusts of weathering is found in Cretaceous-Paleogene clay and clay-rubbly deposits distributed predominantly among Early Cambrian gold-bearing sulfidized vulcanogenic-sedimentary rocks. Average content of gold in the crusts of weathering is 0.5-1.5 g/t. The gold is of high fineness, with little silver admixture, predominantly free, recoverable by gravity separation, fine in some areas, and associated with clay particles.

Chernykh, Alexandr

2013-04-01

67

Suitability of altai wildrye (Elymus angustus) and slender wheatgrass (Agropyron trachycaulum) for initial reclamation of saline composite tailings of oil sands.  

PubMed

The reclamation of freshly produced composite or consolidated tailings (CT) is a challenge for the Oil Sands Industry in the boreal forest of Western Canada. CT tailings materials are characterized by a relatively high salinity (dominated by sodium, sulphate and chloride) and a high pH (8-9). A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the germination, survival, injury and early plant growth of two grass species recommended for land reclamation, altai wildrye (Elymus angustus Trin) and slender wheatgrass (Agropyron trachycaulum Link Malte), growing in two different oil sand CT tailings (alum-CT and gypsum-CT), with and without peat amendment. Ion accumulation in the resulting plant tissues was determined. Our results showed that slender wheatgrass was most affected by the tailings at the germination stage, while for altai wildrye, the early growth stage was the most sensitive stage. Alum-CT had similar or less negative impact on plants than gypsum-CT. Amendment of CT with peat limited the reduction in germination and growth that was recorded in plants growing directly in CT. Based on these results, recommendations were made to improve reclamation strategies. PMID:14720476

Renault, Sylvie; Qualizza, Clara; MacKinnon, Mike

2004-01-01

68

Detail climate reconstructions based on combined geochemistry of lake sediments and tree-ring data by the example of Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge of climate change with associated forcing during the last thousand-years remains limited because that cannot be studied thoroughly by instrumental data. So it is an actual task to find high resolution paleoclimate records and to compare it with recent patterns of short-period oscillations. Combination of lake sediments and tree rings appears to be effective for understanding of regional climate variability. The Altai mountain range in Central Asia has a climate divide between Siberian forests in the North and arid areas of Central Asia in the South. This region is characterized by the highest degree of continentality. In winter, due to the prevailing stable Siberian High, cold and dry arctic air masses are predominant. In summer, humid air masses from the Atlantic Ocean as well as recycled moisture are the main sources of precipitation. There are several dendrochronologies (up to 1700 years long) and annual reconstructions by Teletskoye Lake sediments (3000 years) in Altai region. They are calibrated by data from 14 local weather stations (time series up to 80 years) and Barnaul station (170 years) as well. The frequencies analysis of tree-ring width chronologies from Altai using by the spectral analysis shows that high frequencies are dominate. Most of cycles have periodicity up to 40 years. Maximum amplitude were found for 32.3, 142,9 and 200 year. High frequencies (2-40 years) are explain more 60% variability of tree-ring width chronologies. Decadal variabilities are found for 32.3, 40.0 and 43.5 years. Last two cycles are the same as Brikner cycle and could explain decadal moisture variability in Altai and Central Asia. Typical mountains lakes - Teletskoye and Kucherla - with accumulation rate of the fine-grained sediments 0,5-2 mm/year and free of human impact are selected to take sediment cores. A new generation of X-Ray Fluorescence instruments - the XRF scanner on Synchrotron Radiation - allows providing extraordinary high-resolution (up to 0.1 mm) records of elemental composition due to low threshold of detectability of many elements from Al to U. XRF scanning realizes rapid and non-destructive determinations, making sedimentary cores comparable with tree-rings. Also thin-sections are studied to examine the nature of laminas in order to better understand signals extracted. Time series of lithological-geochemical indicators of climate change based on dating by 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb are calibrated by instrumental hydrometeorological data to obtain the functions as environmental reconstructions. About 10 elements determined in sediments remain valid as climatic proxies after preliminary testing of analytical accuracy and variability. Set of elements depends on sediment composition, which is differing in sampled lakes. Organophillic elements have larger coefficients in equations for temperature reconstructions, but clastophillic ones are greater in formulas of multiple regression for precipitation. Good correlation between sedimentary-geochemical reconstructions and local dendrochronologies is revealed. So we used tree-ring series together with element contents as an additional proxy for calculation of transfer function, considering that tree-ring series are responsed to summer temperature in this climatic zone. Such combined version allows taking one more independent environmental indication for objective reconstructions. Another direction for use is detailed elaboration for sparse pollen or diatoms sequences. Multi-elemental geochemical matrix also allows prolongation of many instrumental time-series such as lake level, runoff, tree rings, atmospheric pressure, wind direction, solar activity etc.

Kalugin, Ivan; Darin, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Holodova, Lyudmila

2010-05-01

69

[Comparative analysis of ISSR markers polymorphism in populations of yak (Bos mutus) and in F1 hybrids between yak and cattle in the Sayan-Altai region].  

PubMed

The genetic variability in seven yak populations from the Sayan-Altai region and in F1 hybrids between yak and cattle (khainags) was investigated with the help of a technique that involves the use of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers generated with PCR primers (AG)9C and (GA)9C. Samples for the analysis were collected in Mongolia, Tuva, and Altai from 2008 through 2012. The examined yak populations differed in in the presence/absence of ISSR fragments, as well as in their frequency. In total, 46 ISSR fragments were identified using two marker systems; the proportion of polymorphic loci constituted 76% and 90% for the AG-ISSR and GA-ISSR markers, respectively. For the total sample of yaks, total genetic diversity (Ht), within-population diversity (Hs), and interpopulation diversity (Gst) constituted 0.081, 0.044, and 0.459 for the AG-ISSR and 0.137, 0.057, and 0.582 for the GA-ISSR markers, respectively. Based on ISSR finger printing, species- and breed-specific DNA patterns were described for the three groups of animals (yaks, cattle, khainags). For the domestic yak, the species-specific profile was represented by eight ISSR fragments. Genetic relationships between the yak populations, cattle breeds, and khainags were examined with the help of four different approaches used in the analysis of population structure: estimation of phylogenetic similarity, multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. Clear evidence on the differentiation of the populations examined at the interspecific, as well as at intraspecific, level were obtained. Similar (relative); as well as remote (isolated), yak populations were identified. Khainags occupy an intermediate position between yak and cattle. However, the data on the ISSR-PCR marker polymorphism (genome polymorphism, population structure).indicate that part of the analyzed khainag genome was more similar to the yak genome than to the cattle genome. PMID:25720249

Stolpovsky, Yu A; Kol, N V; Evsyukov, A N; Nesteruk, L V; Dorzhu, Ch M; Tsendsuren, Ts; Sulimova, G E

2014-10-01

70

Ice-dynamical and Basal Properties of Sofiyskiy Glacier, Altai Mts, Russia, Based On GPS and Radio-echo Sounding Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is expected that central-Asian glaciers ­ compared to other glaciers in the world ­ exhibit a different response to changing climate due to (i) the extreme continentality that gives rise to aridity and large seasonal temperature variations, and (ii) the coinci- dence of both accumulation and ablation season in summer. A detailed four-year field survey was carried out on Sofiyskiy Glacier, a glacier in the South Chuya Range (Altai Mountains), Russia. Field observations revealed that this glacier retreated steadily during the 20th Century at a rate of 18.3 m a-1. Based on radio-echo sounding (RES) and mass-balance mea- surements, we carried out numerical model experiments to simulate historic front vari- ations (De Smedt and Pattyn, in prep.). Results demonstrated that although Sofiyskiy Glacier exhibits a low static sensitivity to climatic changes, its dynamic sensitivity seems very large compared to glaciers from the European Alps. Basal sliding plays an important role in the glacier's behaviour. An analysis of RES measurements led to the determination of the bed reflection power (BRP). Applying a three-layer reflectivity model (Born and Wolf, 1986) the BRP was compared with the theoretical bed reflectivity for a conductive layer of varying porosity and thickness (considering a water layer, saturated till or frozen material). From this comparison it was possible to delineate zones of high basal water content, saturated till or ice frozen to the bedrock.

Pattyn, F.; de Smedt, B.; de Brabander, S.; Decleir, H.

71

Pb-Pb geochronologic study on the carbonaceous rocks in the Krai area, Altai, Russia: V-C boundary or Snowball Earth event?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the limestones occurred in the Kurai area, Altai district, Russia to define Pb-Pb isochron age and examine their variation of Sr isotopic compositions through time. The limestones are inferred to have deposited at the boundary of the Vendian-Cambrian from stratigraphic analyses. In this study, We have newly collected samples for the purpose of the present Pb isotopic study on the basis of the reinvestigated stratigraphic map. Samples are also available from various horizons to examine isotopic variation of Sr through time. We made a minor modification on the method of Pb extraction process from the samples to maintain a stable and higher yield, which made it possible to obtain reliable Pb isotopic data. At present, we have obtained an isochron age of 598 + - 25 Ma (MSWD=1.06) for 9 samples. The present age is evidently older than the boundary of the Vendian-Cambrian, and seems to be correlated with the snowball Earth event. Sr isotopes show substantial variation from 0.7059 to 0.7077 which is interpreted in terms of environmental change during the snowball Earth event. Besides the Pb isotopic age, homogenous 208Pb/204Pb ratios of the samples are suggestive that Th/Pb ratio had been uniform within the seawater or through the formation process of the limestone.

Nohda, S.; Uchio, Y.; Kani, T.; Isozaki, Y.; Maruyama, S.

2003-12-01

72

A new approach for reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mongolian Altai: The high-resolution ?13C records of TOC and pollen complexes in Hoton-Nur Lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?13C of total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen grain, TOC, C/N ratio, and ?15N of total organic nitrogen (TON) in a 2.57-m long core from Hoton-Nur Lake in Mongolian Altai have been measured for reconstruction of the Holocene climates. The ?13C values of TOC and pollen carbon have similar average values but different ranges. Pollen ?13C has negative correlation with %AP (arboreal taxa pollen) and positive correlation with %NAP (herbaceous pollen and spores) that are connected with conditions of humidity in the area. Taiga-biome has lighter ?13C than steppe-biome. Hence, pollen ?13C composition is more sensitive to changes of humidity in the analogous spectra than palynotaxonomical structure and ?13C of TOC. Based on our results, the Holocene climates in Mongolian Altai are: (1) dry conditions prior to 11.5 kyr BP; (2) wet conditions between 11.5 and 6.0 kyr BP; (3) a relatively dry/cool episode during 6-4 kyr BP; (4) stable cool and semiarid conditions with moderately effective moisture during the past 4000 years. Two abrupt climatic changes occurred at ˜7.45 kyr BP and ˜11.5 kyr BP might be related to glacial activities. The Holocene climatic trend in Mongolian Altai which is controlled by the Westerlies is similar to the trend of monsoonal climate shown by the Chinese speleothem records as well as the lake/sand dune evidence in the deserts of NW China. The contact of the two climatic systems and shift of the monsoonal boundary during the past need to be further studied.

Rudaya, Natalia; Li, Hong-Chun

2013-06-01

73

Combining InSAR and seismology to study the 2003 Siberian Altai earthquakes-dextral strike-slip and anticlockwise rotations in the northern India-Eurasia collision zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2003 September 27 Mw 7.2 Siberian Altai earthquake was the largest to have struck the Altai mountains in more than seventy years, and was closely followed by two Mw 6.2 and 6.6 aftershocks. We use radar interferometry, seismic bodywaves and field investigations to examine the source processes of these earthquakes. The main shock of the initial earthquake ruptured a subvertical, ~NW-SE striking dextral strike-slip fault. The fault was previously unrecognised; although it approximately follows the southwestern boundaries of two intermontane depressions within the interior northwestern Altai, it has very little topographic expression. A ~NE-dipping Mw ~ 6.7 reverse subevent, possibly triggered by shear waves from the main shock, occurred ten seconds afterwards strike to the southeast. The later Mw 6.2 and 6.6 aftershocks were dextral strike-slip events which contributed further to deformation in the northwest part of the fault zone. However, interferometric and bodywave models disagree significantly on the source parameters of the earthquakes, in particular the total moment released and the dip of the fault planes. Trade-offs of fault dip with moment and centroid depth in the bodywave modelling can account for some, but not all, of these discrepancies. The interferometric data is unevenly distributed, containing many more data points on one side of the fault zone than the other; however, on the basis of calculations with synthetic data we rule this out as a reason for the discrepancies in fault parameters. The lower moment predicted by interferometry could be explained by the lack of coherent data close to the faulting, if slip was concentrated at very shallow depths. The dip yielded by the interferometric modelling might be influenced by lateral changes in elastic properties, although these would also affect the bodywave solutions. The earthquake sequence occurred close to recent palaeomagnetic measurements of late Cenozoic anticlockwise rotations. These suggest that the right-lateral strike-slip faulting that ruptured in the 2003 earthquakes accommodates regional ~NNE-SSW shortening by rotating anticlockwise over time. The reverse subevent is a rare case of pure shortening perpendicular to the trend of the Altai range.

Nissen, Edwin; Emmerson, Brian; Funning, Gareth J.; Mistrukov, Anatoly; Parsons, Barry; Robinson, David P.; Rogozhin, Eugene; Wright, Tim J.

2007-04-01

74

Application of remote sensing and GIS in glacier monitoring: Glacier variability in Central Asia (Tien Shan and Altai) during the last 30--60 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to estimate glacier changes in the two mountain systems of Central Asia - Tien Shan and Altai, during the last 30-60 years as a consequence of regional climatic changes using remote sensing and GIS methods. To this goal two methodological studies were undertaken demonstrating the potential of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and declassified KH-9 Hexagon images for estimation of glacier changes. Glacier area and volume changes were estimated in three pilot basins in Tien Shan and Altai: Akshiirak, Ala-Archa and Aktru using data from historical geodetic surveys, topographic maps, aerial photography, declassified KH-9 Hexagon photographs, ASTER and ALOS/PRISM satellite images, SRTM and IceSAT elevation data and DGPS in situ measurements. Using SRTM data and a DEM from 1:25,000 topographic map glacier surface changes can be estimated with error about 8.2 m. In spite of SRTM error and the occasional absence of data on steep slopes, major long-term changes on relatively flat ablation and accumulation areas are clearly identifiable. Furthermore, the presence of local areas of rebound on glacier surfaces allowed decoupling of dynamic and climatic components of glacier changes that are not available solely from planimetric data. The high metric qualities of KH-9 imagery demonstrated a unique opportunity to extend high-resolution land cover/land use change studies to early 70s on regional to global scales. An IDL program was developed for automatic geometric preprocessing of KH-9 images. The distortions of scanned KH-9 film frames were about 6 mum (maximum 47.32 mum) with non uniform local patterns that had to be removed by local interpolation. In bundle triangulation of KH-9 images horizontal accuracies below 8 m were achieved. The KH-9 DEM vertical accuracy over flat terrain was about 6 m and 30 m over high mountains. The triple overlap of the KH-9 images enabled good DEM definition and accuracy on both north and south facing steep mountain slopes. From 1952 to 2006 the Aktru basin glaciers lost 7.2% of their area. During the last three decades, the rate of area loss accelerated by a factor of 1.8 (from 0.9% to 1.6% per decade). The changes were caused mainly by the increase of summer air temperature by 1.03°C at elevations below 2500 m and 0.83°C at elevations over 2500 m from 1951 to 2000. The glaciers in Ala-Archa and Tien Shan retreated up to 3 km between the 1860s and 2003, the surface of their ablation areas lowered more than 130 m. The area of the Ala Archa glaciers shrunk by 15.8% over the last 40 yr. The Akshiirak glacierized massif lost about 10 km3 of glacier ice and 12.5% of glacier area between 1943 and 2000. From 1977 to 2003 the rate of volume loss of the Akshiirak glaciers accelerated by a factor of 2.7. Continuous growth of spring and autumn air temperatures in northern Tien Shan and increase of summer air temperature in Central Tien Shan since the middle of 1970's without increase of precipitation may further accelerate glacier recession and intensify desertification processes in the Central Asia and northwestern China.

Surazakov, Arzhan

75

Composition and formations conditions of andalusite-kyanite-sillimanite pegmatoid segregstions in metamorphic rocks of the Tseel block (Mongolian Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz veins and pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications often occur in metamorphic complexes. Metapelites abound in various combinations of two Al2SiO5 polymorphs, e.g., andalusite + sillimanite and sillimanite + kyanite (Kerrick, 1990). Rocks with three polymorphs are much scarcer; they result from subsequent crystallization during progressive metamorphism or combined regional and contact metamorphism or from metastable crystallization (Kerrick, 1990). Study of veins containing various Al2SiO5 modifications can give insight into the PT-conditions of metamorphism and their temporal changes. The Tsel block is localized in the basins of the Tseliyn, Hudjertiyn, Sharin, and Deresetuin Rivers and is part of the Hercynides structure on the southern flank of Mongolian Altay. Pegmatoid segregations containing polymorphous Al2SiO5 modifications were discovered in the vicinity of the western contact of one of the largest basic-rock massifs, Buren-Hairhan.They are hosted by schists bearing paragenesis Bt + Ms + St + Grt + Ky + Sill + And + Fibr + Pl + Qtz. Visual examination of the pegmatoid segregations showed the presence of large (up to 4-5 cm) mineral aggregates —kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. They are prismatic, with rhombic sections, and are composed of chaotically arranged kyanite crystals with irregular-shaped andalusite relics between them. The samples also contain large (1 cm) muscovite plates localized between the pseudomorphs as well as quartz grains. The pegmatoid segregations bear the following mineral assemblage: And + Ky + Sil + Fibr + Ms + Qtz + Pl + St +Grt + Bt. Predominant minerals are Al2SiO5 polymorphs (30-50 vol.%), muscovite (30-60 vol.%), and quartz (up to 20 vol.%). Biotite and plagioclase are present in small amounts; staurolite and garnet are occasional. Based on the observed mineral correlations, the following sequence of formation of Al2SiO5 polymorphs has been established: First, andalusite was replaced by kyanite to form pseudomorphs; then, fibrolite was produced, which, in turn, gave way to prismatic sillimanite. The fact that fibrolite formed after kyanite is proved by its presence in muscovite developed after the latter mineral. Sillimanite was, most likely, produced later than or synchronously with large muscovite replacing andalusite grains and kyanite pseudomorphs developed after andalusite. 2. Though the estimated P and T values are close to those of the triple point (Pattison, 1992), the studied rocks bear evidence for the replacement of andalusite by kyanite and sillimanite. The mineral assemblages pointing to the kyanitesillimanite type of metamorphism of the host rocks and the presence of andalusite relics in the latter suggest that the andalusite formed during earlier metamorphic events. This polymorph formation sequence agrees with Kozakov's (1986) data on change of the regional metamorphism from andalusite-sillimanite to kyanite-sillimanite one. 3. The great amounts of muscovite in veins containing Al2SiO5 polymorphs and its presence at phase contacts suggest a great role of muscovite in the phase transitions between different polymorphs. Since phases other than Al2SiO5 and muscovite are present in negligible amounts, it is not ruled out that the polymorphs were transformed by the ion exchange mechanism (Carmichael, 1969). 1. Carmichael, D.M., 1969. On the mechanism of prograde metamorphic reaction in quartz-bearing pelitic rocks. Contr. Miner. Petrol. 20, 244-267. 2. Kerrick, D.M., 1990. The Al2SiO5 polymorphs. Rev. Miner. 22, p. 406. 3. Kozakov, I.K., 1986. Precambrian infrastructure complexes of Mongolia [in Russian]. Nauka, Leningrad. 4. Pattison, D.R.M., 1992. Stability of andalusite and sillimanite and the Al2SiO5 triple point: constraints from the Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. J. Geol. 100, 423-446.

Sukhorukov, Vasiliy

2010-05-01

76

Late Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Altai segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from metamorphic P-T pseudosection and zircon U-Pb dating of ultra-high-temperature granulite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies rocks offer important constraints on crustal evolution processes and tectonic history of orogens. UHT granulites are generally rare in Phanerozoic orogens. In this study, we investigate the late Paleozoic pelitic UHT granulites from Altai in the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The diagnostic minerals in these rocks include high alumina orthopyroxene (Al2O3 up to 9.76 wt.%, and y(opx) = AlVI in orthopyroxene up to 0.21) coexisting with sillimanite and quartz, and low Zn spinel (ZnO = 1.85-2.50 wt.%) overgrowth with quartz. Cordierite corona separates sillimanite from orthopyroxene. The high alumina orthopyroxene is replaced by symplectites of low-alumina orthopyroxene (~ 5.80 wt.% Al2O3) and cordierite. These textural observations are consistent with a significant decompression following the peak UHT metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modeling using pseudosections and the y(opx) isopleths indicate an anti-clockwise P-T path for the exhumation of the Altai orogenic belt. The pre-peak assemblage of spinel + quartz in garnet is stable at high- to ultra-high-temperature and low-pressure conditions (P < 5.8 kbar at T ~ 900 °C). The peak P-T values recorded by high aluminium orthopyroxene is > 940 °C and 7.8 to 10 kbar. Subsequent near-isothermal decompression occurred at 890 to 940 °C and 5 to 6 kbar. The final-stage cooling is recorded at 750 and 800 °C and 4 to 5 kbar accompanied by a decrease in the y(opx) values (0.11-0.12). In the UHT granulite, zircon grains are commonly enclosed within cordierite. The overgrowth rims of the zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 277 ± 2 Ma using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, which is interpreted to mark the timing of decompression and cooling. We propose that the anti-clockwise P-T path of the UHT granulite in the Altai orogenic belt could be related to an extensional event related to the sinistral strike-slip along the Irtish tectonic belt after the subduction and slab detachment during the convergence of the Kazakhstan-Junggar plate and the Siberian plate.

Li, Zilong; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yinqi; Santosh, M.; Chen, Hanlin; Xiao, Wenjiao

2014-09-01

77

Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

78

'Gupton' southern highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...

