N. N. Kruk; A. G. Vladimirov; G. A. Babin; S. P. Shokalsky; N. V. Sennikov; S. N. Rudnev; N. I. Volkova; V. P. Kovach; P. A. Serov
The history of the Vendian–Early Paleozoic formation of protoliths of continental crust in the Gorny Altai segment of the Central Asian fold belt is considered, and their composition, isotopic characteristics, and formation mechanisms are estimated. We have established two stages of crust-forming processes in Gorny Altai: Early and Late Caledonian, with the different structures of formed geoblocks and nature and
Ota, Tsutomu; Utsunomiya, Atsushi; Uchio, Yuko; Isozaki, Yukio; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Ishikawa, Akira; Maruyama, Shigenori; Kitajima, Koki; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Katayama, Ikuo
The Gorny Altai region in southern Siberia is one of the key areas in reconstructing the tectonic evolution of the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This region features various orogenic elements of Late Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic age, such as an accretionary complex (AC), high- P/ T metamorphic (HP) rocks, and ophiolite (OP), all formed by ancient subduction-accretion processes. This study investigated the detailed geology of the Upper Neoproterozoic to Lower Paleozoic rocks in a traverse between Gorno-Altaisk city and Lake Teletskoy in the northern part of the region, and in the Kurai to Chagan-Uzun area in the southern part. The tectonic units of the studied areas consist of (1) the Ediacaran (=Vendian)-Early Cambrian AC, (2) ca. 630 Ma HP complex, (3) the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian OP complex, (4) the Cryogenian-Cambrian island arc complex, and (5) the Middle Paleozoic fore-arc sedimentary rocks. The AC consists mostly of paleo-atoll limestone and underlying oceanic island basalt with minor amount of chert and serpentinite. The basaltic lavas show petrochemistry similar to modern oceanic plateau basalt. The 630 Ma HP complex records a maximum peak metamorphism at 660 °C and 2.0 GPa that corresponds to 60 km-deep burial in a subduction zone, and exhumation at ca. 570 Ma. The Cryogenian island arc complex includes boninitic rocks that suggest an incipient stage of arc development. The Upper Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic complexes in the Gorno-Altaisk city to Lake Teletskoy and the Kurai to Chagan-Uzun areas are totally involved in a subhorizontal piled-nappe structure, and overprinted by Late Paleozoic strike-slip faulting. The HP complex occurs as a nappe tectonically sandwiched between the non- to weakly metamorphosed AC and the OP complex. These lithologic assemblages and geologic structure newly documented in the Gorny Altai region are essentially similar to those of the circum-Pacific (Miyashiro-type) orogenic belts, such as the Japan Islands in East Asia and the Cordillera in western North America. The Cryogenian boninite-bearing arc volcanism indicates that the initial stage of arc development occurred in a transient setting from a transform zone to an incipient subduction zone. The less abundant of terrigenous clastics from mature continental crust and thick deep-sea chert in the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian AC may suggest that the southern Gorny Altai region evolved in an intra-oceanic arc-trench setting like the modern Mariana arc, rather than along the continental arc of a major continental margin. Based on geological, petrochemical, and geochronological data, we synthesize the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic tectonic history of the Gorny Altai region in the western CAOB.
Aptikaeva, O. I.; Shitov, A. V.
We consider the dynamics of some meteorological parameters in Gorny Altai from 2000 to 2011. We analyzed the variations in the meteorological parameters related to the strong Chuya earthquake (September 27, 2003). A number of anomalies were revealed in the time series. Before this strong earthquake, the winter temperatures at the nearest meteorological station to the earthquake source increased by 8-10°C (by 2009 they returned to the mean values), while the air humidity in winter decreased. In the winter of 2002, we observed a long negative anomaly in the time series of the atmospheric pressure. At the same time, the decrease in the released seismic energy was replaced by the tendency to its increase. Using wavelet analysis we revealed the synchronism in the dynamics of the atmospheric parameters, variations in the solar and geomagnetic activities, and geodynamic processes. We also discuss the relationship of the atmospheric and geodynamic processes and the comfort conditions of the population in the climate analyzed here.
Cherkasova, T.; Timkin, T.; Savinova, O.
The nanomineralogic investigation results of ore minerals in metasomatites (garnet skarns) of Ribny Log- 2 gold ore in Topolninsk ore deposit (Gorny Altai) revealed the native silica impurities (Si) of 1 - 5 nm within the grains of native bismuth (Bi). Polished sections were examined by using Tescan Vega 3 scanning electron microscope (SEM) with Oxford energy-dispersive spectrometer at the Department of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Institute of Natural Resources, Tomsk Polytechnic University.
Dzhabarova, N K; Iakovenko, É S; Sidorina, N G; Firsova, I A
The present balneological survey made it possible to identify the promising areas with a high potential for the health resort, recreational and touristic activities including the foothill, low-mountain, mid-mountain valleys and hollows of Northern, Northwestern, Central and Eastern bioclimatic provinces of Mountainous Altai. Recommendations have been proposed for the development of therapeutic and health-improving tourism in the Shebalinsk, Ust'-Kansk and Ulagansk districts of the Altai Republic. PMID:25087422
Gusev, N. I.
The Kalguty ore-magmatic system (OMS) contains economic greisen and vein rare-metal-tungsten-molybdenum mineralization. The data on U-Pb zircon (SHRIMP II) age of nine samples of igneous rocks from the Kalguty OMS are accompanied by chemical, ICP-MS, and ICP-AES analyses of the main rock varieties. Porphyritic biotite granite of the main phase of the Kalguty pluton is characterized by the concordant age of 207.5 ± 1.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.034). The concordant age of the leucogranitic dikes pertaining to the East Kalguty Complex is 204 ± 2 Ma (MSWD = 0.65) for elvan and 200.8 ± 1.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.72) for ultrapotassic rhyolite porphyry. The two-mica and muscovite leucogranite of the Eastern stock is significantly younger: 195 ± 2.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.076) and 193.1 ± 2.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.0009). Thus, the Chingadatui Complex (the main phase of the Kalguty pluton) and dikes of the East Kalguty Complex are Late Triassic in age. The two-mica leucogranites of the Eastern, Zhumaly, and other stocks are most likely correlated to the Early Jurassic Alacha Complex of rare-metal granites. The superposition of greisen mineralization on elvan and ongonite dikes may be related to the emplacement of younger, Early Jurassic ore-forming two-mica and muscovite granites. Judging from zircon xenocrysts in granites, the Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks dated at 1.5 Ga and products of erosion of the rocks dated at 1.7 and 2.5 Ga occur in the basement of the Kalguty volcanic-tectonic structure. This is sound evidence for the occurrence of ancient continental crustal blocks in the southwestern part of the Altai-Sayan region.
E. A. Rogozhin; A. N. Ovsyuchenko; A. V. Marakhanov; E. A. Ushanova
Geological and geomorphic manifestations of the source of the earthquake that occurred in the southern Gorny Altai on September\\u000a 27, 2003, are described. This earthquake, the strongest over the entire history of seismological observations, caused damage\\u000a to buildings and structures in the Chuya and Kurai basins and was accompanied by exposure of its source at the surface with\\u000a formation of
Phillips-Krawczak, Christine; Devor, Eric J.; Zlojutro, Mark; Moffat-Wilson, Kristin; Crawford, Michael H.
The native peoples of Gorno Altai in southern Siberia represent a genetically diverse population and have been of great interest to anthropological genetics. In particular, the southern Altaian population is argued to be ...
Barbara Undergraduate Research in Creative Studies, summer 2007. Research and Field Experience: Field, Santa Barbara Undergraduate Research Colloquium, May 2008. Gorny, C., Hagan, J., Busby, C. An In for Excellence in the Field Award 2008 Coast Geologic Society's University Undergraduate Scholarship Award 2008
Tong, Ying; Wang, Tao; Siebel, Wolfgang; Hong, Da-Wei; Sun, Min
The Altai orogen forms the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), the world's largest accretionary orogen. However, its tectonic evolution, particularly during the late Paleozoic, is still not well understood. U-Pb zircon analyses for the Bulgen alkaline granite yield crystallization ages of 358 ± 4 Ma (SHRIMP) and 354 ± 4 Ma (LA-ICP-MS). These ages are significantly younger than published emplacement ages for subduction/collision-related syn-orogenic granitoids (460-375 Ma) in this region. The Bulgen granite has high SiO2, total alkalis, rare earth elements, HFSE (Th, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ce), and low Ba, Sr with pronounced negative anomalies in Eu, Ba, Sr, P, and Ti, showing a clear A-type geochemical signature. The granite records high ?Nd( t) values of +6.3 to +6.4 and young model ages ( T DM) of ca. 600 Ma. The Bulgen alkaline granite is largely undeformed as opposed to the early-middle Paleozoic counterparts, which form elongated deformed bodies parallel to the prevailing tectonic fabric (NW direction). Available data suggest that magmatism in the southern Altai region evolved from early-middle Paleozoic I-type tholeiitic and calc-alkaline granitoids to late Paleozoic A-type alkaline granitoids. The high ?Nd( t) values of the Bulgen alkaline granite indicate a homogeneous juvenile mantle source, whereas the early-middle Paleozoic granitoids are characterized by lower and more variable ?Nd( t) values (-2.6 to +4.2). These differences provide an important insight into the late Paleozoic orogenic processes of the Chinese Altai and indicate a significant change of the tectonic regime from a syn-orogenic regional compression setting to a post-orogenic extensional one. Major tectonic movements in this region ceased after the early Carboniferous.
The Chuya complex consists of more then 400 early Mesozoic lamprophyre dikes that occur in the vast territory in the structures of the Gorny and Mongolian Altay. Based on the irregular distribution of the dikes, various researchers have distinguished from 3 to 6 separate dike swarms or areas. Each of them is spatially connected with a specific simultaneous ore deposit. For example, in the Aktash area, there are the Aktash, Chagan-Uzun and other Sb-Hg deposits, in the territory of the South-Chuya area there are the Kalguta Mo-W and Chagan-Burgasy Ag-Pb deposits and within the Yustyd area there are the Askhatin-Gol Ni-Co-As deposit, Asgat, Ozernoe and Tolbonour Ag-Sb deposits. But the genetic link between the magmatic rocks and close in time and space ore deposits has not yet been proven. In this work samples of lamprophyre dikes from the largest areas (Yustyd and South Chuya) were studied. The dikes are extraordinarily similar in mineralogical and chemical aspects. The greatest differences are in the isotopic characteristics of the rocks. Lamprophyres and syenites of the South-Chuya area have negative eNd (~-4) and an elevated 87Sr/86Sr (>0.711) ratio whereas lamprophyres of the Yustyd area are close to BSE (eNd~0, 87Sr/86Sr=0.705-0.707)/ Using data on the composition of rock-forming minerals, study of chemical characteristics and composition of lamprophyre fluid inclusions, we propose different sources with similar geochemical characteristics and varying degrees of metasomatic mantle material provoked different isotopic composition. The resulting liquid rich in carbonates and composite fluids in conjunction with low degrees of melting generates approximately petrochemical and mineralogical similar compositions newly formed rocks.
Wang, Tao; Jahn, Bor-Ming; Kovach, Victor P.; Tong, Ying; Hong, Da-Wei; Han, Bao-Fu
The Chinese Altai orogen is a typical domain of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and in previous syntheses was divided into six tectonic units (or terranes). In this paper, 41 new and 36 published whole-rock Nd and Sr isotopic data for granitoid intrusions and mafic dykes within units 2 and 3 of the central Altai and units 4 to 6 of the southern Altai were used for isotopic mapping. The age of the samples used is known from U-Pb zircon dating. ?Nd( t) values range from - 4 to + 2 in the central Altai units 2 and 3, and from + 1.4 to + 6 in the southern Altai units 4 and 5 and up to + 8.4 in unit 6. Correspondingly, Nd model ages ( TDM) decrease from 1.6-1.1 Ga in the central Altai to 1.0-0.5 Ga in the southern Altai, except for a continental fragment in unit 4. ISr is elevated in the central units, decreasing to < 0.705 in the southern units 5 and 6. These results demonstrate that the central Altai contains widespread old crustal components in its basement, whereas the southern Altai comprises a higher proportion of juvenile crust. When integrated with published U-Pb zircon ages, our data show that new crust grew southwards in the Chinese Altai. In addition, our data suggest that units 2 and 3 are a single tectonic unit, whereas the southern Altai (unit 4), which previously was regarded as a single young accretionary terrane, should be subdivided into two units: a younger arc and an older continental fragment. The granitoids in the Chinese Altai can be divided into syn- and post-/non-orogenic groups. The syn-orogenic granitoids have ca. 50-80% mantle-derived component, whereas the post/non-orogenic granitoids contain ca. 70-90%. The generation of syn- and post-/non-orogenic granitoids represents horizontal (lateral) and vertical crustal growth, which contributed ca. 18-28% and 7-8% respectively to the area of the Chinese Altai. This work shows that isotopic mapping is an effective approach to elucidate terrane composition in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and thereby better constrain Palaeozoic crustal growth.
de Grave, J.; Dehandschutter, B.; van den Haute, P.; Buslov, M. M.; Boven, A.
The Altai-Sayan (AS) mountains are part of the vast intracontinental Central Asian Deformation Zone (CADZ), stretching out in front of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system. The Russian (South Siberian) part of the AS mountains is composed of tectonic terranes (e.g. Gorny Altai, West Sayan) which collided with the Siberian craton during the Late Paleozoic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Strain and stresses induced by the ongoing convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates are to some extent partitioned as a reactivation of pre-existing structures in Eurasia’s interior, and largely contributed to the development of the CADZ. The AS mountains are located in the NW section of the CADZ and have been transpressionally reactivated in the this tectonic framework since the Pliocene. Structural data of the present authors (Dehandschutter et al., 2001) show that reactivation is still in progress, and is mainly manifested along older structures. Many of these structures appear to be Late Paleozoic strike-slip faults created during the accretion and assembly of the Siberian continent (Buslov et al., 2003), and in a broader sense, of the Pangean supercontinent. To obtain more detailed insights in the low-temperature thermo-tectonic evolution of the region mica and amphibole 40Ar/39Ar and apatite fission-track (AFT) data were collected. The 40Ar/39Ar data are confined to granitoid-gneissic rocks from the Teletskoye and Chuya-Kurai region. Most Ar-ages ages fall between 380 Ma and 350 Ma, corresponding with the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous collision, while a single sample (260 Ma) dates the Permian collision. AFT ages were obtained from a more extensive area, i.e. the Teletskoye graben basement (30 samples, including 2 elevation profiles), The Chuya-Kurai basin and ranges (3 samples), the Chulyshman Plateau (9), the Dzhulukul basin (4), and western Gorny Altai (5). Cretaceous AFT ages were found for most samples. Length data (mean lengths ~11.5 to 13.5 µm and negatively skewed distributions) point to a substantial thermal effect reflecting a moderate to strong Apatite Partial Annealing Zone signature. AFT modelling of the data shows a consistent Meso-Cenozoic three-phased cooling history. A Late Jurassic-Cretaceous cooling affected the investigated AS region (De Grave and Van den haute, 2002) and is possibly related to denudation associated with tectonic activity in the West Siberian Basin, west of the study area and the Mongol-Okhotsk orogeny to the east. An ubiquitous Late Cretaceous-Paleogene peneplanation in the region is reflected by a period of stability in our modelled cooling paths. A Pliocene cooling pulse generated by the model is interpreted to reflect denudation induced by the Pliocene to Quaternary transpressional reactivation and active mountain building in the area. Although the AFT annealing model used, may produce artefactual Late Tertiary cooling events, the Pliocene to Quaternary cooling event registered here is thought to be real since it is supported by specific AFT track length distributions aswell as by abundant field evidence. References Buslov, M.M., Watanabe, T., Smirnova L.V., Fujiwara, I., Iwata, K., De Grave, J., Semakov, N.N., Travin, A.V., Kiryanova, A.P., Kokh, D.A. (2003). Role of strike-slip faults in Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic tectonics and geodynamics of the Altai-Sayan and East Kazakhstan folded zone. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 44, 49-75. De Grave, J., Van den haute, P. (2002). Denudation and cooling of the Lake Teletskoye region in the Altai Mountains (South Siberia) as revealed by apatite fission-track thermochronology. Tectonophysics, 349, 145-159. Dehandschutter, B., Vysotsky, E.M., Delvaux, D., Klerkx, J., Buslov, M.M., Seleznev, V.S., De Batist, M. (2002). Structural evolution of the Teletsk graben (Russian Altai). Tectonophysics, 351, 139-167.
Inisheva, Lydia I.; Larina, Galina; Shurova, Maya
At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of peat and marsh waters is carried out. The group structure of organic substance of various samples of peat is investigated by the method of Institutes of Peat. The toxic metals of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As were defined by the method of stripping voltammetry. The region of the Altai Mountains is characterized by the contrastive distribution of some heavy metals and arsenic in a soil cover. This is caused by a variety of petrography and granulometry of soil forming material, and also by a landscape and geochemical situation in the system of vertical zoning. The sources of natural accumulation of heavy metals in the ground might be the deposits of polymetals. In this connection the content of the specified toxic elements in the peat under research has been identified. The peat of the Turochak deposit is characterized by a significant ash content - up to 41,9%; the increased ash content is typical of the Kutyush deposit: from 6,1% up to 19, %. The peat of the Northeastern Altai is referred to non-bitumunous: the content of bitumen makes up less than 5%. In comparison with the European peat the peat under study of the transitive and lowland type is characterized by the significant content of easy hydrolysable substances in the amount of 24,8-41,1%. The amount of the non-hydrolysable rest makes up around 4,3 - 7,4 %. The total content of fulvic acids is less than the content of humic acids by 2,9 - 5,8 times. The high content of humic acids which can reach up to 58 % is characteristic of certain deposits. Humic acids extracted from the peat are characterized, as a rule, by similar IR-spectra. The distinctions are shown in an unequal intensity of characteristic absorption bands, in their spreading and some shifts. It is revealed that humic acids of peat with the increase in a degree of decomposition are exposed to transformation; therefore the increase in their structure of functional groups is observed. As a result of the research which was carried out the following elements among heavy metals in the lowland peat of the Altai Mountains are revealed: Cd (2,7 - 30)> Hg (0,67)> Zn (0,22) ~Pb (0,21)> Cu (0,13)> As (0,03). The degree of mobility of chemical elements in the peat varies within the limits of 1,3 - 36%. According to the degree of their mobility these elements form the following line: Zn (36 %)> Pb (18,1 %)> Cd (9,6 %)> Cu (1,3 %). The content and the character of distribution of the heavy metals under study and arsenic in the peat of the Altai Mountains have their unique features in comparison with the same valley analogues. The mountain peat of the Central Altai contains much less Hg than the West Siberian one: 0,078 mg/g and 0,69 mg/g accordingly. Cd represents itself as the concentrator in the lowland peat of the Northeastern and Central Altai, its content is actually the same and makes up approximately 0,3 mg/kg. The lowland Altai and West Siberian peat has the same amount of Pb: 4-5 mg/kg; they have smaller amounts of Zn and Cu in comparison with the European and West Siberian peat. The revealed features of distribution of some toxic metals are the display of specificity of peat genesis in the conditions of a mountain relief. The complex of the data received by us allows to consider the peat of the Altai Mountains as a non-polluting raw source concerning the amount of some natural toxic substances. The possible perspective directions of practical application of the mountain peat can be medicine, veterinary science, and agriculture.
Wang, T.; Kovach, V. P.; Jahn, B.; Tong, Y.; Hong, D.; Han, B.
The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the world's largest Paleozoic to Mesozoic accretionary orogen. It is characterized by the occurrence of large amount of juvenile crust. The Altai Mountains in NW China are a type terrane of CAOB. Our new zircon age data, along with the available age information, have established four Paleozoic plutonic events at ca. 460 Ma, 410-400 Ma, 375 Ma and 270-290 Ma. The age framework allows us to conduct an isotopic mapping of the intrusions in the Chinese Altai and to evaluate the proportion of the juvenile crust relative to old Precambrian basement rocks. The results are summarized as follows. (1) Most granitoids of the Altai have initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.705-0.709 and eNd(T) values of -2 to +7. These isotopic signatures indicate that much of the source material for the granitoids is derived from the upper mantle, hence the granitoids contain a large proportion of juvenile component. (2) The eNd(T) values generally increase southward, from near-zero values (-2 to 0) in central Altai to positive values of +1.4 to +5.5 in southern Altai. Their TDM also decrease correspondingly. This feature may be indicative of southward accretion. (3) Isotopic mapping of the intrusions reveals that the central Altai terrane contains a significant volume of continental basement rocks. This probably suggests the existence of an Altai microcontinent. Furthermore, the mapping confirms the existence of a middle Paleozoic accretionary wedge in southern Altai, and provides evidence for incorporation of older continental fragments in the wedge. In conclusion, this study presents an added example of a long-term subduction/accretion of small continental fragments, island arc, and accretionary complex in CAOB. A microcontinent grew laterally by accretion of juvenile terranes and recycled tectonic fragments. (Supported by Major State Basic Research Program of China No. 2001CB409800 and NSC-Taiwan No.93-2116-M-001-025)
Yagmur, Kutlay; Kroon, Sjaak
This study deals with the ethnolinguistic vitality of Altai and Kazakh as compared to Russian in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai. Data were gathered by document analysis, interviews with experts and by conducting a subjective ethnolinguistic vitality questionnaire. The data showed that Altai and Kazakh, as a consequence of a long-lasting…
Zhang, Y.; Enomoto, H.; Ohata, T.; Kitabata, H.; Kadota, T.; Hirabayashi, Y.
Glacier mass balance forms a vital link between climate change and glacier dynamics and hydrology, and its variation is the best way to infer climate change from glaciers. The Altai Mountains are located in the southern periphery of the Asian Arctic basin and the most northern periphery of the central Asia mountain system, which contains 1280 glaciers covering an area of 1191 km2. These glaciers are at the headwaters of many prominent rivers, which affects the water discharge of large rivers such as the Ob and Yenisey rivers. Although several studies have been proposed for glacier changes in this region based on satellite data, so far no study focuses on glacier mass change in the whole Altai Mountains. Therefore, we implement a temperature-index-based glacier model that considers the glacier area evolution and the refreezing of meltwater, to reconstruct glacier mass balance of the Altai Mountains, forcing the model by a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations with 5-km resolution and glacier inventory data. Compared to available observed mass balances on three glaciers of this region, the model can reproduce reasonably well the decadal glacier mass changes. According to our calculations, the glaciers in the whole region show a mean annual balance of -0.8 m water equivalent per year over the period 1988-2012. Most Altai glaciers have experienced negative net surface mass balance over the study period, especially in the western part of the Altai Mountains. In addition to rising temperature, decreased precipitation in the western part of the Altai Mountains and increasing precipitation in the eastern part is probably driving these systematic differences.
Malygina, Natalia; Barlyaeva, Tatiana; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana; Mitrofanova, Elena; Lovtskaya, Olga; Nenasheva, Galina; Otgonbayar, Demberel; Papina, Tatiana; Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Sokolov, Andrey
The last decades of the past century showed noticeable climate changes in many parts of the Earth (IPCC, 2007). Numerous models suggest that the climate changes will continue, showing a variable intensity especially in mountain regions. Altai Mountains, located at the boundary of taiga, desert, and semiarid regions of Central Asia, are exposed to intensive climatic and environmental changes. Analysis of changes in phenological parameters is the simplest process for track changes in the ecology of species in response to climate change. We present climatic characteristic and statistical analysis changes of thermal and precipitation regimes in Altai Mountains (Russian and Mongolian Altai), and the response of phenological parameters to these changes. The close correlation between temperature series of the Russian and northern part of Mongolian Altai is determined. At the same time, a correlation between precipitation data is observed only for the cold (November - March) seasons. It was found that the rate of temperature increase for the period under consideration (1940-2012) ranged from 0.15 to 0.55 ° C/10 years, and the most significant increase was registered during the cold seasons. An increase of annual means of precipitation is in the range from 2.32 to 6.37 mm / 10 years. The maximal increase (29 mm / 10 years) was observed in the data from the Kara-Tyureck station, whose location is the highest one of the considered stations (2600 m). During the maximal warming (1980-1999), a 2-4.5 times increase of annual average temperature was observed as compared to the period of 1940 - 1979. The amount of precipitation is increased for Ust'-Koksa (5 times) and Ulgiy (2 times) stations, but it is 3 times lower for Kosh-Agach and Kara-Tyureck stations. The results of the correlation analysis of temperature and precipitation data for the analyzed Russian and Mongolian Altai stations were confirmed and detailed by the wavelet and wavelet coherence / phase analysis. The temperature series variations obtained with the wavelet analysis correspond to the periods of North Atlantic Oscillation and solar activity variation, and precipitation are in good agreement with changes in Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The analyzed climatic change influenced on the beginning of pollination of different plant species in Altai region. If average (for 27 years) of the beginning of pollination of Artemisia gmelinii (a typical representative of Central Asian steppe vegetation) was counted at 24 of August, a mass pollination of this species was at 5th of September. So deviation reached 14 days. Under condition of more cool summer the pollination in most cases (80 %) started later. Additionally we counted average temperature of beginning of pollination of this species which was + 21.5 C0, and sums of action temperatures (+5 C0) = 1675, (+10 C0) = 1491.
Caves, J. K.; Sjostrom, D.; Mix, H.; Winnick, M. J.; Chamberlain, C.
Over the Cenozoic, Central Asia has become increasingly arid, though the mechanisms behind this aridification remain unresolved. Much attention has focused on the influence and uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau; however, the role of ranges linked to India-Asia convergence but well north of the Plateau--including the Altai, Sayan, and Hangay--in creating the arid climate of Central Asia remains poorly understood. Today, these ranges create a prominent rain-shadow, effectively separating the boreal forest to the north from the deserts of Central Asia. To explore the role of these mountains in modifying climate over the past 35 My, we measured oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in paleosol carbonates collected from three sections located along the northern edge of the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and in the lee of the Altai and Hangay mountains. We combined this with HYSPLIT air-parcel back-trajectory modeling to understand regional moisture transport pathways at each section. Our HYSPLIT modeling demonstrates that, in the modern, the Altai block westerly moisture from reaching western Mongolia and the Valley of Lakes. In contrast, the Hangay block southward-flowing moisture from Siberia, creating a rain-shadow on its southern, leeward flank. Our paleosol carbonate data show increasing ?13C at all 3 sections, with the largest increase in western Mongolia. The first ?13C increase occurs in central and southwestern Mongolia in the Oligocene. ?13C again increases from the upper Miocene to the present in western and southwestern Mongolia. Given the lack of C4 vegetation in modern Mongolia, these ?13C increases are likely linked to declines in soil respiration driven by decreases in precipitation. We attribute these changes to differential uplift of the Hangay and Altai. Uplift in the Hangay began by the early Oligocene, blocking Siberian moisture and aridifying central and southwestern Mongolia. Subsequently, uplift of the Altai began in the late Miocene, blocking westerly moisture. Thus, the northern Gobi became increasingly arid over the past 35 My, first in central Mongolia and then western Mongolia, likely driven by uplift in the Hangay during the early Oligocene and the Altai in the late Miocene.
Uetake, J.; Nakazawa, F.; Kohshima, S.; Miyake, T.; Narita, H.; Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Nakawo, M.
In July 2003, a 171m long ice core was excavated from top of Belukha glacier (4,200m a. s. l.) in the Russian Altai Mountains. We examined vertical distributions of microorganisms (unicellular green algae, fungal spore, yeast) and pollens for potential use of ice core dating and reconstruction of past climate. Microorganisms have no seasonal variation in pit samples, however 5 genus of pollen (Fir, Spruce, Pine, Birch tree and Mugwort) have seasonality of each dispersed season. Therefore, this ice core can be identified past seasonal layers by pollen distribution. Pollen dating analysis of ice core estimate upper 48m ice core contain 86 years snow and ice, and this dating method well correspond to the 1963 peak in Tritium. This dating analysis is more accurate than other markers (oxygen isotope, dust, chemical concentration and melt percentage). Oxygen isotope trend from 1917 and temperature record of meteorological station near the glacier slightly increased and melt percentage have some anomalies from 1950s show recent temperature rising in this region. Otherwise, microorganisms and pollen have no trend except yeast. Vertical distribution of yeast peaks are well correspond to peaks of melt percentage show that yeast cell can grow in surface snow only in the warm period when liquid water available. In 1970s and 1980s, Nitrate increased and peaked because of anthropogenic emissions. Nitrate is major nutrient of photosynthetic microorganism, however, no clear relationship nitrate between unicellular green algae.
Surazakov, A. B.; Narojniy, Y. K.; Nikitin, S. A.; Aizen, V. B.
To systemize and analyze the information for the period from 1835 to present on altitudinal distributions of glaciers, exposition, their numbers and surface areas in basins, volumes, genetic classification, location of lower and upper level of glaciers, average firn line position and main morphometric characteristics, DataBase on glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (AGDB) has been developed in ArcGIS Format [Tomsk State University, Russia]. Data from Glacier Catalogue , topographic maps with the scale of 1:25000 and 1:50000 and air photos, which fixed glaciers' state on 1952, were digitized. Instrumental observational data on glacier tongue retreat from twenty glaciers since 1835, and radio-echo sounding measurements of 120 glacier volumes were also digitized in the AGDB. Modern state of Altai glaciers and their changes since 1952 were assessed from Resurs space images and partially from instrumental observations. Based on estimation from Resurs for the period from 1952 to 1998, the value of Altai glacier retreating was about 56.9 km2, i.e. 7.1 % of total area, varied from 4 % for valley glaciers to 16 % for glaciers of flat mountain tops. Retreat of 2-8 m per year was accompanied by their 10% mass loss. The slightest degradation occurred in inner (central) part of the glacier system, in the heads of river basins with large-scale glaciation, e.g., in the Katunski, Nothern-Chuiski and Southern-Chuiski ranges, amounting to 6.3%. These are the highest regions, reaching up to 4506 m., and 80% of Altai's glaciers are located there. In the river basins with relatively small-glacierized areas, at the peripheral regions, e.g., Kurai, Chihacheva ranges, the degradation reached its maximum values up to 22%.
Papina, T.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.
Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86°34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. Daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation have been used to identify the predominant atmospheric circulations (elementary circulating mechanisms, or ECMs) generating the entry of biological proxies on the glacier surface. It was shown that the high-resolution records of diatoms, cysts, spores, and plant pollen in the Belukha ice core are the biological proxies for the changes in the structure of precipitation in the Altai region since these records can reflect changes in the contribution of different atmospheric circulation to annual or seasonal precipitation. The joint consideration of the transport ability of the biological species and the data of precipitation allowed us to determine the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. The main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and northern Kazakhstan basins; coniferous tree pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of western Siberia; pollen of deciduous trees and herbs from steppe and forest-steppe vegetation in the northern Altai and eastern Kazakhstan; and cysts and spores of plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace elements in the ice core.
Kozlov, M. S.
