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1

Geology of the Gorny Altai subduction accretion complex, southern Siberia: Tectonic evolution of an Ediacaran Cambrian intra-oceanic arc-trench system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gorny Altai region in southern Siberia is one of the key areas in reconstructing the tectonic evolution of the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This region features various orogenic elements of Late Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic age, such as an accretionary complex (AC), high- P/ T metamorphic (HP) rocks, and ophiolite (OP), all formed by ancient subduction-accretion processes. This study investigated the detailed geology of the Upper Neoproterozoic to Lower Paleozoic rocks in a traverse between Gorno-Altaisk city and Lake Teletskoy in the northern part of the region, and in the Kurai to Chagan-Uzun area in the southern part. The tectonic units of the studied areas consist of (1) the Ediacaran (=Vendian)-Early Cambrian AC, (2) ca. 630 Ma HP complex, (3) the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian OP complex, (4) the Cryogenian-Cambrian island arc complex, and (5) the Middle Paleozoic fore-arc sedimentary rocks. The AC consists mostly of paleo-atoll limestone and underlying oceanic island basalt with minor amount of chert and serpentinite. The basaltic lavas show petrochemistry similar to modern oceanic plateau basalt. The 630 Ma HP complex records a maximum peak metamorphism at 660 °C and 2.0 GPa that corresponds to 60 km-deep burial in a subduction zone, and exhumation at ca. 570 Ma. The Cryogenian island arc complex includes boninitic rocks that suggest an incipient stage of arc development. The Upper Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic complexes in the Gorno-Altaisk city to Lake Teletskoy and the Kurai to Chagan-Uzun areas are totally involved in a subhorizontal piled-nappe structure, and overprinted by Late Paleozoic strike-slip faulting. The HP complex occurs as a nappe tectonically sandwiched between the non- to weakly metamorphosed AC and the OP complex. These lithologic assemblages and geologic structure newly documented in the Gorny Altai region are essentially similar to those of the circum-Pacific (Miyashiro-type) orogenic belts, such as the Japan Islands in East Asia and the Cordillera in western North America. The Cryogenian boninite-bearing arc volcanism indicates that the initial stage of arc development occurred in a transient setting from a transform zone to an incipient subduction zone. The less abundant of terrigenous clastics from mature continental crust and thick deep-sea chert in the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian AC may suggest that the southern Gorny Altai region evolved in an intra-oceanic arc-trench setting like the modern Mariana arc, rather than along the continental arc of a major continental margin. Based on geological, petrochemical, and geochronological data, we synthesize the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic tectonic history of the Gorny Altai region in the western CAOB.

Ota, Tsutomu; Utsunomiya, Atsushi; Uchio, Yuko; Isozaki, Yukio; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Ishikawa, Akira; Maruyama, Shigenori; Kitajima, Koki; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Katayama, Ikuo

2007-07-01

2

Distribution of Active Faults and Recent Earthquake Ruptures along the Gobi-Altai Active Fault Zone, Southern Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gobi-Altai earthquake of 4 December 1957 in southern Mongolia is one of the largest recorded intracontinental earthquakes in the world. The surface ruptures associated with this M8.3 earthquake extend for about 260 km long and 40 km wide, involving strike-slip and reverse faulting (Kurushin et al., 1997). Earthquake ruptures appeared along a limited portion of the entire Gobi-Altai fault

N. Sugito; H. Goto; Y. Suzuki; S. Ishiguro; D. Hirouchi; H. Tsutsumi; D. Enkhtaivan; O. Batkhishig; S. Narangerel; N. Purevsuren; E. Avirmed; M. Otgonbayar; O. Sukhbaatar

2007-01-01

3

Geological and geochemical characteristics and ore genesis of the Keketale VMS Pb–Zn deposit, Southern Altai Metallogenic Belt, NW China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Keketale Pb–Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit occurs in the early Devonian sequence of the Kangbutiebao Formation of the Southern Altai Metallogenic Belt (SAMB), northern Xinjiang, China. All the orebodies are stratabound and hosted by a suite of meta-sedimentary rocks intercalated with volcanic rocks. Major sulfide ores are pyrite, sphalerite, galena, with minor pyrrhotite and rare chalcopyrite. Massive, banded,

Bo Wan; Lianchang Zhang; Wenjiao Xiao

2010-01-01

4

Accretionary history of the Altai-Mongolian terrane: perspectives from granitic zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) consists of many tectonic terranes with distinct origin and complicated evolutionary history. Understanding of individual block is crucial to reconstruct the geodynamic history of the gigantic accetionary collage. This study presents zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for the granitoid rocks in the Russian Altai mountain range (including Gorny Altai, Altai-Mongolian terrane and CTUS suture zone between them), in order to clarify the timing of granitic magmatism, source nature, continental crustal growth and tectonic evolution. Our dating results suggest that granitic magmatism of the Russian Altai mountain range occurred in three major episodes including 445~429 Ma, 410~360 Ma and ~241 Ma. Most of the zircons within the Paleozoic granitoids present comparable positive ?Hf(t) values and Neoproterozoic crustal model ages, which favor the interpretation that the juvenile crustal materials produced in the early stage of CAOB were probably dominant sources for the Paleozoic magmatism in the region. The inference is also supported by widespread occurrence of short-lived juvenile materials including ophiolites, seamount relics and arc assemblages in the north CAOB. Consequently, the Paleozoic massive granitic rocks maybe not represent continental crustal growth at the time when they were emplaced, but rather record reworking of relatively juvenile Proterozoic crustal rocks although mantle-derived mafic magma was possibly involved to sever as heat engine during granitic magma generation. The Early Triassic granitic intrusion may be product in an intra-plate environment, as the case of same type rocks in the adjacent areas. The positive ?Hf(t) values (1.81~7.47) and corresponding Hf model ages (0.80~1.16 Ga) together with evidence of petrology are consistent with the interpretation that the parental magma of the Triassic granitic intrusion was produced from enriched mantle-derived sources under an usually high temperature condition which is likely due to basaltic magma that underplated the lower crust. Our data combined with evidence of the regional geology enable us to conclude that the Gorny Altai and Altai-Mongolian terranes possibly have similar tectonic natures, but represent two separate accretionary systems before Devonian collision. The accretion and amalgamation processes resulted in the Paleozoic granitoid magmatism and caused the two terranes to merge as a composite tectonic domain at the Siberian continental margin.

Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

2014-05-01

5

[Haplotype diversity in mtDNA and Y-chromosome in populations of Altai-Sayan region].  

PubMed

Polymorphism of mtDNA was examined in five ethnic populations that belong to the Turkic language group and inhabit the territory of the Altai-Sayan upland (N = 1007). Most of the haplogroups identified in the examined populations belonged to East Eurasian lineages. In all five populations, only three haplogroups, C, D, and F, were prevailing. The frequencies of the other six haplogroups (A, B, G, M, Y, and Z) varied in the range from 1.1 to 6.5%. Among West Eurasian haplogrous, the most common were haplogroups H, J, T, and U. An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups in 407 individuals showed that only two haplogroups, N* and R1a1, were present in all five populations examined. Moreover, in different ethnic groups, the highest frequencies were observed for C-M130, N-P43, and N-Tat haplogroups. The differences in the distribution patterns of ancient West Eurasian and East Eurasian haplotypes from Gorny Altai in the present-day populations from the northern part of Eurasia revealed can be explained in terms of the multistage expansion of humans across these territories. The ubiquity of haplotypes from haplogroup H and cluster U across the wide territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean can indicate directional human expansion, which most likely occurred out of Central Asia as early as in the Paleolithic era, and took place in several waves with the glacier retreat. PMID:23755537

Gubina, M A; Damba, L D; Babenko, L; Romashchenko, V N; Voevoda, A G

2013-03-01

6

A Few Issues on the Peat Research in the Altai Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time we carry out complex research of marsh ecosystems in various areas of Gorny Altai to reveal the perspective deposits of peat in the Altai Mountains with the purpose of its use in the medical and recreational spheres. The peat deposits of the Northeastern Altai, Central Altai, and Southeastern Altai are surveyed; the selective chemical analysis of peat and marsh waters is carried out. The group structure of organic substance of various samples of peat is investigated by the method of Institutes of Peat. The toxic metals of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As were defined by the method of stripping voltammetry. The region of the Altai Mountains is characterized by the contrastive distribution of some heavy metals and arsenic in a soil cover. This is caused by a variety of petrography and granulometry of soil forming material, and also by a landscape and geochemical situation in the system of vertical zoning. The sources of natural accumulation of heavy metals in the ground might be the deposits of polymetals. In this connection the content of the specified toxic elements in the peat under research has been identified. The peat of the Turochak deposit is characterized by a significant ash content - up to 41,9%; the increased ash content is typical of the Kutyush deposit: from 6,1% up to 19, %. The peat of the Northeastern Altai is referred to non-bitumunous: the content of bitumen makes up less than 5%. In comparison with the European peat the peat under study of the transitive and lowland type is characterized by the significant content of easy hydrolysable substances in the amount of 24,8-41,1%. The amount of the non-hydrolysable rest makes up around 4,3 - 7,4 %. The total content of fulvic acids is less than the content of humic acids by 2,9 - 5,8 times. The high content of humic acids which can reach up to 58 % is characteristic of certain deposits. Humic acids extracted from the peat are characterized, as a rule, by similar IR-spectra. The distinctions are shown in an unequal intensity of characteristic absorption bands, in their spreading and some shifts. It is revealed that humic acids of peat with the increase in a degree of decomposition are exposed to transformation; therefore the increase in their structure of functional groups is observed. As a result of the research which was carried out the following elements among heavy metals in the lowland peat of the Altai Mountains are revealed: Cd (2,7 - 30)> Hg (0,67)> Zn (0,22) ~Pb (0,21)> Cu (0,13)> As (0,03). The degree of mobility of chemical elements in the peat varies within the limits of 1,3 - 36%. According to the degree of their mobility these elements form the following line: Zn (36 %)> Pb (18,1 %)> Cd (9,6 %)> Cu (1,3 %). The content and the character of distribution of the heavy metals under study and arsenic in the peat of the Altai Mountains have their unique features in comparison with the same valley analogues. The mountain peat of the Central Altai contains much less Hg than the West Siberian one: 0,078 mg/g and 0,69 mg/g accordingly. Cd represents itself as the concentrator in the lowland peat of the Northeastern and Central Altai, its content is actually the same and makes up approximately 0,3 mg/kg. The lowland Altai and West Siberian peat has the same amount of Pb: 4-5 mg/kg; they have smaller amounts of Zn and Cu in comparison with the European and West Siberian peat. The revealed features of distribution of some toxic metals are the display of specificity of peat genesis in the conditions of a mountain relief. The complex of the data received by us allows to consider the peat of the Altai Mountains as a non-polluting raw source concerning the amount of some natural toxic substances. The possible perspective directions of practical application of the mountain peat can be medicine, veterinary science, and agriculture.

Inisheva, Lydia I.; Larina, Galina; Shurova, Maya

2010-05-01

7

Objective and Subjective Data on Altai and Kazakh Ethnolinguistic Vitality in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the ethnolinguistic vitality of Altai and Kazakh as compared to Russian in the Russian Federation Republic of Altai. Data were gathered by document analysis, interviews with experts and by conducting a subjective ethnolinguistic vitality questionnaire. The data showed that Altai and Kazakh, as a consequence of a long-lasting…

Yagmur, Kutlay; Kroon, Sjaak

2006-01-01

8

[Polymorphism of the Y-chromosome diallelic loci in the ethnic populations of the Altai-Sayan region].  

PubMed

Using the data on five biallellic Y-chromosome loci (DYS199, 92R7, SRY1532, RBF5 and DYS287) polymorphism, genetic structures of the five Turkic-speaking ethnic groups of the Altai-Sayan highland (Tuvinians, Sojots, Shorians, Khakassians, and Southern Altaians (Altai-Kizhi), were described. The gene pools of the populations examined were characterized by the presence of pronounced paleo-Caucasoid component (92R7-T-lineages). The frequency of this component increased westward, reaching more than 70% in Shorians and Southern Altaians. Haplotype TAT-C (RBF5 locus) was observed in all populations, except Shorians, with the frequencies varying from 5.4% in Altai-Kizhi to 18.8% in Khakassians. The Alu-insertion in the DYS287 locus was revealed only in the Altaian sample with the frequency of 3.3%. It was established that the Altai-Sayan populations studied split into two statistically significantly different groups. One of the groups was represented by Tuvinians, Sojots, and Khakassians, while another one was comprised of Shorians and Altaians. PMID:11963568

Derenko, M V; Maliarchuk, B A; Denisova, G A; Dorzhu, Ch M; Karamchakova, O N; Luzina, F A; Lotosh, E A; Dambueva, I K; Ondar, U N; Zakharov, I A

2002-03-01

9

Mountain building processes in intraplate, intracontinental oblique deformation belts: Lessons from the Gobi Altai, Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gobi Altai is an intraplate, intracontinental transpressional orogen in southern Mongolia that formed in the Late Cenozoic as a distant response to the Indo-Eurasia collision. The modern range formed within crust constructed by successive terrane accretion and ocean suturing events and widespread granite plutonism throughout the Palaeozoic. Modern reactivation of the Gobi Altai crust and the kinematics of Quaternary faults are fundamentally controlled by Palaeozoic basement structural trends, the location of rigid Precambrian blocks, orientation of SHmax and possible thermal weakening of the lower crust due to an extensive history of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the region, and the presence of thermally elevated asthenosphere under the Hangay Dome to the north. Modern mountain building processes in the Gobi Altai typically involve reactivation of NW-striking basement structures in thrust mode and development of linking E-W left-lateral strike-slip faults which crosscut basement structures within an overall left-lateral transpressional regime. Restraining bends, other transpressional ridges and thrusted basement blocks are the main range type, but are discontinuously distributed and separated by internally drained basins filling with modern alluvial deposits. Unlike a contractional thrust belt, there is no orogenic foreland or hinterland, and thrusts are both NE and SW directed with no evidence for a basal decollement. Normal faults related to widespread Cretaceous rifting in the region are locally thrust reactivated in the NE Gobi Altai, but elsewhere appear to be unfavourably oriented for Late Cenozoic reactivation despite widespread topographic inversion of Cretaceous basin sequences. The diffuse historical seismicity in the region coupled with a complex system of interacting faults showing evidence for Quaternary movements, suggests that faults may be dormant for long periods and then reactivate. Large earthquakes may be episodic and spatially migrating, therefore inter-plate earthquake recurrence models are unlikely to apply. Because the Gobi Altai is an actively developing youthful mountain range in an arid region with low precipitation rates, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Mountain fronts active in the Quaternary are easily identified by a 'quartet' of geomorphological features including: 1) an aggrading alluvial fan complex directly at the front, 2) a visible fault scarp cutting Quaternary fan sediments, 3) low mountain front sinuosity, 4) low valley floor-width/valley-height ratios in rugged canyons exiting the range along the faulted front. The Gobi Altai provides an excellent opportunity to study the way a continental interior reactivates due to a distant continental collision. In addition, it offers important insights into how other more advanced intracontinental transpressional orogens may have developed during earlier stages of their evolution.

Cunningham, D.

2012-04-01

10

Reflection of climatic changes in Altai phenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decades of the past century showed noticeable climate changes in many parts of the Earth (IPCC, 2007). Numerous models suggest that the climate changes will continue, showing a variable intensity especially in mountain regions. Altai Mountains, located at the boundary of taiga, desert, and semiarid regions of Central Asia, are exposed to intensive climatic and environmental changes. Analysis of changes in phenological parameters is the simplest process for track changes in the ecology of species in response to climate change. We present climatic characteristic and statistical analysis changes of thermal and precipitation regimes in Altai Mountains (Russian and Mongolian Altai), and the response of phenological parameters to these changes. The close correlation between temperature series of the Russian and northern part of Mongolian Altai is determined. At the same time, a correlation between precipitation data is observed only for the cold (November - March) seasons. It was found that the rate of temperature increase for the period under consideration (1940-2012) ranged from 0.15 to 0.55 ° C/10 years, and the most significant increase was registered during the cold seasons. An increase of annual means of precipitation is in the range from 2.32 to 6.37 mm / 10 years. The maximal increase (29 mm / 10 years) was observed in the data from the Kara-Tyureck station, whose location is the highest one of the considered stations (2600 m). During the maximal warming (1980-1999), a 2-4.5 times increase of annual average temperature was observed as compared to the period of 1940 - 1979. The amount of precipitation is increased for Ust'-Koksa (5 times) and Ulgiy (2 times) stations, but it is 3 times lower for Kosh-Agach and Kara-Tyureck stations. The results of the correlation analysis of temperature and precipitation data for the analyzed Russian and Mongolian Altai stations were confirmed and detailed by the wavelet and wavelet coherence / phase analysis. The temperature series variations obtained with the wavelet analysis correspond to the periods of North Atlantic Oscillation and solar activity variation, and precipitation are in good agreement with changes in Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The analyzed climatic change influenced on the beginning of pollination of different plant species in Altai region. If average (for 27 years) of the beginning of pollination of Artemisia gmelinii (a typical representative of Central Asian steppe vegetation) was counted at 24 of August, a mass pollination of this species was at 5th of September. So deviation reached 14 days. Under condition of more cool summer the pollination in most cases (80 %) started later. Additionally we counted average temperature of beginning of pollination of this species which was + 21.5 C0, and sums of action temperatures (+5 C0) = 1675, (+10 C0) = 1491.

Malygina, Natalia; Barlyaeva, Tatiana; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana; Mitrofanova, Elena; Lovtskaya, Olga; Nenasheva, Galina; Otgonbayar, Demberel; Papina, Tatiana; Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Sokolov, Andrey

2014-05-01

11

[Hygienic characteristics of diet of schoolchildren in the Altai region].  

PubMed

Actual nutrition of pupils in Altai Krai was studied. Decreased supply of proteins, fats, vitamins, mineral substances was revealed. Hygienic recommendations on improvement of nutrition of children and adolescents were given. PMID:8076849

Istomin, A V; Rumiantseva, L A

1994-04-01

12

[Structure of the gene pool of ethnic groups from the Altai-Sayan region from data on mitochondrial polymorphism].  

PubMed

Using the data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism, genetic structures of the four Turkic-speaking ethnic groups of Altai-Sayan highlands, Southern Altaians (Altai-Kizhi), Khakassians, Shorians, and Sojots, were described. Mitochondrial gene pools of the populations examined were characterized by different ratios between Mongoloid (M*, C, D, E, G, A, B, and F) and Caucasoid (H, U, T, J, and K) mtDNA lineages. All the populations studied had a strongly pronounced Mongoloid component, the frequency of which was 88.2% in Sojots, 75.9% in Khakassians, 67.4% in Altaians, and 64.3% in Shorians. Maximum frequency of the Caucasoid component (35.7%) was observed in Shorians. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of the mtDNA group frequency distribution patterns in the gene pools of the ethnic populations of Altai-Sayan highlands and the adjacent territories showed that the populations of the region fell into three groups. The first group included Khakassians, Tuvinians and Altaians, the second group consisted of Sojots, Buryats, and Mongols, while the third group was composed of Uigurs, Kazakhs, and Kyrgyzes. The isolated position of Shorians among the populations examined can be explained by their different anthropological composition and their presumptive relatedness to Finno-Ugric populations of Siberia. PMID:11761618

Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A; Maliarchuk, B A; Dambueva, I K; Luzina, F A; Lotosh, E A; Dorzhu, Ch M; Karamchakova, O N; Solovenchuk, L L; Zakharov, I A

2001-10-01

13

Gold in Pyrite within Altai - Sayan Folded Belt Gold Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the result analysis of gold in pyrite for a number of some Altai - Sayan folded belt gold deposits. The analyzed pyrite samples showed gold grade from 0.04 to 20.0 g/t., which proves the fact that the gold concentrations in pyrites is irregular. Pyrites in productive mineral associations include significant metal enrichment, while pyrites of early poor gold-bearing associations and wallrock metasomatites are less prolific.

Pshenichkin, A.; Oskina, Y.; Savinova, O.; Dolgaya, T.

2014-08-01

14

First molecular screening of deafness in the Altai Republic population  

PubMed Central

Background We studied the molecular basis of NSHL in Republic of Altai (South Siberia, Russia). The Altaians are the indigenous Asian population of the Altai Mountain region considered as a melting-pot and a dispersion center for world-wide human expansions in the past. Methods A total of 76 patients of Altaian, Russian or mixed ethnicity and 130 Altaian controls were analyzed by PCR-DHPLC and sequencing in the GJB2 gene. The GJB6 deletion and the common non-syndromic deafness-causing mitochondrial mutations were also tested when appropriate. Results 8.3% of the Altaian chromosomes were carrying GJB2 mutations versus 46.9% of the Russian chromosomes. The 235delC mutation was predominant among Altaians, whereas the 35delG mutation was most prevalent among Russian patients. Conclusion We found an Asian-specific GJB2 diversity among Altaians, and different GJB2 contribution for deafness in the Altaian and Russian patients. The high carrier frequency of 235delC in Altaians (4.6%) is probably defined by gene drift/founder effect in a particular group. The question whether the Altai region could be one of founder sources for the 235delC mutation widespread in Asia is open. PMID:15790391

Posukh, Olga; Pallares-Ruiz, Nathalie; Tadinova, Vera; Osipova, Ludmila; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Françoise

2005-01-01

15

Space geodetic investigation of the coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2003 Mw7.2 Altai earthquake  

E-print Network

for the Altai earthquake. The inferred rupture location is in a good agreement with field observations.2 Altai earthquake: Implications for the local lithospheric rheology Sylvain Barbot,1 Yariv Hamiel,1 to investigate the coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 27 September 2003, Mw7.2 Altai earthquake

Fialko, Yuri

16

Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86°34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. Daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation have been used to identify the predominant atmospheric circulations (elementary circulating mechanisms, or ECMs) generating the entry of biological proxies on the glacier surface. It was shown that the high-resolution records of diatoms, cysts, spores, and plant pollen in the Belukha ice core are the biological proxies for the changes in the structure of precipitation in the Altai region since these records can reflect changes in the contribution of different atmospheric circulation to annual or seasonal precipitation. The joint consideration of the transport ability of the biological species and the data of precipitation allowed us to determine the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. The main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and northern Kazakhstan basins; coniferous tree pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of western Siberia; pollen of deciduous trees and herbs from steppe and forest-steppe vegetation in the northern Altai and eastern Kazakhstan; and cysts and spores of plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace elements in the ice core.

Papina, T.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

2013-10-01

17

Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86° 34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. We used daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation to identify the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. Our analyses revealed that main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and North Kazakhstan basins. Coniferous trees pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of West Siberia and pollen of hardwoods and herbs from steppe and forest steppe vegetation in the Northern Altai and East Kazakhstan. Cysts of algae and spores of inferior plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace species in the ice core.

Papina, T.; Blyacharchyuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

2013-05-01

18

Provenance of Early Paleozoic metasediments in the central Chinese Altai: Implications for tectonic affinity of the Altai-Mongolia terrane in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese Altai is one of the most typical segments of the Altai-Mongolia terrane, of which the tectonic evolution and affinity are hotly disputed and still not well constrained. Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks are extensive in the Altai-Mongolia terrane and their provenance is a key to unravelling the tectonic history of this terrane. Metasediments from Kulumuti Group were collected from the central Chinese Altai for geochemical study. They have low Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 52-54) and high Index of Compositional Variability (ICV = 0.81-1.19) values, different from the mature post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS), indicating relatively weak chemical weathering and a source compositionally dominated by immature material that lacks alumina-rich minerals. These rocks are moderately enriched in light rare earth element (LREE) and show relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.36-9.80, GdN/YbN = 1.31-2.45). Compared with PAAS, they mostly have lower large ion lithophile element concentrations (e.g. Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U and Pb) and similar contents of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf and Y), but with lower Nb and Ta. The metasediments have high Rb concentrations (> 50 ppm), relatively high K2O (> 1.1 wt.%) and low REE contents with negative Eu/Eu* anomalies, indicating that these rocks were derived from an acid-intermediate igneous source. The rocks have slightly enriched Nd isotopic compositions with calculated initial ?Nd(t) values mostly ranging from - 4.3 to - 0.2 and TDM2 model ages between 1.22 and 1.56 Ga. Detrital zircons from two samples of the Kulumuti metasediments have similar age spectra, dominated by Early Paleozoic to latest Neoproterozoic zircons (465-576 Ma) with a few older grains formed between 766-972 Ma and 1321-2572 Ma, remarkably consistent with those from the low-grade metamorphic Habahe Group in the western Chinese Altai. In combination with previous published data, the detrital zircons from Early Paleozoic metasediments in the Chinese Altai dominantly formed between 430-580 and 750-950 Ma, with only a minor population of Meso- to Paleoproterozoic grains. When compared with adjacent terranes, the age spectrum of the Chinese Altai is most similar to that of the Tarim Craton. This craton provided Precambrian materials for the Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks now exposed in the Chinese Altai, and therefore suggests that the whole Altai-Mongolia terrane has a close tectonic affinity to the Tarim Craton.

Wang, Yujing; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Xu, Huilong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Cai, Keda

2014-12-01

19

[Structure and level of basic food intake in adult working population of the Altai region].  

PubMed

Population of two Altai districts was found to consume insufficient amounts of food proteins, vegetable fats, some vitamins, and mineral substances. Recommendations on rationalization of nutrition of population were given. PMID:7828938

Istomin, A V

1994-01-01

20

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

21

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

22

The isotopic composition of precipitation and surface layers of glaciers in Central Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Please fill in The isotopic composition of precipitation and ice of Altai glaciers can be successfully used to determine the sources of precipitation (water vapor) and trajectories of air masses coming to the Altai territory, to study the modern and paleoclimatic changes in this region and other applied climate and environmental challenges. This paper presents the results of the study of seasonal changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation and surface layers of warm and cold glaciers in Central Altai. The isotopic composition of warm glaciers (North Chui Ridge) significantly (by more than 6.5 ) facilitated relatively mean value of ice core layers from cold Belukha glacier. This difference primarily may be due to: 1) with multiple cryogenic isotope fractionation of warm glaciers surface, which leads to the formation of significantly lighter ice isotopic composition; 2) accumulation of the edge portion of the warm glaciers occurs mainly due to the winter solid precipitation. The isotopic composition of summer precipitation (July 2013) in the Central Altai ranged from -7.55 to -10.28 0/00for ?18O and from -135.20 to -136.04 0/00 for ?D, which indicates that the formation of precipitation fallen on the earth surface of precipitated on the surface glacier great contribution moisture exchange processes arising from the passage of moist Atlantic air masses over the territory of the Aral- Caspian region. Integrated use of data on the trajectory of air masses (model HYSPLIT), synoptic situation and the isotopic composition of precipitation can detect features of the formation of precipitation . For example , it was shown to cause rainfall in the Central Altai July 16, 2013 was the formation of occlusions of Altai, and the moisture in the air mass moving over the continent to weak evaporative fractionation .

Papina, Tatyana; Malygina, Natalia; Eyrikh, Alla

2014-05-01

23

Climate changes and human dynamics in the SE Altai (Russia) during the past 4000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the study of the southeastern part of the Russian Altai (SE Altai) which is the part of the Altai Mountains - the northern segment of the Central Asia collision belt. It represents a combination of landscapes and ecosystems of alpine highlands, vast plateau-topped watersheds and intermountain depressions with unique archeological sites and traditional forms of environmental management of different cultures. The SE Altai has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic but till now the issue of chronology of the archaeological cultures is still debated. From the beginning of the 1st millennium BC, these can be generally regarded as a single economic-cultural type - nomads of arid piedmonts and mountains of temperate zone. The collective evidence indicates the significantly warmer climate in the SE Altai during the early Holocene. The Neoglacial began here about 5000 years BP and includes three periods of glaciers expansions controlled by climate deterioration (Akkem, Historical and Aktru (LIA) stages). Our numerous radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and wood fragments buried in moraines, glaciofluvial sediments and proglacial forefields argue for prolonged and frequent glacier advances separated by shorter glacier recessions. A decrease in the areas occupied by forest vegetation and the reduction in glacier size at each subsequent glacial stage expressed in the topography suggest aridity intensification during the second half of the Holocene. This conclusion is also supported by the absence of a reaction from the glaciers to the thermal minimum of the middle of 19-th century. It is very likely that such glacier dynamics is a common feature for the whole Central Asia. Thus the evolution of Altai nomad cultures, discussed in this paper, corresponds to a period of cooling and aridity intensification. In spite of climate deterioration that was the time of prosperity of the Altai nomadic cultures. It is most richly characterized by numerical dates of archaeological finds and major nature events which control migrations and shifting of Scythian, Hunnu, Turk and later nomadic cultures in the region. We present here an expanded dataset of new radiocarbon dates of fossil soils and charcoals from iron-smelting furnaces, dendrochronologically obtained ages of tree fragments washed up from glaciers in a modern glacial zone as well as lifespan analysis of archeological burial grounds and their spatial distribution within the Kurai and Chuya depressions. All these allowed us to correlate major nature events with the human dynamics in the SE Altai during the second half of the Holocene. Climate together with political and social aspects is one of the major factors that controlled the size of population, evolution and migration of nomadic cultures in the region. The influence of climatic changes on human societies was much stronger than the opposite. Anthropogenic impact is restricted to massive timber cutting which contributed to deforestation of the eastern part of the SE Altai. The study was partly funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grants 13-05-00555 and 13-04-01829).

Agatova, Anna; Nepop, Roman; Nazarov, Andrey; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Slyusarenko, Igor; Bronnikova, Maria; Orlova, Ljubov

2014-05-01

24

Climate Change in the Russian Altai Mountains and its Influence on Tree Line and Glacier Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to climate changes. The Russian Altai Mountains are located in the Inner Asia on the border of Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan. The Department of Geography and Geoecology of SPbSU has been organizing annual field expeditions to this region during the last 20 yrs. The uniqueness of the Altai landscapes lies in its great variety as these mountains are higher than 4 km and located on the zonal border between steppes and semi-deserts and between continental and sharply continental climates. This research deals with space-time features of regional climate changes and the dynamics of high-altitude landscapes. The 1940-2004 time series of seasonal air temperature and precipitation from 14 weather stations from 300 to 2600 m a.s.l. were statistically analyzed applying regression, correlation, spectral and cluster analyses. To extend time series over the past 350-400 yrs, mean summer temperature and precipitation were reconstructed applying dendroclimatological methods and using the WSL Dendro data base. Comparing to the Northern Hemisphere tendency of temperature increase in the second half of the 20th century over the Altai has been observed generally earlier, since 1950s. Maximum warming rate in the last quarter of the 20th century is typical to winter in the Altai (0,85°/10 yrs) as well as the entire Northern Hemisphere. Synchronous changes in the Altai and the Northern Hemisphere are observed in all seasons only in 1975-2004. At the turn of the XX-XXI centuries warming rates slow down in the region while temperature level is still high. These changes are partly associated with circulation epochs. Spectral analysis revealed important role of natural cyclical recurrence in climate changes, for example quasi-biennial, solar and Brückner cycles. According to dendrochronological reconstruction mean summer temperature increased from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) to its maximum in the 1990s by approximately 2°C, to the average for the period 1986-2004 - about 1,3°C. As tree line against the other belt borders strongly limited by summer temperature its eventual dynamics since the end of the LIA over the Altai were estimated and tree line position at different stages of modern regional warming was reconstructed. Theoretical evaluation shows that mean summer temperature increase of 1.3°C from the end of the LIA causes tree line to rise maximum by 180-280 m in different localities of the Altai. Glacial complexes of mountain massifs Mongun-Taiga, Tavan-Boghd-Ola, Turgeni-Nuru and Harhira-Nuru located in the South-Eastern Altai are represented by small glaciers mostly on northern and eastern leeward slopes. Being situated in region with dry climatic conditions (250-400 mm/year) glaciers survive only in negative forms of relief with high concentration of snow. Accumulation coefficient is mainly from 2 to 3, and on cirque glaciers is from 6 to 8. Now glaciers retreat rapidly (17% of area loss for the period of 1995-2010 for Mongun-Taiga, 12% in 2002-2009 for Tavan-Boghd-Ola), especially valley glaciers (2-10 m/yr), the number of glaciers increase due to disintegration of larger glaciers. Small forms of glaciation disappear or transform into snow patches and rock glaciers.

Syromyatina, M.; Moskalenko, I.; Ganushkin, D.; Chistyakov, K.

2011-12-01

25

[Trepanations in the population of the Altai Mountains in the Vth - IIIrd centuries B.C].  