79

Southern Antarctic Peninsula  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image shows ice-front retreat in part of the southern Antarctic Peninsula from 1947 to 2009. USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. The southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula is one area studied as part of this project, and is summariz...

80

Southern Screamer in Pantanal  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Southern screamer along marsh boardwalk at Fortín Patria, Pantanal. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. This region, situated in the extreme northeastern corner of western Paraguay and extending south along the Paraguay river forms a southern...

81

Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

Lauder, Tracy

2012-01-01

82

Southern Changes Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From 1978 to 2003, the Atlanta-based Southern Regional Council published "Southern Changes," a journal featuring social research, cultural analysis, reportage, interviews, and commentary. Recently, the Southern Regional Council teamed up with the Beck Center for Electronic Collections at Emory University to digitize the complete run of the journal. The journal covered topics such as desegregation, racial equality, housing issues, and a myriad of other issues. Visitors can browse the collection by issue date or keyword search the entire archive. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the issues from 1999, as there is interesting coverage of the national health care movement, the upcoming Census, and public schools.

83

Southern hemisphere observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

Orchiston, Wayne

84

The appearance of the elements of the Protopteris floras: Paleogeographic constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elements of the Protopteris floras were identified in lower Emsian deposits in areas of collision and rift-related volcanism in Gorny Altai, Tuva Trough, Khakassia, Rybinsk Depression, and the eastern Kuznetsk Basin. The appearance of this type of flora in Siberia was accompanied by short-term climatic transitions from humid to arid conditions and periodic shoreline oscillations. The eruptions of volcanoes brought chemical elements and compounds into the atmosphere, which were responsible for mutations in the plants. Natural selection, which was caused by changes in climatic conditions, also played an important role.

Korzhnev, V. N.

2014-09-01

85

Triton's Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

1997-01-01

86

Southern California Edison January 2007  

E-print Network

Southern California Edison January 2007 A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER TRANSFER EFFICIENCY MONITORING OF WASTEWATER AERATION Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program PIERFINALPROJECTREPORT Prepared By: Southern California Edison University

87

'Biloxi' Southern Highbush Blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Biloxi' tetraploid southern highbush blueberry is a new cultivar developed and released by the Agricultural Reseach Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture breeding programs in Beltsville, MD, and Poplarville MS. Plants of 'Biloxi' are upright, vigorous and productive. The fruit ripens earl...

88

Trouble at Texas Southern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

Asquith, Christina

2006-01-01

89

Southern Sclerotium blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotium rolfsii attacks a wide range of plants throughout the world. It is most severe in tropical and subtropical areas. Southern Sclerotium blight is of major concern in the eastern, southeastern, and southwestern United States and in Mexico. Although severe losses are reported annually in pe...

90

4, 42834322, 2007 Southern Ocean  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 4283­4322, 2007 Southern Ocean phytoplankton and climate change P. W. Boyd et al. Title Page Climate-mediated changes to mixed-layer properties in the Southern Ocean: assessing the phytoplankton@alkali.otago.ac.nz) 4283 #12;BGD 4, 4283­4322, 2007 Southern Ocean phytoplankton and climate change P. W. Boyd et al. Title

Boyer, Edmond

91

Southern Foodways Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Residents of the American South love food and various culinary delights, and have performed Epicurean wonders with everything from okra all the way to the legendary barbecue pits that can be found along just about every highway and byway in the region. Working with the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi, the Southern Foodways Alliance is dedicated to preserving and cultivating the various food cultures of the American South. These programs include an ongoing oral history project, recipe books, a series of field trips, and the annual Keeper of the Flame award, which is given to a foodways tradition "bearer of note." The site's features section includes tributes to jambalaya, South Georgia cheese, and some fine essays on legendary BBQ locales. The oral history initiative area is truly a wonder, as visitors can browse through two sections, one devoted to barbecue, and the other to the foodways traditions of the Mississippi Delta region.

92

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

93

Crustaceans of Southern Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing resource on the Crustaceans of Southern Australia is provided by Dr. Gary Poore of the Museum of Victoria. Hundreds of images offer a peak into the diverse and colorful underwaters of Australia; images are accompanied by concise text, offering solid introductory information on the biology of marine crustaceans. Users will find this a worthy educational tool to learn more about Australian crustaceans from barnacles to crabs, ghost shrimps to lobsters.

1998-01-01

94

Southern Mars: It's Spring!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

95

Secrets of the Southern Ocean  

E-print Network

18 Secrets of the Southern Ocean 28 Inventions Bridge the Gap 32 Activism Shapes Africa Scholar D I by Elle Stark) #12;18 Secrets of the Southern Ocean C O N T E N T S D I S C O V E R Y : R E S E A R C H glimpse into the wintertime conditions of the Southern Ocean south of Africa. Princeton researchers

96

Cold War in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa

  • Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. <\\/li>
  • Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253

    Matthew Graham

    2010-01-01

97

Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

O'Meara, Stephen James

2013-05-01

98

Fires in Southern Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

2007-01-01

99

Southern tip of Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Between the Arctic Ocean to the North and the Atlantic to the South, the island of Greenland remains covered in snow and ice throughout the year except for small portions of the coast line that thaw briefly in the summer. This true-color image from November 2, 2001, shows that even the southern tip of Greenland is back to winter, with even the rugged coastline snow-covered once again. About halfway up the western coastline, a phytoplankton bloom is occurring in the Davis Strait, coloring the water blue-green.

2002-01-01

100

Southern California Swell Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) created the Southern and Central Swell Model experiments for those with a general interest in oceanography. After learning how the model works, users can view several up-to-date graphics illustrating regional and detailed swell heights on maps and plots. Although acknowledging possible errors, the website provides three day forecasts for coastal waves, tides, and swell heights. The Frequently Asked Questions link provides sufficient information on how to interpret the materials. All those interested in Californian coastal information from boaters and residents to researchers can find assistance at this website.

101

Faults of Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map displays faults for five regions in Southern California. Clicking on a region links to an enlarged relief map of the area, with local faults highlighted in colors. Users can click on individual faults to access pages with more detailed information, such as type, length, nearest communities, and a written description. In all of the maps, the segment of the San Andreas fault that is visible is highlighted in red, and scales for distances and elevations are provided. There is also a link to an alphabetical listing of faults by name.

102

Plant Disease Lesson: Southern blight, Southern stem blight, White mold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on southern blight, Southern stem blight, white mold (caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Jackie Mullen (Auburn University; )

2001-01-04

103

Southern Portion of Antarctic Peninsula  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. This image identifies the southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula, which is one area studied as part of this project. Research on the southern Antarctic Peninsula is summarized in the USGS report,

104

Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that

B. P. V. Hunt; E. A. Pakhomov; G. W. Hosie; V. Siegel; P. Ward; K. Bernard

2008-01-01

105

Guns, Southernness, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

1993-01-01

106

New Zealand's Southern Alps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National Park, which occupies the far southwest of the island, is largely under cloud.

Prominent along the east coast are the Canterbury Plains, approximately 180 kilometers long and extending inland from the coast to the foothills of the Southern Alps. This is the largest area of flatland in New Zealand, and a rich agricultural region renowned for its wheat, wool, and livestock. Here the distance between the east and west coasts is little more than 150 kilometers.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

107

Neptune's Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

1989-01-01

108

Southern hemisphere patterned mires, with emphasis on southern New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive patterned mires in valley heads and on glacial benches in southern New Zealand: (45° 22'S; 1250–1400 m a.s.l.), and valley floors in Tierra del Fuego (54° 53'S; 60–100 m a.s.l.) have developed under cool, moist climatic conditions favourable for peat accumulation.In southern New Zealand's tussock grassland landscape, aapa mire pools (often with peat islands) and ridges, are elongated (pools:

A. F. Mark; P. N. Johnson; K. J. M. Dickinson; M. S. McGlone

1995-01-01

109

Rabies in southern Africa.  

PubMed

The first confirmed outbreak of rabies in Africa, believed to have followed the importation of an infected dog from England in 1892, occurred in the eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and was brought under control in 1894. An unconfirmed epidemic of rabies in dogs occurred in western Zambia in 1901. By the following year the disease had apparently spread along a major trade route, to cause an outbreak in Zimbabwe which engulfed most of the country before being eradicated in 1913. The existence of endemic rabies of viverrids (mongooses and genets) was confirmed in South Africa in 1928, and since then the viverrid disease has continued to occur widely on the interior plateau of the country with spill-over of infection to cattle and a variety of other animals. From about 1947 onwards, an invasive form of dog rabies spread from southern Zambia and/or Angola into Namibia, across northern and eastern Botswana into Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal by 1950, entered Mozambique in 1952, and spread from there to Swaziland in 1954. Dog rabies extended from southern Mozambique into Natal in 1961 to cause a major epidemic which was brought under control in 1968. The disease re-entered northern Natal from Mozambique in 1976 and since then dog rabies has proved difficult to control in the peri-urban settlements of Natal-KwaZulu. The disease spread from Natal to Lesotho in 1982, and into the Transkei region of the eastern Cape Province in 1987, to reach the Ciskei by 1990. The spread of the disease in dogs was followed by the emergence of rabies of jackals and cattle in central Namibia, northern Botswana, Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal. A unique outbreak of rabies in kudu antelope occurred in central Namibia from 1977 to 1985, apparently involving oral spread of infection between individuals. A few cases of rabies in the bat-eared fox were recognized each year in Namibia from 1967 onwards, and from the 1970s the occurrence of the disease in the fox has emerged as a distinct problem in the northern Cape Province and spread to the west coast. The rabies-related viruses, Lagos bat, Mokola and Duvenhage, associated with bats, shrews and rodents in Africa, are known to have caused isolated cases of disease in South Africa, and on one occasion a small outbreak involving six cats and a dog in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7777317

Swanepoel, R; Barnard, B J; Meredith, C D; Bishop, G C; Brückner, G K; Foggin, C M; Hübschle, O J

1993-12-01

110

Southern California's Drought Response Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metropolitan Water Dist. of Southern California, a wholesale water agency, instituted a variety of measures to cope with drought—water-conservation education for homeowner, farmer, and industry as well as economic incentives.

Evan L. Griffith

1978-01-01

111

The University of Southern California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Southern California's commitment to excellence as well as the significance of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps program in the university's mission to prepare the community's future leaders are discussed. ROTC faculty selection criteria are identified. (MLW)

Patterson, Dawn Marie

1985-01-01

112

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

113

European Southern Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.

114

Fires in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

2007-01-01

115

Flooding in Southern Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

2002-01-01

116

Southern Bald Eagles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

1992-01-01

117

Southern Rural Development Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson declared war on rural poverty during their time in the White House, there has been an overriding concern with alleviating the persistently high levels of poverty in the American South. A number of organizations have developed to provide assistance to the region, and the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), located at Mississippi State University is one such entity. The center's mission statement reflects this sentiment, as it notes its primary directive is "to strengthen the capacity of the region's 29-land grant institutions to address critical contemporary development issues impacting the well-being of people and communities in the rural South." Visitors interested in these issues will find plenty to examine here, as they may elect to view a calendar of germane events (such as regional science conferences and the like), look over a list of their primary focus areas, learn about available funding opportunities, and download any number of policy publications and newsletters which date back to 1993.

118

Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative website is from the School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences at Auburn University. On the site, users will find articles detailing everything from seedlings, weed control, transplanting to name only a few. The site also has a number depth breakdown of nursery management related tasks in terms of time and cost. This site is an excellent resource for nursery management in general and with specifics as related to the Southern forest region of the United States.

119

Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

1985-01-01

120

The Southern Ocean silica cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean is a major opal sink and plays a key role in the silica cycle of the world ocean. So far however, a complete cycle of silicon in the Southern Ocean has not been published. On one hand, Southern Ocean surface waters receive considerable amounts of silicic acid (dissolved silica, DSi) from the rest of the world ocean through the upwelling of the Circumpolar Deep Water, fed by contributions of deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. On the other hand, the Southern Ocean exports a considerable flux of the silicic acid that is not used by diatoms in surface waters through the northward pathways of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water, of the Antarctic Intermediate Water, and of the Antarctic Bottom Water. Thus the Southern Ocean is a source of DSi for the rest of the world ocean. Here we show that the Southern Ocean is a net importer of DSi: because there is no significant external input of DSi, the flux of DSi imported through the Circumpolar Deep Water pathway compensates the sink flux of biogenic silica in sediments.

Tréguer, Paul J.

2014-11-01

121

Glacier Area and River Runoff Changes in the Head of Ob River Basins During the Last 50 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai mountains in Siberia define southern periphery of the Asian Arctic Basin, and the Ob River is a major Siberian river fed by fresh water from Altai glaciers. Intensification of glacier melt in the head of Ob River since the middle of 20th century may have a considerable influence on the water resources and hydrological regime of Siberian rivers,

A. B. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. M. Aizen; S. A. Nikitin; J. K. Narojniy

2006-01-01

122

Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

1993-01-01

123

Central and southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

McGrew, H.J.

1981-10-01

124

Kinematic model of southern California  

SciTech Connect

A kinematic model for southern California, based on late-Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region, is proposed. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. Relative to North America, most of California west of the San Andreas fault is moving parallel to the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges and not parallel to the motion of the Pacific plate. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths in southern California that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion, implying the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California. 70 references.

Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.

1986-02-01

125

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

126

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

127

Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments. Seattle, WA. Geological Society of America. Coale, K., 2003. Open Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments: What they have told us, what they have not. American Society for Limnology and Oceanography and The Oceanography Society, Honolulu, February 2004. Coale, K., 2004. Recent Research from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), in Taking the Heat: What is the impact of ocean fertilization on climate and ocean ecology? Science of earth and sky. AAAS, February 12-16, Seattle, WA

Coale, Kenneth H.

2005-07-28

128

DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

129

BIOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENT SOURCEBOOK GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

1 BIOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENT SOURCEBOOK GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Introduction to the Biology Department.............................................5 Chapter 2 #12;2 BIOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENT SOURCEBOOK GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS

Hutcheon, James M.

130

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Southern California Attrition Study  

E-print Network

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 1 October 2012 SF State Southern · a i r . s f s u . e d u #12;SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 2 Table/Retention by Cohort and Geographic Origin #12;SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 3

131

Southern Beech (Nothofagus) Flowering Seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE periodic occurrence of `sqmast' years followed by prolific regeneration of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) has enabled the European forester to `domesticate' this species to such good effect that he has produced with it some of the finest managed forests known. A similar seeding behaviour in the closely related southern beeches (Nothofagus spp.) of New Zealand is of

A. L. Poole

1949-01-01

132

Southern Appalachia: A Special Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An informal survey of administrative personnel at six community colleges in North Carolina elicited perceptions of the characteristics of the Southern Appalachian people, their socioeconomic condition, their cultural influences, and the importance of community college accessibility and transportation. Implications for community college governance…

Cottingham, Tom; Cooper, Leland

1975-01-01

133

Quaternary uplift of southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dramatic coastline changes demonstrate rapid Quaternary uplift of Calabria in southern Italy. Because most of the west (Tyrrhenian Sea) coast is normal fault bounded, previous work has asserted that its uplift is local footwall uplift related to extension. However, the east (Ionian Sea) coast is also uplifting but is not normal fault bounded. This reanalysis, based on original field work

Rob Westaway

1993-01-01

134

Georgia Southern University Information Technology  

E-print Network

Georgia Southern University Information Technology Organization Chart 2013-2014 FINAL: September 18, 2013 R\\Work\\Common:\\OrgCharts\\Rev2014\\ Information Technology \\CIO Produced: Strategic Research of the groups of units reporting there. President Vice President for Information Technology and Chief

Hutcheon, James M.

135

GEOMORPHOLOGY Southern Illinois University, Carbondale  

E-print Network

GEOMORPHOLOGY Southern Illinois University, Carbondale Geology 474 Spring, 2014 Class Times: MW 3. (please ask for appointments in advance) Required Text: Process Geomorphology, 4th or 5th ed. Ritter are attached. #12;Course Schedule_ Due _ Week 1 Principles of Geomorphology and Landscape Evolution 1/13 Class

Nickrent, Daniel L.

136

The Recent Rise of Southern Magazines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past decade states in the southern United States have produced an increasing percentage of the nation's "city" magazines. Three magazines illustrate what the southern metropolitan magazines are doing to serve their readers and their communities. "Southern Living" provides information about its readers' interests as urban and suburban…

Hynds, Ernest C.

137

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change  

E-print Network

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change Nathan P. Gillett1 * and David W. J. Thompson2 Recent observations indicate that climate change over the high latitudes of the Southern's surface as well. Recent climate change in the Southern Hemi- sphere (SH) is marked by a strengthening

138

Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires. The haze aerosols sampled were more heat-absorbing than expected, which means the haze layer may have a significant warming influence on the region's atmosphere. For more information, see the press release Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Visualization Studio

2002-01-01

139

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state's designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

140

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state`s designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

141

Southern California ShakeOut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These compelling earthquake simulations show ground movement and wave propagation as an earthquake rupture propagates along the San Andreas Fault. These simulations are from the Great Southern California ShakeOut earthquake drill conducted in 2008. The animations capture the shaking at length scales larger than about 300 ft (100 m) and provide detailed animations of the shaking for this scenario earthquake. Several different views are available. The files are QuickTime and are available in three different resolutions.

U.S Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center.

142

Astrometry of southern radio sources.  

PubMed

An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogues. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarc-second radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way. PMID:11538705

White, G L; Jauncey, D L; Harvey, B R; Savage, A; Gulkis, S; Preston, R A; Peterson, B A; Reynolds, J E; Nicolson, G D; Malin, D F

1991-01-01

143

Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network  

SciTech Connect

The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

1994-08-01

144

Geothermal resources of southern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150 C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications. A majority of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. The largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grang View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107 C and an energy of 4.5 x 10 to the 20th power joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system was found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures was not found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90 and 150 C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain.

Mabey, D.R.

1983-01-01

145

Southern California Earthquake Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To say that there are a few earthquake research centers in Southern California is a bit like saying that Chicago sits on a lake of some size. It's a bit of an obvious remark, but given that there are a number of such projects, it's important to take a look at some of the more compelling ones out there. One such important resource is the Southern California Earthquake Data Center, sponsored by a host of organizations, including the California Institute of Technology and the United States Geological Survey. Visitors to the project site can peruse some of its recent work, which includes a clickable map of the region that features information on recent earthquakes in California and Nevada. Equally compelling is the clickable fault map of Southern California where visitors can learn about the local faults and recent activity along each fault. Another key element of the site is the historical earthquake database, which may be of interest to both the general public and those who are studying this area.

146

Coal Mining in Southern Illinois  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After graduating from high school in 1936, C. William "Doc" Horrell received a $12 camera from his mother. Horrell was immediately bitten by the photography bug, and created a dark room in his mother's walk-in-closet. He attended Southern Illinois Normal University (now the Southern Illinois University Carbondale), and after his time in the armed services, he opened up his own photography studio in Anna, Illinois. In the 1960s, Doc began wandering around southern Illinois to document the region's coal mining industry. Over the next few years, he took thousands of photographs, some of which formed the heart of his 1973 book, "The Land Between the Rivers". The good folks at SIU Carbondale have created this online exhibit to introduce users to Horrell's work. Visitors can make their way through the exhibit, and they may find themselves gravitating to the complete online collection, which contains over 750 items. It's a tremendous find, and it includes images of abandoned coal mining facilities, men at work, and coal trains.

147

Comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the seismotectonic deformation orientations for southern Siberia area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent geodynamics of southern Siberia is under influence of external and internal factors. First, fields of tension arise on borders of a large earth's plates during their interaction caused by lateral movement. Second, processes in the sublithospheric part of the upper mantle of the region. To study influence of these factors we carried out the comparison of various geophysical methods results, with taking into account available geological data on a faults structure of the region. The joint analysis included results of seismotomographic modeling, determinations of seismotectonic deformation (STD) principal axes orientation, and data of numerical thermogravitational modeling of upper mantle convection with considering influence on its structure of a local overheat under surrounding thick lithosphere blocks. The 3D model of seismic P-waves anomalies distribution in the upper mantle of southern Siberia and adjacent areas is updated by addition to calculations a new data from the ISC catalog. It is calculated by a technique developed during the previous researches (Koulakov, Bushenkova, 2010). Thickness estimates of a «seismic lithosphere» are made in the same way, as in work (Bushenkova, etc., 2008). The received estimates are used for specification of boundary conditions for a numerical thermogravitational modeling (Chervov, Chernykh, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, in press). A principal axes STD orientations are calculated on Riznichenko&Kostrov's method by data of focal mechanisms solution about 770 earthquakes with magnitude of 3.5 - 7.3 which have occurred in the crust of Altai-Sayan area from 1970 to 2007. We have executed a comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the principal axes STD orientations for the southern Siberia and adjacent territories. The following features were found. It is possible to observe a tendency to azimuthal change of the principal axes STD orientations along borders of positive and negative seismic velocity anomalies in the obtained seismotomographic model. We observe obvious correlation of the principal exes STD orientations distribution and convection flows distribution in the obtained numerical thermogravitational model of the upper mantle structure. Namely, orientations of an extension are mainly located along descending flow (in the plan), whereas orientations of a shortening - across them respectively. Further with approach to an ascending flow it is possible to observe a tendency to change of the direction of the STD orientations of an extension axes around its center, and on radii - directly over the center of this ascending flow. We consider that, due to stability of the observed tendencies, in other areas with similar block structure of a lithosphere, it will be possible to predict orientations of a principal axes seismotectonic deformations for the subsequent seismic events in similar regions. Work is performed with partial support of the RFBR #13-05-00054 and IP SB RAS #76.

Bushenkova, Natalia; Kuchay, Olga; Chervov, Victor

2014-05-01

148

Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field campaigns such as Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A), Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Since those large international efforts, satellites have matured enough to enable quantifiable measurements of regional land surface, atmosphere, and ocean. In addition, global and chemical transport models have also been advanced to incorporate various data. Thus, the timing of the workshop was right for a full-fledged re-assessment of the chemistry, physics, and socio-economical impacts caused by pollution in the region, including a characterization of sources, deposition, and feedbacks with climate change.

Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

2011-01-01

149

Mollusk shells from burials of tuzovskiye bugry-1 As indicators of ethno-cultural processes In southern siberia and western central asia In the 3rd millennium bc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on adornments made of mollusk shells from graves of the Tuzovskiye Bugry-1 burial ground in the Altai Territory. The collection includes bivalve shells: Corbicula ferghanensis Kurs. et Star. currently inhabiting the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins; Corbicula tibetensis Prash. inhabiting the mountain regions of Central Asia, Eastern Kazakhstan, and the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins;

Yu. F. Kiryushin; K. Yu. Kiryushin; A. V. Schmidt; D. V. Kuzmenkin; M. T. Abdulganeyev

2011-01-01

150

The rhetorical structure of the southern lady: an analysis of the myth of southern womanhood  

E-print Network

of southern womanhood may be a result of the important place women were given within southern mythology. According to Jones, the ideal of southern womanhood was at the "core of the region's self- definition. "' Perhaps the following traditional southern... were "tradition, dedication to the protocols of lineage, land, cotton, " and the idea that though not everybody had been a plantation master, everyone wanted to be and all white men had the ability to reach that status. " The New South Myth Also...

Givens, Vonda Ka

1994-01-01

151

Aging trends--southern Africa.  

PubMed

This is an overview of demographic aging in the six countries of southern Africa, which are Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. The data are from various national and international sources that have been combined to form the U.S. Census Bureau's International Data Base on Aging. The author notes that the region has Africa's highest percentage of older inhabitants. Other topics explored include life expectancy and health, urban and rural population, marital status, education, living arrangements and social support, and employment and subsistence. PMID:12288890

Gist, Y J

1994-04-01

152

Tectonic deformation in southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

Jackson, David D.

1993-01-01

153

Rural migration in southern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

1993-08-01

154

Loess of southern South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loess and loessoid (loess-like, reworked loess) sediments extend across the Chaco-Pampean plains and the NW mountain environments of Argentina, and in neighbouring countries (Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia). Loessoid sediments are much more abundant than primary loess. The beginning of the loessoid sedimentation cycle was related to a phase of Late Miocene orogeny in the Andes. The Plio-Pleistocene record is mostly composed of loessoid sediments modified by pedogenesis, which produced welded palaeosols. The Late Pleistocene/Holocene loess record reveals a heterogeneous composition across the region. Coarse textures and an Andean-derived volcanic composition prevail in the southern Pampas. Finer textures and material coming from the Andes and the other two sources (Sierras Pampeanas and the Paraná basin) characterize the loess deposits of the northern Pampas and the eastern Chaco. A southern Patagonian source is also suggested for the mountain valley loess of Tucumán, although a western Andean provenance has been proposed. It is believed that the material in the western Chaco was derived from the Bolivian Andes. Loess deposition was related to a multistage transport mechanism, involving fluvial and aeolian processes. Inferred westerly and southwesterly wind directions, as dominant carriers of the aeolian deposits, are in agreement with westerly palaeowind simulations using climate models. However, the role played by westerly tropospheric winds and northerly winds remains to be established.

Zárate, Marcelo A.

2003-09-01

155

5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS CROSSING RAILROAD LINE, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

156

8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN U.S. AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

157

SHEATH BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN SOUTHERN RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight is a serious fungal disease problem in southern US rice production, making it necessary for rice farmers to diligently use fungicides for its control. There are no long grain rice varieties adapted to commercial production in the southern US that have adequate resistance to sheath bli...

158

Southern Cross University UAC 201314 Guide 249  

E-print Network

Southern Cross University PO Box 157 Lismore NSW 2480 tel: 1800 626 481 fax: (02) 6622 4341 email: enquiry) Bilinga QLD The Hotel School, Sydney: CRICOS provider number 01241G 117 Macquarie Street Sydney NSW tel Coast and The Hotel School Sydney. Southern Cross is a research-intensive university with strengths

New South Wales, University of

159

OF SOUTHERN Office of the Provost n  

E-print Network

USC UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MEMORANDUM Office of the Provost n r Elizabeth Garrett of faculty increased 3 the number of USC Black and Hispanic faculty increased 8 and the number of female they are flourishing here Southern California 3551 Trousdale Parkway Search committee chairs have expressed interest

Southern California, University of

160

Utah coal for southern California energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study results from the need of Southern California to receive a large part of its electrical energy from coal-fired power plants located outside of the state. The dependence on coal arises from arrangements made by the electrical utilities of Southern California with officials of the Federal government and of states other than California. Of particular importance is the planned

P. C. Grew; M. Simmons; B. Sokolow

1976-01-01

161

Stratigraphic Columns Across Southern Western Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website depicts stratigraphic columns of exposed rocks in southwestern regions of the United States. A general explanation of symbols used in the columns is provided for reference, and the columns indicate rock type, formation names and geologic time periods. The areas covered include the Grand Canyon, central and southern Arizona, southern Utah and Nevada, and western New Mexico and Colorado.

Ronald Blakey

162

Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the

Paolo Maria Guarrera; Leporatti Maria Lucia

2007-01-01

163

27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the Southern Pacific Railway line to the rail line's intersection with Hugo Road at the town...

2014-04-01

164

27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with Wolf Creek and then north about 500 feet to the Southern Pacific Railway line; then westerly and southerly out of the town of Wolf Creek along the Southern Pacific Railway line to the rail line's intersection with Hugo Road at the town...

2013-04-01

165

Investing in Our Future: A Southern Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the role Southern philanthropy can play in addressing racism, poverty, and inequality by supporting education and workforce improvement. "Framing the Conversation" takes input from George Autry (MDC), William Bynum (Enterprise Corporation of the Delta), Lynn Walker Huntley (Southern Education Foundation), and Martin Lehfeldt…

Notes From the Field, 1998

1998-01-01

166

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

of Health and Kinesiology. The College has over 3,000 undergraduate majors, 200 graduate students, and 100 Education--Search # 67161 College of Health and Human Sciences Georgia Southern University invites in the College of Health and Human Sciences. Georgia Southern University, a member institution of the University

Hutcheon, James M.

167

The Church in the Southern Black Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries digitizes historical documents for their Church in the Southern Black Community online collection, part of the ongoing digitization of materials in the Documenting the American South series (see the April 18, 1997 Scout Report). According to its creators, "'The Church in the Southern Black Community' traces how Southern African Americans experienced and transformed Protestant Christianity into the central institution of community life." Currently, the site offers transcribed oral histories and autobiographies of former slaves, a diary of a New England woman living in the South in 1865, official church documents that give insight into how religious organizations approached slaves and former slaves as potential converts, and more. New documents are added on a regular basis. The other e-text collections on-site are First-Person Narratives of the American South, a Library of Southern Literature, North American Slave Narratives, and The Southern Homefront, 1861-1865.

168

[Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].  

PubMed

In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe. PMID:25090898

Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

2014-07-01

169

Eigenpatterns in southern California seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes in seismically active regions of the world are known to be associated with a variety of spatial and temporal patterns. Examples include precursory quiescence or activation, seismic clustering, and Mogi donuts. Although the characteristics of these patterns can be qualitatively described, a systematic quantitative analysis has proved elusive. In this paper we employ a new method, developed using numerical simulations, that allows a systematic quantification of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the patterns in historic seismicity in southern California. This method decomposes a set of boolean activity functions, representing historic seismicity, into their orthonormal eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Here we show the results of this analysis which strongly support the hypothesis that seismic activity is highly correlated across many space scales and timescales within large volumes of the Earth's crust.

Tiampo, K. F.; Rundle, J. B.; McGinnis, S.; Gross, S. J.; Klein, W.

2002-12-01

170

Southern Nevada: The Boomtown Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent collection from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Libraries brings together a wide range of primary documents that narrate the history and social milieu of the famed boomtowns of southern Nevada. The collection brings together materials from a number of institutions, and all told, there are over 1500 items here. The most well known sections of this collection are the photographs and photograph albums which span the region in the late 19th and early 20th century. Additionally, the site contains business records, maps, surveys, and stock certificates. What is most compelling here may be the correspondence between officials of the Union Pacific railroad and their local agents. Visitors can view a list of boomtowns by county, look over the teaching resources here, and also learn more about the mining activities which transformed these places forever.

171

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center, aims to reduce earthquake hazard by defining the locations of future earthquakes, calculating expected ground motions, and conveying this information to the general public. The SCEC¹s homepage contains access to research and data, including links to databases for strong motion and seismograms, and a searchable and sortable bibliographic database of publications. Also available are GPS data and a network of GPS stations. A link to the Earthquake Information Network provides a searchable list of up-to-date internet earthquakes resources. Note, in order to access the SCEC Publications Database, a username and password are required. Use your own name for the username, and enter -webview as the password. SCEC is a first rate resource for earthquake engineers.

172

Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

2009-09-30

173

SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

Ashley D. Williamson

2001-07-01

174

Southern Hemisphere Polygonal Patterned Ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Earth, periglacial is a term that refers to regions and processes where cold climate contributes to the evolution of landforms and landscapes. Common in periglacial environments on Earth, such as the arctic of northern Canada,Siberia, and Alaska, is a phenomenon called patterned ground. The 'patterns' in patterned ground often take the form of large polygons, each bounded by either troughs or ridges made up of rock particles different in size from those seen in the interior of the polygon. On Earth, many polygons in periglacial environments are directly linked to water: they typically form from stresses induced by repeated freezing and thawing of water, contraction from stress induced by changing temperatures, and sorting of rocks brought to the surface along polygon boundaries by the freeze-thaw processes. Although not exclusively formed by freezing and thawing of water, that is often the dominant mechanism on Earth.

Polygons similar to those found in Earth's arctic and antarctic regions are also found in the polar regions of Mars. Typically, they occur on crater floors, or on intercrater plains, between about 60o and 80o latitude. The polygons are best seen when bright frost or dark sand has been trapped in the troughs that form the polygon boundaries. Three examples of martian polygons seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are shown here. Each is located in the southern hemisphere:(left) Polygon troughs highlighted by frost as the south polar cap retreats during spring. The circular features are the locations of buried craters that were originally formed by meteor impact. This image, E09-00029, is located at 75.1oS, 331.3oW, and was acquired on 1 October 2001.(center) Summertime view of polygons, highlighted by dark, windblown sand, on the floor of a crater at 71.2oS, 282.6oW. The image, E12-02319, was obtained on 21January 2002.(right) Polygon troughs highlighted by the retreating south polar frost cap during southern summer near 80.7oS, 70.4oW. This picture, M11-01795, was taken by MOC on 13 January 2000.Some Mars researchers assume that polygons on the Red Planet are key indictors that ground ice is present or was present in the recent past. However, whether these polygons actually required water ice to form is, in fact, unknown, since dry processes are also known on Earth for form similar polygons.

2002-01-01

175

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2010 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2010 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2013 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Calif  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2013 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Califo  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator Aug 2013 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California  

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator Aug 2013 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

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Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator February 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Calif  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator February 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

185

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Califo  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

186

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Califor  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

187

What's the Risk of Southern Corn Rootworm in Your Fields?  

E-print Network

What's the Risk of Southern Corn Rootworm in Your Fields? The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more need to treat for southern corn rootworm. · Save treatment time. · Save input costs. · Save your

Liskiewicz, Maciej

188

Antarctic ice sheet fertilises the Southern Ocean  

E-print Network

Southern Ocean (SO) marine primary productivity (PP) is strongly influenced by the availability of iron in surface waters, which is thought to exert a significant control upon atmospheric CO2 concentrations on glacial/interglacial ...

Death, R.

189

The genetic prehistory of southern Africa  

E-print Network

Southern and eastern African populations that speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants are known to harbour some of the most ancient genetic lineages in humans, but their relationships are poorly understood. Here, ...

Pickrell, Joseph K.

190

Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

2009-01-01

191

The Southern Pacific, 1901-1985  

E-print Network

and national patterns and of the service area SP influences so greatly. From this wealth of detail, generously illustrated with photographs every railroad fan will treasure, grows the story of merger, double-tracking and trunk lines, right- of... and Hawley in Iowa 3 8 San Diego & Arizona Railway 59 Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway 63 Southern Pacific Company, Pacific System, ca. 1922 85 Inside Gateway 9 Modoc Line 6 El Paso & Southwestern's South western Route 101 Southern Pacific's Arizona...

Hofsommer, Don L.

2008-10-21

192

Archean sedimentation and tectonics in southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also assessed was whether there was evidence for a significant component of shallow-water-deposited sedimentary rocks in the parent materials of the Limpopo belt. The nature of a largehigh strain zone on the southern margin of the central Limpopo belt was examined.

Kidd, W. S. F.

1984-01-01

193

Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk

Gudrun Wolfschmidt

2001-01-01

194

A Phylogenetic analysis of the Southern Shift  

E-print Network

A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHERN SHIFT A Thesis by ERIK ROBERT THOMAS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1989... Major Subject: English A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHERN SHIFT A Thesis by ERIK ROBERT THOMAS Approved as to style and content by: Guy Bailey (Chair of Committee) Barbara Johnstone (Member) Robert H. Benson (Member) J. Lawrence Mitchell...

Thomas, Erik Robert

1989-01-01

195

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

196

Meteor showers of the southern hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of an exhaustive meteor shower search in the southern hemisphere. The underlying data set is a subset of the IMO Video Meteor Database comprising 50,000 single station meteors obtained by three Australian cameras between 2001 and 2012. The detection technique was similar to previous single station analysis. In the data set we find 4 major and 6 minor northern hemisphere meteor showers, and 12 segments of the Antihelion source (including the Northern and Southern Taurids and six streams from the MDC working list). We present details for 14 southern hemisphere showers plus the Centaurid and Puppid-Velid complex, with the ? Aquariids and the Southern ? Aquariids being the strongest southern showers. Two of the showers (?^2 Sagittariids and ? Cetids) were previously unknown and have received preliminary designations by the MDC. Overall we find that the fraction of southern meteor showers south of -30deg declination (roughly 25%) is clearly smaller than the fraction of northern meteor showers north of +30deg declination (more than 50%) obtained in our previous analysis.

Molau, Sirko; Kerr, Steve

2014-04-01

197

Southern Saskatchewan Ticagrelor Registry experience  

PubMed Central

Background As ticagrelor enters into clinical use for acute coronary syndrome, it is important to understand patient/physician behavior in terms of appropriate use, adherence, and event rates. Methods The Southern Saskatchewan Ticagrelor Registry is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study that identifies consecutive patients started on ticagrelor. We aimed to evaluate both on- and off-label use, identify characteristics of patients who prematurely stop ticagrelor, and describe patient/physician behavior contributing to inappropriate stoppage of this medication. Results From April 2012 to September 2013, 227 patients were initiated on ticagrelor, with a mean age of 62.2±12.1 years. The participants were 66% men and had a mean follow up of 157.4±111.7 days. Seventy-four patients (32.4%) had off-label indications. Forty-seven patients (20.7%) prematurely stopped ticagrelor and were more likely to be older, women, nonwhite, present with shock, and complain of dyspnea. Twenty-six of the 47 patients stopped ticagrelor inappropriately because of patient nonadherence (18 patients) and physician advice (eight patients). A composite outcome event of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 8.8% of the entire cohort and was more likely to occur in those older then 65 years, those presenting with cardiogenic shock, and those who prematurely stopped ticagrelor. Conclusion In this real-world registry of patients started on ticagrelor, a third have off-label indications and a fifth prematurely stop the medication. Premature discontinuation was an independent predictor of major life-threatening bleeding and increased composite event rate of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. PMID:25342889

Dehghani, Payam; Chopra, Varun; Bell, Ali; Kelly, Sheila; Zulyniak, Lori; Booker, Jeff; Zimmermann, Rodney; Semchuk, William; Cheema, Asim N; Lavoie, Andrea J

2014-01-01

198

The Southern Kalahari: A potential new dust source in the southern hemisphere?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most of the sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the northern hemisphere. The relatively less dust emission in the southern hemisphere in part limits the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity and ability to seque...

199

Southern Oscillation extremes reconstructed from tree rings of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southern Great Plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is correlated with climate and tree growth over northern Mexico and the southern Great Plains of the US. Warm events favor moist-cool conditions from October through March (event years 0 and +1), and subsequent tree growth (year +1) in the region tends to be above average. The opposite climate and tree growth conditions prevail with

David W. Stahle; Malcolm K. Cleaveland

1993-01-01

200

Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern Region  

E-print Network

Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern in the US Sharply, et al. 2003. Development of phosphorus indices for nutrient management planning strategies in the United States. J. Soil Water Cons. Daniel et al. 2002. The Phosphorus Index: Background

201

The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits.

V. Comerci; A. M. Blumetti; E. Brustia; P. di Manna; D. Fiorenza; L. Guerrieri; M. Lucarini; L. Serva; E. Vittori

2009-01-01

202

The Southern Ocean: Source and sink?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.

Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.

2011-03-01

203

Southern Spring in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

204

Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) high in orbit around the Earth, suddenly registered an intense burst of gamma-ray radiation from a direction less than 10° from the celestial south pole. Independently, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM) on board the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite also detected the event (see GCN GRB Observation Report 304 [2]). Following the BATSE alert, the BeppoSAX Wide-Field Cameras (WFC) quickly localized the sky position of the burst within a circle of 3 arcmin radius in the southern constellation Chamaeleon. It was also detected by other satellites, including the ESA/NASA Ulysses spacecraft , since some years in a wide orbit around the Sun. The event was designated GRB 990510 and the measured position was immediately distributed by BeppoSAX Mission Scientist Luigi Piro to a network of astronomers. It was also published on Circular No. 7160 of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Paul Vreeswijk, Titus Galama , and Evert Rol of the Amsterdam/Huntsville GRB follow-up team (led by Jan van Paradijs ) immediately contacted astronomers at the 1-meter telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) (Sutherland, South Africa) of the PLANET network microlensing team, an international network led by Penny Sackett in Groningen (The Netherlands). There, John Menzies of SAAO and Karen Pollard (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) were about to begin the last of their 14 nights of observations, part of a continuous world-wide monitoring program looking for evidence of planets around other stars. Other PLANET sites in Australia and Tasmania where it was still nighttime were unfortunately clouded out (some observations were in fact made that night at the Mount Stromlo observatory in Australia, but they were only announced one day later). As soon as possible - immediately after sundown and less than 9 hours after the initial burst was recorded - the PLANET observers turned their telescope and quickly obtained a series of CCD images in visu

1999-05-01

205

A Naturalist's Tour of Southern Lake Michigan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the sorts of places you would least expect it, author Joel Greenberg reveals an abundance of life and bio-diversity in his A Naturalist's Tour of Southern Lake Michigan. Highlighting areas around the rim of southern Lake Michigan, Greenberg's work discusses some state parks and other nature preserves. Serving as a guide, he signals to his readers small outcroppings of nature that have survived and endured, in spite of civilization. Fox example, Mr. Greenberg calls attention to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and State Park. A wet, grassy plain full of plantlife, the park sits north of the industrial southern tip of Lake Michigan, exactly where one might have failed to look for a park that, with the exceptions of the Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains, has more types of plants than any other national park.

Greenberg, Joel (Joel R.).

2002-01-01

206

A new fault lineament in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows a 50-mile wide tectonic zone across Southern California oriented about 15 deg to the structures of the Transverse Ranges or with an azimuth of 70 deg. The zone is delineated on the imagery by terrian alignments and vegetational differences. A previously undisclosed tectonic lineament extends across the Mojave Desert and appears as a line of crustal upwarping. Pressure which would have caused this plus the occurrence of many thrust faults with the 70 deg azimuth indicate this to be a zone of crustal compression. Recent earthquake epicenters appear to be related to this compression zone rather than the traditional fault network of Southern California.

Pease, R. W.; Johnson, C. W.

1973-01-01

207

Vendian reference section of southern Middle Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological, chemo-, and biostratigraphic data indicate that the Vendian section of the Ura uplift is the most complete one in southern Middle Siberia and contains analogs of main units of the Vendian stratotype. This section is well known having been investigated by several generations of geologists, well exposed, and easily accessible; therefore, it is proposed to serve as a regional reference section for Vendian deposits of the entire southern Middle Siberia. Its description is accompanied by presentation of new biostratigraphic and radioisotopic data. The section is correlated with other Vendian sections of the Baikal-Patom and some other world regions.

Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Sergeev, V. N.

2013-07-01

208

EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

209

Cost-Effective Fire Management for Southern California's Chaparral  

E-print Network

------------------- ------------------- Cost-Effective Fire Management for Southern California's Chaparral Wilderness: An Analytical Procedure1 Chris A. Childers and Douglas D. Piirto2 Abstract: Fire management has always meant fire suppression to the managers of the chaparral covered southern California

Standiford, Richard B.

210

Multivectorial paleointensity determination from the Cordova Gabbro, southern Ontario  

E-print Network

Multivectorial paleointensity determination from the Cordova Gabbro, southern Ontario Yongjae Yu Ã? of the Cordova Gabbro of southern Ontario. We interpret A and B to be secondary thermal overprints produced Gabbro; remagnetization; natural remanent magnetization; Precambrian; paleointensity; VADM 1

Dunlop, David J.

211

33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Southern California annual marine events. 100.1101...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1101 Southern California annual marine events. ...is for the start of the race only. California Cup Sponsor: California Yacht...

2011-07-01

212

14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

213

An Eddy-Permitting Southern Ocean State Estimate  

E-print Network

An eddy-permitting general circulation model of the Southern Ocean is fit by constrained least squares to a large observational dataset during 2005–06. Data used include Argo float profiles, CTD synoptic sections, Southern ...

Mazloff, Matthew R.

214

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

215

Landscape wildfire interactions in Southern Europe: implications for landscape management.  