The results of previous geological, petrochemical, and metallogenic surveys conducted from the 1960s to the 1990s provide the geological and tectonic basis of this study. The unique mineral deposits of the Rudny Altai metallogenic province were formed in the Middle Paleozoic (S2-C1) at the junction between different structures of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: the Alei-Charysh-Tigirek rift (in the north) with the Korgon-Markakol' island arc and Belaya Uba-Maimyr intra-arc trough (in the southwest). The Rudny Altai structural-formational zone that formed at the junction between these structures evolved as a magmatic arc and was characterized by the formation of granite-greenschist arches, volcanoplutonic magmatism and high heat and fluid flow (greenschist-facies metamorphism of Upper Silurian-Upper Devonian rocks and deposition of pyrite-bearing hydrothermal-sedimentary horizons, VMS and copper-VMS deposits and isolated base-metal ore bodies). The tectonomagmatic history of the Rudny Altai zone can be subdivided into several stages: Ludlow-Emsian, Late Emsian-Givetian, Frasnian-Early Famennian, Middle Famennian-Early Visean, and Late Visean-Serpukhovian. The island arc is represented by volcanic rocks of the andesite-dacite-rhyolite (early stage), basalt-rhyolite (Late Emsian-Eifelian), and basalt-andesite-rhyolite series (Late Visean). Volcanosedimentary strata (until the Givetian age) and turbidites up to 3-5 km thick were deposited in the interarc trough. Because of their metastable behavior, the volcanic rocks became actively involved in ion-exchange reactions with the formational waters, whereas the differences in hydraulic head between arches and troughs created favorable conditions for the transport of the metamorphic fluids, and the thermal gradient promoted thermodiffusion of divalent species of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu, etc. toward the high-temperature zone and development of the high-Mg metamorphic-metasomatic alteration with a VMS-base-metal mineralization. As a result, ore deposits of different structural and genetic types were formed. Temperatures of ore formation (200-400°C) were controlled by thermal effect of pyrite dissolution and replacement reactions. The ore composition and regional metallogenic zoning were defined based on their position with respect to interarc and interarch troughs and the chemistry of the metal-extraction environment.
Papina, T.; Blyacharchyuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.
Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86° 34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. We used daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation to identify the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. Our analyses revealed that main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and North Kazakhstan basins. Coniferous trees pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of West Siberia and pollen of hardwoods and herbs from steppe and forest steppe vegetation in the Northern Altai and East Kazakhstan. Cysts of algae and spores of inferior plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace species in the ice core.
Wang, Yujing; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Xu, Huilong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Cai, Keda
The Chinese Altai is one of the most typical segments of the Altai-Mongolia terrane, of which the tectonic evolution and affinity are hotly disputed and still not well constrained. Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks are extensive in the Altai-Mongolia terrane and their provenance is a key to unravelling the tectonic history of this terrane. Metasediments from Kulumuti Group were collected from the central Chinese Altai for geochemical study. They have low Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 52-54) and high Index of Compositional Variability (ICV = 0.81-1.19) values, different from the mature post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS), indicating relatively weak chemical weathering and a source compositionally dominated by immature material that lacks alumina-rich minerals. These rocks are moderately enriched in light rare earth element (LREE) and show relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.36-9.80, GdN/YbN = 1.31-2.45). Compared with PAAS, they mostly have lower large ion lithophile element concentrations (e.g. Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U and Pb) and similar contents of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf and Y), but with lower Nb and Ta. The metasediments have high Rb concentrations (> 50 ppm), relatively high K2O (> 1.1 wt.%) and low REE contents with negative Eu/Eu* anomalies, indicating that these rocks were derived from an acid-intermediate igneous source. The rocks have slightly enriched Nd isotopic compositions with calculated initial ?Nd(t) values mostly ranging from - 4.3 to - 0.2 and TDM2 model ages between 1.22 and 1.56 Ga. Detrital zircons from two samples of the Kulumuti metasediments have similar age spectra, dominated by Early Paleozoic to latest Neoproterozoic zircons (465-576 Ma) with a few older grains formed between 766-972 Ma and 1321-2572 Ma, remarkably consistent with those from the low-grade metamorphic Habahe Group in the western Chinese Altai. In combination with previous published data, the detrital zircons from Early Paleozoic metasediments in the Chinese Altai dominantly formed between 430-580 and 750-950 Ma, with only a minor population of Meso- to Paleoproterozoic grains. When compared with adjacent terranes, the age spectrum of the Chinese Altai is most similar to that of the Tarim Craton. This craton provided Precambrian materials for the Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks now exposed in the Chinese Altai, and therefore suggests that the whole Altai-Mongolia terrane has a close tectonic affinity to the Tarim Craton.
Kitabata, H.; Sugiura, K.; Kadota, T.
We investigate climatic change trends in a region of the Altai Mountains located on the western edge of Mongolia using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. This region, which lies on the southern border of the Eurasian cryosphere, includes glaciers and discontinuous permafrost areas. Therefore, the region is especially useful for understanding the influence of arctic warming on the mid-latitudes. In addition, the preservation of snow and ice on the mountains is crucial to neighboring communities, especially in Mongolia. Analyses of data for the 25-year period between September 1987 and August 2012 revealed that a decrease in precipitation began to accelerate around the year 2000 regardless of the season. The rate of precipitation decline reached more than 40 mm per year near the mountain ridge where the average annual precipitation was about 500 mm. Moreover, the projected winter temperature has been decreasing annually despite warming in other seasons. Further analysis that focused on winter temperature variation found that the hemispheric atmospheric circulation was fluctuating. This slows the zonal wind speed, decreases the temperature by permitting southing of cold air, and decreases precipitation by restraining the inflow of water vapor. Water vapor reduction also contributes to temperature decline through the radiation cooling effect. Extreme cold winter weather events in Eurasia have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. In this region, winter temperatures are declining continuously while desiccation is spreading simultaneously.
Puzanov, A. V.; Baboshkina, S. V.
The high natural content of total arsenic in the soil cover of the Altai region has been revealed. Natural waters and plants are distinguished by low arsenic concentrations. The intensity of the biogenic and water migration of arsenic does not depend on its total content in the soil. The accumulative distribution of arsenic in the mountainous forest soils of Altai is mainly due to biogenic processes, while in the steppe soils, it is specified by the evaporative concentration. Favorable conditions for arsenic migration are observed in the southeastern Altai during the periods of seasonal moistening. The arsenic content in the soils and plants of technogenic landscapes in the Altai region considerably exceeds the provisional permissible concentrations and the background concentrations of this element.
Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich
, lush forests and rivers and lakes, all of which contribute to the great potential of this region with nature and be made aware of the beauty of its unspoiled state. Our trip to the Altai Republic became
Eliseev, V A
Hydrological and hydrochemical features of the sources of radon- and nitrogen-containing thermal waters of the Altai region are considered. Data on the chemical composition of mineral waters from different sources are presented. Methods for the use of radon- and nitrogen-containing thermal waters from their natural sources of the Altai region for the purpose of sanatorium and spa treatment are described. PMID:21328905
D'Yachkov, B. A.; Titov, D. V.; Sapargaliev, E. M.
The results of comprehensive geological and metallogenic studies of the Greater Altai are presented. This project has been carried out since 1997 under the guidance of Academician G.N. Shcherba. The importance of these investigations is determined by the need to enhance and further develop mineral resources of nonferrous, noble, rare, and other metals for operating mining and metallurgical enterprises of Kazakhstan. The great body of information on the geology, geophysics, and metallogeny of the region obtained over many years has been integrated on the basis of new global tectonics. The Greater Altai embraces the Hercynides of the Rudny Altai, Qalba-Narym, West Qalba, Zharma-Saur, and the adjacent territories of Russia and China. The present-day tectonic units are considered to be detached blocks of ancient continental massifs that drifted in the Paleoasian ocean and then amalgamated into the structure of the Greater Altai during the Hercynian collision. The tectonic and metallogenic demarcation of the studied territory made possible the recognition of the Rudny Altai, Qalba-Narym, West Qalba, and Zharma-Saur ore belts, different in geology, geodynamic evolution, and metallogeny. The formation conditions and localization of volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, gold, and rare-metal deposits pertaining to certain ore-bearing geochronological levels were specified, and the potential of the region for various mineral resources was estimated.
Papina, Tatyana; Malygina, Natalia; Eyrikh, Alla
Please fill in The isotopic composition of precipitation and ice of Altai glaciers can be successfully used to determine the sources of precipitation (water vapor) and trajectories of air masses coming to the Altai territory, to study the modern and paleoclimatic changes in this region and other applied climate and environmental challenges. This paper presents the results of the study of seasonal changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation and surface layers of warm and cold glaciers in Central Altai. The isotopic composition of warm glaciers (North Chui Ridge) significantly (by more than 6.5 ) facilitated relatively mean value of ice core layers from cold Belukha glacier. This difference primarily may be due to: 1) with multiple cryogenic isotope fractionation of warm glaciers surface, which leads to the formation of significantly lighter ice isotopic composition; 2) accumulation of the edge portion of the warm glaciers occurs mainly due to the winter solid precipitation. The isotopic composition of summer precipitation (July 2013) in the Central Altai ranged from -7.55 to -10.28 0/00for ?18O and from -135.20 to -136.04 0/00 for ?D, which indicates that the formation of precipitation fallen on the earth surface of precipitated on the surface glacier great contribution moisture exchange processes arising from the passage of moist Atlantic air masses over the territory of the Aral- Caspian region. Integrated use of data on the trajectory of air masses (model HYSPLIT), synoptic situation and the isotopic composition of precipitation can detect features of the formation of precipitation . For example , it was shown to cause rainfall in the Central Altai July 16, 2013 was the formation of occlusions of Altai, and the moisture in the air mass moving over the continent to weak evaporative fractionation .
Marsadolov, L.; Dmitrieva, N.
On the Western Altai, 50 km southward from the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk, at the same latitude as the Ak-Baur sanctuary, another interesting complex of ancient objects was examined in 2006-2007. This complex consists of a grotto, ``spotty'' stone and platforms with holes. In the grotto anthropomorphic and geometric drawings madein red ochre were found. The centre of the composition schematically represents human figures with joined hands. One kilometer to the west from the complex there is a sharp-pointed mountain Zhangiztas. In its bottom part a ``zoomorphic'' ledge is visible; it reminds a sideview of a ``head with the opened mouth and tongue''. Observing the sunset on the days of equinox, one can watch the Sun ``setting down'' on the top of Mt. Zhangistas, then ``sliding'' along the right-side slope and finally ``rolling into the mouth''; in other words, it is ``swallowed by a monster''. The ``zoomorphic'' peculiarity of the mountain outliers (monad nocks) of the Monastyri complex as a whole and of their separate rocky juts was comprehended in the antiquity; the evidence for it is the presence of manmade holes near them; these holes might have an astronomical meaning.
Parfenova, E. I.; Tchebakova, N.; Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.
The Altai Sayan ecoregion (ASE), central Asia, is located in Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan, within the window 80-102° E and 42-57° N, north of the territory of Tibet. The ASE is a territory with a great variety of landscapes observed at a short distance: from nival and tundra landscapes at highlands, to taiga (dark-needled and light-needled) and subtaiga at middle elevations, to steppes at lower elevations. This southern part of Siberia is known as having a high agroclimatic potential due to favorable climatic and soil resources. Crops of food, forage, and biofuels primarily reside in steppe and forest-steppe zones and are resistant to frequent droughts and the cold climate. Regional studies over the Altai-Sayan ecoregion have already registered a change in climate at the end of the 20th century: January temperatures increased 1-2°C and July temperatures increased 0.7-1.5°C over the last 50 years in the northern portion of ASE; in the southern, more continental portion of ASE, both January and July temperature increased two times greater, 2-4°C and 1.4-3.2°C,0 respectively. Our goal was to model how mountain vegetation in ASE may be altered in a changing climate through the century to the year 2080 and if the agroclimatic potential in the lowlands of ASE may benefit from climate change. We used our montane bioclimatic vegetation model (MontBioCliM) to predict the future vegetation distribution, coupling MontBioCliM with the HadCM3 A2 and B1 climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. MontBioCliM is an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5C; negative degree days below 0°C; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). Our model runs indicated that by 2080, forest habitats would decrease from 52% to 48% according to the moderate scenario B1 and from 52% to 38% according the harsh A2 scenario. In a warmer climate, grasslands better adapted to hot and dry climates would replace forest which may not be regenerate because of an increased potential for severe and large fires. At the expense of forests, more potential agricultural lands were modeled to appear in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats in foothills and lowlands in ASE. These lands might become suitable for growing traditional crops and introducing new crops. Bioclimatic models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to the above climate change scenarios. Crops were predicted to extend in size and to 2-fold increase. However, due to shortage of water in the future dry climate crops would necessitate irrigation. A new agroclimatic potential of the Altai-Sayan ecoregion was predicted to evolve as climate changes.
Shurova, M. V.; Larina, G. V.; Kozlova, S. A.; Shagaeva, L. L.
The greatest areas of bogs are concentrated in the northeastern part of Altai Republic. This place due to a great amount of precipitation and a powerful accumulation of snow with a little drain in comparison with other areas has plenty of bogs. A quarter of all bogs of the Altai Mountains is concentrated here. The bogs develop mainly in the valleys of the rivers. The bogs have a modern origin and the process of bog formation goes at the present time by overgrowing of oxbow and valley lakes, and also by bogging of dry lands - woods and meadows. The area of bogs in relation to the general territory of highlands makes up 1%. Nevertheless, these territories are regarded as complex ecosystems which have economic and scientific value. Let's consider the content of heavy metals in different horizons of the peat under study. The samples of peat of the deposit being examined are characterized by a low total content of zinc: 6,21-44,12 mg/kg. The average amount of zinc in the soils of the Altai Mountains is much larger and makes up 70,3 mg/kg. Quite a significant amount of copper is washed away from peat thickness, its total amount is at the level of 1,58-10,73 mg/kg. The reason for it, probably, lies in the fact that there is a significant amount of fulvic acids in the composition of humic acids which enable the migration of copper beyond the limits of the peat ground in the conditions of the sour environment. A completely different situation is observed in the soils of the Altai mountain area. The biogeochemistry of copper in the soils of the Altai Mountains is thoroughly investigated by M.A.Malgin, A.V.Puzanov, O.A.Yelchininova. Its average amount in the soils of the Altai Mountains makes up 40,6 mg/kg which is twice as much as the abundance ratio in comparison with the world soils. The authors explain this fact as follows: copper is an inactive element in the soils since its ions are easily precipitated by sulfide-, carbonate-, and hydroxide ions, and also are taken up by humic acids of soils. Therefore, notwithstanding the washing type of a water mode, the leaching of copper from the soils of the Altai Mountains is not observed. The amount of cadmium in the investigated lowland peat makes up from 0,12 up to 0,57 mg/kg which is almost two times less than the roughly allowable concentration. Also the monotonous increase of the concentration factor of cadmium upwards on the structure is observed. The peat of the surveyed deposit as far as the amount of cadmium is concerned is actually at the level of the background soils of the Altai mountain area. The amount of lead in the peat under study is not subject to significant fluctuation - from 1,34 up to 10,0 mg/kg which is lower than the average amount characteristic of the soils of the Altai Mountains. The roughly allowable concentration of lead for sour soils makes up 65 mg/kg, therefore the peat under study is non-polluting or lead-free. There is an even distribution of lead in the structure of the axial section. In the distribution of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead in peat thickness there is a contrast between the top layers and the bottom ones. The top layers are characterized by higher concentration of elements. The lowland peat of the northeastern part of Altai Republic in comparison with the West-Siberian peat is characterized by the increased values of zinc and has the same amount of copper and lead.
Agatova, Anna; Nepop, Roman; Nazarov, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Slyusarenko, Igor; Bronnikova, Maria; Orlova, Ljubov
This paper focuses on the study of the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (SE Altai) which is the part of the Altai Mountains - the northern segment of the Central Asia collision belt. It represents a combination of landscapes and ecosystems of alpine highlands, vast plateau-topped watersheds and intermountain depressions with unique archeological sites and traditional forms of environmental management of different cultures. The SE Altai has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic but till now the issue of chronology of the archaeological cultures is still debated. From the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, these can be generally regarded as a single economic-cultural type - nomads of arid piedmonts and mountains of temperate zone. The collective evidence indicates the significantly warmer climate in the SE Altai during the early Holocene. The Neoglacial began here about 5000 years BP and includes three periods of glaciers expansions controlled by climate deterioration (Akkem, Historical and Aktru (LIA) stages). Our numerous radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and wood fragments buried in moraines, glaciofluvial sediments and proglacial forefields argue for prolonged and frequent glacier advances separated by shorter glacier recessions. A decrease in the areas occupied by forest vegetation and the reduction in glacier size at each subsequent glacial stage expressed in the topography suggest aridity intensification during the second half of the Holocene. This conclusion is also supported by the absence of a reaction from the glaciers to the thermal minimum of the middle of 19-th century. It is very likely that such glacier dynamics is a common feature for the whole Central Asia. Thus the evolution of Altai nomad cultures, discussed in this paper, corresponds to a period of cooling and aridity intensification. In spite of climate deterioration that was the time of prosperity of the Altai nomadic cultures. It is most richly characterized by numerical dates of archaeological finds and major nature events which control migrations and shifting of Scythian, Hunnu, Turk and later nomadic cultures in the region. We present here an expanded dataset of new radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and charcoals from iron-smelting furnaces, dendrochronologically obtained ages of tree fragments washed up from glaciers in a modern glacial zone as well as lifespan analysis of archeological burial grounds and their spatial distribution within the Kurai and Chuya depressions. All these allowed us to correlate major nature events with the human dynamics in the SE Altai during the second half of the Holocene. Climate together with political and social aspects is one of the major factors that controlled the size of population, evolution and migration of nomadic cultures in the region. The influence of climatic changes on human societies was much stronger than the opposite. Anthropogenic impact is restricted to massive timber cutting which contributed to deforestation of the eastern part of the SE Altai. The study was partly funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grants 13-05-00555 and 13-04-01829).
Druzhkova, Anna S; Thalmann, Olaf; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Wayne, Robert K
The origin of domestic dogs remains controversial, with genetic data indicating a separation between modern dogs and wolves in the Late Pleistocene. However, only a few dog-like fossils are found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, and it is widely accepted that the dog domestication predates the beginning of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the genetic relationship of one of the oldest dogs, we have isolated ancient DNA from the recently described putative 33,000-year old Pleistocene dog from Altai and analysed 413 nucleotides of the mitochondrial control region. Our analyses reveal that the unique haplotype of the Altai dog is more closely related to modern dogs and prehistoric New World canids than it is to contemporary wolves. Further genetic analyses of ancient canids may reveal a more exact date and centre of domestication. PMID:23483925
Syromyatina, M.; Moskalenko, I.; Ganushkin, D.; Chistyakov, K.
The mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to climate changes. The Russian Altai Mountains are located in the Inner Asia on the border of Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan. The Department of Geography and Geoecology of SPbSU has been organizing annual field expeditions to this region during the last 20 yrs. The uniqueness of the Altai landscapes lies in its great variety as these mountains are higher than 4 km and located on the zonal border between steppes and semi-deserts and between continental and sharply continental climates. This research deals with space-time features of regional climate changes and the dynamics of high-altitude landscapes. The 1940-2004 time series of seasonal air temperature and precipitation from 14 weather stations from 300 to 2600 m a.s.l. were statistically analyzed applying regression, correlation, spectral and cluster analyses. To extend time series over the past 350-400 yrs, mean summer temperature and precipitation were reconstructed applying dendroclimatological methods and using the WSL Dendro data base. Comparing to the Northern Hemisphere tendency of temperature increase in the second half of the 20th century over the Altai has been observed generally earlier, since 1950s. Maximum warming rate in the last quarter of the 20th century is typical to winter in the Altai (0,85°/10 yrs) as well as the entire Northern Hemisphere. Synchronous changes in the Altai and the Northern Hemisphere are observed in all seasons only in 1975-2004. At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries warming rates slow down in the region while temperature level is still high. These changes are partly associated with circulation epochs. Spectral analysis revealed important role of natural cyclical recurrence in climate changes, for example quasi-biennial, solar and Brückner cycles. According to dendrochronological reconstruction mean summer temperature increased from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) to its maximum in the 1990s by approximately 2°C, to the average for the period 1986-2004 - about 1,3°C. As tree line against the other belt borders strongly limited by summer temperature its eventual dynamics since the end of the LIA over the Altai were estimated and tree line position at different stages of modern regional warming was reconstructed. Theoretical evaluation shows that mean summer temperature increase of 1.3°C from the end of the LIA causes tree line to rise maximum by 180-280 m in different localities of the Altai. Glacial complexes of mountain massifs Mongun-Taiga, Tavan-Boghd-Ola, Turgeni-Nuru and Harhira-Nuru located in the South-Eastern Altai are represented by small glaciers mostly on northern and eastern leeward slopes. Being situated in region with dry climatic conditions (250-400 mm/year) glaciers survive only in negative forms of relief with high concentration of snow. Accumulation coefficient is mainly from 2 to 3, and on cirque glaciers is from 6 to 8. Now glaciers retreat rapidly (17% of area loss for the period of 1995-2010 for Mongun-Taiga, 12% in 2002-2009 for Tavan-Boghd-Ola), especially valley glaciers (2-10 m/yr), the number of glaciers increase due to disintegration of larger glaciers. Small forms of glaciation disappear or transform into snow patches and rock glaciers.
Krivoshapkin, A L; Chikisheva, T A; Zubova, A V; Kurbatov, V P
The history of trepanations beginning with the Mesolithic (1 0-12 thousand years ago) is known by means of findings in various parts of the world. The article describes three cases of intravital trepanation of skulls from the Pazyryk Culture graves in the Altai Mountains that had existed from the end of the Vl'h to the beginning of the ll"d century B.C. In two cases, trepanations were performed so skillfully that the operated patients had survived for a long time after the surgery, which was confirmed not only by microscopy but also by MSCT of the skulls. The article establishes causes of surgeries performed, reconstructs the technique of surgical manipulations, and evaluates them in terms of modern medicine. A comparative analysis of ancient trepanations performed by healers of different archeological cultures is provided. It is concluded that prehistoric cranial surgeries in the Altai Mountains had been performed for curative purposes. PMID:25180330
S. S. Arefiev; Zh. Ya. Aptekman; V. V. Bykova; I. V. Matveev; A. G. Mikhin; S. G. Molotkov; K. G. Pletnev; V. V. Pogrebchenko
Results derived from processing of data of field observations in the epicentral zone of the Altai earthquake of 2003 are presented.\\u000a Accurate location of aftershocks showed that their spatial distribution is in good agreement with the source rupture outcropping\\u000a on the Earth’s surface. According to aftershock data, the source had a length of 75 km and a maximum width of
Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K.; Nikitin, S.; Fujita, K.; Cecil, D.
Investigations in Siberian Altai permits to expand our scope from Tibet, Himalayas, Tien Shan and Pamir to the area located at the northeastern edge of the Central Asia Mountain System. Altai forms a natural barrier to the northern and western air masses and therefore affords an opportunity to develop modern paleo-climate records relating to the westerly jet stream, the Siberian High and Pacific monsoon. Moreover, Altai alpine snowice accumulation areas are appropriative for studying air pollution dynamics at the center of Eurasia, eastward from the major Former USSR air pollutants in Kazakhstan, South Siberia and Ural Mountains. During the last century Altai Mountains became extremely contaminated region by heavy metal mining, metallurgy, nuclear test in Semipalatinsk polygon and Baikonur rocket site. Our first field reconnaissance on the West Belukha snow/firn plateau at the Central Altai was carried out in July 2001. Dispute of the large Alatai Mountains glaciation, the West Belukha Plateau (49o48' N, 86o32'E, 4000-4100 m a.s.l.) is only one suitable snow accumulation site in Altai to recover ice-core paleo-climatic and environmental records that is not affected by meltwater percolation. The objective of our first reconnaissance was to find an appropriate deep drilling site by radio-echo sounding survey, to recover shallow ice-core, to identify the annual snow accumulation rate, major ions, heavy metals, radio nuclides and oxygen isotopes level distribution. During 6 days of work on the Plateau, a 22 m shallow firn/ice core has been recovered by PICO hand auger at elevation 4050 m where the results of radio-echo sounding suggests about 150 m ice thickness. In addition to the firn/ice core recovery, five 2.5 meter snow pits were sampled for physical statigraphy, major ions, trace element, and heavy metals analysis to assess spatial variability of the environmental impact in this region. Four automatic snow gauges were installed near proposed deep ice coring site for year around records. The seasonal accumulation at the drilling site was ranged from 250 to 300 ?? with density of 0.34 - 0.40 g cm-3. The ice-core stratigraphy analysis has shown that accumulation area seems to lie in the cold infiltration-recrystallization zone. Geochemical analysis of the shallow ice core, snow pit samples collecting during the 2001 field research will be discussed along with meteorological and synoptic data collected at the nearest to Belukha Plateau Akkem, (2050 m) and Kara -Tyurek (3600 ?) stations. A preliminary result has revealed that variability of elementary synoptic processes over the region impact on the amount of precipitation. North Atlantic Oscillation and West Pacific Oscillation indices have inverse associations with average amount of precipitation in Siberia where Altai is located. >http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/%7eaizen/aizen.html
Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the deformation systems. 2) folded (folded-thrust) deformation systems combine deformation zones with relic lenses of Paleozoid substratum, and predominantly conform systems of the main faults. Despite a high degree of regional deformation the sedimentary-stratified and intrusive-contact relations of geological bodies are stored within the deformation systems, and this differs in the main the collision systems from zones of dynamic metamorphism. 3) regional zones of dynamic metamorphism of Kuznetsk-Altai region are the concentration belts of multiple mechanic deformations and contrast dynamometamorphism of complexes. The formational basis of dynamic metamorphism zones is tectonites of the collision stage. Zones of dynamic metamorphism attract special attention in the structural model of Kuznetsk-Altai region. They not only form the typical tectonic framework of collision sutures, but also contain the main part of ore deposits of this region. Pulse mode of structure formation of Kuznetsk-Altai region is detected. Major collision events in Kuznetsk-Altai region were in the late-Carboniferous-Triassic time (307-310, 295-285, 260-250 and 240-220 Ma). This study was supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 14-05-00117).
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) cases occur everywhere in the Republic of Altai. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is transmitted to humans by at least three genera of ticks: Ixodes, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis. The risk of the infection is higher in the northern part of the republic. Most patients with HGA show serologic evidence of coinfection with North Asian tick typhus and other tick-borne diseases. The high probability of HGA concurrent with other tick-borne infections requires an integrated approach to preventing these diseases in the Republic of Altai. PMID:25924278
Saldan, I P; Balandovich, B A; Potseluev, N Yu; Flat, M Kh
The unique climatic and geographical location of the Altai Krai determines the specific radiation dose load for the population, which is composed of the complex of radiological indices, the structure of which is largely dependent on the type of locality and, to a greater extent due to the action of radon, which is currently the main source of internal radiation of the population of upland districts and adjacent territories. There was performed a hygienic assessment of the radiation risk and the expected decline in life expectancy and population health due to radon exposure in the model areas of the Altai Krai. To calculate the additional risk there were used some models for radiation risk extrapolation: a risk constant model, model GSF (Jacobi's model), Lubin model (TSE/AGE/WL) and BEIR VI model for smoking and nonsmoking population, as well as the combined model. The lowest values of the radiation risk and the expected decline in life expectancy are typical for Charyshsko-Ust-Kalmanskaya zone, the maximum--for Kuryinsko--Pospelikhinskaya zone. PMID:25051739
Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M.
In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.
Boyarskikh, I G; Agatova, A R; Bakiyanov, A I; Florinsky, I V
Geophysical and geochemical anomalies may have a mutagenic effect on plants growing in active fault zones being the factors of evolutionary transformation of plant populations. To test this assumption we evaluated the mutation activity of a Lonicera caerulea natural population in one of the active fault zones in the Altai Mountains. We derived principal cytogenetic indices (i.e., mitotic, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase indices as well as proportion and range of abnormal mitoses) for meristematic cells of Lonicera caerulea seedlings. We found that the local geological and geophysical environment (i.e., mineralogical composition of rocks and anomalies of the magnetic field) increases the mitotic activity and the number of abnormal mitoses in the meristematic cells. The results may help to clarify the role of environmental conditions of tectonically active regions in microevolutionary processes.
Olivier, S.; Schwikowski, S.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Lüthi, M.; Eyrik, S.; Blaser, C.; Saurer, M.; Schotterer, U.
Little is known about climatic change and paleo-atmospheric composition in Siberia. The Altai is the only alpine region in this area covered by glaciers that might serve as archives for such studies. Moreover, it is located close to air pollution sources in East Kazakhstan and South Siberia (heavy metal mining, metallurgy) as well as to the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk (release of radionuclides into the atmosphere). In order to reconstruct air pollution levels in the Altai region, a 140-meter ice core down to bedrock was recovered from the Belukha glacier (N49^o48'26", E86^o34'43", 4062 m asl) in July 2001. This site was selected based on the results of an exploratory study conducted in 2000. So far, the concentrations of major ionic species and the stable isotope ratio ?18O were determined in the approx. 90 topmost meters of the ice core covering about 200 years. Dating of the upper part of the ice core was performed by a combination of methods that include e.g. nuclear techniques and annual-layer counting. The annual net accumulation amounts to about 0.53 m weq. and indicates that snow at the Belukha glacier might be partly eroded by wind, a situation that is often observed for a glacier saddle. The borehole temperature (-16 ^oC at 80 m depth), the discernible fluctuations of the stable isotope and chemistry records as well as the linearity of the decrease of the log. 210Pb activities with depth indicate that the glaciochemical record is well preserved and not significantly altered by melting processes. In pre-industrial ice concentrations of carboxylic acids and ammonium are high, suggesting the surrounding forest as source of biogenic emissions.
Zhao, Y.; Yu, Z.; Li, Q.; Zhao, W.
Here we present preliminary results from a peat-core record to investigate responses of upland vegetation and peatlands to Holocene climate change in the Altai Mountains. Chronology of a 650-cm-long peat core from the Iron Arshad Khan (IAK) peatland in the western Altai Mountains was controlled by 20 AMS dates on identifiable terrestrial macrofossils, covering the entire Holocene. Lithology results indicate that the peat accumulation initiated at 11 ka (1 ka =1000 cal BP), with a sharp increase in organic matter content to >80%. Plant macrofossil data show a sequence of changes from the peatlands dominated by Cyperaceae before 8.1 ka, to Cyperaceae and brown moss-dominated at 8-4.5 ka, Sphagnum and Cyperaceae-dominated at 4.5-2 ka, and to Cyperaceae-dominated again after 2 ka. Carbon accumulation rates were highest at >40 gC/m2/yr at 8.5-7 ka, more than doubled the Holocene average at the site. Pollen analysis shows the highest tree pollen (mainly from Picea) of up to 59% occurred at 8-6.4 ka, suggesting a warm and wet mid-Holocene 'optimum' climate in the region. Organic matter bulk density shows an increasing trend after 6.4 ka, suggesting increasing cumulative decomposition of accumulated peat. Our multi-proxy data indicate clear responses of peatland species composition, moisture conditions and carbon accumulation to regional climate change. The cooling and drying trend since the mid-Holocene was likely in response to the decrease in summer insolation and in westerly-induced precipitation. Furthermore, our results from this temperate highland peatland may shed new lights on understanding peatland carbon dynamics in northern Eurasia, including the largest peatland basin in West Siberia, as well as Holocene climate changes in central Asia.
Rozanov, Aleksey S; Bryanskaya, Alla V; Malup, Tatiana K; Kotenko, Anastasia V; Peltek, Sergey E
A Halorubrum H3 strain was isolated from a water and silt sample from Burlinskoye Lake (Altai Krai, Russia, 53°8'19?N 78°24'27?E). According to 16S rRNA sequences, this strain is most closely related to Halorubrum saccharovorum. The completely sequenced and annotated genome is 3,282,373 bp and contains 3,237 genes. PMID:26044423
Meshkov, N A; Val'tseva, E A
Radioactive fall-outs from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests carried out at the Semipalatinsk testing site have resulted in local soil pollution with 137Cs in the Republic of Altai. The subjects of the investigations were the main types of soils from North and Central Altai. In the Republic of Altai, the share of 137Cs in the upper (0-5 cm) soil layer has been established to be 54.6% in the Turochaksky district to 92.1% in the Ulagansky district. By taking into account the fact that the major activity of 137Cs has been accumulated in the 0.5-cm surface layer, its may be expected that there will be its rather separation with a fine-dispersed surface material In this connection, 137Cs can enter the organism with inhaled dust due to deflation during soil eolation. The inhalation of 137Cs by the dwellers of the areas that have been exposed to irradiation during nuclear weapon tests at the Semipalatinsk testing site continues to be also important today. PMID:20000090
Pavelková ?i?ánková, V?ra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan
Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791
Agatova, A. R.; Nazarov, A. N.; Nepop, R. K.; Rodnight, H.