PubMed

The history of trepanations beginning with the Mesolithic (1 0-12 thousand years ago) is known by means of findings in various parts of the world. The article describes three cases of intravital trepanation of skulls from the Pazyryk Culture graves in the Altai Mountains that had existed from the end of the Vl'h to the beginning of the ll"d century B.C. In two cases, trepanations were performed so skillfully that the operated patients had survived for a long time after the surgery, which was confirmed not only by microscopy but also by MSCT of the skulls. The article establishes causes of surgeries performed, reconstructs the technique of surgical manipulations, and evaluates them in terms of modern medicine. A comparative analysis of ancient trepanations performed by healers of different archeological cultures is provided. It is concluded that prehistoric cranial surgeries in the Altai Mountains had been performed for curative purposes. PMID:25180330

Krivoshapkin, A L; Chikisheva, T A; Zubova, A V; Kurbatov, V P

2014-01-01

26

First mercury determination in snow and firn from high-mountain glaciers in the Siberian Altai by CV-ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-altitude mountain glaciers are well suited as palcoarchives of natural and anthropogenic emission both on a global and on local scale. Ice core records from Altai will permit to assess the present air pollution level in the Central Eurasia and to reconstmct its historical development. The Altai mountain region is especially interesting for Hg study, since it's located close to

S. Eyrikh; M. Schwikowski; H. W. Gäggeler; L. Tobler; T. Papina

2003-01-01

27

Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the deformation systems. 2) folded (folded-thrust) deformation systems combine deformation zones with relic lenses of Paleozoid substratum, and predominantly conform systems of the main faults. Despite a high degree of regional deformation the sedimentary-stratified and intrusive-contact relations of geological bodies are stored within the deformation systems, and this differs in the main the collision systems from zones of dynamic metamorphism. 3) regional zones of dynamic metamorphism of Kuznetsk-Altai region are the concentration belts of multiple mechanic deformations and contrast dynamometamorphism of complexes. The formational basis of dynamic metamorphism zones is tectonites of the collision stage. Zones of dynamic metamorphism attract special attention in the structural model of Kuznetsk-Altai region. They not only form the typical tectonic framework of collision sutures, but also contain the main part of ore deposits of this region. Pulse mode of structure formation of Kuznetsk-Altai region is detected. Major collision events in Kuznetsk-Altai region were in the late-Carboniferous-Triassic time (307-310, 295-285, 260-250 and 240-220 Ma). This study was supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 14-05-00117).

Zinoviev, Sergei

2014-05-01

28

Ice Core Reconnaissance in Siberian Altai for Mid-Latitudes Paleo-Climatic and Environmental Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations in Siberian Altai permits to expand our scope from Tibet, Himalayas, Tien Shan and Pamir to the area located at the northeastern edge of the Central Asia Mountain System. Altai forms a natural barrier to the northern and western air masses and therefore affords an opportunity to develop modern paleo-climate records relating to the westerly jet stream, the Siberian High and Pacific monsoon. Moreover, Altai alpine snowice accumulation areas are appropriative for studying air pollution dynamics at the center of Eurasia, eastward from the major Former USSR air pollutants in Kazakhstan, South Siberia and Ural Mountains. During the last century Altai Mountains became extremely contaminated region by heavy metal mining, metallurgy, nuclear test in Semipalatinsk polygon and Baikonur rocket site. Our first field reconnaissance on the West Belukha snow/firn plateau at the Central Altai was carried out in July 2001. Dispute of the large Alatai Mountains glaciation, the West Belukha Plateau (49o48' N, 86o32'E, 4000-4100 m a.s.l.) is only one suitable snow accumulation site in Altai to recover ice-core paleo-climatic and environmental records that is not affected by meltwater percolation. The objective of our first reconnaissance was to find an appropriate deep drilling site by radio-echo sounding survey, to recover shallow ice-core, to identify the annual snow accumulation rate, major ions, heavy metals, radio nuclides and oxygen isotopes level distribution. During 6 days of work on the Plateau, a 22 m shallow firn/ice core has been recovered by PICO hand auger at elevation 4050 m where the results of radio-echo sounding suggests about 150 m ice thickness. In addition to the firn/ice core recovery, five 2.5 meter snow pits were sampled for physical statigraphy, major ions, trace element, and heavy metals analysis to assess spatial variability of the environmental impact in this region. Four automatic snow gauges were installed near proposed deep ice coring site for year around records. The seasonal accumulation at the drilling site was ranged from 250 to 300 ?? with density of 0.34 - 0.40 g cm-3. The ice-core stratigraphy analysis has shown that accumulation area seems to lie in the cold infiltration-recrystallization zone. Geochemical analysis of the shallow ice core, snow pit samples collecting during the 2001 field research will be discussed along with meteorological and synoptic data collected at the nearest to Belukha Plateau Akkem, (2050 m) and Kara -Tyurek (3600 ?) stations. A preliminary result has revealed that variability of elementary synoptic processes over the region impact on the amount of precipitation. North Atlantic Oscillation and West Pacific Oscillation indices have inverse associations with average amount of precipitation in Siberia where Altai is located. >http://www.icess.ucsb.edu/%7eaizen/aizen.html

Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K.; Nikitin, S.; Fujita, K.; Cecil, D.

2001-12-01

29

Local Bryozoan biostratigraphic zones of the Eifelian stage (Middle Devonian) of the western Altai-Sayan Folded Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bryozoan assemblages from the lower part of the Middle Devonian of the western Altai-Sayan Folded Area are studied because of the recent discovery of Eifelian ammonoids (Cabrieroceras crispiforme Zone) in the Safonovo Formation, which had been previously dated as Givetian. The bryozoan collection (21 species) was sampled from six sections of the Mamontovo Regional Substage ("Horizon") of the Eifelian Stage, seven sections of the Safonovo formation of Salair, and one section of the upper part of the Melnichnaya Formation of Rudnyi Altai. Two groups of bryozoans with different species composition are recognized, one of which occurs in the Malaya Salairka Beds of the Mamontovo Horizon, whereas the other occurs in the Safonovo Formation immediately below the Cabrieroceras crispiforme Zone. Two local biostratigraphic zones are recognized on the basis of these groups (Eridotrypella distributa and Leptotrypa spinosa zones), characterizing the lower and upper parts of the Eifelian Stage of the western Altai-Sayan Folded Area.

Mesentseva, O. P.; Udodov, Yu. V.; Gumerova, N. V.

2014-07-01

30

Basin evolution in a folding lithosphere: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan belts in Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia is a classical example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. Both areas have a heterogenous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene-early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that they were initiated in an extensional context and inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. In these basins, fault-controlled deformation alone appears largely insufficient to explain their architecture. Lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence also played an important role. They form typical basins in a folding lithosphere (FLB). Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime, time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results.

Delvaux, D.; Cloetingh, S.; Beekman, F.; Sokoutis, D.; Burov, E.; Buslov, M. M.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.

2013-08-01

31

Temporal variations of mineral dust, biogenic tracers, and anthropogenic species during the past two centuries from Belukha ice core, Siberian Altai - article no. D05309  

SciTech Connect

In July 2001, a 140 m long ice core was recovered from the Belukha glacier (49 degrees 48'26''N, 86 degrees 34'43''E, 4062 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai. The ion chemistry of the upper 86 m, covering the last two centuries, is characterized by biogenic emissions (ammonium and formate), aeolian dust (calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sodium) and anthropogenic species (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium). Particularly high ammonium and formate concentrations indicate pronounced emissions from Siberian forests. The inferred fire frequency does not show a long-term trend but distinct periods of enhanced activity. Sulfate has the highest industrial to preindustrial ratio and an anthropogenic contribution of more than 80%. Variations in this record reflect sulfur dioxide emissions in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Sulfate concentrations remained low until 1950, then sharply increased and peaked in the 1970s. The decrease in the 1980s is attributed to the economic, political, and social crises and to the replacement of coal with gas. Rising nitrate concentrations since 1960 reflect traffic growth and enhanced fertilizer application. Increasing ammonium concentrations since the 1950s are attributable to population inflow in southern Siberia with the associated enhancement of agricultural activity. A nitrate peak of short duration in 1908 is thought to be the atmospheric signature from the Tunguska event on 30 June 1908.

Olivier, S.; Blaser, C.; Brutsch, S.; Frolova, N.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Henderson, K.A.; Palmer, A.S.; Papina, T.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

2006-03-07

32

The complete mitochondrial genome of altai osman Oreoleuciscus humilis Warpachowski (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of altai osman Oreoleuciscus humilis Warpachowski collected from Mongolia has been amplified and sequenced in this study. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,606 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of Oreoleuciscus humilis is 27.6% for A, 26.4% for T, 27.2% for C, 18.8% for G, with higher AT content 54.0%. This study will be rather beneficial for understanding the phylogenetic approach of Oreoleuciscus species and other related genera of cyprinid fishes. PMID:24963765

Chen, I-Shiung; Liu, Guo-Di; Shen, Chia-Ning; Prokofiev, Artem M

2014-06-25

33

Holocene climate change and peatland dynamics in the Altai Mountains in Northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present preliminary results from a peat-core record to investigate responses of upland vegetation and peatlands to Holocene climate change in the Altai Mountains. Chronology of a 650-cm-long peat core from the Iron Arshad Khan (IAK) peatland in the western Altai Mountains was controlled by 20 AMS dates on identifiable terrestrial macrofossils, covering the entire Holocene. Lithology results indicate that the peat accumulation initiated at 11 ka (1 ka =1000 cal BP), with a sharp increase in organic matter content to >80%. Plant macrofossil data show a sequence of changes from the peatlands dominated by Cyperaceae before 8.1 ka, to Cyperaceae and brown moss-dominated at 8-4.5 ka, Sphagnum and Cyperaceae-dominated at 4.5-2 ka, and to Cyperaceae-dominated again after 2 ka. Carbon accumulation rates were highest at >40 gC/m2/yr at 8.5-7 ka, more than doubled the Holocene average at the site. Pollen analysis shows the highest tree pollen (mainly from Picea) of up to 59% occurred at 8-6.4 ka, suggesting a warm and wet mid-Holocene 'optimum' climate in the region. Organic matter bulk density shows an increasing trend after 6.4 ka, suggesting increasing cumulative decomposition of accumulated peat. Our multi-proxy data indicate clear responses of peatland species composition, moisture conditions and carbon accumulation to regional climate change. The cooling and drying trend since the mid-Holocene was likely in response to the decrease in summer insolation and in westerly-induced precipitation. Furthermore, our results from this temperate highland peatland may shed new lights on understanding peatland carbon dynamics in northern Eurasia, including the largest peatland basin in West Siberia, as well as Holocene climate changes in central Asia.

Zhao, Y.; Yu, Z.; Li, Q.; Zhao, W.

2013-12-01

34

Ecological structure of recent and last glacial mammalian faunas in northern Eurasia: the case of Altai-Sayan refugium.  

PubMed

Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

Pavelková ?i?ánková, V?ra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

2014-01-01

35

Ecological Structure of Recent and Last Glacial Mammalian Faunas in Northern Eurasia: The Case of Altai-Sayan Refugium  

PubMed Central

Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

Pavelková ?i?ánková, V?ra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

2014-01-01

36

Fire Impact on Carbon Storage and Emissions in Ecosystems of the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests contribute considerably to global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate much carbon and are sensible to climatic changes. Fires cover annually millions ha of boreal forests, of which the biggest part is in Siberia. Emissions released from biomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use affect the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state and carbon emission. In the Altai-Sayan ecoregion found in the south of Siberia and more than a thousand of fires occur annually. We calculated carbon emissions from fires for this region using data on burned biomass. The data was determined by estimating pre- and post-fire fuel biomass using our experimental data obtained in the course of large-scale experiments on fire behavior modeling in various types of Siberian forest. Calculations were made taking account of fire type which determines the contribution of different fuel types to the overall carbon emission, and the fire severity. Maximum emissions from surface fires are observed in May that corresponds to the month with the largest area burned. Because fires occur mainly in spring and spread as running fires, the contribution of duff in carbon emissions is from 15 to 23%. Crown fires occurring in protected areas increase carbon emissions by 4-9%. Release of carbon into the atmosphere from the combustion of biomass constitutes 11% of the total stock of above-ground organic matter in the burned area. Keywords: wildfires, boreal forests, carbon emissions, Siberia

Ivanova, Galina; Ivanov, Valery; Kukavskaya, Elena; Ponomarev, Evgeny

2013-04-01

37

DNA analysis for section identification of individual Pinus pollen grains from Belukha glacier, Altai Mountains, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen taxon in sediment samples can be identified by analyzing pollen morphology. Identification of related species based on pollen morphology is difficult and is limited primarily to genus or family. Because pollen grains of various ages are preserved at below 0?°C in glaciers and thus are more likely to remain intact or to suffer little DNA fragmentation, genetic information from such pollen grains should enable identification of plant taxa below the genus level. However, no published studies have attempted detailed identification using DNA sequences obtained from pollen found in glaciers. As a preliminary step, this study attempted to analyze the DNA of Pinus pollen grains extracted from surface snow collected from the Belukha glacier in the Altai Mountains of Russia in the summer of 2003. A 150-bp rpoB fragment from the chloroplast genome in each Pinus pollen grain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and DNA products were sequenced to identify them at the section level. A total of 105 pollen grains were used for the test, and sequences were obtained from eight grains. From the sequences obtained, the pollen grains were identified as belonging to the section Quinquefoliae. Trees of the extant species Pinus sibirica in the section Quinquefoliae are currently found surrounding the glacier. The consistency of results for this section suggests that the pollen in the glacier originated from the same Pinus trees as those found in the immediate surroundings.

Nakazawa, Fumio; Uetake, Jun; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kaneko, Ryo; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

38

Review of the millipede genus Sibiriulus Guli?ka, 1972, with descriptions of three new species from Altai, Siberia, Russia (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).  

PubMed

The genus Sibiriulus Guli?ka, 1963, which has hitherto been known to comprise only four species, is rediagnosed and shown to include seven species from Siberia, Russia. Three species are described here as new to science: S. latisupremus sp. nov., S. baigazanensis sp. nov., S. aktashensis sp. nov. The species Sibiriulus profugus (Stuxberg, 1876) is recorded in the fauna of the Altai Province and the Republic of Altai for the first time. All currently known species of Sibiriulus are keyed and mapped, including the new species.  PMID:25283646

Mikhaljova, Elena V; Nefediev, Pavel S; Nefedieva, Julia S; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B; Dyachkov, Yuri V

2014-01-01

39

Permian hornblende gabbros in the Chinese Altai not from the Tarim mantle plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Chinese Altai, on the northern side of the Erqis fault, the ~10-m-wide Qiemuerqieke gabbro is composed almost entirely of hornblende and plagioclase. Its relative crystallization sequence is olivine, hornblende, plagioclase, and it shows a narrow compositional range in SiO2 (48.7-50.2 wt%), MgO (6.33-8.54 wt%), FeO (5.27-6.46 wt%), Na2O (3.06-3.71 wt%), and K2O (0.26-0.37 wt%). These contents result in a high Mg# value (68-72) and a low K2O/Na2O ratio of ~0.1. It has (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70339-0.70350, ?Nd(t) values of 4.8-6.0, and zircon ?Hf(t) of 11.4-15.8; these values demonstrate a mantle-derived source, and a whole-rock ?18O of ~6.7‰ suggests a mantle wedge origin. The presence of magmatic hornblende suggests a relatively high water fugacity, and the crystallization temperature (715-826 °C) calculated using Ti-in-zircon thermometry is considerably lower than that of a normal mafi c melt but consistent with an origin from a water-bearing magma. The gabbro has a secondary ion mass spectrometry zircon U-Pb age of 276.0 ± 2.1 Ma, which is coeval with the 275 Ma mantle plume in the northern Tarim craton, but the Qiemuerqieke petrological and geochemical data do not indicate an abnormally high mantle temperature or a deep mantle signature, which would commonly characterize a mantle plume source. Our results integrated with published data support a model of juvenile crustal growth by a subduction-related process.

Wan, Bo

2014-05-01

40

Application of remote sensing and GIS in glacier monitoring: Glacier variability in Central Asia (Tien Shan and Altai) during the last 30--60 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to estimate glacier changes in the two mountain systems of Central Asia - Tien Shan and Altai, during the last 30-60 years as a consequence of regional climatic changes using remote sensing and GIS methods. To this goal two methodological studies were undertaken demonstrating the potential of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and declassified KH-9 Hexagon

Arzhan Surazakov

2008-01-01

41

Folded Lithospheric Basins in Central Asia: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan basins in a folding lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia is a classic example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that these basins were initiated in an extensional context and later inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. They deformed by a combination of lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence, together with upper crustal fault-controlled deformation. They are good examples of Folded Lithospheric Basins (FLB) which typically form in a buckling lithosphere. Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime and time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results. Both regions of active lithospheric folding have a heterogeneous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene - early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures.

Delvaux, Damien; Cloetingh, Sierd; Beekman, Fred; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Burov, Evguenii; Buslov, Misha; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbeck

2014-05-01

42

Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.  

PubMed

The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too. PMID:25016250

Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

2014-09-01

43

Teleseismic Body Wave Analysis for the 27 September 2003 Altai, Earthquake (Mw7.4) and Large Aftershocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the kinematics of the rupture process for the September 27, 2003, Mw7.3, Altai earthquake and its associated large aftershocks. This is the largest earthquake striking the Altai mountains within the last 50 years, which provides important constraints on the ongoing tectonics. The fault plane solution obtained by teleseismic body waveform modeling indicated a predominantly strike-slip event (strike=130, dip=75, rake 170), Scalar moment for the main shock ranges from 0.688 to 1.196E+20 N m, a source duration of about 20 to 42 s, and an average centroid depth of 10 km. Source duration would indicate a fault length of about 130 - 270 km. The main shock was followed closely by two aftershocks (Mw5.7, Mw6.4) occurred the same day, another aftershock (Mw6.7) occurred on 1 October , 2003. We also modeled the second aftershock (Mw6.4) to asses geometric similarities during their respective rupture process. This aftershock occurred spatially very close to the mainshock and possesses a similar fault plane solution (strike=128, dip=71, rake=154), and centroid depth (13 km). Several local conditions, such as the crustal model and fault geometry, affect the correct estimation of some source parameters. We perfume a sensitivity evaluation of several parameters, including centroid depth, scalar moment and source duration, based on a point and finite source modeling. The point source approximation results are the departure parameters for the finite source exploration. We evaluate the different reported parameters to discard poor constrained models. In addition, deformation data acquired by InSAR are also included in the analysis.

Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Mellors, R.

2007-05-01

44

Fragments of the Vendian-Paleozoic oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in foldbelts (Altai-Sayan, Central Asia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four main accretion-collision stages of the evolution of the Paleo-Asian ocean have been recognized in Altai-Sayan: 1) Early-Middle Cambrian, 2) Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician, 3) Devonian-Early Carboniferous and 4) Late Paleozoic. The 1st and 2nd stages characterize evolution of the Kuznetsk-Altai island-arc system, which was accreted to the Siberian continent. The third stage refers to two collisional events during the closing of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: the Gondwana-derived Altai-Mongolian terrane collided with the Siberian continent (D3), and the latter collided with the Kazakhstan continent (C2). Each stage was recorded in folded rock units. Paleooceanic crust fragments occur within accretionary wedges and suture zone. Their geological identification was supported by geochemical data. The better studied areas are Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges, Charysh-Terekta shear zone, and Chara ophiolitic suture zone. Identification of the Vendian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust extended our knowledge about the Paleo-Asian Ocean evolution. The Kurai and Katun accretionary wedges recorded the Vendian-Cambrian stage of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc evolution. The Charysh-Terekta zone resulted from the Late Devonian collision of the Altai-Mongolian terrane and the Siberian continent. The Chara ophiolitic suture was formed after the Late Carboniferous-Permian collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents. The Kurai accretionary wedge is composed of the tectonic sheets of the Baratal paleoisland and Chagan-Uzun ophiolites. The Katun accretionary wedge involves paleo-oceanic island rock units: limestones, dolomites, siliceous shales, and basaltic flows. The Charysh-Terekta zone is composed of several tectonic lenses (e.g. Zasurin Formation) comprising sandstones, cherts, pillow-basalts, volcanoclastics, and gabbro-diabase sills and dikes. The Chara ophiolitic belt consists of several melange zones with high-pressure metamorphic rocks (metabasaltic rocks) metamorphosed deep-water siliceous sediments, eclogites, amphibolites, glaucophane schists and volcanic-siliceous rocks with radiolarians and conodonts. The geochemical study of metabasaltic rocks from those four entities indicates that they were formed in two major settings: at mid-oceanic ridges and in oceanic islands. The fragments of the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean were involved in accretionary wedges and shear zones as a result of accretion-collision processes and subduction.

Safonova, I.; Buslov, M.

2003-04-01

45

New methodological aspects of using dendrochronological analysis for dating strong paleoearthquakes (by the example of SE Altai, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dendroseismology has a great potential in a paleoseismological investigation due to utmost precision of dating. Rings of trees - witnesses of seismic events contain both the evidence for the earthquake and its age. These evidences can be created by surface ruptures (sheared off tree roots and trunks, tilted and fallen trees etc.) or by earthquake induced geomorphic processes and/or seismic shaking (tree death or slower growth caused by lost of their crowns, tilted or buried trees caused by landsliding, as well as trees germination on bared surfaces) (McCalpin, 2009). Dendrogeomorphology (Stoffel, 2010) is another young and promising approach which among others studies different aspects of rock fall activity on the basis of wood penetrating injuries of trees. It should be underscored that both techniques are used most efficiently just on times that cover the life span of the last forest stand (about 300-500 years). The main idea of our approach of using dendrochronological analysis for timing strong paleoearthquakes is analyzing of tree-ring anomalies caused by specifically seismically triggered rock falls during the prolonged time interval. SE part of Russian Altai, in this case, is a unique place: 1) seismically induced slope processes intrude into forest stand zone in an immediate vicinity with the modern upper timber limit (which is favorable for carrying out the dendrochronological analysis); 2) arid climate promotes good preservation of wood (up to two thousand years on stone surfaces); 3) 2367-years absolute tree-ring chronology "Mongun" has been developed for SE Altai and Tuva regions (Myglan et al., 2012). We tested this approach during our paleoseismological investigations at the previously unknown complex of earthquake triggered landslides on the northern part of the Chagan-Uzun massif. The south fault boundary of this block was reactivated at the time of the 2003 Chuya earthquake (?s=7.3). We developed 1153 years (856 -2009 AD) local tree ring chronology on Pinus sibirica for this area. In order to provide absolute dates of paleoearthquakes we analyzed the ages of penetrating tree injuries caused by rock falls. Simultaneity of these injuries sustained by trees which grew on different earthquake induced landslides was accepted as a criterion of their seismic origin. The accuracy of such an approach was supported by data obtained from analyzing injuries occurred on trees as a result of rock falls triggered by the 2003 Chuya earthquake. In addition to estimating the upper possible date of creation of this complex of earthquake triggered landslides we have also established with the annual resolution the date of previously unknown strong medieval earthquake. This dendrochronologically obtained data has been independently verified by radiocarbon dating of seismically cut fossil soil overlapped by that undistorted. New data also allows us to specify the recurrence interval of strong earthquakes for SE Altai. Beside the obvious applied importance for local paleoseismological investigations the suggested approach can be used for timing strong paleoearthquakes for regions where instrumental seismic records or historical accounts are not available.

Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Nazarov, Andrey

2013-04-01

46

Forecast of annual temperatures changes in Altai and Northern Mongolia regions for the period 2010-2050 year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of scanning X-ray fluorescent analysis using synchrotron radiation [1,2] investigated sediment cores of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [3] and lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [4]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with resolution 0.1 mm. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change. We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: climate parameter = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature and precipitation change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with step 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2000, 1000, 660, 500, 400, 330, 270, 200, 155, 125, 105, 80, 45, 30 and 10 years. The sum of 15 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature in the time period of 1000-2000 years, with the coefficient 0.89. 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 07-05-92103 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 91 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] K. Zolotarev et all. Scanning SR-XRF beamline for analysis of bottom sediments. // Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. in Physics Research, A470 (2001), 1-2 , P.376-379. [2] A. Daryin et all. Use of a scanning XRF analysis on SR beams from VEPP-3 storage ...// Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Physics Research A 543 (2005) 255-258. [3] I.A.Kalugin et all. Rhythmic fine-grained sediment deposition in Lake Teletskoye... Quaternary International, 136 (2005), 5-13. [4] S. J. Fowell et all. Mid to late Holocene climate evolution of the Lake Telmen Basin …// Quaternary Research 59 (2003) 353-363

Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.; Zolotarev, K.

2009-04-01

47

Variation, Variability, and the Origin of the Avian Endocranium: Insights from the Anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea)  

PubMed Central

The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve). Also present are features intermediate between the basal theropod and avialan conditions that optimize as the ancestral condition for Coelurosauria—a diverse group of derived theropods that includes modern birds. The expression of several primitive theropod features as derived character states within Tyrannosauroidea establishes previously unrecognized evolutionary complexity and morphological plasticity at the base of Coelurosauria. It also demonstrates the critical role heterochrony may have played in driving patterns of endocranial variability within the group and potentially reveals stages in the evolution of neuroanatomical development that could not be inferred based solely on developmental observations of the major archosaurian crown clades. We discuss the integration of paleontology with variability studies, especially as applied to the nature of morphological transformations along the phylogenetically long branches that tend to separate the crown clades of major vertebrate groups. PMID:21853125

Bever, Gabe S.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

2011-01-01

48

Variation, variability, and the origin of the avian endocranium: insights from the anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea).  

PubMed

The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve). Also present are features intermediate between the basal theropod and avialan conditions that optimize as the ancestral condition for Coelurosauria--a diverse group of derived theropods that includes modern birds. The expression of several primitive theropod features as derived character states within Tyrannosauroidea establishes previously unrecognized evolutionary complexity and morphological plasticity at the base of Coelurosauria. It also demonstrates the critical role heterochrony may have played in driving patterns of endocranial variability within the group and potentially reveals stages in the evolution of neuroanatomical development that could not be inferred based solely on developmental observations of the major archosaurian crown clades. We discuss the integration of paleontology with variability studies, especially as applied to the nature of morphological transformations along the phylogenetically long branches that tend to separate the crown clades of major vertebrate groups. PMID:21853125

Bever, Gabe S; Brusatte, Stephen L; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

2011-01-01

49

Spatial variations of the atmospheric electric field and radon emanation in the zone of tectonic faults in the Baikal rift zones and mountains Altai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of methods for monitoring upper crust geodynamic activity encourages solutions preventing emergencies due to geological events. Using geodetic and seismic data jointly with information on other geophysical fields enables to improve the existing methods. When analyzing perturbations of electric field strength and volumetric Radon concentration, there were used data obtained from geophysical trips to Tunkin rift Basin of Baikal rift zone of southern part of East Siberia, and in the regions of Kuraysky and Chuysky basins in the central part of Altai Mountains (the region of Chuysky earthquake dated 27.09.2003). In Tunkin Basin observations were carried out near Tora settlement - "I", and Arshan settlement - "II". The analysis of Radon volumetric activity evidenced that its variations are influenced by atmospheric pressure and tides, and such influence is different at points 'I' and 'II'. The tidal and atmospheric influence on Radon variations is more pronounced at 'II' if compared to 'I', which can be explained by locations of the registration points. Registration Point 'II' is located close to tectonic faults, while 'I' is in the center of the basin with its quite thick layer of sediments. Axial section observations of spatial inhomogeneities of electric field and Radon emanation were set along and across the Tunkin Basin. Observation points were set 3 to 10 km apart depending on the local relief. Each point was registering for 60 min under the conditions of 'good weather'. There were analysed changes in mean strength of electric field and Radon volumetric activity as a function of distance along the axial section. It was found out that volumetric activity and electric field strength change in phase opposition - radon volumetric activity increase results in more intense ionization in near-surface atmosphere and consequently to decrease in the electric field strength. The concentration of Radon in subsoil atmosphere increases, and electric field strength decreases when approaching to rift zones rimming the Tunkin Basin from North and South. The influence of local increase in radioactive gas concentration on behavior of atmospheric electric field was observed also in Kuraysky and Chuysky basins. 'Good weather' observations near Aktash settlement evidenced long intervals of about a day when electric field strength was negative. Presence of negative electric field under conditions of 'good weather' indicates changed characteristics of near Earth atmosphere. Local increase concentrations of gaseous Radon and Thoron influences the intensity of ion-generation in near Earth atmosphere and leads to creation of negative charges near the surface. Changes at two cross sections through the south-eastern boundaries of Chuysky and Kuraysky basins distinctly show presence of spatial inhomogeneities of electric atmospheric field and Radon concentration. The results of axial section observations can be successfully used when mapping geological inhomogeneities in the Earth's crust.

Soloviev, S.; Loktev, D.

2013-12-01

50

Geochemical study of the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern Altai-Mongolian terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Implications on the provenance and tectonic setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Altai-Mongolian terrane (AM) is a key component of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), but its tectonic nature has been poorly constrained. This paper reports geochemical compositions of Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM to trace their source nature and depositional setting, which in turn place constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the AM. The Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM show variable major-element compositions, with negative correlation between SiO2 and TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3T, MgO and K2O. Their high ICV values (1.18-2.53) and relatively low CIA values (37.9-76.3) indicate that the sediments were immature and probably underwent mild to moderate chemical weathering. The low-SiO2 samples are characterized by relatively restricted SiO2/Al2O3 (mostly 2.60-6.07) and low Rb/Sr ratios (0.02-1.89), implying their proximal deposition without obvious sedimentary sorting and recycling. In contrast, the high-SiO2 samples show much higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratios (15.4-19.9) possibly due to sedimentary sorting and/or silicification. All these samples yield relatively high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios (15.6-22.8), strong LREEs/HREEs differentiation ((La/Yb)N = 4.86-10.7) and obvious negative Eu anomalies (?Eu = 0.61-0.83). Combined with their Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, La/Th and Co/Th ratios comparable with intermediate-acidic magmatic rocks, we infer that these kinds of magmatic rocks served as a major source for the investigated meta-sedimentary rocks. The TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3T + MgO concentrations are mostly higher than typical sediments from passive margin, and the Th/U, La/Sc, Th/Sc, Eu/Eu?, Zr/Hf, Zr/Th and La/Th ratios are quite similar to sediments from continental arcs. These data suggest that the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM were most likely deposited in an environment related to a continental arc setting rather than a passive regime. These rocks show strong similarities to their counterparts in the Chinese Altai (CA, southern AM) and Tseel terrane (southeastern extension of the CA in western Mongolia) in terms of geochemical compositions and depositional setting. With combination of recent isotopic studies for detrital zircons, our data suggest that the AM probably represented a coherent accretionary prism along a continental arc in the early Paleozoic.

Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Cai, Keda; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhao, Guochun; Rubanova, Elena S.

2014-12-01

51

The Altai earthquake response of the measuring systems of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station dam on the Yenisei River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of retrospective analysis of in situ observations in the dam foundation and adjacent bank rocks of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station (SSHPS) during the nucleation and energy release of the Altai earthquake of September 27, 2003, are presented. A group of most reliable precursors of this earthquake is identified in measured parameters monitoring the state of the facility and surrounding bedrock. The correlation is examined between the precursor occurrence time and the energy of the earthquakes recorded in the regional catalog in 1990-2005, in the period of the normal SSHPS operation.

Marchuk, N. A.

2008-03-01

52

Siberian regional climate change recorded in annually-laminated lake sediments (Lake Shira, Khakassia, Lake Kucherla, Altai)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During field work in 2009 were sampled cores of bottom sediments of Lake Shira (Khakassia) and Lake Kucherla (Altai). Sediments contain annually laminated layers (varves). The average thickness of layers in the Lake Shira sediments is 1.3 mm, in the Lake Kucherla sediments - 2.3 mm. Cores were impregnated with epoxy resin and then are prepared solid samples thickness of 2 mm for X-ray scan. X-ray scanning was carried out in the Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (Budker Institute of nuclear physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk) using the excitation energies of 18 and 24 keV by the methods described in papers [1, 2]. Scanning X-ray fluorescence analysis on synchrotron radiation (SR-XRFA) as a high-efficiency method of microelement analysis is adapted to determine more than 35 elements with minimal step 0.1 mm. A detailed study of the varves with a spatial resolution of 100 microns showed seasonal variation of trace-element composition within the annual layers. It was counting the number of annual layers using the geochemical variations of sediment. Key geochemical indicators of terrigenous (Ti, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr) and organogenic (Zn, Br, U) components of sediments were identified. Comparison of meteorological data for the past 50 years with the lithological and geochemical parameters of sediments showed a stable dependence of trace-element composition of sediments with the climate variation in the region. Investigated lakes contain high-resolution records of regional climate changes. [1] K.V. Zolotarev et all. Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A470 (2001),376. [2] A.V. Daryin et all. Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A 543 (2005) 255.