E-print Network

Landscape ­ wildfire interactions in Southern Europe: implications for landscape management) Landscape ­ wildfire interactions in Southern Europe: implications for landscape management, Journal - p. 2402" #12;Abstract Every year approx. half a million hectares of land are burned by wildfires

Boyer, Edmond

216

OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

217

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

218

MEASURING MONEY LAUNDERING IN SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful prosecution of money laundering-related cases in Southern Africa is by no means rich. No single country can report more than ten such prosecutions. Yet there is acknowledgement all round that economic crime, especially in its organised form, is of significant magnitude in key areas that are logically and empirically associated with money laundering. Law enforcement agencies, some of

CHARLES GOREDEMA

2005-01-01

219

Laryngeal articulations of \\/x\\/ in Southern Polish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper offers a summary of the results of two earlier experiments (Nawrocki and Gonet 2004; Nawrocki 2004), in which acoustic properties of the voiceless velar fricative phoneme \\/x\\/ in Southern Polish were investigated. As is found in both studies (Nawrocki and Gonet 2004; Nawrocki 2004), speakers of both genders favour glottal articulation, with partial or full voicing. Word

Grzegorz Nawrocki

2008-01-01

220

Sunset Over Rangeland in Southern Paraguay  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sunset over rangeland in southern Paraguay. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56°49’18’’W. (Portion of text from: Guyra Paraguay 2004, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Paraguay, Paragua...

221

An Investigation of Southern California Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has directions for a classroom activity in which students plot locations of major Southern California earthquakes on a map. A table listing major earthquakes, when they occurred, their locations and their magnitudes is included. There is also a set of questions for the students to answer once they have plotted the earthquake data on their map. This site is in PDF format.

222

Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable and other crops are produced on about 25000 ha. in southern Florida in an area adjacent to Everglades and Biscayne Bay National Parks (NP). High pest pressures require high pesticide use rates. We recently reported that one mechanism for transport of the insecticide endosulfan from treated...

223

Boise State University College of Southern Idaho  

E-print Network

· Boise State University · College of Southern Idaho · College of Western Idaho IDAHO DUAL CREDIT PROGRAM PARTICIPATING IDAHO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES · Northwest Nazarene University · University of Idaho · Idaho State University · Lewis-Clark State College · North Idaho College COLLEGE CREDIT FOR HIGH

Barrash, Warren

224

Ecosystem Linkages between Southern Appalachian Headwater  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Linkages between Southern Appalachian Headwater Streams and Their Banks: Leaf Litter, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA ABSTRACT We examined red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaf litter riparian habitats differing in litter layer moisture: stream bank upland. In- vertebrates colonizing

Hutchens, John

225

Ecology of Canada Lynx in Southern Boreal  

E-print Network

374 the western mountains and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests in the Northeast. Throughout and Cascade Range, and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests of southeastern Canada, New England, and the Great373 Chapter 13 Ecology of Canada Lynx in Southern Boreal Forests Keith B. Aubry, USDA Forest

226

Aerosols from 2003 Southern California Fires (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A devastating series of fires occurred in Southern California during October 2003. The effects of these fires were detectable from space. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument measures aerosol particles (microscopic airborne dust and smoke). TOMS was able to detect aerosols from these fires moving West over the Pacific Ocean and East over the continental United States.

Jeff DeLaBeaujardiere

2005-03-14

227

A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern

Ahland, Colleen Anne

2012-01-01

228

Landforms and uplift history of southern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a review of previous ideas on the morphogenesis of southern Norway, a description of relief features is presented and a comparison with the suite of landforms occurring at the passive continental margin of eastern Australia is performed. Major landscape features such as high plateaux, a great escarpment, and a coastal plain are similar in the two areas. Glacial erosion

Karna Lidmar-Bergström; C. D Ollier; J. R Sulebak

2000-01-01

229

Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains  

E-print Network

Nitrogen, the most abundant element in the atmosphere, is necessary for life. But too much of this vital element can have negative effects on the environment. This publication can help landowners in the Southern High Plains region of Texas learn how...

Upadhyay, Jeetendra; Auvermann, Brent W.; Bush, K. Jack; Mukhtar, Saqib

2008-02-11

230

Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is

Dan Hyde; Matthew Fast

2009-01-01

231

SOUTHERN EAST REGIONAL AFLATOXON TEST (SERAT)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A testing network has been established to identify corn germplasm that contributes resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in grain to hybrid performance across multiple environments. Southern East Regional Aflatoxin Test (SERAT) is a multi-organization, multi-state evaluation of the most promising ger...

232

The Ranotsara Zone in southern Madagascar - a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

During amalgamation of Gondwana in Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic times, the Precambrian basement of southern Madagascar was incorporated into the East African Orogen (EAO after Stern 1994) and deformed at high-grade metamorphic conditions. Before breakup of Gondwana, its general position is thought to be in between eastern Africa and India. Very often tight-fit Gondwana reconstructions are based on similarities of

Giese Jörg; Schreurs Guido; Berger Alfons; Gnos Edwin

233

Southern Association of Marine Educators (SAME)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Association of Marine Educators brings together those interested in the study and enjoyment of the world of water - both fresh and salt. SAME provides a valuable focus for marine and aquatic studies all over the Central Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Panhandle of Florida. Site provides information on membership and meetings, and access to Wavelengths, the SAME newsletter.

234

Rain Rate Statistics in Southern New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.

Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen

1997-01-01

235

Naturalization of Dalechampia scandens in southern Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dalechampia scandens, a native to the American and African tropics, was recently found naturalized in two Broward County parks in southern Florida. This is the first occurrence of the plant in the continental United States. One of the populations may be an escape from a butterfly attraction where th...

236

Rangeland Condition at Southern West Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was part of a large project that was implemented by the Ministry of Environmental Affairs to combat desertification in the West Bank area. The study was conducted at two sites (Al-Dahria and Al- Samoo') located at the southern parts of the eastern slopes of the West Bank. More than 40 plant species were identified in each of the

Ayed Mohammad

237

FERAL EXOTIC BIRDS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern California from the Pacific Ocean coastline to the base of the major mountain ranges, northward to Santa Barbara, southward to San Diego, and eastward to the Salton Sea near the western edge of the Colorado Desert has a year-round mild climate and an abundant exotic arboreal flora. There is also a large human population. These factors encourage aviculture; exotic

JOHN WILLIAM HARDY

238

Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from southern African savannas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions were investigated at two field sites in the Republic of South Africa that include five important southern African savanna landscapes. Tropical savannas are a globally important biome with a high potential for biogenic emissions but no NMHC emission measurements in these regions or in any part of Africa have been reported. Landscape average hydrocarbon emissions

Alex Guenther; Luanne Otter; Patrick Zimmerman; Jim Greenberg; Robert Scholes; Mary Scholes

1996-01-01

239

HI Study of Southern Galactic Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We briefly summarize the survey of HI 21 cm emission lines to search for shocked atomic gas associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the southern sky. For G347.3-0.5, we discuss the distance to the SNR and the implications of the HI results.

Bon-Chul Koo; Ji-hyun Kang; Naomi McClure-Griffiths

2003-11-06

240

Desiccation tolerant vascular plants of southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought tolerance limits are given for 36 new ‘resurrection plants’, sufficient to double the number of desiccation tolerant plants reported from southern Africa. Tolerance limits for angiosperm examples are usually better than those for ferns. Air-dry foliage survives for 1\\/2 to 5 years or more, unless stored in humidities above 50% RHAbbreviation: RH = relative humidity. Dehydration is sufficiently slow

D. F. Gaff

1977-01-01

241

COLLEGE OF EDUCATION GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

BY-LAWS COLLEGE OF EDUCATION GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY Approved: April 2003 Amended: August 2007 Changes 19 #12;COE BY-LAWS Page 3 BY-LAWS OF THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Article I ORGANIZATION Section 1 of all departments, divisions, colleges and administrative offices of the University; (b) provides

Hutcheon, James M.

242

Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.  

PubMed

After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2014-02-01

243

Groundwater Recharge in the Southern High Plains  

E-print Network

i Draft Groundwater Recharge in the Southern High Plains Report ###, Appendix A By Robert C. Reedy P.O. Box 13231 Austin, TX 78711-3231 1(512) 936-0861 January, 2003 #12;ii Table of Contents Page................................................................................. 1 Recharge Estimation for Current Groundwater Availability Modeling Project

Scanlon, Bridget R.

244

Late Pleistocene Faunal Extinctions in Southern Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major environmental changes recorded in pollen records from various sites in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego are also reflected in pollen and cuticle data from dung of the late Pleistocene groundsloth. The most prominent change was the large-scale reduction of steppe environment about 10,000 years ago, which coincides with the latest dates for extinctions of many large grazers such

Vera Markgraf

1985-01-01

245

Southern Rural Education Association Journal, 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal contains the following articles pertaining to education in rural areas: (1) "The State of the Association" (William Peter) reviews the mission and progress of the Southern Rural Education Association; (2) "Arts Enrichment Programs in Middle Tennessee Rural Schools" (Howard Brahmstedt and Patricia Brahmstedt) describes how these…

Hulick, Chuck, Ed.

1990-01-01

246

Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate variability in the high latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) is dominated by the SH annular mode, a large scale pattern of variability characterized by fluctuations in the strength of the circumpolar vortex. We present evidence that recent trends in the SH tropospheric circulation can be interpreted as a bias towards the high index polarity of this pattern, with stronger westerly

David W. J. Thompson; Susan Solomon

2002-01-01

247

Streamlined Strategies to Better Visualize Southern Blotting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.

Dean, Derek M.

2012-01-01

248

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia BB&T Distinguished Chair in Banking of Business Administration invites nominations and applications for the BB&T Distinguished Chair in Banking than 20,500 students and offers more than 100 campus- based and online degree programs

Hutcheon, James M.

249

The H I Southern Galactic Plane Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS), a survey of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the inner Milky Way. The SGPS is a survey of the H I spectral line and 21 cm continuum emission in the fourth quadrant of the plane of the Galaxy. It covers 210 square degrees, spanning the region l = 253°-358° and |

Naomi Melissa McClure-Griffiths

2001-01-01

250

Zirconium mobility in bauxites of Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geochemical study of the behaviour of zirconium in bauxites developed on alkaline rocks in southern Brazil is presented. Zirconium, generally considered as an immobile element during weathering, shows an important mobility conditioned to the original Zr bearing parent mineral. In the two areas (Poços de Caldas and Lages) zircon is rare and the zirconium bearing parent minerals are complex

A. J. Melfi; F. Subies; D. Nahon; M. L. L. Formoso

1996-01-01

251

Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

252

Emergency Food Providers in Southern Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines emergency food provider networks in rural southern Illinois. An overview focuses on recent research reports on hunger in America, official federal emergency food assistance policy and criticisms of that policy, and the role of the private sector in emergency food distribution. The review details the disagreements on policy and…

O'Hara, Mary

253

Dynamic aspects of the Southern-Hemisphere medium-scale waves during the southern summer season  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of medium-scale waves on three dynamic aspects of the Southern-Hemisphere general circulation is examined using data generated by the FGGE analyses of the ECMWF. The momentum and sensible heat transports by the medium-scale waves are discussed. The effects of medium-scale waves on atmospheric circulation of the Southern Hemisphere during the summer, in particular the vacillation of atmospheric energetics, are investigated. The horizontal and vertical structures and the transport properties of this wave regime and their relation to downstream development in the Southern Hemisphere are analyzed. It is observed that medium-scale waves supply about a half of the total eddy transport of sensible heat and momentum; the wave regime contributes to the time average of various energy contents and energetic components of atmospheric motion during the southern summer; and the wave regime is amplified during the developing stages of downstream development.

Chen, Tsing-Chang; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Nune, Durga P.

1987-01-01

254

Holocene Sedimentation History in the Southern Novaya Zemlya Trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that sediments accumulated in the Southern Novaya Zemlya Trench at both deglaciation and marine stages. Permanent sea ice sheet existed during the deglaciation, and glacier meltwater was intensely delivered to the bottom layer. Along with the dominant sediment supply from the Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya, southern continental sources also played a noticeable role at that stage.

M. A. Levitan; N. A. Belyaev; M. V. Burtman; J.-C. Duplessy; T. A. Khusid

2003-01-01

255

Tenacious Southern Progressives: Confounding Mencken's Myth of Mediocrity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the scholars…

Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine

256

Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now

Nathan A. Niemi; Michael Oskin; Thomas K. Rockwell

2008-01-01

257

Climatology of Large Sediment Resuspension Events in Southern Lake Michigan  

E-print Network

the southern basin for a 45-year period for which Lake Michigan wave climatology is available and the results are averaged to obtain a basin-wide turbidity index (Southern Lake Michigan Turbidity Index, SLMTI:50­62 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2006 INTRODUCTION Lake Michigan, particularly the southern basin

258

CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHERN ARIZONA AND SOUTHERN NEVADA  

E-print Network

#12;CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHERN ARIZONA AND SOUTHERN NEVADA THE 16TH FIELD STRATIGRAPHY FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA, AND SOUTHERN NEVADA, UNITED STATES Edited by J. Stewart Hollingsworth and Southern Nevada: Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 67, 321 p. #12;Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 67

Mateo, Jill M.

259

CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHERN ARIZONA AND SOUTHERN NEVADA  

E-print Network

#12;CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHERN ARIZONA AND SOUTHERN NEVADA THE 16TH FIELD STRATIGRAPHY FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA, AND SOUTHERN NEVADA, UNITED STATES Edited by J. Stewart Hollingsworth and Southern Nevada: Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 67, 321 p. #12;Cambrian Stratigraphy and Paleontology

Mateo, Jill M.

260

Southern Highbush Establishment Cultural Studies on Sandy Loam Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultural practices to establish southern highbush blueberries were initiated in 2002 and 2003 in Stone County research plots of hte Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory. Studies were initiated to examine different cultural practices on sandy loam soils. Southern highbush plants preferred...

261

Three new species of shallow water, yellow zoanthids (Hexacorallia: Zoanthidea: Epizoanthidae) from southern California, USA, and southern Australia  

E-print Network

In southern California and southern Australia, several species of hexacorals that are common at diving depths have been referred to as “Yellow Zoanthids.” We describe three new species of them in the genus Epizoanthus because all have a macrocnemic...

Phillipp, Nicholas A.; Fautin, Daphne G.

2009-03-30

262

Southern Reveille: Southern Culture and Tradition at Texas A&M University  

E-print Network

as military schools. Southern Roots The history of military schools in the South began long before Texas A&M. Virginia Military Institute, the first military school, was established to replace the militia garrison responsible for guarding the state gun... southerners believed strongly in the racial inferiority of black people, and an almost constant suspicion that black men threatened the integrity of white women often resulted in incidents of racial violence. As Fischer argues, “by the mid eighteenth...

Paddon, Meredith

2007-09-17

263

Holocene rainfall variability in southern Chile: a marine record of latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and clay mineral parameters of a high accumulation marine sediment core from the Chilean continental slope (41°S) provide a 7700 yr record of rainfall variability in southern Chile related to the position of the Southern Westerlies. We especially use the iron content, measured with a time-resolution of ca. 10 yr on average, of 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry dated marine sediments

Frank Lamy; Dierk Hebbeln; Ursula Röhl; Gerold Wefer

2001-01-01

264

Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

265

Seismic and Eustatic cycles in the southern Apenine deformation front : Case example of Basilicate (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed tectonic analyses and geological mapping in muddy fold-belt front is a hard target. Using both fieldwork and GIS software associated to new soil datations of the different marine terrassic levels of the Tarento Gulf (Southern Italy) we were able to re-interprete from an active tectonic point of view the deformation front of southern Apenines. Furthermore by combining our data with the known eustatic curve of the mediteranean sea along the southern italian shore, we were able to decipher the landscape evolution of the southern Apenines deformation front and we are now able to differenciate the geomorphic signal of both active tectonic and eustatic processes and their related geomorphic features on the Tarento Gulf marine terrasses. Therefore the two passed seismic cycle of the Southern Apenine deformation front are revealed herein and appear to be coherent with both a regular intersismic linear creep period (time =240 ka/uplift=70m) and a rapid cosismic uplift (time :10Ka/uplift = 45m). This study give us new inputs to better understand the deformation front of Southern Apenine (Italy) which is of prime importance today in European Geoscience as well as italian "Protezione Civile Nazionale".

Deffontaines, Benoit; Fortunato, Gerardo; Magalhaes, Samuel

2013-04-01

266

A kinematic model of southern California.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We propose a kinematic model for southern California based on late Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion. This implies the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California that is interpreted to include the western Transverse Ranges and northwest trending, predominately strike-slip faults close to the coast both north and south of the Transverse Ranges. Strain on this system accounts for about a third of the total North America- Pacific plate motion. -from Authors

Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.

1986-01-01

267

Enhancements of the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Pierre Auger observatory in Argentina takes data routinely now, and the first physics results have been obtained and published. The successful operation of the experiment is soon going to be enhanced by the low energy extension HEAT and the muon detector system AMIGA. Both of these extensions individually have a large potential to answer further questions for example concerning the high energy galactic cosmic ray component and the transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. )

Ulrich, Ralf

2010-02-01

268

Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center  

SciTech Connect

This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

2014-01-10

269

USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database contains publications in support of this group\\'s mission to create the science and technology needed to sustain and enhance southern forest ecosystems and the benefits they provide. The database can be searched by author, title, keyword, date range, and publication origin; publication number; and by the most recent publications added to the database. There are also online versions of Compass, a publication catalog of research products from scientists at SRS.

270

Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

Kimura, K.

2013-12-01

271

Early German plans for southern observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

Wolfschmidt, G.

2002-07-01

272

Industrial Physics---Southern California Style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

Leslie, Stuart

2013-03-01

273

Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters yield much higher short-term resolution to a period of about 1 year, a single continuous GPS site is significantly less expensive than a single strain meter and probably has better long-term stability beyond a 1-year period. Compared to less frequent field measurements, continuous GPS provides the means to better characterize the errors in GPS position measurements and thereby obtain more realistic estimates of derived parameters such as site velocities.

Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

1998-01-01

274

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Community Fault Model (over 150 major faults of Southern California)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a movie made using the SCEC-VDO software showing a 3D animation of the SCEC Community Fault Model (over 150 major faults of Southern California). The movie highlights the San Andreas and Puente Hills faults. The Southern California Earthquake Center's Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO) is 3D visualization software that allows users to display, study and make movies of earthquakes as they occur globally. SCEC-VDO was developed by interns of SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT), under the supervision of Sue Perry and Tom Jordan.

275

Continuing Education and Training Needs of the Southern Forest Industry.  

E-print Network

. The southern forest products industry has contributed significantly to commercial wood production, job crea tion, and community economies. Approximately 41 % of the nation's commercial forest lands are located in the 14 southern states. The timber harvested...KD TA245.7 373 ?1508 Continuing Education and Training Needs ????,.ofthe '. ", , ; Southern Forest .?? Industry ft LIBRARY DEC 20 1985 . ~xas A&M UniversaL . 8-1508 The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station/Neville P. Clarke...

Thomas, John K.; Albrecht, Don E.; Lee, J. Charles; Klinoff, Roger

1985-01-01

276

Diagenesis of Miocene arkoses of the southern San Joaquin Valley  

E-print Network

noted that montmorillonite was a ccmnon authigenic product Further- more, Kleinpell (1938) noted that volcanic ectivity occured in the area bordering the southern San Joaquin basin sll during tne Miocene; it is conceivable that there was volcanic ash... resulting from dlsgenesis : ?;egional geology of Southern San Joaquin ya le~ tee southern S~. goaquin yalle~ of California 's bound d . ,n thc west 'oy the San Andreas fault and associated folds, on the ass+ the Sierra . ;evade. Uplift, and on tl e...

Brasher, James Everett

1982-01-01

277

SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN THEIR MOLDS. AS A JOBBING FOUNDRY MAKING CASTINGS ON AN CONTRACTUAL-ORDER BASIS, THEIR CUSTOMERS PROVIDE, OR CONTRACT FOR PATTERN CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES, HOWEVER, PROVIDE REPAIR SERVICES SHOWN AS JOHNNY TIDWELL PREPARES A PLATE, FORM -FITTING TO THEIR MOLDING MACHINES, THAT A PATTERN WILL BE AFFIXED TO. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

278

Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.  

PubMed

Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales aggregating there. As a result, much of the Southern Ocean pelagic whaling was concentrated at the edge of the marginal ice zone. The extent and duration of sea ice fluctuate periodically under the influence of global climatic phenomena including the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Life cycles of some associated species may reflect this periodicity. With evidence for climatic warming in some regions of Antarctica, there is concern that ecosystem change may be induced by changes in sea-ice extent. The relative abundance of krill and salps appears to change interannually with sea-ice extent, and in warm years, when salps proliferate, krill are scarce and dependent predators suffer severely. Further research on the Southern Ocean sea-ice system is required, not only to further our basic understanding of the ecology, but also to provide ecosystem managers with the information necessary for the development of strategies in response to short- and medium-term environmental changes in Antarctica. Technological advances are delivering new sampling platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles that are improving vastly our ability to sample the Antarctic under sea-ice environment. Data from such platforms will enhance greatly our understanding of the globally important Southern Ocean sea-ice ecosystem. PMID:12154613

Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

2002-01-01

279

Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

280

Late-glacial of southern South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.

Heusser, C. J.