This study investigates glacier dynamic and climatic variations in the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (SE Altai) during the last 7000 years. Recent glacier retreats and ice melting in moraines has led to exhumation of organic material allowing the possibility of radiocarbon dating. We report here 57 new radiocarbon dates from wood remains buried by moraines and from proglacial forefields, from peat layers and lacustrine sediments that cover moraines, from dead trees at the upper tree limit, and from rock glaciers on trough slopes from six glacial valleys in the North Chuya Range, SE Altai. Such a numerous dataset for the vast but unified in neotectonic and climatic conditions area is presented for the first time the history of research in the Altai. Together with 62 previously published radiocarbon ages, mainly of fossil soils and peat layers in the foot of the ranges in SE Altai, they form the basis for understanding the relative magnitudes and timing of the most important glacial and climatic events of SE Altai. New data refute the traditional concept of the Russian Altai Holocene glaciations as a consecutive retreat of the late Würm glaciers and argue their complete degradation at the head of trough valleys at least 7000 cal. years BP. Moraine complexes of three Holocene glacial stages are morphologically expressed in trough valleys of the North Chuya range. They correlate with three identified periods of glacial advances: from 4900 to 4200 cal. years BP (Akkem stage), from 2300 to 1700 cal. years BP (Historical stage) and in the 13th-19th centuries (Little Ice Age (LIA) or Aktru stage). The coincident extremes of lowering temperature and increasing precipitation during the Akkem stage led to abrupt glacier advances and forming of the most remote moraine complexes downstream in the valleys. Following glacier advances had distinctly smaller magnitudes. In addition to the radiocarbon data, the time limits of the Historical stage were defined more precisely using dendrochronological and archaeological data from Scythian burials of Pazyryk culture in SE Altai. Repeated forest regrowth in the presently glaciatiated area indicates significant retreat or even complete glacier degradation during interstage warming. The decreases of glacier length in the following stages argues for intensification of aridity in the SE Altai during the second half of the Holocene. The thermal minimum in the middle of 19th century, the greatest in the last millennium, did not positively influence the mass balance of glaciers, which also supports this conclusion.
Nakazawa, Fumio; Uetake, Jun; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Ryo; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi
Pollen taxon in sediment samples can be identified by analyzing pollen morphology. Identification of related species based on pollen morphology is difficult and is limited primarily to genus or family. Because pollen grains of various ages are preserved at below 0?°C in glaciers and thus are more likely to remain intact or to suffer little DNA fragmentation, genetic information from such pollen grains should enable identification of plant taxa below the genus level. However, no published studies have attempted detailed identification using DNA sequences obtained from pollen found in glaciers. As a preliminary step, this study attempted to analyze the DNA of Pinus pollen grains extracted from surface snow collected from the Belukha glacier in the Altai Mountains of Russia in the summer of 2003. A 150-bp rpoB fragment from the chloroplast genome in each Pinus pollen grain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA products were sequenced to identify them at the section level. A total of 105 pollen grains were used for the test, and sequences were obtained from eight grains. From the sequences obtained, the pollen grains were identified as belonging to the section Quinquefoliae. Trees of the extant species Pinus sibirica in the section Quinquefoliae are currently found surrounding the glacier. The consistency of results for this section suggests that the pollen in the glacier originated from the same Pinus trees as those found in the immediate surroundings.
Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Zacharova, Elena E; Pimenov, Nikolai V; Tourova, Tatjana P; Panteleeva, Anjela N; Muyzer, Gerard
The activity and culturable diversity of sulfidogens were investigated in anoxic sediments of four hypersaline lakes with pH 7.6-8.2 in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia). Sulfate reduction rates were low, varying from 0.1 to 6.0 nmol HS(-) /(cm(3) h) with a maximum in the top 10 cm layer. Potential sulfidogenic rates with thiosulfate and sulfur as the e-acceptors were higher than with sulfate and were stimulated by formate, lactate, and acetate. Sulfidogenesis was optimal at salt concentrations below 2 M NaCl. Cultivation at 2 M NaCl resulted in the isolation of several strains of moderately halophilic SRB, but no growth of SRB was observed at 4 M NaCl. At lithotrophic conditions (i.e., with formate or H(2) as e-donors), several closely related alkalitolerant strains belonging to the genus Desulfonatronovibrio were isolated. Enrichments at heterotrophic conditions with lactate, propionate, acetate, or butyrate using sulfate or thiosulfate as e-acceptors yielded isolates related to Desulfosalsimonas propionicica, Desulfohalobium utahense, and Desulfocella halophila. Sulfur-reducing enrichments at 2 M NaCl with ethanol produced a member of the genus Halanaerobium, while enrichments at 4 M NaCl with acetate were dominated by archaea, demonstrating for the first time such type of catabolism in haloarchaea. PMID:22092787
Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Pimenov, Nikolai V; Sukhacheva, Marina V; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M
Microbial methanogenesis at extreme conditions of saline alkaline soda lakes has, so far, been poorly investigated. Despite the obvious domination of sulfidogenesis as the therminal anaerobic process in the hypersaline soda lakes of Kulunda Steppe (Altai, southwestern Siberia), high concentrations of methane were detected in the anaerobic sediments. Potential activity measurements with different substrates gave results significantly deviating from what is commonly found in hypersaline habitats with neutral pH. In particular, not only a non-competitive methylotrophic pathway was active, but also lithotrophic and, in some cases, even acetate-dependent methanogenesis was found to be present in hypersaline soda lake sediments. All three pathways were functioning exclusively within the alkaline pH range between 8 and 10.5, while the salt concentration was the key factor influencing the activity. Methylotrophic and, to a lesser extent, lithotrophic methanogenesis were active up to soda-saturating conditions (4 M total Na(+)). Acetate-dependent methanogenesis was observed at salinities below 3 M total Na(+). Detection of methanogens in sediments using the mcrA gene as a functional marker demonstrated domination of methylotrophic genera Methanolobus and Methanosalsum and lithotrophic Methanocalculus. In a few cases, acetoclastic Methanosaeta was detected, as well as two deep lineage methanogens. Cultivation results corresponded well to the mcrA-based observations. Enrichments for natronophilic methylotrophic methanogens resulted in isolation of Methanolobus strains at moderate salinity, while at salt concentrations above 2 M Na(+) a novel member of the genus Methanosalsum was dominating. Enrichments with H2 or formate invariably resulted in domination of close relatives of Methanocalculus natronophilus. Enrichments with acetate at low salt concentration yielded two acetoclastic alkaliphilic Methanosaeta cultures, while at salinity above 1 M Na(+) syntrophic associations were apparently responsible for the observed acetate conversion to methane. Overall, the results indicated the presence of functionally structured and active methanogenic populations in Siberian hypersaline soda lakes. PMID:25764464
Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina A; Wozniak, Marcin; Dambueva, Irina; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Luzina, Faina; Mi?cicka-Sliwka, Danuta; Zakharov, Ilia
In order to investigate the genetic history of autochthonous South Siberian populations and to estimate the contribution of distinct patrilineages to their gene pools, we have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), SRY-8299, M89, M201, M52, M170, 12f2, M9, M20, 92R7, SRY-1532, DYS199, M173, M17, Tat, and LLY22 g) in a total sample of 1,358 males from 14 ethnic groups of Siberia (Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Shors, Tuvinians, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Khakassians, Buryats, Evenks), Central/Eastern Asia (Mongolians and Koreans) and Eastern Europe (Kalmyks and Russians). Based on both, the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and results on AMOVA analysis we observed the statistically significant genetic differentiation between the populations of Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions. We suggest that these regional differences can be best explained by different contribution of Central/Eastern Asian and Eastern European paternal lineages into gene pools of modern South Siberians. The population of the Baikal region demonstrates the prevalence of Central/Eastern Asian lineages, whereas in the populations of Altai and Sayan regions the highest paternal contribution resulted from Eastern European descent is revealed. Yet, our data on Y-chromosome STRs variation demonstrate the clear differences between the South Siberian and Eastern European R1a1-lineages with the evolutionary ages compatible with divergence time between these two regional groups. PMID:16261343
Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei
We report the first high-resolution (with intervals ca. 20-50 years) late-Holocene (4200 yr BP) pollen record from Lake Teletskoye, Altai Mountains, obtained from the underwater Ridge of Sofia Lepneva in 2006 (core Tel 2006). The study presents (i) the results of palynological analysis of Tel 2006; (ii) the results of spectral analysis of natural cycles based on the periodical fluctuation of taiga-biome curve; and (iii) quantitative reconstructions of the late-Holocene regional vegetation, woody coverage and climate in northern part of the Altai Mountains in order to define place of Northeast Altai on the map of the late-Holocene Central Asian environmental history. Late Holocene vegetation of the northeastern part of Altai recorded in Tel 2006 core is characterized by spread of dark-coniferous forest with structure similar to modern. Dominant trees, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), are the most ecological sensitive taxa between Siberian conifers (Shumilova, 1962), that as a whole suggests mild and humid climatic conditions during last 4200 years. However, changes of pollen taxa percentages and results of numerical analysis reveal pronounced fluctuation of climate and vegetation. Relatively cool and dry stage occurred prior to ca. 3500 cal yr BP. Open vegetation was widespread in the region with maximum deforestation and minimal July temperatures between 3800-3500 cal yr BP. Steppe-like communities with Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Cyperaceae could grow on the open sites around Lake Teletskoye. Reconstructed woody coverage is very low and varies between 29-35%. After ca. 3500 cal yr BP the area of dark-coniferous mountain taiga has significantly enlarged with maximums of woody coverages and taiga biome scores between ca. 2470-1040 cal yr BP. In the period of ~3500-2500 cal yr BP the averages July temperatures increased more than 1 0C. Climate became warmer and wetter. During last millennium (after 1040 cal yr BP) average July temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years intervals during the Late Holocene. Kravchinsky et al. (2013) presume that the 1000- and 500-
Nefedieva, Julia S; Nefediev, Pavel S; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B; Dyachkov, Yuri V
The distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai, Russia based on new samples from the Kyga Profile sites, as well as on partly published and freshly revised material (Mikhaljova et al. 2007, 2008, 2014, Nefedieva and Nefediev 2008, Nefediev and Nefedieva 2013, Nefedieva et al. 2014), is established. The millipede diversity is estimated to be at least 15 species and subspecies from 10 genera, 6 families and three orders. The bulk of species diversity is confined both to low- and mid-mountain chern taiga forests and high-mountain shrub tundras, whereas the highest numbers, reaching up to 130 ind./m², is shown in subalpine Pinussibirica sparse growths. Based on clustering studied localities on species diversity similarity two groups of sites are defined: low-mountain sites and subalpine sparse growths of Pinussibirica ones. PMID:26257540
Nefedieva, Julia S.; Nefediev, Pavel S.; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B.; Dyachkov, Yuri V.
Abstract The distribution of millipedes along an altitudinal gradient in the south of Lake Teletskoye, Altai, Russia based on new samples from the Kyga Profile sites, as well as on partly published and freshly revised material (Mikhaljova et al. 2007, 2008, 2014, Nefedieva and Nefediev 2008, Nefediev and Nefedieva 2013, Nefedieva et al. 2014), is established. The millipede diversity is estimated to be at least 15 species and subspecies from 10 genera, 6 families and three orders. The bulk of species diversity is confined both to low- and mid-mountain chern taiga forests and high-mountain shrub tundras, whereas the highest numbers, reaching up to 130 ind./m², is shown in subalpine Pinus sibirica sparse growths. Based on clustering studied localities on species diversity similarity two groups of sites are defined: low-mountain sites and subalpine sparse growths of Pinus sibirica ones.
Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Mellors, R.
We investigate the kinematics of the rupture process for the September 27, 2003, Mw7.3, Altai earthquake and its associated large aftershocks. This is the largest earthquake striking the Altai mountains within the last 50 years, which provides important constraints on the ongoing tectonics. The fault plane solution obtained by teleseismic body waveform modeling indicated a predominantly strike-slip event (strike=130, dip=75, rake 170), Scalar moment for the main shock ranges from 0.688 to 1.196E+20 N m, a source duration of about 20 to 42 s, and an average centroid depth of 10 km. Source duration would indicate a fault length of about 130 - 270 km. The main shock was followed closely by two aftershocks (Mw5.7, Mw6.4) occurred the same day, another aftershock (Mw6.7) occurred on 1 October , 2003. We also modeled the second aftershock (Mw6.4) to asses geometric similarities during their respective rupture process. This aftershock occurred spatially very close to the mainshock and possesses a similar fault plane solution (strike=128, dip=71, rake=154), and centroid depth (13 km). Several local conditions, such as the crustal model and fault geometry, affect the correct estimation of some source parameters. We perfume a sensitivity evaluation of several parameters, including centroid depth, scalar moment and source duration, based on a point and finite source modeling. The point source approximation results are the departure parameters for the finite source exploration. We evaluate the different reported parameters to discard poor constrained models. In addition, deformation data acquired by InSAR are also included in the analysis.
Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand
The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too. PMID:25016250
Alexey V. Tkachev; Elena A. Korolyuk; Wudeneh Letchamo
Distillation of the fresh flowering tops of wild-growing Solidago virgaurea L. collected from the Russian Altai at 290 m and 650 m yielded 0.22% and 0.07% pure light yellow oil, respectively. GC and GC\\/MS analyses of the oils revealed that the main components from 290 m were ?-pinene (36.5%), myrcene (14.8%), ?-caryophyllene (10.5%), germacrene D (8.2%), ?-pinene (7.1%) and limonene+?-phellandrene
Eyrikh, S.; Schwikowski, M.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Tobler, L.; Papina, T.
High-altitude mountain glaciers are well suited as palcoarchives of natural and anthropogenic emission both on a global and on local scale. Ice core records from Altai will permit to assess the present air pollution level in the Central Eurasia and to reconstmct its historical development. The Altai mountain region is especially interesting for Hg study, since it's located close to the large Hg mine in Aktash. South Siberia and to major sources of air pollution in East Kazakhstan and South Siberia. Thus, local, rogional and long-range transport is assumed to contribute to Hg contamination in this area. The potential of Cold Vapour lCP-MS using a Hydrogen Generator for Hg determination was studied. The preliminary data is the first data on Hg levels in snow and ice ever obtained for the Altai region. The lowest Hg concentration we obtained was from snow from Belukha glacier. Hg concentrations in snow from the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps) are comparable with those recently reported for Hg in snow from French Alps.
Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Nazarov, Andrey
Dendroseismology has a great potential in a paleoseismological investigation due to utmost precision of dating. Rings of trees - witnesses of seismic events contain both the evidence for the earthquake and its age. These evidences can be created by surface ruptures (sheared off tree roots and trunks, tilted and fallen trees etc.) or by earthquake induced geomorphic processes and/or seismic shaking (tree death or slower growth caused by lost of their crowns, tilted or buried trees caused by landsliding, as well as trees germination on bared surfaces) (McCalpin, 2009). Dendrogeomorphology (Stoffel, 2010) is another young and promising approach which among others studies different aspects of rock fall activity on the basis of wood penetrating injuries of trees. It should be underscored that both techniques are used most efficiently just on times that cover the life span of the last forest stand (about 300-500 years). The main idea of our approach of using dendrochronological analysis for timing strong paleoearthquakes is analyzing of tree-ring anomalies caused by specifically seismically triggered rock falls during the prolonged time interval. SE part of Russian Altai, in this case, is a unique place: 1) seismically induced slope processes intrude into forest stand zone in an immediate vicinity with the modern upper timber limit (which is favorable for carrying out the dendrochronological analysis); 2) arid climate promotes good preservation of wood (up to two thousand years on stone surfaces); 3) 2367-years absolute tree-ring chronology "Mongun" has been developed for SE Altai and Tuva regions (Myglan et al., 2012). We tested this approach during our paleoseismological investigations at the previously unknown complex of earthquake triggered landslides on the northern part of the Chagan-Uzun massif. The south fault boundary of this block was reactivated at the time of the 2003 Chuya earthquake (?s=7.3). We developed 1153 years (856 -2009 AD) local tree ring chronology on Pinus sibirica for this area. In order to provide absolute dates of paleoearthquakes we analyzed the ages of penetrating tree injuries caused by rock falls. Simultaneity of these injuries sustained by trees which grew on different earthquake induced landslides was accepted as a criterion of their seismic origin. The accuracy of such an approach was supported by data obtained from analyzing injuries occurred on trees as a result of rock falls triggered by the 2003 Chuya earthquake. In addition to estimating the upper possible date of creation of this complex of earthquake triggered landslides we have also established with the annual resolution the date of previously unknown strong medieval earthquake. This dendrochronologically obtained data has been independently verified by radiocarbon dating of seismically cut fossil soil overlapped by that undistorted. New data also allows us to specify the recurrence interval of strong earthquakes for SE Altai. Beside the obvious applied importance for local paleoseismological investigations the suggested approach can be used for timing strong paleoearthquakes for regions where instrumental seismic records or historical accounts are not available.
Geochemical study of the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern Altai-Mongolian terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Implications on the provenance and tectonic setting
Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.
The Altai-Mongolian terrane (AM) is a key component of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), but its tectonic nature has been poorly constrained. This paper reports geochemical compositions of Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM to trace their source nature and depositional setting, which in turn place constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the AM. The Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM show variable major-element compositions, with negative correlation between SiO2 and TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3T, MgO and K2O. Their high ICV values (1.18-2.53) and relatively low CIA values (37.9-76.3) indicate that the sediments were immature and probably underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering. The low-SiO2 samples are characterized by relatively restricted SiO2/Al2O3 (mostly 2.60-6.07) and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.02-1.89), implying their proximal deposition without obvious sedimentary sorting and recycling. In contrast, the high-SiO2 samples show much higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratios (15.4-19.9) possibly due to sedimentary sorting and/or silicification. All these samples yield relatively high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios (15.6-22.8), strong LREEs/HREEs differentiation ((La/Yb)N = 4.86-10.7) and obvious negative Eu anomalies (?Eu = 0.61-0.83). Combined with their Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, La/Th and Co/Th ratios comparable with intermediate-acidic magmatic rocks, we infer that these kinds of magmatic rocks served as a major source for the investigated meta-sedimentary rocks. The TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3T + MgO concentrations are mostly higher than typical sediments from passive margin, and the Th/U, La/Sc, Th/Sc, Eu/Eu?, Zr/Hf, Zr/Th and La/Th ratios are quite similar to sediments from continental arcs. These data suggest that the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM were most likely deposited in an environment related to a continental arc setting rather than a passive regime. These rocks show strong similarities to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai (CA, southern AM) and Tseel terrane (southeastern extension of the CA in western Mongolia) in terms of geochemical compositions and depositional setting. With combination of recent isotopic studies for detrital zircons, our data suggest that the AM probably represented a coherent accretionary prism along a continental arc in the early Paleozoic.
Egli, Markus; Lessovaia, Sofia; Chistyakov, Kirill; Inozemzev, Svyatoslav
Precipitation and temperature particularly influence soil properties by affecting the type and rates of chemical, biological, and physical processes. To a great extent, element leaching and weathering rates are governed by these processes. Vegetation growth and decomposition, that depend on temperature and the other environmental factors, influence weathering reactions through the production of acidity and organic ligands that may promote chemical weathering and subsequent elemental leaching. The present work focuses on cold-alpine soils of the Altai Mountains (Siberia, Russia). The investigated field site (2380 m asl) is characterised by cold winters (with absolute minimum temperatures of -50°C; a mean temperature in January is -21°C) and cool summers (+8°C mean temperature in July). The mean annual temperature is -5.4°C. Annual precipitations are relatively low (500 mm with 20% of precipitation in July). Permafrost is widespread and occurs sometimes at a depth of 30 to 50 cm. Several studies have shown the influence of slope aspect and the resulting microclimate on soil weathering and development. There is however no unanimous agreement whether weathering is more intense on north- or south-facing slopes and whether small differences in thermal conditions may lead to detectable differences. Higher temperatures do not necessarily lead to higher weathering rates in cold alpine regions as shown by previous investigations in the European Alps. Water fluxes through the soils seemed to be more important. We consequently investigated soils in the cold-alpine environment of the Central Altai Mountains on a very small area close to a local glacier tongue. Half of the investigated soil profiles were south-facing (5) and the other half north-facing (5). The soils have the same parent material (mica-rich till), altitude, topography, and soil age. The vegetation is alpine grassland that is partially intersected with some juniper and mosses, which portion in the soil surface increases towards the hill footslope. Soil chemical properties such as organic C, N, soil organic matter quality (using DRIFT), pH value, (oxy)hydroxides, total elemental contents (XRF), and soil mineralogy (using diagnostic treatments and XRD) were determined. The age constraint of the site was given by geomorphic studies, 14C dating of a nearby peat-bog and of the stable organic matter fraction of the soils. The soils have a Holocene age. The results showed astonishingly clearly - similarly to the European Alps - that the south-facing soils have a lower weathering state. This is expressed by statistically significant lower pH-values, more oxalate and dithionite extractable Fe, Al, Mn, and Si contents, higher C concentrations and stocks and even lower total Si- and Ca-contents at north facing sites. A similar weathering trend was also obtained from the weathering index (Ca+K)/Ti. The geochemical evolution of the soils seems also here to be enhanced at north facing sites, although very severe climatic conditions prevail. We must assume that weathering is not limited by temperature in the active layer but rather by soil moisture that seems to be higher during the warmer period in the north-facing soils. This is furthermore confirmed by the appearance of slightly evident features of an umbric soil horizon at the north-facing sites at the hill footslope. Furthermore, biodegradation seem to be less pronounced on north-facing sites compared to south-facing sites. Poorly degraded organic matter is consequently accumulated on north-facing sites. This finally gives rise to more organic and mobile organic ligands that promote weathering processes.
Kolunchukova, M.; Savelieva, L. A.
Palynological analysis is commonly used for the vegetation and climatic reconstructions. It is known that there are many factors influenced on pollen spectra formation and it is necessary to study in detail the modern spectra from the investigated area which form interpretation base of fossil samples. In July 2010, during the expedition to the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (South-Western Tuva, the Altai Mountains) the collections of modern surface samples from diverse plant communities were made to depict the present-day pollen rain. For this purpose a longitudinal profile at the altitudes of 2300-3100 m was laid. The detailed geobotanical descriptions on each sampling site were made. Soil samples were taken from 1.5 cm depth and catching of pollen rain was carrying out on glass plates in an area of 108 cm2. A total of 9 samples were treated for pollen analysis, pollen residues mounted in glycerin were analyzed under the microscope. The interpretation of the pollen and spores was performed using pollen atlases and pollen diagrams were made. All samples are distorted by strange pollen of arboreal. The Pinus pollen content varies between 20% and 80%. Single grains of Piceae, Alnus, Alnuster are found. Some non-arboreal pollen like Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae is presented in all spectra, their abundance varies between 1-20 %. Although this species grow within researching area, they are found not in all described vegetative associations. Connection between projective cover of local species and strange pollen's participation in spectra formation is found: low projective cover causes less pollen production and amount of strange pollen (generally arboreal) increases. Domination of some local species is not reflected by their pollen assemblages. For example abundance of Larix pollen (the main arboreal species within researching area) reaches only 2%, and grains of Dryas are not found at all. It can be explained by bad safety and volatility of their grains. So even single finding of this taxa can be important in the interpretation of fossil spectra. Recent spectra don not reflect present vegetation communities. Pollen of arboreal taxa predominates over non-arboreal taxa ( Pinus amounts to 80 %), among herbaceous pollen taxa Poaceae are most abundance ( pollen content may reach 20%). Participation of Poaceae pollen is strongly overestimated. Subfossil spectra better reflects major vegetation communities occurring today in researching area. Non-arboreal taxa predominates over arboreal taxa, among herbaceous pollen taxa Artemisia (6-20%), Cyperaceae (3-40 %), Poaceae (1-12%) are most abundance. So in general pollen assemblages of subfossil spectra correspond to structure of the described vegetation communities. This research will help in climate reconstructions in this mountain region.
Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Nenasheva, Galina; Malygina, Natalia
Pollen spectra circulating in the atmosphere contain the important information about primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), worldwide interest in which has significantly increased in recent decades [Despres, 2012]. It is related to the fact that many researchers suggest primary aerosols as a condensation nucleus significantly affected on the formation of clouds and precipitation and, consequently, on the hydrological cycle and climate, especially at the regional level [Andreae et al., 2008; Poschlet et al., 2010; Prenni et al., 2009]. We present the comparison of pollen spectra obtained during the dry and wet atmospheric deposition in Altai Krai (Russia) and identification of the sources/regions of their receipts. Altai Krai is located in the center of the Eurasian continent, at the border of several natural and climatic zones. A significant part of the region's territory is characterized as a forest-steppe zone with a lot of natural and anthropogenic landscapes, accompanied by continental climate. It provides a rich diversity of natural vegetation and cultural associations. During last 10 years pollen grains has been monitored in the airspace of Barnaul city (the capital of Altai Krai) located in the central part of the forest-steppe zone). During the monitoring, the attempts to determine the origin of pollen spectra (local or introduced) were made as well. In the long-term average dates of the first wave of dusting in the spring season 2014 Burkard pollen traps were used in order to monitor the airspace in Barnaul, namely dry deposition of pollen grains [Nenasheva, 2013]. To estimate the wet deposition PBAP (pollen), which can reach 80% in the middle latitudes, precipitation sampler were installed close to Burkard pollen traps in order to sample precipitation. The samples were filtered through a filter having a pore diameter of 1 µm, then prepared and examined for the presence of pollen grains. The comparison of the results of pollen analysis of 10 samples of precipitation and the samples obtained by Burkard pollen traps for dates with precipitation from April to May 2014 showed the following. Pollen spectra isolated from the different types of precipitation (dry and wet) correspond to each other in taxonomic composition in 85% of cases. For example, isolated pollen spectra for 11 April, considering the wet deposition, is characterized by the presence of Pinus sylvestris. According to Burkard pollen traps, pollen grains Pinus sylvestris were also identified in the air. To identify the sources of pollen grains, we estimated the long-term average date of pine dusting on the territory of Barnaul. During the period from 2004 till 2013 it accounts for the end of the second decade of May. Thereby, isolated pollen grains are unlikely to have local origin. To confirm this fact, backward trajectories were calculated on April 11, 2014 using the model HYSPLIT [http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php]. Trajectories showed the southwest transport of pollen to have been identified in the atmospheric surface layer from the territory in the south of Altai Krai, including the surroundings of Lake Zaisan (Kazakhstan), where earlier dusting of pine could be observed mentioned.
Genus Leptoiulus Verhoeff, 1894 new to the fauna of the Asian part of Russia, with description of a new species from the Altai and its comparison with the European Leptoiulus trilineatus (C.L. Koch, 1847) (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).
Mikhaljova, Elena V; Nefediev, Pavel S; Nefedieva, Julia S; Dyachkov, Yuri V
The diplopod genus Leptoiulus Verhoeff, 1894 is new to the fauna of the Asian part of Russia, due to the discovery of L. tigirek sp. nov. from the south-western part of the Altai Province, Siberia. A description of the new species and information on its habitats, numbers and locomotor activity as well as comparison with the European Leptoiulus trilineatus (C.L. Koch, 1847) are presented. PMID:26249903
article title: Southern Africa View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...
Chen, Ming; Sun, Min
A combined whole-rock geochemical and detrital zircon geochronological and Hf-isotope study was conducted on meta-sedimentary sequences of the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks in order to trace their provenance, depositional setting and tectonic affinity. Samples from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks underwent epidote-amphibole- and greenschist-facies metamorphism, respectively, but all of them show comparable geochemical characteristics. They are characterized by high Al2O3/SiO2 ratios and ICV (Index of Chemical Variability) values, while (Gd/Yb)N ratios and REEs compositions are comparable to those of the upper continental crust, indicating that their protoliths were immature and probably deposited proximal to the source areas without significant sedimentary sorting. The low CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) values for these samples (47.3-74.5 and 52.5-74.5, respectively) further suggest that the source rocks underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering. All the samples show major elements (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2, TiO2/Fe2O3T, Fe2O3T/Al2O3), REEs concentrations, HFSEs and transition elements compositions between the typical andesites and granites, but deviate from those of basaltic rocks, implying that intermediate-felsic rocks served dominant sources during the sedimentation. These geochemical characteristics are consistent with the continental island arc setting, which is discriminated by the TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3T + MgO concentrations higher than those of passive marginal depositions, but La/Sc, Ti/Zr, La/Th, La/Sc and Zr/Th ratios comparable to those of depositions in continental island arc settings. Two samples from the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks yield similar detrital zircon age spectra, with the most prominent population of ca. 620-470 Ma old and a subordinate one of ca. 943-743 Ma old. Comparison with surrounding tectonic units shows that the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and surrounding island arcs in western Mongolia probably provided substantial sources to the protoliths. The similarities in geochemical compositions and detrital zircon patterns with those for the Altai-Mongolian terrane suggest that the Teletsk and Ulagan blocks possibly represented the northern margin of this terrane with different crustal levels. Our study places further constraints that the whole Altai-Mongolian terrane possibly represented a large subduction-accretion complex built upon the active margin in the western Mongolia during the early Paleozoic.
The Chinese Altai is a key region to decipher the accretionary history of the gigantic CAOB, one of the largest accretionary orogenic belts on the earth. However, its Paleozoic tectonothermal events and tectonic implications remain debated. In this study, a suite of igneous rocks, including high Mg dacite of the Kangbutiebao Formation and the associated gneissic granite, have been studied for their petrogenesis and tectonic implication. The high Mg dacite is dated at 400±2Ma, which broadly resembles the emplacement age of the high Mg gneissic granite of 406±9Ma, possibly suggesting that they were generated in a common tectono-magmatic event. Both rocks have zircon inheritances of ~500 Ma, which is consistent with the age of predominant zircon population for in the widespread Habahe sequence, indicating that their precursor magmas were probably mainly derived from the Habahe sediments. The high-Mg rock association has similar REE and trace element patterns to those of the Habahe sediments and they plot close to the field of the Habahe sediments in Th/Ta versus La/Ta diagram. They have high A/CNK ratios (1.33-2.05), supporting their source was sedimentary rocks. In Ba/Th versus (La/Sm)N diagram, these rocks are characterized by high La/Sm ratios which suggests a greater contribution of sediments rather than altered oceanic crust in the magma generation. However, the high Mg# values (~51) of the studied rocks argue against derivation purely from remelting of Habahe sediments. In order to explain the high Mg# values (~51) of these rocks, the participation of mantle-derived melt into the precursor magma is considered. Zircons from this rock association mostly have ?Hf(t) values from +0.85 to +9.71, supporting the involvement of juvenile materials in the magma generation. Samples from the high Mg rock association fall in the same field as the sanukitoids in TiO2 versus Mg# and Sr/Y versus Y diagrams, plot in the fractional crystallization trend of differentiated sanukitoids in Harker diagram. Similar to the sanukitoids in the Setouchi area, our high Mg rock association also involved melting of subducted sediments in a hot subduction regime. Combined with previous work, a ridge subduction regime is used to interpret the early Devonian tectonic evolution of the Chinese Altai.