Darin, Andrey; Kalugin, Ivan; Maksimova, Natalya; Ovchinikov, Dmitrii; Rakshun, Yiakov

2010-05-01

53

Mitochondrial DNA variation in the aboriginal populations of the Altai-Baikal region: implications for the genetic history of North Asia and America.  

PubMed

The discovery of mtDNA types common to Asians and Amerinds (types A, B, C, and D) forced investigators to search for those nations of Asia which, though not considered the ancestors of the Amerinds, have retained a close genetic resemblance with them. We collected samples and studied the gene pools of the Turkic-speaking nations of South Siberia: Altaians, Khakassians, Shorians, Tuvinians, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, as well as Mongolian-speaking Buryats. The data indicate that nearly all Turkic-speaking nations of Siberia and Central Asia, as well as the Buryats, have types A, B, C, and D in their gene pool. The highest total frequency of these types is observed in the Tuvinians and Sojots. They, as well as the Buryats, also have the lowest frequency of the europeoid types. The most mixed Asian-Europeoid gene pool examined turned out to be that of the Shorians. An important finding was the presence of type X in the Altaians, which had not yet been detected in Asia. As shown by computer analysis, this DNA sequence is not a late European admixture. Rather, the Altai variant X is ancient and can be close to the ancestral form of the variants of contemporary Europeans and Amerinds. The presented results prove that of all nations in Asia, the Turkic-speaking nations living between Altai and Baikal along the Sayan mountains are genetically closest to the Amerinds. PMID:15126280

Zakharov, Ilia A; Derenko, Miroslava V; Maliarchuk, Boris A; Dambueva, Irina K; Dorzhu, Choduraa M; Rychkov, Sergey Y

2004-04-01

54

Atmospheric circulation patterns and geochemistry time series from ice/firn cores and snow samples of central Asian glaciers (Pamir, Tien Shan and Altai).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combination of high mountain ice-core isotope-geochemistry, ground based aerosol monitoring, NASA remote sensed and a NOAA atmospheric pressure distribution data were used to receive information on sources of dust/loess transport, their time and spatial extension in modern and pre-industrial time. Hundreds of samples from snow pits and ice/firn cores obtained from central Asian glaciers were collected, processed and analyzed. The NASA RS products address the gap in interpretation of available snow, firn and ice records by providing the spatial resolution necessary for identifying possible local and regional-scale dust sources, transport routes and depositions. NOAA Hypslit program modeled the air back-trajectories allowed to found association between the ice core geochemistry records and aerosol sources. To find the circulation patterns, which are closely associated with geochemistry ice core/snow pit records, the correlation coefficients between the Empirical Orthogonal Functions of the atmospheric circulation patterns and geochemistry time coefficients for first two unrotated scores were computed. The loess / dust storm sources with corresponding geo-chemical composition (trace elements, major ions and dust particles) in western, central and northern Asia were identified: 1. Tajik loess deposition and Iran, Afghanistan /Turkmenistan sands are for the Pamir. For example, the Pamir ice core records that associated with Tajikistan loess deposition are characterized by high concentrations of REEs and Al, high or median content of Ca, and a background S concentration. Samples from the Pamir Mountains differed in having low concentrations of Gadolinium. Occasional intrusions of Chinese loess to Pamir glaciers are not excluded. REE profile of pilot Pamir cores documented one of the most extreme droughts of 2001 and 2002 that developed in south-west Asia. 2. Chinese loess deposition in the Takla Makhan, sands in the Tajikistan Deserts and western Gobi, and dust aerosols from Aral region are for the Tien Shan; 3. Western and central Gobi and Kazakhstan dust are for the Altai. The Aral region is the source of dust aerosol for Altai also. Based on in-situ data in the western Central Asia and Altai ice core records of particle number content there is tendency on decrease of dust storms frequency from the 30th in central and eastern Asia.

Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Joswiak, D. R.; Mayewski, P. A.

2008-12-01

55

Southern Africa  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

2013-04-16

56

How robust are estimates of lithospheric parameters from satellite and surface data: A case study of Altai 27.09.2003 Earthquake.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite interferometry data were already used to investigate rupture surface geometry and displacement field on it for Altai (Chuya) 27.09.2003 earthquake [Nissen et al., 2007, Barbot et al., 2008]. In our study in addition to ENVISAT ASAR images we employed regional GPS data (Gol'din et al., 2005). Rupture surface was approximated by number of planes. For every plane displacement field was calculated using Okada elastic half-space formulae. Every plane has nine free parameters: three coordinates of specified point (e.g. one of its angles), dimension along strike and deep, deep and strike angles, and components of displacement vector along strike and deep. For the elastic half space, displacement field is linear function of components of displacement vector and non-linear function of all other parameters. For data inversion we suggested a special modification of the Monte-Carlo method which generates trial vectors sampling space of non-linear parameters. At every step components of displacement vector determine by solution of system of linear equations. To verify this approach we also developed a method for full sampling of the non-linear parameters within specified limits with specified step, which ensures finding of the global minimum. We tested our methods on a case of Altai earthquake. Specific feature of the satellite data for this event is that interferometry LOS displacements were obtained only in flat not-forest-covered parts of the epicenter area in Kurai and Chuya depressions. The earthquake ruptured south-west border of these depressions, thus SAR satellite data mostly characterize displacement field at one side of the rupture. GPS network is not dense but its data appeared to be very useful to constrain SAR data inversion. We present results obtained only from SAR data, joint SAR and GPS inversion with and without constraints from surface seismotectonic data to demonstrate importance of the ground control especially for areas with rough topography. Another problem is that SAR and GPS data characterize different time periods and in addition to co-seismic they include different amount of post-seismic displacements. We used data on seismic energy release to estimate possible errors caused by this factor under assumption that post-seismic displacements were caused by post-seismic slip [Barbot et al., 2008].

Mikhailov, Valentin; Tikhotsky, Sergei; Polyakov, Sergei; Kiseleva, Elena; Timoshkina, Elena; Diament, Michel; Shapiro, Nikolay

2010-05-01

57

A new approach for reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mongolian Altai: The high-resolution ?13C records of TOC and pollen complexes in Hoton-Nur Lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?13C of total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen grain, TOC, C/N ratio, and ?15N of total organic nitrogen (TON) in a 2.57-m long core from Hoton-Nur Lake in Mongolian Altai have been measured for reconstruction of the Holocene climates. The ?13C values of TOC and pollen carbon have similar average values but different ranges. Pollen ?13C has negative correlation with %AP (arboreal taxa pollen) and positive correlation with %NAP (herbaceous pollen and spores) that are connected with conditions of humidity in the area. Taiga-biome has lighter ?13C than steppe-biome. Hence, pollen ?13C composition is more sensitive to changes of humidity in the analogous spectra than palynotaxonomical structure and ?13C of TOC. Based on our results, the Holocene climates in Mongolian Altai are: (1) dry conditions prior to 11.5 kyr BP; (2) wet conditions between 11.5 and 6.0 kyr BP; (3) a relatively dry/cool episode during 6-4 kyr BP; (4) stable cool and semiarid conditions with moderately effective moisture during the past 4000 years. Two abrupt climatic changes occurred at ˜7.45 kyr BP and ˜11.5 kyr BP might be related to glacial activities. The Holocene climatic trend in Mongolian Altai which is controlled by the Westerlies is similar to the trend of monsoonal climate shown by the Chinese speleothem records as well as the lake/sand dune evidence in the deserts of NW China. The contact of the two climatic systems and shift of the monsoonal boundary during the past need to be further studied.

Rudaya, Natalia; Li, Hong-Chun

2013-06-01

58

Anticlockwise P-T evolution at ?280 Ma recorded from ultrahigh-temperature metapelitic granulite in the Chinese Altai orogenic belt, a possible link with the Tarim mantle plume?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metapelitic granulite assemblage consisting of garnet(g)-spinel(sp)-orthopyroxene(opx)-sillimanite(sil)-cordierite(cd)-ilmenite(ilm)-biotite(bi)-plagioclase(pl)-quartz(q) occurs within migmatitic paragneiss near Kalasu in the Chinese Altai, NW China. Textural relations, mineral compositions and P-T estimates, indicate three stages of mineral assemblages: (1) pre-peak prograde stage (M1) consisting of a sp-sil-bearing or sp-opx-bearing inclusion assemblage, with low-Al2O3 contents (4-5 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and P-T conditions of ?7 kbar and ?890 °C, (2) peak UHT stage (M2) comprising a g-opx-cd-bearing coarse-grained assemblage, with high-Al2O3 contents (8-9 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and peak conditions of ?8 kbar and ?970 °C, and (3) post-peak HT stage (M3) containing an oriented opx-bi-sil-bearing assemblage in matrix, with moderate amounts of Al2O3 (6-7 wt.%) in orthopyroxene and P-T conditions of 8-9 kbar and ?870 °C. The three discrete stages define an anticlockwise P-T path involving initial prograde heating and post-peak near isobaric cooling. Such a near isobaric cooling anticlockwise P-T path suggests that UHT metamorphism likely occurred in an overall extensional tectonic setting with associated underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma. A SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 278 ± 2 Ma obtained from the metapelitic granulite indicates UHT metamorphism in the Altai orogen occurred during the Permian, coeval with spacially associated mantle-derived mafic intrusions (?280 Ma) and the Tarim mantle plume (?275 Ma). Thus, the Permian UHT metamorphism of the Chinese Altai is likely associated with underplating and heating of mantle-derived mafic magma as a result of the Tarim mantle plume.

Tong, Laixi; Xu, Yi-Gang; Cawood, Peter A.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yibing; Liu, Zhao

2014-11-01

59

Extent and timing of paleoglaciation in the Kanas Valley, Altai Mountains, China, based on remote sensing, field investigations and multiple dating methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructions of the timing and extent of past glaciation provide key constraints for paleoclimate and numerical modeling of past glacier behavior. As part of the multinational Central Asian Paleoglaciology Project we are reconstructing the timing and extent of past glaciation along and across a series of mountain ranges in central Asia using consistent methods for mapping, field investigations and numerical dating. Here we report on new findings for the Kanas Valley in northwest China, a large glaciated valley system on the south side of the Altai Mountains. Previous studies have concluded that the Kanas Valley has been shaped by a series of major glacial advances that produced overdeepened basins, a U-shaped valley cross profile, and extensive glacial and glaciofluvial deposits. Existing Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating results suggest major glaciation in the Kanas Valley during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 3, 5, and 6, but very limited MIS 2 glaciation. Limited MIS 2 glaciation has also been suggested for other parts of central Asia, and this contrasts with extensive MIS 2 glaciation in Europe and North America. Field studies in 2013 provided new evidence for the highest elevation extent of glaciation in the Kanas Valley in the vicinity of the 20-km long Lake Kanas, with the upper limit of distinct erratics on the valley sidewalls indicating past ice thicknesses here up to 1000 m. Upper limits of erratics extending from Lake Kanas to the mapped maximum down-valley extent of glaciation suggest an ice surface slope of 1.8 degrees for the lower half of the paleoglacier in the Kanas Valley, assuming that all the erratics were deposited at the same time. Systematic sampling of glacial erratics, basal till, terminal moraines, glacially eroded bedrock, and glaciofluvial deposits provided material that is being used for cosmogenic radionuclide, OSL and ESR dating of the glacial chronology, and for dating intercomparisons.

Zhang, Wei; Harbor, Jon; Cui, Zhijiu; Liu, Liang; Liu, Beibei; Fu, Yanjing; Shi, Yuanhuang; Gribenski, Natacha; Blomdin, Robin; Stroeven, Arjen; Caffee, Marc; Jansson, Krister

2014-05-01

60

Southern blotting.  

PubMed

Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. PMID:18432697

Brown, T

2001-05-01

61

Late Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Altai segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from metamorphic P-T pseudosection and zircon U-Pb dating of ultra-high-temperature granulite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies rocks offer important constraints on crustal evolution processes and tectonic history of orogens. UHT granulites are generally rare in Phanerozoic orogens. In this study, we investigate the late Paleozoic pelitic UHT granulites from Altai in the western segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The diagnostic minerals in these rocks include high alumina orthopyroxene (Al2O3 up to 9.76 wt.%, and y(opx) = AlVI in orthopyroxene up to 0.21) coexisting with sillimanite and quartz, and low Zn spinel (ZnO = 1.85-2.50 wt.%) overgrowth with quartz. Cordierite corona separates sillimanite from orthopyroxene. The high alumina orthopyroxene is replaced by symplectites of low-alumina orthopyroxene (~ 5.80 wt.% Al2O3) and cordierite. These textural observations are consistent with a significant decompression following the peak UHT metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modeling using pseudosections and the y(opx) isopleths indicate an anti-clockwise P-T path for the exhumation of the Altai orogenic belt. The pre-peak assemblage of spinel + quartz in garnet is stable at high- to ultra-high-temperature and low-pressure conditions (P < 5.8 kbar at T ~ 900 °C). The peak P-T values recorded by high aluminium orthopyroxene is > 940 °C and 7.8 to 10 kbar. Subsequent near-isothermal decompression occurred at 890 to 940 °C and 5 to 6 kbar. The final-stage cooling is recorded at 750 and 800 °C and 4 to 5 kbar accompanied by a decrease in the y(opx) values (0.11-0.12). In the UHT granulite, zircon grains are commonly enclosed within cordierite. The overgrowth rims of the zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 277 ± 2 Ma using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating, which is interpreted to mark the timing of decompression and cooling. We propose that the anti-clockwise P-T path of the UHT granulite in the Altai orogenic belt could be related to an extensional event related to the sinistral strike-slip along the Irtish tectonic belt after the subduction and slab detachment during the convergence of the Kazakhstan-Junggar plate and the Siberian plate.

Li, Zilong; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yinqi; Santosh, M.; Chen, Hanlin; Xiao, Wenjiao

2014-09-01

62

Southern blotting.  

PubMed

Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid than the basic protocol and can result in more complete transfer. Although the ease and reliability of capillary transfer methods makes this far and away the most popular system for Southern blotting with agarose gels, it unfortunately does not work with polyacrylamide gels, whose smaller pore size impedes the transverse movement of the DNA molecules. The third alternate protocol describes an electroblotting procedure that is currently the most reliable method for transfer of DNA from a polyacrylamide gel. Dot and slot blotting are also described. PMID:18429082

Brown, T

2001-05-01

63

Southern Spaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring the American South is a splendid idea, and this online journal is a great way to think about the "real and imagined places" of this unique cultural region. Southern Spaces is a peer-reviewed Internet journal and forum that "provides open access to essays, interviews and performances, events and conferences, gateways, timescapes, and annotated links about real and imagined spaces and places of the U.S. South." Their work is supported by the Robert W. Woodruff Library of Emory University, and visitors will want to browse around the site more than once. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at interactive features like "Negotiating Gender Lines: Women's Movement across Atlanta Mosques" and "The Other Side of Paradise: Glimpsing Slavery in the University's Utopian Landscapes". The site also includes information about the journal's editorial board and a set of thematically organized weblinks.

64

Debris-covered glacial forms and dynamics of glaciers of the Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (Altai-Sayan mountain system).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (3970 m) is situated in the intersection of Altai and Sayan mountain ridges. Average annual temperature within the massif is below -2.6°C, annual precipitation 145-300 mm. Glaciation of the massif has total area of 20 km2. Geographers of Saint-Petersburg University study the glaciers and periglacial zone since 1990. Since the maximum of the LIA the glaciers retreat, short stabilizations took place in early 1920-s, mid-1960-s and mid-1980-s. In 1995-2008 glaciation lost 19% of area. Irregular rate of glacial retreat after the LIA lead to formation of 3 groups of debris covered objects. The first group is connected with moraines of LIA (altitude 2650-3000 m). They consist of ice core and debris cover of different thickness. The mechanism of their formation is the following: stabilization of the edges of the glaciers causes accumulation of the debris, they armor the ice, preventing it from melting. When warming starts the exposed part of the glacier grows thinner, the ice under the moraine looses contact with the main body of the glacier. Increased flow of glacial melt water in the last 10 years led to exposure of moraine ice. Some glaciers which supported LIA moraines on the internal side, retreated abruptly in the period of 1995-2008. Moraines lost their stability, they collapse intensely and ice core melts out. This is observed at Seliverstova glacier (2.8 km2). The second group (altitude 2850-2950 m) is situated between LIA moraines and glaciers. It is represented by layers of ice covered by thin (several dozen cm) moraine. Streams along the edges of the layers expose ice to the depth of 2-3 meters in many places. Edges of glaciers on aerial photos of 1965 coincide with the edges of these layers. It proves their glacial origin. Objects of the third group are parts of glaciers that lost their connection with the main glacial masses and turned into dead ice and small cirque glaciers that lost their accumulation area and activity in 1995-2008. The process of armoring of these ice masses is now very active. Rock glaciers of the massif also have glacial genesis but they don't belong to any group because they integrate buried ice of different generations at least from the maximum of the LIA . Periodic cutoff of new masses of buried ice from the glaciers provides continuous alimentation of rock glaciers. We mapped 17 rock glaciers with total area of 5.5 km2. 2 active rock glaciers under valley glaciers Left Mugur and Right Mugur have the shape of tongues cutting through moraines of LIA and extending 350-500 m further down the slope. Activity of these rock glaciers is proved by transverse crevasses, steepness, instability and bareness of frontal ledges, abundance of boulders fallen from these ledges. We estimate the average rate of their advance from the beginning of LIA 0.5-0.7 m/year .

Ganushkin, Dmitry; Chistyakov, Kirill

2013-04-01

65

Southern Antarctic Peninsula  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image shows ice-front retreat in part of the southern Antarctic Peninsula from 1947 to 2009. USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. The southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula is one area studied as part of this project, and is summariz...

2010-02-18

66

European Southern Observatory  

E-print Network

- Garching - 2nd to 4th Nov 2005 #12;2 European Southern Observatory Cloudiness; Humidity, Precipitable Water, Seismicity; Survival loads (earthquakes, wind, precipitations); Present and future potential light pollution that skies are clear (%) at night for the years 1999 and 2000 over Canaries, NW Africa and Southern Spain (A

Liske, Jochen

67

'Gupton' southern highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...

68

Southern hemisphere observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

Orchiston, Wayne

69

Triton's Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

1997-01-01

70

"Pearl" southern highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

71

4, 42834322, 2007 Southern Ocean  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 4283­4322, 2007 Southern Ocean phytoplankton and climate change P. W. Boyd et al. Title Page Climate-mediated changes to mixed-layer properties in the Southern Ocean: assessing the phytoplankton@alkali.otago.ac.nz) 4283 #12;BGD 4, 4283­4322, 2007 Southern Ocean phytoplankton and climate change P. W. Boyd et al. Title

Boyer, Edmond

72

Southern Foodways Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Residents of the American South love food and various culinary delights, and have performed Epicurean wonders with everything from okra all the way to the legendary barbecue pits that can be found along just about every highway and byway in the region. Working with the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi, the Southern Foodways Alliance is dedicated to preserving and cultivating the various food cultures of the American South. These programs include an ongoing oral history project, recipe books, a series of field trips, and the annual Keeper of the Flame award, which is given to a foodways tradition "bearer of note." The site's features section includes tributes to jambalaya, South Georgia cheese, and some fine essays on legendary BBQ locales. The oral history initiative area is truly a wonder, as visitors can browse through two sections, one devoted to barbecue, and the other to the foodways traditions of the Mississippi Delta region.

73

Accretion of southern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

Hillhouse, J.W.

1987-01-01

74

Library of Southern Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The well known Documenting the American South Project (discussed in the April 18, 1997 Scout Report) has recently added this section, highlighted by twenty-five full texts, available in SGML (standard generalized markup language) and HTML formats. Included are A Diary From Dixie, by Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut, five works by the African American writer Charles Waddell Chesnutt, two works by Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, Tales, by Edgar Allen Poe, and Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington. Images of covers, title pages, frontispieces, and illustrations may be available, depending on the work. In addition, there are explanatory introductions for selected authors. The site also includes a list of "the one hundred most important Southern literary texts" compiled by the late Professor Robert Bain, and an article from the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.

75

Brushfires in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of brushfires in Southern Africa, exact location unknown, raises questions concerning the overall global environmental effect of large scale biomass burning as an indicator of large scale conversion of tropical, closed canopy forests to pastoral and agricultural uses. Other concerns relate to the reduction of the biotic and genetic diversity in the global tropics and the relationship of biomass burning to atmospheric chemistries.

1990-01-01

76

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

77

Crustaceans of Southern Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing resource on the Crustaceans of Southern Australia is provided by Dr. Gary Poore of the Museum of Victoria. Hundreds of images offer a peak into the diverse and colorful underwaters of Australia; images are accompanied by concise text, offering solid introductory information on the biology of marine crustaceans. Users will find this a worthy educational tool to learn more about Australian crustaceans from barnacles to crabs, ghost shrimps to lobsters.

1998-01-01

78

Smoke in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences

2002-01-01

79

Southern Mars: It's Spring!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

80

Secrets of the Southern Ocean  

E-print Network

18 Secrets of the Southern Ocean 28 Inventions Bridge the Gap 32 Activism Shapes Africa Scholar D I by Elle Stark) #12;18 Secrets of the Southern Ocean C O N T E N T S D I S C O V E R Y : R E S E A R C H glimpse into the wintertime conditions of the Southern Ocean south of Africa. Princeton researchers

81

Indigenous Astronomy in Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.

Medupe, Thebe Rodney

82

Fires in Southern Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

2007-01-01

83

Astrophysics in Southern Africa  

E-print Network

The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

Patricia A. Whitelock

2007-07-06

84

Guns, Southernness, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

1993-01-01

85

Southern Portion of Antarctic Peninsula  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. This image identifies the southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula, which is one area studied as part of this project. Research on the southern Antarctic Peninsula is summarized in the USGS report, "Coas...

2010-02-18

86

Southern Forests for the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent website dedicated to the Southern Forests of the United States "seeks to raise awareness of the threats facing the forests of the southern United States and lay the foundation for increasing the acreage that is conserved or managed in a sustainable manner." First time visitors should watch the very informative four-and-a-half minute video titled "Tour Southern Forests" in the "Gallery" section of the website, as it explains the importance of these forests to humans and animals, the native bio-diversity of the forests, and their history. Additionally, the video explains that the future of these forests is in peril, mainly from suburbanization, but also from pests and diseases, mining, and climate change. The "Solutions" tab on the homepage allows visitors to see the solutions necessary to help conserve and mange the forests, which include the sections "Protected Areas", "Southern Forest Ownership", and "Ensuring Southern Forests for the Future".

87

New Zealand's Southern Alps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National Park, which occupies the far southwest of the island, is largely under cloud.

Prominent along the east coast are the Canterbury Plains, approximately 180 kilometers long and extending inland from the coast to the foothills of the Southern Alps. This is the largest area of flatland in New Zealand, and a rich agricultural region renowned for its wheat, wool, and livestock. Here the distance between the east and west coasts is little more than 150 kilometers.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

88

Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

2002-01-01

89

Neptune's Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

1989-01-01

90

The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment  

SciTech Connect

Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA); Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA (USA); California Univ., Los Angeles (USA); CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping (Australia); Sydney Univ. (Australia); Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank (England))

1989-07-01

91

Flooding in Southern Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

2002-01-01

92

Snowfall in Southern Appalachia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The snowstorm which swept across the eastern United States on December 4 and 5 also brought the season's first snow to parts of the south and southern Appalachia. The extent of snow cover over central Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina and Virginia are apparent in this view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). This natural-color image was captured by MISR's downward-looking (nadir) camera on December 7, 2002.

The Appalachians are bounded by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher elevation areas retain the green and reddish-brown hues of autumn, and many rivers and lakes appear blue and unfrozen. The highest peak in the eastern United States, Mount Mitchell, is found in North Carolina's western tip, near the Great Smoky Mountains (the dark-colored range at lower right).

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 15805. The image covers an area of 347 kilometers x 279 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 60 to 62 within World Reference System-2 path 19.

2002-01-01

93

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

94

European Southern Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is an intergovernmental organization comprised of 14 member countries. Its headquarters are in Germany, but they have three observatories in Chile as well. Their website is loaded with information and visitors shouldn't miss going on the "Virtual Tours", on the far right side of the homepage. The tours are of the three observatories in Chile, and offer almost 360 degree views of beautiful, yet sparse landscapes. The tour of La Silla has two particularly beautiful views, "La Silla Moonlight" and "La Silla Sunset". Visitors interested in seeing a panning of an artist's 3D rendering of the Orion Nebula must go to the "Video" link on the left hand menu on the homepage. There are over 1400 videos to choose from, so for those not into the Orion Nebula, never fear, there are plenty of other video choices. Finally, visitors must go to the "Top 100 Images" link on the right side of the homepage to see amazing and gorgeous images taken from the ESO's various observatories.

95

Southern Rural Development Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson declared war on rural poverty during their time in the White House, there has been an overriding concern with alleviating the persistently high levels of poverty in the American South. A number of organizations have developed to provide assistance to the region, and the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), located at Mississippi State University is one such entity. The center's mission statement reflects this sentiment, as it notes its primary directive is "to strengthen the capacity of the region's 29-land grant institutions to address critical contemporary development issues impacting the well-being of people and communities in the rural South." Visitors interested in these issues will find plenty to examine here, as they may elect to view a calendar of germane events (such as regional science conferences and the like), look over a list of their primary focus areas, learn about available funding opportunities, and download any number of policy publications and newsletters which date back to 1993.

96

Fires in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

2007-01-01

97

MISR Views Southern Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These MISR nadir-camera images of southern Florida were acquired on October 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 4446). The view on the left includes Daytona Beach near the top and the Florida Keys at the bottom. Orlando appears as a grayish patch near the top of the image, just to the east of the greenish Lake Apopka, Florida's fourth largest and most polluted lake. On the coast is Cape Canaveral, home of the Kennedy Space Center.

The large body of water in the middle of the land area is Lake Okeechobee. On the western (Gulf of Mexico) coast, Charlotte Harbor and Fort Myers are visible. Along the eastern (Atlantic) coast, partially obscured by clouds, are Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami. Further to the east, the shallow waters and reefs of the Little Bahama and Great Bahama Banks appear in striking blue and green colors.

The two righthand images show the Florida Everglades and the Keys in more detail. Like the lefthand view, the top image is a natural color composite of blue, green, and red band imagery. On the bottom is a false color composite comprised of green, red, and near-infrared data. Near-infrared light is invisible to the human eye. The high reflectance of plants in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum, displayed here in shades of red, is the basis of many satellite-based techniques for detecting and characterizing land surface vegetation.

2000-01-01

98

Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative website is from the School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences at Auburn University. On the site, users will find articles detailing everything from seedlings, weed control, transplanting to name only a few. The site also has a number depth breakdown of nursery management related tasks in terms of time and cost. This site is an excellent resource for nursery management in general and with specifics as related to the Southern forest region of the United States.

2006-12-23

99

Tectospheric structure beneath southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

P-wave and S-wave delay times from the broad- band data of the southern Africa seismic experiment have been inverted to obtain three-dimensional images of velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath southern Africa. High velocity mantle roots appear to extend to depths of at least 250 km, and locally to depths of 300 km beneath the Kaap- vaal and Zimbabwe cratons.

D. E. James; M. J. Fouch; J. C. VanDecar; S. van der Lee

2001-01-01

100

The Southern Ocean silica cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean is a major opal sink and plays a key role in the silica cycle of the world ocean. So far however, a complete cycle of silicon in the Southern Ocean has not been published. On one hand, Southern Ocean surface waters receive considerable amounts of silicic acid (dissolved silica, DSi) from the rest of the world ocean through the upwelling of the Circumpolar Deep Water, fed by contributions of deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. On the other hand, the Southern Ocean exports a considerable flux of the silicic acid that is not used by diatoms in surface waters through the northward pathways of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water, of the Antarctic Intermediate Water, and of the Antarctic Bottom Water. Thus the Southern Ocean is a source of DSi for the rest of the world ocean. Here we show that the Southern Ocean is a net importer of DSi: because there is no significant external input of DSi, the flux of DSi imported through the Circumpolar Deep Water pathway compensates the sink flux of biogenic silica in sediments.

Tréguer, Paul J.

2014-11-01

101

Central and southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

McGrew, H.J.

1981-10-01

102

Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

1993-01-01

103

Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

1993-05-01

104

Fire in Southern Greece  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 56.4 by 63.5 kilometers (35 by 39.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 21.6 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 6, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet Dates Acquired: September 4, 2007.

2007-01-01

105

Kinematic model of southern California  

SciTech Connect

A kinematic model for southern California, based on late-Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region, is proposed. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. Relative to North America, most of California west of the San Andreas fault is moving parallel to the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges and not parallel to the motion of the Pacific plate. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths in southern California that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion, implying the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California. 70 references.

Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.

1986-02-01

106

Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments. Seattle, WA. Geological Society of America. Coale, K., 2003. Open Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments: What they have told us, what they have not. American Society for Limnology and Oceanography and The Oceanography Society, Honolulu, February 2004. Coale, K., 2004. Recent Research from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), in Taking the Heat: What is the impact of ocean fertilization on climate and ocean ecology? Science of earth and sky. AAAS, February 12-16, Seattle, WA

Coale, Kenneth H.

2005-07-28

107

DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

108

A Phylogenetic analysis of the Southern Shift  

E-print Network

/ and /w/) in the Southern Shift. As with the vowel systems of New York and Philadelphia (Labov, forthcoming), which also occupy intermediate geogzaphical positions, 1t involves a mixture of Southern and Northern features. Although the various shift1ng...

Thomas, Erik Robert

2012-06-07

109

BIOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENT SOURCEBOOK GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

1 BIOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENT SOURCEBOOK GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Introduction to the Biology Department.............................................5 Chapter 2 #12;2 BIOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENT SOURCEBOOK GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS

Hutcheon, James M.

110

Rural tourism in Southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review reveals a multitude of different ideas as to what constitutes rural tourism. A model is suggested that places farm, rural, and non-urban tourism into context. Based on a survey of rural operators and tourists in Southern Germany, several aspects of rural tourism are discussed. The main market segments are families with children and older couples, and their

Martin Oppermann

1996-01-01

111

Quaternary uplift of southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dramatic coastline changes demonstrate rapid Quaternary uplift of Calabria in southern Italy. Because most of the west (Tyrrhenian Sea) coast is normal fault bounded, previous work has asserted that its uplift is local footwall uplift related to extension. However, the east (Ionian Sea) coast is also uplifting but is not normal fault bounded. This reanalysis, based on original field work

Rob Westaway

1993-01-01

112

RESOURCES FOR SOUTHERN MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INFORMATION ABOUT LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT TRAINING RESOURCES, IN 15 SOUTHERN STATES, WAS ANALYZED TO DETERMINE PROGRAMS WHICH WOULD EFFECTIVELY INCREASE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES. SOCIAL SCIENTISTS (1) TALKED WITH MORE THAN 360 STAFF MEMBERS IN 58 SCHOOLS, (2) CONTACTED FEDERAL, STATE, LABOR, AND PRIVATE…

BRINKER, PAUL; RUSSELL, WENDELL H.

113

Southern Universities: Are They Rising?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay reviews four recent works on Southern universities: (1) "The University of Georgia: A Bicentennial History" (Dyer, 1985); (2) "A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia" (Boney, 1984); (3) To Foster Knowledge: A History of the University of Tennessee 1794-1970" (Montgomery, et al., 1984); and (4) "Gone with the Ivy: A Biography…

Whitehead, John S.

1986-01-01

114

Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992  

E-print Network

Taxonomic level and sample size sufficient for assessing pollution impacts on the Southern California Bight macrobenthos.Taxonomic level and sample size sufficient for assessing pollution impacts on the Southern California Bight macrobenthos.Taxonomic Level and Sample Size Sufficient for Assessing Pollution Impacts on the Southern California Bight Macrobenthos.

Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

1992-01-01

115

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change  

E-print Network

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change Nathan P. Gillett1 * and David W. J. Thompson2 Recent observations indicate that climate change over the high latitudes of the Southern's surface as well. Recent climate change in the Southern Hemi- sphere (SH) is marked by a strengthening

116

Southern Librarianship and the Culture of Resentment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of library service in the southern states occurred in a supposedly reconciliatory period of American history following the Civil War, but the reforms of Reconstruction, the indigenous remnants of “southern culture,” and feelings of isolation from larger professional affairs bred dissent and feelings of estrangement between natives and outsiders. This article relates “the southern problem” to early key

2005-01-01

117

Introduction Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization  

E-print Network

Introduction Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization The surface waters of the Southern Ocean Experiment (SOIREE, e.g. Abraham et al., 2000; Boyd et al., 2000) and Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization casting doubt on the potential for geoengi- neering climate via iron fertilization (e.g. Zeebe and Archer

118

Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires. The haze aerosols sampled were more heat-absorbing than expected, which means the haze layer may have a significant warming influence on the region's atmosphere. For more information, see the press release Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Visualization Studio

2002-01-01

119

Comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the seismotectonic deformation orientations for southern Siberia area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent geodynamics of southern Siberia is under influence of external and internal factors. First, fields of tension arise on borders of a large earth's plates during their interaction caused by lateral movement. Second, processes in the sublithospheric part of the upper mantle of the region. To study influence of these factors we carried out the comparison of various geophysical methods results, with taking into account available geological data on a faults structure of the region. The joint analysis included results of seismotomographic modeling, determinations of seismotectonic deformation (STD) principal axes orientation, and data of numerical thermogravitational modeling of upper mantle convection with considering influence on its structure of a local overheat under surrounding thick lithosphere blocks. The 3D model of seismic P-waves anomalies distribution in the upper mantle of southern Siberia and adjacent areas is updated by addition to calculations a new data from the ISC catalog. It is calculated by a technique developed during the previous researches (Koulakov, Bushenkova, 2010). Thickness estimates of a «seismic lithosphere» are made in the same way, as in work (Bushenkova, etc., 2008). The received estimates are used for specification of boundary conditions for a numerical thermogravitational modeling (Chervov, Chernykh, Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, in press). A principal axes STD orientations are calculated on Riznichenko&Kostrov's method by data of focal mechanisms solution about 770 earthquakes with magnitude of 3.5 - 7.3 which have occurred in the crust of Altai-Sayan area from 1970 to 2007. We have executed a comparison of seismotomographic and thermogravitational models with distribution of the principal axes STD orientations for the southern Siberia and adjacent territories. The following features were found. It is possible to observe a tendency to azimuthal change of the principal axes STD orientations along borders of positive and negative seismic velocity anomalies in the obtained seismotomographic model. We observe obvious correlation of the principal exes STD orientations distribution and convection flows distribution in the obtained numerical thermogravitational model of the upper mantle structure. Namely, orientations of an extension are mainly located along descending flow (in the plan), whereas orientations of a shortening - across them respectively. Further with approach to an ascending flow it is possible to observe a tendency to change of the direction of the STD orientations of an extension axes around its center, and on radii - directly over the center of this ascending flow. We consider that, due to stability of the observed tendencies, in other areas with similar block structure of a lithosphere, it will be possible to predict orientations of a principal axes seismotectonic deformations for the subsequent seismic events in similar regions. Work is performed with partial support of the RFBR #13-05-00054 and IP SB RAS #76.

Bushenkova, Natalia; Kuchay, Olga; Chervov, Victor

2014-05-01

120

in Southern and Eastern Ontario  

E-print Network

The North American Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) population has been steadily declining since the mid 1960s. In southern Ontario, the Short-eared Owl was once the most frequently encountered owl, but has become very scarce and localized. It has recently been recommended for Special Concern status in Ontario. Little is known about the species ’ breeding sites or movements, and there is debate as to whether the species deserves a higher conservation status. In order to accurately evaluate population status and effectively guide recovery efforts, The Migration Research Foundation (MRF) conducted a survey of the breeding population in southern and eastern Ontario. MRF, with the help of landowners and volunteers from the birding community, located and monitored nest sites, mapped nesting habitat, and set traps for the purpose of banding and blood-sampling adult owls. Approximately 40 historical or suitable nest sites were monitored, with evidence of Short-eared Owls being present found at only

Leslie M. Hunt; Marcel A. Gahbauer

2004-01-01

121

Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state. PMID:11174243

Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S

2001-02-01

122

Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed <5% to total zooplankton in the Lazarev Sea, but 15% (max = 93%) to macrozooplankton in the East Antarctic. In addition to regional density distributions we have synthesized data on vertical distributions, seasonal cycles, and inter-annual density variation. Trophically, gymnosome are specialist predators on thecosomes, while thecosomes are considered predominantly herbivorous, capturing food with a mucous web. The ingestion rates of L. retroversa australis are in the upper range for sub-Antarctic mesozooplankton (31.2-4196.9 ng pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also contribute significantly to organic carbon flux through the production of fast sinking faecal pellets and mucous flocs, and rapid sinking of dead animals ballasted by their aragonite shells. Quantification of these contributions requires data on mucous web production rates, egestion rates, assimilation efficiencies, metabolic rates, and faecal pellet morphology for application to sediment trap studies. Based on the available data, pteropods are regionally significant components of the Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystem. However, there is an urgent need for focused research on this group in order to quantify how a decline in pteropod densities may impact on Southern Ocean ecosystems.

Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

2008-09-01

123

Dusty Skies over Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Southern California's 'Santa Anas' are dry, north-easterly winds having speeds in excess of 25 knots (46 kilometers/hour). Santa Ana conditions are commonly associated with gusts of more than twice this level. These offshore winds usually occur in late fall and winter when a high pressure system forms in the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevadas and the Rocky Mountains. The air warms as it flows downslope from the high plateau, and its speed increases dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of the winds varies greatly from place to place, and the Santa Anas can be sufficiently strong to pick up surface dust.

This view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer shows the pattern of airborne dust stirred up by Santa Ana winds on February 9, 2002. The image is from MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera, and airborne particulates are especially visible due to the camera's oblique viewing angle. Southeast of the Los Angeles Basin, a swirl of dust, probably blown through the Banning Pass, curves toward the ocean near Dana Point. The largest dust cloud occurs near Ensenada, in Baja California, Mexico. Also visible in this image is a blue-gray smoke plume from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California.

This image was acquired during Terra orbit 11423, and represents an area of about 410 kilometers x 511 kilometers.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

124

Astrometry of southern radio sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogs. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarcsecond radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Harvey, Bruce R.; Savage, Ann; Gulkis, Samuel; Preston, Robert A.

1991-01-01

125

Mollusk shells from burials of tuzovskiye bugry-1 As indicators of ethno-cultural processes In southern siberia and western central asia In the 3rd millennium bc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on adornments made of mollusk shells from graves of the Tuzovskiye Bugry-1 burial ground in the Altai Territory. The collection includes bivalve shells: Corbicula ferghanensis Kurs. et Star. currently inhabiting the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins; Corbicula tibetensis Prash. inhabiting the mountain regions of Central Asia, Eastern Kazakhstan, and the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins;

Yu. F. Kiryushin; K. Yu. Kiryushin; A. V. Schmidt; D. V. Kuzmenkin; M. T. Abdulganeyev

2011-01-01

126

Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network  

SciTech Connect

The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

1994-08-01

127

Geothermal resources of southern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150 C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications. A majority of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. The largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grang View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107 C and an energy of 4.5 x 10 to the 20th power joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system was found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures was not found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90 and 150 C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain.

Mabey, D.R.

1983-01-01

128

Venomous snakebites in southern Croatia.  

PubMed

This retrospective study is based on the analysis of 542 snakebite envenomation cases in southern Croatia, which were treated in the University Hospital Split over the period of 21 years. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of venomous snakebite in southern Croatia, epidemiological and clinical features of snakebite and treatment in the region. The mean annual snakebite incidence in southern Croatia was 5.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. The nose- horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) was responsible for most bites, only a small proportion being inflicted by the adder (Vipera berus). People of all ages were affected (1 - 82 year old), but the bites were more frequent in individuals older than 50 (46% of the cases) and in children and adolescents 19 year old and younger (27% of the cases). Most snakebite accidents happened in warm spring and summer months, the highest number occurring in May (22%). A majority of the victims were rural people engaged in agricultural activities. Bites on the upper limbs were more frequent (57%) than bites on the lower limbs (42%). With regard to envenomation severity, there were 15.1% minor, 40.5% mild, 26% moderate and 18% severe cases. Two victims died (0.4%). The antivenom produced by the Institute of Immunology in Zagreb was given to virtually all patients, and complications following its administration were rare. The antivenom was used more often than it was suggested by the symptoms present. PMID:16617597

Luksi?, Boris; Bradari?, Nikola; Prgomet, Sandra

2006-03-01

129

Coal Mining in Southern Illinois  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After graduating from high school in 1936, C. William "Doc" Horrell received a $12 camera from his mother. Horrell was immediately bitten by the photography bug, and created a dark room in his mother's walk-in-closet. He attended Southern Illinois Normal University (now the Southern Illinois University Carbondale), and after his time in the armed services, he opened up his own photography studio in Anna, Illinois. In the 1960s, Doc began wandering around southern Illinois to document the region's coal mining industry. Over the next few years, he took thousands of photographs, some of which formed the heart of his 1973 book, "The Land Between the Rivers". The good folks at SIU Carbondale have created this online exhibit to introduce users to Horrell's work. Visitors can make their way through the exhibit, and they may find themselves gravitating to the complete online collection, which contains over 750 items. It's a tremendous find, and it includes images of abandoned coal mining facilities, men at work, and coal trains.

130

Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field campaigns such as Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A), Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Since those large international efforts, satellites have matured enough to enable quantifiable measurements of regional land surface, atmosphere, and ocean. In addition, global and chemical transport models have also been advanced to incorporate various data. Thus, the timing of the workshop was right for a full-fledged re-assessment of the chemistry, physics, and socio-economical impacts caused by pollution in the region, including a characterization of sources, deposition, and feedbacks with climate change.

Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

2011-01-01

131

Subduction in the Southern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

2012-04-01

132

New Southern Research Station Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA Forest Service's Southern Research Station provides this growing database of online, full-text articles that have appeared in print. Covering everything from mountain roads and water quality, to carbohydrate metabolism of peaches, to reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers, this collection of scientific articles and book chapters is updated frequently. The Products section contains the 100 Most Recent Publications page lists papers in order of their addition to the database. All articles are in .pdf format, and may be downloaded from the page (click on title).

2008-05-09

133

Tectonic deformation in southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

Jackson, David D.

1993-01-01

134

Southern Discomfort: The Effects of Stereotype Threat on the Intellectual Performance of US Southerners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to other negatively stereotyped groups, a paucity of research has examined stereotypes of US southerners. Building from past research and theory on the phenomenon of stereotype threat, the current research examined the possibility that activating negative stereotypes of people from the southern US can undermine their performance on intellectual tasks. In four studies, southern US college students took a

Jason K. Clark; Cassie A. Eno; Rosanna E. Guadagno

2011-01-01

135

Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-yr dataset from 1982 to 1998. The polar climate anomalies are correlated with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and the composites of these anomalies are examined under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 >

R. Kwok; J. C. Comiso

2002-01-01

136

Climate Projections for Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present regional climate projections for Southern Africa for 2036-2060 with a focus on the impacts in the Orange River basin. The scenario used was SRES A1B. With an area of almost 1 million km2 the Orange River is the largest river basin in Southern Africa. The basin spreads across four nations (South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia and Botswana), impacting the livelihood of about 19 million people. It plays a crucial role in the region's ecology and economy. The projections were obtained by a two-fold approach: we used a STatistical Analogue Re-sampling Scheme (STARS) and a dynamical regional climate model (CCLM - COSMO in CLimate Mode). As a first step we performed a cross-validation experiment for the years 1976-2000 in order to determine the viability of either method. CCLM which downscaled results from the global MPI-ECHAM5 model, showed good performance regarding the 2 m temperature, but the reproduction of precipitation was rather poor. STARS produced very good results for both of these variables. The climate projections of both models showed a considerable temperature increase, especially in the inland of the simulation area. However, while CCLM projected a general decrease in precipitation, STARS indicated a strong precipitation decrease in the already dry eastern part of the region and a precipitation increase in the west during the rainy season. The precipitation increase was even more pronounced during the dry season.

Lutz, J.; Gerstengarbe, F. W.; Volkholz, J.

2012-12-01

137

Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal  

E-print Network

Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

Krüger, P P

2012-01-01

138

Airborne Particulates over Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This map shows the abundance of airborne particulates, or aerosols, over Southern Africa during the period August 14 - September 29, 2000. Low particle concentrations are shown in shades of blue, and high concentrations in shades of red. The results were generated from MISR imagery acquired over this time period, and processed using MISR's automated software system. The approach for deriving aerosol amount makes use of the variation of scene brightness and contrast as a function of observation angle. Black areas over the land area correspond to places where a result was not obtained, for example, due to the presence of clouds.

Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. Vegetation availability increases northward, hence the greater abundance of haze and smoke in Angola and southern Zaire. The lower aerosol abundance around Lesotho and southeastern South Africa is consistent with the higher terrain elevations near the Drakensberg Mountains.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

139

8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN U.S. AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

140

5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS CROSSING RAILROAD LINE, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

141

Southern Rural Access Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Rural Access Program, a grant program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in eight southern states, funds projects that nurture rural and disadvantaged students in health-care fields; build state, regional, or community capacity to recruit and retain rural health professionals; support rural health networks; and provide loans to…

Beachler, Michael; Holloman, Curtis; Herman, James

2003-01-01

142

Stratigraphic Columns Across Southern Western Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website depicts stratigraphic columns of exposed rocks in southwestern regions of the United States. A general explanation of symbols used in the columns is provided for reference, and the columns indicate rock type, formation names and geologic time periods. The areas covered include the Grand Canyon, central and southern Arizona, southern Utah and Nevada, and western New Mexico and Colorado.

Blakey, Ronald

143

ASSOCIATE DEAN Southern Saskatchewan Campus and  

E-print Network

1 ASSOCIATE DEAN Southern Saskatchewan Campus and Advancement of Global Health Strategies POSITION of Nursing, the Associate Dean Southern Saskatchewan Campus and Advancement of Global Health Strategies geographical region of Saskatchewan, the Associate Dean will act as the Dean's designate in operational

Saskatchewan, University of

144

3, 199219, 2006 Variation of Southern  

E-print Network

Science Interannual variations of water mass properties and volumes in the Southern Ocean M. Tomczak and S- nual variability of water mass properties in the Southern Ocean in a section between Antarctica and Tasmania for the period 1991­1996. Water mass properties were sta- ble during 1994­1996 but showed

Boyer, Edmond

145

Assessing Estuarine Biota in Southern California1  

E-print Network

of a restoration project. To identify impacts or opportunities for restoration, we also may want to know how. Western Ecological Research Center, USGS. c/o Marine Science Institute. University of California, SantaAssessing Estuarine Biota in Southern California1 Kevin D. Lafferty2 Abstract In southern

Standiford, Richard B.

146

Investing in Our Future: A Southern Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the role Southern philanthropy can play in addressing racism, poverty, and inequality by supporting education and workforce improvement. "Framing the Conversation" takes input from George Autry (MDC), William Bynum (Enterprise Corporation of the Delta), Lynn Walker Huntley (Southern Education Foundation), and Martin Lehfeldt…

Notes From the Field, 1998

1998-01-01

147

SHEATH BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN SOUTHERN RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight is a serious fungal disease problem in southern US rice production, making it necessary for rice farmers to diligently use fungicides for its control. There are no long grain rice varieties adapted to commercial production in the southern US that have adequate resistance to sheath bli...

148

The Church in the Southern Black Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries digitizes historical documents for their Church in the Southern Black Community online collection, part of the ongoing digitization of materials in the Documenting the American South series (see the April 18, 1997 Scout Report). According to its creators, "'The Church in the Southern Black Community' traces how Southern African Americans experienced and transformed Protestant Christianity into the central institution of community life." Currently, the site offers transcribed oral histories and autobiographies of former slaves, a diary of a New England woman living in the South in 1865, official church documents that give insight into how religious organizations approached slaves and former slaves as potential converts, and more. New documents are added on a regular basis. The other e-text collections on-site are First-Person Narratives of the American South, a Library of Southern Literature, North American Slave Narratives, and The Southern Homefront, 1861-1865.

1999-01-01

149

Southern Ocean iron fertilization by baleen whales and Antarctic krill  

E-print Network

Southern Ocean iron fertilization by baleen whales and Antarctic krill Stephen Nicol1,2 , Andrew, iron fertilization, krill, Southern Ocean Correspondence: Stephen Nicol, Australian Antarctic Division

Kudela, Raphael M.

150

Southern Nevada: The Boomtown Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent collection from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Libraries brings together a wide range of primary documents that narrate the history and social milieu of the famed boomtowns of southern Nevada. The collection brings together materials from a number of institutions, and all told, there are over 1500 items here. The most well known sections of this collection are the photographs and photograph albums which span the region in the late 19th and early 20th century. Additionally, the site contains business records, maps, surveys, and stock certificates. What is most compelling here may be the correspondence between officials of the Union Pacific railroad and their local agents. Visitors can view a list of boomtowns by county, look over the teaching resources here, and also learn more about the mining activities which transformed these places forever.

151

Aseismic uplift in Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary examination of the historic geodetic record has disclosed crustal uplift of 0.15 to 0.25 meter that apparently began around 1960 and has since grown to include at least 12,000 square kilometers of southern California. This uplift extends at least ISO kilometers west-northwestward along the San Andreas Fault from Cajon to Maricopa, southward from the San Andreas into the northern Transverse Ranges, and eastward from Lebec into and including much of the western Mojave block. It seems to have grown spasmodically eastward from a center near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults and has occurred largely within an area that has remained virtually aseismic since at least 1932. Although much of this area has been characterized by crustal mobility since at least the turn of the century, the described uplift seems to be an Uhusually large and probably unique event superimposed on the existing pattern of continuing deformation.

Castle, R.O.; Church, J.P.; Elliott, M.R.

1976-01-01

152

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Southern California Attrition Study  

E-print Network

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 1 October 2012 SF State Southern California Attrition Study Fall 2005 through Fall 2009 Full-Time First-Time Freshmen A C A D E M I C P L A N · a i r . s f s u . e d u #12;SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 2 Table

153

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

154

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

155

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2010 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), C  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2010 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

156

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

157

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2013 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Calif  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator November 2013 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

158

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2011 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Califo  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2011 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

159

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Cal  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

160

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator February 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Calif  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator February 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

161

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2012 Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), Califo  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2012 © Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

162

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator Aug 2013 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator Aug 2013 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

163

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator May 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

164

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2014 Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), Califor  

E-print Network

Southern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading EconomicSouthern California Leading Economic IndicatorIndicatorIndicatorIndicator August 2014 © Center for Economic Analysis and Forecasting (CEAF), California State University Fullerton Adrian R. Fleissig, Ph

de Lijser, Peter

165

A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF SOUTHERN AFRICAN APIACEAE  

E-print Network

all but three of the approximately 38 genera native to southern Africa, including all genera whoseDNA rps16 intron; phylogeny; rDNA ITS; Saniculoideae; southern Africa; woodiness. Southern Africa stands as southern Africa includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland. The African subcontinent

Downie, Stephen R.

166

CANADA-SOUTHERN AFRICA MIGRATION SURVEY INFORMATION What is SAMP?  

E-print Network

1 CANADA-SOUTHERN AFRICA MIGRATION SURVEY INFORMATION What is SAMP? SAMP is the Southern African in that country. Which countries form part of `Southern Africa'? Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe Is any research being done in Southern Africa? Yes

Abolmaesumi, Purang

167

Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (MESDA) website, southern antiques were ignored and dismissed by collectors and scholars in the first half of the 20th century. However, in 1965, a museum dedicated to "the preservation, scholarship, and connoisseurship of southern decorative arts and material culture" opened in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, curated by a pioneering mother and son. Visitors should definitely check out the Exhibits and Collections links for high quality photos of many of the museum's holdings, as well as brief descriptions of the pieces, including the craftsperson and materials. Some pieces also include a map showing the region of the state where the piece was made. Current and past exhibits include "Our Spirited Ancestors: The Decorative Art of Drink," "Southern Silver: Style and Substance." and "'The Neatest Pieces of Any Description': Furniture Pieces of Piedmont, North Carolina."

2012-03-02

168

East and Southern Africa English Accents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses English pronunciation features in the anglophone countries of East and Southern Africa. Focus is on restructuring of the STRUT vowel to /a/,/i/, and /e/ epenthesis, and short tone groups.(Author/VWL)

Bobda, Augustin Simo

2001-01-01

169

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. The Department of Management contributes significantly to MBAGEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia Assistant/Associate Professor of Management - Search #67110 Department of Management College of Business Administration The Department

Hutcheon, James M.

170

The genetic prehistory of southern Africa  

E-print Network

Southern and eastern African populations that speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants are known to harbour some of the most ancient genetic lineages in humans, but their relationships are poorly understood. Here, ...

Pickrell, Joseph K.

171

Archean sedimentation and tectonics in southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also assessed was whether there was evidence for a significant component of shallow-water-deposited sedimentary rocks in the parent materials of the Limpopo belt. The nature of a largehigh strain zone on the southern margin of the central Limpopo belt was examined.

Kidd, W. S. F.

1984-01-01

172

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

173

Meteor showers of the southern hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of an exhaustive meteor shower search in the southern hemisphere. The underlying data set is a subset of the IMO Video Meteor Database comprising 50,000 single station meteors obtained by three Australian cameras between 2001 and 2012. The detection technique was similar to previous single station analysis. In the data set we find 4 major and 6 minor northern hemisphere meteor showers, and 12 segments of the Antihelion source (including the Northern and Southern Taurids and six streams from the MDC working list). We present details for 14 southern hemisphere showers plus the Centaurid and Puppid-Velid complex, with the ? Aquariids and the Southern ? Aquariids being the strongest southern showers. Two of the showers (?^2 Sagittariids and ? Cetids) were previously unknown and have received preliminary designations by the MDC. Overall we find that the fraction of southern meteor showers south of -30deg declination (roughly 25%) is clearly smaller than the fraction of northern meteor showers north of +30deg declination (more than 50%) obtained in our previous analysis.

Molau, Sirko; Kerr, Steve

2014-04-01

174

Southern Saskatchewan Ticagrelor Registry experience  

PubMed Central

Background As ticagrelor enters into clinical use for acute coronary syndrome, it is important to understand patient/physician behavior in terms of appropriate use, adherence, and event rates. Methods The Southern Saskatchewan Ticagrelor Registry is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study that identifies consecutive patients started on ticagrelor. We aimed to evaluate both on- and off-label use, identify characteristics of patients who prematurely stop ticagrelor, and describe patient/physician behavior contributing to inappropriate stoppage of this medication. Results From April 2012 to September 2013, 227 patients were initiated on ticagrelor, with a mean age of 62.2±12.1 years. The participants were 66% men and had a mean follow up of 157.4±111.7 days. Seventy-four patients (32.4%) had off-label indications. Forty-seven patients (20.7%) prematurely stopped ticagrelor and were more likely to be older, women, nonwhite, present with shock, and complain of dyspnea. Twenty-six of the 47 patients stopped ticagrelor inappropriately because of patient nonadherence (18 patients) and physician advice (eight patients). A composite outcome event of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 8.8% of the entire cohort and was more likely to occur in those older then 65 years, those presenting with cardiogenic shock, and those who prematurely stopped ticagrelor. Conclusion In this real-world registry of patients started on ticagrelor, a third have off-label indications and a fifth prematurely stop the medication. Premature discontinuation was an independent predictor of major life-threatening bleeding and increased composite event rate of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. PMID:25342889

Dehghani, Payam; Chopra, Varun; Bell, Ali; Kelly, Sheila; Zulyniak, Lori; Booker, Jeff; Zimmermann, Rodney; Semchuk, William; Cheema, Asim N; Lavoie, Andrea J

2014-01-01

175

The Southern Kalahari: A potential new dust source in the southern hemisphere?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most of the sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the northern hemisphere. The relatively less dust emission in the southern hemisphere in part limits the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity and ability to seque...

176

Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern Region  

E-print Network

Phosphorus Loss (Risk) IndexesPhosphorus Loss (Risk) Indexes in the Southern Regionin the Southern in the US Sharply, et al. 2003. Development of phosphorus indices for nutrient management planning strategies in the United States. J. Soil Water Cons. Daniel et al. 2002. The Phosphorus Index: Background

177

Southern Spring in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

178

Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) high in orbit around the Earth, suddenly registered an intense burst of gamma-ray radiation from a direction less than 10° from the celestial south pole. Independently, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM) on board the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite also detected the event (see GCN GRB Observation Report 304 [2]). Following the BATSE alert, the BeppoSAX Wide-Field Cameras (WFC) quickly localized the sky position of the burst within a circle of 3 arcmin radius in the southern constellation Chamaeleon. It was also detected by other satellites, including the ESA/NASA Ulysses spacecraft , since some years in a wide orbit around the Sun. The event was designated GRB 990510 and the measured position was immediately distributed by BeppoSAX Mission Scientist Luigi Piro to a network of astronomers. It was also published on Circular No. 7160 of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Paul Vreeswijk, Titus Galama , and Evert Rol of the Amsterdam/Huntsville GRB follow-up team (led by Jan van Paradijs ) immediately contacted astronomers at the 1-meter telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) (Sutherland, South Africa) of the PLANET network microlensing team, an international network led by Penny Sackett in Groningen (The Netherlands). There, John Menzies of SAAO and Karen Pollard (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) were about to begin the last of their 14 nights of observations, part of a continuous world-wide monitoring program looking for evidence of planets around other stars. Other PLANET sites in Australia and Tasmania where it was still nighttime were unfortunately clouded out (some observations were in fact made that night at the Mount Stromlo observatory in Australia, but they were only announced one day later). As soon as possible - immediately after sundown and less than 9 hours after the initial burst was recorded - the PLANET observers turned their telescope and quickly obtained a series of CCD images in visu

1999-05-01

179

A Naturalist's Tour of Southern Lake Michigan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the sorts of places you would least expect it, author Joel Greenberg reveals an abundance of life and bio-diversity in his A Naturalist's Tour of Southern Lake Michigan. Highlighting areas around the rim of southern Lake Michigan, Greenberg's work discusses some state parks and other nature preserves. Serving as a guide, he signals to his readers small outcroppings of nature that have survived and endured, in spite of civilization. Fox example, Mr. Greenberg calls attention to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and State Park. A wet, grassy plain full of plantlife, the park sits north of the industrial southern tip of Lake Michigan, exactly where one might have failed to look for a park that, with the exceptions of the Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains, has more types of plants than any other national park.

Greenberg, Joel (Joel R.).

2002-01-01

180

Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy  

SciTech Connect

Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Nuccio, M.P. (Univ. of Palermo (Italy)); Italiano, F.

1989-06-01

181

The Southern Kalahari: a potential new dust source in the Southern Hemisphere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the Northern Hemisphere. The lower dust emissions in the Southern Hemisphere in part limit the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity. Climate and land use change can alter the current distribution of dust source regions on Earth. Can new dust sources be activated in the Southern Hemisphere? Here we show that vegetation loss and dune remobilization in the Southern Kalahari can promote dust emissions comparable to those observed from major contemporary dust sources in the Southern African region. Dust generation experiments support the hypothesis that, in the Southern Kalahari, aeolian deposits that are currently mostly stabilized by savanna vegetation are capable of emitting substantial amounts of dust from interdune areas. We show that dust from these areas is relatively rich in soluble iron, an important micronutrient for ocean productivity. Trajectory analyses show that dust from the Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean and could therefore enhance its productivity.

Bhattachan, Abinash; D'Odorico, Paolo; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Cassar, Nicolas

2012-06-01

182

A new fault lineament in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows a 50-mile wide tectonic zone across Southern California oriented about 15 deg to the structures of the Transverse Ranges or with an azimuth of 70 deg. The zone is delineated on the imagery by terrian alignments and vegetational differences. A previously undisclosed tectonic lineament extends across the Mojave Desert and appears as a line of crustal upwarping. Pressure which would have caused this plus the occurrence of many thrust faults with the 70 deg azimuth indicate this to be a zone of crustal compression. Recent earthquake epicenters appear to be related to this compression zone rather than the traditional fault network of Southern California.

Pease, R. W.; Johnson, C. W.

1973-01-01

183

INTERIOR OFFICES AT THE SOUTHERN END OF THE BUILDING, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OFFICES AT THE SOUTHERN END OF THE BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

184

DETAILS, ENTRY AND ROOF VENT, SOUTHERN SECTION OF THE WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAILS, ENTRY AND ROOF VENT, SOUTHERN SECTION OF THE WEST (FRONT) FACADE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

185

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE BUILDING, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE BUILDING, SHOWING DOORWAYS TO SOUTWESTERN CORNER OFFICE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

186

New species of Ruellia (Acanthaceae) from southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species ofRuellia,R. epallocaulos from northeastern Argentina, southern Brazil, and eastern Paraguay, andR. kleinii from southern Brazil, are described, illustrated and compared to related species.

Cecilia Ezcurra; Dieter C. Wasshausen

1992-01-01

187

33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Southern California annual marine events. 100.1101...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1101 Southern California annual marine events. ...is for the start of the race only. California Cup Sponsor: California Yacht...

2010-07-01

188

33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Southern California annual marine events. 100.1101...NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1101 Southern California annual marine events. ...is for the start of the race only. California Cup Sponsor: California Yacht...

2011-07-01

189

Multivectorial paleointensity determination from the Cordova Gabbro, southern Ontario  

E-print Network

Multivectorial paleointensity determination from the Cordova Gabbro, southern Ontario Yongjae Yu Ã? of the Cordova Gabbro of southern Ontario. We interpret A and B to be secondary thermal overprints produced Gabbro; remagnetization; natural remanent magnetization; Precambrian; paleointensity; VADM 1

Dunlop, David J.

190

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

191

6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

192

2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

193

4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

194

7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

195

1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

196

3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

197

Electrical lithosphere beneath the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa  

E-print Network

Electrical lithosphere beneath the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa Rob L. Evans,1 Alan G. Jones,2), Electrical lithosphere beneath the Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B04105, doi:10

Jones, Alan G.

198

Ecology of Wahlberg's velvet gecko, Homopholis wahlbergii, in southern Africa  

E-print Network

Ecology of Wahlberg's velvet gecko, Homopholis wahlbergii, in southern Africa § Martin J. Whiting1 and geographic areas. Southern Africa has one of the most diverse gecko faunas per unit area in the world (Branch

Keogh, Scott

199

OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

200

EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

201

7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

202

An Eddy-Permitting Southern Ocean State Estimate  

E-print Network

An eddy-permitting general circulation model of the Southern Ocean is fit by constrained least squares to a large observational dataset during 2005–06. Data used include Argo float profiles, CTD synoptic sections, Southern ...

Mazloff, Matthew R.

203

DIETS OF SYMPATRIC RAPTORS IN SOUTHERN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the diets of four sympatric raptor species in Torres del Paine National Park, Magallanes region, Chile. This assemblage includes some of the least-known raptors in southern South America. Two strigids, Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba), had the most generalized diets. The Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) preyed primarily on birds and lizards, and

AGUSTIN IRIARTE; WILLIAM L. FRANKLIN; WARREN E. JOHNSON

1990-01-01

204

Large enigmatic crater structures offshore southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital mosaics of swath and conventional bathymetry data reveal large, distinct near-circular crater structures in the Inner Continental Borderland offshore southern California. Two have maximum crater diameters that exceed 30 km and a third has a crater diameter of approximately 12 km. All three features exhibit the morphology of large complex craters (raised outer rim, ring moat and central uplift)

Mark R. Legg; Craig Nicholson; Chris Goldfinger; Randall Milstein; Marc J. Kamerling

2004-01-01

205

Southern White English: The Changing Verb Phrase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sociolinguistic study of the verb phrase in Southern White English, a pattern of change in progress was observed. The 14 variables studied showed that certain variants were increasing, others decreasing, and yet others stable across time within the community, and that each variable's change was progressing in a wave sensitive to age, social…

Feagin, Louise Crawford

206

Georgia Southern University Department of Human Resources  

E-print Network

Georgia Southern University Department of Human Resources Check List for Recruitment Initiatives approval from the Department of Human Resources prior to conducting interviews). You are required, and any other related documents to the Department of Human Resources. Please note that these documents can

Hutcheon, James M.

207

Georgia Southern University Department of Human Resources  

E-print Network

Georgia Southern University Department of Human Resources Check List for Recruitment Initiatives will review, make any suggested edits and return the ad with a signature to the Department of Human Resources. The Department of Human Resources will post the ad to the website (applications are available for review

Hutcheon, James M.

208

Temperature Change in the Southern Sarah Gille  

E-print Network

Temperature Change in the Southern Ocean Sarah Gille Scripps Institution of Oceanography Mean difference within 220 km radius: 0.09 ± 0.02C #12;Temperature Trends (700 to 1100 m depth) Gille, Science, 2002 #12;Temperature Trends (700 to 1100 m depth) Gille, Science, 2002 #12;Trends

Gille, Sarah T.