281

Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

1985-01-01

282

Southern Ocean Response to NADW Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) changes in both past and future climates has raised the issue of how the Southern Ocean would respond. Recent experiments with the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model have shown that a "bipolar see-saw" between NADW production and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production in the Weddell Sea can occur in conjunction with freshening of the North Atlantic. However, this effect operates not through a slow ocean response but via a rapid atmospheric mechanism. As NADW reduces, colder temperatures in the North Atlantic, and Northern Hemisphere in general, are associated with higher surface pressure (increased atmospheric mass). Reduced mass in the Southern Hemisphere occurs in response, with lower pressure over the South Pole (an EOF #1 effect, the "high phase" of the Antarctic Oscillation).The lower pressure is associated with stronger west winds that generate an intensified Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which leads to longitudinal heat divergence in the South Atlantic (and heat convergence in the Southern Indian Ocean). Colder temperatures in the Weddell Sea region lead to sea ice growth, increased salinity and surface water density, and greater Weddell Sea Bottom Water production. Increased poleward transport of heat occurs in the South Atlantic in conjunction with increased bottom water production, but its convergence at high latitudes is not sufficient to offset the longitudinal heat divergence due to the intensified ACC. The colder temperatures at high latitudes in the South Atlantic increase the latitudinal temperature gradient, baroclinic instability, eddy energy and eddy poleward transport of momentum, helping to maintain the lower pressure over the pole in an interactive manner. The heat flux convergence in the Indian Ocean provides a warming tendency in that region, and overall global production of AABW remains unchanged. These results have implications for the interpretation of the ice core records of the last deglaciation, but may also be relevant for changes during the Holocene and perhaps even in response to increased CO2 forcing,

Rind, David; Schmidt, G.; Russell, G.; deMenocal, P.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

283

Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

2008-01-01

284

University of Southern California: Tsunami Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California "is actively involved with all aspects of tsunami research; inundation field surveys, numerical and analytical modeling, and hazard assessment, mitigation and planning." The website supplies interactive maps and chilling images of the destruction caused by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Visitors can find out the latest tsunami news and research. Students and educators can view animations of seismic activity, landslides, and additional tsunami-related activity in various locations across the globe. Researchers can find abstracts and lists of publications of papers discussing field surveys, physical models, numerical methods, tsunami hazards, and more.

285

Southern Illinois University: Surfaces and Contact Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Advanced Friction Studies at Southern Illinois University developed a sequence of supplementary materials for graduate-level physics and engineering classes about surfaces and contact mechanics. Divided into a series of lectures, students and educators can find helpful figures and text about many aspects of surfaces and their characteristics such as surface stress, electron optics, and profilmetry. The website also covers two lessons concerning mechanical properties of materials: the classical theory of elastic deformation and the general formulation of elastic strain and stress. To help guide users about where to search for additional materials, the site provides a lengthy reference list.

286

Detecting Ambient Tectonic Tremor in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In every tectonic setting where it is observed, tremor proves difficult to detect due to its long durations and low amplitudes close to the noise band. This is particularly true in southern California where cultural noise sources are both spatially and temporally pervasive. Ambient tectonic tremor in circum-Pacific subduction zones was shown to consist of repeating low-frequency earthquakes and locates at the deep extent of the primary seismogenic zone in a region downdip of historical M 8+ earthquakes. The signals were also shown to have a distinct spectral shape (typically around 1-8 Hz) whose higher frequency falloff differs from that of local noise and ordinary earthquakes. In the strike-slip setting, families of deep ambient tremors near the Parkfield-Cholame segment of the San Andreas fault were considered proxies for deep fault slip. Whether ambient tremor occurs in a similar fashion- or even at all- in southern California remains unclear. We employ a combination of running autocorrelation and matched-filter techniques successfully used in both subduction and strike slip settings to detect and locate tremor/low-frequency earthquakes in southern California. In our case, however, detections are accepted or rejected by calculating their spectral shapes to assure the signals are distinct from local noise sources and earthquakes. We scan continuous seismic recordings of the Southern California Seismic Network near the San Jacinto fault from 2008-2012 to detect tremor-like signals, distinguish their spectral shape from other sources, and subsequently locate it. We target this area on account of the abundance of seismic stations including borehole stations. Also, since tremor (2-8 Hz) was triggered by the passing surface waves of the 2002 M 7.9 Denali earthquake in vicinity of the San Jacinto fault we expect an ambient signal to occur in the same area with a similar spectral shape. The application of a spectral discriminator is particularly needed in this region, where previous analysis identified recurrent transients with a spectrum peaked between 3 and 4 Hz associated with heavy train traffic along the Coachella Valley.

Brown, J. R.; Hough, S. E.; Ampuero, J. P.

2012-12-01

287

Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy  

PubMed Central

Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken into consideration not only from the anthropological or cultural point of view, but also for further phyto-chemical investigation. Our studies, as well as those of other authors, try to provide an original picture of the local ethno-biodiversity. PMID:17537240

Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

2007-01-01

288

Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.  

PubMed

Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

1992-12-01

289

Zirconium mobility in bauxites of Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geochemical study of the behaviour of zirconium in bauxites developed on alkaline rocks in southern Brazil is presented. Zirconium, generally considered as an immobile element during weathering, shows an important mobility conditioned to the original Zr bearing parent mineral. In the two areas (Poços de Caldas and Lages) zircon is rare and the zirconium bearing parent minerals are complex weathered silicates as "giannettite", eudyalite, astrophyllite, etc. Since the first stages of weathering, zirconium is partially leached of from the bauxite profile and the remaining Zr is incorporated in secondary phases of the bauxite (amorphous ferric oxydes and aluminous goethite).

Melfi, A. J.; Subies, F.; Nahon, D.; Formoso, M. L. L.

1996-07-01

290

Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes  

PubMed Central

Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to experimentally validate a number of these automated designs by Southern blotting. The majority of probes we tested performed well confirming our in silico prediction methodology and the general usefulness of the software for automated genomic Southern probe design. Conclusions Software and supplementary information are freely available at: http://www.genes2cognition.org/software/southern_blot PMID:20113467

2010-01-01

291

Photocells, photomultipliers, and southern-hemisphere photometry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three aspects of the historical development of photoelectric photometry in astronomy are discussed. The first is the era of the diode photocell in astronomical photometry, which represents the forerunner of the application of the photomultiplier, and was the first serious attempt to use electronics at the telescope. Secondly, the early days of the photomultiplier are discussed, which, after World War II, brought about an instant revolution in the practice of photoelectric photometry. And finally, the arrival of photomultiplier photometry in the southern hemisphere from about 1950 will be discussed.

Hearnshaw, J. B.

1996-11-01

292

Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste Management Topic  

E-print Network

with the Symposium on the State of the Science: Animal Manure and Waste Management Attended by: M. Risse (UGA), T. Doug Hamilton agreed to organize the workshop on "Management of Lagoons and liquid waste storage: Southern Animal and Waste Management Quarterly 2. Format & length: Electronic, pdf and MSWord (by request

293

DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad ( Bufo terrestris ) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

294

Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

295

Southern Africa winter temperature shifts and their link to the Southern Annular Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of the winter (June-August) observed surface air minimum temperature (SAMT) of southern Africa (Africa south of the equator) were examined from 1960 to 2011. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to extract the dominant mode of SAMT variability. Statistically significant shifts were detected in both the index derived from the spatially averaged regional SAMT and its EOF1 time coefficients. These discontinuities displayed a sharp rise followed by an abrupt drop during the periods around 1988 and 2007 respectively. The years corresponded to change points in the Southern Annular Mode index where the 1988 significant alteration to a relatively more positive index polarity was followed by a sudden weakening during the latter shift. The development of the warm phase coincided with the decoupling of SAM from SAMT. This occurred when the strengthening of the western ridge of the Mascarene High appeared to be coupled to the creation of anomalously low pressure systems over Angola and the region pole-ward of South Africa. In this epoch, the meridional wind over southern Africa reversed to become predominantly northerly and hence was symptomatic of warm temperature advection from the lower latitudes. However the post 2007 era, though still of indeterminate length, is characterized by a partial return to the pre-1988 circulation conditions. This implies that the impacts of SAM's epochal alterations have implications not only for the current climate, but also for the interpretation of climate change over southern Africa.

Manatsa, Desmond; Matarira, Caxton; Mushore, Terrence D.; Mudavanhu, Chipo

2015-01-01

296

Southern Oscillation extremes reconstructed from tree rings of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southern Great Plains  

SciTech Connect

The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is correlated with climate and tree growth over northern Mexico and the southern Great Plains of the US. Warm events favor moist-cool conditions from October through March (event years 0 and +1), and subsequent tree growth (year +1) in the region tends to be above average. The opposite climate and tree growth conditions prevail with less consistency during cold events. ENSO-sensitive tree-ring chronologies from this region were selected to develop two reconstructions of the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) back to 1699. The calibration and validation results suggest that the 56 climate extremes classified from 1699 to 1965 represent about half of the true number of extremes during this 267-year period, and that each reconstructed extreme has up to a 70% chance of representing a true winter SOI extreme. The most accurate estimates of past winter SOI extremes may be achieved in those years when the regression and classification methods of reconstruction agree, but comparisons with the instrumental data indicate that evidence for a past extreme cannot be disregarded when based on only one method. Both reconstructions indicate an increase in the frequency of winter SOI extremes after ca. 1850. Because the regression and classification errors are randomly distributed through time, these and other reconstructed changes in event frequency may reflect real changes in the extratropical influence of the SO over Mexico and the southern United States, if not in the SO itself. 50 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Stahle, D.W.; Cleaveland, M.K. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

1993-01-01

297

Circumpolar response of Southern Ocean eddy activity to a change in the Southern Annular Mode  

E-print Network

in response. An eddy-resolving ocean model is used to investigate the delay between wind forcing and the eddy., 1994]. These eddies play a variety of roles in the dynamics of the Southern Ocean, and in in- fluencing mesoscale eddy field is also responsible for a poleward heat flux that balances the heat lost

Miami, University of

298

Blue-stain Fungi Associated with Roots of Southern Pine Trees Attacked by the Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otrosina, W. J.. Hess, N. J., Zamoch. S. J.. Perry, T. J., and Jones, J. P 1997. Blue-stain fungi associated with roots of southem'pine trees attacked by the southern pine beetle, Dendmctonus front&s. Plant Dis. 81942945. Forty paired plots were established from eastern Texas to Alabama to study root-infecting, blue- stain fungi in southern pine stands undergoing southern pine beetle

William J. Otrosina; Nolan J. Hess; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Thelma J. Perry; John P. Jones

1997-01-01

299

Holocene tephrostratigraphy of southern Chiloé Continental (Andean southern volcanic zone; ~43°S), Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eruptive history of the volcanoes in the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (42.5-45°S) is very poorly constrained: only several late Quaternary eruptions have been identified, mostly from study of sparse roadcuts [1]. In this study, we further constrain the Holocene explosive eruption history around 43°S by identifying and analysing tephra layers preserved in a ~3.25m long peat core from Cuesta Moraga [2], ~35km east of Yanteles volcano. Cryptotephra was extracted following the method of [3], in addition to macrotephra; owing to the vicinity of the sampling site to the tephra sources, cryptotephra was found throughout the core stratigraphy, but was sufficiently variable in concentration that discrete layers were identifiable and attributed to specific eruptions. Chemical analysis of the glass by electron microprobe shows that the tephra layers originate from a number of volcanoes in the region. This new tephrostratigraphy improves our knowledge of the important history of explosive volcanism in this area, potentially tying the tephrostratigraphies of surrounding areas (e.g., [4]) and allowing improved evaluation of regional volcanic risk. [1] Naranjo, J.A.., and C. R. Stern, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Revista geológica de Chile, 31, pp. 225-240. [2] Heusser, C.J., et al., 1992. Paleoecology of late Quaterary deposits in Chiloé Continental, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 65, pp. 235-245. [3] Blockley, S.P.E., et al., 2005. A new and less destructive laboratory procedure for the physical separation of distal glass tephra shards from sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, pp. 1952-1960. [4] Watt, S.F.L., et al., 2011. Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean southern volcanic zone, ~42°S), southern Chile. Quaternary International, 246, pp. 324-343.

Lachowycz, S.; Smith, V. C.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

2012-12-01

300

SALT observations of southern post-novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We report on recent optical observations of the stellar and the nebular remnants of 22 southern post-novae. Methods: In this study, for each of our targets, we obtained and analysed long-slit spectra in the spectral range 3500-6600 Å and in H?+[N ii] narrow-band images. Results: The changes in the emission lines' equivalent widths with the time since the outburst agree with earlier published results of other authors. We estimated an average value ? = 2.37 for the exponent of the power law fitted to the post-novae continua. Our observations clearly show the two-component structure of the V842 Cen expanding nebulae, owing to the different velocities of the ejected matter. We discovered an expanding shell around V382 Vel with an outer diameter of about 12?. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).The spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A119

Tomov, T.; Swierczynski, E.; Mikolajewski, M.; Ilkiewicz, K.

2015-04-01

301

The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error. Subjects and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years) in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area. Results The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 ?m, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001) and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02). Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age. Conclusion Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 ?m every year and 14.59 ?m with 1 mm increase in axial length. PMID:25419112

Jirarattanasopa, Pichai; Panon, Nisa; Hiranyachattada, Siriphun; Bhurayanontachai, Patama

2014-01-01

302

Snake venom poisoning in Southern California.  

PubMed

The annual incidence of rattlesnake bite in Southern California is approximately 1 per 75,000 population. The case fatality rate is 1.5 per cent. The snakes implicated in the greatest number of injuries are the southern Pacific rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake and the sidewinder. Rattlesnake venom produces deleterious changes in the blood cells, defects in blood coagulation, injury to the intimal linings of vessels, damage to the heart muscle, alterations in the respiratory cycle and, to a lesser extent, changes in neuromuscular conduction. The most frequently observed symptoms and signs following ophidiasis in this area are swelling and edema, pain, ecchymosis, swelling of the regional lymph nodes, weakness, sweating, increased body temperature, faintness, and hemorrhagic vesiculations. First aid treatment consists of immobilization of the affected part, application of a constriction band, incision and suction with subsequent local application of ice packs. Treatment in hospital consists of administration of antivenin, antitetanus agent and antibiotic. Transfusions, oxygen and a corticosteroid may be indicated in some cases. PMID:13744840

RUSSELL, F E

1960-12-01

303

Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems. PMID:9928797

Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

1999-01-01

304

Southern Ocean Eddies as Weather Makers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several hundred mesoscale eddies populate the Southern Ocean south of 30°S at any time, however, little is known about their effect on the overlying atmosphere. As these eddies feature sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies one can expect them to play a role in the coupling of the atmosphere and the ocean. Here we show based on satellite observations of about 600,000 eddies occurring between 1997 and 2010, that these ocean eddies significantly alter near surface wind, cloud properties and rainfall by several percent. Relative to the atmospheric variability, the magnitude of the anomalies related to ocean eddies represents ±13-15 % (wind, cloud fraction), ±6-10 % (cloud water content) and ±2-6 % (rain). This impact on the atmosphere is striking given the fact that oceanic eddies constitute non-stationary SST fronts of moderate size relative to the much larger atmospheric low pressure systems which are constantly passing by at these latitudes. The spatial pattern of these changes is consistent with a mechanism labeled downward momentum mechanism in which the SST anomalies related to eddies modify the stability and thus turbulence of the atmospheric boundary layer. We will investigate the mechanisms and impact of the atmospheric modifications associated with ocean eddies in a regional high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean model (COSMO-ROMS) over the Southern Ocean.

Frenger, Ivy; Byrne, David; Gruber, Nicolas; Knutti, Reto; Münnich, Matthias; Papritz, Lukas

2013-04-01

305

Nebular Abundances of Nearby Southern Dwarf Galaxies  

E-print Network

The results of optical spectroscopy of H II regions in a sample of southern dwarf irregulars consisting of five dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group, four dwarfs in the Sculptor group, and eight additional dwarf galaxies are presented. Oxygen abundances are derived using the direct method where [O III]4363 is detected; otherwise, abundances are derived with the bright-line method using the McGaugh and the Pilyugin calibrations. ESO358-G060 has the lowest oxygen abundance (12+log(O/H) = 7.32), which is comparable to the value for the second most metal-poor galaxy known (SBS0335-052). In all, new oxygen abundances are reported for nine dwarf galaxies; updated values are presented for the remaining galaxies. Derived oxygen abundances are in the range from 3% to 26% of the solar value. Oxygen abundances for dwarfs in the southern sample are consistent with the metallicity-luminosity relationship defined by a control sample of dwarf irregulars with [O III]4363 abundances and well-measured distances. However, NGC5264 appears to have an (upper branch) oxygen abundance approximately two to three times higher than other dwarfs at similar luminosities. Nitrogen-to-oxygen and neon-to-oxygen abundance ratios are also reported; in particular, IC1613 and IC5152 show elevated nitrogen-to-oxygen ratios for their oxygen abundances.

Henry Lee; Eva K. Grebel; Paul Hodge

2003-01-24

306

40 CFR 81.53 - Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air...Control Regions § 81.53 Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Louisiana-Southwest Texas...

2012-07-01

307

40 CFR 81.53 - Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air...Control Regions § 81.53 Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Louisiana-Southwest Texas...

2014-07-01

308

40 CFR 81.53 - Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air...Control Regions § 81.53 Southern Louisiana-Southeast Texas Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Louisiana-Southwest Texas...

2010-07-01

309

77 FR 28867 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-285-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application...Take notice that on April 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-05-16

310

75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP10-48-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2010-02-23

311

75 FR 40802 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP10-2-001] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application...Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2010-07-14

312

77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-07-17

313

78 FR 66915 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. Take notice that on October 21, 2013 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301,...

2013-11-07

314

76 FR 67160 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-001] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On October 19, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2011-10-31

315

77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-73-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2012-03-12

316

78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP14-15-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2013-11-15

317

77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-475-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-06-28

318

78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP13-76-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box 20010,...

2013-02-28

319

76 FR 31599 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On May 13, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2011-06-01

320

76 FR 78636 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice...existing Alden Gas Storage Field by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County, Kansas. This EA will be...

2011-12-19

321

78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP13-179-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2013-04-30

322

77 FR 16512 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...southern Selkirk Mountains population of woodland caribou that was...southern Selkirk Mountains population of woodland caribou from human activity, the degree of which...southern Selkirk Mountains population of woodland caribou in...

2012-03-21

323

40 CFR 81.235 - Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.235 Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

324

Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone  

E-print Network

influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone,influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zonezone (SIZ) of the Southern Ocean sheds light on the physical processes that influence

Fitch, Dillon T; Moore, J. Keith

2007-01-01

325

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

326

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

327

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

328

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

329

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

330

76 FR 34859 - Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA AGENCY: Coast...during the Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race. The Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race will consist of a series of high-speed...

2011-06-15

331

77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed Collection...in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit...1010-0181. Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract:...

2012-08-22

332

40 CFR 81.158 - Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.158 Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

333

40 CFR 81.158 - Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.158 Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

334

40 CFR 81.158 - Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.158 Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

335

76 FR 68393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...statement on the translocation of southern sea otters (revised draft SEIS) in the...

2011-11-04

336

77 FR 67302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Final Supplemental...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters (final SEIS). The final SEIS...

2012-11-09

337

Alfalfa Production Guide for the Southern Great Plains  

E-print Network

Alfalfa Production Guide for the Southern Great Plains Foreward Table of Contents Acknowledgment This circular, Alfalfa Production Guide for the Southern Great Plains (E-826), is available online in PDF of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma #12;Alfalfa

Mukhtar, Saqib

338

AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS  

E-print Network

AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS A Thesis by GINGER MARIE-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS A Thesis by GINGER MARIE KELLY May 2011 APPROVED BY and Graduate Studies #12;Copyright by Ginger Marie Kelly 2011 All Rights Reserved #12;iv ABSTRACT AEROSOL

339

33 CFR 167.403 - Off San Francisco: Southern approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Southern approach. 167.403 Section 167.403...Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.403 Off San Francisco: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone...

2010-07-01

340

Clinical haematology of the southern brown bandicoot ( Isoodon obesulus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological assessment may contribute in monitoring the health of wild animals. However, species-specific reference intervals are required for maximal information to be gained from any haematological assessment. The purpose of this study was to assess the haematological characteristics for a population of southern brown bandicoots (Isoodon obesulus), a small marsupial common, across southern Australia. Animals from a wild population (n=65)

R. M. Wicks; P. Clark

2005-01-01

341

Increasing the Resilience to Natural Hazards in Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southern California is at great risk for extreme catastrophic losses owing to numerous natural hazards, such as earthquakes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and coastal changes, that occur in this area (fig. 1). Expected losses from these hazards are estimated to exceed $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California.

Jones, Lucile; Cox, Dale A.

2007-01-01

342

River plume patterns and dynamics within the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater river plumes are important vectors of marine contaminants and pathogens in the Southern California Bight. Here we report the results of a multi-institution investigation of the river plumes across eight major river systems of southern California. We use in situ water samples from multi-day cruises in combination with MODIS satellite remote sensing, buoy meteorological observations, drifters, and HF radar

J. A. Warricka; P. M. DiGiacomob; S. B. Weisbergc; M. Mengeld; B. H. Jonese; L. Washburnf; E. J. Terrillg; K. L. Farnswortha

343

The Least-cost Hydrogen for Southern California Zhenhong Lin*  

E-print Network

1 The Least-cost Hydrogen for Southern California Zhenhong Lin* , Chien-Wei Chen, Joan Ogden of hydrogen infrastructure build-up in Southern California during 2010-2060. Given an exogenous demand, the model generates temporal and spatial decisions for building a hydrogen infrastructure, in terms of when

Fan, Yueyue

344

Political challenges to implementing IWRM in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern African states are undertaking comprehensive water sector reforms. While motives for reform are partially local, they are in large part driven by the interests and ideologies of Western states and civil societies. Within the Southern African Development Community (SADC), national (water, sanitation, irrigation) master plans are being written or revised. In several states, new Water Acts are in place

Larry A. Swatuk

2005-01-01

345

Southern Rural Development Center Annual Progress Report, FY 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty major activities in fiscal year (FY) 1984 fulfilled the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) obligation to focus specifically on the rural problems of the region and to support the community development efforts of 29 land-grant universities in 13 southern states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. During FY84 SRDC had an active role…

Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

346

Water Scarcity and Institutional Reform in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The situation in Southern Africa with regard to water scarcity is particularly acute. Southern Africa has historically been an area of extreme tension in the wake of post-colonial exploitation and the delineation of boundaries for countries that often defy ethnic differences. It is also a region that has endured economic disparities of an extreme kind, ranging from the despicable practice

Saleem H. Ali

1999-01-01

347

Moho depth variation in southern California from teleseismic receiver functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of broadband three-component seismic stations in southern California has more than tripled recently. In this study we use the teleseismic receiver function technique to determine the crustal thicknesses and Vp\\/Vs ratios for these stations and map out the lateral variation of Moho depth under southern California. It is shown that a receiver function can provide a very good

Lupei Zhu; Hiroo Kanamori

2000-01-01

348

Professor Sheldon M. Ross1 University of Southern California  

E-print Network

Professor Sheldon M. Ross1 University of Southern California Friday November 4, 9:15 AM In Sixth Engineering at the University of Southern California. He received his Ph.D. in statistics at Stanford University in 1968 and he served as a Professor at the University of California, Berkeley from 1976 until

Lin, Xiaodong

349

16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

350

A Bibliographical Guide to the Study of Southern Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this selective bibliography is to provide the student of Southern literature with a list of the principal scholarship on a number of the South's writers and on some of the more prominent themes and areas of investigation in Southern literature. The first part of the book presents bibliographies on 23 general topics ranging from…

Rubin, Louis D., Jr., Ed.