... View Larger image Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...
Saldan, I P; Filippova, S P; Turchaninov, D V; Okolelova, O V; Vilms, E A
With the use of the method for the analysis of the frequency of food intake there was studied the actual nutrition in adolescents at the age of 12-17 years (n = 257) who were the students of the urban and rural educational institutions (EI) of Altai Krai. The analysis of the menu-layout and assessment of nutritional status was performed with the use of clinical methods. The main group consisted of 125 adolescents from the EI with upgraded technological equipment of the nutrition unit, the comparison group--132 teenagers from EI with non-upgraded equipment of the nutrition department. The program of the modernization of school meals was implemented in several ways and included the reconstruction and technical re-equipment of school nutrition units on the base of modern technologies, delivery and introduction in accordance with the requirements of the school menu, differentiated by age groups with the use of food products aimed at the prevention of diseases caused by micronutrient deficiency. This led to the enlargement of the assortment of dishes, the increase of the coverage for catering students, improvement of the structure of student nutrition, the increased in the intake of a number of nutrients. Symptoms of skin lesions associated with insufficient provision of micronutrients in a core group of students occurred less common than in the comparison group (p < 0.01). PMID:25842509
Tong, Laixi; Xu, Yi-Gang; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yibing; Liu, Zhao
An ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metapelitic granulite assemblage consisting of garnet(g)-spinel(sp)-orthopyroxene(opx)-sillimanite(sil)-cordierite(cd)-ilmenite(ilm)-biotite(bi)-plagioclase(pl)-quartz(q) occurs within migmatitic paragneiss near Kalasu in the Chinese Altai, NW China. Textural relations, mineral compositions and P-T estimates, indicate three stages of mineral assemblages: (1) pre-peak prograde stage (M1) consisting of a sp-sil-bearing or sp-opx-bearing inclusion assemblage, with low-Al2O3 contents (4-5 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and P-T conditions of ?7 kbar and ?890 °C, (2) peak UHT stage (M2) comprising a g-opx-cd-bearing coarse-grained assemblage, with high-Al2O3 contents (8-9 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and peak conditions of ?8 kbar and ?970 °C, and (3) post-peak HT stage (M3) containing an oriented opx-bi-sil-bearing assemblage in matrix, with moderate amounts of Al2O3 (6-7 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and P-T conditions of 8-9 kbar and ?870 °C. The three discrete stages define an anticlockwise P-T path involving initial prograde heating and post-peak near isobaric cooling. Such a near isobaric cooling anticlockwise P-T path suggests that UHT metamorphism likely occurred in an overall extensional tectonic setting with associated underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma. A SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 278 ± 2 Ma obtained from the metapelitic granulite indicates UHT metamorphism in the Altai orogen occurred during the Permian, coeval with spacially associated mantle-derived mafic intrusions (?280 Ma) and the Tarim mantle plume (?275 Ma). Thus, the Permian UHT metamorphism of the Chinese Altai is likely associated with underplating and heating of mantle-derived mafic magma as a result of the Tarim mantle plume.
Rudaya, Natalia; Li, Hong-Chun
?13C of total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen grain, TOC, C/N ratio, and ?15N of total organic nitrogen (TON) in a 2.57-m long core from Hoton-Nur Lake in Mongolian Altai have been measured for reconstruction of the Holocene climates. The ?13C values of TOC and pollen carbon have similar average values but different ranges. Pollen ?13C has negative correlation with %AP (arboreal taxa pollen) and positive correlation with %NAP (herbaceous pollen and spores) that are connected with conditions of humidity in the area. Taiga-biome has lighter ?13C than steppe-biome. Hence, pollen ?13C composition is more sensitive to changes of humidity in the analogous spectra than palynotaxonomical structure and ?13C of TOC. Based on our results, the Holocene climates in Mongolian Altai are: (1) dry conditions prior to 11.5 kyr BP; (2) wet conditions between 11.5 and 6.0 kyr BP; (3) a relatively dry/cool episode during 6-4 kyr BP; (4) stable cool and semiarid conditions with moderately effective moisture during the past 4000 years. Two abrupt climatic changes occurred at ˜7.45 kyr BP and ˜11.5 kyr BP might be related to glacial activities. The Holocene climatic trend in Mongolian Altai which is controlled by the Westerlies is similar to the trend of monsoonal climate shown by the Chinese speleothem records as well as the lake/sand dune evidence in the deserts of NW China. The contact of the two climatic systems and shift of the monsoonal boundary during the past need to be further studied.
Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. PMID:18432697
Late Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Altai segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from metamorphic P-T pseudosection and zircon U-Pb dating of ultra-high-temperature granulite
Li, Zilong; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yinqi; Santosh, M.; Chen, Hanlin; Xiao, Wenjiao
Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies rocks offer important constraints on crustal evolution processes and tectonic history of orogens. UHT granulites are generally rare in Phanerozoic orogens. In this study, we investigate the late Paleozoic pelitic UHT granulites from Altai in the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The diagnostic minerals in these rocks include high alumina orthopyroxene (Al2O3 up to 9.76 wt.%, and y(opx) = AlVI in orthopyroxene up to 0.21) coexisting with sillimanite and quartz, and low Zn spinel (ZnO = 1.85-2.50 wt.%) overgrowth with quartz. Cordierite corona separates sillimanite from orthopyroxene. The high alumina orthopyroxene is replaced by symplectites of low-alumina orthopyroxene (~ 5.80 wt.% Al2O3) and cordierite. These textural observations are consistent with a significant decompression following the peak UHT metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modeling using pseudosections and the y(opx) isopleths indicate an anti-clockwise P-T path for the exhumation of the Altai orogenic belt. The pre-peak assemblage of spinel + quartz in garnet is stable at high- to ultra-high-temperature and low-pressure conditions (P < 5.8 kbar at T ~ 900 °C). The peak P-T values recorded by high aluminium orthopyroxene is > 940 °C and 7.8 to 10 kbar. Subsequent near-isothermal decompression occurred at 890 to 940 °C and 5 to 6 kbar. The final-stage cooling is recorded at 750 and 800 °C and 4 to 5 kbar accompanied by a decrease in the y(opx) values (0.11-0.12). In the UHT granulite, zircon grains are commonly enclosed within cordierite. The overgrowth rims of the zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 277 ± 2 Ma using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, which is interpreted to mark the timing of decompression and cooling. We propose that the anti-clockwise P-T path of the UHT granulite in the Altai orogenic belt could be related to an extensional event related to the sinistral strike-slip along the Irtish tectonic belt after the subduction and slab detachment during the convergence of the Kazakhstan-Junggar plate and the Siberian plate.
Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid than the basic protocol and can result in more complete transfer. Although the ease and reliability of capillary transfer methods makes this far and away the most popular system for Southern blotting with agarose gels, it unfortunately does not work with polyacrylamide gels, whose smaller pore size impedes the transverse movement of the DNA molecules. The third alternate protocol describes an electroblotting procedure that is currently the most reliable method for transfer of DNA from a polyacrylamide gel. Dot and slot blotting are also described. PMID:18429082
Exploring the American South is a splendid idea, and this online journal is a great way to think about the "real and imagined places" of this unique cultural region. Southern Spaces is a peer-reviewed Internet journal and forum that "provides open access to essays, interviews and performances, events and conferences, gateways, timescapes, and annotated links about real and imagined spaces and places of the U.S. South." Their work is supported by the Robert W. Woodruff Library of Emory University, and visitors will want to browse around the site more than once. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at interactive features like "Negotiating Gender Lines: Women's Movement across Atlanta Mosques" and "The Other Side of Paradise: Glimpsing Slavery in the University's Utopian Landscapes". The site also includes information about the journal's editorial board and a set of thematically organized weblinks.
2005-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03026 Southern Clouds This image shows a system of clouds just off the margin of the South Polar cap. Taken during the summer season, these clouds contain both water-ice and dust. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.2S, Longitude 57.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
2005-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03583 Southern Crater This crater is located south of Agassiz Crater. It is likely that the polar freeze/thaw/frost cycle is responsible for unusual appearance of the ejecta region around the crater. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 76.2S, Longitude 247.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
2005-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03092 Southern Spots This VIS image of the south polar region was collected during the summer season. The markings of the pole are very diverse and easy to see after the winter frost has been removed. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79.7S, Longitude 56.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY
Ganushkin, Dmitry; Chistyakov, Kirill
Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (3970 m) is situated in the intersection of Altai and Sayan mountain ridges. Average annual temperature within the massif is below -2.6°C, annual precipitation 145-300 mm. Glaciation of the massif has total area of 20 km2. Geographers of Saint-Petersburg University study the glaciers and periglacial zone since 1990. Since the maximum of the LIA the glaciers retreat, short stabilizations took place in early 1920-s, mid-1960-s and mid-1980-s. In 1995-2008 glaciation lost 19% of area. Irregular rate of glacial retreat after the LIA lead to formation of 3 groups of debris covered objects. The first group is connected with moraines of LIA (altitude 2650-3000 m). They consist of ice core and debris cover of different thickness. The mechanism of their formation is the following: stabilization of the edges of the glaciers causes accumulation of the debris, they armor the ice, preventing it from melting. When warming starts the exposed part of the glacier grows thinner, the ice under the moraine looses contact with the main body of the glacier. Increased flow of glacial melt water in the last 10 years led to exposure of moraine ice. Some glaciers which supported LIA moraines on the internal side, retreated abruptly in the period of 1995-2008. Moraines lost their stability, they collapse intensely and ice core melts out. This is observed at Seliverstova glacier (2.8 km2). The second group (altitude 2850-2950 m) is situated between LIA moraines and glaciers. It is represented by layers of ice covered by thin (several dozen cm) moraine. Streams along the edges of the layers expose ice to the depth of 2-3 meters in many places. Edges of glaciers on aerial photos of 1965 coincide with the edges of these layers. It proves their glacial origin. Objects of the third group are parts of glaciers that lost their connection with the main glacial masses and turned into dead ice and small cirque glaciers that lost their accumulation area and activity in 1995-2008. The process of armoring of these ice masses is now very active. Rock glaciers of the massif also have glacial genesis but they don't belong to any group because they integrate buried ice of different generations at least from the maximum of the LIA . Periodic cutoff of new masses of buried ice from the glaciers provides continuous alimentation of rock glaciers. We mapped 17 rock glaciers with total area of 5.5 km2. 2 active rock glaciers under valley glaciers Left Mugur and Right Mugur have the shape of tongues cutting through moraines of LIA and extending 350-500 m further down the slope. Activity of these rock glaciers is proved by transverse crevasses, steepness, instability and bareness of frontal ledges, abundance of boulders fallen from these ledges. We estimate the average rate of their advance from the beginning of LIA 0.5-0.7 m/year .
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Released 9 January 2004Long before the MER landers were named or launched, the two orbiters at Mars were asked to examine landing sites. Both the Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft have been collecting landing site data for the past two years. The MGS and ODY data were used as part of the decision making process in the final selection of the two landing sites. The types of data collected by the two orbiters included not only images of the surface but also thermal data about the surface composition, atmospheric data about the climate at each location, and the tracking of major dust storms in the region prior to landing. The presence of, and data collected by, the MGS and ODY orbiters have proven invaluable in MER mission planning.This image, captured 22 June 2002, shows the southern area of Gusev crater and the northern end of Ma'adim Vallis, which is thought to have brought water into Gusev crater in the distant past.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -15.4, Longitude 175.6 East (184.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Cunningham, W. D.
The Hangay Dome in central Mongolia is a mountainous region covering more than 200,000 km 2 with numerous flat-topped peaks over 3000 m that preserve a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene erosion surface. Doming began in the middle Oligocene producing more than 2000 m of regional topographic uplift. The range represents an important kinematic link between the Baikal rift province to the north and Altai transpressional ranges to the south and west. Structural field investigations of major faults visible on satellite imagery indicate that the southern Hangay Dome region is dominated by Late Cenozoic normal faults that bound small half-graben. Most faults are NE-striking and faults at the highest elevations are the most recently active. Most graben appear to be isolated systems that constitute small sediment sinks perched on the flanks and crests of the dome. The first-order feature is the dome itself and most sediment eroded off of the dome is deposited in the Mongolian Valley of Lakes or is carried northwards by the Selenga river and its extensive tributaries. The basement of the dome is a Precambrian craton although the shape and dimensions of the craton are poorly constrained to the north and east. Late Cenozoic uplift of the southern dome region appears to be confined to the area underlain by cratonic basement whereas the Altai region to the south and west is underlain by mechanically weaker Palaeozoic arc and accretionary belts. With respect to the regional northeast directed SHmax, the Hangay craton appears to have acted as a rigid passive indentor focusing Late Cenozoic transpressional deformation around its west and southern margins. Models invoking a Late Cenozoic plume as the driving force for doming and widespread alkaline volcanism on the dome are not strongly supported by geochemical and isotopic data on Neogene-Recent volcanics and the spatial correlation between areas that are domed and older cratonic crust appears too coincidental to be ignored. Convective removal of an overthickened lithospheric root leading to adiabatically decompressed asthenosphere could explain regional doming and volcanism, however major crustal thickening last occurred in the Permian in the southern Hangay region and the time lag between thickening and postulated root removal and plateau uplift (>200 Myr) appears too long. An alternative model is explored based on speculated lithospheric mantle flow patterns driven by India's continued northeastward indentation. It is suggested that lithospheric mantle flow diversion around the overthickened Hangay craton crustal keel could cause lithospheric thinning beneath the craton and passive asthenospheric upwarp leading to regional topographic uplift and decompression melting/alkali volcanism. In general, the angular relationship between Precambrian craton boundaries and the prevailing northeasterly SHmax appears to control the kinematics of late Cenozoic deformation throughout the Hangay, Altai, Sayan and Baikal regions.
The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...
This image shows ice-front retreat in part of the southern Antarctic Peninsula from 1947 to 2009. USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. The southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula is one area studied as part of this project, and is summariz...
A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…
The Antarctic Dipole (ADP) is a dipole-like pattern seen in various atmospheric and oceanic variables between the Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean, respectively. It has been used to infer teleconnections between the Eastern...
Estimates of age and growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) from Matagorda Bay, Texas were made by analyzing thin sections of otoliths (sagittae) from 892 specimens collected along the Texas coast from May 1992 to January 1995...
Campbell & Louise Turner) The Ormand Factor (Editor: Louise Turner) Bounty Hunter #4 (Editor: James Simmonds) Bound by the Force Voices of the Force International Brotherhood of Jedi Knights "Man to Man" by Carol Hines-Stroede (A Tremor in the Force...), Shooting Star #1, Sith Yearbook. Southern Knights #1, Southern Lights #1.5 (all adult), Syndicated Images #1-#4 (Australian mediazine), The Old Republic Reader, The Princess Tapes. The Princess Tapes: The Prologue. The Wookiee Commode #1-#2, Universal...
Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.
Korzhnev, V. N.
The elements of the Protopteris floras were identified in lower Emsian deposits in areas of collision and rift-related volcanism in Gorny Altai, Tuva Trough, Khakassia, Rybinsk Depression, and the eastern Kuznetsk Basin. The appearance of this type of flora in Siberia was accompanied by short-term climatic transitions from humid to arid conditions and periodic shoreline oscillations. The eruptions of volcanoes brought chemical elements and compounds into the atmosphere, which were responsible for mutations in the plants. Natural selection, which was caused by changes in climatic conditions, also played an important role.
1 Southern Region Watershed Management Project September 15, 2000 to September 14, 2005 Terminal Report A network of Land Grant University Extension and research personnel in the Southern region and technology transfer programs. #12;Southern Region Watershed Management Project September 15, 2000
Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.
This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…
‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...
‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...
On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…
Southern sclerotium root rot, caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii, is a problem in warm beet-growing areas, especially when sugar beet is grown as a winter crop. The effects of the disease on the plants are devastating: a blackish rot develops rapidly in the taproots, which become completely cov...
Residents of the American South love food and various culinary delights, and have performed Epicurean wonders with everything from okra all the way to the legendary barbecue pits that can be found along just about every highway and byway in the region. Working with the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi, the Southern Foodways Alliance is dedicated to preserving and cultivating the various food cultures of the American South. These programs include an ongoing oral history project, recipe books, a series of field trips, and the annual Keeper of the Flame award, which is given to a foodways tradition "bearer of note." The site's features section includes tributes to jambalaya, South Georgia cheese, and some fine essays on legendary BBQ locales. The oral history initiative area is truly a wonder, as visitors can browse through two sections, one devoted to barbecue, and the other to the foodways traditions of the Mississippi Delta region.
The well known Documenting the American South Project (discussed in the April 18, 1997 Scout Report) has recently added this section, highlighted by twenty-five full texts, available in SGML (standard generalized markup language) and HTML formats. Included are A Diary From Dixie, by Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut, five works by the African American writer Charles Waddell Chesnutt, two works by Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, Tales, by Edgar Allen Poe, and Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington. Images of covers, title pages, frontispieces, and illustrations may be available, depending on the work. In addition, there are explanatory introductions for selected authors. The site also includes a list of "the one hundred most important Southern literary texts" compiled by the late Professor Robert Bain, and an article from the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.
Almost all of southern Louisiana (30.5N, 92.0E) can be seen in great detail in this single view from space. The rich river bottom land flanking both sides of the Mississippi River and the patchwork mosiac of agricultural fields of the farms stand out. The lush vegetation of the marshlands and bayous can also be seen. New Orleans, on the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain and the vehicle causeway also stand out in good detail.
~. ! Southern Bncluue June 1984 Issue No.4 Some Revolutionary Thoughts Sandra Before I start with the main body of this article, let me state that the kind of analysis this article concerns itself with has little if any bearing on George... the Alliance as just a bunch of minority mal contents, terrorists and bullies, thereby lulling the galactic population into be lieving the rebels have no legitimacy. And certainly any sporadic, exceptional in stances of Alliance abuse of violence (con...
Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.
1999-01-01August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions. The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.
This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences
Medupe, Thebe Rodney
The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.
Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.
Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.
The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.
The Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) created the Southern and Central Swell Model experiments for those with a general interest in oceanography. After learning how the model works, users can view several up-to-date graphics illustrating regional and detailed swell heights on maps and plots. Although acknowledging possible errors, the website provides three day forecasts for coastal waves, tides, and swell heights. The Frequently Asked Questions link provides sufficient information on how to interpret the materials. All those interested in Californian coastal information from boaters and residents to researchers can find assistance at this website.
The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.
Patricia A. Whitelock
The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.
USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. This image identifies the southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula, which is one area studied as part of this project. Research on the southern Antarctic Peninsula is summarized in the USGS report,
This excellent website dedicated to the Southern Forests of the United States "seeks to raise awareness of the threats facing the forests of the southern United States and lay the foundation for increasing the acreage that is conserved or managed in a sustainable manner." First time visitors should watch the very informative four-and-a-half minute video titled "Tour Southern Forests" in the "Gallery" section of the website, as it explains the importance of these forests to humans and animals, the native bio-diversity of the forests, and their history. Additionally, the video explains that the future of these forests is in peril, mainly from suburbanization, but also from pests and diseases, mining, and climate change. The "Solutions" tab on the homepage allows visitors to see the solutions necessary to help conserve and mange the forests, which include the sections "Protected Areas", "Southern Forest Ownership", and "Ensuring Southern Forests for the Future".
Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.
Raleigh, C.B. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY); Sieh, K.; Sykes, L.R.; Anderson, D.L.
Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major desctructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence os such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity is associated with a marked deviation in the pattern of strain accumulation, a correlation that is physically plausible. Although great earthquakes (magnitude greater than 7.5) are too infrequent to have clear associations with any pattern of seismicity that is now observed, the San Andreas fault in southern California has accumulated sufficient potential displacement since the last rupture in 1857 to generate a great earthquake along part or all of its length.
Raleigh, C B; Sieh, K; Sykes, L R; Anderson, D L
Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major destructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence of such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity is associated with a marked deviation in the pattern of strain accumulation, a correlation that is physically plausible. Although great earthquakes (magnitude greater than 7.5) are too infrequent to have clear associations with any pattern of seismicity that is now observed, the San Andreas fault in southern California has accumulated sufficient potential displacement since the last rupture in 1857 to generate a great earthquake along part or all of its length. PMID:17740956
to the Southern Ocean warming [Gille, 2002]. Their anal- ysis also revealed the cooling and fresheningConnection between the decadal variability in the Southern Ocean circulation and the Southern the remarkable upward trend of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and Southern Ocean wind stress in association
Southern statutes, with their dual nature of uniformity and diversity, were doubtlessly an essential source of law for the examination of complex legal relations between American Indians and Anglo Americans in the colonial South. (FF)
Evan L. Griffith
The Metropolitan Water Dist. of Southern California, a wholesale water agency, instituted a variety of measures to cope with drought—water-conservation education for homeowner, farmer, and industry as well as economic incentives.
The Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative website is from the School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences at Auburn University. On the site, users will find articles detailing everything from seedlings, weed control, transplanting to name only a few. The site also has a number depth breakdown of nursery management related tasks in terms of time and cost. This site is an excellent resource for nursery management in general and with specifics as related to the Southern forest region of the United States.
Evans, M R; Bertera, A L; Harris, D W
This article is devoted to the recent advances made in the Southern blotting technique, which is used for the detection of gel-fractionated DNA molecules following transfer to a membrane. The latest practical improvements made to the techniques of Southern blotting, probe labeling, and hybridization are discussed. Among the most significant advances are: new membranes, transfer methods, probe labeling, and rapid hybridization. Detailed protocols show the application of these improvements in this widely used technique. PMID:7859148
This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.
Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.
In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.
Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.
2003-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] At first glance, this THEMIS image showing impact craters and linear ridges and troughs is typical of the southern highlands. However, upon closer examination migrating sand dunes are observed within the troughs. Sandy material can often accumulate in these narrow depressions and become mobilized by wind.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.7, Longitude 281,5 East (68.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]The final VIS image of Arsia Mons is located on the southern flank of the volcano adjacent to the NE trending feature. There has been a significant amount of collapse features formed in this region. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -11.1, Longitude 238.6 East (121.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
2002-01-01The snowstorm which swept across the eastern United States on December 4 and 5 also brought the season's first snow to parts of the south and southern Appalachia. The extent of snow cover over central Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina and Virginia are apparent in this view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). This natural-color image was captured by MISR's downward-looking (nadir) camera on December 7, 2002.The Appalachians are bounded by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher elevation areas retain the green and reddish-brown hues of autumn, and many rivers and lakes appear blue and unfrozen. The highest peak in the eastern United States, Mount Mitchell, is found in North Carolina's western tip, near the Great Smoky Mountains (the dark-colored range at lower right).The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 15805. The image covers an area of 347 kilometers x 279 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 60 to 62 within World Reference System-2 path 19.
This article reviews the literature on migration and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa. It includes Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The literature focuses separately on AIDS or migration. HIV/AIDS is widespread and prevalent in these regions. The major concern is that migrants are at risk due to their migration and HIV infection is spread after a return to their home countries. Populations at risk include rural-to-urban migrants, displaced persons in the Sudan and in the Horn of Africa, refugees crossing borders, and pastoralists moving within rural areas. In 1997, there were an estimated 1.3 million refugees in east African countries and 5 million internally displaced due to conflicts in Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. Risk factors among migrant groups include high rates of partner change, unprotected sexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, prior sexually transmitted diseases, IV drug use, and residence in a high HIV-prevalence community. Confounding factors may be age, gender, occupation, and mobility. Health services for migrants vary between countries. There are successful models for prevention of HIV. 13 targeted interventions are identified. PMID:12295095
Tréguer, Paul J.
The Southern Ocean is a major opal sink and plays a key role in the silica cycle of the world ocean. So far however, a complete cycle of silicon in the Southern Ocean has not been published. On one hand, Southern Ocean surface waters receive considerable amounts of silicic acid (dissolved silica, DSi) from the rest of the world ocean through the upwelling of the Circumpolar Deep Water, fed by contributions of deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. On the other hand, the Southern Ocean exports a considerable flux of the silicic acid that is not used by diatoms in surface waters through the northward pathways of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water, of the Antarctic Intermediate Water, and of the Antarctic Bottom Water. Thus the Southern Ocean is a source of DSi for the rest of the world ocean. Here we show that the Southern Ocean is a net importer of DSi: because there is no significant external input of DSi, the flux of DSi imported through the Circumpolar Deep Water pathway compensates the sink flux of biogenic silica in sediments.
Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.
The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Released 9 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. In our final dust devil image we are again looking at the southern hemisphere of Mars. These tracks occur mainly on the northeast side of the topographic ridges. Of course, there are many exceptions, which makes understanding the dynamics that initiate the actual dust devil cyclone difficult. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -47.6, Longitude 317.3 East (42.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
2007-01-01The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 56.4 by 63.5 kilometers (35 by 39.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 21.6 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 6, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet Dates Acquired: September 4, 2007.
Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.
A kinematic model for southern California, based on late-Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region, is proposed. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. Relative to North America, most of California west of the San Andreas fault is moving parallel to the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges and not parallel to the motion of the Pacific plate. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths in southern California that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion, implying the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California. 70 references.
Coale, Kenneth H.
The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments. Seattle, WA. Geological Society of America. Coale, K., 2003. Open Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments: What they have told us, what they have not. American Society for Limnology and Oceanography and The Oceanography Society, Honolulu, February 2004. Coale, K., 2004. Recent Research from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), in Taking the Heat: What is the impact of ocean fertilization on climate and ocean ecology? Science of earth and sky. AAAS, February 12-16, Seattle, WA
We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...
We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...
Hutcheon, James M.
MARKETING GRADUATE ASSISTANT Georgia Southern University Department of University Housing Job Analysis General Description: The Marketing Graduate Assistant is a University Housing staff member who is enrolled in a Georgia Southern University graduate program. The Marketing Graduate Assistant provides vital
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary
experiments which utilized water samples collected in Southern California coastal waters. Dilute suspensions of corn starchexperiments which utilized water samples collected in Southern California coastal waters. Dilute suspensions of corn starch
Southern California, University of
The University of Southern California Financial Report 2003 University of Southern California in thousands University of Southern California Financial Report 2003 2 3 The Board of Trustees of the University of Southern California In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated balance sheet and the related
1 Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project September 14, 2000 to May 1, 2006 Progress and Impact Report A network of Land Grant University Extension and research personnel in the Southern region and technology transfer programs. #12;Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project September 15, 2000
Introduction Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization The surface waters of the Southern Ocean Experiment (SOIREE, e.g. Abraham et al., 2000; Boyd et al., 2000) and Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization casting doubt on the potential for geoengi- neering climate via iron fertilization (e.g. Zeebe and Archer
Hynds, Ernest C.
During the past decade states in the southern United States have produced an increasing percentage of the nation's "city" magazines. Three magazines illustrate what the southern metropolitan magazines are doing to serve their readers and their communities. "Southern Living" provides information about its readers' interests as urban and suburban…
Southern California, University of
nancialreportUNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 20 08 #12;1 highlights of the university 2 report of the university #12;UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA nancialreport2008 01 highlights of the university June 30,992 #12;UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA nancialreport2008 02 report of independent auditors The Board
Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine
BYLAWS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Amended December 3, 2014 I hereby certify that this is a true and correct copy of the official Bylaws of the University of Southern California and that it has been adopted and amended by the Board of Trustees of the University of Southern California
Southern California, University of
Financial Report 2007 University of Southern California #12;1 Highlights of the University 2 Report of the University #12;Financial Report 2007University of Southern California 1 Highlights of the University June 30,855 #12;Financial Report 2007 University of Southern California2 Report of Independent Auditors The Board
A literature review reveals a multitude of different ideas as to what constitutes rural tourism. A model is suggested that places farm, rural, and non-urban tourism into context. Based on a survey of rural operators and tourists in Southern Germany, several aspects of rural tourism are discussed. The main market segments are families with children and older couples, and their
BRINKER, PAUL; RUSSELL, WENDELL H.
INFORMATION ABOUT LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT TRAINING RESOURCES, IN 15 SOUTHERN STATES, WAS ANALYZED TO DETERMINE PROGRAMS WHICH WOULD EFFECTIVELY INCREASE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES. SOCIAL SCIENTISTS (1) TALKED WITH MORE THAN 360 STAFF MEMBERS IN 58 SCHOOLS, (2) CONTACTED FEDERAL, STATE, LABOR, AND PRIVATE…
Harms, Kyle E.
register for any of the four options. Four core courses are common to all options and must be taken by all to earn a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in chemistry from Southern University and a Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering degree from LSU within a period of approxi- mately five years. At least
Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Eshwara, Vandana K; Kini, Pushpa; Bhat, Vinod
Melioidosis in children is increasingly detected from the coastal region of Southern India during monsoon. We present 11 cases of melioidosis, ranging from localized to disseminated, treated successfully, barring one death. It calls for awareness and upgrading laboratory facilities for better diagnosis and management of pediatric melioidosis. PMID:26388638
Nachiangmai, N; Patamasucon, P; Tipayamonthein, B; Kongpon, A; Nakaviroj, S
The distribution of Pseudomonas pseudomallei was studied in soil and water from various sources of Songkla province, Southern Thailand. P. pseudomallei was isolated from the surface soil of rubber plantations (60.9%) and from the bottom sediments of rice fields (78.1%). Farmers and plantation workers will have a greater risk of contracting melioidosis. PMID:4023820
Southern California, University of
Report of Independent Auditors 3 Consolidated Balance Sheet 4 Consolidated Statement of Activities 6 CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET in thousands REPORT of INDEPENDENT AUDITORS The Board of Trustees of the University of Southern California In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated balance sheet and the related
Bushenkova, Natalia; Kuchay, Olga; Chervov, Victor
The recent geodynamics of southern Siberia is under influence of external and internal factors. First, fields of tension arise on borders of a large earth's plates during their interaction caused by lateral movement. Second, processes in the sublithospheric part of the upper mantle of the region. To study influence of these factors we carried out the comparison of various geophysical methods results, with taking into account available geological data on a faults structure of the region. The joint analysis included results of seismotomographic modeling, determinations of seismotectonic deformation (STD) principal axes orientation, and data of numerical thermogravitational modeling of upper mantle convection with considering influence on its structure of a local overheat under surrounding thick lithosphere blocks. The 3D model of seismic P-waves anomalies distribution in the upper mantle of southern Siberia and adjacent areas is updated by addition to calculations a new data from the ISC catalog. It is calculated by a technique developed during the previous researches (Koulakov, Bushenkova, 2010). Thickness estimates of a «seismic lithosphere» are made in the same way, as in work (Bushenkova, etc., 2008). The received estimates are used for specification of boundary conditions for a numerical thermogravitational modeling (Chervov, Chernykh, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, in press). A principal axes STD orientations are calculated on Riznichenko&Kostrov's method by data of focal mechanisms solution about 770 earthquakes with magnitude of 3.5 - 7.3 which have occurred in the crust of Altai-Sayan area from 1970 to 2007. We have executed a comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the principal axes STD orientations for the southern Siberia and adjacent territories. The following features were found. It is possible to observe a tendency to azimuthal change of the principal axes STD orientations along borders of positive and negative seismic velocity anomalies in the obtained seismotomographic model. We observe obvious correlation of the principal exes STD orientations distribution and convection flows distribution in the obtained numerical thermogravitational model of the upper mantle structure. Namely, orientations of an extension are mainly located along descending flow (in the plan), whereas orientations of a shortening - across them respectively. Further with approach to an ascending flow it is possible to observe a tendency to change of the direction of the STD orientations of an extension axes around its center, and on radii - directly over the center of this ascending flow. We consider that, due to stability of the observed tendencies, in other areas with similar block structure of a lithosphere, it will be possible to predict orientations of a principal axes seismotectonic deformations for the subsequent seismic events in similar regions. Work is performed with partial support of the RFBR #13-05-00054 and IP SB RAS #76.