209

Stars and seasons in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on

K. V. Snedegar

1995-01-01

210

Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

211

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

to prepare students for work in public education, community agencies, and higher education. The Department in clinical mental health counseling, school counseling, and higher education student services. PositionGEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia Assistant Professor of Counselor Education

Hutcheon, James M.

212

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

education, community agencies, and higher education. The Department of Teaching and Learning is dedicatedGEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia Instructor of Early Childhood Education--Search # 67247 College of Education, Department of Teaching and Learning The Department of Teaching and Learning

Hutcheon, James M.

213

The Occitan Movement in Southern France.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

Engelhardt, Klaus

214

Streamlined Strategies to Better Visualize Southern Blotting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.

Dean, Derek M.

2012-01-01

215

Title: Soils: Southern Ontario Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Soils: Southern Ontario Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Publisher: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Edition: N Ontario. Data Type: Vector Digital Data Format: Shapfile Datum / Map Projection: NAD83 / Lambert Conformal

216

Sunset Over Rangeland in Southern Paraguay  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sunset over rangeland in southern Paraguay. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56°49’18’’W. (Portion of text from: Guyra Paraguay 2004, Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Paraguay, Paragua...

217

Catalog of Uncommon Facilities in Southern Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog of uncommon facilities in southern universities was developed in an effort to bring about more effective use of existing facilities, to reduce the need for duplicating certain facilities, and to increase learning and research opportunities. All of the facilities listed are available, under certain conditions, for use by students and…

Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

218

Hotel Lobby Sixth Biennial Southern Illinois Region  

E-print Network

registration fee includes hotel accommodation for Friday (September 7th) evening, an opening receptionHotel Lobby Sixth Biennial Southern Illinois Region Neuroscience Retreat September 7­8, 2012 Overview The 2012 Retreat will again be held at the DoubleTree Hotel and Conference Center in Collinsville

Cheatwood, Joseph L.

219

Ecology of Canada Lynx in Southern Boreal  

E-print Network

374 the western mountains and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests in the Northeast. Throughout and Cascade Range, and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests of southeastern Canada, New England, and the Great373 Chapter 13 Ecology of Canada Lynx in Southern Boreal Forests Keith B. Aubry, USDA Forest

220

Aerosols from 2003 Southern California Fires (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A devastating series of fires occurred in Southern California during October 2003. The effects of these fires were detectable from space. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument measures aerosol particles (microscopic airborne dust and smoke). TOMS was able to detect aerosols from these fires moving West over the Pacific Ocean and East over the continental United States.

Delabeaujardiere, Jeff; Newman, Paul; Bhartia, Pawan

2005-03-14

221

Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Southern Mauritania, 2012  

PubMed Central

After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September–November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas. PMID:24447334

Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth

2014-01-01

222

Boise State University College of Southern Idaho  

E-print Network

· Boise State University · College of Southern Idaho · College of Western Idaho IDAHO DUAL CREDIT PROGRAM PARTICIPATING IDAHO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES · Northwest Nazarene University · University of Idaho · Idaho State University · Lewis-Clark State College · North Idaho College COLLEGE CREDIT FOR HIGH

Barrash, Warren

223

Emergency Food Providers in Southern Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines emergency food provider networks in rural southern Illinois. An overview focuses on recent research reports on hunger in America, official federal emergency food assistance policy and criticisms of that policy, and the role of the private sector in emergency food distribution. The review details the disagreements on policy and…

O'Hara, Mary

224

Marketing University Education: The Southern African Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the perceptions of university marketers in southern Africa. Found a varying awareness of the significance of marketing, with more mature institutions exhibiting more developed marketing orientations. Strategies ranged from marketing as public relations to marketing as sales, with universities in South Africa the only ones demonstrating a…

Maringe, Felix; Foskett, Nick

2002-01-01

225

Desiccation tolerant vascular plants of southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought tolerance limits are given for 36 new ‘resurrection plants’, sufficient to double the number of desiccation tolerant plants reported from southern Africa. Tolerance limits for angiosperm examples are usually better than those for ferns. Air-dry foliage survives for 1\\/2 to 5 years or more, unless stored in humidities above 50% RHAbbreviation: RH = relative humidity. Dehydration is sufficiently slow

D. F. Gaff

1977-01-01

226

Rain Rate Statistics in Southern New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.

Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen

1997-01-01

227

Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate variability in the high latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) is dominated by the SH annular mode, a large scale pattern of variability characterized by fluctuations in the strength of the circumpolar vortex. We present evidence that recent trends in the SH tropospheric circulation can be interpreted as a bias towards the high index polarity of this pattern, with stronger westerly

David W. J. Thompson; Susan Solomon

2002-01-01

228

Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major…

Brown, Frank

2004-01-01

229

Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not het confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. We report here the

Yuji Sano; Hiroshi Wakita; Francesco Italiano; Mario P. Nuccio

1989-01-01

230

U.S. Relations in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. policies in southern Africa are essentially founded on political interests, a significant ingredient of which is our concern for human rights. We believe the minority governments of Rhodesia, South Africa, and Namibia violate fundamental human rights. We cannot remain a spec tator in the decolonization of Rhodesia and Namibia and the system of apartheid in South Africa. This administration's

William E. Schaufele

1977-01-01

231

Rangeland Condition at Southern West Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was part of a large project that was implemented by the Ministry of Environmental Affairs to combat desertification in the West Bank area. The study was conducted at two sites (Al-Dahria and Al- Samoo') located at the southern parts of the eastern slopes of the West Bank. More than 40 plant species were identified in each of the

Ayed Mohammad

232

Enterovirus 75 Encephalitis in Children, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Recent outbreaks of enterovirus in Southeast Asia emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this infection. To address this issue, we report 5 (4.7%) children infected with enterovirus 75 among 106 children with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2005–2007 in southern India. Throat swab specimens may be useful for diagnosis of enterovirus 75 infection. PMID:21029544

Perera, David; Ooi, Mong How; Last, Anna; Kumar, Ravi; Desai, Anita; Begum, Ashia; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Shankar, M. Veera; Tio, Phaik Hooi; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Solomon, Tom

2010-01-01

233

A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern

Ahland, Colleen Anne

2012-01-01

234

An Investigation of Southern California Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has directions for a classroom activity in which students plot locations of major Southern California earthquakes on a map. A table listing major earthquakes, when they occurred, their locations and their magnitudes is included. There is also a set of questions for the students to answer once they have plotted the earthquake data on their map. This site is in PDF format.

235

Southern Rural Education Association Journal, 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal contains the following articles pertaining to education in rural areas: (1) "The State of the Association" (William Peter) reviews the mission and progress of the Southern Rural Education Association; (2) "Arts Enrichment Programs in Middle Tennessee Rural Schools" (Howard Brahmstedt and Patricia Brahmstedt) describes how these…

Hulick, Chuck, Ed.

1990-01-01

236

HI Study of Southern Galactic Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

We briefly summarize the survey of HI 21 cm emission lines to search for shocked atomic gas associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the southern sky. For G347.3-0.5, we discuss the distance to the SNR and the implications of the HI results.

Bon-Chul Koo; Ji-hyun Kang; Naomi McClure-Griffiths

2003-11-06

237

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

of the MBA (traditional and online), Master of Accounting and Ph.D. in Logistics and Supply Chain ManagementGEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia Assistant/Associate Professor of Management - Search # 67235 (2 positions) Department of Management College of Business Administration

Hutcheon, James M.

238

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

's only Ph.D. program, with a major in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. The Department of ManagementGEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia Assistant/Associate Professor of Operations Management - Search # 67117 Department of Management College of Business Administration

Hutcheon, James M.

239

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

the benefits of higher education, offering both campus-based and a number of online degree programs, a performing arts center, the Center for Art and Theatre, and a continuing education and conference centerGEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia Assistant Professor of Coaching Education

Hutcheon, James M.

240

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

the benefits of higher education, offering both campus-based and a number of online degree programs, a performing arts center, the Center for Art and Theatre, and a continuing education and conference center of the benefits of a major university with the feeling of a much smaller college. In 2012, Georgia Southern

Hutcheon, James M.

241

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

the state of Georgia and the region through the benefits of higher education, offering both campus wildlife education and raptor center, a performing arts center, the Center for Art and Theatre of Education / Curriculum, Foundations, and Reading Georgia Southern University invites nominations

Hutcheon, James M.

242

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY University System of Georgia  

E-print Network

the State of Georgia and the region through the benefits of higher education, offering both campus wildlife education and raptor center, a performing arts center, the Center for Art and Theatre Education--Search # 67161 College of Health and Human Sciences Georgia Southern University invites

Hutcheon, James M.

243

Ecology of Southern Ocean pack ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around Antartica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres — some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)

Andrew S Brierley; David N Thomas

2002-01-01

244

Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from southern African savannas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions were investigated at two field sites in the Republic of South Africa that include five important southern African savanna landscapes. Tropical savannas are a globally important biome with a high potential for biogenic emissions but no NMHC emission measurements in these regions or in any part of Africa have been reported. Landscape average hydrocarbon emissions

Alex Guenther; Luanne Otter; Patrick Zimmerman; Jim Greenberg; Robert Scholes; Mary Scholes

1996-01-01

245

ASPECTS OF COWBIRD PARASITISM IN SOUTHERN OKLAHOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPECTS of the parasitic breedin, u habits of the Brown-headed Cowbird (IMoZothrus ater) have been documented extensively by Friedmann (1929)) Laskey (1950)) Berger (1951)) Norris (1947), and others. It was the purpose of this study to investigate some of the major aspects of such parasitism in the breeding avifauna of southern Oklahoma. Particular em- phasis was placed on observation of

JOHN A. WIENS

246

Leucistic southern elephant seal at Marion Island?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraordinary light coloured, young southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina was seen at Marion Island during the 2004 austral spring. This is the second record of an extraordinary white colour morph\\u000a for the species here. It was not unequivocally established that the animal was leucistic.

Marthán N. Bester; Hendrik de Clercq; G. J. Greg Hofmeyr; P. J. Nico de Bruyn

2008-01-01

247

Southern Caribbean azooxanthellate coral communities off Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the explorations carried out by the Colombian Marine and Coastal Research Institute (INVEMAR) between 1998–2002 along the Colombian Caribbean continental shelf and upper slope, the occurrence of azooxanthellate coral banks was suspected at three sites (from the northern to southern Colombian Caribbean coast): off La Guajira Peninsula, at a water depth of 70 m; off Santa

Javier Reyes; Nadiezhda Santodomingo; Adriana Gracia; Giomar Borrero-Pérez; Gabriel Navas; Luz Mejía-Ladino; Adriana Bermúdez; Milena Benavides

248

Eddy response to Southern Ocean climate modes R. Morrow,1  

E-print Network

Eddy response to Southern Ocean climate modes R. Morrow,1 Marshall L. Ward,2 Andrew McC. Hogg,2 to Southern Ocean climate modes, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C10030, doi:10.1029/2009JC005894. 1. Introduction [2 October 2010. [1] Interannual variations in Southern Ocean eddy kinetic energy (EKE) are investigated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa  

E-print Network

, 2014 (received for review July 30, 2013) The history of southern Africa involved interactions between in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry en- tered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. prehistory | population genetics | migration

Reich, David

250

Diseases of plantation forestry trees in eastern and southern Africa  

E-print Network

Diseases of plantation forestry trees in eastern and southern Africa J. Roux a*, G. Meke b , B especially for construction timber and fuel, while in southern Africa this timber also sustains a thriving in eastern and southern Africa are established from seed, commonly imported from South Africa or Australia

251

Ecology of cobras from southern Africa , W. R. Branch2  

E-print Network

Ecology of cobras from southern Africa R. Shine1 , W. R. Branch2 , J. K. Webb1 , P. S. Harlow1 and Australia. Our dissections of eight species of cobras from southern Africa Aspidelaps, Hemachatus, Naja parallels are evident between the cobras of southern Africa and their ecological counterparts in other

Keogh, Scott

252

Page 1 of 5 Water Governance in Southern Africa  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 5 Water Governance in Southern Africa: UNESCO Chair in Water Economics Resources Management in Southern Africa: Opportunities using an Integrated Interdisciplinary Research for different uses in Southern Africa 16:20 Dr Frances Cleaver ­ Understanding Water Governance

Botea, Adi

253

European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern

Michael F Seldin; Russell Shigeta; Pablo Villoslada; Carlo Selmi; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Gabriel Silva; John W Belmont; Lars Klareskog; Peter K Gregersen

2006-01-01

254

Holocene Sedimentation History in the Southern Novaya Zemlya Trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that sediments accumulated in the Southern Novaya Zemlya Trench at both deglaciation and marine stages. Permanent sea ice sheet existed during the deglaciation, and glacier meltwater was intensely delivered to the bottom layer. Along with the dominant sediment supply from the Southern Island of Novaya Zemlya, southern continental sources also played a noticeable role at that stage.

M. A. Levitan; N. A. Belyaev; M. V. Burtman; J.-C. Duplessy; T. A. Khusid

2003-01-01

255

Roses in the Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two best known satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, are located in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years. They host many giant nebular complexes with very hot and luminous stars whose intense ultraviolet radiation causes the surrounding interstellar gas to glow. The intricate and colourful nebulae are produced by ionised gas [1] that shines as electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei recombine, emitting a cascade of photons at well defined wavelengths. Such nebulae are called "H II regions", signifying ionised hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen atoms that have lost one electron (protons). Their spectra are characterized by emission lines whose relative intensities carry useful information about the composition of the emitting gas, its temperature, as well as the mechanisms that cause the ionisation. Since the wavelengths of these spectral lines correspond to different colours, these alone are already very informative about the physical conditions of the gas. N44 [2] in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a spectacular example of such a giant H II region. Having observed it in 1999 (see ESO PR Photos 26a-d/99), a team of European astronomers [3] again used the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, pointing this 67-million pixel digital camera to the same sky region in order to provide another striking - and scientifically extremely rich - image of this complex of nebulae. With a size of roughly 1,000 light-years, the peculiar shape of N44 clearly outlines a ring that includes a bright stellar association of about 40 very luminous and bluish stars. These stars are the origin of powerful "stellar winds" that blow away the surrounding gas, piling it up and creating gigantic interstellar bubbles. Such massive stars end their lives as exploding supernovae that expel their outer layers at high speeds, typically about 10,000 km/sec. It is quite likely that some supernovae have already exploded in N44 during the past few million years, thereby "sweeping" away the surrounding gas. Smaller bubbles, filaments, bright knots, and other structures in the gas together testify to the extremely complex structures in this region, kept in continuous motion by the fast outflows from the most massive stars in the area. The new WFI image of N44 The colours reproduced in the new image of N44, shown in PR Photo 31a/03 (with smaller fields in more detail in PR Photos 31b-e/03) sample three strong spectral emission lines. The blue colour is mainly contributed by emission from singly-ionised oxygen atoms (shining at the ultraviolet wavelength 372.7 nm), while the green colour comes from doubly-ionised oxygen atoms (wavelength 500.7 nm). The red colour is due to the H-alpha line of hydrogen (wavelength 656.2 nm), emitted when protons and electrons combine to form hydrogen atoms. The red colour therefore traces the extremely complex distribution of ionised hydrogen within the nebulae while the difference between the blue and the green colour indicates regions of different temperatures: the hotter the gas, the more doubly-ionised oxygen it contains and, hence, the greener the colour is. The composite photo produced in this way approximates the real colours of the nebula. Most of the region appears with a pinkish colour (a mixture of blue and red) since, under the normal temperature conditions that characterize most of this H II region, the red light emitted in the H-alpha line and the blue light emitted in the line of singly-ionised oxygen are more intense than that emitted in the line of the doubly-ionised oxygen (green). However, some regions stand out because of their distinctly greener shade and their high brightness. Each of these regions contains at least one extremely hot star with a temperature somewhere between 30,000 and 70,000 degrees. Its intense ultraviolet radiation heats the surrounding gas to a higher temperature, whereby more oxygen atoms are doubly ionised and the emission of green light is correspondingly stronger, cf. P

2003-11-01

256

Holocene rainfall variability in southern Chile: a marine record of latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and clay mineral parameters of a high accumulation marine sediment core from the Chilean continental slope (41°S) provide a 7700 yr record of rainfall variability in southern Chile related to the position of the Southern Westerlies. We especially use the iron content, measured with a time-resolution of ca. 10 yr on average, of 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry dated marine sediments

Frank Lamy; Dierk Hebbeln; Ursula Röhl; Gerold Wefer

2001-01-01

257

Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

258

Phylogeography of the southern skua complex—rapid colonization of the southern hemisphere during a glacial period and reticulate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst we have now a good understanding how past glaciation influenced species at the northern hemisphere, our knowledge of patterns and modes of speciation is far more limited for the southern hemisphere. We provide mtDNA based data on the phylogeography of a circumpolar distributed southern hemisphere seabird group—the southern skua complex (Catharacta spp.). Diversification of southern skuas dates between 210,000yBP

Markus S. Ritz; Craig Millar; Gary D. Miller; Richard A. Phillips; Peter Ryan; Viviane Sternkopf; Dorit Liebers-Helbig; Hans-Ulrich Peter

2008-01-01

259

Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.  

PubMed

Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing. PMID:25468383

Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

2014-12-01

260

IRAS observations of southern molecular clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report is given of a project to use IRAS Band 3 (60 microns) and Band 4 (100 microns) observations to investigate the far-infrared properties of southern galactic molecular clouds. A method by which dust temperature and total gas column density can be estimated is presented. Results are tabulated for 65 prominent southern far-infrared sources. The dust temperatures are closely grouped between 30 and 50 K, while the column densities range between 2 x 10 to the 20th and 10 to the 22nd/sq cm. Maps of dust temperature and gas column density have been generated for two fields containing far-infrared sources to illustrate the effectiveness of this form of presentation.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Whiteoak, J. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Rice, W.

1987-01-01

261

A kinematic model of southern California.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We propose a kinematic model for southern California based on late Quaternary slip rates and orientations of major faults in the region. Internally consistent motions are determined assuming that these faults bound rigid blocks. The velocities of the blocks are calculated along several paths that begin in the Mojave Desert and end off the California coast. A path that crosses the western Transverse Ranges accumulates the accepted relative North America-Pacific plate velocity, whereas paths to the north and south result in a significant missing component of motion. This implies the existence of a zone of active deformation in southern California that is interpreted to include the western Transverse Ranges and northwest trending, predominately strike-slip faults close to the coast both north and south of the Transverse Ranges. Strain on this system accounts for about a third of the total North America- Pacific plate motion. -from Authors

Weldon, R.; Humphreys, E.

1986-01-01

262

Extreme Rainfall Events over Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is generally agreed that changing climate variability, and the associated change in climate extremes, may have a greater\\u000a impact on environmentally vulnerable regions than a changing mean. This research investigates rainfall variability, rainfall\\u000a extremes and their associations with atmospheric and oceanic circulations over southern Africa, a region that is considered\\u000a particularly vulnerable to extreme events because of numerous environmental,

Charles J. R. Williams; Dominic R. Kniveton; R. Layberry

263

Mesozoic extension in the southern Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical data from the southern Appalachians are generally interpreted in terms of Paleozoic collisional tectonics; the later effects of Mesozoic extension are often overlooked or downplayed. This paper reinterprets seismic reflection data from Georgia with the view that Mesozoic extension is responsible for most of the seismic reflection patterns one sees today. The interpretation suggests that geophysical data from a particular area reflect the most recent tectonic event rather than earlier and perhaps more geologically obvious events.

Heck, F.R. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA))

1989-08-01

264

USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database contains publications in support of this group\\'s mission to create the science and technology needed to sustain and enhance southern forest ecosystems and the benefits they provide. The database can be searched by author, title, keyword, date range, and publication origin; publication number; and by the most recent publications added to the database. There are also online versions of Compass, a publication catalog of research products from scientists at SRS.

265

On some birds from southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the years 1962\\/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome addition to our collections. Mexico being now ornithologically well-known, there would

G. F. Mees

1970-01-01

266

Micro-Blocks in Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This SCEC-VDO movie shows how faults are bounding surfaces of micro-blocks of the earth's crust. The Southern California Earthquake Center's Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO) is 3D visualization software that allows users to display, study and make movies of earthquakes as they occur globally. SCEC-VDO was developed by interns of SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT), under the supervision of Sue Perry and Tom Jordan.

Southern California Earthquake Center

267

ENDEMIC FLUOROSIS IN SOUTHERN RAJASTHAN, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Chronic fluoride intoxication in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was investigated in 21 villages of Banswara, Dungarpur, and Udaipur districts of southern Rajasthan, where fluoride (F) concentrations in drinking waters range from 1.5 to 4.0 ppm. Interestingly, a variable prevalence of fluorosis was observed in villages having almost the same F concentrations. At 1.5 ppm, 21.3, 25.6, and 38.9%

SL Choubisa

268

Fires in Central and Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Across central and southern Africa, numerous fires (red dots) are burning throughout Democratic Republic of Congo (west of Lake Tanganyika), and Tanzania (east). Heavy smoke hangs over the northern half of the image, at least some of which is from the the eruption of Nyamuragira volcano on July 26, 2002. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on July 28, 2002. Credits: Image by Jesse Allen, based on data from the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

269

Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center  

SciTech Connect

This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

2014-01-10

270

Seasonal Changes in Titan's Southern Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.

Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.

2012-01-01

271

Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

Kimura, K.

2013-12-01

272

Early German plans for southern observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

Wolfschmidt, G.

2002-07-01

273

Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters yield much higher short-term resolution to a period of about 1 year, a single continuous GPS site is significantly less expensive than a single strain meter and probably has better long-term stability beyond a 1-year period. Compared to less frequent field measurements, continuous GPS provides the means to better characterize the errors in GPS position measurements and thereby obtain more realistic estimates of derived parameters such as site velocities.

Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

1998-01-01

274

Petrology of greenstones in southern Wyoming Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archean greenstones occur in South Pass area and southern Wind River Canyon area in central Wyoming State, U.S.A. These two areas are near about 100 km away from each other and belong to the same sub- province named Wyoming greenstone province (WGP, composed of meta-mafic rocks and meta- sedimentary rocks) (Mueller et al., 1998). The South Pass area is one of the greenstone belts in the southern Wyoming Province and is located in the northwestern part of the WGP. The greenstones (15 km long) occur along the later Archean granitic batholith (Louis Lake batholith, 2.63 Ga) and are composed of meta-pillow lavas, meta diabasic rocks, meta-gabbroic rocks, meta basaltic tuffs, and other meta sediments. The meta diabasic rocks occur as dykes. Banded iron formation lies along the contact between these greenstones and the batholith. Several previous studies suggested that these greenstones were metamorphosed under conditions of amphibolite, and locally greenschist (Harper et al., 1985; Wilks and Harper, 1997; Frost et al., 2000). However we found evidence indicating limited distribution of the amphibolite facies zone which is restricted along the batholith. Greenstones in this area were regionally metamorphosed under low-grade and the amphibolite facies greenstones were formed by the thermal effects by the batholith. Many characteristics of the protolith are well preserved. The following textures are preserved; pillow lava structure, relic igneous augite grains in meta basaltic rocks, relic igneous brown hornblende grains in meta diabasic rocks, gabbroic textures, and some sedimentary textures. The pillow lavas (5-10 cm x 15-30 cm) are composed of pale green core and thin dark gray rim (about 0.5 cm wide) and the core domain is rich in carbonate. The southern Wind River Canyon area is located in the northern part of the WGP. Archean greenstones in this area are composed of meta pillow lavas, meta gabbroic rocks, and meta pelites. From south toward north, mafic rocks generally grade into pelitic rocks. All the greenstones were metamorphosed under a condition of amphibolite and no relic of protolith minerals are preserved. Ring structures suggesting pillow lavas (core, 20- 30 cm x 30-50 cm; rim, 1.0-3.0 cm wide) occur in fine-grained mafic greenstones. Skarn (several cm to several tens cm in scale) occurs only near these ring structures and cuts the greenstones. This skarn is cut by granite intrusions. Both the South Pass area and the southern Wind River Canyon area are possibly regarded as upper part of Archean oceanic crust. The South Pass greenstones were regionally metamorphosed under low-grade (lower greenschist facies). Amphibolite facies greenstones were formed by thermal effects by the granitic batholith. The southern Wind River Canyon greenstones were subjected to amphibolite facies regional metamorphism and no thermal effect by the granites was observed. Archean skarn occurs only in the southern Wind River Canyon area. What did make these differences between Archean greenstones in the South Pass area and the southern Wind River Canyon area? Comparisons of greenstones between these two areas are significant for the formation of the Archean greenstones and the formation of Archean skarn in these areas.

Takeuchi, Y.; Yuasa, T.; Ogasawara, Y.

2006-12-01

275

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Community Fault Model (over 150 major faults of Southern California)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a movie made using the SCEC-VDO software showing a 3D animation of the SCEC Community Fault Model (over 150 major faults of Southern California). The movie highlights the San Andreas and Puente Hills faults. The Southern California Earthquake Center's Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO) is 3D visualization software that allows users to display, study and make movies of earthquakes as they occur globally. SCEC-VDO was developed by interns of SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT), under the supervision of Sue Perry and Tom Jordan.

276

SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN OR CREATE PATTERNS USED IN THEIR MOLDS. AS A JOBBING FOUNDRY MAKING CASTINGS ON AN CONTRACTUAL-ORDER BASIS, THEIR CUSTOMERS PROVIDE, OR CONTRACT FOR PATTERN CONSTRUCTION. SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES, HOWEVER, PROVIDE REPAIR SERVICES SHOWN AS JOHNNY TIDWELL PREPARES A PLATE, FORM -FITTING TO THEIR MOLDING MACHINES, THAT A PATTERN WILL BE AFFIXED TO. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

277

The genetic characterisation of Camelus dromedarius in Southern Africa .  

E-print Network

??DNA microsatellite primers were used to determine the population structure (genetic variation, heterozygosity, inbreeding, genetic distance and phylogenetic relationships) of Camelus dromedarius in southern Africa.… (more)

Nolte, Marthinus

2008-01-01

278

Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

279

Population Genetics and Food Habits of Raptors in Southern Idaho.  

E-print Network

??CHAPTER 1: POPULATION GENETICS OF BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) IN SOUTHERN IDAHO: INTERACTIONS OF LIFE HISTORY WITH REDUCTIONS IN POPULATION SIZE. Historical and contemporary population… (more)

Perkins, Dusty Neil

2006-01-01

280

Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay  

SciTech Connect

More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

1985-01-01

281

Southern Ocean Response to NADW Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) changes in both past and future climates has raised the issue of how the Southern Ocean would respond. Recent experiments with the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model have shown that a "bipolar see-saw" between NADW production and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production in the Weddell Sea can occur in conjunction with freshening of the North Atlantic. However, this effect operates not through a slow ocean response but via a rapid atmospheric mechanism. As NADW reduces, colder temperatures in the North Atlantic, and Northern Hemisphere in general, are associated with higher surface pressure (increased atmospheric mass). Reduced mass in the Southern Hemisphere occurs in response, with lower pressure over the South Pole (an EOF #1 effect, the "high phase" of the Antarctic Oscillation).The lower pressure is associated with stronger west winds that generate an intensified Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which leads to longitudinal heat divergence in the South Atlantic (and heat convergence in the Southern Indian Ocean). Colder temperatures in the Weddell Sea region lead to sea ice growth, increased salinity and surface water density, and greater Weddell Sea Bottom Water production. Increased poleward transport of heat occurs in the South Atlantic in conjunction with increased bottom water production, but its convergence at high latitudes is not sufficient to offset the longitudinal heat divergence due to the intensified ACC. The colder temperatures at high latitudes in the South Atlantic increase the latitudinal temperature gradient, baroclinic instability, eddy energy and eddy poleward transport of momentum, helping to maintain the lower pressure over the pole in an interactive manner. The heat flux convergence in the Indian Ocean provides a warming tendency in that region, and overall global production of AABW remains unchanged. These results have implications for the interpretation of the ice core records of the last deglaciation, but may also be relevant for changes during the Holocene and perhaps even in response to increased CO2 forcing,

Rind, David; Schmidt, G.; Russell, G.; deMenocal, P.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

282

75 FR 7537 - Elkhart & Western Railroad Co.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Norfolk Southern Railway Company Elkhart & Western Railroad Co...with Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), approximately 23...and Michigan Southern Railroad Company--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption, STB...

2010-02-19

283

Mantle Seismic Structure Beneath Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examine mantle seismic structure for a broad region beneath southern Africa. The goal of this work is to provide detailed constraints regarding the relationship between surface geology and tectospheric structure beneath southern Africa and their implications for craton formation and evolution. We also characterize deeper mantle structure beneath the region to provide new constraints on structural variations between the tectosphere and mid-mantle. Waveform data for this analysis were recorded on an 82-station broadband seismic array located in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Botswana. The complete array has a footprint of ˜1 million km2, and was one component of the multidisciplinary Kaapvaal Project conducted by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, MIT, and several southern African academic institutions and industry collaborators. We present results of body wave tomography for both P- and S-waves using a nonlinear inversion technique that determines relative velocity perturbations across the study region. Our results indicate P-wave velocity variations of ˜+/-1.2%, and S-wave velocity variations of ˜+/-1.6% that are similar in lateral and depth distribution to P-wave velocity variations. The tomographic images provide clear evidence of mantle structures that mimic the dominant surface geology features across southern Africa. Specifically, a thick ( ˜250-300 km) mantle keel exists beneath the Kaapvaal craton; a slightly thinner ( ˜225-250 km) keel exists beneath the Zimbabwe craton and parts of the Limpopo mobile belt. No subtectospheric low velocity zone exists across the region. These results are consistent with previous surface wave analyses for the region [Ritsema and van Heijst, Geology, 2000], as well as more recent surface wave analyses using data from the Kaapvaal Project seismic waveform dataset [A. Li, pers. comm.]. Additionally, lower than average cratonic mantle velocities exist at smaller scales beneath the surface expression of the Bushveld Complex, a 2.05 Ga layered mafic intrusion. These reduced velocities may be due to mantle refertilization during the Bushveld intrusion, or they may be caused by a thermal perturbation of more recent origin, perhaps related to the Karoo magmatic event. Finally, we observe a well-resolved, concentrated zone of anomalously lower than average velocities at ˜1000 km and deeper beneath the Kaapvaal craton. We suggest that this region is likely related to previously observed low velocity deep mantle associated with the South African superplume.

Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.; Vandecar, J. C.; van der Lee, S.

2003-12-01

284

University of Southern California: Tsunami Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tsunami Research Center at the University of Southern California "is actively involved with all aspects of tsunami research; inundation field surveys, numerical and analytical modeling, and hazard assessment, mitigation and planning." The website supplies interactive maps and chilling images of the destruction caused by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Visitors can find out the latest tsunami news and research. Students and educators can view animations of seismic activity, landslides, and additional tsunami-related activity in various locations across the globe. Researchers can find abstracts and lists of publications of papers discussing field surveys, physical models, numerical methods, tsunami hazards, and more.

285

No Hexagonal Wave around Saturn's Southern Pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images (1997-2002) do not show a hexagonal wave in the south pole that is a counterpart of the northern one (D. A. Godfrey 1988, Icarus76, 335-356). However, a polar jet similar to that in which the north polar hexagonal wave is embedded has been discovered in the southern hemisphere. The HST images also reveal the existence of a small polar "cap" about 2000 km in diameter that marks the rotational pole of the planet, as well as unexpected changes in the nearby cloud structure on a timescale of years.

Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Acarreta, J. R.; French, R. G.

2002-11-01

286

Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.  

PubMed

Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

1992-12-01

287

Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area.

White, R.M.

1999-05-18

288

The rhetorical structure of the southern lady: an analysis of the myth of southern womanhood  

E-print Network

relation to the women it represents are all examined. Analysis looks at the use of upper-class white southern women in films, with special focus on Gone with the Wind, its characterization of Scarlett O'Hara, and the characterization of women in subsequent...