351

Area selection for diamonds using magnetotellurics: Examples from southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Africa, particularly the Kaapvaal Craton, is one of the world's best natural laboratories for studying the lithospheric mantle given the wealth of xenolith and seismic data that exist for it. The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) was launched to complement these databases and provide further constraints on physical parameters and conditions by obtaining information about electrical conductivity variations laterally

Alan G. Jones; Rob L. Evans; Mark R. Muller; Mark P. Hamilton; Marion P. Miensopust; Xavier Garcia; Patrick Cole; Tiyapo Ngwisanyi; David Hutchins; C. J. S. Fourie; Hielke Jelsma; Shane Evans; Theo Aravanis; Wayne Pettit; Sue Webb; Jan Wasborg

2009-01-01

352

Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

Templer, Donald I.

2012-01-01

353

English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

354

Landscape genetics of mountain lions ( Puma concolor) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that mountain lions have suffered a bottleneck and lost their genetic diversity in an area in southern Brazil. In this study, we correlated landscape connectivity and patterns of gene flow to identify landscape permeability and possible sources of migrants for the population of mountain lions in southern Brazil, using circuit theory. Population structure was analyzed with Bayesian

Camila Schlieper Castilho; Luiz G. Marins-Sá; Rodrigo C. Benedet; Thales O. Freitas

2011-01-01

355

Rabbits as a keystone species in southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A keystone species is one that is crucial in maintaining the organization and diversity of their ecological communities. We tested the idea that rabbits act as a keystone species in southern Europe by exploring relationships between rabbit abundance and the abundance and diversity of raptor species. At 20 sites in southern Spain we assessed rabbit abundance through counts of animals

Miguel Delibes-Mateos; Steve M. Redpath; Elena Angulo; Pablo Ferreras; Rafael Villafuerte

2007-01-01

356

Chaparral in Southern California1 Robert R. Tyrrel2  

E-print Network

, small, thick, and stiff in order to cope with drought periods. The common genera of Southern CaliforniaChaparral in Southern California1 Robert R. Tyrrel2 1Presented at the Symposium on Dynamics and Management of Mediterranean-type Ecosystems, June 22-26, 1981, San Diego, California. 2Forest Supervisor, San

Standiford, Richard B.

357

76 FR 40721 - Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. EL11-48-000] Southern California Edison Company; Notice of...Commission), 18 CFR 385.207 (2011), Southern California Edison Company filed a petition...specific provisions of FERC's Order 2003 et. seq. requirement to annually...

2011-07-11

358

OUTBREAK OF SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME IN SOUTHERN TAIWAN, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the epidemiologic features of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in southern Taiwan in 2003. According to the official files of reported cases of SARS from February 21 to June 19, 2003, there were 586 cases in southern Taiwan. Symptom onset occurred between February 21 and June 19 in reported cases, between March 13 and May

SHENG-NAN LU; DONALD DAH-SHYONG JIANG; JIEN-WEI LIU; MENG-CHIH LIN; CHAO-LONG CHEN; IH-JEN SU; SHUN-SHENG CHEN

2005-01-01

359

The Culture of Southern Black Women: Approaches and Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for teachers and curriculum developers in postsecondary education, this curriculum focuses on traditional modes of creative expression of Southern black women as they relate to broader social and historical phenomena. The first of six sections provides an introduction to the curriculum for teachers. Section 2 examines the Southern black…

Conklin, Nancy Faires; And Others

360

South Florida Ecosystem Restoration: Scientific Information Needs in the Southern  

E-print Network

South Florida Ecosystem Restoration: Scientific Information Needs in the Southern Coastal Areas information needed for ecosystem restoration in the Southern Coastal Areas of South Florida. In 1996 that time, ecosystem restoration has advanced from planning to implementation; progress in research has

361

ince the end of the Great Recession, Southern Nevada  

E-print Network

S ince the end of the Great Recession, Southern Nevada has lagged behind the majority of 2015. Southern Nevada Economy to Continue Growth in 2014 and 2015 Chart 1. Las Vegas MSA Nonfarm Employment Source: Nevada Department of Employment, Training and Rehabilitation; U.S. Bureau of Labor

Hemmers, Oliver

362

Original article Water balance of a Southern Moravian floodplain  

E-print Network

Original article Water balance of a Southern Moravian floodplain forest under natural and modified forest in Southern Moravia. A model was applied to actual and theo- retical scenarios of climate and soil by drought even on relatively moist heavy soils. floodplain forest / large trees / root systems / water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

19. 'Southern Pacific Company, Pacific Lines, Remodeling of Piers For ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. 'Southern Pacific Company, Pacific Lines, Remodeling of Piers For Renewal of Br. 210-C Near Tehama, Sac. Division, Scale 1' = 40' & 1/4' = 1'-0', Sept. 1927, M.W.D., Drawing 5935, Sheet 2.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

364

GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that gender role attitudes are more traditional in the southern United States than elsewhere in the nation. We examine this notion, using eight gender-related questions from the NORC General Social Survey data. Responses to these questions suggest that Southerners tend to hold more conservative opinions on questions about women in politics and employed women. On questions

TOM W. RICE; DIANE L. COATES

1995-01-01

365

Seismotectonic implications of sand blows in the southern Mississippi Embayment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore seismically-induced sand blows from the southern Mississippi Embayment and their implications in resolving the question of near or distal epicentral source region. This was accomplished using aerial photography, field excavations, and cone penetration tests. Our analysis shows that three sand blow fields exhibit a distinct chronology of strong ground motion for the southern embayment: (1) The Ashley County,

R. T. Cox; A. A. Hill; D. Larsen; T. Holzer; S. L Forman; T. Noce; C. Gardner; J. Morat

2007-01-01

366

33 CFR 167.155 - Off New York: Southern approach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155 Navigation and Navigable...Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is established bounded by a...

2010-07-01

367

STATE OF THE ANTARCTIC AND SOUTHERN OCEAN CLIMATE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

STATE OF THE ANTARCTIC AND SOUTHERN OCEAN CLIMATE SYSTEM P. A. Mayewski,1 M. P. Meredith,2 C. P of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate and its relation to the global climate system over the last few of abrupt changes in atmospheric circulation and temperature recorded in Antarctic ice core proxies for past

Howat, Ian M.

368

DDT AND ITS METABOLITES IN THE SEDIMENTS OFF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

DDT AND ITS METABOLITES IN THE SEDIMENTS OFF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA JOHN S. MACGREGOR1 ABSTRACT To assess the degree of DDT contamination in the marine sediments off Los Angeles, 103 stations in the Pacific Ocean off southern California were sampled in July and August 1971 for DDT and its metabolites

369

SECTION 340 WRDA 1992, AS AMENDED SOUTHERN WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

-Federal interests in southern West Virginia pursuant to Section 340 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1992SECTION 340 ­ WRDA 1992, AS AMENDED SOUTHERN WEST VIRGINIA MODEL AGREEMENT FOR DESIGN ASSISTANCE (WORK PERFORMED BY NON-FEDERAL SPONSOR) MODEL HISTORY: 2 September 2005 - Model originally approved. 19

US Army Corps of Engineers

370

SECTION 340 WRDA 1992, AS AMENDED SOUTHERN WEST VIRGINIA  

E-print Network

-Federal interests in southern West Virginia pursuant to Section 340 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1992SECTION 340 ­ WRDA 1992, AS AMENDED SOUTHERN WEST VIRGINIA MODEL AGREEMENT FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ASSISTANCE (WORK PERFORMED BY NON-FEDERAL SPONSOR) MODEL HISTORY: 2 September 2005 - Model

US Army Corps of Engineers

371

Dust from southern Africa: rate of emission and biogeochemical properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune rea...

372

Better Vaccination Strategies for Better People University of Southern  

E-print Network

Better Vaccination Strategies for Better People Po-An Chen University of Southern California of Southern California clkempe@usc.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we study the vaccination of graphs against of the graph. Vaccinated nodes cannot be infected, nor pass on the infection, whereas all other nodes do

Kempe, David

373

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH SOUTHERN CONSERVATION SYSTEMS CONFERENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The steering committee of the Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture emphasized the need for a systems approach for optimum production and profit with the name change to the Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference held at Florence, SC. During the Florence confe...

374

Parental investment in southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern elephant seal is among the most sexually dimorphic and polygynous of all mammals: males may be more than 10 times the weight of reproducing females and only the largest 2–3% of males are likely to breed. Current optimization theories of sexual selection predict that evolution would favor greater parental investment in individual males than in females. Because southern

T. S. McCann; M. A. Fedak; J. Harwood

1989-01-01

375

GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

376

Budget Analysis of Escherichia coli at a Southern Lake Michigan  

E-print Network

Budget Analysis of Escherichia coli at a Southern Lake Michigan Beach P R A M O D T H U P A K I, 2009. Escherichia coli (EC) concentrations at two beaches impacted by river plume dynamics in southern bacteria such as Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (1). Coastal water quality has a significant

377

Nonnative Invasive Species Impacts and Control in Southern  

E-print Network

1 Nonnative Invasive Species Impacts and Control in Southern Wetland Ecosystems Sonja N. Oswalt · Morphology · Common Invasive Species in Southern Wetlands · Control of Wetland Invasive Species · Case. one that grows profusely where it is not wanted ­Invasive Species: those which spread from human

Gray, Matthew

378

Southern Taurids in the IAU MDC Database. Taurid complex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of indices was used to study the autumn (night) part of the Taurid complex. The procedure based only on mathematical statistics was applied to select the Southern Taurid meteor records from the IAU Meteor Data Center Database (IAU MDC). 143 orbits of the Southern Taurids were selected. 114 orbits (80% of 143) are grouped into 13 associations.

Ka?uchová, Z.; Svore?, J.

2014-10-01

379

Geochemistry of the quartz dioritegranite association, Roded area, southern Israel  

E-print Network

Geochemistry of the quartz diorite­­granite association, Roded area, southern Israel Ron Bogoch a Accepted 20 May 2002 Abstract The Roded quartz diorite of southern Israel formed by fractional contained within the quartz diorite, formed in irregularly spaced ``pockets'' near the end of quartz diorite

Dov, Avigad

380

Transient tracer applications in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient tracers can be used to constrain the Inverse-Gaussian transit time distribution (IG-TTD) and thus provide information about ocean ventilation. Individual transient tracers have different time and application ranges which are defined by their atmospheric history (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). The classification ranges from tracers for highly ventilated water masses, e.g. sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the decay of Tritium (?3H) and to some extent also dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins, e.g. CFC-12, Argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). The IG-TTD can be empirically constrained by using transient tracer couples with sufficiently different input functions. Each tracer couple has specific characteristics which influence the application limit of the IG-TTD. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and their validity areas within the IG-TTD by using the concept of tracer age differences (TAD). New measured CFC-12 and SF6 data from a section along 10° E in the Southern Ocean in 2012 are presented. These are combined with a similar data set of 1998 along 6° E in the Southern Ocean as well as with 39Ar data from the early 1980s in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea for investigating the application limit of the IG-TTD and to analyze changes in ventilation in the Southern Ocean. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained south to 46° S which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The constrained IG-TTD north of the SAF shows a slight increase in mean ages between 1998 and 2012 in the upper 1200 m between 42-46° S. The absence of SF6 inhibits ventilation analyses below this depth. The time lag analysis between the 1998 and 2012 data shows an increase in ventilation down to 1000 m and a steady ventilation between 2000 m-bottom south of the SAF between 51-55° S.

Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.

2014-10-01

381

The southern termination of the Philippine Trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of the southern end of the Philippine Trench using GLORIA sidescan sonar and single channel seismic data and geological studies on the island of Halmahera suggest that the trench is in the process of propagating south and that some of the ESE-WNW convergence is transferred via a broad NE-SW zone of dextral strike-slip across northern Halmahera into the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. NE-SW ridges and lineaments on the seafloor can be traced into major faults and structural trends on land. The bathymetric expression of the Philippine Trench is lost where it meets an oceanic plateau on the Philippine Sea Plate. This elevated and probably thickened plateau appears to have inhibited any further propagation of the trench southwards. To the north of the plateau there is a well-developed accretionary prism, but to the south deformation of sediments on the seafloor is less intense. A prominent ridge, with sediments passively banked up against it marks the southern limit of deformation associated with the Philippine Trench. To the south lies the eastern Halmahera-Waigeo Ophiolite Terrane, an area of shallow water and islands underlain by ophiolitic basement between Halmahera and the Sorong Fault Zone. There are no bathymetric or structural features to indicate any form of active link between the Philippine Trench and the Sorong Fault through or along the northern side of this ophiolite terrane. There is no earthquake evidence for any form of fault linking the Philippine Trench to either the Palau Trench or the Sorong Fault, but there are numerous earthquake epicentres reported between the southern end of the trench and the Molucca Sea. The island of Halmahera is considered to lie in a diffuse boundary zone at the margin of the Philippine Sea Plate. Continued collision of the opposing arcs in the Molucca Sea will ultimately prevent further E-W convergence between Halmahera and Sulawesi. It is predicted that either the Philippine Trench will propagate south along its present line to meet the Sorong Fault or that another trench will develop further to the east. In either case the arc and ophiolite terrane of Halmahera might then be accreted onto the Eurasian margin.

Nichols, Gary; Hall, Robert; Milsom, John; Masson, Doug; Parson, Lindsay; Sikumbang, Nafrizal; Dwiyanto, Bambang; Kallagher, Helen

1990-11-01

382

Spectral characterization of Ekman velocities in the Southern Ocean based on surface drifter trajectories  

E-print Network

Energy input rates across the Southern Ocean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .energy input in the Southern Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .contributor to the upper ocean mixing energy budget. 1.2 The

Elipot, Shane

2006-01-01

383

Southern California and the perfect drought: Simultaneous prolonged drought in southern California and the Sacramento and Colorado River systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern California relies heavily upon imported water from the Sacramento and Colorado river systems to augment local supplies and to mitigate the impacts of drought. In this paper a ‘perfect drought’ is defined as a prolonged drought that affects southern California, the Sacramento River basin and the upper Colorado River basin simultaneously. Examination of instrumental climate and discharge records shows

Glen M. MacDonald; Konstantine V. Kremenetski; Hugo G. Hidalgo

2008-01-01

384

Lessons from Watershed Monitoring:Lessons from Watershed Monitoring: The Southern California StormwaterThe Southern California Stormwater  

E-print Network

Beach City PWD ·Los Angeles City WPD ·CA Dept Transportation ·State Water Resources Control Board ·Regional Water Quality Control Boards - Los Angeles - Santa Ana - San Diego ·US Environmental ProtectionKenneth Schiff Southern California Coastal Water Research ProjectSouthern California Coastal Water Research

385

The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III  

PubMed Central

The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California (USC) was initiated in 1984 and continues to provide an important resource for studies investigating genetic and environmental influences on human behavior. This article provides an update on the current register and its potential for future twin studies using recruitment through school district databases and voter records. An overview is also provided for an ongoing longitudinal twin study investigating the development of externalizing psychopathology from childhood to young adulthood, the USC Study of Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior. Characteristics of the twins and their families are presented, including recruitment and participation rates, as well as attrition analyses and a summary of key findings to date. PMID:23394193

Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Gomez, Karina; Bezdjian, Serena; Niv, Sharon; Raine, Adrian

2013-01-01

386

Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.

Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

2014-03-01

387

Star Formation in Southern Seyfert Galaxies  

E-print Network

We have produced radio maps, using the ATCA, of the central regions of six southern Seyfert 2 galaxies (NGC 1365, 4945, 6221, 6810, 7582, and Circinus) with circumnuclear star formation, to estimate the relative contribution of star formation activity compared to activity from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The radio morphologies range from extended diffuse structures to compact nuclear emission, with no evidence, even in the relatively compact sources, for synchrotron self--absorption. In each case the radio to far--infrared (FIR) ratio has a value consistent with star formation, and in all but one case the radio to [FeII] ratio is also consistent with star formation. We derive supernova rates and conclude that, despite the presence of a Seyfert nucleus in these galaxies, the radio, FIR, and [FeII] line emission are dominated by processes associated with the circumnuclear star formation (i.e. supernova remnants and HII regions) rather than with the AGN.

Duncan Forbes; Ray Norris

1998-04-28

388

Examining several Southern Ocean data sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several datasets regarding the ocean in the Southern Hemisphere are combined into a coregistered format to analyze the use of the data in multidisciplinary research. The datasets are described detailing bathymetric climatological data on surface pigment concentration, eddy-kinetic-energy measurements, surface wind-stress magnitudes, sea-surface temperatures, surface densities, and nitrate concentrations. The data are combined in a common projection which facilitates the comparison of the fields, and the combined data yield insights regarding such phenomena as bottom topography, surface heat and moisture fluxes, and divergences in flow. The number of available datasets is shown to be good, and the data can be used to develop working hypotheses on the relationships between physical and biogeochemical processes.

Mcclain, Charles R.; Koblinsky, Chester J.; Firestone, James; Darzi, Michael; Yeh, Eueng-Nan; Beckley, Brian D.

1991-01-01

389

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dengue Epidemics, Southern Vietnam  

PubMed Central

An improved understanding of heterogeneities in dengue virus transmission might provide insights into biological and ecologic drivers and facilitate predictions of the magnitude, timing, and location of future dengue epidemics. To investigate dengue dynamics in urban Ho Chi Minh City and neighboring rural provinces in Vietnam, we analyzed a 10-year monthly time series of dengue surveillance data from southern Vietnam. The per capita incidence of dengue was lower in Ho Chi Minh City than in most rural provinces; annual epidemics occurred 1–3 months later in Ho Chi Minh City than elsewhere. The timing and the magnitude of annual epidemics were significantly more correlated in nearby districts than in remote districts, suggesting that local biological and ecologic drivers operate at a scale of 50–100 km. Dengue incidence during the dry season accounted for 63% of variability in epidemic magnitude. These findings can aid the targeting of vector-control interventions and the planning for dengue vaccine implementation. PMID:23735713

Cuong, Hoang Quoc; Vu, Nguyen Thanh; Cazelles, Bernard; Boni, Maciej F.; Thai, Khoa T.D.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Quang, Luong Chan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Huu, Tran Ngoc

2013-01-01

390

Appraisal Seattle, Renton and Southern Railway Company  

E-print Network

v e r e d a l o n g s i d e o f t r a c k 0 .60 0 .60 0 .60 0 .60 0 .08 . 5 0 150.00 0 .60 0 ,60 0 .60 0 ,50 0 .50 4999 .00 427.00 804.00 91 .00 735 . 00 50000.00 1500.00 58556.0(5 686 ,00 970,00 533 ,00 414 .00 2603 .00... Libraries’ Center for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu A Civil Engineering thesis of the University of Kansas APPRAISAL BEUTLE REHTON M D SOUTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY i l O C ^ I I N D E X L e t t e r o f T r a n s m i t t a l , H i s t o...

Fletcher, John H.

1913-01-01

391

Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

392

Southern New Hampshire University Academic Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several years, Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) has continued to increase their digital offerings, and this collection is one of their more notable additions. This particular collection is focused on publications and documents created by some of their academic communities on campus, including the Faculty Center for Innovation and Excellence in Teaching and their Community Economic Development program. In the "Community Economic Development" area, visitors can view thesis projects and dissertations from past years, and these works touch on everything from brownfield redevelopment and minority-owned businesses. While some of the documents in this collection are not publicly available, most of them are open-access. Visitors are also encouraged to submit their own comments on the site as well.

393

Enhancements to the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Pierre Auger Observatory has been detecting cosmic rays above 1018eV since 2004, exploiting a hybrid air shower detection technique, with 1660 water Cherenkov detectors together with 24 air fluorescence telescopes on a 3000 km2 site. As low energy enhancements to the observatory, 3 additional telescopes with elevated fields of view were built (HEAT). The detector density was increased in the HEAT fields of view by a factor of four in an area of about 25 km2. This setup enables unbiased hybrid data taking above 1017eV. The infilled area is also being equipped with large underground scintillator muon detectors (AMIGA). Finally, a prototype array of radio antenna stations (AERA), working from 30 to 80 MHz, has been installed in a part of the infill. Properties and status of AMIGA, HEAT, and AERA are presented.

Klages, H.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

2012-07-01

394

The Southern Homefront, 1861-1865: Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted as part of the Documenting the American South project (see the April 18, 1997 Scout Report), this Website offers primary documents relating to efforts by the Confederacy to shape its own educational system. The site includes .html versions of period textbooks such as The First Dixie Reader; Designed to Follow the Dixie Primer and First Book in Composition, Applying the Principles of Grammar to the Art of Composing: Also, Giving Full Directions for Punctuation; Especially Designed for the Use of Southern Schools. These texts include online illustrations, frontispieces, and cover pages. There are five complete education texts in all and the text of a bill to provide for the establishment of graded schools in North Carolina. The documents are also available in SGML/TEI file for use with Panorama. Note: when we visited the site, texts loaded very slowly.