The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires. The haze aerosols sampled were more heat-absorbing than expected, which means the haze layer may have a significant warming influence on the region's atmosphere. For more information, see the press release Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Visualization Studio
Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.
To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed <5% to total zooplankton in the Lazarev Sea, but 15% (max = 93%) to macrozooplankton in the East Antarctic. In addition to regional density distributions we have synthesized data on vertical distributions, seasonal cycles, and inter-annual density variation. Trophically, gymnosome are specialist predators on thecosomes, while thecosomes are considered predominantly herbivorous, capturing food with a mucous web. The ingestion rates of L. retroversa australis are in the upper range for sub-Antarctic mesozooplankton (31.2-4196.9 ng pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also contribute significantly to organic carbon flux through the production of fast sinking faecal pellets and mucous flocs, and rapid sinking of dead animals ballasted by their aragonite shells. Quantification of these contributions requires data on mucous web production rates, egestion rates, assimilation efficiencies, metabolic rates, and faecal pellet morphology for application to sediment trap studies. Based on the available data, pteropods are regionally significant components of the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem. However, there is an urgent need for focused research on this group in order to quantify how a decline in pteropod densities may impact on Southern Ocean ecosystems.
2002-01-01Southern California's 'Santa Anas' are dry, north-easterly winds having speeds in excess of 25 knots (46 kilometers/hour). Santa Ana conditions are commonly associated with gusts of more than twice this level. These offshore winds usually occur in late fall and winter when a high pressure system forms in the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevadas and the Rocky Mountains. The air warms as it flows downslope from the high plateau, and its speed increases dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of the winds varies greatly from place to place, and the Santa Anas can be sufficiently strong to pick up surface dust.This view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer shows the pattern of airborne dust stirred up by Santa Ana winds on February 9, 2002. The image is from MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera, and airborne particulates are especially visible due to the camera's oblique viewing angle. Southeast of the Los Angeles Basin, a swirl of dust, probably blown through the Banning Pass, curves toward the ocean near Dana Point. The largest dust cloud occurs near Ensenada, in Baja California, Mexico. Also visible in this image is a blue-gray smoke plume from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California.This image was acquired during Terra orbit 11423, and represents an area of about 410 kilometers x 511 kilometers.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
This page contains a map of southern California with epicenters of earthquakes shown as circles of different sizes and colors. The size and color of each earthquake symbol corresponds to its magnitude, as indicated by a scale on the map. Clicking on an epicenter takes the user to a page of information about that earthquake. Earthquakes dating back to 1812 are shown. Also available on this page are links to fault maps, earthquake animations, and other indexes of seismological information.
Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information
The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.
Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.
During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field campaigns such as Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A), Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Since those large international efforts, satellites have matured enough to enable quantifiable measurements of regional land surface, atmosphere, and ocean. In addition, global and chemical transport models have also been advanced to incorporate various data. Thus, the timing of the workshop was right for a full-fledged re-assessment of the chemistry, physics, and socio-economical impacts caused by pollution in the region, including a characterization of sources, deposition, and feedbacks with climate change.
Dalziel, I.W.D.; Garrett, S.W.; Grunow, A.M.; Pankhurst, R.J.; Storey, B.C.; Vennum, W.R.
Between the southern Andes of Tierra del Fuego and the southern Alps of New Zealand lies the least accessible and geologically least explored part of the Pacific Ocean basin. A joint United Kingdom-United States project was initiated in 1983 to elucidate the geologic history and structure of the Pacific margin of Antarctica from the Antarctic Peninsula to Pine Island Bay at approximately lone. 105/sup 0/W. The first season (1983-1984) of this West Antarctic Tectonics Project was spent in the Ellsworth-Whitmore crustal block, and the second (1984-1985) in the Thurston Island crustal block. The project involves structural and general field geology, petrology, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and airborne geophysics (magnetics and radar ice echo sounding). A final geologic season will be spent in the Pensacola Mountains of the Transantarctic Range in 1987-1988.
Givens, Vonda Ka
Analysis of the rhetorical structure of the myth of southern womanhood through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with particular focus on its manifestation in feature films. The myth's origins, its relation to all southern mythology, and its...
Mabey, Don R.
The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.
and Development of Regional Resource Library: John Chastain was not present, no further discussion. DiscussedMinutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste) Introduction, review of past minutes Discussion of Southern Region Extension Water Quality Conference, October
- hanced poleward heat flux and drives warming south of the oceanic Polar Front. This warming is of greater of the Southern Ocean. Gille (2002) demonstrates a warming aThe Role of Eddies in the Southern Ocean Temperature Response to the Southern Annular Mode JAMES A
Jackson, David D.
Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.
The USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station provides this growing database of online, full-text articles that have appeared in print. Covering everything from mountain roads and water quality, to carbohydrate metabolism of peaches, to reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers, this collection of scientific articles and book chapters is updated frequently. The Products section contains the 100 Most Recent Publications page lists papers in order of their addition to the database. All articles are in .pdf format, and may be downloaded from the page (click on title).
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON Leading the Way in Electricity 1 Southern California Edison Leading the Way in Electricity 1 Distributed Energy Resource 21, 2013 #12;SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON Leading the Way in Electricity 2
...EL11-48-000] Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Filing Take notice that on...26, 2011, Southern California Edison Company filed its compliance filing, pursuant...1\\ Southern California Edison Company, Order on Waiver Request 136 FERC ]...
2001-01-01This map shows the abundance of airborne particulates, or aerosols, over Southern Africa during the period August 14 - September 29, 2000. Low particle concentrations are shown in shades of blue, and high concentrations in shades of red. The results were generated from MISR imagery acquired over this time period, and processed using MISR's automated software system. The approach for deriving aerosol amount makes use of the variation of scene brightness and contrast as a function of observation angle. Black areas over the land area correspond to places where a result was not obtained, for example, due to the presence of clouds.Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. Vegetation availability increases northward, hence the greater abundance of haze and smoke in Angola and southern Zaire. The lower aerosol abundance around Lesotho and southeastern South Africa is consistent with the higher terrain elevations near the Drakensberg Mountains.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
Dafoe, G H
The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), in a little over 2 years, have established a Southern African AIDS Training Programme (SAT) that is effective in developing community-based responses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, the program provides financial assistance, training, monitoring, and advice and information to 120 project partners. The average grant size is $40,000. In a second phase of the project, SAT will attempt to meet the requests of its partners for more services. Currently, to meet needs for rapid, responsive training, and novel approaches to skill building, SAT has developed a collaborative nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiative, "The School Without Walls". This program identifies and amplifies what has worked effectively for organizations and programs. Other similar organizations and programs learn from these experiences. Site visits, apprenticeships, mentor organizations, and skills-building based on shared problem-diagnosis and resolution are some of the techniques employed. A draft report of the CIDA midterm external evaluation of SAT recommends renewal of the program, resourcing of the program to meet its regional responsibilities, and adoption of "The School Without Walls" as a central strategy for southern Africa. PMID:8180923
Phipps, Steven J.
Conclusions Modulation of the Southern Hemisphere circulation by large-scale geoengineering Steven J. Phipps1-scale geoengineering #12;Southern Annular Mode G3 and G3solar Temperature and precipitation Southern HemisphereMIP Meeting, 2425 April 2014: Modulation of the Southern Hemisphere circulation by large-scale geoengineering
Notes From the Field, 1998
This report focuses on the role Southern philanthropy can play in addressing racism, poverty, and inequality by supporting education and workforce improvement. "Framing the Conversation" takes input from George Autry (MDC), William Bynum (Enterprise Corporation of the Delta), Lynn Walker Huntley (Southern Education Foundation), and Martin Lehfeldt…
Tucker, Jack; Lee, Everett S.
Between 1960 and 1970, the black population of the southern United States increased only four percent by comparison with a national increase in black population of twenty percent. Considering the many factors involved in population redistribution, this report compares southern and overall national trends in black population and analyzes the…
Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project September 14, 2004 to June 1, 2005 Progress responding to water quality and conservation issues with educational assistance, technology development and technology transfer programs. #12;2 Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project Annual Report Sept. 15
Stanley, Kenneth O.
Dr. Boqing Gong University of Southern California "Kernel Methods for Unsupervised Visual Domain at the University of Southern California. His research lies in the intersection between machine learning School of Engineering Doctoral Fellowship. Boqing holds a M.Phil. degree from the Chinese University
Chinese American Faculty Association of Southern California CAFA Fall Picnic Date: October 27 Association of Southern California CAFA Fall Picnic at The Getty Center October 27, 2001 4:00- 7:00 p of Finance and Law California State University, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90032 #12;
Sheath blight is a serious fungal disease problem in southern US rice production, making it necessary for rice farmers to diligently use fungicides for its control. There are no long grain rice varieties adapted to commercial production in the southern US that have adequate resistance to sheath bli...
Marion, Robert L.
Rural education in the Southern United States is discussed in sections on the social and economic role of education, problems in Southern rural society, the importance of material resources, and concluding recommendations. Education is perceived as: improving the quality of recipients' lives; providing a ranking system which fits children into the…
Nickrent, Daniel L.
Southern Illinois University Carbondale Affirmative Action Policy It is the policy of Southern to the principles of equal employment and affirmative action and will continue to conduct all personnel actions of discrimination in our society. The University's Affirmative Action Program identifies special actions intended
This website depicts stratigraphic columns of exposed rocks in southwestern regions of the United States. A general explanation of symbols used in the columns is provided for reference, and the columns indicate rock type, formation names and geologic time periods. The areas covered include the Grand Canyon, central and southern Arizona, southern Utah and Nevada, and western New Mexico and Colorado.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries digitizes historical documents for their Church in the Southern Black Community online collection, part of the ongoing digitization of materials in the Documenting the American South series (see the April 18, 1997 Scout Report). According to its creators, "'The Church in the Southern Black Community' traces how Southern African Americans experienced and transformed Protestant Christianity into the central institution of community life." Currently, the site offers transcribed oral histories and autobiographies of former slaves, a diary of a New England woman living in the South in 1865, official church documents that give insight into how religious organizations approached slaves and former slaves as potential converts, and more. New documents are added on a regular basis. The other e-text collections on-site are First-Person Narratives of the American South, a Library of Southern Literature, North American Slave Narratives, and The Southern Homefront, 1861-1865.
Gras, John L.
Aerosol particle-size distribution data have been obtained in the Southern Hemisphere from approximately 4-deg S to 44-deg S and between ground level and 5 km, in the vicinity of eastern Australia. The relative shape of the free-tropospheric size distribution for particles with radii larger than approximately 0.04 micron was found to be remarkably stable with time, altitude, and location for the autumn-winter periods considered. This was despite some large concentration changes, which were found to be typical of the southeastern Australian coastal region. The majority of free-troposphere large particles were found to have sulfuric acid or lightly ammoniated sulfate morphology. Large particles in the boundary layer almost exclusively had a sea-salt morphology.
The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center, aims to reduce earthquake hazard by defining the locations of future earthquakes, calculating expected ground motions, and conveying this information to the general public. The SCECÂ¹s homepage contains access to research and data, including links to databases for strong motion and seismograms, and a searchable and sortable bibliographic database of publications. Also available are GPS data and a network of GPS stations. A link to the Earthquake Information Network provides a searchable list of up-to-date internet earthquakes resources. Note, in order to access the SCEC Publications Database, a username and password are required. Use your own name for the username, and enter -webview as the password. SCEC is a first rate resource for earthquake engineers.
Lesure, Frank G.; Chatman, Mark L.
The Southern Massanutten Roadless Area is in the George Washington National Forest in the Shenandoah Valley of Page and Rockingham Counties, Virginia. According to mineral surveys of the area, inferred resources of low-grade iron occur at two mines in folded Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The iron resources consist of 120,000 long tons of clayey and sandy limonite. Other mineral resources occur in the area including extensive areas of high-silica sandstone, shale suitable for making brick, and limestone suitable for crushed stone and agricultural lime. The potential for the occurrence of oil or natural gas resources cannot be evaluated from the available data. The nonmetallic mineral resources are of limited importance because of relative inaccessibility as compared to large accessible resources outside the roadless area.
Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney
The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.
Castle, R O; Church, J P; Elliott, M R
Preliminary examination of the historic geodetic record has disclosed crustal uplift of 0.15 to 0.25 meter that apparently began around 1960 and has since grown to include at least 12,000 square kilometers of southern California. This uplift extends at least 150 kilometers west-northwestward along the San Andreas Fault from Cajon to Maricopa, southward from the San Andreas into the northern Transverse Ranges, and eastward from Lebec into and including much of western Mojave block. It seems to have grown spasmodically eastward from a center near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults and has occurred largely within an area that has remained virtually aseismic since at least 1932. Although much of this area has been characterized by crustal mobility since at least the turn the century, the described uplift seems to be an unusually large and probably unique event superimposed the existing pattern of continuing deformation. PMID:17831160
Magmatic activity in southern Mexico have been occurred in three important volcanic regions: Los Tuxtlas Volcanic Field (TVF), Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA), and Tacaná Volcanic Complex (TVC). This activity produce alkaline and calc-alkaline products. The TVF has been active since 7 Ma ago producing Na-alkaline basanite, trachybasalt, and trachyandesite (41 63 wt% SiO2), and calc-alkaline basalts, basaltic-andesites, and andesites (45 63 wt% SiO2). The CVA including El Chichon Volcano produced calc-alkaline magmas varying from andesites to dacites (57 65 wt% SiO2) emitted between 2100 ka ago (Tzontehuitz) to 225 ka and K-alkaline magmas emitted from 1.1 Ma ago (trachybasalt, 46 51 wt% SiO2) to the Recent (trachyandesite, 57 63 wt% SiO2). The TVC emitted calc-alkaline products varying from basaltic-andesite (52 57 wt% SiO2) as mafic enclaves, andesites (57 63 wt% SiO2), and dacites (63 68 wt% SiO2). El Chichón and TVF present slight enrichments in K2O, Na2O, Rb, Sr, Th, U, Cs, and LREE respect to TVC, these are signatures related to subduction environment. The presence of alkaline magmas at El Chichón and TVF correspond to mantle low degree melts that reach the surface along with calc-alkaline lavas due to a tensional stress field that allows their pass to the surface. In the generation of the magmas of southern Mexico three components are involved: mantle partial melting fluids, fluid from subducted lithosphere, and continental crust, likely interacting in different ratios through time and in different proportions from SW to NE.
...Southern Recycling’s] refusal...Plaintiff Southern Recycling’s Response...the first two issues... Southern Recycling is no longer...Southern Recycling argues that... Southern Recycling takes issue...there is no material issue of...
Shein, K. A.
Southern Florida is home to the unique Everglades ecosystem that feeds into the Florida Bay. Heavy precipitation events, either over the Everglades or the Bay can introduce pollutants and excessive fresh water into the bay, while prolonged drought reduces water levels in the wetlands and can contribute to hypersalinity events in the bay. Systematic changes in precipitation frequency and intensity can result in long-term negative impacts to these southern Florida ecosystems. This paper examines the historical in situ record of precipitation over southern Florida, with special emphasis on evaluating the behavior of heavy precipitation events and periods of deficit.
Cossa, Daniel; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Lannuzel, Delphine; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Butler, Edward C. V.; Bowie, Andrew R.; Averty, Bernard; Watson, Roslyn J.; Remenyi, Tomas
We present here the first mercury speciation study in the water column of the Southern Ocean, using a high-resolution south-to-north section (27 stations from 65.50°S to 44.00°S) with up to 15 depths (0-4440 m) between Antarctica and Tasmania (Australia) along the 140°E meridian. In addition, in order to explore the role of sea ice in Hg cycling, a study of mercury speciation in the "snow-sea ice-seawater" continuum was conducted at a coastal site, near the Australian Casey station (66.40°S; 101.14°E). In the open ocean waters, total Hg (Hg T) concentrations varied from 0.63 to 2.76 pmol L -1 with "transient-type" vertical profiles and a latitudinal distribution suggesting an atmospheric mercury source south of the Southern Polar Front (SPF) and a surface removal north of the Subantartic Front (SAF). Slightly higher mean Hg T concentrations (1.35 ± 0.39 pmol L -1) were measured in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) compared to Antarctic Intermediate water (AAIW) (1.15 ± 0.22 pmol L -1). Labile Hg (Hg R) concentrations varied from 0.01 to 2.28 pmol L -1, with a distribution showing that the Hg T enrichment south of the SPF consisted mainly of Hg R (67 ± 23%), whereas, in contrast, the percentage was half that in surface waters north of PFZ (33 ± 23%). Methylated mercury species (MeHg T) concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.86 pmol L -1. All vertical MeHg T profiles exhibited roughly the same pattern, with low concentrations observed in the surface layer and increasing concentrations with depth up to an intermediate depth maximum. As for Hg T, low mean MeHg T concentrations were associated with AAIW, and higher ones with AABW. The maximum of MeHg T concentration at each station was systematically observed within the oxygen minimum zone, with a statistically significant MeHg Tvs Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) relationship ( p < 0.001). The proportion of Hg T as methylated species was lower than 5% in the surface waters, around 50% in deep waters below 1000 m, reaching a maximum of 78% south of the SPF. At Casey coastal station Hg T and Hg R concentrations found in the "snow-sea ice-seawater" continuum were one order of magnitude higher than those measured in open ocean waters. The distribution of Hg T there suggests an atmospheric Hg deposition with snow and a fractionation process during sea ice formation, which excludes Hg from the ice with a parallel Hg enrichment of brine, probably concurring with the Hg enrichment of AABW observed in the open ocean waters. Contrastingly, MeHg T concentrations in the sea ice environment were in the same range as in the open ocean waters, remaining below 0.45 pmol L -1. The MeHg T vertical profile through the continuum suggests different sources, including atmosphere, seawater and methylation in basal ice. Whereas Hg T concentrations in the water samples collected between the Antarctic continent and Tasmania are comparable to recent measurements made in the other parts of the World Ocean (e.g., Soerensen et al., 2010), the Hg species distribution suggests distinct features in the Southern Ocean Hg cycle: (i) a net atmospheric Hg deposition on surface water near the ice edge, (ii) the Hg enrichment in brine during sea ice formation, and (iii) a net methylation of Hg south of the SPF.
On Earth, periglacial is a term that refers to regions and processes where cold climate contributes to the evolution of landforms and landscapes. Common in periglacial environments on Earth, such as the arctic of northern Canada,Siberia, and Alaska, is a phenomenon called patterned ground. The 'patterns' in patterned ground often take the form of large polygons, each bounded by either troughs or ridges made up of rock particles different in size from those seen in the interior of the polygon. On Earth, many polygons in periglacial environments are directly linked to water: they typically form from stresses induced by repeated freezing and thawing of water, contraction from stress induced by changing temperatures, and sorting of rocks brought to the surface along polygon boundaries by the freeze-thaw processes. Although not exclusively formed by freezing and thawing of water, that is often the dominant mechanism on Earth.Polygons similar to those found in Earth's arctic and antarctic regions are also found in the polar regions of Mars. Typically, they occur on crater floors, or on intercrater plains, between about 60o and 80o latitude. The polygons are best seen when bright frost or dark sand has been trapped in the troughs that form the polygon boundaries. Three examples of martian polygons seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are shown here. Each is located in the southern hemisphere:(left) Polygon troughs highlighted by frost as the south polar cap retreats during spring. The circular features are the locations of buried craters that were originally formed by meteor impact. This image, E09-00029, is located at 75.1oS, 331.3oW, and was acquired on 1 October 2001.(center) Summertime view of polygons, highlighted by dark, windblown sand, on the floor of a crater at 71.2oS, 282.6oW. The image, E12-02319, was obtained on 21January 2002.(right) Polygon troughs highlighted by the retreating south polar frost cap during southern summer near 80.7oS, 70.4oW. This picture, M11-01795, was taken by MOC on 13 January 2000.Some Mars researchers assume that polygons on the Red Planet are key indictors that ground ice is present or was present in the recent past. However, whether these polygons actually required water ice to form is, in fact, unknown, since dry processes are also known on Earth for form similar polygons.
...The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern Oregon viticultural area are two 1:250,000 scale, USGS topography maps. They are titled: (1) Roseburg, Oregon—1958, revised 1970; and (2) Medford, Oregon;...
...The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern Oregon viticultural area are two 1:250,000 scale, USGS topography maps. They are titled: (1) Roseburg, Oregon—1958, revised 1970; and (2) Medford, Oregon;...
...The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern Oregon viticultural area are two 1:250,000 scale, USGS topography maps. They are titled: (1) Roseburg, Oregon—1958, revised 1970; and (2) Medford, Oregon;...
New South Wales, University of
Coffs Harbour campus: CRICOS provider number 01241G Hogbin Drive Coffs Harbour NSW Gold Coast campus to study; from the rapidly expanding southern Gold Coast campus, to Lismore in the Northern Rivers, Coffs
Ramotowski, Michelle R.
Data from satellites and reanalysis products are analyzed to study the behavior of wave trains in the three major Southern Hemisphere Convergences zones: the South Pacific, the South Atlantic, and the South Indian. Using composites on high rain...
, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. dalrympleana, E. regnans, Populus hybrid, and Taxodium distichum. E equisiti folia, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus dalrympleana, Eucalyptus globulus, EucalyptusSouthern California Trial Plantings of Eucalyptus1 Paul W. Moore2 Following the Arab oil embargo
Southern Ocean (SO) marine primary productivity (PP) is strongly influenced by the availability of iron in surface waters, which is thought to exert a significant control upon atmospheric CO2 concentrations on glacial/interglacial ...
Thomas, Erik Robert
A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHERN SHIFT A Thesis by ERIK ROBERT THOMAS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1989... Major Subject: English A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHERN SHIFT A Thesis by ERIK ROBERT THOMAS Approved as to style and content by: Guy Bailey (Chair of Committee) Barbara Johnstone (Member) Robert H. Benson (Member) J. Lawrence Mitchell...
W. I. Beavers; J. J. Eitter
Fick Observatory's second major installment of radial-velocity measurements of bright southern stars is presented. This includes 373 radial-velocity measurements for 90 stars which were obtained between January 1978 and June 1981. Fifteen new possible velocity variables and one new double-line spectroscopic binary (HD 1782) have been detected. Subsequent velocity measurements of stars from the first southern HR study (Beavers and
Most of the sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the northern hemisphere. The relatively less dust emission in the southern hemisphere in part limits the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity and ability to seque...
S. R. Rintoul; K. Speer; M. Sparrow; M. Meredith; E. Hofmann; E. Fahrbach; C. Summerhayes; Y. Fukamachi; A. Naveira Garabato; K. Alverson; V. Ryabinin
By connecting the ocean basins and the upper and lower limbs of the ocean overturning circulation, the Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles and climate. Limited observations suggest the Southern Ocean is changing: the region is warming more rapidly than the global ocean average; salinity changes driven by changes in precipitation and ice
Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.
This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…
Villalba, Ricardo; Lara, Antonio; Masiokas, Mariano H.; Urrutia, Rocío; Luckman, Brian H.; Marshall, Gareth J.; Mundo, Ignacio A.; Christie, Duncan A.; Cook, Edward R.; Neukom, Raphael; Allen, Kathryn; Fenwick, Pavla; Boninsegna, José A.; Srur, Ana M.; Morales, Mariano S.; Araneo, Diego; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Cuq, Emilio; Aravena, Juan C.; Holz, Andrés; Lequesne, Carlos
Recent changes in the summer climate of the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics are primarily related to the dominance of the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode. This shift in the behaviour of the Southern Annular Mode--essentially a measure of the pressure gradient between Southern Hemisphere mid and high latitudes--has been predominantly induced by polar stratospheric ozone depletion. The concomitant southward expansion of the dry subtropical belts could have consequences for forest growth. Here, we use tree-ring records from over 3,000 trees in South America, Tasmania and New Zealand to identify dominant patterns of tree growth in recent centuries. We show that the foremost patterns of growth between 1950 and 2000 differed significantly from those in the previous 250 years. Specifically, growth was higher than the long-term average in the subalpine forests of Tasmania and New Zealand, but lower in the dry-mesic forests of Patagonia. We further demonstrate that variations in the Southern Annular Mode can explain 12-48% of the tree growth anomalies in the latter half of the twentieth century. Tree-ring-based reconstructions of summer Southern Annular Mode indices suggest that the high frequency of the positive phase since the 1950s is unprecedented in the past 600 years. We propose that changes in the Southern Annular Mode have significantly altered tree growth patterns in the Southern Hemisphere.
Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.
Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.
Uotila, P. J.; Lynch, A. H.; D'Amico, M.; Abramson, R.; Egan, A.; Pezza, A. B.; Keay, K.; Cassano, J. J.
Cyclones over the Southern Ocean represent an important element in the global circulation of heat and moisture and the maintenance of Southern Hemisphere climate. We seek to advance the understanding of atmospheric processes responsible for the development and decay of Southern Ocean mesocyclones and to explore the interactions between these cyclones and the underlying surface conditions, including sea ice extent, thickness, concentration, motion, and temperature. In this presentation, we will describe a Southern Ocean climatology, created based on the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) output and satellite observations. Intercomparison of cyclonicity between three re-analysis products and AMPS output reveals significant differences close to Antarctica especially during winter. Differences arise due to resolution of data and different surface parametrization schemes. The method applied to construct the climatology utilizes the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique to derive large-scale circulation patterns and a cyclone detection algorithm. The seasonal variability between large- scale circulation patterns and their association to the cyclone formation over the Southern Ocean is of particular interest. In addition, variables that influence the formation of a cyclogenetic environment, such as sea surface temperatures and the sea-ice extent, are analyzed.
Greenberg, Joel (Joel R.).
In the sorts of places you would least expect it, author Joel Greenberg reveals an abundance of life and bio-diversity in his A Naturalist's Tour of Southern Lake Michigan. Highlighting areas around the rim of southern Lake Michigan, Greenberg's work discusses some state parks and other nature preserves. Serving as a guide, he signals to his readers small outcroppings of nature that have survived and endured, in spite of civilization. Fox example, Mr. Greenberg calls attention to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and State Park. A wet, grassy plain full of plantlife, the park sits north of the industrial southern tip of Lake Michigan, exactly where one might have failed to look for a park that, with the exceptions of the Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains, has more types of plants than any other national park.
Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.
A kinematic model for southern California, based on late-Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region, is proposed. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. Relative to North America, most of California west of the San Andreas fault is moving parallel to the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges and not parallel to the motion of the Pacific plate. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths in southern California that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion, implying the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California.
Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Maggi, Alessia; Tromp, Jeroen
Using an inversion strategy based on adjoint methods, we developed a three-dimensional seismological model of the southern California crust. The resulting model involved 16 tomographic iterations, which required 6800 wavefield simulations and a total of 0.8 million central processing unit hours. The new crustal model reveals strong heterogeneity, including local changes of +/-30% with respect to the initial three-dimensional model provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The model illuminates shallow features such as sedimentary basins and compositional contrasts across faults. It also reveals crustal features at depth that aid in the tectonic reconstruction of southern California, such as subduction-captured oceanic crustal fragments. The new model enables more realistic and accurate assessments of seismic hazard. PMID:19696349
New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae . The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) high in orbit around the Earth, suddenly registered an intense burst of gamma-ray radiation from a direction less than 10° from the celestial south pole. Independently, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM) on board the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite also detected the event (see GCN GRB Observation Report 304 ). Following the BATSE alert, the BeppoSAX Wide-Field Cameras (WFC) quickly localized the sky position of the burst within a circle of 3 arcmin radius in the southern constellation Chamaeleon. It was also detected by other satellites, including the ESA/NASA Ulysses spacecraft , since some years in a wide orbit around the Sun. The event was designated GRB 990510 and the measured position was immediately distributed by BeppoSAX Mission Scientist Luigi Piro to a network of astronomers. It was also published on Circular No. 7160 of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Paul Vreeswijk, Titus Galama , and Evert Rol of the Amsterdam/Huntsville GRB follow-up team (led by Jan van Paradijs ) immediately contacted astronomers at the 1-meter telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) (Sutherland, South Africa) of the PLANET network microlensing team, an international network led by Penny Sackett in Groningen (The Netherlands). There, John Menzies of SAAO and Karen Pollard (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) were about to begin the last of their 14 nights of observations, part of a continuous world-wide monitoring program looking for evidence of planets around other stars. Other PLANET sites in Australia and Tasmania where it was still nighttime were unfortunately clouded out (some observations were in fact made that night at the Mount Stromlo observatory in Australia, but they were only announced one day later). As soon as possible - immediately after sundown and less than 9 hours after the initial burst was recorded - the PLANET observers turned their telescope and quickly obtained a series of CCD images in visu
Bhattachan, Abinash; D'Odorico, Paolo; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Cassar, Nicolas
Most sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the Northern Hemisphere. The lower dust emissions in the Southern Hemisphere in part limit the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity. Climate and land use change can alter the current distribution of dust source regions on Earth. Can new dust sources be activated in the Southern Hemisphere? Here we show that vegetation loss and dune remobilization in the Southern Kalahari can promote dust emissions comparable to those observed from major contemporary dust sources in the Southern African region. Dust generation experiments support the hypothesis that, in the Southern Kalahari, aeolian deposits that are currently mostly stabilized by savanna vegetation are capable of emitting substantial amounts of dust from interdune areas. We show that dust from these areas is relatively rich in soluble iron, an important micronutrient for ocean productivity. Trajectory analyses show that dust from the Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean and could therefore enhance its productivity.
The distribution of precipitation in both time and space in the southern Nevada area is examined. It is concluded that this area can be divided into two zones of precipitation separated by a transition zone on the basis of annual average precipitation. One region, relative to the other area, is defined to be a deficit annual average precipitation region. This observation could have a significant impact on groundwater recharge estimates and on the siting of facilities which must be protected from flash floods. In addition, precipitation records at three stations in the southern Nevada area were examined and point intensity/duration relationships were derived for these stations.
Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Sergeev, V. N.
Geological, chemo-, and biostratigraphic data indicate that the Vendian section of the Ura uplift is the most complete one in southern Middle Siberia and contains analogs of main units of the Vendian stratotype. This section is well known having been investigated by several generations of geologists, well exposed, and easily accessible; therefore, it is proposed to serve as a regional reference section for Vendian deposits of the entire southern Middle Siberia. Its description is accompanied by presentation of new biostratigraphic and radioisotopic data. The section is correlated with other Vendian sections of the Baikal-Patom and some other world regions.
Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.
Moho ages beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and to the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect. Moho structure in southern Norway was targeted recently with a seismic refraction study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains, the youngest section of the Fennoscandian shield were recorded. Moho depths beneath the high mountains are 36-40 km, thinning towards the Atlantic Margin and the Oslo graben. A new Moho depth map is constructed for southern Norway by compiling new depth measurements with previous refraction Moho measurements. Gaining better constraint on Moho depths in this area is timely, as debate over the source of support for the mountains has provided the impetus for a new focus project, TopoScandesdeep, to find the depth and mechanisms of compensation. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson's ratio structure that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson's ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower crust is present. The vast difference in Moho depths in the Fennoscandian shield are, therefore, mostly due to the variation in thickness of the high Vp lower crust. These new data on Moho depth, lower crustal thickness and crustal composition provide new insights into the processes that have led to both the uplift and maintenance of the southern Scandes Mountains.
...Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company, Pennsylvania Northeastern Railroad...as follows: (A) Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed to assign its...Southern Corporation/Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSC, NSR), Consolidated...
8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV
7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV
6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV
1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV
3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV
4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV
Stem blight, caused by the fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a destructive disease of rabbiteye and highbush blueberries in the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberry cultivars, hybrids between V. corymbosum and various native "southern" blueberry species, increasingly are being r...