Givens, Vonda Ka

1994-01-01

289

Southern Africa winter temperature shifts and their link to the Southern Annular Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of the winter (June-August) observed surface air minimum temperature (SAMT) of southern Africa (Africa south of the equator) were examined from 1960 to 2011. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to extract the dominant mode of SAMT variability. Statistically significant shifts were detected in both the index derived from the spatially averaged regional SAMT and its EOF1 time coefficients. These discontinuities displayed a sharp rise followed by an abrupt drop during the periods around 1988 and 2007 respectively. The years corresponded to change points in the Southern Annular Mode index where the 1988 significant alteration to a relatively more positive index polarity was followed by a sudden weakening during the latter shift. The development of the warm phase coincided with the decoupling of SAM from SAMT. This occurred when the strengthening of the western ridge of the Mascarene High appeared to be coupled to the creation of anomalously low pressure systems over Angola and the region pole-ward of South Africa. In this epoch, the meridional wind over southern Africa reversed to become predominantly northerly and hence was symptomatic of warm temperature advection from the lower latitudes. However the post 2007 era, though still of indeterminate length, is characterized by a partial return to the pre-1988 circulation conditions. This implies that the impacts of SAM's epochal alterations have implications not only for the current climate, but also for the interpretation of climate change over southern Africa.

Manatsa, Desmond; Matarira, Caxton; Mushore, Terrence D.; Mudavanhu, Chipo

2015-01-01

290

DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad ( Bufo terrestris ) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

291

Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

292

Geomorphical and Geochronological Constrains of the Last Glacial Period in Southern Patagonia, Southern South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the outer limits of the former Patagonian ice sheet (PIS, ~38-55S) having been extensively mapped, it remains unknown if the Patagonian glaciers fluctuated synchronously or asynchronously during the last glacial period. Previous work has revealed asynchronous spatiotemporal ice dynamics along the eastern and western ice-margins at the end of the last glaciation but it is not well understood if the northern and southern parts of the PIS reached concurrent maximum glaciation during the last glacial cycle. The Patagonian Andes is the only landmass involving the southern westerly wind belt latitudinal range, which is thought to have played a key role in past glacial and climate changes. Therefore, reconstructing southern Andes glacier history constitutes a key element for understanding the cause of glaciations in Patagonia and the role of the westerlies in climate change. Here, we discuss paleoglaciological and paleoclimatological implications of new 10Be and 14C data obtained from moraines and strategically selected mires in two contiguous glacially molded basins of south Patagonia (48-55S): Torres del Paine (51S) and Última Esperanza (52S). In this region, we focused our 10Be cosmogenic-dating efforts in the previously undated outer moraines deposited (supposedly) during the last glacial cycle. In order to crosscheck cosmogenic data we collected boulders embedded in moraines and cobbles from the main glaciofluvial plains grading from the outermost moraines. Geomorphic and cosmogenic dating affords evidence for glacial maximum conditions occurring between 40-50 ka (ka = thousand of years before present) in southern Patagonia, which is different from other chronologies within southern South America. We obtained 14C basal ages from sites located within moraine depressions and on former paleolake shorelines and thus these may provide key data on deglaciation and debated regional paleolake history.

García, J.; Hall, B. L.; Kaplan, M. R.; Vega, R. M.; Binnie, S. A.; Hein, A.; Gómez, G. N.; Ferrada, J. J.

2013-12-01

293

Seroprevalence of Chikungunya in Southern Odisha  

PubMed Central

Background: The emergence of chikungunya (CHIK) infection was observed in Odisha, India in 2006. Thereafter many cases with symptoms suggestive of CHIK were reported from different districts of Southern-Odisha. This study was aimed to know the seroprevalence, clinical presentations and seasonal trends of CHIK infection in this region. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital of this region. Serum samples received in the Department of Microbiology from various districts of Southern-Odisha from April 2011 to March 2012 were included in the study. The samples were tested for CHIK and dengue Immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and malaria parasite by immunochromatographic test (ICT) method. Results: Out of the 678 serum samples tested, 174 were positive for CHIK, 15 for dengue and two samples were positive for both CHIK and dengue IgM antibodies. The most affected age group was 16-45 years. Females were more affected than males. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of CHIK among the suspected cases was 25.7%. Co-infection with CHIK and dengue was found to be 1.15%. The infection had spread to new areas during this outbreak. PMID:24479040

Mohanty, Indrani; Dash, Muktikesh; Sahu, Susmita; Narasimham, M.V.; Panda, Pritilata; Padhi, Sanghamitra

2013-01-01

294

Wood energy in eastern and southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

This paper has outlined a learning curve in dealing with the wood energy situation in eastern and southern Africa. The curve began in total ignorance when wood energy was not considered part of the energy problem. Dominance of wood fuel, throughout the region, became immediately apparent on calculation of national energy balances. The discovery of this other energy crisis'' was, again, to prove that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing, since the emphasis on project intervention was at a national, not local, level. In evaluating the success and failure of energy intervention strategies it was increasingly apparent that the wood energy problem was but another symptom of the problems of subsistence production in Africa. Wood energy, in effect, was simply the rubbish that was left from a wider utilization of biomass, and trying to grow woodfuel per se, especially as a full-price monetary good, was impossible so long as the major relationships and the subsistence system remained outside the market. The failures, however, have allowed the identification of a range of methods for woody biomass intervention in eastern and southern Africa, from which wood energy could be an offtake.

O'Keefe, P. (School of Geography and Environmental Studies, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Great Britian)); Soussan, J. (Dept. of Geography, Reading Univ., Reading, Berkshire (Great Britian)); Munslow, B. (Centre for African Studies, Liverpool Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Spence, D. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom))

1989-01-01

295

Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sahara west of the Nile in southern Egypt was hyperarid and unoccupied during most of the Late Pleistocene epoch. About 11,000 years ago the summer monsoons of central Africa moved into Egypt, and temporary lakes or playas were formed. The Nabta Playa depression, which is one of the largest in southern Egypt, is a kidney-shaped basin of roughly 10km by 7km in area. We report the discovery of megalithic alignments and stone circles next to locations of Middle and Late Neolithic communities at Nabta, which suggest the early development of a complex society. The southward shift of the monsoons in the Late Neolithic age rendered the area once again hyperarid and uninhabitable some 4,800 radiocarbon years before the present (years BP). This well-determined date establishes that the ceremonial complex of Nabta, which has alignments to cardinal and solstitial directions, was a very early megalithic expression of ideology and astronomy. Five megalithic alignments within the playa deposits radiate outwards from megalithic structures, which may have been funerary structures. The organization of the megaliths suggests a symbolic geometry that integrated death, water, and the Sun. An exodus from the Nubian Desert at ~4,800 years BP may have stimulated social differentiation and cultural complexity in predynastic Upper Egypt.

Malville, J. Mckim; Wendorf, Fred; Mazar, Ali A.; Schild, Romauld

1998-04-01

296

Southern Ocean carbon trends: Sensitivity to methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Ocean is highly under-sampled with respect to variables needed to assess trends in air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes. Multiple investigators have made use of sparse measurements of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but there remains a lack of consensus as to recent trends in the carbon sink here. We analyze impacts of specific methodological choices on pCO2 trends, with a focus on regional binning, time series length, and spatial biases. We find the most robust approach to include binning based on geographic areas, the removal of spatial gradients in climatological pCO2, the use of annual-average data, and the consideration of trends across multiple combinations of start and end years. Applying this approach, we find that Southern Ocean carbon uptake slowed from about 1990 to 2006 and subsequently strengthened from 2007 to 2010. More data are needed to reduce uncertainties and increase our ability to diagnose change in the carbon sink.

Fay, Amanda R.; McKinley, Galen A.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.

2014-10-01

297

The normal choroidal thickness in southern Thailand  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy southern Thailand volunteers and age, axial length, and refractive error. Subjects and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional case series. A total of 210 eyes of 105 healthy volunteers (86 women, age 23–83 years) in southern Thailand were examined with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography. Subjects with systemic diseases that may affect the choroidal vascular blood vessels, such as diabetes, impaired renal function, and hypertension, were excluded. Refractive error and axial length were measured by autorefractometry and an IOLMaster, respectively. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border in the subfoveal area. Results The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 279.4±75.49 ?m, and the mean age was 46.4±16.45 years. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age (r2=0.33, P<0.0001) and axial length (r2=0.02, P<0.02). Multivariable regression analysis showed subfoveal choroidal thickness was positively and negatively correlated with a spherical equivalent refractive error and axial length, respectively, when adjusted for age. Conclusion Age is the most important factor in choroidal thickness rather than axial length and refractive error. Subfoval choroidal thickness was decreased 2.67 ?m every year and 14.59 ?m with 1 mm increase in axial length. PMID:25419112

Jirarattanasopa, Pichai; Panon, Nisa; Hiranyachattada, Siriphun; Bhurayanontachai, Patama

2014-01-01

298

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods,...

2010-07-01

299

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods,...

2011-07-01

300

76 FR 34859 - Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA AGENCY: Coast...during the Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race. The Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race will consist of a series of high-speed...

2011-06-15

301

40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality...Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air...

2010-07-01

302

40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality...Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air...

2011-07-01

303

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

304

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2011-07-01

305

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2014-07-01

306

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

307

40 CFR 81.156 - Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.156 Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

308

78 FR 14400 - Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Southern USA Resources, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading...information concerning the securities of Southern USA Resources, Inc. (``Southern USA'') because of questions regarding the...

2013-03-05

309

Rules of habitat use by elephants Loxodonta africana in southern Africa: insights for regional management  

E-print Network

Rules of habitat use by elephants Loxodonta africana in southern Africa: insights for regional in southern Africa are concerned that continually increasing elephant populations will degrade ecosystems africana, Maputo Elephant Reserve, optimal foraging, southern Africa, Tembe Elephant Park. This paper

Pretoria, University of

310

7 CFR 457.147 - Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.147...REGULATIONS § 457.147 Central and Southern potato crop insurance provisions. The Central and Southern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the...

2010-01-01

311

75 FR 40802 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP10-2-001] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application...Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2010-07-14

312

78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP13-531-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2013-08-30

313

77 FR 41975 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-07-17

314

76 FR 78636 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Supplemental Notice...existing Alden Gas Storage Field by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County, Kansas. This EA will be...

2011-12-19

315

77 FR 28867 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-285-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application...Take notice that on April 27, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-05-16

316

77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-475-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2012-06-28

317

76 FR 67160 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-001] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On October 19, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2011-10-31

318

75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP10-48-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2010-02-23

319

78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP13-76-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box 20010,...

2013-02-28

320

77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-73-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2012-03-12

321

78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP13-179-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

2013-04-30

322

76 FR 31599 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application On May 13, 2011, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2011-06-01

323

78 FR 66915 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. Take notice that on October 21, 2013 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301,...

2013-11-07

324

78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP14-15-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request...Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky...

2013-11-15

325

1. Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest facade, view to southeast (90mm lens). The original building is at right, addition at left. The cold joint between the original and addition is approximately at the line of color differentiation near center of the roof. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

326

10. Photocopy of photograph (original print located at Southern California ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of photograph (original print located at Southern California Edison Company Corporate Offices, Rosemead, California). Photographer unknown, about 1908. CLUB HOUSE LOCATED AT THE SOUTHERN END OF THE MAIN PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL STREET. THE CLUB HOUSE WAS REMOVED IN THE 1970s. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

327

Wealth Redistribution, Race and Southern Public Schools, 1880-1910.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measured the wealth redistribution effected by southern schools and the taxes that supported them using data from a large sample of southern states for 1880 through 1910. When taxes and expenditures are considered, the separate but equal school system appears to have provided a net transfer to black students. Public schooling in the South was a…

Ng, Kenneth

2001-01-01

328

Professor Sheldon M. Ross1 University of Southern California  

E-print Network

Professor Sheldon M. Ross1 University of Southern California Friday November 4, 9:15 AM In Sixth Engineering at the University of Southern California. He received his Ph.D. in statistics at Stanford University in 1968 and he served as a Professor at the University of California, Berkeley from 1976 until

Lin, Xiaodong

329

Southern Taurids in the IAU MDC Database. Taurid complex.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of indices was used to study the autumn (night) part of the Taurid complex. The procedure based only on mathematical statistics was applied to select the Southern Taurid meteor records from the IAU Meteor Data Center Database (IAU MDC). 143 orbits of the Southern Taurids were selected. 114 orbits (80% of 143) are grouped into 13 associations.

Ka?uchová, Z.; Svore?, J.

2014-10-01

330

Dust from southern Africa: rate of emission and biogeochemical properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune rea...

331

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH SOUTHERN CONSERVATION SYSTEMS CONFERENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The steering committee of the Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture emphasized the need for a systems approach for optimum production and profit with the name change to the Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference held at Florence, SC. During the Florence confe...

332

Southern Hemisphere westerly wind control over the ocean's thermohaline circulation  

E-print Network

Southern Hemisphere westerly wind control over the ocean's thermohaline circulation Willem P. Sijp of the southern hemisphere subpolar westerly winds (SWWs) on the thermohaline circulation (THC) of the World Ocean in the Atlantic (Warren 1983) and the thermohaline circulation (THC) itself (Manabe and Stouffer 1988). Exchange

Sijp, Willem

333

Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

Templer, Donald I.

2012-01-01

334

GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that gender role attitudes are more traditional in the southern United States than elsewhere in the nation. We examine this notion, using eight gender-related questions from the NORC General Social Survey data. Responses to these questions suggest that Southerners tend to hold more conservative opinions on questions about women in politics and employed women. On questions

TOM W. RICE; DIANE L. COATES

1995-01-01

335

Approaching Southern theory: explorations of gender in South African education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of Gender and Education to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in process that is important

Debbie Epstein; Robert Morrell

2012-01-01

336

LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES. SINGLE PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILWAY BRIDGE (HAER No. IL-156) AT RIGHT OF FRAME. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

337

South Florida Ecosystem Restoration: Scientific Information Needs in the Southern  

E-print Network

South Florida Ecosystem Restoration: Scientific Information Needs in the Southern Coastal Areas information needed for ecosystem restoration in the Southern Coastal Areas of South Florida. In 1996 that time, ecosystem restoration has advanced from planning to implementation; progress in research has

338

The threedimensional distribution of clouds around Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones  

E-print Network

The threedimensional distribution of clouds around Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones, for the first time, the three dimensional structure of clouds associated with the Southern Hemisphere cyclones are studied using active observations from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites. First, a compos- ite cyclone

Jakob, Christian

339

Title: Digital Terrain Model of Southern Ontario Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Digital Terrain Model of Southern Ontario Data Creator / Copyright Owner: First Base/A Coverage Date(s): 2002 Updates: N/A Abstract: The Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of southern Ontario / UTM (17) Resolution: N/A Coordinates: N/A Index Map: N/A Keywords (Place): Ontario Keywords (Subject

340

English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

341

Landscape genetics of mountain lions ( Puma concolor) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that mountain lions have suffered a bottleneck and lost their genetic diversity in an area in southern Brazil. In this study, we correlated landscape connectivity and patterns of gene flow to identify landscape permeability and possible sources of migrants for the population of mountain lions in southern Brazil, using circuit theory. Population structure was analyzed with Bayesian

Camila Schlieper Castilho; Luiz G. Marins-Sá; Rodrigo C. Benedet; Thales O. Freitas

2011-01-01

342

2014-2015 ACADEMIC YEAR SOUTHERN IDAHO SECTION SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION  

E-print Network

2014-2015 ACADEMIC YEAR SOUTHERN IDAHO SECTION SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION Please complete all sections of this application and mail/email to: Braydan P. DuRee, PE GeoEngineers, Inc. 3501 West Elder, Suite 300 Boise, Idaho Signature Date #12;SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION The Southern Idaho Section of the American Society of Civil

Barrash, Warren

343

Better Vaccination Strategies for Better People University of Southern  

E-print Network

Better Vaccination Strategies for Better People Po-An Chen University of Southern California of Southern California clkempe@usc.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we study the vaccination of graphs against of the graph. Vaccinated nodes cannot be infected, nor pass on the infection, whereas all other nodes do

Kempe, David

344

CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHERN ARIZONA AND SOUTHERN NEVADA  

E-print Network

#12;CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHERN ARIZONA AND SOUTHERN NEVADA THE 16TH FIELD. A., and Foster, J. R., (editors), 2011, Cambrian Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Northern Arizona and Southern Nevada: Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 67, 321 p. #12;Cambrian Stratigraphy and Paleontology

Mateo, Jill M.

345

CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHERN ARIZONA AND SOUTHERN NEVADA  

E-print Network

#12;CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF NORTHERN ARIZONA AND SOUTHERN NEVADA THE 16TH FIELD. A., and Foster, J. R., (editors), 2011, Cambrian Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Northern Arizona Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Northern Arizona and Southern Nevada REGIONAL SETTING AND GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY

Mateo, Jill M.

346

GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

347

Increasing the Resilience to Natural Hazards in Southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southern California is at great risk for extreme catastrophic losses owing to numerous natural hazards, such as earthquakes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and coastal changes, that occur in this area (fig. 1). Expected losses from these hazards are estimated to exceed $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California.

Jones, Lucile; Cox, Dale A.

2007-01-01

348

ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ALTHOUGH SOUTHERN DUCTILE DOES NOT OWN PATTERNS, THEY ARE REQUIRED TO STORE THEM AND KEEP THEM AVAILABLE FOR THEIR CUSTOMERS ORDERS. THE BARRET/DOUGLAS LIFTING TRUCK IS USED TO REACH AND TRANSPORT PATTERNS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

349

Ordovician chitinozoans and acritarchs from southern and southeastern Turkey  

E-print Network

Ordovician chitinozoans and acritarchs from southern and southeastern Turkey Chitinozoaires et'Orléans, 45067 Orléans cedex, France d TPAO, Exploration Group, M. Kemal Mah. 06520 Ankara, Turkey e EOST CNRS in southern and southeastern Turkey led to a re-evaluation of the age assignments of formations identified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Westward Expansion, Preappointment Politics, and the Making of the Southern  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I trace the historical lineage and dynamic processes leading to the creation of the Southern slavehold- ing Supreme Court of antebellum America. Supported by case studies of several Jeffersonian and Jacksonian era legislative battles over judicial reform, I argue that the complex, multistage creation of the Southern slaveholding Court—the Court that decided cases such as Prigg v.

Slaveholding Supreme Court

2010-01-01

351

Modelling effects of fishing in the Southern Benguela ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shannon, L. J., Cury, P. M., and Jarre, A. 2000. Modelling effects of fishing in the Southern Benguela ecosystem. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 720-722. A mass-balanced model of the Southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem was con- structed using Ecopath. The effects of altered fishing on three abundant small pelagic fish, and on hake, are explored using Ecosim for

Lynne J. Shannon; Philippe M. Cury; Astrid Jarre

2000-01-01

352

The Southern California Black Walnut I. The tree  

E-print Network

The Southern California Black Walnut I. The tree A. Scientific name: Juglans californica B California black walnut B. Arizona black walnut C. Eastern black walnut D. "English" walnut (from Central California black walnut is not threatened B. Large walnut trees are becoming scarce C. Southern California

Clark, Curtis

353

Geochemistry of the quartz dioritegranite association, Roded area, southern Israel  

E-print Network

Geochemistry of the quartz diorite­­granite association, Roded area, southern Israel Ron Bogoch a Accepted 20 May 2002 Abstract The Roded quartz diorite of southern Israel formed by fractional contained within the quartz diorite, formed in irregularly spaced ``pockets'' near the end of quartz diorite

Dov, Avigad

354

The Poverty of Trust in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper bridges two lines of research. One line shows that social relations in the southern United States are more "collectivist" than social relations in non-southern regions. The second line of work argues that collectivist social relations generate lower levels of general trust than individualist social relations. At the intersection of…

Simpson, Brent

2006-01-01

355

Parental investment in southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern elephant seal is among the most sexually dimorphic and polygynous of all mammals: males may be more than 10 times the weight of reproducing females and only the largest 2–3% of males are likely to breed. Current optimization theories of sexual selection predict that evolution would favor greater parental investment in individual males than in females. Because southern

T. S. McCann; M. A. Fedak; J. Harwood

1989-01-01

356

Southern Hemisphere westerly wind control over the ocean's thermohaline circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twentieth century climate change has forced a poleward contraction of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) subpolar westerly winds. The implications of this wind shift for the ocean's thermohaline circulation (THC) is analyzed in models and, where available, observations. Substantial heat content anomalies can be linked to changes in the latitude and strength of the SH westerly winds. For example, the Southern

M. H. England; W. P. Sijp

2008-01-01

357

Physical oceanography and tracer chemistry of the southern ocean  

SciTech Connect

This report considers technical and scientific developments and research questions in studies of the Southern Ocean since its predecessor, /open quotes/Southern Ocean Dynamics--A Strategy for Scientific Exploration 1973-1983/close quotes/ was published. The summary lists key research questions in Southern Ocean oceanography. Chapter 1 describes how Southern Ocean research has evolved to provide the basis for timely research toward more directed objectives. Chapter 2 recommends four research programs, encompassing many of the specific recommendations that follow. Appendix A provides the scientific background and Reference/Bibliography list for this report for: on air-sea-ice interaction; the Antarctic Circumpolar Current; water mass conversion; chemical tracer oceanography; and numerical modeling of the Southern Ocean. Appendix B describes the satellite-based observation systems expected to be active during the next decade. Appendix C is a list of relevant reports published during 1981-1987. 146 refs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

358

Transient tracer applications in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient tracers can be used to constrain the Inverse-Gaussian transit time distribution (IG-TTD) and thus provide information about ocean ventilation. Individual transient tracers have different time and application ranges which are defined by their atmospheric history (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). The classification ranges from tracers for highly ventilated water masses, e.g. sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the decay of Tritium (?3H) and to some extent also dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins, e.g. CFC-12, Argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). The IG-TTD can be empirically constrained by using transient tracer couples with sufficiently different input functions. Each tracer couple has specific characteristics which influence the application limit of the IG-TTD. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and their validity areas within the IG-TTD by using the concept of tracer age differences (TAD). New measured CFC-12 and SF6 data from a section along 10° E in the Southern Ocean in 2012 are presented. These are combined with a similar data set of 1998 along 6° E in the Southern Ocean as well as with 39Ar data from the early 1980s in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea for investigating the application limit of the IG-TTD and to analyze changes in ventilation in the Southern Ocean. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained south to 46° S which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The constrained IG-TTD north of the SAF shows a slight increase in mean ages between 1998 and 2012 in the upper 1200 m between 42-46° S. The absence of SF6 inhibits ventilation analyses below this depth. The time lag analysis between the 1998 and 2012 data shows an increase in ventilation down to 1000 m and a steady ventilation between 2000 m-bottom south of the SAF between 51-55° S.

Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.

2014-10-01

359

Population fragmentation in the southern rock agama, Agama atra: more evidence for vicariance in Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA sequence data derived from two genes were used to infer phylogeographical relationships between 13 Agama atra populations. Three distinct geographical assemblages were found among the lizard populations. The first occurs in southern Namibia, the second is restricted to the western dry arid regions of South Africa, whereas the third is distributed throughout the more mesic southern and eastern parts of the subcontinent. Geographically structured differences among populations within Agama clades are probably the result of dispersal and historic isolations among populations. At the broader scale, there were marked congruences between the Agama genetic discontinuities and those described previously in other rock-dwelling vertebrates such as Pronolagus rupestris and Pachydactylus rugosus. This suggests vicariance, probably as a response to natural climatic changes during the past three million years. PMID:11918781

Matthee, Conrad A; Flemming, Alexander F

2002-03-01

360

The effect of Antarctic sea ice on the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere during the southern summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the influence of Antarctic sea ice distribution on the large scale circulation of the Southern Hemisphere using a fully coupled GCM where the sea ice submodel is replaced by a climatology of observed extremes in sea ice concentration. Three 150-year simulations were completed for maximum, minimum and average sea ice concentrations and the results for the austral summer (January-March) were compared using the surface temperatures forced by the sea ice distributions as a filter for creating the composite differences. The results indicate that in the austral summer the polar cell expands (contracts) under minimum (maximum) sea ice conditions with corresponding shifts in the midlatitude Ferrell cell. We suggest that this response occurs because sea ice lies in the margin between the polar and midlatitude cells. The polarity of the Southern Hemisphere Annular (SAM) mode is also influenced such that when sea ice is at a minimum (maximum) the polarity of the SAM tends to be negative (positive).

Raphael, M. N.; Hobbs, W.; Wainer, I.

2011-04-01

361

Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

2010-12-01

362

Southern New Hampshire University Academic Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several years, Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) has continued to increase their digital offerings, and this collection is one of their more notable additions. This particular collection is focused on publications and documents created by some of their academic communities on campus, including the Faculty Center for Innovation and Excellence in Teaching and their Community Economic Development program. In the "Community Economic Development" area, visitors can view thesis projects and dissertations from past years, and these works touch on everything from brownfield redevelopment and minority-owned businesses. While some of the documents in this collection are not publicly available, most of them are open-access. Visitors are also encouraged to submit their own comments on the site as well.

363

Galatheidae) from the Magellan region, southern Chile  

E-print Network

SUMMARY: Feeding behaviour and food uptake rates of the anomuran crab Munida subrugosa from the southern Magellan region (Chile) were studied under laboratory conditions. Crabs exhibited a marked preference for meat versus macroalgae, with uptake rates being 14 times higher. Different algal species were ranked according to structure and detrital cover. Observations suggest that scavenging and cannibalism, restricted to injured or moulting individuals, are regularly applied in the natural habitat, whereas active hunting is only performed on suitable prey. The main food resource is suggested to be of microscopic origin, given the time spent on typical food uptake movements for detritus and suspended food. The findings of this study, backed up by results of simultaneously carried out stomach analysis, proved M. subrugosa to be an opportunistic feeder that can make use of different forms of food uptake.

Patricia Karas; Matthias Gorny; Rubén Alarcón-muñoz

364

Hydrocarbon prospects of southern Indus basin, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Indus basin extends approximately between lat. 23/sup 0/ and 28/sup 0/31'N, and from long. 66/sup 0/E to the eastern boundary of Pakistan. Of the 55 exploratory wells drilled (1955-1984), 27 were based on results of multifold seismic surveys. Five commercial oil discoveries and one gas discovery in Cretaceous sands, three gas discoveries in Paleocene limestone or sandstone, and one gas-condensate discovery from lower Eocene limestone prove that hydrocarbons are present. The main hydrocarbon fairways are Mesozoic tilted fault blocks. Tertiary reefal banks, and drape and compressional anticlines. Older reservoirs are accessible toward the east and northeast, and younger mature source rocks are to the west, including offshore, of the Badin block oil field area. The Indus offshore basin reflects sedimentation associated with Mesozoic rifting of the Pakistan-Indian margin, superimposed by a terrigenous clastic depositional system comprised of deltas, shelves, and deep-sea fans of the Indus River.

Quadri, V.U.N.; Shuaib, S.M.

1986-06-01

365

Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

2000-01-01

366

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dengue Epidemics, Southern Vietnam  

PubMed Central

An improved understanding of heterogeneities in dengue virus transmission might provide insights into biological and ecologic drivers and facilitate predictions of the magnitude, timing, and location of future dengue epidemics. To investigate dengue dynamics in urban Ho Chi Minh City and neighboring rural provinces in Vietnam, we analyzed a 10-year monthly time series of dengue surveillance data from southern Vietnam. The per capita incidence of dengue was lower in Ho Chi Minh City than in most rural provinces; annual epidemics occurred 1–3 months later in Ho Chi Minh City than elsewhere. The timing and the magnitude of annual epidemics were significantly more correlated in nearby districts than in remote districts, suggesting that local biological and ecologic drivers operate at a scale of 50–100 km. Dengue incidence during the dry season accounted for 63% of variability in epidemic magnitude. These findings can aid the targeting of vector-control interventions and the planning for dengue vaccine implementation. PMID:23735713

Cuong, Hoang Quoc; Vu, Nguyen Thanh; Cazelles, Bernard; Boni, Maciej F.; Thai, Khoa T.D.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Quang, Luong Chan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Huu, Tran Ngoc

2013-01-01

367

Spatiotemporal dynamics of dengue epidemics, southern Vietnam.  

PubMed

An improved understanding of heterogeneities in dengue virus transmission might provide insights into biological and ecologic drivers and facilitate predictions of the magnitude, timing, and location of future dengue epidemics. To investigate dengue dynamics in urban Ho Chi Minh City and neighboring rural provinces in Vietnam, we analyzed a 10-year monthly time series of dengue surveillance data from southern Vietnam. The per capita incidence of dengue was lower in Ho Chi Minh City than in most rural provinces; annual epidemics occurred 1-3 months later in Ho Chi Minh City than elsewhere. The timing and the magnitude of annual epidemics were significantly more correlated in nearby districts than in remote districts, suggesting that local biological and ecologic drivers operate at a scale of 50-100 km. Dengue incidence during the dry season accounted for 63% of variability in epidemic magnitude. These findings can aid the targeting of vector-control interventions and the planning for dengue vaccine implementation. PMID:23735713

Cuong, Hoang Quoc; Vu, Nguyen Thanh; Cazelles, Bernard; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Khoa T D; Rabaa, Maia A; Quang, Luong Chan; Simmons, Cameron P; Huu, Tran Ngoc; Anders, Katherine L

2013-06-01

368

SOUTH POL: Revealing the Polarized Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimeter for an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in about two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy ? 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar Explosions and Solar System, among others. The polarimeter is currently being built and its optics and electronics assembled. We will describe the current status of the project. This project is supported by FAPESP. AMM is also supported by CNPq.

Magalhães, A. M.

2014-10-01

369

Southern Poverty Law Center: Hate and Extremism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern Poverty Law Center has been monitoring the activities of hate groups and extremist activities since 1981. Today, their Intelligence Project continues to track over 800 hate groups across the United States. First-time visitors to the site can look over brief synopses of current activities within various hate groups. From there, visitors will want to visit the "Intelligence Report" section. Here, they will find the current issue of this magazine, which frequently includes guest editorials, interviews with former hate group members and leaders, and information about how the Center is combating these different groups and their activities. Additionally, the site also includes an interactive map of active hate groups in the United States.

370

Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.  

PubMed Central

Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Images Figure 1. PMID:7667980

Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

1995-01-01

371

Ebasco leads team for Southern California project  

SciTech Connect

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California has awarded a $37.6 million contract to Ebasco Services Inc. to construct the Domenigoni Valley Reservoir Project in Riverside County, Calif. Ebasco leads a project team that includes Black Veatch, Wahler Associates, and Woodward-Clyde Consultants. The project will feature two earthfill dams, a 40-MW pump-generating plant, and a 22-MW conventional hydro plant. The dams will be 180 and 280 feet tall and 2.2 miles and 1.8 miles long. Combined, the dams will contain more than 84 million cubic yards of earthfill and large rock. They will impound a 4,410-acre reservoir holding 800,000 acre-feet. Work began in November and will be completed by 2000.

Not Available

1993-02-01

372

Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.

Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

2014-03-01

373

Late Holocene paleoecology of the Southern Plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of pollen and land snails from rocksheter sites in the Osage Hills of northeastern Oklahoma indicate that the period 2000-1000 yr B.P. was moister than today. During that time, colonies of the prairie vole Microtus ochrogaster were present in the Texas Panhandle. About 1000 yr B.P. the climate changed to dry conditions that have persisted to the present. Disjunct colonies of small mammals in Texas became extinct at the beginning of the dry episode, thereby establishing the composition of the modern fauna. The climatic model for the origin of the Panhandle Aspect (A.D. 1200-1500) is questioned on the grounds that the Southern Plains experienced a long period of dry climate commencing A.D. 950.

Hall, Stephen A.

1982-05-01

374

Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

Enkin, R.J.; Mahoney, J.B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R.A.

2002-01-01

375

The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent and campaign, operational mode. Results from various radar meteor investigations as well as radar/optical observation campaign will be presented in this paper.

Janches, Diego

2014-11-01

376

Online Geophysical Databases for the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through the Data Link web browser interface (http://www.marine-geo.org/link/) which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The free, platform-independent data visualization tool GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/) supports dynamic exploration of a wide range of data sets on a Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) synthesis, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seafloor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. The GMRT global digital elevation model is served freely as a Web Map Service layer and is available for viewing with OGC-compliant clients including Google Earth (http://www.marine-geo.org/Data4GoogleEarth.html). To promote interoperability and data sharing, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. We are also taking on the US Antarctic Data Coordination Center function, assisting NSF-funded investigators in documenting and archiving their data in accordance with the IPY Data Policy.

Goodwillie, A.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R.; Carbotte, S.; Ryan, W.; Melkonian, A.; Ferrini, V.; Weissel, R.; Bonczkowski, J.

2007-12-01

377

Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana  

SciTech Connect

Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

Yemane, K. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

378

Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".  

PubMed

Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted. PMID:24884999

Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

2014-11-01

379

Informal optics education and outreach programs in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, Southern California has seen informal optics education and outreach programs grow substantially, mainly due to efforts from members of the Optical Society of Southern California (OSSC) and more recently the Optical Society of America, UC Irvine, Student Chapter. Also, the Optics Institute of Southern California (OISC) has served as a focal point for many of these programs, as an independent organization working closely with society members and other partners. This paper provides an update of these programs, including a new OSSC website that provides a new platform for significantly expanding the member participation efforts.