395

Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

2010-12-01

396

Southern Poverty Law Center: Hate and Extremism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Poverty Law Center has been monitoring the activities of hate groups and extremist activities since 1981. Today, their Intelligence Project continues to track over 800 hate groups across the United States. First-time visitors to the site can look over brief synopses of current activities within various hate groups. From there, visitors will want to visit the "Intelligence Report" section. Here, they will find the current issue of this magazine, which frequently includes guest editorials, interviews with former hate group members and leaders, and information about how the Center is combating these different groups and their activities. Additionally, the site also includes an interactive map of active hate groups in the United States.

397

Twenty southern peculiar emission-line stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observational data for 20 southern stars having emission-line spectra that suggest a significant degree of mass ejection are given in order to present an atlas of their spectra and to give a quantitative description of their appearance during the 1961-62 epoch. Most of the stars are P Cygni stars; others include nova-like, peculiar Be, and symbiotic stars, as well as stellar planetary nebulae and emission-line binaries, all of whose spectra were obtained with the Newtonian two-prism Zeiss Spectrograph and the 74-inch reflector at Mount Stromlo Observatory. It is noted that among the P Cygni stars, there is a strong correlation between the a-e expansion velocity and the strength of Balmer emission, while in both the P Cygni and the Bep stars, there is positive dependence of Fe II and negative dependence of (Fe II) emission strengths on Balmer emission strength.

Carlson, E. D.; Henize, K. G.

1979-01-01

398

Locating Microseism Sources in Offshore Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the broadband stations from the S. California network to locate the apparent origin of secondary microseisms energy (5-8 Hz band). The procedure is to grid the offshore region and using each grid point as the source point, predict the response of a Rayleigh wave at each station. These predicted waveforms are then correlated with the data over a time window that is typically a 1/2 hour in length and composited at the grid point. The length of the time window controls a tradeoff between the spatial-temporal resolution of the sources and the robustness on the image. The procedure is valid for multiple sources. This results show that during periods of high microseism activity the sources are distinct at several locations in a region approximately 50-100 km offshore. For an 11/09/2002 Southern Ocean storm, for example, two zones parallel to each other and perpendicular to the coast are imaged.

Tian, X.; Clayton, R. W.

2007-12-01

399

Thickness diffusivity in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thickness diffusivity ($\\kappa$) according to the Gent and McWilliams parameterisation which accounts for eddy-driven advection in the ocean, is estimated using output from an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. A physically meaningful definition of rotational eddy fluxes leads almost everywhere to positive $\\kappa$. Zonally averaged near surface values of $\\kappa$ remain smaller than 200 m2/s poleward of the polar front, increases between 60-45°S to about 600 m2/s and peak between 45-35° S at almost 3000 m2/s. $\\kappa$ stays high in the upper 500 m but decreases with depth and is essentially zero below 2500 m. In addition to the thickness diffusion ($\\kappa$) there is eddy-induced eastward (westward) advection of isopycnal thickness at the poleward (equatorward) flank of the ACC pointing toward strong anisotropic lateral mixing.

Eden, Carsten

2006-06-01

400

South: in the mild southern tradition  

SciTech Connect

Trends in the development of current and future energy resources in the southern states of the U.S. are reviewed. The south has the advantages of a mild climate and abundant sources of natural gas, coal, and hydro power, however, the supply and distribution of energy are primarily controlled by private and federal monopolies. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has a program for funding 100,000 solar domestic hot water systems plus low interest loans for wood heaters, zero interest conservation loans, and financing of passive solar homes. TVA will also construct a large passive solar complex. Other applications of solar technology discussed include installation in a brewery, apartment buildings, abandoned city housing, a duplex, an environmental center, a planned community, and a kiln company.

Price, T.L.

1980-01-01

401

SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimeter for an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in about two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy ? 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar Explosions and Solar System, among others. The polarimeter is currently being built and its optics and electronics assembled. We will describe the current status of the project. This project is supported by FAPESP. AMM is also supported by CNPq.

Magalhães, A. M.

2014-10-01

402

Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change.  

PubMed

Climate variability in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) is dominated by the SH annular mode, a large-scale pattern of variability characterized by fluctuations in the strength of the circumpolar vortex. We present evidence that recent trends in the SH tropospheric circulation can be interpreted as a bias toward the high-index polarity of this pattern, with stronger westerly flow encircling the polar cap. It is argued that the largest and most significant tropospheric trends can be traced to recent trends in the lower stratospheric polar vortex, which are due largely to photochemical ozone losses. During the summer-fall season, the trend toward stronger circumpolar flow has contributed substantially to the observed warming over the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia and to the cooling over eastern Antarctica and the Antarctic plateau. PMID:11988571

Thompson, David W J; Solomon, Susan

2002-05-01

403

The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent and campaign, operational mode. Results from various radar meteor investigations as well as radar/optical observation campaign will be presented in this paper.

Janches, Diego

2014-11-01

404

Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

2004-12-01

405

The Southern Ocean Cadmium Isotope Divide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Cd isotope and concentration data in a transect of surface waters in the Southern Ocean sampled along the Zero Meridian (42°S-68°S, Geotraces ANT24-3 cruise, austral autumn). The objective is to examine the response of Cd isotopes to (1) differences in biological productivity in this High-Nutrient-Low-Chlorophyll region, (2) ocean circulation in the wind-driven upwelling system of the Antarctic Circum-Polar Current (ACC), and (3) how these might be related to the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. Our data show a strong northward gradient in both Cd isotopes and concentrations, interrupted by a change in the sense of variation at about 56°S. The remarkable coincidence between the Cd isotope divide at 56°S and the location of the Southern Boundary of the ACC, together with evidence for advection of the Cd isotope and elemental signal by northward Ekman transport in the surface layer, demonstrate that Cd isotopes trace surface ocean circulation regimes. Co-variations between Cd isotope ratios and concentrations exhibit two negative correlations which separate the waters from the ACC and the Weddell Gyre into distinct Cd isoscapes. The linear arrays are consistent with Rayleigh fractionation kinetics and imply a greater Cd isotope effect due to biological consumption in the ACC compared to that in the Weddell Gyre. Strengthening of the “biological Cd” signal along the ACC array reflects progressive Cd depletion, resulting from enhanced biological uptake as UCPW flows northward feeding the low latitude thermohaline circulation. The doubling of Cd isotope fractionation in the Weddell Gyre relative to the ACC can be accounted for by differences in phytoplankton biomass and species distribution along the Zero Meridian as well as differences in physiological mechanisms of Cd uptake by marine phytoplankton. These results open up new perspectives for paleoceanographic applications of Cd isotopes as a proxy of past changes in the biological carbon pump.

Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J.; de Baar, H. J.; Alderkamp, A.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Feldmann, H.; Andreae, M. O.

2010-12-01

406

Online Geophysical Databases for the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through the Data Link web browser interface (http://www.marine-geo.org/link/) which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The free, platform-independent data visualization tool GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/) supports dynamic exploration of a wide range of data sets on a Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seafloor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. The GMRT global digital elevation model is served freely as a Web Map Service layer and is available for viewing with OGC-compliant clients including Google Earth (http://www.marine-geo.org/Data4GoogleEarth.html). To promote interoperability and data sharing, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. We are also taking on the US Antarctic Data Coordination Center function, assisting NSF-funded investigators in documenting and archiving their data in accordance with the IPY Data Policy.

Goodwillie, A.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S.; Ryan, W.; Melkonian, A.; Ferrini, V.; Weissel, R.; Bonczkowski, J.

2007-12-01

407

Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".  

PubMed

Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted. PMID:24884999

Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

2014-11-01

408

Variability Analysis of a Sample of Potential Southern Calibration Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A considerable number of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) surveys have been conducted in the northern hemisphere and very few in the southern hemisphere mostly because of a lack of telescopes and therefore adequate baseline coverage. Thus there is a deficit of calibrator sources in the southern hemisphere. Further, some of the most interesting astronomical objects eg. the galactic centre and the nearest galaxies (the small and large Magellanic Clouds) lie in the southern hemisphere and these require high resolution studies. With a major expansion of radio astronomy observing capability on its way in the southern hemisphere (with the two SKA (Square Kilometre Array) precursors, meerKAT (Karoo Array Telescope) and ASKAP (Australian SKA Pathfinder), leading to the SKA itself) it is clear that interferometry and VLBI in the southern hemisphere need a dense network of calibration sources at different resolutions and a range of frequencies. This work seeks to help redress this problem by presenting an analysis of 31 southern sources to help fill the gaps in the southern hemisphere calibrator distribution. We have developed a multi-parameter method of classifying these sources as calibrators. From our sample of 31 sources, we have 2 class A sources (Excellent calibrators), 16 class B sources (Good calibrators), 9 class C sources (Poor calibrators) and 4 class D sources (Unsuitable calibrators).

Hungwe, Faith

2009-06-01

409

Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2003-01-01

410

Jets, mixing, and topography in the Southern Ocean  

E-print Network

.3 The Southern Ocean in models The Southern Ocean has been represented in models with a range of complexities, from full Earth system models to simple 2D quasi-geostrophic models to 1D flux models. Due to computational restrictions, modern global circulation... models and earth system models are eddy-permitting, rather than eddy-resolving. This requires some parametrisation of eddy activity, as previously mentioned. Lee and Coward (2003) studied the Southern Ocean in the OCCAM model at 1/4? (eddy permitting...

Boland, Emma Joan Douglas

2013-11-12

411

Stars and Nebulae in the Southern Crown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Australis complex of young stars and interstellar gas clouds is one of the nearest star-forming regions, at a distance of approx. 500 light-years from the Sun. It is seen in the southern constellation of that name (The "Southern Crown"). Images of this sky area were recently obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel digital camera that is installed at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. Some of these exposures have been combined into a magnificent colour image, here reproduced as PR Photo 25a/00 . The field shown measures about 4.7 x 4.7 light-years 2. It displays the central part of the complex, its brightest stars, and the nebulosity that they illuminate. The interstellar clouds that are associated with the complex are visible all across this field and also beyond its borders (on other exposures), due to the obscuring effect of the dust particles that "dim" the light of stars behind these clouds. This effect is particularly noticeable in the lower left corner where very few stars are seen. R Coronae Australis , the bright star from which the entire complex is named, is located at the center of the field and illuminates the reddish nebula around it. The bright star in the lower part, illuminating a somewhat bluer nebula, is known as TY Coronae Australis . The brightness of these two stars and several others in the same field is variable. They belong to the so-called "T Tauri" class , a type that is quite common in star-forming regions. T Tauri stars are in the early stages of stellar evolution and display various observable characteristics of this phase, e.g. emission at visible and infrared wavelengths due to the accretion of matter left over from their formation, as well as X-ray emission. The nebulosity seen in this picture is mostly due to reflection of the stellar light by small dust particles. The stars in the R Coronae Australis complex do not emit sufficient ultraviolet light to ionize a substantial fraction of the surrounding hydrogen, and thereby cause this gas to glow. However, some smaller features are also visible (one is seen in the upper left corner of PR Photo 25b/00 ) which emit light by a different mechanism. These are so-called Herbig-Haro objects , i.e., dense clumps of gas ejected from the immediate vicinity of newly formed stars with velocities of about 200 km/sec. When such clumps ram into the gas, the atoms are heated (excited) and start to shine. See also ESO PR Photo 40c/99 of the object HH-34 in Orion. Other WFI images are available at the WFI Photo Gallery. Tecnical information : The observations were obtained on the night of 30 August 2000. The image is a combination of twelve large (8000 x 8000 pix) CCD frames taken through B, V, and R filters. Four exposures of 5 min each were obtained in each filter, with the telescope pointing at slightly different positions so that the gaps among the eight individual CCD-chips of the detector can be adequately filled. All frames were carefully aligned, and the intensity levels were cut in order to achieve the proper colour balance. A logarithmic intensity scale was used to improve the dynamical range. PR Photo 25a/00 displays the full field and was rebinned to a smaller scale in order to allow transportation over the web. PR Photo 25b/00 shows part of this field at the original resolution. The images were prepared by Fernando Comeron (ESO). This is the caption to ESO PR Photos 25a-b/00 . They may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

2000-10-01

412

Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises ? and ? Crucis and ? and ? Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations with other creatures: wild dogs, warthogs, wildebeests, swallows, cuckoos and cicadas. In each case the visibility of a star will synchronize with a behavior of the associated species. Together, stars and species informed man of the order and unity of an African cosmos — a worldview that must have been as satisfying as it was beautiful.

Snedegar, K. V.

413

Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure.

CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials -- leading to new understanding of the climate.

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.

2007-01-01

414

Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in both sites. However during spring biogenic influence increased. In addition to source analysis this behaviour was visible in enhanced diurnal cycles of VOCs (Patokoski et al., 2014, in press). We will present important sources and source areas for Southern Finland's concentrations. References: Patokoski, J., Ruuskanen, T.M., Hellén, H., Taipale, R., Grönholm, T., Kajos, M.K., Petäjä, T., Hakola, H., Kulmala, M. & Rinne, J., 2014. Winter to spring transition and diurnal variation of VOCs in Finland at an urban background site and a rural site. Boreal Env. Res. 19. In press.

Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

2014-05-01

415

College of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012  

E-print Network

College of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012 College of Southern Idaho Transfer Worksheet College-level transferable academic courses taken at College of Southern Idaho (CSI of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012 2. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS The majority of majors

Caughman, John

416

A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1  

E-print Network

A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1 D. P. Clemens,1 J. M a unique and pro- vocative nebular object we call the ``Southern Jellyfish Nebula.'' The Southern Jellyfish model. Based on its far-IR luminosity of 3:3 Æ 0:9 ; 104 L, the Southern Jellyfish's MYSO has a zero

Clemens, Dan

417

PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE IN SOUTHERN LAKE HURON  

EPA Science Inventory

Southern Lake Huron contains a diversity of phytoplankton assemblage types ranging from assemblages characteristic of oligotrophic waters to those which usually occur under highly eutrophic conditions. The offshore waters are generally characterized by oligotrophic associations a...

418

78 FR 42749 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Advisory Committee Act, (FACA) (5 U.S.C., App. 2), the Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee (RAC...on the progress and results of the monitoring efforts, and making recommendations to the Forest Service for any appropriate...

2013-07-17

419

University of Southern California / 5 Board of Trustees  

E-print Network

Officer, Annenberg Foundation Wanda M. Austin, President and Chief Executive Officer, The Aerospace Equities Jane Harman, Director, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Woodrow Wilson International Center of Southern California Robert Padgett, Emergency Physician, retired Jane Hoffman Popovich, Chairman, Hoffman

Southern California, University of

420

36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

421

The beginnings of the southern child/pediatric neurology society.  

PubMed

The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society. PMID:24646505

Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

2015-04-01

422

The biogeochemistry and residual mean circulation of the southern ocean  

E-print Network

I develop conceptual models of the biogeochemistry and physical circulation of the Southern Ocean in order to study the air-sea fluxes of trace gases and biological productivity and their potential changes over ...

Ito, Takamitsu, 1976-

2005-01-01

423

General view, showing detail atop hemi circle at southern end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view, showing detail atop hemi circle at southern end of Memorial Avenue. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

424

5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the southeast portal looking north - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

425

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

426

Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes  

E-print Network

Larger black flour beetles have invaded homes and other buildings in some Southern High Plains counties in Texas. This publication explains how to identify the beetles, find and eliminate the source, and exclude the insects from the house....

Porter, Patrick; McIntyre, Nancy E.

2007-04-09

427

Characterization of maize testing locations in eastern and southern Africa  

E-print Network

the maize testing locations of the eastern and southern Africa region. Historical data from CIMMYT Regional Trials from 1999 to 2003 was used to characterize the environments and estimate genetic parameters. Environmnent and GEI showed consistently high...

Maideni, Francis W.

2006-08-16

428

7. Oblique view of southern portion of the west side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Oblique view of southern portion of the west side of Cottonwood Creek facing northeast from the south bank. - Cottonwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Cottonwood Creek on Road 28, Madera, Madera County, CA

429

INTERIOR DETAIL OF WINDOWS AT SOUTHERN END OF EAST WALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR DETAIL OF WINDOWS AT SOUTHERN END OF EAST WALL OF LIVING ROOM OF PAULINE KILKER HOUSE, FACING EAST. - Pauline Kilker House, 1410 North Lincoln Avenue-3300 West Laurel Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

430

75 FR 60066 - Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...a.m. to approximately 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Tucson Interagency Fire Center, 2646 E. Commerce Center Place, Tucson, AZ 85706. Send written comments to Jennifer Ruyle, RAC Coordinator, Southern Arizona...

2010-09-29

431

INTERIOR OF MAIN SPACE, SHOWING MEZZANINE IN SOUTHERN SECTION, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF MAIN SPACE, SHOWING MEZZANINE IN SOUTHERN SECTION, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Torpedo & Bombsight Shop & Storehouse, Midway Street between Enterprise & Ranger Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

432

10. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN HALF OF THE EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. EXTERIOR, VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN HALF OF THE EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

433

10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation Company) ca. 1916, photographer unknown VIEW OF ORIGINAL PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY LYNWOOD SHELTER SHED - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA

434

13. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEARING SEAT ON SOUTHERN PIER AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST BEARING SEAT ON SOUTHERN PIER AND CONNECTION OF END POST AND LOWER CHORD; FACING SOUTHWEST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

435

PRODUCTION IN COASTAL SALT MARSHES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Production ecology in southern California coastal salt marshes was investigated by harvesting macrophytes and monitoring environmental factors (substrate salinity, pH, nitrogen, redox, water content, temperature, and tide level) at four locations--Sweetwater River Estuary, Los Pe...

436

PARASITES IN SOUTHERN SLUDGES AND DISINFECTION BY STANDARD SLUDGE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Major objectives were to: (a) assess types and densities of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges in the southern United States, (b) investigate the inactivation of parasites by lime stabilization of sewage sludges seeded with selected intestinal parasites, (c) assess convent...

437

Common benthic algae and cyanobacteria in southern California tidal wetlands  

E-print Network

E.A. 1942. Plant ecology of the coastal salt marshlands ofchannels, and salt marshes dominated by vascular plants suchplant and algal production to macro-invertebrate consumers in a southern California salt

Janousek, Christopher N

2011-01-01

438

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

439

4. DETAIL OF SOUTHERN MOST ARCHES, EASTERN ELEVATION. OPEN FLOOD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL OF SOUTHERN MOST ARCHES, EASTERN ELEVATION. OPEN FLOOD GATE VISIBLE WITHIN ARCH. VIEW TAKEN FROM UNDER 14TH STREET BRIDGE. - Tidal Reservoir, Outlet, Spanning Tidal Reservoir Outlet at Fourteenth Street Bridge, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

440

European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations  

PubMed Central

Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern” population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the “northern” population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the “southern” population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies. PMID:17044734

Seldin, Michael F; Shigeta, Russell; Villoslada, Pablo; Selmi, Carlo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K

2006-01-01

441

A Southern Hemisphere Wave Response to ENSO with Implications for Southern Africa Precipitation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble GCM simulations with an imposed, idealized warming of the eastern Pacific Ocean reveal two wave anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere, one in the eastern and one in the western hemisphere. Both are statistically significant at the 99% confidence level. Application of a steady-state linear model and a Rossby wave source analysis is used to diagnose the causes of the waves. The western hemisphere wave is forced by the advection and stretching of planetary vorticity by the divergent flow from the Southern Hemisphere component of the central Pacific `twin anticyclones' that straddle the equator during warm events. The eastern hemisphere wave is a result of the northeastward shift of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) that, in turn, is forced from the upper troposphere by convergence to the north. An upper-level convergence maximum over the equatorial Indian Ocean induces divergence to the south, encouraging vertical motion and precipitation to the northeast of the SICZ's normal position. The resulting anomalous upper-level convergence in the climatological position of the SICZ, as well as the anomalous vorticity flux convergence by the transients associated with an equatorward shift of the storm track behind the SICZ, force the eastern hemisphere Rossby wave.Since a shift of the SICZ is a fairly robust observed consequence of ENSO events, these results suggest the mechanism by which drought conditions develop over southern Africa at the height of many warm events. Seasonal prediction capabilities in this region can be improved by monitoring and understanding the details and consequences of the adjustment of the Walker circulation near the equator outside of the Pacific Ocean basin.

Cook, Kerry H.

2001-08-01

442

Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas  

PubMed Central

From 2008–2010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:22108764

Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2011-01-01

443

Indications for eye removal in southern Nigeria.  

PubMed

To determine the trend in frequency and clinical indications of surgical removal of eyes in a tertiary eye centre in Calabar, Nigeria. This is a 10-year retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical removal of eyes in a tertiary centre. The clinical records were reviewed (between Jan 2001 and Dec 2010) for demographic data, type of surgery, and clinical indications. A total of 137 eyes were surgically removed within the study period. Of these 46 were children (<16 years). There were 85 males and 52 females giving a M:F ratio of 1.6:1. Clinical indications for surgical eye removal include infective causes (32.1 %; perforated corneal ulcers, endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis), trauma (21.2 %), tumours (21.2 %), anterior staphyloma (13.1 %), and painful blind eyes (9.5 %). Phthisis bulbi, expulsive haemorrhage and aphakic bullous keratopathy accounted for the remaining 2.8 %. The eyes were removed by evisceration (63.5 %), enucleation (29.9 %) and modified exenteration (6.6 %). The commonest indication for eye removal in children was tumour (retinoblastoma). Eye removal in southern Nigeria is often due to infective causes (panophthalmitis and endophthalmitis), perforated corneal ulcer, mechanical trauma (blunt or open globe injury from gunshots or direct trauma), chemical burns, tumours, persistently painful blind eye and anterior staphyloma. Other indications for eye removal were phthisis bulbi, expulsive haemorrhage and aphakic bullous keratopathy. PMID:23275188

Ibanga, Affiong; Asana, Uduak; Nkanga, Dennis; Duke, Roseline; Etim, Bassey; Oworu, Olugbemisola

2013-08-01

444

Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Regional Center for Lightweight Innovative Design (SRCLID) has developed an experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation effort to optimize automotive components in order to decrease weight and cost, yet increase performance and safety in crash scenarios. In summary, the three major objectives of this project are accomplished: To develop experimentally validated cradle-to-grave modeling and simulation tools to optimize automotive and truck components for lightweighting materials (aluminum, steel, and Mg alloys and polymer-based composites) with consideration of uncertainty to decrease weight and cost, yet increase the performance and safety in impact scenarios; To develop multiscale computational models that quantify microstructure-property relations by evaluating various length scales, from the atomic through component levels, for each step of the manufacturing process for vehicles; and To develop an integrated K-12 educational program to educate students on lightweighting designs and impact scenarios. In this final report, we divided the content into two parts: the first part contains the development of building blocks for the project, including materials and process models, process-structure-property (PSP) relationship, and experimental validation capabilities; the second part presents the demonstration task for Mg front-end work associated with USAMP projects.