Mazloff, Matthew R.
An eddy-permitting general circulation model of the Southern Ocean is fit by constrained least squares to a large observational dataset during 2005–06. Data used include Argo float profiles, CTD synoptic sections, Southern ...
OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL
SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL
Ware, Nikisha Green
The purpose of this study was to discover which southern universities have graduate preparatory programs in community college leadership and how, if at all, ethics is addressed in their curricula and in instruction. Surveys were mailed to 38 southern universities located in the Southern Regional Education Board member states. Of the 21 responses…
Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 19982000 tropical ozone climatology 2; published 31 January 2003.  The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere
Simons, Theodore R.
Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations 2014 Abstract Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope d15 N. Mercury
obtained on the geology of southern Madagascar and to present an overview of its Pan-African (lateGR GondivanaReseiirch Metamorphism and Tectonics in Southern Madagascar :An Overview J southern Madagascar.After a presentation of the main geophysical features of the Malagasy crust, tlie
(E96) TOMATO: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 'Neptune' Southern armyworm; Spodoptera eridania (Stoll-9515 Phone: (941) 658-3427 PROTECTION OF STAKED TOMATO FROM SOUTHERN ARMYWORM AND BEET ARMYWORM WITH BIOPESTICIDES 1997: Southern armyworm (SAW) is the principal noctuid pest of tomato in southwest Florida
The Economic Significance of the Southern Lakes Ski Areas - 2005 Winter Season - Prepared for New Zealand Trade and Enterprise and the Southern Lakes Ski Areas by The New Zealand Tourism Research Institute December 2005 #12;The Economic Significance of the Southern Lakes Ski Areas 2005 Winter Season
1 University of Southern California 1 © M. Pedram Nov 1997 M. PedramUSC Massoud Pedram University · Example Minimization Techniques · Summary Jan 1998 #12;2 University of Southern California 2 © M. Pedram Minute Speed Error Jan 1998 #12;3 University of Southern California 3 © M. Pedram Nov 1997 M. Pedram
Southern California, University of
University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 90089-0182 (213) 740-5900 Deed of Gift or otherwise assign ownership of the Works to the University of Southern California ("USC") as the recipient: Dean of the USC Libraries (Date) Accepted for the University of Southern California by: Senior Vice
Inc. and Adjunct Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California. She1 CHINESE AMERICAN FACYULTY ASOSCIATION OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (CAFA) NEWSLETTER, January 20, 2004 Association of Southern California (CAFA), we like to express our sincere gratitude to you for your generous
Southern California, University of
Building the Future of USCUniversity of Southern California Financial Report 2014 #12;University of Southern California Financial Report 2014 02 Building the Future of USC 24 University Highlights 30 and serve the surrounding neighborhood. #12;#12;University of Southern California Financial Report 20142
1 CHINESE AMERICAN FACULTY ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (CAFA) NEWSLETTER, January 28, 2003 Association of Southern California (CAFA), we like to express our sincere gratitude to you for your generous in academia from various campuses in Southern California. Furthermore, you may participate in and support CAFA
OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, B&P, AND BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC MOLDING MACHINES. OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT, SOUTHERN DUCTILE MAINTAINS AN AUTOMATED LAEMPE COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL
Koko, Vjollca; Ndrepepa, Ana; Skenderaj, Skender
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and the burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Southern Albania. Material and Methods: This is an epidemiologic observational study with cross-sectional analyses of all patients with RA who lived in Southern Albania during the 1995-2011 years. The RA prevalence, incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) were assessed. Results: During the 1995-2011 years, 194 patients (154 females and 40 males) with RA living in Southern Albania were identified. The prevalence of RA in 2011 was 0.25% in general population and 0.34% in adult (>14 years) population. The incidence of RA in 2011 was 0.012% (12 new cases per 100000 inhabitants) and 0.016% (16 new cases per 100000 adults). The prevalence increased (from 0.036% in 1996 to 0.25% in 2011) and the incidence did not change over the study period. The mortality was 3.2% (n=7 deaths). The DALY due to RA was 823 years per 100000 inhabitants during 1995-2011 years. Conclusion: RA in Southern Albania has a prevalence of 0.25 % and an annual incidence of 0.012% in the general population in 2011. RA was responsible for a considerable burden on the health of population during the 1995-2011 years. PMID:26236163
Kevin R. Arrigo; Denise Worthen; Anthony Schnell; Michael P. Lizotte
The Southern Ocean forms a link between major ocean basins, is the site of deep and intermediate water ventilation, and is one of the few areas where macronutrients are underutilized by phytoplankton. Paradoxically, prior estimates of annual primary production are insufficient to support the Antarctic food web. Here we present results from a primary production algorithm based upon monthly climatological
MacGillivray, W. R.
Southern Cross University (SCU) has established a pathways college to increase access to and widen participation in higher education for people in regional areas of Australia. While many Australian universities have preparatory colleges associated with them, SCU College has been designed to make it unique in the sector. SCU College will operate…
Crow, Mary Lynn, Ed.; And Others
The Southern Regional Education Board's Undergraduate Education Reform Project assists with the development of nontraditional approaches in undergraduate education throughout the South by helping institutions and state systems of higher education consider constructive changes within the context of their purposes, goals, and resources. This…
This paper examines emergency food provider networks in rural southern Illinois. An overview focuses on recent research reports on hunger in America, official federal emergency food assistance policy and criticisms of that policy, and the role of the private sector in emergency food distribution. The review details the disagreements on policy and…
J. M. Strugnell; Y. Cherel; I. R. Cooke; I. G. Gleadall; F. G. Hochberg; C. M. Ibáñez; E. Jorgensen; V. V. Laptikhovsky; K. Linse; M. Norman; M. Vecchione; J. R. Voight; A. L. Allcock
Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and
Temperature Change in the Southern Ocean Sarah Gille Scripps Institution of Oceanography Mean difference within 220 km radius: 0.09 ± 0.02C #12;Temperature Trends (700 to 1100 m depth) Gille, Science, 2002 #12;Temperature Trends (700 to 1100 m depth) Gille, Science, 2002 #12;Trends
Southern highbush blueberries are currently mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours per acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are underway to develop “crispy” genotypes that will ...
Sollie, Ray; Lightsey, Mike
The perceived occupational goal blocks of 614 employed young adults from five Southern States were examined in 1972 and compared with goal deflection data derived from the same sample in 1966. Respondents were asked to rate 10 goal block items on a 1 to 4 scale. These 10 items were ranked according to total scores and percents of possible high…
DEFINED Concurrent Enrollment/Dual Credit is a collaborative partnership between Idaho's colleges· Boise State University · College of Southern Idaho · College of Western Idaho IDAHO DUAL CREDIT SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH DUAL CREDIT Created by the Idaho Legislature in 1997, dual credit provides
Hutcheon, James M.
Georgia Southern University Business and Finance Organization Chart 2014-2015 FINAL: August 29, 2014 R:\\Common\\OrgCharts\\Rev 2015 Business & Finance Produced: Strategic Research & Analysis/MP President Vice President for Business and Finance Associate Vice President for Finance Associate Vice
Hutcheon, James M.
petition for premium processing. Premium processing means that USCIS will process your petition in 15 calendar days. USCIS charges an additional $1,000 U.S. for premium processing. Faculty members are expected to pay this $1,000 fee when premium processing is needed. (5) What about my dependents? Georgia Southern
AGUSTIN IRIARTE; WILLIAM L. FRANKLIN; WARREN E. JOHNSON
We report on the diets of four sympatric raptor species in Torres del Paine National Park, Magallanes region, Chile. This assemblage includes some of the least-known raptors in southern South America. Two strigids, Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba), had the most generalized diets. The Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) preyed primarily on birds and lizards, and
MFR PAPER 1173 Southern California Recreational and Commercial Marine Fisheries ALEC D. Mac and commercial fisheries exploit a large number of coastal fish species. An initial analysis ofthe current status and the Pacific coast of Baja California. The U.S. partyboat fishery , in which fishermen rent space aboard a boat
A devastating series of fires occurred in Southern California during October 2003. The effects of these fires were detectable from space. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument measures aerosol particles (microscopic airborne dust and smoke). TOMS was able to detect aerosols from these fires moving West over the Pacific Ocean and East over the continental United States.
Outlines plans for a year-long, integrated, interdisciplinary curriculum, in which Southern California social studies students in grades K-12 study Shakespeare, his works, and the Elizabethan period. Suggestions for activities for all discipline areas, resource materials, and human resources are included. (AM)
Gordon, Arnold L.
Preface Southern Ocean shelf slope exchange 1. Introduction Cold, dense water masses generated over. The density of shelf-resident water masses is further increased by brine rejection during sea ice formation. The resulting cold, dense water escapes the continental shelf, and its signature can be traced throughout much
Dalechampia scandens, a native to the American and African tropics, was recently found naturalized in two Broward County parks in southern Florida. This is the first occurrence of the plant in the continental United States. One of the populations may be an escape from a butterfly attraction where th...
Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick
Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…
A testing network has been established to identify corn germplasm that contributes resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in grain to hybrid performance across multiple environments. Southern East Regional Aflatoxin Test (SERAT) is a multi-organization, multi-state evaluation of the most promising ger...
1 Adriane C. Jones University of Southern California Marine Environmental Biology (213) 821 of California at Santa Cruz 2002 B.A. Marine Biology 2002 B.A. Environmental Studies Research Experience Responses of Nitrogen and Sulfur Limitation in Escherichia coli. #12;2 -RNA extraction, Microarray
Hutcheon, James M.
-come, first-served basis. Apply early to secure one of your preferences. SOAR (Orientation) Fee: Student: $85, including instruction on how to access your WINGS account, will be provided at SOAR. Housing Fee Payable Online at: GeorgiaSouthern.edu/housing Eagle Incentive Program Financial Planning Worksheet Orientation
Ahland, Colleen Anne
Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…
-1931 seasons , , 2 2. The United States Fish and midlife Service research vessel Albatros s III . , 4 3, concerning hydrographic conditions of, and fishing operations in, southern coastal watGrs. Reports on hydrographic conditions encountered during the present survey l/ and on the distribution of plankton TO
Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.
Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork practice…
Gaylard, M. J.
This is intended as a ``rough guide'' for high energy astrophysicists who may not have experience in radio astronomy but who want to undertake centimetric radio observations of a southern high energy source. Properties of the source and of the available telescopes are assessed in order to assist in selecting an appropriate radio telescope and frequency band for the observations.
A. J. Foppiano
A morphology of riometer auroral absorption is derived from hourly values, determined at several Southern Hemisphere stations, located both near the centre of the auroral absorption zone and at higher and lower latitude fringes of the zone. Since spatial coverage of the data precludes a detailed morphology determination, use was made as guideline at all stages of an auroral absorption
Southern African drylands are host to stable land surfaces with limited denudation rates. The resulting soils manifest long term weathering processes, including leaching, collapse and precipitation of calcium carbonate as is the case in the semi-arid Kalahari. Despite the thickness of some of the Kalahari soils and sands, they are furthermore depicting a range of neotectonic land forms and processes, associated with the contemporary rifting of the southern African continent. This is particularly apparent in satellite imagery and digital elevation data that can be used to examine regional scale surface characteristics. Southern Africa is also home to significant global and regional scale dust sources, which are mostly associated with inland basins and playas. Plumes of dust emitted from playas are able to impact upon downwind soil quality. This can be observed in the both the western Makgadikgadi as well as the Central Namib gravel plain. In the Namib playa dust contributes to the accumulation of gravel plain fines, leaching and massive pedogenic gypsum accumulations. It is apparent that Southern African dryland soils are home to aeolian inputs, host extensive duricrusts and depict neotectonic movement which should be of interest to the wider earth science community.
Dean, Derek M.
In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.
.220.127.116.117 Southern Forests 2008, 70(2): 139144 Printed in South Africa -- All rights reserved Eucalypt pests Africa * Corresponding author, e-mail: Mike.Wingfield@up.ac.za Plantations of eucalypts (species in exceptional performance. Not surprisingly, both the incidence and impact of diseases and pests in eucalypt
Nicholls, N. (Bureau of Meterology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia)
The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon affects the atmosphere and ocean over much of the globe. The resultant atmospheric and oceanic anomalies can produce a variety of biological and societal impacts. Three examples of impacts that may be predictable by monitoring simple indices of ENSO are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such direct'' prediction of impacts are considered.
Vegetable and other crops are produced on about 25000 ha. in southern Florida in an area adjacent to Everglades and Biscayne Bay National Parks (NP). High pest pressures require high pesticide use rates. We recently reported that one mechanism for transport of the insecticide endosulfan from treated...
Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen
The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.
Cheatwood, Joseph L.
Hotel Lobby Sixth Biennial Southern Illinois Region Neuroscience Retreat September 78, 2012 Overview The 2012 Retreat will again be held at the DoubleTree Hotel and Conference Center in Collinsville registration fee includes hotel accommodation for Friday (September 7th) evening, an opening reception
Sürgit, D.; Erdem, A.; Özkarde?, B.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.; Blackford, M.; Demircan, O.; Idaczyk, R.; Richards, T.
We present a few items from our southern eclipsing binary program, underway in recent years and involving observations at the Mt. John University Observatory and elsewhere in Australasia. Reduction and analysis have also been carried out at COMU (Turkey). Derived parameters allow interesting comparisons with other recent findings on binary stars, observational and theoretical.
This image shows the gravity field of the Southern Ocean from Geosat data. A colorshaded relief image of these gravity anomalies is available from NOAA in poster form (Report MGG-6, Marks and McAdoo, 1992), and also as a digital gridded data set on CDROM.
In research from southern University weed scientists pre applied herbicides appear to provide the best chance for successful Palmer amaranth control without relying on glyphosate. Fomesafen applied 14 days before cotton planting (DBP) or flumioxazin applied 21 DBP has provided good control if activ...
Pennel, R. L.; Kamenkovich, I. V.; Fine, R. A.
This study examines the specific role of mesoscale eddies and coherent structures in the ventilation of the Southern Ocean through the analysis of Lagrangian particle trajectories in a suite of idealized numerical simulations. Being the biggest potential reservoir for heat and atmospheric gases, the Southern Ocean is of great importance in the Earth's climate system. Therefore, the understanding of ventilation, the process establishing communication between the surface mixed layer and the ocean interior, is crucial to quantify the storage of CO2 by the ocean and to improve climate change projections. Idealized numerical simulations of the Southern Ocean at 1/8o resolution are carried out using the NEMO Ocean General Circulation Model. Twin simulations with and without eddies having the same stratification and mean circulation, are considered using several definitions of eddies. The analysis of the differences between such simulations allows examination of the direct effect of eddies on ventilation of the Southern Ocean. The role played by coherent structures is also discussed by looking at the trajectories of particles specifically injected inside individual vortices.
Oceanus Procellarum Traverse · Land in southern Oceanus Procellarum, unsampled terrain type (so and pyroclastic) · ISRU · Total distance: 1050 km Imbrium #12;Landing Site · Check out engineering and instrument km wide #12;Marius Hills · Highest concentration of volcanic features (domes, rilles) on Moon
Bon-Chul Koo; Ji-hyun Kang; Naomi McClure-Griffiths
We briefly summarize the survey of HI 21 cm emission lines to search for shocked atomic gas associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the southern sky. For G347.3-0.5, we discuss the distance to the SNR and the implications of the HI results.
This site has directions for a classroom activity in which students plot locations of major Southern California earthquakes on a map. A table listing major earthquakes, when they occurred, their locations and their magnitudes is included. There is also a set of questions for the students to answer once they have plotted the earthquake data on their map. This site is in PDF format.
Frank Lamy; Dierk Hebbeln; Ursula Röhl; Gerold Wefer
Geochemical and clay mineral parameters of a high accumulation marine sediment core from the Chilean continental slope (41°S) provide a 7700 yr record of rainfall variability in southern Chile related to the position of the Southern Westerlies. We especially use the iron content, measured with a time-resolution of ca. 10 yr on average, of 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry dated marine sediments
As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.
Hutcheon, James M.
GeorgiaSouthern.edu/factbook 2014-2015 FACT BOOK #12;Georgia Southern University opened the $41 2014 2015 1 From the President Georgia Southern University is pleased to present our 2015-2016 Fact and the extraordinary progress made during the past year. The 2014-2015 academic year has been an exciting time
2006-01-0120 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.
Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.
Ha, D. Q.; Tien, N. T.; Huong, V. T.; Loan, H. T.; Thang, C. M.
A widespread epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in southern Vietnam in 1998, with 438.98 cases/100,000 population and 342 deaths. The number of DHF cases and deaths per 100,000 population increased 152.4% and 151.8%, respectively, over a 1997 epidemic. Dengue viruses were isolated from 143 patient blood samples; DEN-3 virus was identified as the predominant serotype, although a resurgence of DEN-4 was noted. PMID:10905983
B. Wang; A. Barcilon; Z. Fang
A stochastically forced nonlinear dynamic model for El Nino-Southern Oscillation is advanced to explore the nature of the highly irregular ENSO cycle. The model physics includes nonlinear dynamics of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, high-frequency stochastic forcing, and the annual forcing of a prescribed climato- logical basic state. The model irregular ENSO-like oscillation arises from three different origins: stochastic resonance, coupled
Cabre, Anna; marinov, Irina
We show that Southern Ocean (SO) temperatures in the latest generation of Earth System Models exhibit two major modes of variation, one driven by deep convection and the other by tropical variability. We show that multiyear variability in Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can in turn influence oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropics on short time-scales. We argue that the strength and pattern of SO-tropical teleconnections depends on the intensity of SO deep convection. Periodic convection in the SO is a feature of most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al., 2014). Models show a wide distribution in the spatial extent, periodicity and intensity of their SO convection, with some models convecting most of the time, and some showing very little convection. In a highly convective coupled model, we find that multidecadal variability in SO and global SSTs, as well as SO heat storage are driven by Weddell Sea convective variability, with convective decades relatively warm due to the heat released from the deep southern ocean and non-convective decades cold due to the subsurface storage of heat. Furthermore, pulses of SO convection drive SST and sea ice variations, influencing absorbed shortwave and emitted longwave radiation, wind, cloud and precipitation patterns, with climatic implications for the low latitudes via fast atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections. We suggest that these high-low latitude teleconnection mechanisms are relevant for understanding hiatus decades. Additionally, Southern Ocean deep convection varied significantly during past, natural climate changes such as during the last deglaciation. Weddell Sea open convection has recently weakened, likely as a consequence of anthropogenic forcing and the resulting surface freshening. Our study opens up the tantalizing possibility that such large-scale changes in SO deep convection might have tropical and indeed global implications via atmospheric teleconnections. We advocate the collection of both paleo and modern proxies that can verify these model-derived mechanisms and global teleconnections.
Maia, M.A.G.; Da costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Rite, C.
A list of AGN candidates, identified from optical spectra taken as part of an ongoing redshift survey of southern galaxies, is presented. The identification, coordinates, morphological type, measured heliocentric radial velocity, and proposed emission type are given for the galaxies showing evidence of nonstellar nuclear activity. Using standard diagnostics, several new Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear-emission regions (LINERs) are identified among the emission-line galaxies observed. 14 references.
Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet
This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.
Cristián Correa; Mart R. Gross
We document the invasion of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to southern South America providing historical, current and future perspectives. We conducted field sampling, angler surveys,\\u000a and analyzed all written records, and found evidence of reproductive populations in more than ten Andean (and many more coastal)\\u000a watersheds draining mainly to the Pacific Ocean in Chile (39°–53° S), but also to the Atlantic
Southern California Earthquake Center
This SCEC-VDO movie shows how faults are bounding surfaces of micro-blocks of the earth's crust. The Southern California Earthquake Center's Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO) is 3D visualization software that allows users to display, study and make movies of earthquakes as they occur globally. SCEC-VDO was developed by interns of SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT), under the supervision of Sue Perry and Tom Jordan.
Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.
The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12268205
Clayton, R. W.
The crustal thickness in southern Peru has doubled to 70-75 km in the last 40Ma. Various causes are thought to contribute the additional volume including subduction related volcanism and compression and the curvature of the Arica Bend, but the sum of these appears to fall short of accounting for the needed volume. In a recent detailed seismic survey in southern Peru (PeruSE), we have been able to image the suduction zone, including the overriding continent and the slab in the regions of both flat and normal subduction in southern Peru. One surprising aspect of the image is the presence of a mid-crustal layer boundary that is pervasive in the back-arc of both the normal and flat subduction regimes. Our interpretation of this feature is an extension of an older model in which the Brazilian Shield is underthrusting the Andes, with the difference that this process (according to our image) extends under the Western Cordillera, almost to the current subduction arc. This would explain the missing crustal thickness.
Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.
In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.
When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.
Robinson, L. F.; Burke, A.; Adkins, J. F.; Chen, T.; Spooner, P.
It is widely accepted that the Southern Ocean is an important component of the climate system, acting as a key site for carbon and heat exchange between the atmosphere and oceans. The deglaciation with its associated millenial climate changes is a key time period for testing the mechanisms behind these exchanges. Ascertaining the precise timing of these events is a challenge given complications from variable and largely unconstrained reservoir ages, dissolution of carbonate hard parts and sediment redistribution by strong currents. Nevertheless improvements to our understanding of Southern Ocean dynamics in the past requires accurately-dated proxy records that can be embedded in GCM models. Radiocarbon measured in deep-sea corals offers just such an archive and proxy. Using the skeletons of deep-sea corals we are now able to reconstruct aspects of the history of three distinct water masses in the Drake Passage on a precise timescale, allowing direct comparison to U-series dated speleothem terrestrial records and polar ice cores. We present here a new deglacial radiocarbon record from the Drake Passage which more than doubles the resolution of published records. We focus on the deglacial, as well as providing insights from the contrasting period leading up to the LGM. Together with new data from far-field sites we interpret our results as evidence for a Southern Ocean control on atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon evolution during the deglaciation, and a northern hemisphere control during the run up to the LGM.
As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.
Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.
The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters yield much higher short-term resolution to a period of about 1 year, a single continuous GPS site is significantly less expensive than a single strain meter and probably has better long-term stability beyond a 1-year period. Compared to less frequent field measurements, continuous GPS provides the means to better characterize the errors in GPS position measurements and thereby obtain more realistic estimates of derived parameters such as site velocities.
Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie
The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected by negative velocity anomalies (-5%) relative to the overall average Rayleigh wave group speed of about 3.0 km/s. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with recent results from three active seismic profiles through southern Norway (MAGNUS-REX), reflecting that the investigated frequencies of Rayleigh and Love waves are mostly sensitive to upper crustal structure. The interpretation of the low velocity anomalies in the western part of southern Norway is uncertain. Since the considered surface wave wavelengths are quite short, the effect of large topography contrasts from high mountains to deep fjords might bias the velocities towards lower values in this region.
Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Magadzire, Tamuka; Zinke, Jens; Husak, Gregory J.
A wide range of sea surface temperature (SST) expressions have been observed during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation events of 1950–2010, which have occurred simultaneously with different global atmospheric circulations. This study examines the atmospheric circulation and precipitation during December–March 1950–2010 over the African Continent south of 15?S, a region hereafter known as Southern Africa, associated with eight tropical Pacific SST expressions characteristic of El Niño and La Niña events. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate the SST expressions of El Niño and La Niña. The seasonal precipitation forcing over Southern Africa associated with the eight SST expressions was investigated in terms of the horizontal winds, moisture budget and vertical motion. El Niño events, with warm SST across the east and central Pacific Ocean and warmer than average SST over the Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation reductions over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation reductions are forced primarily by large-scale mid-tropospheric subsidence associated with anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere. El Niño events with cooler than average SST over the Indian Ocean are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa associated with lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation and mid-tropospheric ascent. La Niña events, with cool SST anomalies over the central Pacific and warm SST over the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation increases are forced primarily by lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation, resulting in mid-tropospheric ascent and an increased flux of moisture into the region.
Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Magadzire, Tamuka; Zinke, Jens; Husak, Greg
A wide range of sea surface temperature (SST) expressions have been observed during the El Niño-Southern Oscillation events of 1950-2010, which have occurred simultaneously with different global atmospheric circulations. This study examines the atmospheric circulation and precipitation during December-March 1950-2010 over the African Continent south of 15S, a region hereafter known as Southern Africa, associated with eight tropical Pacific SST expressions characteristic of El Niño and La Niña events. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate the SST expressions of El Niño and La Niña. The seasonal precipitation forcing over Southern Africa associated with the eight SST expressions was investigated in terms of the horizontal winds, moisture budget and vertical motion. El Niño events, with warm SST across the east and central Pacific Ocean and warmer than average SST over the Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation reductions over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation reductions are forced primarily by large-scale mid-tropospheric subsidence associated with anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere. El Niño events with cooler than average SST over the Indian Ocean are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa associated with lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation and mid-tropospheric ascent. La Niña events, with cool SST anomalies over the central Pacific and warm SST over the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation increases are forced primarily by lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation, resulting in mid-tropospheric ascent and an increased flux of moisture into the region.
Laustsen, Svend; Madsen, Claus; West, Richard M.
On the occasion of its 25th anniversary the European Southern Observatory (ESO), is publishing a selection from its photographic treasures of the southern skies: 90 colour and 147 black and white plates have been reproduced. Thirty maps make it easy to locate the objects shown. Part 1 is devoted to extragalactic phenomena. Part 2 deals with our Galaxy. Part 3 contains the results from observations of minor bodies in the solar system (asteroids and comets with an emphasis on the most beautiful Halley's comet photographs). The final part presents the Observatory itself.
This is a movie made using the SCEC-VDO software showing a 3D animation of the SCEC Community Fault Model (over 150 major faults of Southern California). The movie highlights the San Andreas and Puente Hills faults. The Southern California Earthquake Center's Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO) is 3D visualization software that allows users to display, study and make movies of earthquakes as they occur globally. SCEC-VDO was developed by interns of SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT), under the supervision of Sue Perry and Tom Jordan.
SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN THEIR MOLDS. AS A JOBBING FOUNDRY MAKING CASTINGS ON AN CONTRACTUAL-ORDER BASIS, THEIR CUSTOMERS PROVIDE, OR CONTRACT FOR PATTERN CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES, HOWEVER, PROVIDE REPAIR SERVICES SHOWN AS JOHNNY TIDWELL PREPARES A PLATE, FORM -FITTING TO THEIR MOLDING MACHINES, THAT A PATTERN WILL BE AFFIXED TO. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL
Thorold, Alan Peter Hereward
for this work, but will deal first with the more positive aspects of my fieldwork. The first couple of weeks I stayed in Zomba, the town in the Shire Highlands of southern Malawi where Chancellor College, the main campus of the University of Malawi... and Social Change in Southern Malawi by Alan Peter Hereward Thorold Churchill College Cambridge Dissertation submitted for the PhD Degree in Social Anthropology, June 1995. The Yao Muslims: Religion and social Chancre in Southern Malawi Alan Thorold...
Craig Knoblock University of Southern California 1 Information AgentsInformation Agents (Based University of Southern CaliforniaUniversity of Southern California #12;Craig KnoblockCraig Knoblock University of Southern CaliforniaUniversity of Southern California 22 IntroductionIntroduction The Web
Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.
The Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care (established by the Southern Institute on Children and Families) is guided by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care including representatives from 16 southern states and the District of Columbia. The initial charge from the Task Force was to develop a southern regional action plan to improve…
Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO
Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine
1 University of Southern California Department of American Studies and Ethnicity GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK _______________________ FALL 2014 _______________________ For the University's official policies
Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N
Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales aggregating there. As a result, much of the Southern Ocean pelagic whaling was concentrated at the edge of the marginal ice zone. The extent and duration of sea ice fluctuate periodically under the influence of global climatic phenomena including the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Life cycles of some associated species may reflect this periodicity. With evidence for climatic warming in some regions of Antarctica, there is concern that ecosystem change may be induced by changes in sea-ice extent. The relative abundance of krill and salps appears to change interannually with sea-ice extent, and in warm years, when salps proliferate, krill are scarce and dependent predators suffer severely. Further research on the Southern Ocean sea-ice system is required, not only to further our basic understanding of the ecology, but also to provide ecosystem managers with the information necessary for the development of strategies in response to short- and medium-term environmental changes in Antarctica. Technological advances are delivering new sampling platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles that are improving vastly our ability to sample the Antarctic under sea-ice environment. Data from such platforms will enhance greatly our understanding of the globally important Southern Ocean sea-ice ecosystem. PMID:12154613
Rind, David; Schmidt, G.; Russell, G.; deMenocal, P.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)
The possibility of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) changes in both past and future climates has raised the issue of how the Southern Ocean would respond. Recent experiments with the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model have shown that a "bipolar see-saw" between NADW production and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production in the Weddell Sea can occur in conjunction with freshening of the North Atlantic. However, this effect operates not through a slow ocean response but via a rapid atmospheric mechanism. As NADW reduces, colder temperatures in the North Atlantic, and Northern Hemisphere in general, are associated with higher surface pressure (increased atmospheric mass). Reduced mass in the Southern Hemisphere occurs in response, with lower pressure over the South Pole (an EOF #1 effect, the "high phase" of the Antarctic Oscillation).The lower pressure is associated with stronger west winds that generate an intensified Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which leads to longitudinal heat divergence in the South Atlantic (and heat convergence in the Southern Indian Ocean). Colder temperatures in the Weddell Sea region lead to sea ice growth, increased salinity and surface water density, and greater Weddell Sea Bottom Water production. Increased poleward transport of heat occurs in the South Atlantic in conjunction with increased bottom water production, but its convergence at high latitudes is not sufficient to offset the longitudinal heat divergence due to the intensified ACC. The colder temperatures at high latitudes in the South Atlantic increase the latitudinal temperature gradient, baroclinic instability, eddy energy and eddy poleward transport of momentum, helping to maintain the lower pressure over the pole in an interactive manner. The heat flux convergence in the Indian Ocean provides a warming tendency in that region, and overall global production of AABW remains unchanged. These results have implications for the interpretation of the ice core records of the last deglaciation, but may also be relevant for changes during the Holocene and perhaps even in response to increased CO2 forcing,
R. Morganti; Z. I. Tsvetanov; J. Gallimore; M. G. Allen
We present radio observations for 29 southern Seyfert galaxies selected from a volume limited sample with cz<3600 km s^-1, and declination delta<0degr. Objects with declination -30degr
Abelmann, A.; Rainer, G.; Victor, S.
The contemporary Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is a weak CO2 sink despite high nutrient levels because productivity is limited by iron availability. During glacial periods much greater iron availability should have significantly enhanced productivity and CO2 drawdown. However, there is ongoing debate on the physical and biological mechanisms in the Southern Ocean causing the lowering of the glacial CO2 concentrations. Most paleochemical proxies indicate a latitudinal shift in the zone of enhanced glacial primary productivity and intensified CO2 drawdown but no overall increase in biogenic export. Other lines of explanation involve physical mechanisms restricting the Southern Ocean/atmosphere gas exchange via surface water stratification or sea ice coverage. However, the validity of such hypotheses to represent the major or sole mechanism steering the CO2 draw-down, has been questioned, based on theoretical grounds and numerical modeling, respectively. Here we present evidence for last glacial Southern Ocean conditions from biological proxies. We could detect resting spores of the diatom genus Chaetoceros as a proxy to indicate iron induced extensive diatom blooms across the entire Atlantic sector of the ACC, particularly in the seasonal sea-ice covered zone (SIZ) during the last glacial. In addition, we used the ecological information of the radiolarian Cycladophora davisiana gathered from plankton and surface sediment investigations of the Sea of Okhotsk to notify high glacial phytodetritus export in this area. The areal and downcore distribution patterns of these primary producer and phytodetritus feeding, deep living protozoans point to the occurrence of a high productive biological regime, dominated by fast growing thin-walled diatoms and non siliceous primary producer (e.g. Phaeocystis), which lead to high export of organic matter to the deep ocean. The dominance of the deep living radiolarian Cyladophora davisiana in glacial SIZ sediments indicates that organic carbon export to mesopelagic depths was at least ten-fold higher than today.