Silberman, Donn M.; Cartland, Robert; Monacelli, Brian; Whitmore, Desire

2010-08-01

380

Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2003-01-01

381

Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling positions along one transect. This transect consisted of 18 stations on the zero meridian proper from 51°57' S until 69°24'S, and 4 stations somewhat to the northeast towards Cape Town from 42°20'S, 09°E to 50°17'S, 01°27'E. The actual concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean were lower than previously reported. The concentration of Al in the upper 25 m was relatively elevated with an average concentration of 0.71 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.43 nM), most likely due to atmospheric input by a suggested combination of direct atmospheric (wet and dry) input and indirect atmospheric input via melting sea ice. Below the surface waters there was a distinct Al minimum with an average concentration of 0.33 nM ( n=22; S.D.=0.13 nM) at an average depth of 120 m. In the deep southernmost Weddell Basin the concentration of Al increased with depth to ˜0.8 nM at 4000 m, and a higher concentration of ˜1.5 nM in the ˜4500-5200 m deep Weddell Sea Bottom Water. Over the Bouvet triple junction region, where three deep ocean ridges meet, the concentration of Al increased to ˜1.4 nM at about 2000 m depth over the ridge crest. In the deep basin north of the Bouvet region the concentration of Al increased to higher deep values of 4-6 nM due to influence of North Atlantic Deep Water. In general the intermediate and deep distribution of Al results from the mixing of water masses with different origins, the formation of deep water and additional input from sedimentary sources at sea floor elevations. No significant correlation between Al and silicate (Si) was observed. This is in contrast to some other ocean regions. In the Southern Ocean the supply of Al is extremely low and any signal from Al uptake and dissolution with biogenic silica is undetectable against the high dissolved Si and low dissolved Al concentrations. Here the Al-Si relation in the deep ocean is uncoupled. This is due to the scavenging and subsequent loss of the water column of Al, whereas the concentration of Si increases in the deep ocean due to its input from deep dissolution of biogenic diatom frustules settling from the surface layer.

Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Laan, P.

2011-12-01

382

College of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012  

E-print Network

College of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012 College of Southern Idaho Transfer Worksheet College-level transferable academic courses taken at College of Southern Idaho (CSI of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012 2. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS The majority of majors

Caughman, John

383

A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1  

E-print Network

A GLIMPSE OF THE SOUTHERN JELLYFISH NEBULA AND ITS MASSIVE YSO E. P. Mercer,1 D. P. Clemens,1 J. M a unique and pro- vocative nebular object we call the ``Southern Jellyfish Nebula.'' The Southern Jellyfish model. Based on its far-IR luminosity of 3:3 Ã? 0:9 ; 104 L, the Southern Jellyfish's MYSO has a zero

Clemens, Dan

384

Suppression of Eddy Diffusivity across Jets in the Southern Ocean  

E-print Network

Geostrophic eddies control the meridional mixing of heat, carbon, and other climatically important tracers in the Southern Ocean. The rate of eddy mixing is typically quantified through an eddy diffusivity. There is an ...

Ferrari, Raffaele

385

View northeast; structural detail of southern canopy New Canaan ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View northeast; structural detail of southern canopy - New Canaan Railroad Station, Approximately 200 feet southwest of intersection of Park & Elm Streets & approximately 150 feet north of Pine Street, New Canaan, Fairfield County, CT

386

21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Southern approach span plan and elevation views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955 on Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

387

26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Southern approach span showing detail plan, elevation, and existing views for pier and abutment structural changes required after flood of December 1955. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

388

Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa  

E-print Network

The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter–gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two ...

Pickrell, Joseph K.

389

Pellets in Southern Europe - New resources, new products, new markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resounding success of wood pellets markets in European Countries such as Austria, Denmark and Sweden, has yet to be replicated elsewhere. In Southern European countries, the lack of available waste wood means that pellets from agricultural residues (\\

Maurice Pigaht; Rainer Janssen; Fulvio Passalacqua; Nicolas Karapanagiotis; CRES Tord Fjällström

390

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB ROOF FROM THE SOUTHERN EDGE, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

391

SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN END OF ASSEMBLY PLANT, LOOKING N ON SECOND FLOOR, WHICH DID NOT EXIST ON DURING SHIP BUILDING DAYS. NOTE VEHICLE ELEVATOR. ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT IS SHIP BUILDING BALCONY. - B Building, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

392

CLIMATE-FIRE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS  

E-print Network

This study is meant to explain the fire regime of the southern Appalachian Mountain Range of the southeastern United States by analyzing spatial statistics and climate-fire relationships. The spatial statistics were created by obtaining...

Baker, Ralph C.

2011-01-11

393

The biogeochemistry and residual mean circulation of the southern ocean  

E-print Network

I develop conceptual models of the biogeochemistry and physical circulation of the Southern Ocean in order to study the air-sea fluxes of trace gases and biological productivity and their potential changes over ...

Ito, Takamitsu, 1976-

2005-01-01

394

Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon  

E-print Network

Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon Douglas C ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps

Camara, Gilberto

395

El Niño Southern Oscillation Variability from 1871-2008  

E-print Network

The variation of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events from the mid-nineteenth century until the beginning of the twenty-first century is explored using an ocean reanalysis. Decadal variability and trends in the strength, frequency, duration...

Ray, Sulagna

2012-02-14

396

5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View from Minnesota bank, near southern side of the southeast portal looking north - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

397

Builtin glassdoored cabinets in the dining room (southern unit) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Built-in glass-doored cabinets in the dining room (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

398

Builtin cabinets with stairs to second floor beyond (southern unit) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Built-in cabinets with stairs to second floor beyond (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

399

Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes  

E-print Network

Larger black flour beetles have invaded homes and other buildings in some Southern High Plains counties in Texas. This publication explains how to identify the beetles, find and eliminate the source, and exclude the insects from the house....

Porter, Patrick; McIntyre, Nancy E.

2007-04-09

400

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

401

Production and analysis of a Southern Ocean state estimate  

E-print Network

A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence toward the state estimate solution is carried ...

Mazloff, Matthew R

2006-01-01

402

7. WINDOW DETAIL SOUTHERN WALL OF BUILDING. (SOUTH SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. WINDOW DETAIL SOUTHERN WALL OF BUILDING. (SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 4 IS NOW WITHIN BUILDING 40 GARAGE.) - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Public Works Shop, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

403

Geomagnetic Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetic Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini, Sneha Yadav,S.K.Vijay and A.K.Gwal Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India ABSTRACT: This paper represents the geomagnetic field response at Southern Hemisphere (MAITRI) and Northern Hemisphere (TROMSO). The Indian Antarctic Station MAITRI is located at geomagnetic Long. (66.030, 53.210) where as TROMSO is at geomagnetic Long. (66.030, 53.210). We studied the behaviour of geomagnetic field with respect to geomagnetic storms at both the stations TROMSO and MAITRI. It was observed that at Southern Hemisphere there is more variation in winter as compared to the summer season, where as in Northern Hemisphere the variations are more in summer as compared to winter. As in the Northern hemisphere the magnetospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in summer and in Southern hemisphere the magentospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in winter.

Chandel, Babita

404

5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

405

21. View of southern span showing operating strut extending through ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. View of southern span showing operating strut extending through the center channel in the concrete counterweight (see also photograph 20). - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

406

PRODUCTION IN COASTAL SALT MARSHES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Production ecology in southern California coastal salt marshes was investigated by harvesting macrophytes and monitoring environmental factors (substrate salinity, pH, nitrogen, redox, water content, temperature, and tide level) at four locations--Sweetwater River Estuary, Los Pe...

407

75 FR 60066 - Southern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...a.m. to approximately 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Tucson Interagency Fire Center, 2646 E. Commerce Center Place, Tucson, AZ 85706. Send written comments to Jennifer Ruyle, RAC Coordinator, Southern Arizona...

2010-09-29

408

Parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas  

PubMed Central

From 2008–2010, southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. Eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, Trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence=80%), Ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), Nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), Raillietina sp. from nine (9%), Taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a Scaphiostomum sp. and a Zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. Besnotia neotomofelis was detected in three (3%) woodrats and microfilaria were detected in seven (7%). PCR testing of blood samples from 104 woodrats detected a novel Babesia sp. in one (1%) and Hepatozoon sp. in 17 (16%) woodrats. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Babesia was 94% similar to B. conradae. Histologic examination of tissues detected intestinal coccidia in 7 of 104 (7%), Sarcocystis neotomafelis in 26 (25%), Hepatozoon sp. in 21 (20%), and Dunnifilaria meningica in four (4%) woodrats. Three woodrats (5%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. Ectoparasites recovered included fleas (Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae), ticks (Ixodes woodi and Ornithodoros turicata), mites (Trombicula sp. and Ornithonyssus (Bdellonyssus) bacoti) and bot flies (Cuterebra sp.). The only difference in prevalence related to gender was for N. neotoma (males > females, p=0.029). Prevalence of T. neotomae and all intestinal parasites combined was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (p=0.0068 and p=0.0004), respectively. Lesions or clinical signs were associated with Cuterebra, T. gondii, and B. neotomofelis. Collectively, these data indicate that woodrats from southern Texas harbor several parasites of veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:22108764

Charles, Roxanne A.; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E.; Dubey, J.P.; Shock, Barbara C.; Yabsley, Michael J.

2011-01-01

409

Sediment Dynamics and Southern Steelhead Habitat (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Matilija Creek Watershed, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matilija Creek, one of two principal forks of the Ventura River, drains 142 km2 in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. Thanks to rapid tectonic uplift and weak clastic rocks, sediment yields exceed 1200 m3/km2 annually. Matilija Dam was built in 1947 with an initial capacity of 8 million m3 and is now nearly full of sediment. The dam is structurally unsafe, blocks anadromous fish migration, and is being considered for removal. The Ventura River has one of the southernmost runs of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with an average of approximately 2,500 annually migrating up Matilija Creek before the dam was built. The high sediment yields and highly variable flow regime have raised questions about the interactions among high flows, sediment transfer from lower order tributaries to the third order channels used by the fish, and fish life history. Previous studies in Southern California have documented sediment yields (especially following debris flows and fires, and mostly in the San Gabriel Mountains), but the interaction of geomorphic processes and aquatic habitat in this highly episodic environment is not well understood. We used a combination of mapping and survey techniques, sediment traps, grain size analysis, lithologic analysis and scour rods to study intra-annual geomorphic processes and sediment dynamics affecting Southern Steelhead habitat in the Matilija Creek area in 16 study pools over the 2002 and 2003 flow seasons (dry and "normal", respectively) and found little sediment was deposited or scoured from pools. However, other processes not previously recognized significantly affected the steelhead habitat in the study pools including tufa cementation (carbonate deposition) and alder root growth in spawning gravels, as well as seasonal desiccation of some reaches. Removal of Matilija Dam will reopen suitable habitat to steelhead trout, but managers should recognize that habitat quality is likely to vary considerably from year-to-year, especially in response to episodic events.

Minear, J. T.; Kondolf, G. M.

2003-12-01

410

Menu of Gravettian people from southern Moravia.  

PubMed

There are a number of Upper Palaeolithic sites of Gravettian people in the southern Moravia. These people had eaten animals and their bones were used for creating artefacts. Their food was based on several species that lived in the vicinity of their settlement unit. The sites Dolní V?stonice II (Under Western Slope--UWS), IIa and III and Pavlov (1952, 1953, 1957 and 1958) have been studied to obtain a picture of the menu of Gravettian people in this region. Hunted animals fall into two groups, the first one includes those species hunted consistently and the second group those hunted occasionally. The following animals rank among the first group: mammoth, reindeer, horse, wolf, hare and fox. The second group includes bear, lion, wolverine, wildcat, lynx, deer, woolly rhinoceros and birds. The carnivores were hunted for their hides, fur and bones. The long bones of hunted animals were crushed for marrow. The proximal parts of bones were used for creating tools since distal parts of bones have been found predominantly. Teams of several hunters hunted herd animals. The rest of the species was hunted accidentally, some of them probably by hunting nets. PMID:15828198

Nývltová-Fisáková, M

2000-01-01

411

Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01 : View of the SIMBA instrument First observations with SIMBA SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") was built and installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at La Silla (Chile) within an international collaboration between the University of Bochum and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Germany, the Swedish National Facility for Radio Astronomy and ESO . The SIMBA ("Lion" in Swahili) instrument detects radiation at a wavelength of 1.2 mm . It has 37 "horns" and acts like a camera with 37 picture elements (pixels). By changing the pointing direction of the telescope, relatively large sky fields can be imaged. As the first and only imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere , SIMBA now looks up towards rich and virgin hunting grounds in the sky. Observations at millimetre wavelengths are particularly useful for studies of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar clouds that are impenetrable to optical light. Other objects for which SIMBA is especially suited include planet-forming disks of cold dust around nearby stars and extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , still in the stage of formation. During the first observations, SIMBA was used to study the gas and dust content of star-forming regions in our own Milky Way Galaxy, as well as in the Magellanic Clouds and more distant galaxies. It was also used to record emission from planetary nebulae , clouds of matter ejected by dying stars. Moreover, attempts were made to detect distant galaxies and quasars radiating at mm-wavelengths and located in two well-studied sky fields, the "Hubble Deep Field South" and the "Chandra Deep Field" [1]. Observations with SEST and SIMBA also serve to identify objects that can be observed at higher resolution and at shorter wavelengths with future southern submm telescopes and interferometers such as APEX (see MPG Press Release 07/01 of 6 July 2001) and ALMA. SIMBA images regions of high-mass star formation ESO PR Photo 28a/01 ESO PR Photo 28

2001-08-01

412

Antarctic ice sheet fertilises the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Ocean (SO) marine primary productivity (PP) is strongly influenced by the availability of iron in surface waters, which is thought to exert a significant control upon atmospheric CO2 concentrations on glacial/interglacial timescales. The zone bordering the Antarctic Ice Sheet exhibits high PP and seasonal plankton blooms in response to light and variations in iron availability. The sources of iron stimulating elevated SO PP are in debate. Established contributors include dust, coastal sediments/upwelling, icebergs and sea ice. Subglacial meltwater exported at the ice margin is a more recent suggestion, arising from intense iron cycling beneath the ice sheet. Icebergs and subglacial meltwater may supply a large amount of bioavailable iron to the SO, estimated in this study at 0.07-0.2 Tg yr-1. Here we apply the MIT global ocean model (Follows et al., 2007) to determine the potential impact of this level of iron export from the ice sheet upon SO PP. The export of iron from the ice sheet raises modelled SO PP by up to 40%, and provides one plausible explanation for seasonally very high in situ measurements of PP in the near-coastal zone. The impact on SO PP is greatest in coastal regions, which are also areas of high measured marine PP. These results suggest that the export of Antarctic runoff and icebergs may have an important impact on SO PP and should be included in future biogeochemical modelling.

Death, R.; Wadham, J. L.; Monteiro, F.; Le Brocq, A. M.; Tranter, M.; Ridgwell, A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Raiswell, R.

2014-05-01

413

Southern California Fires, Oct 26, 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several massive wildfires were raging across southern California over the weekend of October 25, 2003. Whipped by the hot, dry Santa Ana winds that blow toward the coast from interior deserts, at least one fire grew 10,000 acres in just 6 hours. Moving northwest to southeast along the coast, the first cluster of red dots is a combination of the Piru, Verdale, and the Simi Incident Fires; The next cluster-to the east of Los Angeles-is the Grand Prix (west) and Old (east) Fires; To their south is the Roblar 2 Fire; Next is the Paradise Fire; Then the massive Cedar Fire, whose thick smoke is completely overshadowing the coastal city of San Diego; Finally, at the California-Mexico border is the Otay Fire. At least 13 people have lost their lives because of these fires, which officials are reporting were caused by carelessness and arson. Thousands have been evacuated across the region and hundreds of homes have been lost.

Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Salomonson, Vincent

2003-10-27

414

The Seismotectonic Model of Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented in this report is a summary of the major structures and seismotectonic zones in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland), which includes available information on fault plane solutions and stress data. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the prepared zones. The work was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. The seismic data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various agencies. Seventeen seismic zones/sources were identified and demarcated using all the available information. Two of the identiied sources are faults with reliable evidence of their activity. Though more faults have been identified in unpublished material as being active, more work is being carried out to obtain information that can be used to characterise them before they are included in the seismotectonic model. Explanations for the selected boundaries of the zones are also given in the report. It should be noted that this information is the first draft of the seismic source zones of the region. Futher interpreation of the data is envisaged which might result in more than one version of the zones.

Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbulu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

2013-04-01

415

Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the greatest successes of the Ocean Drilling Program were the concerted drilling efforts and exciting results recovered from the Southern Ocean (SO) surrounding Antarctica. Scientific drilling in the SO and on the Antarctic margin has recovered material from hundreds of sites for scientific analysis. The dynamic nature of ice sheet development and ice/margin interactions through time has been observed, as has the role that the SO plays in the development and persistence of Antarctic glaciation. The SO has been documented as a sensitive mixing pool of global water masses that is at times a locus of high biological sedimentation. Also, the SO has been found to contain high-resolution records of climate forcing and response, and as such may it hold clues to future climate. These results from scientific drilling over the past several decades have significantly increased the understanding of Cenozoic to decadal processes affecting oceanography and climatology of the SO and Antarctica. Now, it is important to mine these results from scientific drilling over the past several decades and thus also to provide a scientific framework for future expeditions in this region to solve unanswered questions. What, for example, was the role of iron as a biolimiting nutrient through time? How does sea ice cover relate to ventilation of the SO and thus to gas fluxes of carbon dioxide on glacial timescales? Was Antarctic glaciation related to the opening of ocean gateways, to decreases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, or to some other factor?

Filippelli, Gabriel; Warnke, Detlef; Flores, Jose Abel; Marchitto, Thomas

2005-05-01

416

Helminths of the ocelot from southern Texas.  

PubMed

In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231

Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L

2003-07-01

417

Lower Mississippian trilobites from southern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-three species of trilobites are recognized in the lower Mississippian Caballero and Lake Valley Formations of southern New Mexico. Species exhibit a segregation into shelf and off-shelf faunas, and can be subdivided into three distinct stratigraphic faunas. Species found in the Caballero Formation are similar to those found in the Chouteau Formation of Missouri. A second fauna, comprising species found in the Alamogordo, Nunn, and Tierra Blanca Members of the Lake Valley Formation, is correlated with the Fern Glen and Burlington Formations of Missouri. The third fauna found in the Arcente and Dona Aha Members of the Lake Valley Formation is correlated with the Warsaw and Salem Formations of the United States midcontinent region. Named species from the Kinderhookian Caballero Formation include: Dixiphopyge armata (Vogdes, 1891), Comptonaspis swallowi (Shumard, 1855), Brachymetopus indianwellsensis new species, Ameropiltonia perplexa new species, Griffithidella caballeroensis new species, and Kollarcephalus granatai new genus and new species. Named species from the Lake Valley Formation include: Pudoproetus fernglenensis (Weller, 1909), Breviphillipsia semiteretis Hessler, 1963, Griffithidella doris (Hall 1860), Phillibole planucauda (Brezinski, 1998), Piltonia carlakertisae new species, Australosutura llanoensis Brezinski, 1998, Thigriffides triangulatus new species, Thigriffides? alamogordoensis new species, Namuropyge newmexicoensis new species, Nunnaspis stitti new genus and new species, Hesslerides arcentensis new genus and new species, as well as an unnamed species of Proetides Hessler, 1962, Namuropyge Brezinski, 1988, and Thigriffides Hessler, 1965.

Brezinski, D.K.

2000-01-01

418

Appraisal Seattle, Renton and Southern Railway Company  

E-print Network

Libraries’ Center for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu A Civil Engineering thesis of the University of Kansas APPRAISAL BEUTLE REHTON M D SOUTHERN RAILWAY COMPANY i l O C ^ I I N D E X L e t t e r o f T r a n s m i t t a l , H i s t o... r y , Purpose and Scope o f A p p r a i s a l , Cost o f R e p r o d u c t i o n , D i s c u s s i o n o Cost o f R e p r o d u c t i o n , E s t i m a t e o f , D e p r e c i a t e d V a l u e , D i s c u s s i o n o f , D e p r e c i a t e d V...

Fletcher, John H.

1913-01-01

419

ICESat Observations of Southern Alaska Glaciers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In late February and March, 2003, the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) measured ice and land elevations along profiles across southern Alaska. During this initial data acquisition stage ICESat observations were made on 8-day repeat tracks to enable calibration and validation of the ICESat data products. Each profile consists of a series of single point values derived from centroid elevations of an $\\approx$70 m diameter laser footprint. The points are s4pakated by $\\approx$172 m along track. Data siets of 8-day observations (an ascending and descending ground track) crossed the Bering and Malaspina Glacier. Following its 1993--1995 surge; the Bering Glacier has undergone major terminus retreat as well as ike thinning in the abtation zone. During the later part of the 20th century, parts of the Malaspina thinned by about 1 m/yr. The multiple observation profiles across the Bering and Malaspina piedmont lobes obtained in February/March are being geolocated on Landsat images and the elevation profiles will be used for a number o scientific objectives. Based on our simulations of ICESat performance over the varied ice surface of the Jakobshavn Glacier of GReenland, 2003, we expect to measure annual, and possibly seasonal, ice elevation changes on the large Alaskan glaciers. Using elevation data obtained from a second laser, we plan to estimate ice elevation changes on the Bering Glacier between March and October 2003.

Sauber, Jeanne; Molnia, Bruce F.; Mitchell, Darius

2003-01-01

420

Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

1986-01-01

421

Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, Southern Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

South Australia occupies the center of the Australian continent. The deserts of the interior give way to more fertile land along the coast of the Southern Ocean. This true-color MODIS image from September 17, 2001, shows the marked contrast between the country's arid interior--where seasonal salt lakes stand out in white against the deserts' vast, red expanse--and the coastal regions, including Spencer Gulf, to the lower left of the image's center. The characteristic blue-green swirls of a phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the Gulf and southeastward along the coast. To Spencer Gulf's east, the brownish-gray pixels on the eastern coast of the Gulf of St. Vincent indicate the location of the city of Adelaide, the region's capital. The large dark areas that stand out amid the green vegetation do not indicate areas where vegetation had been damaged or burned. In fact, the opposite is actually true. In many cases, those areas are land protected by national and state parks and preserves, where the natural vegetation of the semi-arid landscape is allowed to exist undisturbed. For example, due east of Adelaide are Billiat Conservation Park and the semi-rectangular Murray Sunset National Park, which is across the border from South Australia in Victoria. South of those parks are the parks of the Big Desert (top) and Little Desert (bottom).

2002-01-01

422

Nitrogen transformations in the Southern California Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation and assimilation of ammonium and nitrate were measured in profiles from the surface to 1000 m at four stations in the Southern California Bight. Assimilative processes dominated the turnover of these nitrogen compounds in the nutrient depleted photic zone; however, at the bottom of the photic zone, nitrification and assimilation were equally important in the turnover of both compounds. Although ammonium oxidation was strongly inhibited by light in the surface samples, nitrification probably contributed to rapid nitrogen cycling within the photic zone. Assimilation of ammonium and nitrite, integrated over the photic zone, was about 3-fold greater than calculated regenerated production, estimated from 14CO 2 uptake measurements. Integrated nitrification rates below the photic zone usually exceeded new primary production estimates. Most ammonium oxidation occured in a discrete maximum around the depth of 0.2% surface light intensity; rates within the maximum exceeded rates in shallower and deeper samples by up to 80-fold. Nitrite oxidation rates exceeded ammonium oxidation rates, and did not display the prominent subsurface maximum found in the former. Abundance of both ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria varied less with depth than did oxidation rates. Autotrophic activity of the nitrifiers, measured by 14C-autoradiography combined with immunofluorescent counts, was minimal in the surface samples, and increased with depth, but was not directly correlated with nitrification rates, measured by 15N techniques.

Ward, B. B.

1987-06-01

423

The Stony Brook/SMARTS Atlas of (mostly) Southern Novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stony Brook/SMARTS Atlas of (mostly) Southern Novae is an on-line compendium of data on 69 novae, mostly in the southern hemisphere, observed since 2003 April. The data consist of low resolution spectra (400< R <4000) and optical and near-IR photometry obtained with the SMARTS telescopes. I shall describe the atlas and the data, and then present some examples of the data analyzes being undertaken with this synoptic data set.

Walter, F. M.

2014-12-01

424

The Southern Cone: A critical element in North American geology  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific and Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico continental margins converge towards southern Mexico, delimiting the Southern Cone of North American. The margins are controlled by late Precambrian to early Paleozoic rift systems. The Neoproterozoic rifts along the Pacific margin truncate the 1.3--1.0 Ga Grenville-Llano front and still older structural boundaries within the craton, such as the Snowbird line. The Atlantic margin originated by separation from another continent within the Grenville orogen near the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Gulf of Mexico margin was initiated with rifting at that time, but appears to truncate the Ordovician Taconian orogen in Georgia. The continental margins of the Southern Cone may prove critical in understanding the origin of North America as a discrete continent. A possible continuation of the Grenville-Llano front has now been identified along the Pacific margin of the East Antarctic craton; the opposite side of the Grenville orogen may be present in South America and East Antarctic; a southern continuation of the Taconic Appalachians may have been identified in southern South American and Antarctica (L. Dalla Salda et al., Geology, 1992 a;b: I. Dalziel, Geology, 1991, and GSA Today, 1992; P. Hoffman, Science, 1991; E. Moores, Geology, 1991). Thus the geology of the Southern Cone of North America provides opportunities for critical testing of these globally important hypotheses, notably through geochronometry, isotope geochemistry, stratigraphy, and paleobiogeography. Conversely, East Antarctica, southern Africa, and the proto-Andean margin of South America may offer exciting opportunities to further understanding of pre-Pangea geology across southern North America.

Dalziel, I.W.D. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics)

1993-02-01

425

Ozone over southern Africa during SAFARI92\\/TRACE A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of total O3 in southern Africa and over the adjacent Atlantic during the IGAC\\/STARE\\/SAFARI-92\\/TRACE A (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry\\/South Tropical Atlantic Regional Experiment\\/Southern African Fire Atmospheric Research Initiative\\/Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator-Atlantic) field experiments are described. Most of the analysis is based on data from the Nimbus 7\\/total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) gridded O3 data archive (version

A. M. Thompson; R. D. Diab; G. E. Bodeker; M. Zunckel; G. J. R. Coetzee; C. B. Archer; D. P. McNamara; K. E. Pickering; J. Combrink; J. Fishman; D. Nganga

1996-01-01

426

Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methyl halides, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and methyl iodide (CH3I), were measured in regional air samples and smoke from savanna fires in southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative-92 (SAFARI-92) experiment (August-October 1992). All three species were significantly enhanced in the smoke plumes relative to the regional background. Good correlations were found between the methyl

M. O. Andreae; E. Atlas; G. W. Harris; G. Helas; A. de Kock; R. Koppmann; W. Maenhaut; S. Manø; W. H. Pollock; J. Rudolph; D. Scharffe; G. Schebeske; M. Welling

1996-01-01

427

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome\\u000a species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever,\\u000a weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or

Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Herakles A. Garcia Perez; Márcio M. Costa; Raqueli T. França; Diego De Gasperi; Régis A. Zanette; João A. Amado; Sonia T. A. Lopes; Marta M. G. Teixeira; Silvia G. Monteiro

2011-01-01

428

Resolving the `opal paradox' in the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Southern Ocean, high accumulation rates of opal-which forms by precipitation from silica-bearing solutions-have been found in the sediment in spite of low production rates of biogenic silica and carbon in the overlying surface waters. This so-called `opal paradox' is generally attributed to a higher efficiency of opal preservation in the Southern Ocean than elsewhere. Here we report biogenic

Philippe Pondaven; Olivier Ragueneau; Paul Tréguer; Anne Hauvespre; Laurent Dezileau; Jean Louis Reyss

2000-01-01

429

Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

1981-01-01

430

North Atlantic Deep Water cools the southern hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A standard explanation for coupling climate variations in the northern and southern hemispheres involves fluctuations in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production. However, I suggest that the "NADW-Antarctic" connection may work opposite to that conjectured by many investigators; that is, when NADW production rates are high, southern hemisphere temperatures decrease rather than increase. The revised interpretation is consistent with observations and ocean modeling studies which demonstrate that, although upwelling of relatively warm NADW water around Antarctica promotes sea ice meltback, a second and more important negative feedback is also operating. In order to conserve volume, southward export of NADW across the equator is accompanied by import of an equivalent volume of considerably warmer water from shallower oceanic layers in the South Atlantic. The southern hemisphere loses heat as a result of this exchange. The hemispherically averaged net heat loss may be as high as 4 W/m², an amount comparable to a CO2 doubling. It is suggested that this more comprehensive view of the role of NADW may explain both decadal-scale variations in South Atlantic sea surface temperatures in this century and two significant problems in Pleistocene climatology: why southern hemisphere temperatures decreased before CO2 levels decreased at the end of the last interglacial and why southern hemisphere temperature changes precede changes in northern hemisphere ice volume. It is shown that when NADW production was reinitiated during the last interglacial (120,000 B.P.), high-latitude southern hemisphere temperatures decreased. The estimated magnitude of altered southern hemisphere heat export is comparable to the ice-age CO2 signal and may be able to account for the observed cooling even when CO2 levels were high. When cast into a frequency domain framework, this interpretation may also help explain why southern hemisphere temperatures lead global ice volume changes.

Crowley, Thomas J.

1992-08-01

431

Synchronicity of historical dry spells in the Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shift in climate occurred during the mid-1970s that affected the hydroclimate of the Southern Hemisphere resulting in drying trends across continental regions including Australia, New Zealand and southern and western Africa. There is also anecdotal evidence of other periods of climatic synchronicity in the Southern Hemisphere (e.g., the 1920s and 1940s), indicating that the mid-1970s event may not be anomalous. This paper identifies periods within the last ~120 years using statistical analysis where dry spells (in terms of annual to multi-decadal rainfall deficiencies) have coincided across the continental Southern Hemisphere in order to characterize temporal consistency. It is shown that synchronicity of dry spells is (a) most likely common over the last 120 years and (b) associated with changes in the large-scale climate modes of the Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans. Importantly, the findings presented in this paper have marked implications for drought management and drought forecasting studies in the Southern Hemisphere.

Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Kiem, A. S.

2014-06-01

432

Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE.

Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

1997-06-01

433

Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere  

PubMed Central

Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically supported. PMID:24098389

Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

2013-01-01

434

Oscillation of Saturn's southern auroral oval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-planetary-period oscillations in the Cassini plasma and magnetic field data have been observed throughout Saturn's magnetosphere despite the fact that Saturn's internal magnetic field is apparently highly axisymmetric. In addition, the period of the Saturn kilometric radiation has been shown to vary over time. In this paper we present results from the recent Hubble Space Telescope observations of Saturn's southern ultraviolet auroral emission. We show that the center of the auroral oval oscillates with period 10.76 h ± 0.15 h for both January 2007 and February 2008, i.e., close to the periods determined for oscillations in other magnetospheric phenomena. The motion of the oval center is described for 2007 by an ellipse with semimajor axis ˜1.4° ± 0.3° oriented toward ˜09-21 h LT, eccentricity ˜0.93, and center offset from the spin axis by ˜1.8° toward ˜04 h LT. For 2008 the oscillation is consistent with an ellipse with semimajor axis ˜2.2° ± 0.3° oriented toward ˜09-21 h LT, eccentricity ˜0.99, and a center offset from the spin axis by ˜2.2° toward ˜03 h LT. The motion of the auroral oval is thus highly elliptical in both cases, and the major oscillation axis is oriented toward prenoon/premidnight. This result places an independent constraint on the magnitude of the planet's dipole tilt and may also indicate the presence of an external current system that imposes an asymmetry in the ionospheric field modulated close to the planetary period.

Nichols, J. D.; Clarke, J. T.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Duval, J.; Farmer, A. J.; GéRard, J.-C.; Grodent, D.; Wannawichian, S.

2008-11-01

435

Chernobyl fallout in southern and central Finland.  

PubMed

To study the levels and distributions of radionuclides released in the Chernobyl accident, we sampled surface peat from 62 sites in Southern and Central Finland and measured 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 132Te, 140Ba, 103Ru, 90Sr, 141Ce, and 95Zr. The distribution of fallout activities was highly uneven, depending on movement of the contaminated air mass and rainfall distribution during the critical days. The highest values observed were 420 kBq m-2 of 131I and 70 kBq m-2 of 137Cs. The nuclide ratios showed wide and partly unexpected variations. The high-boiling-point, or nonvolatile, elements Ce and Zr were spread mostly on a 200-km-wide zone extending across Finland from southwest to northeast. The more volatile elements, I, Ce, and Te, showed quite a different, more widespread, fallout distribution, while an intermediate behavior was observed for Ba, Ru, and possibly Sr. These results can be explained by assuming that pulverized nuclear fuel material released in the reactor explosion on 26 April reached Finland via Poland and the Baltic Sea and traversed the country along the above-mentioned narrow zone, while volatile material, evaporated in the reactor fire from 26 April to 5 May, arrived in several waves and was consequently more widely and evenly spread. From their elemental melting and boiling points, Ru and Mo would appear to belong to the nonvolatile group and Sr to the volatile. Yet, their actual behaviors were opposite; Ru in particular was found in the nonvolatile as well as the volatile fallout, possibly because Ru activities were present in the fuel partly in the metallic state and partly as volatile oxides. PMID:1995514

Jantunen, M; Reponen, A; Kauranen, P; Vartiainen, M

1991-03-01

436

Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.  

PubMed

Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically supported. PMID:24098389

Chambers, Lynda E; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J; Crawford, Robert J M; Durant, Joel M; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Woehler, Eric J; Wolfaardt, Anton C

2013-01-01

437

Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our results suggest that conditions in southern North America are less hospitable than in the north to populations of I. scapularis. Southern conditions might have resulted in ecological or behavioral adaptations that contribute to the relative rarity of I. scapularis borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, in the southern compared to the northern United States.

Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rulison, Eric L.; Azevedo, Alexandra; Pang, Genevieve C.; Kuczaj, Isis M.; Tsao, Jean I.; LeBrun, Roger A.

2014-01-01

438

Fire history, effects and management in southern Nevada: Chapter 5 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire can be both an ecosystem stressor (Chapter 2) and a critical ecosystem process, depending on when, where, and under what conditions it occurs on the southern Nevada landscape. Fire can also pose hazards to human life and property, particularly in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). The challenge faced by land managers is to prevent fires from occurring where they are likely to threaten ecosystem integrity or human developments, while allowing fires to occur where they will provide ecosystem benefits. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy summarizes this desired outcome with Sub-goal 1.1, which is to manage wildland fire to sustain Southern Nevada’s ecosystems (table 1.3; Chapter 1). This chapter provides information that will help land managers develop strategies to achieve this goal. It begins with a background section on fire history, spatial and temporal patterns of fire, and fire effects for the major ecosystem types of southern Nevada, (table 1.1; Chapter 1). Potential fire management actions are then discussed, the overall implications of the information to fire management are summarized, and the major knowledge gaps are described.

Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne; McKinley, Randy

2013-01-01

439

Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies in the climate and sea ice cover of the Southern Ocean and their relationships with the Southern Oscillation (SO) are investigated using a 17-year of data set from 1982 through 1998. We correlate the polar climate anomalies with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and examine the composites of these anomalies under the positive (SOI > 0), neutral (0 > SOI > -1), and negative (SOI < -1) phases of SOL The climate data set consists of sea-level pressure, wind, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature fields, while the sea ice data set describes its extent, concentration, motion, and surface temperature. The analysis depicts, for the first time, the spatial variability in the relationship of the above variables and the SOL The strongest correlation between the SOI and the polar climate anomalies are found in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen and Ross sea sectors. The composite fields reveal anomalies that are organized in distinct large-scale spatial patterns with opposing polarities at the two extremes of SOI, and suggest oscillating climate anomalies that are closely linked to the SO. Within these sectors, positive (negative) phases of the SOI are generally associated with lower (higher) sea-level pressure, cooler (warmer) surface air temperature, and cooler (warmer) sea surface temperature in these sectors. Associations between these climate anomalies and the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover are clearly evident. Recent anomalies in the sea ice cover that are apparently associated with the SOI include: the record decrease in the sea ice extent in the Bellingshausen Sea from mid- 1988 through early 199 1; the relationship between Ross Sea SST and ENSO signal, and reduced sea ice concentration in the Ross Sea; and, the shortening of the ice season in the eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, far western Weddell Sea, and the lengthening of the ice season in the western Ross Sea, Bellingshausen Sea and central Weddell Sea gyre over the period 1988-1994. Four ENSO episodes over the last 17 years contributed to a negative mean in the SOI (-0.5). In each of these episodes, significant retreats in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Sea were observed providing direct confirmation of the impact of SO on the Antarctic sea ice cover.

Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.

2001-01-01

440

Southern Australian high-resolution mid Holocene to present climate change in relation to Southern Hemisphere climate drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The south-eastern (SEA) margin of Australia has many reported palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions from lacustrine environments spanning the Holocene. However, only recently have multi-proxy, high-resolution records with detailed chronologies been reported from this region. In contrast, only one record from the southern margin of Western Australia (SWA) has been published that is of sufficient quality for high-resolution palaeoclimatic interpretation from this region. Historical climate data from SWA and SEA indicate that the precipitation recorded in the two regions is controlled in large part by the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind System (WWS) and the associated Indian Ocean Sector - Southern Annular Mode (IOS-SAM). The historical climate of SEA is also significantly affected by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and to a lesser extent the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, whereas these two climate drivers have a negligible effect on the climate of SWA. Here we present a comparison of the palaeoclimatic histories of the two regions from the mid-Holocene (7.4 ka to present), and correlate the changes in the climatic histories these with large scale Southern Hemisphere climatic drivers. Both the SEA and SWA regions show a general trend towards aridity which is associated with the southerly migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) that progressively displaced the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude sub-tropical ridge to the south. This in association with a shift to more positive IOS-SAM-like conditions shifted the precipitation-bearing frontal belt to a more mean southerly location resulting in decreased precipitation across southern Australia. The establishment of a significant phase of positive IOD between 5.6 and 4.3 ka uncouples the climate between SWA and SEA. The establishment of modern ENSO and it's co-relationship with the IOD have contributed significantly to the late Holocene history of SEA, whereas SWA only records variation in the IOS-SAM.

De Deckker, P.; Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A. D.; Wilkins, D.

2012-12-01

441

An observing system simulation for Southern Ocean carbon dioxide uptake.  

PubMed

The Southern Ocean is critically important to the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Up to half of the excess CO2 currently in the ocean entered through the Southern Ocean. That uptake helps to maintain the global carbon balance and buffers transient climate change from fossil fuel emissions. However, the future evolution of the uptake is uncertain, because our understanding of the dynamics that govern the Southern Ocean CO2 uptake is incomplete. Sparse observations and incomplete model formulations limit our ability to constrain the monthly and annual uptake, interannual variability and long-term trends. Float-based sampling of ocean biogeochemistry provides an opportunity for transforming our understanding of the Southern Ocean CO2 flux. In this work, we review current estimates of the CO2 uptake in the Southern Ocean and projections of its response to climate change. We then show, via an observational system simulation experiment, that float-based sampling provides a significant opportunity for measuring the mean fluxes and monitoring the mean uptake over decadal scales. PMID:24891388

Majkut, Joseph D; Carter, Brendan R; Frölicher, Thomas L; Dufour, Carolina O; Rodgers, Keith B; Sarmiento, Jorge L

2014-07-13

442

Measurement of Wetland Evapotranspiration in Southern Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET) is defined as a composite flux of surface water directly evaporated by solar energy, and ground water transpired by plants. Factors limiting ET include the available energy, available water, and the vapor transport resistance offered by the atmosphere and vegetation. ET is surprisingly understudied considering its dominance in the hydrologic cycle transporting as much as 80% to over 100% of rainfall back into the atmosphere as water vapor. Uncertainties in spatial and temporal ET estimates limit the reliability of hydrologic water budgets and therefore can complicate development of sustainable water-use strategies and resolution of conflicts over water. In response to ET uncertainties, a monitoring station was constructed over a wet-prairie wetland in Big Cypress National Preserve in southern Florida to measure latent heat flux (the energy equivalent of ET), rainfall, air and water temperature, wind speed and direction, wind gusts, solar radiation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, relative humidity, and depth-of-water above or below land surface. The monitoring station was located on a 12' tower for atmospheric sampling at distances roughly 6' to 8' above the wet prairie canopy. Data are presented for a full year; specifically, June 16th, 2007 to June 16th, 2008. The eddy covariance method was applied to measure ET. The mean daily ET total was about 2.8 millimeters per day. Maximum values of about 3.5 to 5 millimeters per day were measured during the summer months (April to September) when solar radiation was greatest. Minimum values of 0 to about 2.5 millimeters per day were measured during the winter months (October to March) when solar radiation was relatively small. Sub-daily ET variations were explained mostly by available energy; formulated as the difference between net radiation, the soil-heat flux, and changes in heat-energy stored in the soil and surface-water. The annual ET total was about 1050 millimeters per year (41 inches per year). This compared to a rainfall total of about 955 millimeters per year (38 inches per year). Thus, the net atmospheric input (Rainfall - ET) was about -100 mm per year (-3 inches per year) at the wet prairie site for the year.

Bernier, T.; Lopez, C.; Shoemaker, W. B.

2009-12-01

443

Sea Ice on the Southern Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Year-round satellite records of sea ice distribution now extend over more than two decades, providing a valuable tool to investigate related characteristics and circulations in the Southern Ocean. We have studied a variety of features indicative of oceanic and atmospheric interactions with Antarctic sea ice. In the Amundsen & Bellingshausen Seas, sea ice extent was found to have decreased by approximately 20% from 1973 through the early 1990's. This change coincided with and probably contributed to recently warmer surface conditions on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula, where air temperatures have increased by approximately 0.5 C/decade since the mid-1940's. The sea ice decline included multiyear cycles of several years in length superimposed on high interannual variability. The retreat was strongest in summer, and would have lowered the regional mean ice thickness, with attendant impacts upon vertical heat flux and the formation of snow ice and brine. The cause of the regional warming and loss of sea ice is believed to be linked to large-scale circulation changes in the atmosphere and ocean. At the eastern end of the Weddell Gyre, the Cosmonaut Polyna revealed greater activity since 1986, a recurrence pattern during recent winters and two possible modes of formation. Persistence in polynya location was noted off Cape Ann, where the coastal current can interact more strongly with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As a result of vorticity conservation, locally enhanced upwelling brings warmer deep water into the mixed layer, causing divergence and melting. In the Ross Sea, ice extent fluctuates over periods of several years, with summer minima and winter maxima roughly in phase. This leads to large interannual cycles of sea ice range, which correlate positively with meridinal winds, regional air temperatures and subsequent shelf water salinities. Deep shelf waters display considerable interannual variability, but have freshened by approximately 0.03/decade since the late 1950's. That could have slowed the thermohaline circulation beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the properties or volume of local bottom water production.

Jacobs, Stanley S.

1998-01-01

444

Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data and cannot resolve the difference between eastern and western Madagascar. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the prominent Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone which is thought to have been formed during Gondwanaland assembly. The array recorded the magnitude 5.3 earthquake of January 25, 2013 which occurred just off its western edge. In addition, in May 2013 we have deployed 25 short period sensors in the eastern part of the study area, where there is some so-far poorly characterised seismicity. We will present preliminary results on the lithospheric crust and mantle structure based on surface wave dispersion and waveform modelling, focussing on the contrast between the metamorphic areas in the east and the presumably stretched regions in the west. Station distribution Red diamonds: Temporary Broadband Light red squares: Short period Green: permanent stations Other temporary experiments: Open dark blue boxes: RHUM-RUM stations Open light blue boxes: MACOMO stations

Tilmann, F. J.; Yuan, X.; Rumpker, G.; Heit, B.; Rambolamana, G.; Rindraharisaona, E.; Priestley, K. F.

2013-12-01

445

Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this project were related to the economy and the budget cutbacks required during the project duration, which resulted in fewer bus drivers than expected the ultimate shut down of the City’s downtown bus operations.

Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

2009-12-31

446

Surface Deformation in Imperial Valley, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Imperial Valley in southern California is subjected to significant tectonic deformation resulting from the relative movement of the North American and Pacific plates. It is characterized by large earthquakes, frequent swarm activity, and aseismic events. High heat flow makes possible the operation of geothermal fields, some of which cause man-made surface displacements superimposed on the tectonic deformation. We apply radar interferometry (InSAR) to analyze Envisat ASAR data for the period 2003-2010. The SqueeSAR technique is used to obtain deformation time series and annual rates at numerous locations of permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS). SqueeSAR works very well in agricultural areas, where conventional differential InSAR (DinSAR) fails. We observe differential movements marking the Superstition Hills, San Andreas, and Imperial faults. The Imperial fault traverses agricultural fields, where DInSAR does not work and thus our SqueeSAR observations are the first for this fault (Fig. 1). We also observe steps in the deformation time series around the Superstition Hills fault from an October 2006 aseismic event and the April 2010 M7.2 earthquake south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Significant annual deformation rates are detected in the current geothermal fields. For example, subsidence of up to -50 mm/year is seen at the Salton Sea field (Fig. 2), and both subsidence and uplift are seen at Heber. We also determine the deformation baseline at prospective geothermal fields, thus making it possible in the future to distinguish between man-made and tectonic causes of surface deformation. Fig. 1. Line-of-sight (LOS) deformation indicates differential displacement on both sides of Imperial Fault. Movements away from the satellite are shown in yellow to red, and towards the satellite in blue. Larger deformation is associated with two geothermal fields, Heber (to the south-west) and East Mesa (to the east). Fig. 2. Subsidence in the Salton Sea geothermal field and superimposed M?1 earthquake epicenters for the period January 1981 - June 2011.

Eneva, M.; Adams, D.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.

2013-12-01

447

Blinding Trachoma in Postconflict Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Reports from eye surgery camps and anecdotal data indicated that blinding trachoma is a serious cause of visual impairment in Mankien payam (district) of southern Sudan. We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of trachoma, estimate targets for interventions, and establish a baseline for monitoring and evaluation. Methods and Findings A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2005. A two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample population. Participants were examined for trachoma by experienced graders using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. A total of 3,567 persons were examined (89.7% of those enumerated) of whom 2,017 were children aged less than 15 y and 1,550 were aged 15 y and above. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1–9 y was: trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) = 57.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.5%–60.4%); trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) = 39.8% (95% CI, 36.3%–43.5%); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma) = 63.3% (95% CI, 60.1%–66.4%). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis was 9.6% (95% CI, 8.4%–10.9%) in all ages, 2.3% (95% CI, 1.6%–3.2%) in children aged under 15 y, and 19.2% (95% CI, 17.0%–21.7%) in adults. Men were equally affected by trichiasis as women: odds ratio = 1.09 (95% CI, 0.81%–1.47%). It is estimated that there are up to 5,344 persons requiring trichiasis surgery in Mankien payam. Conclusions Trachoma is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and the high prevalence of trichiasis in children underscores the severity of blinding trachoma. There is an urgent need to implement the surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change (SAFE) strategy for trachoma control in Mankien payam, and the end of the 21-y civil war affords an opportunity to do this. PMID:17177597

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

2006-01-01

448

Southern Florida, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The very low topography of southern Florida is evident in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the left is a standard view, with the green colors indicating low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. In this exaggerated view even those highest elevations are only about 60 meters (197 feet) above sea level.

For the view on the right, elevations below 5 meters (16 feet) above sea level have been colored dark blue, and lighter blue indicates elevations below 10 meters (33 feet). This is a dramatic demonstration of how Florida's low topography, especially along the coastline, make it especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 27 degrees north latitude, 81 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 397 by 445 kilometers (246 by 276 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

449

Recent Changes in the Ventilation of the Southern Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface westerly winds in the Southern Hemisphere have intensified over the past few decades, primarily in response to the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole, and there is intense debate on the impact of this on the ocean's circulation and uptake and redistribution of atmospheric gases. We used measurements of chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) made in the southern oceans in the early 1990s and mid- to late 2000s to examine changes in ocean ventilation. Our analysis of the CFC-12 data reveals a decrease in the age of subtropical subantarctic mode waters and an increase in the age of circumpolar deep waters, suggesting that the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole has caused large-scale coherent changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans.

Waugh, Darryn W.; Primeau, Francois; DeVries, Tim; Holzer, Mark

2013-02-01

450

Krill Excretion Boosts Microbial Activity in the Southern Ocean  

PubMed Central

Antarctic krill are known to release large amounts of inorganic and organic nutrients to the water column. Here we test the role of krill excretion of dissolved products in stimulating heterotrophic bacteria on the basis of three experiments where ammonium and organic excretory products released by krill were added to bacterial assemblages, free of grazers. Our results demonstrate that the addition of krill excretion products (but not of ammonium alone), at levels expected in krill swarms, greatly stimulates bacteria resulting in an order-of-magnitude increase in growth and production. Furthermore, they suggest that bacterial growth rate in the Southern Ocean is suppressed well below their potential by resource limitation. Enhanced bacterial activity in the presence of krill, which are major sources of DOC in the Southern Ocean, would further increase recycling processes associated with krill activity, resulting in highly efficient krill-bacterial recycling that should be conducive to stimulating periods of high primary productivity in the Southern Ocean. PMID:24586744

Arístegui, Javier; Duarte, Carlos M.; Reche, Isabel; Gómez-Pinchetti, Juan L.

2014-01-01

451

Assessment of Southern California environment from ERTS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERTS-1 imagery is a useful source of data for evaluation of earth resources in Southern California. The improving quality of ERTS-1 imagery, and our increasing ability to enhance the imagery has resulted in studies of a variety of phenomena in several Southern California environments. These investigations have produced several significant results of varying detail. They include the detection and identification of macro-scale tectonic and vegetational patterns, as well as detailed analysis of urban and agricultural processes. The sequential nature of ERTS-1 imagery has allowed these studies to monitor significant changes in the environment. In addiation, some preliminary work has begun directed toward assessing the impact of expanding recreation, agriculture and urbanization into the fragile desert environment. Refinement of enhancement and mapping techniques and more intensive analysis of ERTS-1 imagery should lead to a greater capability to extract detailed information for more precise evaluations and more accurate monitoring of earth resources in Southern California.

Bowden, L. W.; Viellenave, J. H.

1973-01-01

452

Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5  

SciTech Connect

This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

NONE

1996-07-01

453

Did the Taconic Appalachians continue into southern South America?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Appalachian Mountains, now terminating abruptly at the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, may have formerly continued into southern South America. Rocks forming the basement of the Argentine Andes can be interpreted as remnants of an early Paleozoic orogen, the Famatinian belt, not unlike the Taconic Appalachians. Both orogens are bordered to the west (present coordinates) by lower Paleozoic carbonate platforms bearing the Olenellid trilobite fauna that is characteristic of Laurentia. Paleomagnetic and geologic data indicate that they could have formed as one continuous mountain chain, possibly extending into Antarctica, during Ordovician closure of an ocean basin ("southern" Iapetus) between Laurentia and Gondwana. The Taconic and Famatinian segments of the chain may have been truncated during Late Ordovician separation of Laurentia and Gondwana along the preexisting (late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian) rift system that initiated formation of the Ouachita embayment and the southern margin of North America.

Dalla Salda, Luis H.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Varela, Ricardo

1992-12-01

454

Transport of fine ash in the southern hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the transport and fate of fine ash (<32 µm) from volcanic eruptions in the Southern Hemisphere. This is mostly due to the lack of good observations in a region of the world mostly covered by ocean. Since the start of the satellite era (~1960s) it has been possible to make global observations of the spread of ash and aerosols from large eruptions, such as El Chichón, Mexico, Mt St Helens, USA and Pinatubo, Philippines. All of these eruptions took place in the northern hemisphere and were observed mostly through the aerosol signal (related to SO2 emissions). In August 1991 Cerro Hudson, in southern Chile erupted ash and gas that was transported in the westerly winds and circumvented the southern hemisphere reaching Australia. Ash deposits from these Andean eruptions typically span the width of Argentina and extend out into the Atlantic Ocean. The proportion of the ash deposit which is unaccounted for (the "missing" ash fraction) remains poorly constrained as "ultra"-distal fallout is often over the oceans. During the recent eruptions of Chaitén and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (both in southern Chile) stratospheric ash dispersion was tracked for many 1000s km for several weeks as far as Australia, and numerical models were able to capture the main aspects of the transport. Here we investigate important aspects of ash transport, mostly using new measurements from satellites, to estimate ash production, sedimentological analysis of ash fallout over Argentina, and the analysis of collocation of ash and SO2 from Southern Hemisphere eruptions. The sedimentology of ash layers identified in ocean sediments in the Southern Hemisphere has been compared with satellite measurements from recent eruptions, and model simulations of ash deposition. The importance of long-range transport of ash is emphasised in the light of recent concern over the hazard presented to aviation from volcanic ash encounters. The measurements may also be used to guide future stratigraphic studies in the South Atlantic focussed on ocean sediment analysis.

Prata, G.; Durant, A.; Prata, F.; Villarosa, G.; Viramonte, J.; Mather, T.; Pyle, D.

2012-04-01

455

Invasive species in southern Nevada: Chapter 4 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climactic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species. In addition, the population center of the Las Vegas valley, and the agricultural area scattered throughout Clark, Lincoln, and Nye counties, all connected by a network of roads and highways, plus ephemeral and perennial watercourses, provide abundant opportunities for new invaders to be transported into and within southern Nevada (Brooks 2009; Brookes and Lair 2009). Invasive species are a concern for land managers because they can compete directly with native species (Brooks 2000; Chambers and others 2007; DeFlaco and others 2003, 2007; Mazzola and others 2010), change habitat conditions (Brooks and Esque 2002; Esque and others 2010; Miller and others 2011), and alter ecosystems properties (Brooks and Matchett 2006; Brooks and Pyke 2001; Evans and others 2001). Many invasive species have already established and spread to the point that they are now considered to pose significant problems in southern Nevada. However, there are likely many more than have wither not been transported to or colonized the region, or have established by for various reasons not spread or increased in abundance to the point where they have a significant impact. Land managers must understand both current and potential future problems posed by invasive species to appropriately prioritize management actions. This chapter addressed Sub-goal 1.2 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy (table 1.3; Turner and others 2009), which is to protect southern Nevada's ecosystems from the adverse impacts of invasive species. It provides a brief overview of the key concepts associated with the ecology and management of invasive species, and includes information relevant to all five strategic goals identified by the National Invasive Species Council: prevention, early detection and rapid response, control and management, restoration, and organization collaboration (National Invasive Species Council 2001, 2008). Restoration also is discussed in a broader context in Chapter 5 and 7. This chapter does not present a comprehensive review of all invasive species associated land management issues in southern Nevada, but rather uses key species of concern to illustrate invasion ecology concepts and management strategies. It is focused on terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals, and does not address potential invasive taxa from the other Kingdoms. The information presented herein is intended to provide a foundation upon which land management plans can be developed and project-level decisions can be made relative to the management of invasive species in southern Nevada.

Brooks, Matthew L.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Chambers, Jeanne

2013-01-01

456

1. Contextual view to west of the Southern Pacific Railroad ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Contextual view to west of the Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops buildings at Carlin, Nevada. Visible beneath the pedestrian bridge are the Engine Stores Building (HAER NV-26-A) left, Oil House (HAER NV-26-B) left center, and Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension (HAER NV-26-C) center background. The work train cars at right consist of the Boom Tender normally coupled to the wrecking crane and over which the crane's boom hung during travel, and a former Harriman standard-design Railway Post Office car (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

457

Crustal deformation in southern California using SAR interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rate of slow deformation processes along faults activated during the Landers 1992 earthquake was investigated. The analysis was performed by combining pairs of ERS-1/2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of Southern California (U.S.). The interferograms revealed several centimeters of post-seismic rebound in step-overs of the 1992 break. The southern branches of the 1992 break experienced surface creep, producing sharp phase cuts in the interferometric maps. The same approach was used in the Los Angeles (CA) basin. The tectonic signal in the interferograms of the Los Angeles basin was intermingled with signals due to ground subsidence caused by oil and water withdrawal.

Peltzer, G.; Rosern, P.; Rogez, F.; Hudnut, K.

1997-01-01

458

Energy resources in southern Africa: a select bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The aims, progress, and possibilities involved in Southern Africa's energy development are the subject of this 473-item bibliography. The primary items of information described in this document are relatively recent (1975-81), originate from both indigenous and international sources, and are mostly in English, although a few are in French and Portuguese. The presented information focuses on the African continent, the Southern African region, and the nations of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The energy source topics include alcohol, coal, gas, oil, solar, uranium, water, wind, and wood; as well as a general energy-development category.

Cavan, A.

1981-01-01

459

Upper mantle P-wave velocity structure beneath southern Scandinavia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study images upper mantle structure beneath different tectonic and geomorphological provinces in southern Scandinavia by P-wave travel time tomography based on teleseismic events. We present integrated results using data from several projects (CALAS, MAGNUS, SCANLIPS, CENMOVE and Tor) with a total of 202 temporary seismological stations deployed in southern Norway, southern Sweden, Denmark and the northernmost part of Germany. These stations, together with 18 permanent stations, yield a high density data coverage enabling presentation of the first high resolution 3D seismic P-wave velocity model for the upper mantle for this region, which includes areas of Baltic Shield, Scandinavian Caledonides, the entire northern part of the prominent Tornquist Zone and the Southern Scandes Mountains. P-wave arrival time residuals of up to ±1 s are observed reflecting large seismic velocity contrasts at depths. Relative regional as well as absolute global tomographic inversion is carried out and consistently show upper mantle velocity variations relative to the ak135 reference model of up to ± 2-3 % corresponding to P-wave velocity differences of about 0.4 km/s from depths of about 100 km to more than 300 km. High upper mantle velocities are observed to great depth to the east in Baltic Shield areas of southwestern Sweden. Lower velocities are found to the west and southwest beneath the Danish and North German sedimentary basins and in most of southern Norway. A well-defined, generally narrow deep boundary is observed between areas of contrasting upper mantle seismic velocity. In basin areas, low upper mantle velocities are associated with thinned lithosphere and velocity contrasts are interpreted to represent differences between deep shield lithosphere and shallow basin asthenosphere with a deep lithospheric boundary running close to the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone. Differences in P-wave velocity are here likely to arise mainly from temperature differences. To the north, the boundary crosses various tectonic and geomorphologic units including shield units, the Caledonides as well as areas of high topography, and a structural and geodynamic interpretation is more complex. Reduced upper mantle velocities below southern Norway also appear to be associated with a thinner lithosphere compared to shield areas to the east. Velocity contrasts may be explained to a higher degree by both compositional and temperature differences and a geodynamic origin including both Proterozoic and Phanerozoic events. Below southern Norway, a regional contribution to buoyancy from reduced density in the upper mantle is likely to exist, but we observe no clear correlation between reduced upper mantle seismic velocity and high topography of the southern Scandes Mountains.

Medhus, A. B.; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.; England, R. W.; Kind, R.; Weidle, C.; Voss, P.; Thybo, H.

2012-04-01

460

VIEW OF INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, CENTERVILLE FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, CENTERVILLE FOUNDRY SHOWING MOLD MAKING WITH PNEWMATIC JOLT SQUEEZE COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINES THAT INDIVIDUALLY MADE EITHER A COPE OR DRAG AND A SMALL WHEELED MATCHPLATE JOLT-SQUEEZE MACHINE THAT COMPRESSED AN ENTIRE MOLD AT A SINGLE TIME USING A DOUBLE-SIDED PATTERN (MATCHPLATE). ALSO SHOWN ARE RAILED PALLET CAR CONVEYORS THAT CARRIED COMPLETED MOLDS FROM MOLDING MACHINES TO POURING AREAS WHERE WORKERS USED SMALL OVERHEAD CRANE TO LIFT JACKETS AND WEIGHTS ONTO THE MOLDS TO HOLD THEM TOGETHER WHILE POURING. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

461

Evolution of Southern Hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of Southern Hemisphere air masses observed by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) during September 21 through October 15, 1992, is investigated using isentropic trajectories computed from United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) assimilated winds and temperatures. Maps of constituent concentrations are obtained by accumulation of air masses from previous HALOE occultations. Lagged correlations between initial and subsequent HALOE observations of the same air mass are used to validate the air mass trajectories. High correlations are found for lag times as large as 10 days. Frequency distributions of the air mass constituent concentrations are used to examine constituent distributions in and around the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex.

Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.

1994-01-01

462

76 FR 41788 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [ Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent...existing Alden Gas Storage Field by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County, Kansas. This EA will be...

2011-07-15

463

77 FR 43586 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent...involving abandonment of facilities by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Logan and Oklahoma Counties,...

2012-07-25

464

Investigating the Lithospheric Structure of Southern Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Madagascar occupies a key region in both the assembly and the multi-stage breakup of Gondwanaland, itself part of the super-continent Pangaea. Madagascar consists of an amalgamation of continental material, with the oldest rocks being of Archaean age. Its ancient fabric is characterised by several shear zones, some of them running oblique to the N-S trend, in particular in the south of the island. More recently during the Neogene, moderate volcanism has occurred in the Central and Northern part of the island, and there are indications of uplift throughout Eastern Madagascar over the last 10 Ma. Although Madagascar is now located within the interior of the African plate and far away from major plate boundaries (> 1000 km from the East African rift system and even further from the Central and South-West Indian Ridges), its seismic activity indicates that some deformation is taking place, and present-day kinematic models based on geodetic data and earthquake moment tensors in the global catalogues identify a diffuse N-S-oriented minor boundary separating two microplates, which appears to pass through Madagascar. In spite of the presence of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks continent-wide scale studies indicate a thin lithosphere (<120 km) throughout Madagascar, but are based on sparse data. We are operating a ENE-WSW oriented linear array of 25 broadband stations in southern Madagascar, extending from coast to coast and sampling the sedimentary basins in the west as well as the metamorphic rocks in the East, cutting geological boundaries seen at the surface at high angle. The array crosses the prominent Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone which is thought to have been formed during Gondwanaland assembly, although this interpretation has recently been questioned. The array recorded the magnitude 5.3 earthquake of January 25, 2013 which occurred just off its western edge. In addition, in May 2013 we have deployed 25 short period sensors in the eastern part of the study area, where there is some so-far poorly characterised seismicity. We present preliminary results on the lithospheric crust and mantle structure based on surface wave dispersion and waveform modelling, focussing on the contrast between the metamorphic areas in the east and the presumably stretched regions in the west. Interstation Green's functions have been obtained from all pairs of vertical broadband records, with coherent Rayleigh waves being identifiable for periods of 3-40 s. In addition, two-station phase dispersion measurements have allowed us to determine phase dispersion between 25 and 60 s. The ambient noise and earthquake data both indicate a slow-down of surface propagation in the western part of the array for periods < 40-45 s, but faster propagation in the western part for periods >45 s.

Tilmann, Frederik; Yuan, Xiaohui; Rümpker, Georg; Gerard, Rambolamana; Elisa, Rindraharisaona; Priestley, Keith

2014-05-01

465

Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama (Anaglyph)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This stereo, 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

The view combines a stereo pair so that it appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.

Spirit took the first of the images that are combined into this view during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

On the horizon, the highest point is 'McCool Hill.' This is one of the seven larger hills in the Columbia Hills range. Home Plate is in the inner basin of the range, between McCool Hill to the south and 'Husband Hill' to the north. To the right of McCool Hill, in the center of the image and closer to Home Plate, is a smaller hill capped with a light-toned outcrop. This hill is called 'Von Braun,' and it is a possible destination the rover team has discussed for the next season of driving by Spirit, after the solar energy level increases in the Martian spring. The flat horizon in the right-hand portion of the panorama is the basaltic plain onto which Spirit landed on Jan. 4, 2004.

2008-01-01

466

Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

This view combines 168 different exposures taken with Spirit's panoramic Camera (Pancam) 42 pointings with 4 filters at each pointing. Spirit took the first of these frames during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

On the horizon, the highest point is 'McCool Hill.' This is one of the seven larger hills in the Columbia Hills range. Home Plate is in the inner basin of the range, between McCool Hill to the south and 'Husband Hill' to the north. To the right of McCool Hill, in the center of the image and closer to Home Plate, is a smaller hill capped with a light-toned outcrop. This hill is called 'Von Braun,' and it is a possible destination the rover team has discussed for the next season of driving by Spirit, after the solar energy level increases in the Martian spring. The flat horizon in the right-hand portion of the panorama is the basaltic plain onto which Spirit landed on Jan. 4, 2004.

This is an approximate true-color, red-green-blue composite panorama generated from images taken through the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. This 'natural color' view is the rover team's best estimate of what the scene would look like if we were there and able to see it with our own eyes.

2008-01-01

467