None

2012-08-24

445

Hydrocarbon entrapment in Trenton of southern Ontario  

SciTech Connect

Middle Ordovician Trenton strata in southern Ontario are represented by a generally transgressive sequence that reflects a wide spectrum of carbonate environments from tidal flat, through lagoon and shoal, into deeper shelf carbonates. Virtually all Ordovician production in Ontario is associated with structural deformation related to rejuvenation of a Precambrian fracture framework triggered by orogenic events in the nearby Appalachian orogene. The reservoirs are characterized by the replacement of original bioclastic limestone beds by more or less discontinuous lenses of fine to medium-grained, light to medium-brown crystalline dolostone. Pools generally are linear, following the trend of the associated fracture. Six of the 18 known Ordovician pools in Ontario are located in Essex County. A detailed study of the geology and reservoirs confirmed the close association of fracturing, dolomitization, and hydrocarbon entrapment. Representative samples of well cuttings from 20 wells were analyzed by XRD (x-ray defraction) to determine calcite-dolomite ratios. As expected, low ratios were present in the producing reservoirs. Partially dolomitized zones were revealed in wells in close proximity to fractures. Formation water originating in the underlying Cambrian sandstones was probably the main dolomitizing agent as it migrated up through the fracture. Dolomitization enhanced already existing porosity within the bioclastic zones.

Trevail, R.A.

1984-12-01

446

Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01 : View of the SIMBA instrument First observations with SIMBA SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") was built and installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at La Silla (Chile) within an international collaboration between the University of Bochum and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Germany, the Swedish National Facility for Radio Astronomy and ESO . The SIMBA ("Lion" in Swahili) instrument detects radiation at a wavelength of 1.2 mm . It has 37 "horns" and acts like a camera with 37 picture elements (pixels). By changing the pointing direction of the telescope, relatively large sky fields can be imaged. As the first and only imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere , SIMBA now looks up towards rich and virgin hunting grounds in the sky. Observations at millimetre wavelengths are particularly useful for studies of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar clouds that are impenetrable to optical light. Other objects for which SIMBA is especially suited include planet-forming disks of cold dust around nearby stars and extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , still in the stage of formation. During the first observations, SIMBA was used to study the gas and dust content of star-forming regions in our own Milky Way Galaxy, as well as in the Magellanic Clouds and more distant galaxies. It was also used to record emission from planetary nebulae , clouds of matter ejected by dying stars. Moreover, attempts were made to detect distant galaxies and quasars radiating at mm-wavelengths and located in two well-studied sky fields, the "Hubble Deep Field South" and the "Chandra Deep Field" [1]. Observations with SEST and SIMBA also serve to identify objects that can be observed at higher resolution and at shorter wavelengths with future southern submm telescopes and interferometers such as APEX (see MPG Press Release 07/01 of 6 July 2001) and ALMA. SIMBA images regions of high-mass star formation ESO PR Photo 28a/01 ESO PR Photo 28

2001-08-01

447

Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.

Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.

1993-01-01

448

Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin  

SciTech Connect

Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

1981-05-04

449

Lower Mississippian trilobites from southern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-three species of trilobites are recognized in the lower Mississippian Caballero and Lake Valley Formations of southern New Mexico. Species exhibit a segregation into shelf and off-shelf faunas, and can be subdivided into three distinct stratigraphic faunas. Species found in the Caballero Formation are similar to those found in the Chouteau Formation of Missouri. A second fauna, comprising species found in the Alamogordo, Nunn, and Tierra Blanca Members of the Lake Valley Formation, is correlated with the Fern Glen and Burlington Formations of Missouri. The third fauna found in the Arcente and Dona Aha Members of the Lake Valley Formation is correlated with the Warsaw and Salem Formations of the United States midcontinent region. Named species from the Kinderhookian Caballero Formation include: Dixiphopyge armata (Vogdes, 1891), Comptonaspis swallowi (Shumard, 1855), Brachymetopus indianwellsensis new species, Ameropiltonia perplexa new species, Griffithidella caballeroensis new species, and Kollarcephalus granatai new genus and new species. Named species from the Lake Valley Formation include: Pudoproetus fernglenensis (Weller, 1909), Breviphillipsia semiteretis Hessler, 1963, Griffithidella doris (Hall 1860), Phillibole planucauda (Brezinski, 1998), Piltonia carlakertisae new species, Australosutura llanoensis Brezinski, 1998, Thigriffides triangulatus new species, Thigriffides? alamogordoensis new species, Namuropyge newmexicoensis new species, Nunnaspis stitti new genus and new species, Hesslerides arcentensis new genus and new species, as well as an unnamed species of Proetides Hessler, 1962, Namuropyge Brezinski, 1988, and Thigriffides Hessler, 1965.

Brezinski, D.K.

2000-01-01

450

Snapshot of Southern Spring Dust Storm Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Southern spring on Mars began with a 'bang' in late June 2001 with a series of large dust storms that in some regions were still occurring each day well into September. By early July, the martian atmosphere was so hazy that opportunities for high resolution imaging of the planet were very limited. This wide angle camera view obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera shows a large dust-raising event that occurred on July 8, 2001, as cold, raging winds blew off the frozen south polar cap (bottom) and rushed toward the network of troughs known as Labyrinthus Noctis near the martian equator (center). A second, smaller dust storm can be seen near the top just left of center, northwest of the Ascraeus Mons volcano (uppermost dark elliptical feature). To give a sense of scale, Ascraeus Mons is large enough to nearly cover the state of Washington, home of the famous (and much smaller) Mount St. Helens volcano. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left, and north is toward the upper right.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

2001-01-01

451

Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau  

SciTech Connect

A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

452

Southern California Fires, Oct 26, 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several massive wildfires were raging across southern California over the weekend of October 25, 2003. Whipped by the hot, dry Santa Ana winds that blow toward the coast from interior deserts, at least one fire grew 10,000 acres in just 6 hours. Moving northwest to southeast along the coast, the first cluster of red dots is a combination of the Piru, Verdale, and the Simi Incident Fires; The next cluster-to the east of Los Angeles-is the Grand Prix (west) and Old (east) Fires; To their south is the Roblar 2 Fire; Next is the Paradise Fire; Then the massive Cedar Fire, whose thick smoke is completely overshadowing the coastal city of San Diego; Finally, at the California-Mexico border is the Otay Fire. At least 13 people have lost their lives because of these fires, which officials are reporting were caused by carelessness and arson. Thousands have been evacuated across the region and hundreds of homes have been lost.

Lori Perkins

2003-10-27

453

Bedload flux in southern Brazilian basalt scarp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequently, to assess the life expectancy of Brazilian reservoirs, bedload flux has been estimated by using formulas (e.g. the Einstein equations) or by assuming that bedload represents a fixed percentage of the suspended load. This study was carried out to characterize the bedload flux on the basalt scarps of southern Brazil. The bedload was measured over the course of 12 stormflows. The results demonstrated that the bedload flux-streamflow relationship was adequately described by a potential mathematical function. Bedload flux selectively transported particles smaller than D50 surface and subsurface bedstream sediments. When considering the bedload flux-streamflow relationship, the flux ranged from a minimum of 0.24 g m-1 s-1 for a streamflow of 0.53 m3 s-1 to a maximum of 44 g m-1 s-1 for a streamflow of 1.3 m3 s-1. The percentage of bedload/suspended load varied between <1% up to 60%, and this variation was strongly associated with peak flow.

Merten, G. H.; Minella, J. P. G.

2015-03-01

454

Antarctic ice sheet fertilises the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Ocean (SO) marine primary productivity (PP) is strongly influenced by the availability of iron in surface waters, which is thought to exert a significant control upon atmospheric CO2 concentrations on glacial/interglacial timescales. The zone bordering the Antarctic Ice Sheet exhibits high PP and seasonal plankton blooms in response to light and variations in iron availability. The sources of iron stimulating elevated SO PP are in debate. Established contributors include dust, coastal sediments/upwelling, icebergs and sea ice. Subglacial meltwater exported at the ice margin is a more recent suggestion, arising from intense iron cycling beneath the ice sheet. Icebergs and subglacial meltwater may supply a large amount of bioavailable iron to the SO, estimated in this study at 0.07-0.2 Tg yr-1. Here we apply the MIT global ocean model (Follows et al., 2007) to determine the potential impact of this level of iron export from the ice sheet upon SO PP. The export of iron from the ice sheet raises modelled SO PP by up to 40%, and provides one plausible explanation for seasonally very high in situ measurements of PP in the near-coastal zone. The impact on SO PP is greatest in coastal regions, which are also areas of high measured marine PP. These results suggest that the export of Antarctic runoff and icebergs may have an important impact on SO PP and should be included in future biogeochemical modelling.

Death, R.; Wadham, J. L.; Monteiro, F.; Le Brocq, A. M.; Tranter, M.; Ridgwell, A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Raiswell, R.

2014-05-01

455

Antarctic Ice Sheet fertilises the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Ocean (SO) marine primary productivity (PP) is strongly influenced by the availability of iron in surface waters, which is thought to exert a significant control upon atmospheric CO2 concentrations on glacial/interglacial timescales. The zone bordering the Antarctic Ice Sheet exhibits high PP and seasonal plankton blooms in response to light and variations in iron availability. The sources of iron stimulating elevated SO PP are in debate. Established contributors include dust, coastal sediments/upwelling, icebergs and sea ice. Subglacial meltwater exported at the ice margin is a more recent suggestion, arising from intense iron cycling beneath the ice sheet. Icebergs and subglacial meltwater may supply a large amount of bioavailable iron to the SO, estimated in this study at 0.07-1.0 Tg yr-1. Here we apply the MIT global ocean model (Follows et al., 2007) to determine the potential impact of this level of iron export from the ice sheet upon SO PP. The export of iron from the ice sheet raises modelled SO PP by up to 40%, and provides one plausible explanation for very high seasonally observed PP in the near-coastal zone. The impact on SO PP is greatest in coastal regions, which are also areas of high observed marine PP. These results suggest that the export of Antarctic runoff and icebergs may have an important impact on SO PP and should be included in future biogeochemical modelling.

Death, R.; Wadham, J. L.; Monteiro, F.; Le Brocq, A. M.; Tranter, M.; Ridgwell, A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Raiswell, R.

2013-07-01

456

Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.  

PubMed

In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

2003-07-01

457

Activities report of the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dualities in European Southern Observatory's character brought about in part by the temporary but lengthy assignment to design and construct the Very Large Telescope (VLT) while operating La Silla (Chile), the world's largest optical/infrared observatory at the same time, are stressed in the introduction. Astronomical research performed in 1991 is reviewed. Activities of the European Coordination Facility or the Space Telescope (ST-ECF) are reviewed. These mainly concerned the support to users of cycle 1 and cycle 2 proposals, with the development of analysis tools and with the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope archive. Relations with Chilean authorities and image processing developments are considered. ESO conferences and workshops are listed. Work performed on telescopes since the choice of Paranal Peak near Antofagasta (Chile) as the site of the world's largest optical telescope is reported. The installation of the SEST bolometer, a general user instrument is addressed. Developments with other telescopes such as the NTT and with instrumentation of the VLT and the La Silla observatory are reported. Organizational, financial, and administrative matters are addressed. Appendices addressing the following are included: use of telescopes, programs, publications, and council and committee members.

458

Frequent flash floods in southern Switzerland: Why?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the causes of frequent flash floods observed in the Maggia River catchment, a 900 km2 watershed located in southern Switzerland. During the heaviest floods, river discharge rates can increase by as much as 1400 m3/s in less than 3 hours! High-resolution volumetric radar data and sounding profiles are extensively used to investigate the environmental conditions and mesoscale precipitation mechanisms producing floods for the last 8 years in the catchment. The events causing the highest discharge rates in the river are typically due to orographic convection, which is absent from storm events that produce lower peak flow rates. During the heaviest floods, individual convective cells are repeatedly advected over the Maggia watershed, producing excessive rainfall and river discharge rates. At larger temporal scales, precipitation patterns assume the form of quasi-stationary, elongated bands of rainfall. The results of this work provide a conceptual model for orographic convection development in sheared flows, depicting a mechanism which is likely to be observed over other mountainous chains of the world.

Panziera, Luca; James, Curtis; Germann, Urs

2014-05-01

459

Exploration and development offshore southern Vietnam  

SciTech Connect

In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of oil and gas. Vietsovpetro, a joint venture between the then Soviet Oil and Gas Ministry and the Vietnam Oil and Gas Corporation was formed. Most of Vietsovpetro's efforts have been to develop the Bach Ho field in the Cuu Long Basin. This now produces [approximately]130000 bopd. The most recent large scale licensing round occurred in 1992, and, at present, there are over thirty foreign companies active in these Basins' blocks . The first phase of exploration is ending and successes in the Nam Con Son Basin include the BP-led Lan Tay/Lan Do gas discoveries and Pedco's gas discoveries. Mitsubishi's and Petronas' oil discoveries in the Cuu Long Basin have attracted much attention also. The Dai Hung oil field (BHP-operated) has been producing since late 1994. Certain blocks are being appraised, and exploration work is also continuing. Areas of the Cuu Long Basin that were part of Vietsovpetro's acreage, but which may soon be re-licensed, have generated keen interest. The presence of an active upstream industry - exploring, appraising, developing and producing - indicates the emergence of Vietnam as an important East Asian oil and gas player.

Ferguson, A.M. (BP, Hanoi (Viet Nam))

1996-01-01

460

Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

1986-01-01

461

Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains  

SciTech Connect

While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

462

Low frequency earthquakes below southern Vancouver Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature and distribution of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) in subduction zones provide insight into plate boundary deformation downdip of the locked seismogenic zone. We employ network autocorrelation detection to identify LFE families beneath southern Vancouver Island and environs. An initial suite of 5775 LFEs detected in 2004 and 2005 at a select set of 7 stations is grouped into 140 families using waveform cluster analysis. These families are used as templates within an iterative network cross correlation scheme to detect LFEs across different tremor episodes, incorporate new stations, and improve LFE template signal-to-noise ratio. As in southwest Japan, representative LFE locations define a relatively tight, dipping surface several km above the locus of intraslab seismicity, within a prominent, dipping low-velocity zone (LVZ). LFE polarizations for near-vertical source-receiver geometries possess a remarkably uniform dipolar signature indicative of point-source, double-couple excitation. Focal mechanisms determined fromP-wave first motions are characterized by a combination of strike-slip and thrust faulting. We suggest that LFEs and regular intraslab seismicity occur in distinct structural and stress regimes. The LVZ, inferred to represent weak, overpressured, porous and mylonitized metabasalts of oceanic crustal Layer 2, separates LFEs manifesting deformation within a plate boundary shear zone from intraslab earthquakes generated by tensional stresses and dehydration embrittlement within a more competent lower oceanic crustal Layer 3 and underlying mantle.

Bostock, M. G.; Royer, A. A.; Hearn, E. H.; Peacock, S. M.

2012-11-01

463

Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

2002-01-01

464

The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

2013-04-01

465

Airborne Cupressaceae pollen in southern Italy.  

PubMed

The allergenic airborne pollen of Cupressaceae was surveyed in the area of Bari (Southern Italy) over an 8-year period (1982-1989). A Burkard 7-day recording volumetric spore trap was used for the aerobiologic investigation. The results showed a notable annual pollinic presence of airborne Cupressaceae pollen, the largest amount recorded in winter and early spring. Remarkable fluctuations of the Cupressaceae pollen counts in a 2-year cycle were also observed. The features of the main pollen season are described. In particular, its duration was found to be on average 45 days. A study of Cupressaceae trees distribution indicated that the most widespread genus was Cupressus, represented in particular by the species Cupressus arizonica Green and Cupressus Sempervirens L. The employment of these trees for reforestation and garden-use has increased considerably in the last 40 years. These findings can also be of interest in other countries where Cupressaceae allergy has been reported, particularly in the Mediterranean basin and in North America. PMID:8328713

Caiaffa, M F; Macchia, L; Strada, S; Bariletto, G; Scarpelli, F; Tursi, A

1993-07-01

466

Hydrocarbons exploration in east Siberia southern basins  

SciTech Connect

The vast Lena-Tunguska province in the heart of Siberia is among the world's largest and least explored frontier basins. Some encouraging exploration has nevertheless been carried out in the four southern subbasins: PrePatom (PreBaykal) trough, Nepa-Botuobin anticlise, PreSayan-Yenisey basin, and Angara-Lena terrace. Source rocks are essentially Proterozoic, but younger sediments may contribute about 10% of the region's oil potential. Riphean-Cambrian subsalt reservoirs contribute more than 90% of the hydrocarbons discovered, whereas Cambrian salt provides the most common regional seals. The main hydrocarbon later migration occurred in Vendian-Cambrian. Traps include clastic wedging out along favorable structures and carbonate reef-like buildups. Many traps were transformed or destroyed by the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic volcanic activity, whereas Hercynian overthrust tectonics developed new traps in the PrePatom trough. About 30 discoveries, mainly gas and condensates, have been made in the area, but operations are hampered by poor logistics and limited infrastructure.

Resnick, V.S. (Petroconsultants Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-08-01

467

Hi Image Synthesis of Southern Compact Groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four southern compact groups, the Hickson Compact Groups HCG 22 and HCG 26 (Hickson 1982), and the groups AM 1238 - 396 and ESO 410-G(024 - 026) have been imaged in Hi, along with 12 cm continuum using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The initial findings for the latter two groups are presented here. While ESO 410-G is not in fact a physical group, due to the discordant redshifts amongst the members, it is however presented here. Overall for all the groups we find no other sources of Hi in the field that might indicate that these are part of a larger loose group structure. This is not always the case, as with HCG 23 (Williams 1995) and HCG 95 (Hutchmeier 1999), both of whom find additional Hi sources within the primary beam accordant with the compact group's velocity. The Hi is also clearly associated with each of the individual member galaxies in all cases, except for HCG 26, which envelopes the whole group as was also shown by Williams and van Gorkom (Williams 1995).

Babic, B.; Price, R. M.; Jones, K.

468

Spatially variable extension in southern Tibet based on GPS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use Global Positioning System (GPS) data and kinematic block models to study the present-day deformation of southern Tibet. GPS data from 33 sites in southern Tibet and Nepal surveyed between 1991 and 2000 reveal 13 ± 2 mm\\/yr of N110°E extension between Lhasa and Shiquanhe (80°E–91°E), of which 9.7 ± 3.0 mm\\/yr represents permanent extension of the Tibetan crust.

Qizhi Chen; Jeffrey T. Freymueller; Zhiqiang Yang; Caijun Xu; Weiping Jiang; Qi Wang; Jingnan Liu

2004-01-01

469

15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

470

Multiscale streamflow variability associated with El Niño\\/ Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streamflow responses to the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon in the tropical Pacific are detectable in many regions. During warm-tropical El Niño and cool-tropical La Niña episodes, streamflows are affected throughout the Americas and Australia, in northern Europe, and in parts of Africa and Asia. In North and South America, correlations between peak- flow season streamflows and seasonal Southern Oscillation

MICHAEL D. DETTINGER; DANIEL R. CAYAN; GREGORY J. MCCABE

471

Inventory of Ocean Monitoring in the Southern California Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of the ocean environment in southern California, USA, has been conducted by a diverse array of public and private\\u000a organizations with different motivations, working on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To create a basis from which\\u000a to integrate information from these diverse programs, we conducted an inventory of ocean monitoring activities in the Southern\\u000a California Bight to

Kenneth C. Schiff; Stephen B. Weisberg; Valerie Raco-Rands

2002-01-01

472

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome\\u000a species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever,\\u000a weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or

Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Herakles A. Garcia Perez; Márcio M. Costa; Raqueli T. França; Diego De Gasperi; Régis A. Zanette; João A. Amado; Sonia T. A. Lopes; Marta M. G. Teixeira; Silvia G. Monteiro

2011-01-01

473

Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methyl halides, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and methyl iodide (CH3I), were measured in regional air samples and smoke from savanna fires in southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative-92 (SAFARI-92) experiment (August-October 1992). All three species were significantly enhanced in the smoke plumes relative to the regional background. Good correlations were found between the methyl

M. O. Andreae; E. Atlas; G. W. Harris; G. Helas; A. de Kock; R. Koppmann; W. Maenhaut; S. Manø; W. H. Pollock; J. Rudolph; D. Scharffe; G. Schebeske; M. Welling

1996-01-01

474

Comparative Sentences in Hui'an Southern Min  

E-print Network

lunwenji [Collections of theses on Taiwan Southern Min]. Wenhe Chuban Gongsi [Crane Publishing Co.], Taipei. 71-85. Liu, Danqing (2003). Chabiju de diaocha kuangjia yu yanjiu silu [The investigation framework and research ideas of comparative sentences...Comparative Sentences in Hui’an Southern Min1 Chen Weirong University of Hong Kong 1. Introduction Comparison can be divided into three types: comparison of equality, comparison of inequality and superlative. In this paper, comparative...

Chen, Weirong

2008-01-01

475

Observations of infrasound from surf in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observe 10,000's of infrasound signals annually, in the frequency range from 1–5 Hz, at the I57US infrasound array in Southern California. 75% of these signals arrive at I57US at azimuths between 260 and 320 degrees. There is a good correlation between the amplitudes of signals from 260–320° and wave height measurements offshore Southern California, providing firm evidence that the

Stephen J. Arrowsmith; Michael A. H. Hedlin

2005-01-01