We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...
southern California numbered 808 and accounted for 27% of the cohort of 2999 FTFTF. By Fall 2009, they numbered 1196 and accounted for 31% of the cohort of 3854 FTFTF. Among the FTFTF matriculating in Fall 2005 State without earning a degree. The purpose of this study is to consider the results of SF State
Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.
The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Manatsa, Desmond; Matarira, Caxton; Mushore, Terrence D.; Mudavanhu, Chipo
The main characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of the winter (June-August) observed surface air minimum temperature (SAMT) of southern Africa (Africa south of the equator) were examined from 1960 to 2011. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to extract the dominant mode of SAMT variability. Statistically significant shifts were detected in both the index derived from the spatially averaged regional SAMT and its EOF1 time coefficients. These discontinuities displayed a sharp rise followed by an abrupt drop during the periods around 1988 and 2007 respectively. The years corresponded to change points in the Southern Annular Mode index where the 1988 significant alteration to a relatively more positive index polarity was followed by a sudden weakening during the latter shift. The development of the warm phase coincided with the decoupling of SAM from SAMT. This occurred when the strengthening of the western ridge of the Mascarene High appeared to be coupled to the creation of anomalously low pressure systems over Angola and the region pole-ward of South Africa. In this epoch, the meridional wind over southern Africa reversed to become predominantly northerly and hence was symptomatic of warm temperature advection from the lower latitudes. However the post 2007 era, though still of indeterminate length, is characterized by a partial return to the pre-1988 circulation conditions. This implies that the impacts of SAM's epochal alterations have implications not only for the current climate, but also for the interpretation of climate change over southern Africa.
. The ways in which the ideology that developed out of the Civil War and Reconstruction have affected the students and the role that traditions have played in shaping the school provide a context in which the modern emergence of Southern ideals can...
We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad ( Bufo terrestris ) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...
Brown, J. R.; Hough, S. E.; Ampuero, J. P.
In every tectonic setting where it is observed, tremor proves difficult to detect due to its long durations and low amplitudes close to the noise band. This is particularly true in southern California where cultural noise sources are both spatially and temporally pervasive. Ambient tectonic tremor in circum-Pacific subduction zones was shown to consist of repeating low-frequency earthquakes and locates at the deep extent of the primary seismogenic zone in a region downdip of historical M 8+ earthquakes. The signals were also shown to have a distinct spectral shape (typically around 1-8 Hz) whose higher frequency falloff differs from that of local noise and ordinary earthquakes. In the strike-slip setting, families of deep ambient tremors near the Parkfield-Cholame segment of the San Andreas fault were considered proxies for deep fault slip. Whether ambient tremor occurs in a similar fashion- or even at all- in southern California remains unclear. We employ a combination of running autocorrelation and matched-filter techniques successfully used in both subduction and strike slip settings to detect and locate tremor/low-frequency earthquakes in southern California. In our case, however, detections are accepted or rejected by calculating their spectral shapes to assure the signals are distinct from local noise sources and earthquakes. We scan continuous seismic recordings of the Southern California Seismic Network near the San Jacinto fault from 2008-2012 to detect tremor-like signals, distinguish their spectral shape from other sources, and subsequently locate it. We target this area on account of the abundance of seismic stations including borehole stations. Also, since tremor (2-8 Hz) was triggered by the passing surface waves of the 2002 M 7.9 Denali earthquake in vicinity of the San Jacinto fault we expect an ambient signal to occur in the same area with a similar spectral shape. The application of a spectral discriminator is particularly needed in this region, where previous analysis identified recurrent transients with a spectrum peaked between 3 and 4 Hz associated with heavy train traffic along the Coachella Valley.
Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.
We show that Southern Ocean (SO) temperatures in the latest generation of Earth System Models exhibit two major modes of variation, one driven by deep convection, the other by tropical variability. We perform a CMIP5 model intercomparison to understand why different climate models represent SO variability so differently in long, control simulations. We show that multiyear variability in Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can in turn influence oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropics on short (atmospheric) time-scales. We argue that the strength and pattern of SO-tropical teleconnections depends on the intensity of SO deep convection. Periodic convection in the SO is a feature of most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al., 2014). Models show a wide distribution in the spatial extent, periodicity and intensity of their SO convection, with some models convecting most of the time, and some showing very little convection. In a highly convective coupled model, we find that multidecadal variability in SO and global SSTs, as well as SO heat storage are driven by Weddell Sea convective variability, with convective decades relatively warm due to the heat released from the deep southern ocean and non-convective decades cold due to the subsurface storage of heat. Furthermore, pulses of SO convection drive SST and sea ice variations, influencing absorbed shortwave and emitted longwave radiation, wind, cloud and precipitation patterns, with climatic implications for the low latitudes via fast atmospheric teleconnections. We suggest that these high-low latitude teleconnection mechanisms are relevant for understanding hiatus decades. Additionally, Southern Ocean deep convection varied significantly during past, natural climate changes such as during the last deglaciation. Weddell Sea open convection was recently weakened, likely as a consequence of anthropogenic forcing and the resulting surface freshening. Our study opens up the tantalizing possibility that such large-scale changes in SO deep convection might have tropical and indeed global implications via atmospheric teleconnections. We advocate the collection of both paleo and modern proxies that can verify these model-derived mechanisms and global teleconnections.
Hamill, F A; Apio, S; Mubiru, N K; Mosango, M; Bukenya-Ziraba, R; Maganyi, O W; Soejarto, D D
One-hundred four plant species used medicinally by herbalists from three southern Ugandan tribes were collected and identified. The collection includes a large portion of the materia medica of the Abayanda of the southwest region, as well as species used by herbalists of the Baganda and Bakiga Tribes. Literature searches were performed in preparation for further collections, and for collaborative laboratory validation of in vitro antimicrobial activity. Literature data provide support for ethnomedical claims for a number of species used in Uganda for disease treatment. PMID:10837990
The Center for Advanced Friction Studies at Southern Illinois University developed a sequence of supplementary materials for graduate-level physics and engineering classes about surfaces and contact mechanics. Divided into a series of lectures, students and educators can find helpful figures and text about many aspects of surfaces and their characteristics such as surface stress, electron optics, and profilmetry. The website also covers two lessons concerning mechanical properties of materials: the classical theory of elastic deformation and the general formulation of elastic strain and stress. To help guide users about where to search for additional materials, the site provides a lengthy reference list.
The Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California "is actively involved with all aspects of tsunami research; inundation field surveys, numerical and analytical modeling, and hazard assessment, mitigation and planning." The website supplies interactive maps and chilling images of the destruction caused by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Visitors can find out the latest tsunami news and research. Students and educators can view animations of seismic activity, landslides, and additional tsunami-related activity in various locations across the globe. Researchers can find abstracts and lists of publications of papers discussing field surveys, physical models, numerical methods, tsunami hazards, and more.
Lally, V E
Superpressure GHOST balloons are being launched from Christchurch, New Zealand, to determine their life, stability, and clustering characteristics at several altitudes. Thtee separate balloons have flown for more than 6 months at 200 millibars, proving capability of the long life that had been hoped for at such middle altitudes and providing preliminary trajectory data for the Southern Hemisphere. Icing problems at lower altitudes have not yet been solved. We expect future flight durations of several years at higher altitudes. If successful, the new balloons will be useful platforms for experimenters concerned with study of large-scale and long-term effects in the stratosphere. PMID:17737563
Magalha~es, A. M.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Carciofi, A.; Costa, R.; Dal Pino, E. M. G.; Diaz, M.; Ferrari, T.; Fernandez, C.; Gomes, A. L.; Marrara, L.; Pereyrac, A.; Ribeiro, N. L.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Rubinho, M. S.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Taylor, K.
SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimetric module at an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile, in late 2012. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy <~ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar explosions and Solar System, among others.
Lachowycz, S.; Smith, V. C.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.
The eruptive history of the volcanoes in the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (42.5-45°S) is very poorly constrained: only several late Quaternary eruptions have been identified, mostly from study of sparse roadcuts . In this study, we further constrain the Holocene explosive eruption history around 43°S by identifying and analysing tephra layers preserved in a ~3.25m long peat core from Cuesta Moraga , ~35km east of Yanteles volcano. Cryptotephra was extracted following the method of , in addition to macrotephra; owing to the vicinity of the sampling site to the tephra sources, cryptotephra was found throughout the core stratigraphy, but was sufficiently variable in concentration that discrete layers were identifiable and attributed to specific eruptions. Chemical analysis of the glass by electron microprobe shows that the tephra layers originate from a number of volcanoes in the region. This new tephrostratigraphy improves our knowledge of the important history of explosive volcanism in this area, potentially tying the tephrostratigraphies of surrounding areas (e.g., ) and allowing improved evaluation of regional volcanic risk.  Naranjo, J.A.., and C. R. Stern, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Revista geológica de Chile, 31, pp. 225-240.  Heusser, C.J., et al., 1992. Paleoecology of late Quaterary deposits in Chiloé Continental, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 65, pp. 235-245.  Blockley, S.P.E., et al., 2005. A new and less destructive laboratory procedure for the physical separation of distal glass tephra shards from sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, pp. 1952-1960.  Watt, S.F.L., et al., 2011. Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean southern volcanic zone, ~42°S), southern Chile. Quaternary International, 246, pp. 324-343.
García, J.; Hall, B. L.; Kaplan, M. R.; Vega, R. M.; Binnie, S. A.; Hein, A.; Gómez, G. N.; Ferrada, J. J.
Despite the outer limits of the former Patagonian ice sheet (PIS, ~38-55S) having been extensively mapped, it remains unknown if the Patagonian glaciers fluctuated synchronously or asynchronously during the last glacial period. Previous work has revealed asynchronous spatiotemporal ice dynamics along the eastern and western ice-margins at the end of the last glaciation but it is not well understood if the northern and southern parts of the PIS reached concurrent maximum glaciation during the last glacial cycle. The Patagonian Andes is the only landmass involving the southern westerly wind belt latitudinal range, which is thought to have played a key role in past glacial and climate changes. Therefore, reconstructing southern Andes glacier history constitutes a key element for understanding the cause of glaciations in Patagonia and the role of the westerlies in climate change. Here, we discuss paleoglaciological and paleoclimatological implications of new 10Be and 14C data obtained from moraines and strategically selected mires in two contiguous glacially molded basins of south Patagonia (48-55S): Torres del Paine (51S) and Última Esperanza (52S). In this region, we focused our 10Be cosmogenic-dating efforts in the previously undated outer moraines deposited (supposedly) during the last glacial cycle. In order to crosscheck cosmogenic data we collected boulders embedded in moraines and cobbles from the main glaciofluvial plains grading from the outermost moraines. Geomorphic and cosmogenic dating affords evidence for glacial maximum conditions occurring between 40-50 ka (ka = thousand of years before present) in southern Patagonia, which is different from other chronologies within southern South America. We obtained 14C basal ages from sites located within moraine depressions and on former paleolake shorelines and thus these may provide key data on deglaciation and debated regional paleolake history.
...Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed Collection...in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit...1010-0181. Title: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study. Abstract:...
...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-001] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On October 19, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...
...Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...
...Commission [Docket No. CP14-15-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...
...Commission [Docket No. CP12-475-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...
...Commission [Docket No. CP10-48-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro,...
...Commission [Docket No. CP13-179-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...
...Commission [Docket No. CP13-531-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...
...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice...existing Alden Gas Storage Field by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County, Kansas. This EA will be...
...Commission [Docket No. CP12-73-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro,...
...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On May 13, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...
...Commission [Docket No. CP10-2-001] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application...Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...
...Commission [Docket No. CP12-285-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application...Take notice that on April 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...
...Commission [Docket No. CP13-76-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box 20010,...
...Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. Take notice that on October 21, 2013 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301,...
...Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.130 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.130 Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern...
...Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.158 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.158 Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern...
...Southern Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.217 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.217 Southern Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern...
...Completion: Southern Oregon Historical Society, Medford, OR; Correction AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The Southern Oregon Historical Society has corrected an inventory of human remains...contact the Southern Oregon Historical Society. Disposition of the human remains...
...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading...information concerning the securities of Southern USA Resources, Inc. (``Southern USA'') because of questions regarding the...
...2014-01-01 false Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.147...REGULATIONS § 457.147 Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions. The Central and Southern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the...
...2013-01-01 false Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.147...REGULATIONS § 457.147 Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions. The Central and Southern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the...
...Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Final Supplemental...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters (final SEIS). The final SEIS...
...Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft...Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...statement on the translocation of southern sea otters (revised draft SEIS) in the...
...Southern California Edison Company requests a temporary variance...Southern California Edison Company proposes to drain Shaver...necessary to insure the construction site remains dewatered. Southern California Edison Company states in its...
...habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). 226.206 Section...habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca ). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this section....
...Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment...September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed to grant non...Operation Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company, wherein JAIL seeks to...
...0648-XA778 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the Southern California Steelhead...of an Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plan for the Southern California Steelhead...The Final Southern California Steelhead Recovery Plan (Final Recovery Plan) and...
O'Keefe, P. ); Soussan, J. ); Munslow, B. ); Spence, D. )
This paper has outlined a learning curve in dealing with the wood energy situation in eastern and southern Africa. The curve began in total ignorance when wood energy was not considered part of the energy problem. Dominance of wood fuel, throughout the region, became immediately apparent on calculation of national energy balances. The discovery of this other energy crisis'' was, again, to prove that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing, since the emphasis on project intervention was at a national, not local, level. In evaluating the success and failure of energy intervention strategies it was increasingly apparent that the wood energy problem was but another symptom of the problems of subsistence production in Africa. Wood energy, in effect, was simply the rubbish that was left from a wider utilization of biomass, and trying to grow woodfuel per se, especially as a full-price monetary good, was impossible so long as the major relationships and the subsistence system remained outside the market. The failures, however, have allowed the identification of a range of methods for woody biomass intervention in eastern and southern Africa, from which wood energy could be an offtake.
The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory in central Mexico is currently the world's only synoptic survey instrument for gamma rays above 1 TeV. Because there is significant interest in covering the full TeV sky with a survey instrument, we have examined options for a Southern Hemisphere extension to HAWC. In addition to providing all-sky coverage of TeV sources, a southern site could complement existing surveys of the densest part of the Galactic Plane, provide continuous monitoring of Galactic and extragalactic transient sources in both Hemispheres, and simplify the analysis of spatially extended signals such as diffuse gamma rays and the TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy. To take advantage of the air-shower physics and lower the energy threshold of the experiment as much as possible, a high altitude site above 5000 m a.s.l (vs. 4100 m a.s.l. at the current site in Mexico) has been specified. To facilitate efficient detector construction at such altitudes, the detector tanks would be assembled at lower a...
Tomov, T.; Swierczynski, E.; Mikolajewski, M.; Ilkiewicz, K.
Aims: We report on recent optical observations of the stellar and the nebular remnants of 22 southern post-novae. Methods: In this study, for each of our targets, we obtained and analysed long-slit spectra in the spectral range 3500-6600 Å and in H?+[N ii] narrow-band images. Results: The changes in the emission lines' equivalent widths with the time since the outburst agree with earlier published results of other authors. We estimated an average value ? = 2.37 for the exponent of the power law fitted to the post-novae continua. Our observations clearly show the two-component structure of the V842 Cen expanding nebulae, owing to the different velocities of the ejected matter. We discovered an expanding shell around V382 Vel with an outer diameter of about 12?. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).The spectra as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/576/A119
Petterson, O. K. L.; Albrow, Michael D.; Cottrell, P. L.; Fokin, A.
High-resolution spectroscopic observations have been made of a number of southern binary Cepheids to determine their dynamical masses. The stars are part of a long-term program to observe southern variable starsf or which a valuable long-term database has been obtained. The most recent radial velocities have a precision of ~300 ms-1, allowing the detection of velocity differences of ~1 kms-1 with confidence. Masses were determined for three systems: the 9-day Cepheid S Mus (6.0±0.4 MSolar), the double-mode Cepheid Y Car (4.5±1.8 MSolar) and the 5-day Cepheid V350 Sgr (6.0±0.9 MSolar). For five Cepheids (YZ Car, AX Cir, V636 Sco, W Sgr and T Mon) new or improved orbital solutions were found. Line level effects have been observed in several species of lines. Most Cepheids were observed to show the same progression of line level effects. Using non-linear radiative hydrodynamical models, we have compared the results of these models with our observations. These have shown that AX Cir and YZ Car have the following properties: L = 2050 LSolar, M = 4.8 MSolar, Teff = 5900 K and L = 9350 LSolar, M = 7.7 MSolar, Teff = 5590 K. Our models show no strong shockwaves being produced. Good agreement was found between the observed and modelled spectral lines Fe I 5576Å, SiII 6347Å, BaII 5853Å and CaII 8542Å.
Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld
The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.
Willcox, J.B.; Stagg, H.M.J.
Australia's southern margin extends for almost 4000 km, from the Naturaliste Plateau in the west to the South Tasman Rise in the southeast, and developed from the Gondwana rift system which also gave rise to the Bass basin and prolific Gippsland basin of southeastern Australia. It incorporates six major sedimentary basins - Bremer, Eyre, Great Australian Bight (GAB), Duntroon, Otway, and Sorell - which are the products of Gondwana fragmentation. Exploration targets generated by this complex tectonic history include fault blocks and associated rollovers; wrench-related anticlines and flower structures, often developed over reactivated transfer faults; strongly eroded unconformities; and deltas of Neocomian and Maastrichtian-Cenomanian age. The southern margin basins contain several sandstone units with good reservoir potential. Hydrocarbons are being actively generated, at least within the Otway and Sorell basins, as indicated by abnormally high concentrations of thermogenic gases in surface sediment samples and the presence of free oil in the Cape Sorell 1 well. Deposits containing oil-prone type I organic matter occur in the Lower Cretaceous section of the Otway basin. To date, exploration has been light, with 17 of the total 27 wells having been sited in the Otway basin. The huge GAB basin (/approximately/ 400 /times/ 200 /times/ 10 km thick) contains only one exploration well, sited near the northern margin of the basin, and this basin is an obvious focus for further exploration effort.
The Southern Ocean has been in a state of disequilibrium with its atmosphere and cryosphere during recent decades. Ocean station and drifting float observations have revealed rising temperatures in the upper 3000m. Salinity has declined in intermediate waters and more rapidly in the sparsely sampled high latitudes. Dissolved oxygen levels may also have decreased, but measurement accuracy is inconsistent. Sea ice area increased from 1979 to 1998, particularly in the Ross Sea, while a decline in ice extent since the early 1970s has been led by the Amundsen-Bellingshausen sector. Fresher waters with lower oxygen isotope content on the Pacific-Antarctic continental shelf are consistent with increased melting of continental ice. Newly forming bottom water has become colder and less salty downstream from that region, but generally warmer in the Weddell Sea. Many ice shelves have retreated or thinned, but others have grown and no trend is apparent in the large iceberg calving rate. Warming and isotherm shoaling within the polar gyres may result in part from changes in the Southern Annular Mode, which could facilitate deep-water access to the continental shelves. Sea-level rise over the past half century has a strong eustatic component and has recently accelerated. Observations over longer periods and with better spatial coverage are needed to better understand the processes causing these changes and their links to the Antarctic ice sheet. PMID:16782605
Jirarattanasopa, Pichai; Panon, Nisa; Hiranyachattada, Siriphun; Bhurayanontachai, Patama
Objective To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error. Subjects and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years) in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area. Results The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 ?m, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001) and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02). Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age. Conclusion Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 ?m every year and 14.59 ?m with 1 mm increase in axial length. PMID:25419112
Potter, Thomas L; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Harman-Fetcho, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Walter F; Rice, Clifford P; Schaffer, Bruce
The atmosphere is an important transport route for semi-volatile pesticides like endosulfan. Deposition, which depends on physical-chemical properties, use patterns, and climatic conditions, can occur at local, regional, and global scales. Adverse human and ecological impact may result. We measured endosulfan wet deposition in precipitation over a 4-year period within an area of high agricultural use in Southern Florida (USA) and in nearby Biscayne and Everglades National Parks. Endosulfan's two isomers and degradate, endosulfan sulfate, were detected at high frequency with the order of detection and concentration being ?-endosulfan>?-endosulfan>endosulfan sulfate. Within the agricultural area, detection frequency (55 to 98%) mean concentrations (5 to 87 ng L(-1)) and total daily deposition (200 ng m(-2) day(-1)) exceeded values at other sites by 5 to 30-fold. Strong seasonal trends were also observed with values at all monitored sites significantly higher during peak endosulfan use periods when vegetable crops were produced. Relatively high deposition in the crop production area and observations that concentrations exceeded aquatic life toxicity thresholds at all sites indicated that endosulfan volatilization and wet deposition are of ecotoxicological concern to the region. This study emphasizes the need to include localized volatilization and deposition of endosulfan and other semi-volatile pesticides in risk assessments in Southern Florida and other areas with similar climatic and crop production profiles. PMID:24055666
Dineva, S.; Eaton, D.
Knowledge of crustal thickness and velocity is important to obtain precise hypocenter locations, as well as to constrain tectonic interpretations for a particular region. In southern Ontario, the installation of the POLARIS network started in 2001. At present, there are 23 broad-band stations installed in this region. Together with the information from the Southern Ontario Seismic Network (SOSN), which operated with short-period sensors between 1990-2000, more than 200 recorded events (earthquakes and quarry blast) are available for velocity modeling. The arrival-time data from local events and some well recorded quarry blasts are used for a preliminary estimation of the 1-D and 3-D velocity model of southwestern Ontario. For 1-D velocity tomography the method of Kissling (1984) (VELEST program) is applied. Different initial models are used to obtain a robust result. The Moho depth is constrained independently using results of receiver-function analysis and gravity inversion. . The obtained 1-D `optimum' velocity model is used as the initial model for a subsequent 3-D local tomography using the `Thurber inversion' (Thurber, 1981, 1983, 1993) (SIMULPS program). New hypocenter locations for all local events in southwestern Ontario in 1990-2003 have been calculated using the new 1-D and 3-D velocity models.
straight towards planned offshore wind farms Red dots = Wind turbines Black dots = Planned turbines #12Bats and offshore wind turbines studied in southern Scandinavia 2005 - 2006 Bats & Wind Energy Pettersson Presented by Ingemar Ahlén #12;Bats and offshore wind turbines studied in southern Scandinavia
This article explores the socialisation of the experience of grief in Southern Benin. Drawing on field research conducted in Southern Benin since the beginning of the 2000s and mobilising interviews and participant observations with bereaved people, I argue that grief is profoundly shaped by interiorised dispositions to think, act and feel, as well as social experiences (from family relationships to
Measured the wealth redistribution effected by southern schools and the taxes that supported them using data from a large sample of southern states for 1880 through 1910. When taxes and expenditures are considered, the separate but equal school system appears to have provided a net transfer to black students. Public schooling in the South was a…
Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.
This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…
Jones, Lucile; Cox, Dale A.
Southern California is at great risk for extreme catastrophic losses owing to numerous natural hazards, such as earthquakes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and coastal changes, that occur in this area (fig. 1). Expected losses from these hazards are estimated to exceed $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California.
Shanlin Wang; J. Keith Moore
Phaeocystis antarctica is an important phytoplankton species in the Southern Ocean. We incorporated P. antarctica into the biogeochemical elemental cycling ocean model to study Southern Ocean ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemistry. The optimum values of ecological parameters for Phaeocystis were sought through synthesizing laboratory and field observations, and the model output was evaluated with observed chlorophyll a, carbon biomass, and nutrient
Phytoplankton chlorophyll distributions and primary production in the Southern Ocean J. Keith Moore low ( 0.30.4 mg m 3 ). Phytoplankton blooms where chlorophyll concentration exceeded 1.0 mg m 3 were. Introduction Phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean have long represented a paradox
Ted L. Hanes; Richard D. Friesen; Kathy Keane
Certain floodplain systems in southern Cali- fornia sustain a unique scrub vegetation rather than ri- parian woodlands due to a lack of perennial water. Allu- vial scrub occurs on outwash fans and riverine deposits along the coastal side of major mountains of southern California. This vegetation type is adapted to severe floods and erosion, nutrient-poor substrates, and the presence of
Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa Joseph K. Pickrella,1,2 , Nick, 2014 (received for review July 30, 2013) The history of southern Africa involved interactions between this latter admixture event to 9001,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan
Yan Y. Kagan; David D. Jackson; Zhen Liu
We compute the stress tensor in the upper crust of southern California as a function of time and compare observed seismicity with the estimated stress at the time of each earthquake. Several recent developments make it possible to do this much more realistically than before: (1) a wealth of new geodetic and geologic data for southern California and (2) a
Comprehensive analysis of earthquake source spectra in southern California Peter M. Shearer,1 Germa of earthquake source spectra in southern California, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B06303, doi:10.1029/2005JB003979. 1 February 2006; published 13 June 2006.  We compute and analyze P wave spectra from earthquakes
Earthquake clusters in southern California I: Identification and stability Ilya Zaliapin1. Citation: Zaliapin, I., and Y. Ben-Zion (2013), Earthquake clusters in southern California I for comprehensive detection and analysis of earthquake clusters. The method is based on nearest-neighbor distances
Dei, George J. Sefa; Asgharzadeh, Alireza
In many Southern countries, there are multiple and conflicting perspectives regarding the central role of language, particularly in relation to educational and developmental issues. A great number of multilingual, multicultural and multi-ethnic Southern countries are using "English" or some other dominant tongue as their only "official", and/or…
Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert
This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in process that…
15. Interior oblique view, original Office, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90m lens). Note the milled tongue-and-groove ceiling and wainscot. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV
Saleem H. Ali
The situation in Southern Africa with regard to water scarcity is particularly acute. Southern Africa has historically been an area of extreme tension in the wake of post-colonial exploitation and the delineation of boundaries for countries that often defy ethnic differences. It is also a region that has endured economic disparities of an extreme kind, ranging from the despicable practice
Templer, Donald I.
The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…
Alan G. Jones; Rob L. Evans; Mark R. Muller; Mark P. Hamilton; Marion P. Miensopust; Xavier Garcia; Patrick Cole; Tiyapo Ngwisanyi; David Hutchins; C. J. S. Fourie; Hielke Jelsma; Shane Evans; Theo Aravanis; Wayne Pettit; Sue Webb; Jan Wasborg
Southern Africa, particularly the Kaapvaal Craton, is one of the world's best natural laboratories for studying the lithospheric mantle given the wealth of xenolith and seismic data that exist for it. The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) was launched to complement these databases and provide further constraints on physical parameters and conditions by obtaining information about electrical conductivity variations laterally
Department of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering University of Southern California Meet Eva Kanso is available at http://viterbi.usc.edu/links/?339 With strong ties to Southern California's aerospace industry, the USC Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering is known for basic and applied research in many
Study of the continental United States showed that an index of "southernness" was associated with the homicide rate but not with the suicide rate. However, the rate of suicide by firearms and the rate of lethal accidents with firearms were both associated with this index of southernness. (Author/KS)
DDT AND ITS METABOLITES IN THE SEDIMENTS OFF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA JOHN S. MACGREGOR1 ABSTRACT To assess the degree of DDT contamination in the marine sediments off Los Angeles, 103 stations in the Pacific Ocean off southern California were sampled in July and August 1971 for DDT and its metabolites
The Southern California Black Walnut I. The tree A. Scientific name: Juglans californica B California black walnut B. Arizona black walnut C. Eastern black walnut D. "English" walnut (from Central California black walnut is not threatened B. Large walnut trees are becoming scarce C. Southern California
, small, thick, and stiff in order to cope with drought periods. The common genera of Southern CaliforniaChaparral in Southern California1 Robert R. Tyrrel2 1Presented at the Symposium on Dynamics and Management of Mediterranean-type Ecosystems, June 22-26, 1981, San Diego, California. 2Forest Supervisor, San
Are housing provision systems in southern Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece) different from those in northern Europe? Answering this question requires a way of theorizing housing systems, which locates them within their broader societal contexts. After setting out some of the key empirical differences between northern and southern, the paper reanalyses Esping-Andersen's work on welfare regimes and reviews housing-specific
Northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) are an important cultural, ecological, and economical part of the southern Texas landscape. I used radio-telemetry data from 2000?2005, part of a long-term, bobwhite study in southern Texas, to test the nest...
...2011-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211 Section 223.211 Wildlife... § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The prohibitions of section 9...Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in § 223.102(a)(3)....
...Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.212 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The prohibitions of section 9(a)(1) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1538(a)(1)) relating to endangered species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment...
RESEARCH ARTICLE Functional connectivity of lynx at their southern range periphery in Ontario, we modeled occurrence of Canada lynx (Lynx canaden- sis) in relation to landscape characteristics of lynx habitat along the southern margins of the range. As observed in other studies, young coniferous
, forest ownership dominated by approximately 4.3 million nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) landownersEducational Needs of Southern Forest Landowners October 2006 Volume 44 Number 5 Article Number 5RIB4 Return to Current Issue Educational Needs of Southern Forest Landowners Marcus K. Measells
Brooks, R.T.; Kittredge, D.B.; Alerich, C.L.
An analytical report of the third forest inventory of the three southern New England states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island is presented. Included is a discussion of forest area, number of trees, timber volume, tree biomass, timber value, forest wildlife habitat, ownership, management opportunities, and the future of forest resources in southern New England.
...Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155...Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is...
...Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off New York: Southern approach. 167.155 Section 167.155...Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.155 Off New York: Southern approach. (a) A separation zone is...
The threedimensional distribution of clouds around Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones, for the first time, the three dimensional structure of clouds associated with the Southern Hemisphere cyclones are studied using active observations from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites. First, a compos- ite cyclone
GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL
ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED TO STORE THEM AND KEEP THEM AVAILABLE FOR THEIR CUSTOMERS ORDERS. THE BARRET/DOUGLAS LIFTING TRUCK IS USED TO REACH AND TRANSPORT PATTERNS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL
Page 1 of 3 Southern California Clean Energy Technology Acceleration Program Accelerating Clean Regional Clean Energy Technology Acceleration Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. About clean energy technologies developed within research institutes and universities throughout the Southern
Impact of stratospheric ozone on Southern Hemisphere circulation change: A multimodel assessment., Shibata, K., Smale, D., TeyssÃ¨dre, H., Tian, W. and Yamashita, Y. (2010) Impact of stratospheric ozone of Reading Reading's research outputs online #12;Impact of stratospheric ozone on Southern Hemisphere
Ecological repercussions of historical fish extraction from the Southern Ocean David G Ainley1: FAO Subarea 48.1 7 Abstract A major mid-1980s shift in ecological structure of significant portions between predator populations and fish biomass in predator foraging areas indicate that southern elephant
14. ALABAMA, SUMTER CO., EPES RAILROAD BRIDGE Southern RR at Epes Alabama Great Southern RR bridge. View from S. Copy of photo taken in 1922 by Jack Donnell, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Cochrane, Pickens County, AL
Ecology of cobras from southern Africa R. Shine1 , W. R. Branch2 , J. K. Webb1 , P. S. Harlow1 of the terrestrial snake fauna of most continents; the venomous elapid species fill this role in much of Asia, Africa parallels are evident between the cobras of southern Africa and their ecological counterparts in other
Louisiana State Legislative Auditor, Baton Rouge.
This report, which focuses on education in Louisiana, gives the results of research on various education issues in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and provides information on how southern states collect and use different education-related data. The article discusses education costs and revenues, as well as how financial, student,…
AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS A Thesis by GINGER MARIE-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS A Thesis by GINGER MARIE KELLY May 2011 APPROVED BY and Graduate Studies #12;Copyright by Ginger Marie Kelly 2011 All Rights Reserved #12;iv ABSTRACT AEROSOL
...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Docket...Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Discontinuance...Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed with the Surface Transportation Board a petition...
...TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35572] Pennsylvania & Southern Railway, LLC--Acquisition...Operation Exemption--CSX Transportation, Inc. Pennsylvania & Southern Railway, LLC (PSCC), a...
...Consolidated Rail Corporation, CSX Transportation, Inc., and Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Discontinuance Exemptions...Corporation (Conrail), CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), and Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR)...
Energy input rates across the Southern Ocean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .contributor to the upper ocean mixing energy budget. 1.2 Theenergy input in the Southern Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glen M. MacDonald; Konstantine V. Kremenetski; Hugo G. Hidalgo
Southern California relies heavily upon imported water from the Sacramento and Colorado river systems to augment local supplies and to mitigate the impacts of drought. In this paper a ‘perfect drought’ is defined as a prolonged drought that affects southern California, the Sacramento River basin and the upper Colorado River basin simultaneously. Examination of instrumental climate and discharge records shows
jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group
Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes in seismicity arising from magma movement in the crust are characteristic properties of almost all active volcanoes. Meanwhile the study of the seismicity and propagation of elastic waves through the earth have the potential to give us important information about the internal structure of volcanoes. As very little is known of the 3D structure of Katla volcano and in order to define the 3D velocity structure and the geometry of the possible magma chamber, both P and S-wave travel time data from the most active period of seismicity (July-November 2011) are inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D velocity structure by using Local Earthquake Tomography (LET).
Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.
Transient tracers can be used to constrain the Inverse-Gaussian transit time distribution (IG-TTD) and thus provide information about ocean ventilation. Individual transient tracers have different time and application ranges which are defined by their atmospheric history (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). The classification ranges from tracers for highly ventilated water masses, e.g. sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the decay of Tritium (?3H) and to some extent also dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins, e.g. CFC-12, Argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). The IG-TTD can be empirically constrained by using transient tracer couples with sufficiently different input functions. Each tracer couple has specific characteristics which influence the application limit of the IG-TTD. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and their validity areas within the IG-TTD by using the concept of tracer age differences (TAD). New measured CFC-12 and SF6 data from a section along 10° E in the Southern Ocean in 2012 are presented. These are combined with a similar data set of 1998 along 6° E in the Southern Ocean as well as with 39Ar data from the early 1980s in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea for investigating the application limit of the IG-TTD and to analyze changes in ventilation in the Southern Ocean. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained south to 46° S which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The constrained IG-TTD north of the SAF shows a slight increase in mean ages between 1998 and 2012 in the upper 1200 m between 42-46° S. The absence of SF6 inhibits ventilation analyses below this depth. The time lag analysis between the 1998 and 2012 data shows an increase in ventilation down to 1000 m and a steady ventilation between 2000 m-bottom south of the SAF between 51-55° S.
di Lorenzo, Emanuele
The dynamics of seasonal to long-term variability of the Southern California Current System (SCCS) is studied using a four dimensional space-time analysis of the 52 year (1949--2000) California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) hydrography combined with a sensitivity analysis of an eddy permitting primitive equation ocean model under various forcing scenarios. The dynamics of the seasonal cycle in the SCCS can be summarized as follows. In spring upwelling favorable winds force an upward tilt of the isopycnals along the coast (equatorward flow). Quasi-linear Rossby waves are excited by the ocean adjustment to the isopycnal displacement. In summer as these waves propagate offshore poleward flow develops at the coast and the Southern California Eddy (SCE) reaches its seasonal maxima. Positive wind stress curl in the Southern California Bight is important in maintaining poleward flow and locally reinforcing the SCE with an additional upward displacement of isopycnals through Ekman pumping. At the end of summer and throughout the fall instability processes within the SCE are a generating mechanism for mesoscale eddies, which fully develop in the offshore waters during winter. On decadal timescales a warming trend in temperature (1 C) and a deepening trend in the depth of the mean thermocline (20 m) between 1950 and 1998 are found to be primarily forced by large-scale decadal fluctuations in surface heat fluxes combined with horizontal advection by the mean currents. After 1998 the surface heat fluxes suggest the beginning of a period of cooling, which is consistent with colder observed ocean temperatures. The temporal and spatial distribution of the warming is coherent over the entire northeast Pacific Ocean. Salinity changes are decoupled from temperature and uncorrelated with indices of large-scale oceanic variability. Temporal modulation of southward horizontal advection by the California Current is the primary mechanism controlling local salinity changes in the SCCS. Within 50 to 100 km of the coast, the ocean model simulations show strong evidence that the isopycnal deepening reduces the nutrient flux to the ocean surface. The long-term trend of the model proxy for surface nutrients is consistent with the observed decline in zooplankton concentration.
Duncan Forbes; Ray Norris
We have produced radio maps, using the ATCA, of the central regions of six southern Seyfert 2 galaxies (NGC 1365, 4945, 6221, 6810, 7582, and Circinus) with circumnuclear star formation, to estimate the relative contribution of star formation activity compared to activity from the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The radio morphologies range from extended diffuse structures to compact nuclear emission, with no evidence, even in the relatively compact sources, for synchrotron self--absorption. In each case the radio to far--infrared (FIR) ratio has a value consistent with star formation, and in all but one case the radio to [FeII] ratio is also consistent with star formation. We derive supernova rates and conclude that, despite the presence of a Seyfert nucleus in these galaxies, the radio, FIR, and [FeII] line emission are dominated by processes associated with the circumnuclear star formation (i.e. supernova remnants and HII regions) rather than with the AGN.
Thickness diffusivity ($\\kappa$) according to the Gent and McWilliams parameterisation which accounts for eddy-driven advection in the ocean, is estimated using output from an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. A physically meaningful definition of rotational eddy fluxes leads almost everywhere to positive $\\kappa$. Zonally averaged near surface values of $\\kappa$ remain smaller than 200 m2/s poleward of the polar front, increases between 60-45°S to about 600 m2/s and peak between 45-35° S at almost 3000 m2/s. $\\kappa$ stays high in the upper 500 m but decreases with depth and is essentially zero below 2500 m. In addition to the thickness diffusion ($\\kappa$) there is eddy-induced eastward (westward) advection of isopycnal thickness at the poleward (equatorward) flank of the ACC pointing toward strong anisotropic lateral mixing.
The Southern Poverty Law Center has been monitoring the activities of hate groups and extremist activities since 1981. Today, their Intelligence Project continues to track over 800 hate groups across the United States. First-time visitors to the site can look over brief synopses of current activities within various hate groups. From there, visitors will want to visit the "Intelligence Report" section. Here, they will find the current issue of this magazine, which frequently includes guest editorials, interviews with former hate group members and leaders, and information about how the Center is combating these different groups and their activities. Additionally, the site also includes an interactive map of active hate groups in the United States.
Mcclain, Charles R.; Koblinsky, Chester J.; Firestone, James; Darzi, Michael; Yeh, Eueng-Nan; Beckley, Brian D.
Several datasets regarding the ocean in the Southern Hemisphere are combined into a coregistered format to analyze the use of the data in multidisciplinary research. The datasets are described detailing bathymetric climatological data on surface pigment concentration, eddy-kinetic-energy measurements, surface wind-stress magnitudes, sea-surface temperatures, surface densities, and nitrate concentrations. The data are combined in a common projection which facilitates the comparison of the fields, and the combined data yield insights regarding such phenomena as bottom topography, surface heat and moisture fluxes, and divergences in flow. The number of available datasets is shown to be good, and the data can be used to develop working hypotheses on the relationships between physical and biogeochemical processes.
Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N
The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. PMID:26149859
Dolbee, Cora Emmett
, 1899j.Vols. I&II, pp. 1-599. Manly,Louise, Southern Literature, from 1579-1895, BJ. Johnson Publishing Co.,c.1895, pp.I-I44. Moses,Montrose J., Literature of the South, N.Y., T.Y. Crowell &Co.,cI9I0, entire. Poe, Edgar Allan, Literary Criticism... of Sidney Lanier, ed. by his wife, new edition, N.Y-jChas.Scrib- nerfs Sons, c. 1884,pp. I-XLI. Woodberry, G.E.,Edgar Allan Poe, in American Men of Let- t er s S erias,ed.fcy C.D.Warner,Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., cI885,pp.1...
Mayxay, Mayfong; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Parola, Philippe; Craig, Scott B.; Tulsiani, Suhella; Burns, Mary-Anne; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Keola, Siamphay; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Raoult, Didier; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N.
The etiology of fever in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) has remained obscure until recently owing to the lack of laboratory facilities. We conducted a study to determine the causes of fever among 229 patients without malaria in Savannakhet Province, southern Laos; 52% had evidence of at least one diagnosis (45% with single and 7% with apparent multiple infections). Among patients with only one diagnosis, dengue (30.1%) was the most common, followed by leptospirosis (7.0%), Japanese encephalitis virus infection (3.5%), scrub typhus (2.6%), spotted fever group infection (0.9%), unspecified flavivirus infection (0.9%), and murine typhus (0.4%). We discuss the empirical treatment of fever in relation to these findings. PMID:26149859
This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.
Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.
The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.
2002-01-01AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent and campaign, operational mode. Results from various radar meteor investigations as well as radar/optical observation campaign will be presented in this paper.
Hough, S. E.; Gomberg, J.; Hutton, K.
Seismic waves from the Mw7.9 Denali earthquake of 3 November, 2002, clearly caused remotely triggered earthquakes in a number of regions in northern and central California, as well as in Yellowstone. Routine catalog analysis revealed no obvious triggered earthquakes within the southern California network. To investigate the possibility that triggered earthquakes were hidden within the mainshock signal we examined filtered data from broadband Trinet stations. This analysis revealed unrecognized events in the Coso geothermal region (see Hill et al.). In the Brawley Seismic Zone and at Indio, where remotely triggered earthquakes were observed following both the 1992 Landers and the 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes, no evidence of triggering is seen. We estimate the dynamic stress changes caused by the Denali mainshock, which provides a lower bound for the threshhold of stress change required to trigger earthquakes in these locations. From the filtered broadband data we did identify one M2.5 event outside of Coso that had not been identified from routine catalog analysis because its signal was obscurred by surface waves. It was located approximately 90 km offshore of Oceanside, California. Events of this magnitude occur on average about once every 12 hours in southern California. The odds that the event occurred by random chance within an hour of the Denali mainshock are thus about 8%, suggesting (albeit weakly) that the earthquake may have been triggered. This result--and its uncertainty-- reflect the challenge associated with the identification of remotely triggered earthquakes that do not occur as part of pronounced sequences at geothermal/volcanic areas. That is, stray individual triggered earthquakes may be obscured within regional mainshock signals and statistical significance may be hard to prove.
Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.
Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.
Barco, Janet; Hogue, Terri S.; Girotto, Manuela; Kendall, Donald R.; Putti, Mario
The western United States is marked by limited water resources and a fast-growing population. Increasing climate variability as well as a growing demand on water resources highlights the need for improved understanding of connections between regional climate, surface water dynamics, and groundwater recharge. The current study focuses on the linkages between climate variability and groundwater levels in Calleguas Creek watershed located in southern California. The Calleguas Creek groundwater system serves as a critical source of water supply for agricultural and industrial use. Precipitation time series and groundwater levels were analyzed throughout the Calleguas Creek watershed for the period 1975-2004. Water level variability was analyzed for over 311 individual wells with a subset of 20 wells selected for further analysis. A correlation matrix was computed to establish well locations (or groups) with similar hydrologic behavior. Prewhitening methods were used to evaluate the effect of time series autocorrelation on the test statistics for trend detection using the Mann-Kendall test. Both climate and selected groundwater level (well) data were subjected to frequency analysis using fast Fourier transform. The time series of precipitation, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, and well levels were analyzed. A strong persistence was observed in the groundwater level time series, ranging from 66% to 99%. Results suggest the existence of significant periodicities between 2.0 and 7.0 years in both the precipitation and the well level data that are partially coincident with ENSO modes. A decadal oscillation was also observed in the well level data, which partially corresponds with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Assessment of the complex interactions between climate variability and groundwater levels will facilitate improved water resources planning and management in water-stressed regions where marginal changes in hydrologic budgets have significant implications.
These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.
2001-01-01These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.Parts of the Yorke Peninsula and a portion of the Murray-Darling River basin are visible between the clouds near the top of the left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes.Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for region allow-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation.These views were acquired on October 11, 2001 during Terra orbit 9650, and represent an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers.
Mountney, Nigel P.; Russell, Andrew J.
A coastal aeolian dune field on the distal parts of Sólheimasandur, southern Iceland is currently undergoing active construction. Ongoing sand deflation in the foreshore is demonstrated by the preservation of sand ridges in the downwind lee of obstacles, while a backshore sandsheet is characterised by actively accumulating long-wavelength wind ripples. The main region of aeolian accumulation is in the immediate backshore where sand has accumulated to a thickness of up to 8 m and is largely stabilized by vegetation. Surrounding interdune areas have undergone repeated flooding by fluvial incursions from the adjacent Jökulsá River, and are characterised by mud drapes which lap against the lower flanks of neighbouring dunes. Widespread sand adhesion structures testify to the often damp nature of the substrate. Over 1200 vegetated and stabilized dunes (nebkhas) occupy a 5 km 2 area of wind-deflated gravel sandur plain downwind from the main site of aeolian accumulation. The nebkhas show strong relationships between plan form shape and height, indicating that they have attained equilibrium morphology for the prevailing climatic conditions. Within the nebkha field, dunes demonstrate a predictable downwind decrease in height, spatial concentration and degree of sand stabilization. A time series of aerial photographs documents the temporal evolution of the dune field and demonstrates that aeolian accumulation commenced about 1940 and has been ongoing to the present day. Prior to 1940, repeated outburst floods associated with catastrophic lake drainage events from the Sólheimajökull glacier 8 km inland were of sufficient magnitude to repeatedly destroy any incipient aeolian bedforms that developed. Although strong onshore winds and high rates of sediment supply promote aeolian sediment transport, dune field development is rare in humid boreal and sub-arctic climates as encountered in southern Iceland because the availability of sediment for aeolian transport is usually severely limited by damp substrate conditions. Thus, the airflow tends to be undersaturated with respect to its potential sand transporting capacity and dune construction can only occur because of the stabilizing influence of vegetation.
Okeler, A.; Gu, Y. J.; Steckler, M. S.; Lerner-Lam, A.
The crust and upper mantle structures beneath southern Italy are often associated with rollback and fragmentation of the Western Mediterranean subduction zone in the past 30 million years. In this study, we utilize broadband records from the Calabria-Apennine-Tyrrhenian/Subduction Collision-Accretion Network (CAT/SCAN) to probe the effect of the past and on-going plate motions beneath this region. Waveforms from two distinct frequency ranges are examined in detail using both forward and inverse waveform modeling approaches, and the resulting 1-D models for each path are subjected to a Monte-Carlo uncertainty test. By analyzing the Love and Rayleigh waves from two regional earthquakes during the temporary deployment between 2003 and 2005, we are able to retrieve information on the anisotropic seismic structure down to 200-km depth. Our study shows that the average seismic structure beneath Calabria/Apulia is significantly faster than that beneath the Apenninic mountain chain. Sharp changes in seismic velocities, regardless of wave polarizations, lend strong support for the distinct geologic histories of the major tectonic units. The difference between Love- and Rayleigh-wave models provides further constraints on the dynamic processes and crust/mantle fabric beneath the study area. Our preliminary results show relatively minor anisotropy beneath the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea and Calabrian Arc region, which could be partially explained by the rapid changes in the alignment of olivine fast crystallographic-axes due to the complex arc geometry. The ray paths connecting the Ionian Sea and the Southern Apennines reveal strong anisotropy, where transversely polarized waves travel at higher speeds than vertically polarized waves. Both "frozen-in" and flow-induced anisotropy could contribute to the observed waveform differences between the Love and Rayleigh waves sampling this region.
Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato
Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted. PMID:24884999
Silberman, Donn M.; Cartland, Robert; Monacelli, Brian; Whitmore, Desire
Over the past decade, Southern California has seen informal optics education and outreach programs grow substantially, mainly due to efforts from members of the Optical Society of Southern California (OSSC) and more recently the Optical Society of America, UC Irvine, Student Chapter. Also, the Optics Institute of Southern California (OISC) has served as a focal point for many of these programs, as an independent organization working closely with society members and other partners. This paper provides an update of these programs, including a new OSSC website that provides a new platform for significantly expanding the member participation efforts.
Pellegrini, P.S.; Da Costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.N.A.; Huchra, J.P.; Latham, D.W. (Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA))
Observations in the southern galactic hemisphere in the declination range between -17.5 and 2.5 degrees are combined with other available observation. The data set is used to study the spatial distribution of galaxies of a contiguous area of 3.13 sr of the Southern Galactic Cap. An approximately homogeneous magnitude-limited sample of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Cap is constructed from different catalogs. The resulting large scale structure is similar to that of previous surveys in which bright galaxies are distributed on surfaces which intersect at sharp corners and nearly surround voids that are almost empty of galaxies. 29 refs.
Hobbs, Peter V.
During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.
A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1 D. P. Clemens,1 J. M a unique and pro- vocative nebular object we call the ``Southern Jellyfish Nebula.'' The Southern Jellyfish model. Based on its far-IR luminosity of 3:3 Æ 0:9 ; 104 L, the Southern Jellyfish's MYSO has a zero
Udwadia, Firdaus E.
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [University of Southern California, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA b Department of Geology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA c Department of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
California Mehdi Saeedi, University of Southern California Massoud Pedram, University of Southern California0 Cofactor Sharing for Reversible Logic Synthesis Alireza Shafaei, University of Southern of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089. A preliminary version of this paper has been appeared
Sandwell, David T.
Trough, a broad region of Southern California that includes the southern San Andreas fault (SAFModulation of the earthquake cycle at the southern San Andreas fault by lake loading Karen Luttrell, four of the last five ruptures on the southern San Andreas fault have occurred near a time
The R Coronae Australis complex of young stars and interstellar gas clouds is one of the nearest star-forming regions, at a distance of approx. 500 light-years from the Sun. It is seen in the southern constellation of that name (The "Southern Crown"). Images of this sky area were recently obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) , a 67-million pixel digital camera that is installed at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. Some of these exposures have been combined into a magnificent colour image, here reproduced as PR Photo 25a/00 . The field shown measures about 4.7 x 4.7 light-years 2. It displays the central part of the complex, its brightest stars, and the nebulosity that they illuminate. The interstellar clouds that are associated with the complex are visible all across this field and also beyond its borders (on other exposures), due to the obscuring effect of the dust particles that "dim" the light of stars behind these clouds. This effect is particularly noticeable in the lower left corner where very few stars are seen. R Coronae Australis , the bright star from which the entire complex is named, is located at the center of the field and illuminates the reddish nebula around it. The bright star in the lower part, illuminating a somewhat bluer nebula, is known as TY Coronae Australis . The brightness of these two stars and several others in the same field is variable. They belong to the so-called "T Tauri" class , a type that is quite common in star-forming regions. T Tauri stars are in the early stages of stellar evolution and display various observable characteristics of this phase, e.g. emission at visible and infrared wavelengths due to the accretion of matter left over from their formation, as well as X-ray emission. The nebulosity seen in this picture is mostly due to reflection of the stellar light by small dust particles. The stars in the R Coronae Australis complex do not emit sufficient ultraviolet light to ionize a substantial fraction of the surrounding hydrogen, and thereby cause this gas to glow. However, some smaller features are also visible (one is seen in the upper left corner of PR Photo 25b/00 ) which emit light by a different mechanism. These are so-called Herbig-Haro objects , i.e., dense clumps of gas ejected from the immediate vicinity of newly formed stars with velocities of about 200 km/sec. When such clumps ram into the gas, the atoms are heated (excited) and start to shine. See also ESO PR Photo 40c/99 of the object HH-34 in Orion. Other WFI images are available at the WFI Photo Gallery. Tecnical information : The observations were obtained on the night of 30 August 2000. The image is a combination of twelve large (8000 x 8000 pix) CCD frames taken through B, V, and R filters. Four exposures of 5 min each were obtained in each filter, with the telescope pointing at slightly different positions so that the gaps among the eight individual CCD-chips of the detector can be adequately filled. All frames were carefully aligned, and the intensity levels were cut in order to achieve the proper colour balance. A logarithmic intensity scale was used to improve the dynamical range. PR Photo 25a/00 displays the full field and was rebinned to a smaller scale in order to allow transportation over the web. PR Photo 25b/00 shows part of this field at the original resolution. The images were prepared by Fernando Comeron (ESO). This is the caption to ESO PR Photos 25a-b/00 . They may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.
Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.
Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling positions along one transect. This transect consisted of 18 stations on the zero meridian proper from 51°57' S until 69°24'S, and 4 stations somewhat to the northeast towards Cape Town from 42°20'S, 09°E to 50°17'S, 01°27'E. The actual concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean were lower than previously reported. The concentration of Al in the upper 25 m was relatively elevated with an average concentration of 0.71 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.43 nM), most likely due to atmospheric input by a suggested combination of direct atmospheric (wet and dry) input and indirect atmospheric input via melting sea ice. Below the surface waters there was a distinct Al minimum with an average concentration of 0.33 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.13 nM) at an average depth of 120 m. In the deep southernmost Weddell Basin the concentration of Al increased with depth to ˜0.8 nM at 4000 m, and a higher concentration of ˜1.5 nM in the ˜4500-5200 m deep Weddell Sea Bottom Water. Over the Bouvet triple junction region, where three deep ocean ridges meet, the concentration of Al increased to ˜1.4 nM at about 2000 m depth over the ridge crest. In the deep basin north of the Bouvet region the concentration of Al increased to higher deep values of 4-6 nM due to influence of North Atlantic Deep Water. In general the intermediate and deep distribution of Al results from the mixing of water masses with different origins, the formation of deep water and additional input from sedimentary sources at sea floor elevations. No significant correlation between Al and silicate (Si) was observed. This is in contrast to some other ocean regions. In the Southern Ocean the supply of Al is extremely low and any signal from Al uptake and dissolution with biogenic silica is undetectable against the high dissolved Si and low dissolved Al concentrations. Here the Al-Si relation in the deep ocean is uncoupled. This is due to the scavenging and subsequent loss of the water column of Al, whereas the concentration of Si increases in the deep ocean due to its input from deep dissolution of biogenic diatom frustules settling from the surface layer.
Snedegar, K. V.
Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises ? and ? Crucis and ? and ? Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations with other creatures: wild dogs, warthogs, wildebeests, swallows, cuckoos and cicadas. In each case the visibility of a star will synchronize with a behavior of the associated species. Together, stars and species informed man of the order and unity of an African cosmos — a worldview that must have been as satisfying as it was beautiful.
Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in both sites. However during spring biogenic influence increased. In addition to source analysis this behaviour was visible in enhanced diurnal cycles of VOCs (Patokoski et al., 2014, in press). We will present important sources and source areas for Southern Finland's concentrations. References: Patokoski, J., Ruuskanen, T.M., Hellén, H., Taipale, R., Grönholm, T., Kajos, M.K., Petäjä, T., Hakola, H., Kulmala, M. & Rinne, J., 2014. Winter to spring transition and diurnal variation of VOCs in Finland at an urban background site and a rural site. Boreal Env. Res. 19. In press.
2007-01-01The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point. The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials -- leading to new understanding of the climate. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.
McCreary Jr., Julian P.
Salinity Variations in the Southern California Current* NIKLAS SCHNEIDER International Pacific and salinity variations have very different interannual variability. Temperature varies within and above upwelling. Salinity variability is largest in the surface layers of the offshore salinity minimum
Janousek, Christopher N
E.A. 1942. Plant ecology of the coastal salt marshlands ofchannels, and salt marshes dominated by vascular plants suchplant and algal production to macro-invertebrate consumers in a southern California salt
Production ecology in southern California coastal salt marshes was investigated by harvesting macrophytes and monitoring environmental factors (substrate salinity, pH, nitrogen, redox, water content, temperature, and tide level) at four locations--Sweetwater River Estuary, Los Pe...
5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE EAST FRONT, FROM THE SOUTH END TO BAY NO. 27. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA
... New U.S. government research connects eyesight problems with poverty, and reveals that people in the southern part ... the country have the highest prevalence of both poverty and severe vision loss. In fact, most of ...
New Hampshire, University of
University of Maine at Farmington University of Southern Maine Plymouth State University University of New Hampshire University of Massachusetts at Boston University of Massachusetts at Amherst Worcester State University Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Bridgewater State University Westfield State
60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON CO., APR. 28, 1910, REVISED MAY 12, 1910. SCE drawing no. 4500. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA
8. Detail, southern third of west elevation, showing arched-soffit T-beams on squat piers; view to southeast. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA
5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL
8. VIEW OF THREE BOATHOUSES FROM SOUTHERN END OF 'PENN AC ROWING ASSN' TO 'VESPER' RIVER FACADE, LOOKING EAST FROM WEST BANK OF SCHUYLKILL RIVER - Boathouse Row, East River Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
17. Span 1, detail view, steel hangers of southern arch; view to southwest. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA
22. Span 1, detail view, spring of southern arch rib at west abutment; view to northwest. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA
14. Span 1, southern elevation; view to north. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA
8. General view, southern elevations of Spans 3, 4 and 5; view to north. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA
26. Spans 2-5, underview of southern sidewalk from Pier 3 eastward; view to east. - Fifth Street Bridge, Spanning MBTA Fitchburg Commuter Rail Line tracks, Conrail Fitchburg Secondary Line & North Nashua River, Fitchburg, Worcester County, MA
35. Inside Powerhouse No. 1. Opening for turbine-generator shaft (southern generator) in cast concrete substructure, top view - Sewall's Falls Hydroelectric Facility, East end of Second Street spanning Merrimack River, Concord, Merrimack County, NH
General view, showing detail atop hemi circle at southern end of Memorial Avenue. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
INTERIOR OF MAIN SPACE, SHOWING MEZZANINE IN SOUTHERN SECTION, VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Torpedo & Bombsight Shop & Storehouse, Midway Street between Enterprise & Ranger Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI
Janousek, Christopher N
and tight-coiled cyanobacteria in Spirulina (e.g. , Umezakicyanobacteria have been reported from marine environments: Spirulina,cyanobacteria of southern California marine wetlands. A B C Figure 12. Spirulina
Southern Lake Huron contains a diversity of phytoplankton assemblage types ranging from assemblages characteristic of oligotrophic waters to those which usually occur under highly eutrophic conditions. The offshore waters are generally characterized by oligotrophic associations a...
Geostrophic eddies control the meridional mixing of heat, carbon, and other climatically important tracers in the Southern Ocean. The rate of eddy mixing is typically quantified through an eddy diffusivity. There is an ...
Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Haumann, F Alexander; Rödenbeck, Christian; Bakker, Dorothee C E; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Metzl, Nicolas; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik
Several studies have suggested that the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean-the ocean's strongest region for the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 -has weakened in recent decades. We demonstrated, on the basis of multidecadal analyses of surface ocean CO2 observations, that this weakening trend stopped around 2002, and by 2012, the Southern Ocean had regained its expected strength based on the growth of atmospheric CO2. All three Southern Ocean sectors have contributed to this reinvigoration of the carbon sink, yet differences in the processes between sectors exist, related to a tendency toward a zonally more asymmetric atmospheric circulation. The large decadal variations in the Southern Ocean carbon sink suggest a rather dynamic ocean carbon cycle that varies more in time than previously recognized. PMID:26359401
Alkaline rocks including kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre and carbonatite in Andhra Pradesh, southern India, have been the focus of much recent research. Here case studies from among those investigations are reviewed and discussed.
Mazloff, Matthew R
A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence toward the state estimate solution is carried ...
10. Photocopy of photograph (original print from Southern Pacific Transportation Company) ca. 1916, photographer unknown VIEW OF ORIGINAL PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY LYNWOOD SHELTER SHED - Lynwood Pacific Electric Railway Depot, 11453 Long Beach Boulevard, Lynwood, Los Angeles County, CA
65. SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE CLEAN GAS CONNECTING LINES FOR THE HOT BLAST STOVES OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA
8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN
Seldin, Michael F; Shigeta, Russell; Villoslada, Pablo; Selmi, Carlo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K
Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern” population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the “northern” population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the “southern” population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies. PMID:17044734
4. DETAIL OF SOUTHERN MOST ARCHES, EASTERN ELEVATION. OPEN FLOOD GATE VISIBLE WITHIN ARCH. VIEW TAKEN FROM UNDER 14TH STREET BRIDGE. - Tidal Reservoir, Outlet, Spanning Tidal Reservoir Outlet at Fourteenth Street Bridge, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955 on Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA
26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA
stands in the Southern Sierra, increasing economic value for livestock use and reducing wildfire risk with the local Resource Conservation District to evaluate thinning treatment to reduce first risk and to increase
these plots. In contrast, during secondary succession in theof secondary succession. Only 4% of the plot was covered bysuccession in an excessively hypersaline salt marsh in southern California. Experimental plots
...the starting point. Head of Harbor Regatta Sponsor: University of Southern California, Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Date: November Location: Los Angeles Harbor, that portion between Berth 191 and the Ford/Heim Bridges....
...the starting point. Head of Harbor Regatta Sponsor: University of Southern California, Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Date: November Location: Los Angeles Harbor, that portion between Berth 191 and the Ford/Heim Bridges....
Porter, Patrick; McIntyre, Nancy E.
Larger black flour beetles have invaded homes and other buildings in some Southern High Plains counties in Texas. This publication explains how to identify the beetles, find and eliminate the source, and exclude the insects from the house....
Pickrell, Joseph K.
The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter–gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two ...
The variation of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events from the mid-nineteenth century until the beginning of the twenty-first century is explored using an ocean reanalysis. Decadal variability and trends in the strength, frequency, duration...
...a.m. to approximately 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Tucson Interagency Fire Center, 2646 E. Commerce Center Place, Tucson, AZ 85706. Send written comments to Jennifer Ruyle, RAC Coordinator, Southern Arizona...
Punk is often thought of as a culture of resistance—resistance to conventional music,Music isn’t the only means of resistance Latinos have found to challenge domination in the current Southern California punk
Mazloff, Matthew R.
The Southern Ocean (SO) limb of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is characterized by three vertically stacked cells, each with a transport of about 10 Sv (Sv ? 10[superscript 6] m[superscript 3] s[superscript ...
Baker, Ralph C.
This study is meant to explain the fire regime of the southern Appalachian Mountain Range of the southeastern United States by analyzing spatial statistics and climate-fire relationships. The spatial statistics were created by obtaining...
8. VIEW OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE LOCKTENDERS HOUSE (SOUTHERN MOST), LOOKING WEST. - Ohio Slack Water Dams, Lock & Dam No. 4, East bank of Ohio River at mile point 18.6, along State Route 65, Ambridge, Beaver County, PA
93. (Credit CBF) Red River syphon running along the southern shore of Douglas island, adjacent to Cross Bayou, March 1913. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA
Ito, Takamitsu, 1976-
I develop conceptual models of the biogeochemistry and physical circulation of the Southern Ocean in order to study the air-sea fluxes of trace gases and biological productivity and their potential changes over ...
6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY TOWARD UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ
45. SOUTHERN INTERIOR VIEW OF MOULD CONDITIONING BUILDING SHOWING FINK TRUSSES AND CORRUGATED METAL SHEETING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA
5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the southeast portal looking north - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN