Science.gov

Sample records for government expert group

  1. Industry and Government Space Weather Experts Meet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.

    2011-07-01

    The fifth annual NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC)-Commercial Space Weather Interest Group (CSWIG) Summit was held on 28 April 2011 in Boulder, Colo., in association with the 2011 Space Weather Workshop. Interest was high, in the United States and internationally, in potential space weather impacts on many aspects of everyday life because of the increased vulnerability of technological systems and the possibility that a major space weather event may occur as the twenty-fourth solar cycle begins to progress toward solar maximum. Industry and government space weather experts participated in the summit. Devrie Intriligator (Carmel Research Center, Inc.) and W. Kent Tobiska (Space Environment Technologies (SET)) served as cochairs.

  2. An Exploratory Study of Expert Group Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah J.; Kline, William B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a grounded theory exploration that described expert group leaders' experiences and perceptions during the process of leading groups in terms of influence of experience, preexisting knowledge and attitudes, and in-the-moment leadership process. The discussion presents implications for practice, counselor…

  3. Few Governing Boards Engage in Sophisticated Financial Planning, Experts Say

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Financial stewardship by college governing boards too often stops at balancing the budget. That was the message two finance experts presented last week during the annual meeting of the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges. Furthermore, the yearly budget exercise can give trustees a misperception of their institutions'…

  4. Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development sponsored by the UN, an expert group met in June 1992 in Botswana to consider issues related to population and women. Particular attention was devoted to gender equality, population, and development; reproductive health and the health of families; adolescent fertility, marriage, and reproductive health; family planning (FP) and FP programs; education of girls and women and the relationship of education to fertility, health, and welfare; women's economic activity and its relationship to demographic factors; and the relationship between women, population, and the environment. While both developed and developing countries were considered, the emphasis was on the latter. 32 recommendations for action were addressed primarily to governments and other social institutions and also to funding agencies. The recommendations call for a recognization that health and education are particularly critical for women. They ask for the development of gender-based analysis and assessment of development policies to discover their impact on women. Service delivery to women should be culturally appropriate, and women should be integrated into development initiatives and into management and policy-making levels of social institutions. Responsible parenthood should be promoted as should the assumption of familiar responsibilities by men. Women should have access to safe abortion services. Adolescents should receive the education necessary to protect their reproductive health, and a minimum marriage age should be adopted. FP programs should be appropriate to their clients and should provide safe methods of fertility regulation. Improved and safe contraceptives and pharmaceuticals which will protect against sexually transmitted diseases should be developed, with renewed emphasis placed on new contraceptives for men. Safe sex measures should be promoted. The health of girls and women should

  5. Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    As preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on population policies and programs was held in Cairo, Egypt, in April 1992. More than 20 years of experience in population policy implementation and program activity have led to continued progress, and successive evaluations have confirmed that effective policies and programs require 1) political commitment to allocate human and financial resources; 2) mobilization of individual and community support, active local participation, and the involvement of women in defining and implementing programs; and 3) development of an institutional framework for delivering services, training personnel, and developing networks of distribution points. General discussion centered on population distribution policies; globalization of the world economy; options for significantly reducing population growth rates; policies in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, and Western Asia; international migration; policies in Latin America and the Caribbean; policies in the developed countries; and the effect of HIV infections on health-care policies. Discussion of population programs considered the status of women, the design and implementation of programs, the challenges that remain, financial and material resources, and case studies of Rwanda and Indonesia. The mobilization of resources discussion included cost-sharing, involvement of the private sector, special problems of least developed countries, the scarcity of resources, the UNFPA, the World Bank, the AIDS crisis, the profile of bilateral donor support, socioeconomic policies, organizational research, and administrative overload in family planning programs. The expert group adopted 21 resolutions addressed to governments, social institutions, and funding agencies. The recommendations ask governments to include population considerations in all levels of decision-making, to adopt a longterm perspective in socioeconomic planning

  6. Pilot mental health: expert working group recommendations.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety. PMID:23316549

  7. 75 FR 76467 - Draft Concept for Government-Wide “ExpertNet” Platform and Process To Elicit Expert Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... structured format. The goal of ExpertNet is to enable government officials to search for and communicate with... Government Initiative and GSA and located at http://expertnet.wikispaces.com (the ``Wiki''). In addition...://expertnet.wikispaces.com or received via e-mail by January 7, 2011. Comments submitted in response to...

  8. Developing a Physics Expert Identity in a Biophysics Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of…

  9. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  10. Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on population distribution and migration was held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in January 1993. Participants considered the scope of migration which included a net internal migration of between 75 million and 1 billion people during 1975-85 and international migration which census data put at 77 million in the 1970s and early 1980s. World economic trends during the 1980s were reviewed, as were changes in the nature and configuration of various countries. The following topics were explored: patterns of population distribution and development, policies affecting internal migration and population distribution, internal migration and its implications for development, economic aspects of international migration, international migration in a changing world, international migration between developing countries, and refugees and asylum-seekers. 37 recommendations were prepared for governments, social institutions, and the international community. The first 10 urge that population distribution be an integral part of development policies, that government policies and expenditures be evaluated for their contribution to social and economic goals, that the capacity and competence of municipal authorities to manage urban development be increased, that government funding be decentralized, that economic and institutional links be developed between urban centers and surrounding rural areas, that alternatives to out-migration from rural areas be created, that the income-earning capacities of migrants be improved, that group mobilization by and for people affected by migration be encouraged, that adequate access to health services and family planning be assured, and that the underlying causes of environmental degradation, natural disasters, and war be addressed with mechanisms developed to protect victims. 13 recommendations deal with international migration and

  11. Group Development of Effective Governance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Deborah Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the behaviors of effective governance teams as they move through stages of group development during regular school board meetings, utilizing the task and process behaviors identified in the Group Development Assessment (Jones & Bearley, 1994). Methodology. This mixed-methods…

  12. Rule groupings: An approach towards verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge-based expert systems are playing an increasingly important role in NASA space and aircraft systems. However, many of NASA's software applications are life- or mission-critical and knowledge-based systems do not lend themselves to the traditional verification and validation techniques for highly reliable software. Rule-based systems lack the control abstractions found in procedural languages. Hence, it is difficult to verify or maintain such systems. Our goal is to automatically structure a rule-based system into a set of rule-groups having a well-defined interface to other rule-groups. Once a rule base is decomposed into such 'firewalled' units, studying the interactions between rules would become more tractable. Verification-aid tools can then be developed to test the behavior of each such rule-group. Furthermore, the interactions between rule-groups can be studied in a manner similar to integration testing. Such efforts will go a long way towards increasing our confidence in the expert-system software. Our research efforts address the feasibility of automating the identification of rule groups, in order to decompose the rule base into a number of meaningful units.

  13. Multidisciplinary Management of Mastocytosis: Nordic Expert Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Dybedal, Ingunn; Gülen, Theo; Kristensen, Thomas K; Møller, Michael B; Ackermann, Leena; Sääf, Maria; Karlsson, Maria A; Agertoft, Lone; Brixen, Kim; Hermann, Pernille; Stylianou, Eva; Mortz, Charlotte G; Torfing, Trine; Havelund, Troels; Sander, Birgitta; Bergström, Anna; Bendix, Marie; Garvey, Lene H; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Valent, Peter; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nilsson, Gunnar; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hägglund, Hans

    2016-06-15

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by an increased number and accumulation of mast cells, and often also by signs and symptoms of mast cell activation. Disease subtypes range from indolent to rare aggressive forms. Mastocytosis affects people of all ages and has been considered rare; however, it is probably underdiagnosed with potential severe implications. Diagnosis can be challenging and symptoms may be complex and involve multiple organ-systems. In general it is advised that patients should be referred to centres with experience in the disease offering an individualized, multidisciplinary approach. We present here consensus recommendations from a Nordic expert group for the diagnosis and general management of patients with mastocytosis. PMID:26694951

  14. Discovering the knowledge creation process of an expert group in women-friendly policy: The policy case of Seoul City.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Sam; Nam, SungHee; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    This research explores how expert knowledge is created in the process of women-friendly policy making, based on actor network theory (ANT). To address this purpose, this study uses the "Women's Happiness in the City of Seoul" policy initiated by the local government of Seoul as one example of policy development. Research findings demonstrate that knowledge creation in expert groups followed the four stages suggested by ANT. In addition, this study found that various types of knowledge emerged from individual experts. This research elucidates the process of knowledge creation and its meanings for women-friendly policy. PMID:26684220

  15. International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Technical Experts Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, P.; Salgado, J.

    2012-09-01

    created in 2005 as an effort to make the different agencies dealing with planetary data come to homogeneous and interoperable approaches for the handling of their data. The IPDA's main emphasis is to ease discovery, access and use of planetary data by world-wide scientists regardless of which agency is collecting and distributing the data. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual space agencies. The IPDA is focusing on developing an international standard which allows the following capabilities: query, access and usage of data across international planetary data archive systems. While, trends in other areas of space science are concentrating on the sharing of science data from diverse standards and collection methods, the IPDA shall concentrate on promoting standards which drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data across the international community. Such an approach will better support the long term goal of easing data sharing across system and agency boundaries. The IPDA web pages can be found at the following link: http://planetarydata.org/ The IPDA Technical Experts Group (IPDA TEG) was created to ensure correct integration of the different standards created within the alliance. The Technical Experts Group of the IPDA provides oversight on system and software standards and architectures under development by the IPDA. It is responsible for coordination of technical projects and ensuring that the projects are compatible with the IPDA system architecture and requirements. The IPDA TEG is empowered by the Steering Committee to design and develop technical standards that meet the IPDA requirements and fit within the IPDA system architecture. The TEG is responsible to review and approve standards when they are ready for submission to the Steering Committee. This paper will summarise the activities of the IPDA TEG during its conception with particular emphasis in the recent

  16. ESCAP holds expert group meeting on population issues facing adolescents.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities at the ESCAP Population Division Expert Group Meeting on Adolescents that was held during September-October 1997 in Bangkok, Thailand. The meeting was a follow-up to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The meeting considered 1) the ICPD recommendations; 2) the recommendations contained in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resource Development; and 3) the Proposals for Action on Human Resources Development for Youth in Asia and the Pacific. Participants included about 25 people from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The conference relied on 8 invited experts, two resource persons, advisors from the UNFPA Country Support Team for East and Southeast Asia, and representatives of UNFPA, the Population Council, and the East-West Center. A concern was the declining age of menarche of girls in the ESCAP region and the increasing age of marriage. During the time of menarche and marriage, girls are migrating and moving away from their family and community in rural areas. Family structure and relationships are changing. Increases are observed in adolescent premarital sexual activity, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, and abortion. The mass media and information technologies have both a positive and a negative influence on adolescents. Parent-child communication exchanges and teacher-student exchanges are "less than ideal." Old traditions and practices change slower than people change. Boys and girls are affected differently by the sociocultural and economic environment. The societal norms set expectations for behavior that may conflict with individual beliefs and practices. Changes brought by globalization and rapid economic growth provide greater opportunity for young girls and women to obtain employment and autonomy. PMID:12293003

  17. Video quality experts group: the quest for valid objective methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corriveau, Philip J.; Webster, Arthur A.; Rohaly, Ann M.; Libert, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Subjective assessment methods have been used reliably for many years to evaluate video quality. They continue to provide the most reliable assessments compared to objective methods. Some issues that arise with subjective assessment include the cost of conducting the evaluations and the fact that these methods cannot easily be used to monitor video quality in real time. Furthermore, traditional, analog objective methods, while still necessary, are not sufficient to measure the quality of digitally compressed video systems. Thus, there is a need to develop new objective methods utilizing the characteristics of the human visual system. While several new objective methods have been developed, there is to date no internationally standardized method. The Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG) was formed in October 1997 to address video quality issues. The group is composed of experts from various backgrounds and affiliations, including participants from several internationally recognized organizations working in the field of video quality assessment. The majority of participants are active in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and VQEG combines the expertise and resources found in several ITU Study Groups to work towards a common goal. The first task undertaken by VQEG was to provide a validation of objective video quality measurement methods leading to Recommendations in both the Telecommunications (ITU-T) and Radiocommunication (ITU-R) sectors of the ITU. To this end, VQEG designed and executed a test program to compare subjective video quality evaluations to the predictions of a number of proposed objective measurement methods for video quality in the bit rate range of 768 kb/s to 50 Mb/s. The results of this test show that there is no objective measurement system that is currently able to replace subjective testing. Depending on the metric used for evaluation, the performance of eight or nine models was found to be statistically equivalent, leading to the

  18. ABC3 Consensus: Assessment by a German Group of Experts.

    PubMed

    Thomssen, Christoph; Augustin, Doris; Ettl, Johannes; Haidinger, Renate; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Lüftner, Diana; Marmé, Frederik; Marschner, Norbert; Müller, Lothar; Overkamp, Friedrich; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Thill, Marc; Untch, Michael; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    The Advanced Breast Cancer Third International Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and treatment of advanced breast cancer took place in Lisbon, Portugal, on November 5-7, 2015. This year's conference (ABC3) was focused on the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (stage IV), as it was 4 years ago at the first consensus meeting (ABC1). A matter of particular interest was the patients' perspective. Thus, patient-relevant issues were addressed by the consensus discussions, such as those on treatment goals, quality of life, care of long-term survivors ('survivorship issues'), and coping with disease-related symptoms and the side effects of treatment. Further important issues on the agenda were the use of standardized instruments for the assessment of individual treatment success ('patient-reported outcome measures') and the evaluation of the benefit of novel drugs (e.g. the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale). Diagnosis and treatment of inoperable locally advanced breast cancer had already been discussed 2 years earlier at the ABC2 Consensus and were not dealt with in the framework of this year's ABC3 Consensus. With regard to country-specific peculiarities, which unavoidably found their way into the ABC Consensus, a working group of German breast cancer experts commented on the voting results of the ABC panelists. As for the past consensus, the group specially considered the German guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (AGO (Gyneco-Oncology Working Group), S3, DGHO (German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology)) in order to adapt the ABC3 consensus for everyday therapy in Germany. PMID:27051399

  19. Mission to Mars: Connecting Diverse Student Groups with NASA Experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Jones, David; Sadowski-Fugitt, Leslie; Kowrach, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago has formulated an innovative approach to inspiring the next generation to pursue STEM education. Middle school students in Chicago and at nearby Challenger Learning Centers work in teams to design a mission to Mars. Each mission includes real time access to NASA experts through partnerships with Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Interactive videoconferencing connects students at the museum with students at a Challenger Learning Center and with NASA experts. This paper describes the approach, the results from the program s first year, and future opportunities for nationwide expansion.

  20. Clarification of Safe Delivery by Iranian Experts Based on Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Yonesian, Masud; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the principles of a safe delivery based on Clinical Governance Criteria, as recommended by the pertinent experts. Materials and methods: The current study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method in 2013 and purposive sampling, performing 24 in-depth interviews based on semi-structured questions and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research included midwives, obstetricians, managers, and hospital doctors. The data were under continuous consideration and comparative analysis in order to achieve data saturation. Results: The main concepts derived from interpretations of the pertinent experts include: Patient & Public involvement; Risk Management; Education; Clinical efficiency; Clinical audit; Personnel & Management. Conclusion: In a safe delivery, there is a vicious cycle of causes the elimination of which is only possible through benchmarking patterns that attend to most aspects of a safe delivery. Changes to services require utilization of appropriate change management strategies. PMID:26622310

  1. Rule groupings: A software engineering approach towards verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Currently, most expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify and almost impossible to verify or validate. Partitioning rule based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert system software. Attempts were made to semiautomatically structure a CLIPS rule base into groups of related rules that carry the same type of information. Different distance metrics that capture relevant information from the rules for grouping are discussed. Two clustering algorithms that partition the rule base into groups of related rules are given. Two independent evaluation criteria are developed to measure the effectiveness of the grouping strategies. Results of the experiment with three sample rule bases are presented.

  2. Pilot Mental Health: Expert Working Group Recommendations - Revised 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    In September 2012, the Aerospace Medical Association published and distributed recommendations from its Pilot Mental Health Working Group to improve awareness and identification of pilot mental health issues during the aeromedical assessment of pilots. Following the crash of Germanwings Flight 9525 in March 2015 with pilot suicide as the probable cause, the Pilot Mental Health Working Group reconvened to review their recommendations. As a result, the working group revised the recommendations which are provided here and which were distributed worldwide. The Working Group continues to emphasize the importance of assessing and optimizing pilot mental health, while providing additional recommendations on building trust and rapport between the aeromedical examiner and the pilot, on utilizing aviation mental health and aeromedical specialists, and on the balance between medical confidentiality and risk to public safety. The working group encourages all organizations involved in flight safety to review and consider implementing these recommendations within their usual operations. PMID:27099091

  3. The OIE PVS tools and expert evaluations: key elements for improving the governance of veterinary services.

    PubMed

    Fermet-Quinet, E

    2012-08-01

    The OIE tools for evaluating the Performance of Veterinary Services (OIE PVS tools) were drafted using the same science-based and mutually agreed procedure as for the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The aim of the PVS tools is to improve Veterinary Services (VS) in accordance with their own specific context by harmonising the fundamental principles of VS quality and the criteria for evaluating it. Experts use the OIE PVS tools to propose ways of improving VS governance in any context. Clearly, the weakest states do not have the capacity to implement structural reforms without the support of development partners, themselves acting in a coordinated and complementary manner on the basis of OIE PVS analyses. Special attention must be paid to four areas of critical competencies for improving VS governance: Veterinary legislation is the subject of an OIE expert evaluation to enable VS to take ownership of the legislative development process, which is manifestly lacking in many countries. Initial education for veterinarians enforces the gradual but clear harmonisation of curricula under the aegis of the OIE, in partnership with relevant authorities. Maintenance or restoration of the VS chain of command must be clearly identified as a priority factor of governance that is vital to VS effectiveness and efficiency. Lastly, although it is based on multiple criteria, technical independence of VS requires sufficient income levels not only to meet the basic needs of staff (both public and private), but also to ensure that they receive recognition and social and professional protection. These elements must be integrated into the functional analysis and can be analysed using the OIE PVS tools. PMID:23413733

  4. Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, October 2009--Conclusions and recommendations.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The conclusions and recommendations from the October 2009 meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization have been published in the WHO weekly epidemiological record (December 11, 2009) and are reproduced with the permission. PMID:20093043

  5. Expert systems for implementing group consensus opinion in complex, weighted decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    The development of an expert system for instrumentation and control operations is sometimes particularly difficult because (a) the expert system must implement the consensus opinion of a group of several human experts in all circumstances, (b) there may be 20 or more complex, dynamic, interrelated factors that influence the decision, each of which must be properly considered and weighed, and (c) the decision may involve choosing from several alternative courses of action, rather that a simple yes-no'' choice. These demanding requirements can discourage or, in some cases, prevent altogether the development of expert systems that are seriously needed and would by highly beneficial. However, the integration of a formal decision analysis method into the expert system as described in this paper can smooth the development phase of the expert system and provide high assurance of the success of the project. In virtually every case, regardless of the complexity of the problem, the approach outlined will provide an expert system to function on every decision just as if the human experts had assembled and performed a formal analysis to reach the overall best balanced decision. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  6. The Future Justification to Adopt Governance System at the Jordan Universities from the Perspective of Educational Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Nair, Natheer Sihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the future justification to adopt governance system at the Jordanian Universities from the perspective of educational experts. The study society was the academic staff in the field of education at Al-Balqa Applied University and Jordan University, at the first semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The study…

  7. Preventing Groupthink Revisited: Evaluating and Reforming Groups in Government.

    PubMed

    Hart

    1998-02-01

    This article critically examines Janis's recommendations for preventing groupthink in high-level policymaking. It puts forward three models of small group functioning in government, each of which highlights different dimensions of collegial policymaking and distinct criteria for evaluating group performance. Each model also inspires different proposals for groupthink prevention and improvement of group performance in general. Proposals for designing and managing high-level groups in government need to take into account these multiple perspectives. Furthermore, their proponents should be aware of the institutionalized and competitive context in which political decision groups operate. Evaluations of their performance and proposals for reforming them are inevitably tied up in this process. This has important implications for the feasibility of recommendations set forth by small group analysts. The article concludes with an agenda for increasing the policy relevance and practical feasibility of research on political decision groups. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9705806

  8. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  9. Swarm Intelligence in Animal Groups: When Can a Collective Out-Perform an Expert?

    PubMed Central

    Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V.; King, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i) individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their ‘collective cognition’, or (ii) interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific ‘leaders’, those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information) under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions – where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes – the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated. PMID:21124803

  10. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  11. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus.

    PubMed

    Effing, Tanja W; Vercoulen, Jan H; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; van der Valk, Paul; Bischoff, Erik W M A; Bucknall, Christine; Dewan, Naresh A; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J A; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L; Singh, Sally; Zuwallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger; Partridge, Martyn R; van der Palen, Job

    2016-07-01

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management experts using Delphi technique features and an additional group meeting.In each consensus round the experts were asked to provide feedback on the proposed definition and to score their level of agreement (1=totally disagree; 5=totally agree). The information provided was used to modify the definition for the next consensus round. Thematic analysis was used for free text responses and descriptive statistics were used for agreement scores.In total, 28 experts participated. The consensus round response rate varied randomly over the five rounds (ranging from 48% (n=13) to 85% (n=23)), and mean definition agreement scores increased from 3.8 (round 1) to 4.8 (round 5) with an increasing percentage of experts allocating the highest score of 5 (round 1: 14% (n=3); round 5: 83% (n=19)).In this study we reached consensus regarding a conceptual definition of what should be a COPD self-management intervention, clarifying the requisites for such an intervention. Operationalisation of this conceptual definition in the near future will be an essential next step. PMID:27076595

  12. Assigned experts with competitive goals withhold information in group decision making.

    PubMed

    Toma, Claudia; Vasiljevic, Dimitri; Oberlé, Dominique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    Expertise assignment has been proposed to improve unshared information pooling in group decision making. The current research revises this view by hypothesizing that expertise assignment is beneficial when group members have cooperative goals, but is detrimental when group members have competitive goals. Three-person groups were confronted with a hidden-profile task. Members were either assigned experts or not and were instructed to either cooperate or compete with other members. The results confirmed that expertise decreased unshared information pooling and repetitions in competition, while the reverse was found in cooperation. This interaction effect was mediated by self-other difference in perceived competence. Thus, expertise favours or hinders information sharing in group decision making as a function of members' cooperative or competitive goals. PMID:22577834

  13. A review of the NATO special group of experts on Naval hydromechanics and related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlesworth, John; Leggat, L. John

    1987-06-01

    The Special Group of Experts on Naval Hydromechanics and Related Problems (SGE-HYDRO) was formed following an exploratory meeting on 3 to 4 November 1982. Its formation was spurred to a large degree by the need within NATO for a forum to promote multinational cooperation in the general area of Naval hydromechanics testing and research for problems not adequately covered by other NATO international exchange groups and the International Towing Tank Conference. The Group's mandate allows it to address current aspects of interest to Naval hydromechanics including test and research facilities, test techniques and instrumentation, prediction methods, model to full scale correlations, full scale trials, model tests, math modeling and simulation, and implications of instrumentation development in other fields.

  14. Diagnostic procedures for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): recommendations of the European Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Dietel, Manfred; Bubendorf, Lukas; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Dooms, Christophe; Elmberger, Göran; García, Rosa Calero; Kerr, Keith M; Lim, Eric; López-Ríos, Fernando; Thunnissen, Erik; Van Schil, Paul E; von Laffert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background There is currently no Europe-wide consensus on the appropriate preanalytical measures and workflow to optimise procedures for tissue-based molecular testing of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To address this, a group of lung cancer experts (see list of authors) convened to discuss and propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for NSCLC. Methods Based on earlier meetings and scientific expertise on lung cancer, a multidisciplinary group meeting was aligned. The aim was to include all relevant aspects concerning NSCLC diagnosis. After careful consideration, the following topics were selected and each was reviewed by the experts: surgical resection and sampling; biopsy procedures for analysis; preanalytical and other variables affecting quality of tissue; tissue conservation; testing procedures for epidermal growth factor receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase and ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) in lung tissue and cytological specimens; as well as standardised reporting and quality control (QC). Finally, an optimal workflow was described. Results Suggested optimal procedures and workflows are discussed in detail. The broad consensus was that the complex workflow presented can only be executed effectively by an interdisciplinary approach using a well-trained team. Conclusions To optimise diagnosis and treatment of patients with NSCLC, it is essential to establish SOPs that are adaptable to the local situation. In addition, a continuous QC system and a local multidisciplinary tumour-type-oriented board are essential. PMID:26530085

  15. International and national expert group evaluations: biological/health effects of radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Scarfi, Maria R

    2014-09-01

    The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the "weight of scientific evidence" approach) for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research. PMID:25211777

  16. International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalaxmi; Scarfi, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach) for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research. PMID:25211777

  17. Rule groupings in expert systems using nearest neighbour decision rules, and convex hulls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasiadis, Stergios

    1991-01-01

    Expert System shells are lacking in many areas of software engineering. Large rule based systems are not semantically comprehensible, difficult to debug, and impossible to modify or validate. Partitioning a set of rules found in CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) into groups of rules which reflect the underlying semantic subdomains of the problem, will address adequately the concerns stated above. Techniques are introduced to structure a CLIPS rule base into groups of rules that inherently have common semantic information. The concepts involved are imported from the field of A.I., Pattern Recognition, and Statistical Inference. Techniques focus on the areas of feature selection, classification, and a criteria of how 'good' the classification technique is, based on Bayesian Decision Theory. A variety of distance metrics are discussed for measuring the 'closeness' of CLIPS rules and various Nearest Neighbor classification algorithms are described based on the above metric.

  18. Report: Stem cell applications in neurological practice, an expert group consensus appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Devi, M. Gourie; Sharma, Alka; Mohanty, Sujata; Jain, Neeraj; Verma, Kusum; Padma, M. Vasantha; Pal, Pramod; Chabbra, H. S.; Khadilkar, Satish; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Singh, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neurologists in their clinical practice are faced with inquiries about the suitability of stem cell approaches by patients with a variety of acute and chronic (namely neurodegenerative) disorders. The challenge is to provide these patients with accurate information about the scope of stem cell use as well as at the same time, empowering patients with the capacity to make an autonomous decision regarding the use of stem cells. Methods: The Indian Academy of Neurology commissioned an Expert Group Meeting to formulate an advisory to practicing neurologists to counsel patients seeking information and advice about stem cell approaches. Results and Conclusions: In the course of such counselling, it should be emphasized that the information provided by many lay websites might be unsubstantiated. Besides, standard recommendations for the stem cell research, in particular, the application of several layers of oversight should be strictly adhered in order to ensure safety and ethical use of stem cells in neurological disorders. PMID:27570390

  19. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  20. The Learning Age: Experts Give Their Views on the Government's Green Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning (England), 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes reactions to "The Learning Age" from the following: A.G. Watts, Richard Taylor, Richard Ely, Carole Stott, Donald Rae, John Lawton, Philippa Langton, Mary Lord, and Sarah Perman. Emphasizes the need for practitioner input from their varied experiences and for knowledge of client groups into the continuing development of the educational…

  1. EarthCube's Governance Working Group Steering Committee presents roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, James F.; Pearthree, Genevieve M.

    2012-10-01

    June 2012 EarthCube Charrette;Washington, D. C., 12-14 June 2012 EarthCube is a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative sponsored by the Directorate for Geosciences and the Office of Cyberinfrastructure to transform the conduct of research through open, community- guided development of cyberinfrastructure across the geosciences. EarthCube recently held its second organizational charrette (collaborative design event), with the objective of engaging its 190 physical and 60 remote attendees in discussions and workshops on developing EarthCube. One goal of the charrette was to review and integrate draft roadmaps produced by four NSF- funded Community Groups (Governance, Data, Semantics, and Workflow) and five Concept Awards (Brokering, Earth System Models, Layered Architecture, Interoperability, and Web Services), which emerged from the first charrette, held in November 2011. The roadmaps are the culmination of 6 months of research, community outreach, and deliberations in virtual and physical meetings; they identify initial EarthCube stakeholders and cyberinfrastructure components, in addition to key issues related to advancing EarthCube.

  2. The Expert Group Meetings Convened as Part of the Substantive Preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Bulletin of the United Nations, 1993

    1993-01-01

    A review of six expert group meetings was organized to discuss various population and development issues and present individual group reports. The review begins with a synthesis of the meetings and gives a brief description of the organizational aspects of the meetings, a summary of recommendations, and an overview of important issues examined at…

  3. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  4. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  5. Anaesthetic neurotoxicity and neuroplasticity: an expert group report and statement based on the BJA Salzburg Seminar

    PubMed Central

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, V.; Absalom, A. R.; Blomgren, K.; Brambrink, A.; Crosby, G.; Culley, D. J.; Fiskum, G.; Giffard, R. G.; Herold, K. F.; Loepke, A. W.; Ma, D.; Orser, B. A.; Planel, E.; Slikker, W.; Soriano, S. G.; Stratmann, G.; Vutskits, L.; Xie, Z.; Hemmings, H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Although previously considered entirely reversible, general anaesthesia is now being viewed as a potentially significant risk to cognitive performance at both extremes of age. A large body of preclinical as well as some retrospective clinical evidence suggest that exposure to general anaesthesia could be detrimental to cognitive development in young subjects, and might also contribute to accelerated cognitive decline in the elderly. A group of experts in anaesthetic neuropharmacology and neurotoxicity convened in Salzburg, Austria for the BJA Salzburg Seminar on Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity and Neuroplasticity. This focused workshop was sponsored by the British Journal of Anaesthesia to review and critically assess currently available evidence from animal and human studies, and to consider the direction of future research. It was concluded that mounting evidence from preclinical studies reveals general anaesthetics to be powerful modulators of neuronal development and function, which could contribute to detrimental behavioural outcomes. However, definitive clinical data remain elusive. Since general anaesthesia often cannot be avoided regardless of patient age, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms and effects involved in anaesthesia-induced neurotoxicity, and to develop strategies for avoiding or limiting potential brain injury through evidence-based approaches. PMID:23722106

  6. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. PMID:23893876

  7. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  8. Using Focus Groups, Expert Advice, and Cognitive Interviews to Establish the Validity of a College Student Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouimet, Judith A.; Bunnage, JoAnne C.; Carini, Robert M.; Kuh, George D.; Kennedy, John

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on how the design of a national student survey instrument was informed and improved through the combined use of student focus groups, cognitive interviews, and expert survey design advice. We were specifically interested in determining (a) how students interpret the items and response options, (b) the frequency of behaviors or…

  9. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans. PMID:26892502

  10. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  11. [Reaching Target Groups--Shaping Accessibility. Results of a Survey Among Experts on Recommendations for Science and Practice].

    PubMed

    Jahn, I; Gansefort, D; Lehmann, F; Walter, U; Brand, T

    2015-09-01

    In an online survey, in which 18 experts participated, recommendations for research and practice to improve access to target groups were discussed. The recommendations were developed within the context of the KNP project. For the implementation of the recommendations, not only is an increased cooperation between science and practice particularly important, but also materials and training as well as standardization of methods. Furthermore, financial resources, especially for conducting evaluation studies are needed. PMID:26406533

  12. Eye-tracking novice and expert geologist groups in the field and laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, R. D.; Evans, K. M.; Jacobs, R. A.; May, B. B.; Pelz, J. B.; Rosen, M. R.; Tarduno, J. A.; Voronov, J.

    2010-12-01

    We are using an Active Vision approach to learn how novices and expert geologists acquire visual information in the field. The Active Vision approach emphasizes that visual perception is an active process wherein new information is acquired about a particular environment through exploratory eye movements. Eye movements are not only influenced by physical stimuli, but are also strongly influenced by high-level perceptual and cognitive processes. Eye-tracking data were collected on ten novices (undergraduate geology students) and 3 experts during a 10-day field trip across California focused on neotectonics. In addition, high-resolution panoramic images were captured at each key locality for use in a semi-immersive laboratory environment. Examples of each data type will be presented. The number of observers will be increased in subsequent field trips, but expert/novice differences are already apparent in the first set of individual eye-tracking records, including gaze time, gaze pattern and object recognition. We will review efforts to quantify these patterns, and development of semi-immersive environments to display geologic scenes. The research is a collaborative effort between Earth scientists, Cognitive scientists and Imaging scientists at the University of Rochester and the Rochester Institute of Technology and with funding from the National Science Foundation.

  13. Insights from an expert group meeting on the definition and measurement of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Filippi, Veronique; Owolabi, Onikepe O; Singh, Susheela D; Askew, Ian; Bankole, Akinrinola; Benson, Janie; Rossier, Clementine; Pembe, Andrea B; Adewole, Isaac; Ganatra, Bela; MacDonagh, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, WHO operationally defined unsafe abortion as illegal abortion. In the past decade, however, the incidence of abortion by misoprostol administration has increased in countries with restrictive abortion laws. Access to safe surgical abortions has also increased in many such countries. An important effect of these trends has been that, even in an illegal environment, abortion is becoming safer, and an updated system for classifying abortion in accordance with safety is needed. Numerous factors aside from abortion method or legality should be taken into consideration in developing such a classification system. An Expert Meeting on the Definition and Measurement of Unsafe Abortion was convened in London, UK, on January 9-10, 2014, to move toward developing a classification system that both reflects current conditions and acknowledges the gradient of risk associated with abortion. The experts also discussed the types of research needed to monitor the incidence of abortion at each level of safety. These efforts are urgently needed if we are to ensure that preventing unsafe abortion is appropriately represented on the global public health agenda. Such a classification system would also motivate investment in research to accurately measure and monitor abortion incidence across categories of safety. PMID:27062249

  14. Lithofacies identification using multiple adaptive resonance theory neural networks and group decision expert system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, H.-C.; Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Chen, H.-C.; Rocky, Durrans S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithofacies identification supplies qualitative information about rocks. Lithofacies represent rock textures and are important components of hydrocarbon reservoir description. Traditional techniques of lithofacies identification from core data are costly and different geologists may provide different interpretations. In this paper, we present a low-cost intelligent system consisting of three adaptive resonance theory neural networks and a rule-based expert system to consistently and objectively identify lithofacies from well-log data. The input data are altered into different forms representing different perspectives of observation of lithofacies. Each form of input is processed by a different adaptive resonance theory neural network. Among these three adaptive resonance theory neural networks, one neural network processes the raw continuous data, another processes categorial data, and the third processes fuzzy-set data. Outputs from these three networks are then combined by the expert system using fuzzy inference to determine to which facies the input data should be assigned. Rules are prioritized to emphasize the importance of firing order. This new approach combines the learning ability of neural networks, the adaptability of fuzzy logic, and the expertise of geologists to infer facies of the rocks. This approach is applied to the Appleton Field, an oil field located in Escambia County, Alabama. The hybrid intelligence system predicts lithofacies identity from log data with 87.6% accuracy. This prediction is more accurate than those of single adaptive resonance theory networks, 79.3%, 68.0% and 66.0%, using raw, fuzzy-set, and categorical data, respectively, and by an error-backpropagation neural network, 57.3%. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lithofacies identification using multiple adaptive resonance theory neural networks and group decision expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsien-cheng; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Chen, Hui-Chuan; Durrans, S. Rocky

    2000-06-01

    Lithofacies identification supplies qualitative information about rocks. Lithofacies represent rock textures and are important components of hydrocarbon reservoir description. Traditional techniques of lithofacies identification from core data are costly and different geologists may provide different interpretations. In this paper, we present a low-cost intelligent system consisting of three adaptive resonance theory neural networks and a rule-based expert system to consistently and objectively identify lithofacies from well-log data. The input data are altered into different forms representing different perspectives of observation of lithofacies. Each form of input is processed by a different adaptive resonance theory neural network. Among these three adaptive resonance theory neural networks, one neural network processes the raw continuous data, another processes categorical data, and the third processes fuzzy-set data. Outputs from these three networks are then combined by the expert system using fuzzy inference to determine to which facies the input data should be assigned. Rules are prioritized to emphasize the importance of firing order. This new approach combines the learning ability of neural networks, the adaptability of fuzzy logic, and the expertise of geologists to infer facies of the rocks. This approach is applied to the Appleton Field, an oil field located in Escambia County, Alabama. The hybrid intelligence system predicts lithofacies identity from log data with 87.6% accuracy. This prediction is more accurate than those of single adaptive resonance theory networks, 79.3%, 68.0% and 66.0%, using raw, fuzzy-set, and categorical data, respectively, and by an error-backpropagation neural network, 57.3%.

  16. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Over the last 75 years the AAUP has made progress in specifying its standards of governance and in reconciling traditional governance with collective bargaining. Excerpts from the "Joint Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities" and the "Statement on Academic Government for Institutions Engaged in Collective Bargaining" are presented.…

  17. Expert Seeker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or

  18. Comparative performance of the probable case definitions of dengue by WHO (2009) and the WHO-SEAR expert group (2011)

    PubMed Central

    Nujum, Zinia T; Thomas, Achu; Vijayakumar, K; Nair, Radhakrishnan R; Radhakrishna Pillai, M; Indu, P S; Sundar, Syam; Gopakumar, Soumya; Mohan, Devi; Sudheeshkumar, T K

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to find the performance of the 2009 probable case definition of dengue and compare it with the definition given by the WHO-SEAR expert group in 2011. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, which is hyperendemic for dengue. A consecutive series of 851 participants defined by the selection criteria were recruited from the primary, secondary, and tertiary health care settings. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of the clinical case definitions were calculated using reverse transcriptase-polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR) as gold standard in case of fever less than or equal to 5 days and serology (IgM positivity) for fever >5 days. Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was also calculated as a single indicator of performance of the case definition. Results The 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) case definition had a sensitivity of 76.4% (69.6–82.1) and negative predictive value of 87.5%. The 2011 WHO-SEAR expert group case definition had a higher sensitivity of 87.9% (82.2–91.9) but lower negative predictive value of 86.6%. The three independent criteria which were significantly associated with dengue were thrombocytopenia less than 150 000 (OR 2.80), leukopenia (OR 2.28), and absence of backache (OR 2.68). The performance of 2009 case definition was better (DOR 2.4) than the 2011 WHO-SEAR expert group case definition. This was further enhanced when thrombocytopenia was specified as platelet count less than 150 000 (DOR2.7). When ‘no backahe’ was added as an additional criteria, the performance of both definitions improved. Conclusions The 2009 WHO case definition has better discriminatory power than the 2011 WHO-SEAR expert group case definition. The performance of 2009 WHO case definition is enhanced by specifying thrombocytopenia as platelet count less than 150 000. The inclusion of ‘no backache’ further improves the

  19. Breakthrough pain and its treatment: critical review and recommendations of IOPS (Italian Oncologic Pain Survey) expert group.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Marchetti, Paolo; Cuomo, Arturo; Mammucari, Massimo; Caraceni, Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Controversies exist about the definition and epidemiology of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP), the pharmacological treatment options, drug dosing, and how to select the medications for BTcP among the new fentanyl products. Existing data were critically evaluated to provide recommendations by an expert group. An algorithm to diagnose BTcP should be used followed by a careful assessment. Fentanyl products provide efficacy and rapidity of action to counteract the temporal pattern of BTcP. The doses of opioids used for background pain should guide the choice of the doses of fentanyl products. The choice of fentanyl products should be based on individual clinical conditions. PMID:26438145

  20. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2014-09-01

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2014 for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration. The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program.

  1. Visualization of Expert Chat Development in a World of Warcraft Player Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article describes expertise development in a player group in the massively multiplayer online game World of Warcraft using visualization of chat log data. Charts were created to get a general sense of chat trends in a specific player group engaged in "high-end raiding", a 40-person collaborative activity. These charts helped identify patterns…

  2. Epidemic threats to the European Union: expert views on six virus groups.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L; Brouwer, A; Wilson, A; Gale, P; Snary, E; Ross, David; de Vos, C J

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, several animal disease epidemics have occurred within the European Union (EU). At the 4th Annual Meeting of the EPIZONE network (7-10 June 2010, St. Malo, France), an interactive session was run to elicit the opinions of delegates on a pre-defined list of epidemic threats to the EU. Responses from over 190 delegates, to questions relating to impact and likelihood, were used to rank six virus groups with respect to their perceived threat now (2010) and in 2020. The combined opinions of all delegates suggested that, from the pre-selected list of virus groups, foot-and-mouth disease and influenza are currently of most concern. Delegates thought that influenza would be less of a threat and zoonotic arboviruses would be more of a threat in 2020. Although the virus group rankings should not be taken as definitive, the results could be used in conjunction with experimental and field data, by scientists, policy-makers and stakeholders when assessing and managing risks associated with these virus groups. PMID:22762483

  3. Impella ventricular support in clinical practice: Collaborative viewpoint from a European expert user group.

    PubMed

    Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Doshi, Sagar N; Townend, Jonathan; van Geuns, Robert Jan; Hunziker, Patrick; Schieffer, Bernhard; Karatolios, Konstantinos; Møller, Jacob Eifer; Ribichini, Flavio L; Schäfer, Andreas; Henriques, José P S

    2015-12-15

    Mechanical circulatory support represents an evolving field of clinical research and practice. Currently, several cardiac assist devices have been developed but, among different institutions and countries, a large variation in indications for use and device selection exists. The Impella platform is an easy to use percutaneous circulatory support device which is increasingly used worldwide. During 2014, we established a working group of European physicians who have collected considerable experience with the Impella device in recent years. By critically comparing the individual experiences and the operative protocols, this working group attempted to establish the best clinical practice with the technology. The present paper reviews the main theoretical principles of Impella and provides an up-to-date summary of the best practical aspects of device use which may help others gain the maximal advantage with Impella technology in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:26363632

  4. Expert and Advocacy Group Consensus Findings on the Horizon of Public Health Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Modell, Stephen M.; Greendale, Karen; Citrin, Toby; Kardia, Sharon L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Description: Among the two leading causes of death in the United States, each responsible for one in every four deaths, heart disease costs Americans $300 billion, while cancer costs Americans $216 billion per year. They also rank among the top three causes of death in Europe and Asia. In 2012 the University of Michigan Center for Public Health and Community Genomics and Genetic Alliance, with the support of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Public Health Genomics, hosted a conference in Atlanta, Georgia to consider related action strategies based on public health genomics. The aim of the conference was consensus building on recommendations to implement genetic screening for three major heritable contributors to these mortality and cost figures: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and Lynch syndrome (LS). Genetic applications for these three conditions are labeled with a “Tier 1” designation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because they have been fully validated and clinical practice guidelines based on systematic review support them. Methodology: The conference followed a deliberative sequence starting with nationally recognized clinical and public health presenters for each condition, followed by a Patient and Community Perspectives Panel, working group sessions for each of the conditions, and a final plenary session. The 74 conference participants represented disease research and advocacy, public health, medicine and nursing, genetics, governmental health agencies, and industry. Participants drew on a public health framework interconnecting policy, clinical intervention, surveillance, and educational functions for their deliberations. Results: Participants emphasized the importance of collaboration between clinical, public health, and advocacy groups in implementing Tier 1 genetic screening. Advocacy groups could help with individual and institutional buy-in of Tier 1

  5. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.

    2013-10-30

    This project covers facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) for federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG) for estuary habitat restoration. The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The EOS is tasked by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Action Agencies (AAs) to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the river’s plume in the ocean. Initiated in 2002, the EOS is composed of members from BPA, the Corps, NMFS, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) Marine Sciences Laboratory, and other agencies as necessary.

  6. OECD/NEA expert group on uncertainty analysis for criticality safety assessment: Results of benchmark on sensitivity calculation (phase III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, T.; Laville, C.; Dyrda, J.; Mennerdahl, D.; Golovko, Y.; Raskach, K.; Tsiboulia, A.; Lee, G. S.; Woo, S. W.; Bidaud, A.; Sabouri, P.; Bledsoe, K.; Rearden, B.; Gulliford, J.; Michel-Sendis, F.

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivities of the k{sub eff} eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods. (authors)

  7. 76 FR 31017 - Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division (TE/GE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities... Advisory Committee on Tax Exempt and Government Entities (ACT) will hold a public meeting on Wednesday... Tax Compliance. Federal, State and Local Governments: --Review of the Government Accountability...

  8. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  9. Initiatives by the government and physician groups to improve awareness of medical ethics: Challenges in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MORIOKA, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Physicians have been required to possess high ethical standards, as medical practice is directly involved with patients' lives. Although ethics arise out of an individual's consciousness, ethical regulations imposed by the nation/government together with self-regulation by physician groups are important in the practice of ethics, for which reason countries around the world undertake various initiatives. This paper investigates physician licensure, organizations governing physician status, the role of physician groups, and the actual conditions of lifelong learning and ethics education in developed countries worldwide, in contrast with which it throws problems in the situation in Japan into relief. Organizations governing physician status, the form of medical associations, and the improvement of lifelong learning are pointed out as critical issues especially in Japan. PMID:22498978

  10. Assessment of Groups Influence on Management Style as Related to University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irtwange, S. V.; Orsaah, S.

    2010-01-01

    The study was undertaken with the objective of assessing groups influence on management style as related to University governance with University of Agriculture, Makurdi as a case study from academic staff perspective. The management style of the Vice Chancellor of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi between the period September 3, 1996 to…

  11. Benefits and Barriers: Case Study of a Government Technology-Mediated Group Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Brigitte; Cheng, Kwan Fan; Gorley, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to describe the design of a provincial government ministry group mentoring program and examine mentees' and mentors' experiences in the program. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 151 mentees rated their satisfaction in a post-program survey. The survey was followed by in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10…

  12. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. PMID:25982790

  13. Experiment Isotopic Data Compiled by the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-11-01

    can be easily accessed by code developers and analysts for validation. In response to the increased interest in fuel isotopic measurements and needs for consolidation and documentation of available data, an Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel (EGADSNF) was formed in 2007 as a working group of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS). Although the group was formed by the Expert Group on Burnup Credit to coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate collaboration between countries developing or implementing burnup credit in their nuclear criticality safety methodologies, the group recognized the need and value of assay data for a broad range of spent fuel applications, and the EGADSNF includes members representing not only the WPNCS, but also members from the standing technical Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations and the Integration Group for the Safety Case of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee. Member countries currently active in the EGADSNF include Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The experimental database of spent fuel measurements maintained by the OECD/NEA is web-accessible. SFCOMPO (database of Spent Fuel Compositions) contains measured isotopic data, mostly for light water reactor (LWR) fuels, for about 250 fuel samples. This paper summarizes the status of SFCOMPO and current activities to expand and improve the database.

  14. Expert reports.

    PubMed

    Thornton, R G

    2000-10-01

    In 1996, article 4590i of the Texas Revised Civil Statutes Annotated, the statutory provision that governs health care liability claims in Texas, was amended to require claimants to file expert reports within 180 days as part of the prosecution of their claims. Sufficient expert reports include explanations of the standard of care, the deviation from that standard, and how the deviation caused the claimant's damages. Two provisions allow courts to grant a 30-day extension for filing expert reports. A good cause extension can be used to extend the filing deadline to 210 days; however, case law has not clearly defined what constitutes good cause. An accident or mistake grace period can be used to justify reports filed >210 days after the suit has been filed; judges determine whether the failure is due to a mistake or intentional indifference. As with any statute, the language is not as important as how the courts (judges) interpret that language. The statute may appear strict but room for interpretation exists. PMID:16389359

  15. 77 FR 29755 - Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division (TE/GE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities... Advisory Committee on Tax Exempt and Government Entities (ACT) will hold a public meeting on Wednesday... Governments and Their Members Tax Exempt Bonds: --A Survey of IRS Forms for Information Reporting Last...

  16. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Annual Report for 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2015-08-01

    This document is the annual report for the period September 1, 2014 through August 31, 2015 for the project—Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). BPA/Corps (2015) explain the CEERP and the role of RME and the ERTG. For the purposes of this report, the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) includes the floodplain from Bonneville Dam down through the lower river and estuary into the river’s plume in the ocean. The main purpose of this project is to facilitate EOS and ERTG meetings and work products. Other purposes are to provide technical support for CEERP adaptive management, CEERP restoration design challenges, and tributary RME. From 2002 through 2008, the EOS worked to design the federal RME program for the estuary/ocean (Johnson et al. 2008). From 2009 to the present day, EOS activities have involved RME implementation; however, EOS activities were minimal during the current reporting period. PNNL provided technical support to CEERP’s adaptive management process by convening 1.2 meetings of the Action Agencies (AAs) and drafting material for the “CEERP 2015 Restoration and Monitoring Plan” (BPA/Corps 2015).

  17. Good practice in mental health care for socially marginalised groups in Europe: a qualitative study of expert views in 14 countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socially marginalised groups tend to have higher rates of mental disorders than the general population and can be difficult to engage in health care. Providing mental health care for these groups represents a particular challenge, and evidence on good practice is required. This study explored the experiences and views of experts in 14 European countries regarding mental health care for six socially marginalised groups: long-term unemployed; street sex workers; homeless; refugees/asylum seekers; irregular migrants and members of the travelling communities. Methods Two highly deprived areas were selected in the capital cities of 14 countries, and experts were interviewed for each of the six marginalised groups. Semi-structured interviews with case vignettes were conducted to explore experiences of good practice and analysed using thematic analysis. Results In a total of 154 interviews, four components of good practice were identified across all six groups: a) establishing outreach programmes to identify and engage with individuals with mental disorders; b) facilitating access to services that provide different aspects of health care, including mental health care, and thus reducing the need for further referrals; c) strengthening the collaboration and co-ordination between different services; and d) disseminating information on services both to marginalised groups and to practitioners in the area. Conclusions Experts across Europe hold similar views on what constitutes good practice in mental health care for marginalised groups. Care may be improved through better service organisation, coordination and information. PMID:22455472

  18. Expert status and performance.

    PubMed

    Burgman, Mark A; McBride, Marissa; Ashton, Raquel; Speirs-Bridge, Andrew; Flander, Louisa; Wintle, Bonnie; Fidler, Fiona; Rumpff, Libby; Twardy, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback. PMID:21829574

  19. Expert Status and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Burgman, Mark A.; McBride, Marissa; Ashton, Raquel; Speirs-Bridge, Andrew; Flander, Louisa; Wintle, Bonnie; Fidler, Fiona; Rumpff, Libby; Twardy, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience [1], [2]. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback. PMID:21829574

  20. Clinical expert guidelines for the management of cough in lung cancer: report of a UK task group on cough

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cough is a common and distressing symptom in lung cancer patients. The clinical management of cough in lung cancer patients is suboptimal with limited high quality research evidence available. The aim of the present paper is to present a clinical guideline developed in the UK through scrutiny of the literature and expert opinion, in order to aid decision making in clinicians and highlight good practice. Methods Two systematic reviews, one focusing on the management of cough in respiratory illness and one Cochrane review specifically on cancer, were conducted. Also, data from reviews, phase II trials and case studies were synthesized. A panel of experts in the field was also convened in an expert consensus meeting to make sense of the data and make clinical propositions. Results A pyramid of cough management was developed, starting with the treatment of reversible causes of cough/specific pathology. Initial cough management should focus on peripherally acting and intermittent treatment; more resistant symptoms require the addition of (or replacement by) centrally acting and continuous treatment. The pyramid for the symptomatic management starts from the simpler and most practical regimens (demulcents, simple linctus) to weak opioids to morphine and methadone before considering less well-researched and experimental approaches. Conclusion The clinical guidelines presented aim to provide a sensible clinical approach to the management of cough in lung cancer. High quality research in this field is urgently required to provide more evidence-based recommendations. PMID:20925935

  1. MCNP6 Results for the Phase III Sensitivity Benchmark of the OCED/NEA Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kiedrowski, Brian C.

    2012-06-19

    Within the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the calculation of cross section sensitivity coefficients of k{sub eff} for integral experiment design and uncertainty analysis. The OECD/NEA has an Expert Group devoted to Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis within the Working Party for Nuclear Criticality Safety. This expert group has developed benchmarks to assess code capabilities and performance for doing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Phase III of a set of sensitivity benchmarks evaluates capabilities for computing sensitivity coefficients. MCNP6 has the capability to compute cross section sensitivities for k{sub eff} using continuous-energy physics. To help verify this capability, results for the Phase III benchmark cases are generated and submitted to the Expert Group for comparison. The Phase III benchmark has three cases: III.1, an array of MOX fuel pins, III.2, a series of infinite lattices of MOX fuel pins with varying pitches, and III.3 two spheres with homogeneous mixtures of UF{sub 4} and polyethylene with different enrichments.

  2. A new compact for owners and directors. The Working Group on Corporate Governance.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The virtual demise of hostile takeovers and leveraged buyouts has not cooled the tensions over corporate governance. In congressional hearings, at annual meetings, and in proxy contests splashed across the business pages, senior executives and powerful shareholders continue to confront each other. The basic issues remain remarkably consistent. When do investors' legitimate needs for returns translate into destructive pressures on long-term corporate prosperity? What kinds of accountability do top managers owe shareholders in terms of strategic consultation and disclosure? What is the precise role of the board of directors as a management monitor and shareholder representative? More than a year ago, a working group of distinguished lawyers representing large public companies and leading institutional investors began a series of meetings to cut through the rancor. Their goal was to reach common ground on a set of principles that reconciles the tensions between owners and managers. Recently, the group agreed on a statement that all eight members endorsed. The statement, "A New Charter for Owners and Managers," deserves wide readership, scrutiny, and commentary. HBR is pleased the working group chose it as the exclusive forum to release its statement. PMID:10112919

  3. The Creation of Industry Front Groups: The Tobacco Industry and “Get Government Off Our Back”

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E.; Bero, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated how industries use front groups to combat public health measures by analyzing tobacco industry documents, contemporaneous media reports, journal articles, and press releases regarding “Get Government Off Our Back,” a coalition created by the tobacco industry. RJ Reynolds created Get Government Off Our Back in 1994 to fight federal regulation of tobacco. By keeping its involvement secret, RJ Reynolds was able to draw public and legislative support and to avoid the tobacco industry reputation for misrepresenting evidence. The tobacco industry is not unique in its creation of such groups. Research on organizational background and funding could identify other industry front groups. Those who seek to establish measures to protect public health should be prepared to counter the argument that government should not regulate private behavior. PMID:17267719

  4. Curriculum Materials for Use with Adult Groups: A Bibliography of Government Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Diana J., Comp.

    The Government Documents Collection of the Calvin T. Ryan Library of the University of Nebraska at Kearney contains a broad range of information on a variety of topics, including curriculum guides and materials. This bibliography gathers government documents of special interest to education students, practicing teachers, and teachers of adult…

  5. Expert Biogeographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarski, Marsha

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an alternative way of teaching about biomes by having students become expert biogeographers. In order to become experts students need to first find out what a biogeographer does. Doing an online search lets students find out for themselves what the responsibilities are of people who work in this field. A good place to visit…

  6. A feasibility study of expert patient and community mental health team led bipolar psychoeducation groups: implementing an evidence based practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group psychoeducation is a cost effective intervention which reduces relapse and improves functioning in bipolar disorder but is rarely implemented. The aim of this study was to identify the acceptability and feasibility of a group psychoeducation programme delivered by community mental health teams (CMHTs) and peer specialist (PS) facilitators. Organisational learning was used to identify and address systematically barriers and enablers, at organisational, health professional and patient levels, to its implementation into a routine service. Methods A systematic examination of barriers and enablers to a three day training process informed the delivery of a first treatment group and a similar process informed the delivery of the second treatment group. Triangulation of research methods improved its internal validity: direct observation of training, self-rated surveys of participant experiences, group discussion, and thematically analysed individual participant and facilitator interviews were employed. Results Barriers and enablers were identified at organisational, educational, treatment content, facilitator and patient levels. All barriers under the control of the research team were addressed with subsequent improvements in patient knowledge about the condition and about local service. In addition, self-management, agency and altruism were enhanced. Barriers that could not be addressed required senior clinical and education leadership outside the research team’s control. PS and professional facilitators were successfully trained and worked together to deliver groups which were generally reported as being beneficial. Conclusion Psychoeducation groups involving CMHT and PS facilitators is acceptable and feasible but their sustainment requires senior leadership within and outside the organisation that control finance and education services. PMID:24215655

  7. [Navigating in evidence-poor waters - how much hydration is needed at the end of life? The recommendations of a Swiss expert group (Bigorio group)].

    PubMed

    Gerber, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    The dehydration, a physiological disturbance due to fluid depletion of the organism, is a common condition in the elderly and most common in the agonal state if not corrected with medical means. Alas, there is little evidence and a paucity of literature as well if one looks for firm data. Do we generally influence the course and duration of the dying process by hydrating or withholding fluids respectively and in what respect? We don't know. Where there is lack of evidence, ideology blossoms. To shed light on this issue an expert panel of members of palliative.ch convened in the Bigorio Monastery in 2009 with the intention to study existing data in order to formulate a concise guideline. Its title: "Hydration in the Palliative Care Setting: Consensus for Best Practice for Palliative Care in Switzerland". This document is available on the website of palliative.ch as a PDF file (go to Fachportal - Standards - best practice). Far beyond the realms of pure fluid physiology the process of decision making with regard to hydration therapy touches core issues of ethics and systemic communication as well. It poses substantial challenges to care teams as illustrated by a case presented in this article. PMID:22334198

  8. Evaluating a Web-Based Health Risk Assessment With Tailored Feedback: What Does an Expert Focus Group Yield Compared to a Web-Based End-User Survey?

    PubMed Central

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R; Laan, Eva K; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique WM

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their adoption. In current practice, such evaluations are mainly performed with end-user surveys. However, a review approach by experts in a focus group may be easier to administer and might provide similar results. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether industrial design engineers in a focus group would address the same issues as end users in a Web-based survey when evaluating a commercial Web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback. Methods Seven Dutch companies used the HRA as part of their corporate health management strategy. Employees using the HRA (N=2289) and 10 independent industrial designers were invited to participate in the study. The HRA consisted of four components: (1) an electronic health questionnaire, (2) biometric measurements, (3) laboratory evaluation, and (4) individually tailored feedback generated by decision support software. After participating in the HRA as end users, both end users and designers evaluated the program. End users completed an evaluation questionnaire that included a free-text field. Designers participated in a focus group discussion. Constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories were used to categorize and compare the remarks from both evaluations. Results We assessed and qualitatively analyzed 294 remarks of 189 end users and 337 remarks of 6 industrial designers, pertaining to 295 issues in total. Of those, 137 issues were addressed in the end-user survey and 148 issues in the designer focus group. Only 7.3% (10/137) of the issues addressed in the survey were also addressed in the focus group. End users made more remarks about the usefulness of the HRA and prior

  9. Eating Disorders as Social Justice Issues: Results from a Focus Group of Content Experts Vigorously Flapping Our Wings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Stewart, Marion; MacKenzie, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Feminists have led the way in conceptualizing eating disorders as political issues and advocated for consideration of the larger socioeconomic context. Given the lack of research specific to the area of eating disorders and social justice, a focus group with professional women was conducted in an attempt to move beyond the conceptual contributions…

  10. Internet Postings Linked to Student Highlight Interest in "Hate Groups": Experts Say Recruitment Efforts Targeting School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    In an Internet forum run by the Libertarian National Socialist Green Party, an organization espousing neo-Nazi views, Jeff Weise made his comments about the group in the year leading up to his deadly armed assault at Red Lake High School in Minnesota. The forum lists 34 postings written by the 16-year-old Native American youth. The commentary Mr.…

  11. 78 FR 53194 - Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division (TE/GE...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division (TE/GE); Meeting AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... a.m. to 11:30 a.m., at the Internal Revenue Service; 1111 Constitution Ave. NW.; Room...

  12. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle

    2015-09-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, parametric studies, and selection of system codes. The Cladding and Core Materials and Fuel Concepts task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment Task Force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (INL), while the Cladding Task Force will be chaired by a representative from France (Marie Moatti, Electricite de France [EdF]) and the Fuels Task Force will be chaired by a representative from Japan (Masaki Kurata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA]). This report provides an overview of the Systems Assessment Task Force charter and status of work accomplishment.

  13. Compositional requirements of follow-up formula for use in infancy: recommendations of an international expert group coordinated by the Early Nutrition Academy.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cai, Wei; Cruchet, Sylvia; El Guindi, Mohamed; Fuchs, George J; Goddard, Elizabeth A; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Quak, Seng Hock; Kulkarni, Bharati; Makrides, Maria; Ribeiro, Hugo; Walker, Allan

    2013-01-01

    The follow-up formula (FUF) standard of Codex Alimentarius adopted in 1987 does not correspond to the recently updated Codex infant formula (IF) standard and current scientific knowledge. New Zealand proposed a revision of the FUF Codex standard and asked the non-profit Early Nutrition Academy, in collaboration with the Federation of International Societies for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (FISPGHAN), for a consultation with paediatric nutrition experts to provide scientific guidance. This global expert group strongly supports breastfeeding. FUF are considered dispensable because IF can substitute for breastfeeding throughout infancy, but FUF are widely used and thus the outdated current FUF standard should be revised. Like IF, FUF serve as breast milk substitutes; hence their marketing should respect appropriate standards. The compositional requirements for FUF for infants from 6 months onwards presented here were unanimously agreed upon. For some nutrients, the compositional requirements for FUF differ from those of IF due to differing needs with infant maturation as well as a rising contribution of an increasingly diversified diet with advancing age. FUF should be fed with adequate complementary feeding that is also appropriate for partially breastfed infants. FUF could be fed also after the age of 1 year without safety concerns, but different compositional requirements should be applied for optimal, age-adapted milk-based formulations for young children used only after the age of 1 year. This has not been considered as part of this review and should be the subject of further consideration. PMID:23258234

  14. Image encryption schemes for joint photographic experts group and graphics interchange format formats based on three-dimensional baker with compound chaotic sequence generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shiyu; Tong, Xiaojun; Zhang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    We propose several methods to transplant the compound chaotic image encryption scheme with permutation based on three-dimensional (3-D) baker onto image formats such as the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) and graphics interchange format (GIF). The new methods avert the discrete cosine transform and quantization, which result in floating point precision loss, and succeed to encrypt and decrypt JPEG images lossless. The ciphered JPEG images generated by our solution own much better randomness than most other existing schemes. Our proposed method for GIF keeps the property of animation successfully. The security test results indicate the proposed methods have high security, and the speed of our algorithm is faster than classical solutions. Since JPEG and GIF image formats are popular contemporarily, we show that the prospect of chaotic image encryption is promising.

  15. Government, Public Relations, and Lobby Groups: Stimulating Critical Reflections on Information Providers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Suzette

    2003-01-01

    In a management class role-playing activity, students adopt the roles of parents, government representatives, and health providers in a scenario about child immunization. The objective is to develop critical understanding of the creation, management, and dissemination of information on decision making. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  16. Research Approaches and Methods for Evaluating the Protein Quality of Human Foods Proposed by an FAO Expert Working Group in 2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren Tk; Weisell, Robert; Albert, Janice; Tomé, Daniel; Kurpad, Anura V; Uauy, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) has been adopted for assessing protein quality in human foods since 1991, and the shortcomings of using the PDCAAS have been recognized since its adoption. The 2011 FAO Expert Consultation recognized that the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) was superior to the PDCAAS for determining protein quality. However, there were insufficient human data on amino acid digestibility before adopting the DIAAS. More human data were needed before DIAAS could be implemented. In 2014, FAO convened an expert working group to propose and agree on research protocols using both human-based assays and animal models to study ileal amino acid digestibility (metabolic availability) of human foods. The working group identified 5 research protocols for further research and development. A robust database of protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed worldwide, including those consumed in low-income countries, is needed for an informed decision on adopting the DIAAS. A review on the impacts of using the DIAAS on public health policies is necessary. It would be advantageous to have a global coordinating effort to advance research and data collection. Collaboration with international and national agriculture institutes is desirable. Opportunities should be provided for young researchers, particularly those from developing countries, to engage in protein-quality research for sustainable implementation of DIAAS. To conclude, the DIAAS is a conceptually preferable method compared with the PDCAAS for protein and amino acid quality evaluation. However, the complete value of the DIAAS and its impact on public health nutrition cannot be realized until there are sufficient accumulated ileal amino acid digestibility data on human foods that are consumed in different nutritional and environmental conditions, measured by competent authorities. A future meeting may be needed to evaluate the size and quality of the data set

  17. Older smokers could be the strongest supporters for U.S. government regulation of tobacco: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeting of marginalized groups with aggressive tobacco marketing has been identified as exacerbating health disparities. However, interpretation of such targeting by groups varies, from surprise and outrage to regarding such marketing as evidence of social legitimacy. We sought to learn how an often-overlooked marginalized group, older adults, would respond to industry documents offering evidence of tobacco company target marketing. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups in California cities with older (≥50 years) smokers and former smokers. A set of previously-undisclosed tobacco industry documents related to target marketing was shown to the group in sequence. Audiotaped discussions were transcribed and data analyzed using qualitative approaches. Results Responses to evidence of tobacco industry targeting varied, with some regarding it as exploitive and others as normal business practice. However, in most groups, discussions turned to government’s failure to protect the public—even though government action /inaction was not prompted nor addressed in the discussion documents. Conclusion Given the Food and Drug Administration’s new authority to regulate tobacco products, these findings suggest that some of the tobacco industry’s “best customers” (older, established smokers and ex-smokers) may be strong supporters of government regulation of tobacco. PMID:23958397

  18. Under-representation of women on governing bodies: women general practitioners on Clinical Commissioning Groups in England.

    PubMed

    Segar, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Recently formed Clinical Commissioning Groups in the English National Health Service have important responsibility for commissioning local health and care services. Women are under-represented on the governing bodies of these significant primary care based organizations despite the fact that they constitute almost half of the general practitioner workforce in England. This essay examines some of the reasons for this under-representation including the predominance of women in the salaried and part-time sector of general practice and gendered management styles within the National Health Service. It is argued that the under-representation of women on Clinical Commissioning Group governing bodies matters in terms of social justice, representation of the broader community and role models. PMID:25589088

  19. Chemical Constraints Governing the Origin of Metabolism: The Thermodynamic Landscape of Carbon Group Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies were estimated for four types reactions of biochemical importance carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed that (1) when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves two different types of functional groups, transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is strongly dependent on the type of functional group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, and the group that accepts the shared electron-pair during synthesis, and (3) the energetics of C-C bond transformation is determined primarily by the half-reaction energies of the couples: carbonyl/carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid/carbon dioxide, alcohol/carbonyl, and hydrocarbon/alcohol. The energy of hydrogen-transfer between carbon groups was found to depend on the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor and hydrogen-acceptor. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry of the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modem metabolism) is strongly constrained by the (1) limited disproportionation energy of organic substrates that can be dissipated in a few irreversible reactions, (2) the energy-dominance of few half-reaction couples in carbon-carbon bond transformation that establishes whether a chemical reaction is energetically irreversible, reversible or unfeasible, and (3) the dependence of the transformation-energy on the oxidation state of carbon groups (functional group type) which is

  20. 49 CFR 26.63 - What rules govern group membership determinations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section, you must take special care to ensure that you do not impose a disproportionate burden on members of any particular designated group. Imposing a disproportionate burden on members of a particular group could violate § 26.7(b) and/or Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 49 CFR part 21. (b)...

  1. Development and evaluation of a case group concept for inpatients with mental disorders in Germany: using self-report and expert-rated instruments.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Sylke; Dirmaier, Jörg; Harfst, Timo; Kawski, Stephan; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a case-mix system to classify inpatients with mental disorders in Germany by means of self-report and expert-rated instruments. The use of case-mix systems enhances the transparency of performance and cost structure and can thus improve the quality of mental health care. We analysed a consecutive sample of 1677 inpatients with mental disorders from 11 hospitals using regression tree analysis. The model assigns patients to 17 groups, accounting for 17% of the variance for duration of stay. Patients with eating disorders had a longer duration of stay than patients with anxiety disorder, duration of mental illness of less than 3-5 years, lower levels of interpersonal problems and higher occupational position. The results showed that besides diagnosis, variables such as duration of illness and interpersonal problems are important for classifying inpatients with mental disorders. The results of the study should be critically reviewed regarding the empirical results of other studies and the appropriateness of case group concepts for inpatients with mental disorders. PMID:18774277

  2. Report on the meetings of the small and medium size reactor (SMR) expert group of the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD), Paris, France, June 15-16, 1989: Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, W.J.

    1989-07-05

    The traveler attended the meeting of the Small and Medium Size Reactor (SMR) Expert Group of the OECD. The group agreed to identify the potential for SMRs in OECD countries and to document their views in a report. The group also developed and initiated a plan and schedule for this effort. This report describes significant activities that took place during the meeting and presents relevant information that has been collected in recent international studies.

  3. Epistemological Beliefs across Faculty Experts and Student Non-Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Lan, William

    2009-01-01

    The epistemological beliefs of non-experts or novices have been studied with some frequency, while the beliefs of experts as a comparison group have received little attention in research literature. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the conceptual framework of epistemological beliefs may be considered statistically similar or…

  4. Preventing Fire Death and Injury, Conducting a Fire Drill in a Group Home [and] When You Need a Fire Safety Expert. National Fire Safety Certification System. Continuing Education Program. Volume 1, Numbers 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie

    Three booklets provide fire safety information for staff of residential facilities serving people with developmental disabilities. Booklets focus on: (1) preventing fire death and injury, (2) conducting a fire drill in a group home, and (3) the role of fire safety experts. The first booklet stresses the elimination of the following dangers:…

  5. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  6. New Technologies of Training for Technical and Vocational Education. International Expert Group Meeting. (Manila, Philippines, July 3-7, 1995). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Turin (Italy). International Training Centre.

    This report describes a meeting of 31 experts who deliberated on the various aspects of new technologies of training (NTT) and their applications in education and training with reference to Asia-Pacific contexts. Chapter 1 describes the rationale, objectives, inaugural session, meeting agenda, and closing session. Chapter 2 summarizes the country…

  7. Comparing the Information and Support Needs of Different Population Groups in Preparation for 2015 Government Approval for HIV Self-testing in France

    PubMed Central

    Greacen, Tim; Kersaudy-Rahib, Delphine; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Lydié, Nathalie; Ghosn, Jade; Champenois, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Context HIV self-tests are currently being introduced in France with the aim of promoting screening both for the general population and for high-risk populations. Objective The current study aimed to identify and compare the information and support needs of the different target population groups. Methods The Delphi process was used to synthesize expert opinions for each population group. Experts were chosen for their experience and expertise in the area of HIV and HIV screening for each population. Each group developed recommendations for a specific population: six high HIV prevalence populations (men who have sex with men; transgender people; substance users; migrants from sub-Saharan Africa; French West Indies; French Guiana) and two low prevalence populations (the general population; people under 25). Each group included expertise from four areas: research, screening and care, policy-making, and community groups. Results A final total of 263 recommendations were grouped into eight main themes: Communicating at both national and community levels about self-test arrival (24% of all recommendations); Providing information adapted to the different community groups’ needs (23%); Providing counselling on self-test use and access to care (15%); Making self-tests available to all in terms of accessibility and cost (13%); Preparing community healthcare and screening systems for the arrival of the self-test (11%); Approving only high quality self-tests (6%); Defending self-test users’ legal rights (5%); Evaluating self-test use (3%). Although a large number of recommendations were common to several groups of experts, the study highlighted a certain number of recommendations specific to each different population group, particularly with regard to information content and access both to information and to the self-tests themselves. Conclusion Results from the current study should make a significant contribution to policy decisions concerning catering for the specific

  8. 78 FR 19565 - Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the Working Group II Contribution to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Impacts, Adaptation... Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Impacts, Adaptation... climate change, potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. The IPCC develops...

  9. 78 FR 12807 - Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the Working Group III Contribution to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Mitigation of Climate Change... Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Mitigation of Climate Change. The... climate change, potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. The IPCC develops...

  10. 77 FR 59238 - Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the Working Group I Contribution to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2013: The Physical... the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Climate Change... understanding the scientific basis of climate change, potential impacts, and options for mitigation...

  11. Cancer Experts Endorse CDC's HPV Vaccine Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159950.html Cancer Experts Endorse CDC's HPV Vaccine Guidelines Boys and girls should start the ... American Cancer Society has endorsed the U.S. government's HPV vaccination recommendations, which include immunizing all preteens against ...

  12. [Severe hypercholesterolaemia - when to use the proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 protease inhibitors (PCSK9 inhibitors)? Polish Society of Cardiology experts' group statement].

    PubMed

    Cybulska, Barbara; Pająk, Andrzej; Ponikowski, Piotr; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Stępińska, Janina; Średniawa, Beata; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Hoffman, Piotr; Jankowski, Piotr; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Kaźmierczak, Jarosław; Mitręga, Katarzyna; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The severe hypercholesterolaemia can be recognised when low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) serum levels are equal to or above 5 mmol/L (≥ 190 mg/dL). The prevalence of LDL-C ≥ 5 mmol/L is 3.8% in Polish population aged 18-79 years. Among these adults there are patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). According to meta-analysis of 6 Polish population surveys prevalence of heterozygous FH (HeFH) diagnosed using Dutch Lipid Clinic criteria is 0.4% (95% Cl 0.28-0.53%) in men and women aged 20-74 years, i.e. one in every 250 people. As HeFH is a wellknown cause of premature coronary heart disease the rigorous treatment targets for LDL-C have been established in clinical guidelines. Their achivements, even with a high dose of high efficacy statin therapy is difficult or even imposible. New strong hypolipidaemic drugs i.e. PCSK9 inhibitors have been initiated against this chalange. Both drugs, evolocumab and alirocumab, have been extensively studied in numerous phase 2 and phase 3 trials. Fewer studies with bococizumab are available until now. The PCSK9 inhibitors, as monotherapy as well in combination with statins were associated with mean LDL-C reduction about 60%. It means that the majority of patients (70-90%) with severe hypercholesterolaemia (including HeFH), treated with statins, after addition of PCSK9 inhibitors were able to achive an LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L (< 100 mg/dL) or < 1.8 mmol/L (< 70 mg/dL) level. Another group of patients who may benefit from PCSK9 inhibitors include those who need lipid lowering therapy, but who are statin intolerant, especially because of statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). In our statement we have accepted the diagnosis of SAMS proposed recently by European Atherosclerosis Society. Today the longest clinical trial with evolocumab (11 months) was the open OSLER study, and with alirocumab ODYSSEY LONG TERM (78 weeks). In the first one the reduction of cardiovascular events by 53% (95% Cl 22-72%) was observed

  13. Guidelines and protocols for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in children and adults with congenital heart disease: SCMR expert consensus group on congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has taken on an increasingly important role in the diagnostic evaluation and pre-procedural planning for patients with congenital heart disease. This article provides guidelines for the performance of CMR in children and adults with congenital heart disease. The first portion addresses preparation for the examination and safety issues, the second describes the primary techniques used in an examination, and the third provides disease-specific protocols. Variations in practice are highlighted and expert consensus recommendations are provided. Indications and appropriate use criteria for CMR examination are not specifically addressed. PMID:23763839

  14. Galaxy Classification: Citizen Scientists versus Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautsch, Stefan J.; Vazquez, Richard; Phung, Chau; VanHilst, Michael; Castro, Victor H.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We present the differences of morphological galaxy classification between non-experts and experts. The non-experts are represented by college students and a retired adult community, who use an online application to visually classify galaxies selected from a galaxy morphology catalog. We find that the non-expert group lags the expert classification by one Hubble type behind, for instance, the non-experts classify a set of galaxies with Sb, while the experts classify the same set as Sc. We believe the reason is because the Hubble sequence is increasing the asymmetric structures towards later types. Our results show that the experts have the ability to identify more detailed structures, which the laymen commonly do not recognize.

  15. Learning from the Experts: A Thematic Analysis of Parent's Experiences of Attending a Therapeutic Group for Parents of Children with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson-Janes, Emily; Brice, Samuel; McElroy, Rebecca; Abbott, Jennie; Ball, June

    2016-01-01

    The Confident Parenting group is a therapeutic group for parents of children with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour, which is informed by the principles of behavioural theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. Parent's experiences of the group were elicited through participation in a large focus group which followed a…

  16. What six experts say

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Six experts with backgrounds in government, business, and research describe how the energy problem should be handled. John F. O'Leary feels we need to give more attention to the interdependencies of the global energy equation and to the political and financial mechanism for developing conventional as well as unconventional resources. Hans H. Lansberg advocates and outlines a crash program for energy independence, while Steven C. Wilson recommends individual self-sufficiency and decentralization. Reducing oil imports by replacing price control with financial incentives to invest in heavy energy-saving programs are suggested by Robert C. Stobaugh. Fred L. Hartley would accomplish this by allowing the energy industry to operate in a free market. Amory Lovins suggests improving efficiency and emphasizing soft-energy technologies. (DCK)

  17. Psoriasis beyond the skin: an expert group consensus on the management of psoriatic arthritis and common co-morbidities in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Strohal, R; Kirby, B; Puig, L

    2014-01-01

    Background Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and co-morbidities of psoriasis represent a significant clinical and economic burden for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Often these co-morbidities may go unrecognized or undertreated. While published data are available on the incidence and impact of some of them, practical guidance for dermatologists on detection and management of these co-morbidities is lacking. Objective To prepare expert recommendations to improve the detection and management of common co-morbidities in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted on some common co-morbidities of psoriasis–cardiovascular (CV) diseases (including obesity, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia), psychological co-morbidities (including depression, alcohol abuse and smoking) and PsA–to establish the incidence and impact of each. Data gaps were identified and a Delphi survey was carried out to obtain consensus on the detection and management of each co-morbidity. The expert panel members for the Delphi survey comprised 10 dermatologists with substantial clinical expertise in managing moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients, as well as a cardiologist and a psychologist (see appendix) with an interest in dermatology. Agreement was defined using a Likert scale of 1–7. Consensus regarding agreement for each statement was defined as ≥75% of respondents scoring either 1 (strongly agree) or 2 (agree). Results The expert panel members addressed several topics including screening, intervention, monitoring frequency, and the effects of anti-psoriatic treatment on each co-morbidity. Consensus was achieved on 12 statements out of 22 (3 relating to PsA, 4 relating to psychological factors, 5 relating to CV factors). The panel members felt that dermatologists have an important role in screening their psoriasis patients for PsA and in assessing them for psychological and CV co-morbidities. In most cases, however

  18. New directions in hospital governance.

    PubMed

    Shortell, S M

    1989-01-01

    This article suggests new directions for hospital governance to meet the demands of a rapidly changing health care environment. Board members must increasingly play roles as risk takers, strategic directors, experts, mentors, and evaluators. Lessons from other industries regarding risk taking, use of expertise, and streamlining decision making must be adapted to meet hospital needs. Recent data suggest that these needs may still differ by hospital ownership despite a convergence in investor-owned and not-for-profit corporate structures. The effectiveness of hospital boards in the future will depend on their ability to: (1) manage a diverse group of stakeholders; (2) involve physicians in the management and governance process; (3) meet the governance needs of multi-institutional systems and hospital restructuring; (4) meet the challenges of diversification and vertical integration; and (5) understand strategy formulation and implementation as interdependent and interrelated processes. PMID:10303235

  19. Speech spectrogram expert

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  20. Report of CCI Early Childhood Think Tank on Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Child Care, Inc. (CCI) invited a group of early childhood experts to help reflect on what CCI had learned from other states about governance and to apply that knowledge to New York City. The goal was to foster more systemic thinking about how to move toward a more coherent early care and education system in New York City that would better meet the…

  1. Renewable Electricity Grid Integration Roadmap for Mexico. Supplement to the IEA Expert Group Report on Recommended Practices for Wind Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Brian; Cochran, Jaquelin; Watson, Andrea; Katz, Jessica; Bracho, Ricardo

    2015-08-19

    As a recognized leader in efforts to mitigate global climate change, the Government of Mexico (GOM) works proactively to reduce emissions, demonstrating strong political will and capacity to comprehensively address climate change. Since 2010, the U.S. government (USG) has supported these efforts by partnering with Mexico under the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program. Through the program, the USG has partnered with Mexico’s Ministry of Energy (SENER), as well as other government agencies, to support GOM in reaching its clean energy and climate change goals. Specifically, the EC-LEDS program is supporting GOM’s clean energy goal of generating 35% of its electricity from renewable energy (RE) by 2024. EC-LEDS, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been collaborating with SENER and GOM interagency working group—the Consejo Consultivo para las Energías Renovables (Consultative Council on Renewable Energy)—to create a grid integration roadmap for variable RE. 1 A key objective in creating a grid integration roadmap is assessing likely impacts of wind and solar energy on the power system and modifying planning and operations accordingly. This paper applies best practices in conducting a grid integration study to the Mexican context.

  2. The price of drugs for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a reflection of the unsustainable prices of cancer drugs: from the perspective of a large group of CML experts.

    PubMed

    2013-05-30

    As a group of more than 100 experts in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), we draw attention to the high prices of cancer drugs, with the particular focus on the prices of approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of CML. This editorial addresses the multiple factors involved in cancer drug pricing and their impact on individual patients and health care policies, and argues for the need to (1) lower the prices of cancer drugs to allow more patients to afford them and (2) maintain sound long-term health care policies. PMID:23620577

  3. The price of drugs for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a reflection of the unsustainable prices of cancer drugs: from the perspective of a large group of CML experts

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Camille; Berman, Ellin; Cohen, Adam; Cortes, Jorge; DeAngelo, Daniel; Deininger, Michael; Devine, Steven; Druker, Brian; Fathi, Amir; Jabbour, Elias; Jagasia, Madan; Kantarjian, Hagop; Khoury, Jean; Laneuville, Pierre; Larson, Richard; Lipton, Jeffrey; Moore, Joseph O.; Mughal, Tariq; O’Brien, Susan; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Quintas-Cardama, Alfonso; Radich, Jerald; Reddy, Vishnu; Schiffer, Charles; Shah, Neil; Shami, Paul; Silver, Richard T.; Snyder, David; Stone, Richard; Talpaz, Moshe; Tefferi, Ayalew; Van Etten, Richard A.; Wetzler, Meir; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Apperley, Jane; Breccia, Massimo; Byrne, Jenny; Cervantes, Francisco; Chelysheva, Ekaterina; Clark, R. E.; de Lavallade, Hugues; Dyagil, Iryna; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Goldman, John; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim; Hjorth-Hansen, Henrik; Holyoake, Tessa; Huntly, Brian; le Coutre, Philipp; Lomaia, Elza; Mahon, Francois-Xavier; Marin-Costa, David; Martinelli, Giovanni; Mayer, Jiri; Milojkovic, Dragana; Olavarria, Eduardo; Porkka, Kimmo; Richter, Johan; Rousselot, Philippe; Saglio, Giuseppe; Saydam, Guray; Stentoft, Jesper; Turkina, Anna; Vigneri, Paolo; Zaritskey, Andrey; Aguayo, Alvaro; Ayala, Manuel; Bendit, Israel; Maria Bengio, Raquel; Best, Carlos; Bullorsky, Eduardo; Cervera, Eduardo; DeSouza, Carmino; Fanilla, Ernesto; Gomez-Almaguer, David; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Lopez, Jose; Magarinos, Alicia; Meillon, Luis; Milone, Jorge; Moiraghi, Beatriz; Pasquini, Ricardo; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Ruiz-Arguelles, Guillermo J.; Spector, Nelson; Arthur, Christopher; Browett, Peter; Grigg, Andrew; Hu, Jianda; Huang, Xiao-jun; Hughes, Tim; Jiang, Qian; Jootar, Saengsuree; Kim, Dong-Wook; Malhotra, Hemant; Malhotra, Pankaj; Matsumura, Itaru; Melo, Junia; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Ohno, Ryuzo; Saikia, Tapan; Schwarer, Anthony P.; Takahashi, Naoto; Tam, Constantine; Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Usuki, Kensuke; Wang, Jianxiang; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzi; Deeb Saeed Aljurf, Mahmoud; Bazarbachi, Ali; Ben Yehuda, Dina; Chaudhri, Naeem; Durosinmi, Muheez; Kamel, Hossam; Louw, Vernon; Francis Matti, Bassam; Nagler, Arnon; Raanani, Pia; Salem, Ziad

    2013-01-01

    As a group of more than 100 experts in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), we draw attention to the high prices of cancer drugs, with the particular focus on the prices of approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of CML. This editorial addresses the multiple factors involved in cancer drug pricing and their impact on individual patients and health care policies, and argues for the need to (1) lower the prices of cancer drugs to allow more patients to afford them and (2) maintain sound long-term health care policies. PMID:23620577

  4. How experts gain influence.

    PubMed

    Mikes, Anette; Hall, Matthew; Millo, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    In theory, the risk management groups of two British banks--Saxon and Anglo--had the same influence in their organizations. But in practice, they did not: Saxon's was engaged in critical work throughout the bank, while Anglo's had little visibility outside its areas of expertise. In their study of these two financial institutions, the authors identified four competencies--trailblazing, toolmaking, teamwork, and translation--that help functional leaders or groups compete for top management's limited attention and increase their impact. Anglo's risk managers were strong in only some of the competencies, but Saxon's were strong in all four. They consistently scanned the internal and external environment for important issues to which they could apply a risk management perspective (trailblazing) and then developed tools--such as quarterly risk reports--that spread their expertise (toolmaking). While controlling the tools' design and implementation, the risk managers incorporated business managers' insights (teamwork) and made sure everyone could understand the findings (translation). Ultimately, experts' roles must fit the organization's strategy and structural needs. In some situations, functional experts can raise their profile by cultivating just two of the competencies. But those who are strong in all four are likely to be the most influential. PMID:24730171

  5. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball. PMID:22276408

  6. Chemical Constraints Governing the Origin of Metabolism: The Thermodynamic Landscape of Carbon Group Transformations under Mild Aqueous Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2002-08-01

    The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies (ΔG) were estimated for four types of reactions of biochemical importance - carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed (1) that generally when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves groups from different functional group classes (i.e., carboxylic acids, carbonyl groups, alcohols, and hydrocarbons), the transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) that the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is primarily determined by the functional group class of the group that changes oxidation state in the reaction (i.e., the functional group class of the group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, or that accepts the incipient shared electron-pair during synthesis). In contrast, the energy of hydrogen transfer between carbon groups is determined by the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor group and the hydrogen-acceptor group. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry involved in the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modern metabolism) was strongly constrained by (1) the limited redox-based transformation energy of organic substrates that is readily dissipated in a few energetically favorable irreversible reactions; (2) the energy dominance of a few transformation half-reactions that determines whether carbon-carbon bond transformation (cleavage or synthesis) is energetically favorable (ΔG < -3.5 kcal/mol), reversible (ΔG between +/-3.5 kcal/mol), or unfavorable (ΔG > +3

  7. Chemical constraints governing the origin of metabolism: the thermodynamic landscape of carbon group transformations under mild aqueous conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies (deltaG) were estimated for four types of reactions of biochemical importance carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed (1) that generally when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves groups from different functional group classes (i.e., carboxylic acids, carbonyl groups, alcohols, and hydrocarbons), the transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) that the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is primarily determined by the functional group class of the group that changes oxidation state in the reaction (i.e., the functional group class of the group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, or that accepts the incipient shared electron-pair during synthesis). In contrast, the energy of hydrogen transfer between carbon groups is determined by the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor group and the hydrogen-acceptor group. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry involved in the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modern metabolism) was strongly constrained by (1) the limited redox-based transformation energy of organic substrates that is readily dissipated in a few energetically favorable irreversible reactions; (2) the energy dominance of a few transformation half-reactions that determines whether carbon-carbon bond transformation (cleavage or synthesis) is energetically favorable (deltaG < -3.5 kcal/mol), reversible (deltaG between +/-3.5 kcal/mol), or unfavorable (delta

  8. The Expert Witness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    As consumers organize and industry begins to feel the economic pinch of pollution control laws, litigation may increase as will the need for the expert witness. Discussed are the functions and preparations of expert witnesses, their role and conduct in judicial proceedings, and the techniques of being an expert witness. (BT)

  9. Expert witness reform.

    PubMed

    Horton, J Bauer; Reece, Edward; Janis, Jeffrey E; Broughton, George; Hollier, Larry; Thornton, James F; Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Rohrich, Rod J

    2007-12-01

    The legal system depends on the medical expert for evidence. Doctors readily complain about frivolous cases that go to trial, yet a lawyer cannot bring a frivolous claim to trial without a physician expert witness stating that the claim is not frivolous. An insurance company cannot raise premiums without medical expert witnesses servicing the increasing litigation against the insured. Physicians must look to themselves as a major contributor to rising malpractice insurance costs. For without the physician expert witness, no medical malpractice lawsuit can take place. It is the expert physician, not the attorneys or insurance companies, who defines "meritless" and "frivolous" and who ultimately controls the courts' medical malpractice caseload. PMID:18090781

  10. Paraneoplastic itch: an expert position statement from the Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Forum on the Study of Itch (IFSI).

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Elke; Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Yosipovitch, Gil; Zylicz, Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    In clinical practice, the term "paraneoplastic itch" is used to describe itch in patients with cancer. Patients with hematological or solid tumor malignancies can be affected. In general, paraneoplastic itch is considered a rare disorder. However, paraneoplastic itch in hematological malignancies such as polycythemia vera and lymphoma are relatively frequent while other forms of paraneoplastic itch are in fact extremely rare. The true frequency of this symptom is unclear, epidemiological data in this field are limited. Itch in malignant disease may additionally impair patients' quality of life. A population-based cohort study showed that chronic itch without concomitant skin changes is a risk factor for having undiagnosed hematologic and bile duct malignancies. Paraneoplastic itch is rather resistant to treatment. In 2012, an interdisciplinary interest group of physicians and researchers was founded, aiming to generate a clear definition of paraneoplastic itch. In this paper we briefly review the current knowledge and aim to define what can be summarized under the term "paraneoplastic itch". PMID:25179683

  11. Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science: Incorporating ecosystem services approaches into ocean and coastal decision-making and governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of social science has been recognized as a priority for effective ocean and coastal management, driving much discussion and fostering emerging efforts in several areas. The Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science (IWG-OSS) is tasked with assisting the Su...

  12. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Diabetes: From Evidence to Clinical Reality in Central and Eastern Europe—Recommendations from the International Central-Eastern European Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Barkai, László; Bolgarska, Svetlana; Bronisz, Agata; Broz, Jan; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Honka, Marek; Janez, Andrej; Krnic, Mladen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Martinka, Emil; Rahelic, Dario; Roman, Gabriela; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Várkonyi, Tamás; Wolnik, Bogumił; Zherdova, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is universally considered to be an integral part of type 1 diabetes management and crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of complex insulin regimens. This extends to type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy, and there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that structured SMBG is beneficial for all type 2 diabetes patients, regardless of therapy. However, access to SMBG can be limited in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A consensus group of diabetes experts from 10 countries in this region (with overlapping historical, political, and social environments)—Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine—was formed to discuss the role of SMBG across the spectrum of patients with diabetes. The group considered SMBG to be an essential tool that should be accessible to all patients with diabetes, including those with non–insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. The current article summarizes the evidence put forward by the consensus group and provides their recommendations for the appropriate use of SMBG as part of individualized patient management. The ultimate goal of these evidence-based recommendations is to help patients and providers in Central and Eastern Europe to make optimal use of SMBG in order to maximize the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering therapies, to prevent complications, and to empower the patient to play a more active role in the management of their diabetes. PMID:24716890

  13. School Construction Management: Expert Administrators Speak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents expert opinion on school construction management communication concerning educational needs, obtaining consensus among diverse groups, and envisioning what schools must offer in the future. Why furniture issues are also important is highlighted. (GR)

  14. Negative feedback in the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) synexpression group governs its dynamic signaling range and canalizes development

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Malte; Legewie, Stefan; Eils, Roland; Karaulanov, Emil; Niehrs, Christof

    2011-01-01

    What makes embryogenesis a robust and canalized process is an important question in developmental biology. A bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) morphogen gradient plays a key role in embryonic development, and we are beginning to understand how the self-regulating properties of its signaling circuitry ensure robust embryonic patterning. An unexplored question is why the BMP signaling circuit is organized as a modular synexpression group, with a prevalence of feedback inhibitors. Here, we provide evidence from direct experimentation and mathematical modeling that the synexpressed feedback inhibitors BAMBI, SMAD6, and SMAD7 (i) expand the dynamic BMP signaling range essential for proper embryonic patterning and (ii) reduce interindividual phenotypic and molecular variability in Xenopus embryos. Thereby, negative feedback linearizes signaling responses and confers robust patterning, thus promoting canalized development. The presence of negative feedback inhibitors in other growth factor synexpression groups suggests that these properties may constitute a general principle. PMID:21633009

  15. Expert judgments about RD&D and the future of nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Anadón, Laura D; Bosetti, Valentina; Bunn, Matthew; Catenacci, Michela; Lee, Audrey

    2012-11-01

    Probabilistic estimates of the cost and performance of future nuclear energy systems under different scenarios of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending were obtained from 30 U.S. and 30 European nuclear technology experts. We used a novel elicitation approach which combined individual and group elicitation. With no change from current RD&D funding levels, experts on average expected current (Gen. III/III+) designs to be somewhat more expensive in 2030 than they were in 2010, and they expected the next generation of designs (Gen. IV) to be more expensive still as of 2030. Projected costs of proposed small modular reactors (SMRs) were similar to those of Gen. IV systems. The experts almost unanimously recommended large increases in government support for nuclear RD&D (generally 2-3 times current spending). The majority expected that such RD&D would have only a modest effect on cost, but would improve performance in other areas, such as safety, waste management, and uranium resource utilization. The U.S. and E.U. experts were in relative agreement regarding how government RD&D funds should be allocated, placing particular focus on very high temperature reactors, sodium-cooled fast reactors, fuels and materials, and fuel cycle technologies. PMID:23002786

  16. Expert system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Mary Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The expert system is a computer program which attempts to reproduce the problem-solving behavior of an expert, who is able to view problems from a broad perspective and arrive at conclusions rapidly, using intuition, shortcuts, and analogies to previous situations. Expert systems are a departure from the usual artificial intelligence approach to problem solving. Researchers have traditionally tried to develop general modes of human intelligence that could be applied to many different situations. Expert systems, on the other hand, tend to rely on large quantities of domain specific knowledge, much of it heuristic. The reasoning component of the system is relatively simple and straightforward. For this reason, expert systems are often called knowledge based systems. The report expands on the foregoing. Section 1 discusses the architecture of a typical expert system. Section 2 deals with the characteristics that make a problem a suitable candidate for expert system solution. Section 3 surveys current technology, describing some of the software aids available for expert system development. Section 4 discusses the limitations of the latter. The concluding section makes predictions of future trends.

  17. Ethical Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Victoroff, Michael S.

    1985-01-01

    The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

  18. Expert networks in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, S. I.; Dalke, A.; Ferguson, J. J.; Lacher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based expert systems may be structurally and functionally mapped onto a special class of neural networks called expert networks. This mapping lends itself to adaptation of connectionist learning strategies for the expert networks. A parsing algorithm to translate C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rules into a network of interconnected assertion and operation nodes has been developed. The translation of CLIPS rules to an expert network and back again is illustrated. Measures of uncertainty similar to those rules in MYCIN-like systems are introduced into the CLIPS system and techniques for combining and hiring nodes in the network based on rule-firing with these certainty factors in the expert system are presented. Several learning algorithms are under study which automate the process of attaching certainty factors to rules.

  19. Adaptive feature extraction expert

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschik, M.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of discriminatory features places an upper bound on the recognition rate of any automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. One way to structure the extraction of features is to construct an expert system which applies a set of rules to identify particular properties of the speech patterns. However, these patterns vary for an individual speaker and from speaker to speaker so that another expert is actually needed to learn the new variations. The author investigates the problem by using sets of discriminatory features that are suggested by a feature generation expert, improves the selectivity of these features with a training expert, and finally develops a minimally spanning feature set with a statistical selection expert. 12 references.

  20. Strategic Transformation of Population Studies: Recommendations of the Working Group on Epidemiology and Population Sciences From the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and Board of External Experts

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Véronique L.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Granger, Christopher B.; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. PMID:25743324

  1. Strategic transformation of population studies: recommendations of the working group on epidemiology and population sciences from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and Board of External Experts.

    PubMed

    Roger, Véronique L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D; Douglas, Pamela S; Epstein, Jonathan A; Granger, Christopher B; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M

    2015-03-15

    In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate "big data" science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. PMID:25743324

  2. Agricultural Communities: The Interrelationship of Agriculture, Business, Industry, and Government in the Rural Economy. A Symposium (Washington, DC. May 19-20, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    Experts from government, academia, and interest groups met to discuss and explore the impact of changes in agriculture, industry, and government in shaping events in rural agricultural communities. Texts of 15 of the 18 papers are reproduced in the proceedings, along with the letter of submittal, overview, an agenda, and a list of presenters and…

  3. Expert forecasts and the emergence of water scarcity on public agendas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graffy, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Expert forecasts of worldwide water scarcity depict conditions that call for proactive, preventive, coordinated water governance, but they have not been matched by public agendas of commensurate scope and urgency in the United States. This disconnect can not be adequately explained without some attention to attributes of forecasts themselves. I propose that the institutional fragmentation of water expertise and prevailing patterns of communication about water scarcity militate against the formulation of a common public definition of the problem and encourage reliance on unambiguous crises to stimulate social and policy agenda setting. I do not argue that expert forecasts should drive public agendas deterministically, but if their purpose is to help prevent water crises (not just predict them), then a greater effort is needed to overcome the barriers to meaningful public scrutiny of expert claims and evaluation of water strategies presently in place. Copyright ?? 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  4. CLIPS: An expert system building tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 3,300 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as a basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  5. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  6. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  7. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  8. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  9. 40 CFR 766.28 - Expert review of protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Expert review of protocols. EPA will gather a panel of experts in analysis of chemical matrices for HDDs... and/or of other U.S. Government agencies who have had experience in analysis of chemical matrices and... Prevention and Toxics, whether the protocol submitted is likely to allow analysis down to the target LOQs,...

  10. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  11. Spanning the Research/Application Interface: Liaisons and Trainers as Agents Bridging Expert and Semi-Expert Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark

    This paper reviews the communicative behavior surrounding the coordination of expert and "semi-expert" groups of scientists and engineers by analyzing several histories of technology that focus on the coordination of research information between a research organization and many development organizations. For the paper's purposes, semi-expert means…

  12. Safety organizations and experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

  13. Forecasting the Use of Electronic Health Records: An Expert Opinion Approach

    PubMed Central

    Blavin, Fredric Evan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes

    2013-01-01

    Background To promote the widespread adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs), in 2011, CMS started making Medicare and Medicaid incentive payments to providers who demonstrate that they are “meaningful users” of certified EHR systems. Data and Methods This paper combines an expert opinion method, a modified Delphi technique, with a technological diffusion framework to create a forecast of the percent of office-based physicians who will become adopters and “meaningful users” of health information technology from 2012 to 2019. The panel consisted of 18 experts from industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable about the adoption and use of EHRs in office-based settings and are recognized as opinion leaders in their respective professions. Results Overall, the expert panel projected that primary care physicians in large group practices are more likely to achieve the meaningful use of EHRs relative to primary care physicians in small group practices and all other specialists: the group projected that 65 percent of primary care physicians in large group practices, 45 percent of primary care physicians in small group practices, and 44 percent of all other specialists could achieve meaningful use by 2015. In 2019, these projections increase to 80 percent, 65 percent, and 66 percent for these three groups, respectively. Conclusions and Policy Implications The information from this study is especially valuable when there is a lack of data and a high degree of uncertainty in a new policy environment and could help inform and evaluate government programs, such as the Regional Extension Centers (REC), by providing data from leading experts. PMID:24753964

  14. Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

  15. Expert verification of the knowledge base of FEED--a feedback expert system for EMS documentation.

    PubMed

    Saini, Devashish; Orthner, Helmuth F; Berner, Eta S; Mirza, Muzna; Godwin, Charles J; Brown, Todd B

    2008-01-01

    Feedback Expert System for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Documentation (FEED) has a rule-based knowledge base (KB) that was verified against specifications in a focus group consisting of six experts. The focus group suggested changes in almost all rules discussed, indicating that the KB did not meet specifications at that stage of development. However, enough information was gathered to address these issues in the next iteration of development. PMID:18999259

  16. Review calls Avanti safe; expert questions validity.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    A review of company studies of the Avanti polyurethane condom suggests that the condom slips and breaks less often or with the same frequency as latex condoms. Results of another study of the plastic condom, sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD), are expected later this spring. The government study was requested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after previous studies showed high breakage rates with the new condom. Approved in 1991 for latex-sensitive individuals, Avanti is the only male condom, other than lamb skin, available to the estimated one percent to two percent of the general population that is sensitive to latex. Experts expect more people to develop greater sensitivity to latex with repeated exposure. Meanwhile, the maker of Avanti, London International Group of Cambridge, England, reported that the condoms broke at a rate of 0.9 percent and that latex condoms broke at a rate of 2.1 percent. These study results contradicted pilot NICHHD studies, however, and the FDA later asked the company and the NICHHD to conduct new research. Several other plastic condoms have been submitted to the FDA for approval, and a thicker version of Avanti was approved last year. PMID:11363405

  17. Avionic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshani, Forouzan

    1988-01-01

    At the heart of any intelligent flight control system, there is a knowledge based expert system. The efficiency of these knowledge bases is one of the major factors in the success of aviation and space control systems. In the future, the speed and the capabilities of the expert system and their underlying data base(s) will be the limiting factors in the ability to build more accurate real time space controllers. A methodology is proposed for design and construction of such expert systems. It is noted that existing expert systems are inefficient (slow) in dealing with nontrivial real world situations that involve a vast collection of data. However, current data bases, which are fast in handling large amounts of data, cannot carry out intelligent tasks normally expected from an expert system. The system presented provides the power of deduction (reasoning) along with the efficient mechanisms for management of large data bases. In the system, both straight forward evaluation procedures and sophisticated inference mechanisms coexist. The design methodology is based on mathematics and logic, which ensures the correctness of the final product.

  18. Nigerian census surprises experts.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1992-06-01

    In 1989, Nigeria set up the independent National Population Commission (NPC) to undertake a long awaited, free of political tampering census. The head of the NPC separated the country into 7 census areas. Someone with no natal or marital connection to the area headed each area. The NPC followed current guidelines on conducting a census and held pretests and a rehearsal. It hired about 800,000 enumerators. Finally, in 3 days in November 1991, they collected census data from households where people were instructed to remain between 6-18 o'clock. This request along with other points helped to depoliticize this census. For example, population size would no longer determine distribution of government expenditures. Further the census questionnaire did not contain any questions to politicized topics mainly ethnic group, language, or religion. The results of the census revealed that population size was actually 88.5 million instead of the 1991 population estimates of 112-123 million. Lawmakers and leaders in several states have already called for recounts. In the past, census counts were inflated to increase revenue and due to ethnic conflict. Past population estimates have been based on the 1963 census which, despite its questionable reliability, was deemed more accurate than that of 1973. The 1963 count was officially 56 million, but the UN Demographic Yearbook reported it to be 46 million. Yet, now that the results of the much more reliable 1991 census are known, even 46 million was probably too high. The 1991 count indicated that the 1963 count was more likely between 36-41 million which was quite compatible with the 1953 count. Some population specialists fear that this much smaller population size will result in the government and people downplaying population policies and family planning. Indeed 1 political leader already told men to marry more wives and have more children. Yet the population may reach 120 million by 2000 at its current 3% rate of natural increase

  19. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  20. The 2015 Academic College of Emergency Experts in India's INDO-US Joint Working Group White Paper on Establishing an Academic Department and Training Pediatric Emergency Medicine Specialists in India.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prashant; Batra, Prerna; Shah, Binita R; Saha, Abhijeet; Galwankar, Sagar; Aggrawal, Praveen; Hassoun, Ameer; Batra, Bipin; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Shah, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    The concept of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) is virtually nonexistent in India. Suboptimally, organized prehospital services substantially hinder the evaluation, management, and subsequent transport of the acutely ill and/or injured child to an appropriate facility. Furthermore, the management of the ill child at the hospital level is often provided by overburdened providers who, by virtue of their training, lack experience in the skills required to effectively manage pediatric emergencies. Finally, the care of the traumatized child often requires the involvement of providers trained in different specialities, which further impedes timely access to appropriate care. The recent recognition of Doctor of Medicine (MD) in Emergency Medicine (EM) as an approved discipline of study as per the Indian Medical Council Act provides an unprecedented opportunity to introduce PEM as a formal academic program in India. PEM has to be developed as a 3-year superspeciality course (in PEM) after completion of MD/Diplomate of National Board (DNB) Pediatrics or MD/DNB in EM. The National Board of Examinations (NBE) that accredits and administers postgraduate and postdoctoral programs in India also needs to develop an academic program - DNB in PEM. The goals of such a program would be to impart theoretical knowledge, training in the appropriate skills and procedures, development of communication and counseling techniques, and research. In this paper, the Joint Working Group of the Academic College of Emergency Experts in India (JWG-ACEE-India) gives its recommendations for starting 3-year DM/DNB in PEM, including the curriculum, infrastructure, staffing, and training in India. This is an attempt to provide an uniform framework and a set of guiding principles to start PEM as a structured superspeciality to enhance emergency care for Indian children. PMID:26807394

  1. The 2015 Academic College of Emergency Experts in Indias INDO-US Joint Working Group White Paper on Establishing an Academic Department and Training Pediatric Emergency Medicine Specialists in India.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prashant; Batra, Prerna; Shah, Binita R; Saha, Abhijeet; Galwankar, Sagar; Aggrawal, Praveen; Hassoun, Ameer; Batra, Bipin; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Shah, Dheeraj

    2015-12-01

    The concept of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) is virtually nonexistent in India. Suboptimally organized prehospital services substantially hinder the evaluation, management, and subsequent transport of the acutely ill and/or injured child to an appropriate facility. Furthermore, the management of the ill child at the hospital level is often provided by overburdened providers who, by virtue of their training, lack experience in the skills required to effectively manage pediatric emergencies. Finally, the care of the traumatized child often requires the involvement of providers trained in different specialities, which further impedes timely access to appropriate care. The recent recognition of Doctor of Medicine in Emergency Medicine as an approved discipline of study as per the Indian Medical Council Act provides an unprecedented opportunity to introduce PEM as a formal academic program in India. PEM has to be developed as a 3 year superspeciality course after completion of MD Diplomate of National Board (DNB) Pediatrics or MD DNB in EM. The National Board of Examinations that accredits and administers postgraduate and postdoctoral programs in India also needs to develop an academic program DNB in PEM. The goals of such a program would be to impart theoretical knowledge, training in the appropriate skills and procedures, development of communication and counseling techniques, and research. In this paper, the Joint Working Group of the Academic College of Emergency Experts in India (JWG ACEE India) gives its recommendations for starting 3 year DM DNB in PEM, including the curriculum, infrastructure, staffing, and training in India. This is an attempt to provide an uniform framework and a set of guiding principles to start PEM as a structured superspeciality to enhance emergency care for Indian children. PMID:26713991

  2. The 2015 Academic College of Emergency Experts in India's INDO-US Joint Working Group White Paper on Establishing an Academic Department and Training Pediatric Emergency Medicine Specialists in India

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Prashant; Batra, Prerna; Shah, Binita R; Saha, Abhijeet; Galwankar, Sagar; Aggrawal, Praveen; Hassoun, Ameer; Batra, Bipin; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Shah, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    The concept of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) is virtually nonexistent in India. Suboptimally, organized prehospital services substantially hinder the evaluation, management, and subsequent transport of the acutely ill and/or injured child to an appropriate facility. Furthermore, the management of the ill child at the hospital level is often provided by overburdened providers who, by virtue of their training, lack experience in the skills required to effectively manage pediatric emergencies. Finally, the care of the traumatized child often requires the involvement of providers trained in different specialities, which further impedes timely access to appropriate care. The recent recognition of Doctor of Medicine (MD) in Emergency Medicine (EM) as an approved discipline of study as per the Indian Medical Council Act provides an unprecedented opportunity to introduce PEM as a formal academic program in India. PEM has to be developed as a 3-year superspeciality course (in PEM) after completion of MD/Diplomate of National Board (DNB) Pediatrics or MD/DNB in EM. The National Board of Examinations (NBE) that accredits and administers postgraduate and postdoctoral programs in India also needs to develop an academic program – DNB in PEM. The goals of such a program would be to impart theoretical knowledge, training in the appropriate skills and procedures, development of communication and counseling techniques, and research. In this paper, the Joint Working Group of the Academic College of Emergency Experts in India (JWG-ACEE-India) gives its recommendations for starting 3-year DM/DNB in PEM, including the curriculum, infrastructure, staffing, and training in India. This is an attempt to provide an uniform framework and a set of guiding principles to start PEM as a structured superspeciality to enhance emergency care for Indian children. PMID:26807394

  3. Expert testimony in cult-related litigation.

    PubMed

    Young, J L; Griffith, E E

    1989-01-01

    The work of forensic psychiatrists has expanded into the controversial area of cases involving new religious movements. Challenges to the expert witness in such cases include new questions and a large body of relevant literature. Published appeals decisions have appeared with judicial comments on the conduct of the involved experts. This article presents the comments about expert witnesses from judges who decided cases involving the major new issues of coercion both in recruitment into and forcible abduction from cults, and competency to join and make donations to these groups. The judicial comments are evaluated using relevant literature from the fields of law, psychiatry, and religion. This provides a basis for general observations and suggestions regarding the involvement of psychiatric experts in cult-related cases. PMID:2676025

  4. Expert Systems Application In Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Pradip; Chitturi, Ramesh; Babu, A. J. G.

    1987-05-01

    Expert system, a special branch of Artificial Intelligence finds its way in the domain of manufacturing. This paper presents the basic ideas and features of the expert systems, problems in manufacturing and application of expert systems in manufacturing. As the process planning is an important phase in manufacturing, the suitability of expert systems for process planning area has been highlighted. Several expert systems, developed to solve manufacturing problems are also discussed in the paper.

  5. Expert systems: a classical introduction.

    PubMed

    Semmel, R D

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems are providing a means of solving complex problems that previously defied automation efforts. This paper explains what an expert system is and how one operates. Following a brief description of expert systems, the nature of computer problem-solving and the role of knowledge in that activity are discussed. A typical expert system architecture and common knowledge representation schemes are then described. Finally, the operation of a simple, rule-based expert system is illustrated. PMID:10288417

  6. Expert Cold Structure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  7. Where Experts Come From.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne D.

    Studies of over 100 chess players at varying skill levels and ages show the ways in which experts and nonexperts differ in problem-solving strategies. Important differences are found at all stages of problem solving. The most significant differences appear to be before and after the evaluation of alternatives ("sizing up" the problem, generating…

  8. Experts, Dialects, and Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rakesh Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Examines "expert" discourse--complexes of signs and practices that organize and legitimize social existence and social reproduction--to demonstrate the ideological process involved in the manufacture of Standard English ideology and its continual duplication as necessitated by the three axiomatic conceptions of the English-sacred imagined…

  9. Expert Systems Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Richard O.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a class of artificial intelligence computer programs (often called "expert systems" because they address problems normally thought to require human specialists for their solution) intended to serve as consultants for decision making. Also discusses accomplishments (including information systematization in medical diagnosis and geology)…

  10. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. Methods: The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. Results: The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Conclusion: Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time. PMID:26793666

  11. Reinventing government

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Lepkowski, W.; Long, J.R.; Zurer, P.S.

    1993-10-11

    Both Clinton and Vice President Al Gore are committed to reinventing the federal government. To do so they will need more than a little help from Congress. But, if they succeed in turning the report's recommendations into reality, substantial change will occur in the way the federal government interacts with the chemical community in areas such as environmental and safety and health regulation, science and technology policy, education, and research priority setting. The report is the result of a six-month effort by the National Performance Review (NPR), a group led by Gore. It contains some 400 specific recommendations for changing the ways the federal government operates. These recommendations, if enacted the report claims, would produced savings of $108 billion over five years and reduce the size of the civilian, nonpostal work force by 12%, 252 positions, over the same period. The Department of Energy is the target of eight NPR recommendations. But the one with the most direct relevance to R and D calls for directing its national laboratories to pursue post-Cold War research priorities. Efforts to shift the labs away from their defense orientation began during the Carter presidency, when all of the labs began establishing stronger research programs in environmental science and technology and biology.

  12. Make yourself an expert.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Barton, Gavin; Barton, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    Almost every organization has people it can't do without--specialists with "deep smarts," who are the go-to experts on critical issues. But because their knowledge is experienced-based, it's often instinctive and unarticulated, and never gets passed on. Capturing it is a challenge for both the organization and for colleagues who wish to become in-house authorities themselves. This article offers a methodical system for acquiring deep smarts from an expert. It involves observing that person extensively to understand what makes him successful, practicing the behaviors he exhibits on your own, partnering with him to solve problems, and ultimately taking responsibility for some of his tasks. Describing the experiences of one executive as she takes this journey with a mentor, the authors show how you too can gain the wisdom that will make you indispensable to your firm. PMID:23593772

  13. ALICE Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, C.; Carena, F.

    2014-06-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period.

  14. Manitoba Task Force on Francophone Schools Governance. Report = Groupe de travail manitobain sur la gestion des ecoles franco-manitobaines. Le rapport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Findings of a task force on introduction of a school governance system for Manitoba's (Canada) francophone minority population are reported. The document outlines the background--i.e., the Canadian context--of this report, principles and procedures, the resulting recommended structure for governance, and suggestions for addressing such issues as…

  15. Heat exchanger demonstration expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagby, D. G.; Cormier, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A real-time expert system intended for detecting and diagnosing faults in a 20 kW microwave transmitter heat exchanger is described. The expert system was developed on a LISP machine, Incorporated (LMI), Lambda Plus computer using Process Intelligent Control (PICON) software. The Heat Exhanger Expert System was tested and debugged. Future applications and extensions of the expert system to transmitters, masers, and antenna subassemblies are discussed.

  16. Heat exchanger demonstration expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagby, D. G.; Cormier, R. A.

    1988-05-01

    A real-time expert system intended for detecting and diagnosing faults in a 20 kW microwave transmitter heat exchanger is described. The expert system was developed on a LISP machine, Incorporated (LMI), Lambda Plus computer using Process Intelligent Control (PICON) software. The Heat Exhanger Expert System was tested and debugged. Future applications and extensions of the expert system to transmitters, masers, and antenna subassemblies are discussed.

  17. Professionalism in court: The neurologist as expert witness.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, William P; Hutchins, John C

    2014-08-01

    Serving as an expert witness can be a rewarding experience. It affords the neurologist the opportunity to contribute expertise to the legal system's pursuit of justice and benefits the public interest. However, serving as an expert witness without understanding and incorporating relevant professional and specialty guidelines concerning expert witness testimony can place the neurologist at risk. The American Academy of Neurology has established standards governing expert witness testimony and a disciplinary process to respond to complaints of violation of its standards. Increased understanding of and adherence to these qualifications and guidelines, coupled with an awareness of how the legal system differs from clinical practice, will better equip neurologists serving as expert witnesses and minimize their professional risk when doing so. PMID:25279255

  18. Expert and Knowledge Based Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaid, Adrian; Edwards, Lyndon

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature and current state of knowledge-based systems and expert systems. Describes an expert system from the viewpoints of a computer programmer and an applications expert. Addresses concerns related to materials selection and forecasts future developments in the teaching of materials engineering. (ML)

  19. Distinctive Qualities of Expert Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Amy B. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the distinctive qualities of successful veteran teachers, referred to as "expert teachers", which separates them not only from novice teachers but more importantly from experienced non-expert teachers. Based on earlier case studies, this paper maintains that the critical differences between expert and non-expert…

  20. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  1. A Descriptive Study of the Semantic Connotations Toward the Institutional Governance System at Delaware County Community College of the Several Constituent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Bruce T.

    This study was conducted to determine whether the attitudes of the various constituent representatives (administration, faculty, students, and noncontract personnel) differed significantly toward the Institutional Governance system as operative at Delaware County Community College (Pennsylvania). Following Osgood's Semantic Differential technique…

  2. Confessions and expert testimony.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    In this clinical paper, the author discusses criminal confessions from the point of view of the expert witness who may be asked to comment on the reliability of the statement and waiver of rights. From the time a suspect is in police custody, constitutional protections against self-incrimination and for due process are in place. The Supreme Court set the standard for these situations in the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona decision. Although it has long been criticized by law enforcement, the decision was upheld in the 2000 decision in Dickerson v. U.S. For a waiver of rights to be valid, it must be a knowing, intelligent, and voluntary decision. Voluntariness is an equation of objective and subjective variables. Treatment by police, physical conditions of interrogation, the suspect's experience and mental state can alter the reliability of a confession. Accordingly, the author has devised a mnemonic for the recognition of conditions that may give rise to expert testimony. The conditions are: Mental illness, Intoxication, Retardation, Acquiescence, Narcotic withdrawal, Deception, and Abuse. These are discussed, supported by examples from the author's practice. PMID:14974801

  3. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  4. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.

  5. On the Empirical Identification and Evaluation of "Expert Nominators"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Babcock, Ben; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate and empirically investigate Prinstein's (2007) conclusions regarding "expert nominators," a subsample of individuals in a peer group whose peer nominations might substitute for nominations from the full sample. The current study empirically identified experts based on "comparative…

  6. Differences in the Educational Software Evaluation Process for Experts and Novice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokmak, Hatice Sancar; Incikabi, Lutfi; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar

    2012-01-01

    This comparative case study investigated the educational software evaluation processes of both experts and novices in conjunction with a software evaluation checklist. Twenty novice elementary education students, divided into groups of five, and three experts participated. Each novice group and the three experts evaluated educational software…

  7. Expert and public perception of risk from biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Savadori, Lucia; Savio, Stefania; Nicotra, Eraldo; Rumiati, Rino; Finucane, Melissa; Slovic, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Risk perceptions of a series of biotechnology applications were examined in a public (nonexpert) sample and an expert sample. Compared with the experts, the public perceived all biotechnology applications as more risky. Both groups perceived food-related applications to be riskier than medical applications. Compared with the public, experts perceived both food and medical applications as less harmful and more useful. Experts also judged the risks posed from medical biotechnology applications as more familiar and acknowledged by people and science. Lay estimates of the risk of food applications were predicted by potential harm, potential benefits, science knowledge, and familiarity; experts' estimates were predicted only by harm and benefits. Lay estimates of the risk of medical applications were predicted by potential harm; experts' estimates were predicted by potential benefits, number and type of people exposed, and science knowledge. We discuss the implications of the results for risk communication about and management of different types of biotechnologies. PMID:15563295

  8. A way to the Photo Master Expert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Toshihiko

    After the author presided over the photographer's group for 15 years or more, the author met with the Photo Master certificate examination. And the author took the certificate examination, and was authorized as a Photo Master Expert in 2005. In this report, the outline how photographic technology has been mastered in order to adapt the photographer's group to the great change of photography from film to digital and how the contents of the activity of a photographer's group have changed is described. And the progress which took the Photo Master certificate examination as a good opportunity to prove the achievement level of those activities is described. And as a photographic activity after Photo Master Expert authorization, the shooting method of mural painting in the royal tomb of Amenophis III is described.

  9. Survey of Opinions on the Primacy of "g" and Social Consequences of Ability Testing: A Comparison of Expert and Non-Expert Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Charles, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the views of experts in the science of mental abilities about the primacy and uniqueness of "g" and the social implications of ability testing, and compares their responses to the views of a group of non-expert psychologists. Results indicate expert consensus that "g" is an important, non-trivial determinant (or at least…

  10. Expert System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a software shell for developing expert systems is designed to allow research and development of artificial intelligence on conventional computers. Originally developed by Johnson Space Center, it enables highly efficient pattern matching. A collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is built into a rule network. Additional pertinent facts are matched to the rule network. Using the program, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. is monitoring chemical production machines; California Polytechnic State University is investigating artificial intelligence in computer aided design; Mentor Graphics has built a new Circuit Synthesis system, and Brooke and Brooke, a law firm, can determine which facts from a file are most important.

  11. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  12. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 374: Expert testimony.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    It is the duty of obstetricians and gynecologists who testify as expert witnesses on behalf of defendants, the government, or plaintiffs to do so solely in accordance with their judgment on the merits of the case. Obstetrician-gynecologists must limit testimony to their sphere of medical expertise and must be prepared adequately. They must make a clear distinction between medical malpractice and medical maloccurrence. The acceptance of fees that are greatly disproportionate to those customary for professional services can be construed as influencing testimony given by the witness, and it is unethical to accept compensation that is contingent on the outcome of litigation. PMID:17666622

  13. [Expert advice in liability cases].

    PubMed

    Brands, W G

    2009-05-01

    Concerning cases of liability, dentists in the future will probably have to call on expert help or act as experts on behalf of a colleague with increasing frequency. Dentists who consider acting as experts in liability cases will have to develop their expertise especially in civil law and disciplinary law. Matters which in this respect should receive special attention are: the expert must act in conformity with the law on Medical Treatment Agreement; the expert's report must make clear what the legal basis is of the report's conclusions; the legal basis must be substantially supported by the facts, conditions and findings that are mentioned in the report; the expert must act independently and refrain from subjective judgments, assumptions and unprofessional and prejudicial qualifications. PMID:19507415

  14. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  15. [Applications and progresses of expert system on chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xu, Guowang; Lu, Xin; Kong, Hongwei; Shi, Xianzhe; Zhao, Xinjie; Tian, Jing; Lu, Guo

    2005-09-01

    The expert system on chromatography has achieved great advancement in the past two decades, and is playing a more and more important role in solving analytical problems of complex samples. Research results of expert system on chromatography in authors' group are reviewed with 64 references. A brief introduction of the expert system on chromatography is presented. Applications of the expert system on chromatography are summarized in the fields of petrochemical online analysis, environmental air sample analysis, tumor diagnosis and traditional Chinese medicine analysis. The review followed the scientific foot steps in the authors' group, starting from the development of the expert system on gas chromatography, to the selection of multi-column systems in online industrial gas chromatographs in petrochemical plants, and to the employment of the new techniques in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis to solve the practical analytical problems in the nation's scientific and economic development. PMID:16350785

  16. Institutional Governance in Higher Education: Public Policy in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premfors, Rune

    Major public policies for institutional governance in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom over the past two decades are reviewed, and factors that may account for differences in policy developments in the three countries are considered. In France and (although only recently) in Sweden, politics have aimed at increasing institutional autonomy in…

  17. Student Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Joyce

    Materials for running a student government program at the junior high school level are provided in three general sections. Section 1 is a description of student government operations. Topics covered include student government responsibilities and activities, student council meeting procedures, parliamentary rules, responsibilities of the…

  18. ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub

  19. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  20. From randomized trials to the clinic: is it time to implement individual lung-cancer screening in clinical practice? A multidisciplinary statement from French experts on behalf of the french intergroup (IFCT) and the groupe d'Oncologie de langue française (GOLF)

    PubMed Central

    Couraud, S.; Cortot, A. B.; Greillier, L.; Gounant, V.; Mennecier, B.; Girard, N.; Besse, B.; Brouchet, L.; Castelnau, O.; Frappé, P.; Ferretti, G. R.; Guittet, L.; Khalil, A.; Lefebure, P.; Laurent, F.; Liebart, S.; Molinier, O.; Quoix, E.; Revel, M.-P.; Stach, B.; Souquet, P.-J.; Thomas, P.; Trédaniel, J.; Lemarié, E.; Zalcman, G.; Barlési, F.; Milleron, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in cancer therapy, mortality is still high except in early-stage tumors, and screening remains a challenge. The randomized National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), comparing annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and chest X-rays, revealed a 20% decrease in lung-cancer-specific mortality. These results raised numerous questions. The French intergroup for thoracic oncology and the French-speaking oncology group convened an expert group to provide a coherent outlook on screening modalities in France. Methods A literature review was carried out and transmitted to the expert group, which was divided into three workshops to tackle specific questions, with responses presented in a plenary session. A writing committee drafted this article. Results The multidisciplinary group favored individual screening in France, when carried out as outlined in this article and after informing subjects of the benefits and risks. The target population involves subjects aged 55–74 years, who are smokers or have a 30 pack-year smoking history. Subjects should be informed about the benefits of quitting. Screening should involve LDCT scanning with specific modalities. Criteria for CT positivity and management algorithms for positive examinations are given. Conclusions Individual screening requires rigorous assessment and precise research in order to potentially develop a lung-cancer screening policy. PMID:23136229

  1. Social Familiarity Governs Prey Patch-Exploitation, - Leaving and Inter-Patch Distribution of the Group-Living Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    PubMed Central

    Zach, Gernot J.; Peneder, Stefan; Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background In group-living animals, social interactions and their effects on other life activities such as foraging are commonly determined by discrimination among group members. Accordingly, many group-living species evolved sophisticated social recognition abilities such as the ability to recognize familiar individuals, i.e. individuals encountered before. Social familiarity may affect within-group interactions and between-group movements. In environments with patchily distributed prey, group-living predators must repeatedly decide whether to stay with the group in a given prey patch or to leave and search for new prey patches and groups. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the assumption that in group-living animals social familiarity allows to optimize the performance in other tasks, as for example predicted by limited attention theory, we assessed the influence of social familiarity on prey patch exploitation, patch-leaving, and inter-patch distribution of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. P. persimilis is highly specialized on herbivorous spider mite prey such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is patchily distributed on its host plants. We conducted two experiments with (1) groups of juvenile P. persimilis under limited food on interconnected detached leaflets, and (2) groups of adult P. persimilis females under limited food on whole plants. Familiar individuals of both juvenile and adult predator groups were more exploratory and dispersed earlier from a given spider mite patch, occupied more leaves and depleted prey more quickly than individuals of unfamiliar groups. Moreover, familiar juvenile predators had higher survival chances than unfamiliar juveniles. Conclusions/Significance We argue that patch-exploitation and -leaving, and inter-patch dispersion were more favorably coordinated in groups of familiar than unfamiliar predators, alleviating intraspecific competition and improving prey

  2. Expert Antiskid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, N.; Kuraoka, H.; Ohka, N.; Ohba, M.; Tabe, T.

    1987-10-01

    In this paper we discuss how to generate the command value for the optimal regulator in an automotive antiskid system. First, the behavior of the vehicle at braking is expressed as a mathematical model with the formulation by physical consideration and identification of the hydraulic system by statistical methods. An optimal regulator with additional integral is applied to the automotive antiskid control in order to make the each wheel speed follow any command value. However, the desired command value to stop the vehicle efficiently and stably is dependent on ambiguous road surface conditions. Thus, how to determine the desired command value under the moment-to-moment conditions is most important. A method for inferring the conditions is developed using fuzzy logic, with three fuzzy variables expressing the conditions adequately. On the basis of the inference, the ideal command values are generated. Outstanding control performance and good adaptability are obtained in vehicle experiments. Consequently, the Expert Antiskid System, employing modern control theory and fuzzy logic, can stop a vehicle efficiently and stably under any condition.

  3. Expert Systems and Document Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Describes significant attributes of expert systems, contrasts them to conventional computer systems, and provides an overview of the R1 expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to put together operational systems that meet customers' requirements. Document handling, particularly pictures and images in documents, is also briefly…

  4. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  5. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    The application of artificial intelligence to the problems of education is examined. One of the most promising areas in artificial intelligence is expert systems technology which engages the user in a problem-solving diaglogue. Some of the characteristics that make expert systems "intelligent" are identified and exemplified. The rise of expert…

  6. Energy Policy: Ask the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuclear Industry, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Twelve U.S. experts on energy policies individually offer perspectives about which priorities should be enlisted with respect to the current energy policy of the United States. In their analyses, these experts unanimously agree that the biggest U.S. problem is an increasing dependence upon imported oil. (JJK)

  7. Communicator Credibility: Trustworthiness Defeats Expertness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Louisa; Standing, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    Compared credibility of highly trustworthy communicator with that of an expert by using nuns (N=36) who listened to the same persuasive message about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome presented as either a trustworthy source (priest), an expert (doctor), or a neutral source. Found trustworthy communicator was regarded as significantly more…

  8. Expert Systems and Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems are computerized databases that can diagnose and recommend treatment for persons who are ill. The database contains information on more than 7,600 diseases generated from exhaustive questioning of experts. These systems supplement human expertise but do not replace the good teaching of physicians. (VM)

  9. Expertise in Teaching: Expert Pedagogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    "The purpose of this article is to report a review of the developing empirical literature to explain "expert" teacher behavior, by analogy, from the cognitive psychology expertise literature. Emphasized is a review of the expert-novice cognitive psychology literature, encompassing the research on: chess, and other games; physics, medicine, and…

  10. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  11. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  12. Practice Governance 101, v. 2013.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David F

    2013-03-01

    Consensus governance is a principal weakness leading to group malfunction and failure. Inadequate group governance produces inadequate decisions, leading to inconsistent patient care, inadequate responses to marketplace challenges, and disregard for customers and strategic partners. The effectiveness of consensus management is limited by the pervasive incomplete knowledge and personal biases of partners. Additional structural weaknesses of group behavior include information cascade, the wisdom of the crowd, groupthink, pluralistic ignorance, analysis paralysis, peer pressure, and the herding instinct. Usual corporate governance is, by necessity, the governance model of choice. Full accountability of the decider(s) is the defining requirement of all successful governance models. PMID:23571058

  13. Cognitive resources of physics experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Darrick C.

    One important goal of physics education is to help students develop reasoning patterns similar to those of expert physicists. To achieve this goal, physics educators must know what makes physics experts so successful at solving challenging physics problems. However, this dimension of physics expertise has not been fully explored by the physics education research (PER) community. In this dissertation, I describe several studies I have conducted that further the PER community's understanding of physics expertise. In these studies, I investigate how expert physicists reason as they solve unfamiliar, challenging physics problems by using a resource-based model of cognition to analyze videotaped recordings of problem solving sessions. By developing a way to determine when experts are making conceptual breakthroughs I analyze what resources experts use during conceptual breakthroughs. In the first study, I show that physics conceptual breakthroughs are characterized by reasoning which combines resources related to intuitive knowledge, higher level physics based conceptual knowledge, and epistemological knowledge. In the second study, I develop a way to reliably code for epistemological resources and determine what epistemological resources experts rely on most during conceptual breakthroughs. My findings show that experts rely on contrasting cases more often than any other epistemological resource. In the third study, I use variation theory to investigate how experts use contrasting cases. I look for patterns across all instances when experts use contrasting cases to make a conceptual breakthrough and show how scientific epistemology can be used to better understand experts' use of contrasting cases. I discuss how the findings of each study can be used to inform physics education.

  14. System of Experts for Intelligent Data Management (SEIDAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Iisaka, Joji; Fung, KO

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to conduct research and development on a system of expert systems for intelligent data management (SEIDAM). CCRS has much expertise in developing systems for integrating geographic information with space and aircraft remote sensing data and in managing large archives of remotely sensed data. SEIDAM will be composed of expert systems grouped in three levels. At the lowest level, the expert systems will manage and integrate data from diverse sources, taking account of symbolic representation differences and varying accuracies. Existing software can be controlled by these expert systems, without rewriting existing software into an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language. At the second level, SEIDAM will take the interpreted data (symbolic and numerical) and combine these with data models. At the top level, SEIDAM will respond to user goals for predictive outcomes given existing data. The SEIDAM Project will address the research areas of expert systems, data management, storage and retrieval, and user access and interfaces.

  15. System of experts for intelligent data management (SEIDAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Iisaka, Joji; Fung, KO

    1993-01-01

    A proposal to conduct research and development on a system of expert systems for intelligent data management (SEIDAM) is being developed. CCRS has much expertise in developing systems for integrating geographic information with space and aircraft remote sensing data and in managing large archives of remotely sensed data. SEIDAM will be composed of expert systems grouped in three levels. At the lowest level, the expert systems will manage and integrate data from diverse sources, taking account of symbolic representation differences and varying accuracies. Existing software can be controlled by these expert systems, without rewriting existing software into an Artificial Intelligence (AI) language. At the second level, SEIDAM will take the interpreted data (symbolic and numerical) and combine these with data models. at the top level, SEIDAM will respond to user goals for predictive outcomes given existing data. The SEIDAM Project will address the research areas of expert systems, data management, storage and retrieval, and user access and interfaces.

  16. [Veterinarians as experts in court].

    PubMed

    Ort, J D

    2004-03-01

    General veterinarians such as veterinary officers act as experts at court. They are in so far part of the evidence. Due to his experience the veterinary expert shall give systematical uniform principles concerning even domains adjacent to the field of animal protection such as protection of animal epidemics and food cases, verifiable by science and university research. Examples for expert's topics as well as the requirements of expert reports are shown. According to paragraph 15 II Tierschutzgesetz (Animal Protection Act), as well as according to paragraph paragraph 63, 76 Ordnungswidrigkeitengesetz the experts participation in the proceeding is necessary. In consideration of paragraph paragraph 74, 22 Strafprozessordnung (Code of Criminal Proceedure) conflicts may arise because the veterinarian officer is self-contained investigator, witness as well as expert in the same proceeding. In general the veterinarian officer, who has been involved in the investigations must be excluded from expert activity in the same case. The veterinarian officers have to solve this problem by seperating tasks and functions within one legal case. PMID:15195954

  17. The Needs and Difficulties in Socializing the Young in Contemporary China: Early Childhood Education Experts' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh, Yeh; Hao, Jun; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study was the first of its kind in China to examine early childhood education experts' perspectives on the urgent educational needs of preschool-aged children. Twenty-one nationally and regionally recognized experts, including university professors, practitioners and government officials, participated in interviews. They offered critical…

  18. Remaking Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded freedom for…

  19. Reinventing Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, David T.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout all levels of American government, a shift is taking place from the rigid, wasteful, centralized bureaucracies of the industrial era to the more flexible, entrepreneurial, decentralized government needed to succeed in today's world. This shift has been brought about by an unprecedented, ongoing fiscal crisis that has created a sudden…

  20. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  1. Filtering information from human experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendel, Max B.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose a model, or filter, for debiasing opinions from multiple experts and combining them into a single consistent estimate of some variable of interest. A distinguishing feature of the approach consists of making the calibration of experts an integral part of filtering. This enables the filter to learn from previous experience with the experts. The theoretical development takes a Bayesian perspective, using de Finetti's (1964) notion of exchangeability. Experimental results with a preliminary computer implementation of the filter show that its estimates are better than those from comparable filters that do not involve calibration.

  2. Signal Processing Expert Code (SPEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, H.S.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a prototype expert system called SPEC which was developed to demonstrate the utility of providing an intelligent interface for users of SIG, a general purpose signal processing code. The expert system is written in NIL, runs on a VAX 11/750 and consists of a backward chaining inference engine and an English-like parser. The inference engine uses knowledge encoded as rules about the formats of SIG commands and about how to perform frequency analyses using SIG. The system demonstrated that expert system can be used to control existing codes.

  3. Expert Witness: A system for developing expert medical testimony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Raymond; Perkins, David; Leasure, David

    1994-01-01

    Expert Witness in an expert system designed to assist attorneys and medical experts in determining the merit of medical malpractice claims in the area of obstetrics. It substitutes the time of the medical expert with the time of a paralegal assistant guided by the expert system during the initial investigation of the medical records and patient interviews. The product of the system is a narrative transcript containing important data, immediate conclusions from the data, and overall conclusions of the case that the attorney and medical expert use to make decisions about whether and how to proceed with the case. The transcript may also contain directives for gathering additional information needed for the case. The system is a modified heuristic classifier and is implemented using over 600 CLIPS rules together with a C-based user interface. The data abstraction and solution refinement are implemented directly using forward chaining production and matching. The use of CLIPS and C is essential to delivering a system that runs on a generic PC platform. The direct implementation in CLIPS together with locality of inference ensures that the system will scale gracefully. Two years of use has revealed no errors in the reasoning.

  4. Ask the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Betty C.

    1988-01-01

    The author addresses the impact and significance of the back-to-the-basics movement as it relates to business education. She focuses on curriculum for business students, the need to train teachers to provide basic skills instruction, the role of business education, effects of the educational reform groups, and strategies for business educators.…

  5. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  6. Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the “big three”: Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  7. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically. PMID:21734247

  8. Renewing governance.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

  9. Expert systems identify fossils and manage large paleontological databases

    SciTech Connect

    Beightol, D.S. ); Conrad, M.A.

    1988-02-01

    EXPAL is a computer program permitting creation and maintenance of comprehensive databases in marine paleontology. It is designed to assist specialists and non-specialists. EXPAL includes a powerful expert system based on the morphological descriptors specific to a given group of fossils. The expert system may be used, for example, to describe and automatically identify an unknown specimen. EXPAL was first applied to Dasycladales (Calcareous green algae). Projects are under way for corresponding expert systems and databases on planktonic foraminifers and calpionellids. EXPAL runs on an IBM XT or compatible microcomputer.

  10. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; McCall, Kurt E.

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  11. Sleep spindle detection: crowdsourcing and evaluating performance of experts, non-experts, and automated methods

    PubMed Central

    Warby, Simon C.; Wendt, Sabrina L.; Welinder, Peter; Munk, Emil G.S.; Carrillo, Oscar; Sorensen, Helge B.D.; Jennum, Poul; Peppard, Paul E.; Perona, Pietro; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Sleep spindles are discrete, intermittent patterns of brain activity that arise as a result of interactions of several circuits in the brain. Increasingly, these oscillations are of biological and clinical interest because of their role in development, learning, and neurological disorders. We used an internet interface to ‘crowdsource’ spindle identification from human experts and non-experts, and compared performance with 6 automated detection algorithms in middle-to-older aged subjects from the general population. We also developed a method for forming group consensus, and refined methods of evaluating the performance of event detectors in physiological data such as polysomnography. Compared to the gold standard, the highest performance was by individual experts and the non-expert group consensus, followed by automated spindle detectors. Crowdsourcing the scoring of sleep data is an efficient method to collect large datasets, even for difficult tasks such as spindle identification. Further refinements to automated sleep spindle algorithms are needed for middle-to-older aged subjects. PMID:24562424

  12. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sonie; Yan, Jerry C.

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 1990s cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient implementation of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real-time demands are met for larger systems. Speedup via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial laboratories in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems is surveyed. The survey discusses multiprocessors for expert systems, parallel languages for symbolic computations, and mapping expert systems to multiprocessors. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. The main reasons are (1) the body of knowledge applicable in any given situation and the amount of computation executed by each rule firing are small, (2) dividing the problem solving process into relatively independent partitions is difficult, and (3) implementation decisions that enable expert systems to be incrementally refined hamper compile-time optimization. In order to obtain greater speedups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  13. Parallel processing and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Lau, Sonie

    1991-01-01

    Whether it be monitoring the thermal subsystem of Space Station Freedom, or controlling the navigation of the autonomous rover on Mars, NASA missions in the 90's cannot enjoy an increased level of autonomy without the efficient use of expert systems. Merely increasing the computational speed of uniprocessors may not be able to guarantee that real time demands are met for large expert systems. Speed-up via parallel processing must be pursued alongside the optimization of sequential implementations. Prototypes of parallel expert systems have been built at universities and industrial labs in the U.S. and Japan. The state-of-the-art research in progress related to parallel execution of expert systems was surveyed. The survey is divided into three major sections: (1) multiprocessors for parallel expert systems; (2) parallel languages for symbolic computations; and (3) measurements of parallelism of expert system. Results to date indicate that the parallelism achieved for these systems is small. In order to obtain greater speed-ups, data parallelism and application parallelism must be exploited.

  14. An Expert-System Engine With Operative Probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, N. E.; Palmer, M. T.; Wallace, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Program enables proof-of-concepts tests of expert systems under development. AESOP is rule-based inference engine for expert system, which makes decisions about particular situation given user-supplied hypotheses, rules, and answers to questions drawn from rules. If knowledge base containing hypotheses and rules governing environment is available to AESOP, almost any situation within that environment resolved by answering questions asked by AESOP. Questions answered with YES, NO, MAYBE, DON'T KNOW, DON'T CARE, or with probability factor ranging from 0 to 10. AESOP written in Franz LISP for interactive execution.

  15. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more “codable”, then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too. PMID:27322035

  16. Not All Flavor Expertise Is Equal: The Language of Wine and Coffee Experts.

    PubMed

    Croijmans, Ilja; Majid, Asifa

    2016-01-01

    People in Western cultures are poor at naming smells and flavors. However, for wine and coffee experts, describing smells and flavors is part of their daily routine. So are experts better than lay people at conveying smells and flavors in language? If smells and flavors are more easily linguistically expressed by experts, or more "codable", then experts should be better than novices at describing smells and flavors. If experts are indeed better, we can also ask how general this advantage is: do experts show higher codability only for smells and flavors they are expert in (i.e., wine experts for wine and coffee experts for coffee) or is their linguistic dexterity more general? To address these questions, wine experts, coffee experts, and novices were asked to describe the smell and flavor of wines, coffees, everyday odors, and basic tastes. The resulting descriptions were compared on a number of measures. We found expertise endows a modest advantage in smell and flavor naming. Wine experts showed more consistency in how they described wine smells and flavors than coffee experts, and novices; but coffee experts were not more consistent for coffee descriptions. Neither expert group was any more accurate at identifying everyday smells or tastes. Interestingly, both wine and coffee experts tended to use more source-based terms (e.g., vanilla) in descriptions of their own area of expertise whereas novices tended to use more evaluative terms (e.g., nice). However, the overall linguistic strategies for both groups were en par. To conclude, experts only have a limited, domain-specific advantage when communicating about smells and flavors. The ability to communicate about smells and flavors is a matter not only of perceptual training, but specific linguistic training too. PMID:27322035

  17. Testing the Stability of Experts' Opinions between Successive Rounds of Delphi Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu Nu

    The Delphi method is a means of structuring group communication process so that a group of experts can gather information or forecast future problems effectively. A primary objective of a Delphi study is to obtain consensual and consistent opinions from a group of experts in two or more successive rounds on a given research subject. Consensus and…

  18. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  19. Graph transformation expert system (GTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiquing; Ge, Qihong; Zhong, Luo; Xie, Weiping

    1996-03-01

    The design of many industrial and engineering systems can often be accomplished using flow graphs of various types. Examples include manufacturing processes and data processing applications, Graph Transformation Expert System, is an expert system which has been developed by WUT for applying techniques of artificial intelligence to the architectural design of data and signal processing systems. Software and hardware architectures may be defined for such systems using data flow graphs, in which nodes represent data processing steps and directed areas represent the `flow' of data between the processing steps. Starting with a user- defined generic processing graphic, this expert will transform the graph by applying transformation rules in order to specialize the processing graph to satisfy specified design goals and/or hardware constraints. Although the particular application for which this expert is designed is that of data and signal processing systems, it can provide an expert system framework for other problems specified graphically; for example, manufacturing systems, information systems, and product distribution systems.

  20. Expert system application education project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  1. Web-based expert system for foundry pollution prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2004-02-01

    Pollution prevention is a complex task. Many small foundries lack the in-house expertise to perform these tasks. Expert systems are a type of computer information system that incorporates artificial intelligence. As noted in the literature, they provide a means of automating specialized expertise. This approach may be further leveraged by implementing the expert system on the internet (or world-wide web). This will allow distribution of the expertise to a variety of geographically-dispersed foundries. The purpose of this research is to develop a prototype web-based expert system to support pollution prevention for the foundry industry. The prototype system identifies potential emissions for a specified process, and also provides recommendations for the prevention of these contaminants. The system is viewed as an initial step toward assisting the foundry industry in better meeting government pollution regulations, as well as improving operating efficiencies within these companies.

  2. Government Regulatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katie

    Government regulation of food products, food processing, and food preparation is imperative in bringing an unadulterated, nonmisleading, and safe food product to market and is relevant to all areas of food science, including engineering, processing, chemistry, and microbiology. The liability associated with providing consumers with an adulterated or substandard product cannot only tarnish a company's name and reputation, but also impose substantial financial repercussions on the company and those individuals who play an active role in the violation. In order for a company to fully comply with the relevant food laws (both federal and state), an intimate knowledge of food science is required. Individuals knowledgeable in food science play an integral role not only in implementing and counseling food companies/processors to ensure compliance with government regulations, but these individuals are also necessary to the state and federal governments that make and enforce the relevant laws and regulators.

  3. Research and development for Onboard Navigation (ONAV) ground based expert/trainer system: ONAV entry expert system code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1988-01-01

    A complete listing is given of the expert system rules for the Entry phase of the Onboard Navigation (ONAV) Ground Based Expert Trainer System for aircraft/space shuttle navigation. These source listings appear in the same format as utilized and required by the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert system shell which is the basis for the ONAV entry system. A schematic overview is given of how the rules are organized. These groups result from a partitioning of the rules according to the overall function which a given set of rules performs. This partitioning was established and maintained according to that established in the knowledge specification document. In addition, four other groups of rules are specified. The four groups (control flow, operator inputs, output management, and data tables) perform functions that affect all the other functional rule groups. As the name implies, control flow ensures that the rule groups are executed in the order required for proper operation; operator input rules control the introduction into the CLIPS fact base of various kinds of data required by the expert system; output management rules control the updating of the ONAV expert system user display screen during execution of the system; and data tables are static information utilized by many different rule sets gathered in one convenient place.

  4. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    PubMed

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. PMID:23062586

  5. Weather forecasting expert system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Weather forecasting is critical to both the Space Transportation System (STS) ground operations and the launch/landing activities at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current launch frequency places significant demands on the USAF weather forecasters at the Cape Canaveral Forecasting Facility (CCFF), who currently provide the weather forecasting for all STS operations. As launch frequency increases, KSC's weather forecasting problems will be great magnified. The single most important problem is the shortage of highly skilled forecasting personnel. The development of forecasting expertise is difficult and requires several years of experience. Frequent personnel changes within the forecasting staff jeopardize the accumulation and retention of experience-based weather forecasting expertise. The primary purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to ameliorate this shortage of experts by capturing aria incorporating the forecasting knowledge of current expert forecasters into a Weather Forecasting Expert System (WFES) which would then be made available to less experienced duty forecasters.

  6. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  7. The making of an expert.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, K Anders; Prietula, Michael J; Cokely, Edward T

    2007-01-01

    Popular lore tells us that genius is born, not made. Scientific research, on the other hand, reveals that true expertise is mainly the product of years of intense practice and dedicated coaching. Ordinary practice is not enough: To reach elite levels of performance, you need to constantly push yourself beyond your abilities and comfort level. Such discipline is the key to becoming an expert in all domains, including management and leadership. Those are the conclusions reached by Ericsson, a professor of psychology at Florida State University; Prietula, a professor at the Goizueta Business School; and Cokely, a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, who together studied data on the behavior of experts, gathered by more than 100 scientists. What consistently distinguished elite surgeons, chess players, writers, athletes, pianists, and other experts was the habit of engaging in "deliberate" practice--a sustained focus on tasks that they couldn't do before. Experts continually analyzed what they did wrong, adjusted their techniques, and worked arduously to correct their errors. Even such traits as charisma can be developed using this technique. Working with a drama school, the authors created a set of acting exercises for managers that remarkably enhanced executives' powers of charm and persuasion. Through deliberate practice, leaders can improve their ability to win over their employees, their peers, or their board of directors. The journey to elite performance is not for the impatient or the faint of heart. It takes at least a decade and requires the guidance of an expert teacher to provide tough, often painful feedback. It also demands would-be experts to develop their "inner coach" and eventually drive their own progress. PMID:17642130

  8. [Cardinal errors in expert opinions for the statutory accident insurance].

    PubMed

    Ludolph, E

    2015-11-01

    Expert opinions are subject to restrictions and must abide by the rules laid down by the legal system, much more so than therapies. Cardinal errors in expert opinions for the statutory accident insurance (GUV) are sometimes mistakes which can be found in all forms of expert opinions but in some cases where special questions of social law and the statutory accident insurance are concerned. The first group of mistakes are the differences between the requirements of an expert and a therapist with respect to the certainty of expert opinions, the responsibility of the commissioning authority alone for the non-medical components of an expert opinion, the generally valid principle of only giving opinions on areas of proven expertise and the extremely important aspect of personal responsibility. The second group of mistakes involve specific questions for the statutory accident insurance, such as the principles of causality, the rules of evidence, the estimation of the consequences of an accident with respect to reduction in earning capacity (MdE) and the significance of pre-existing damage. PMID:26446721

  9. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Expert systems and fuzzy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Negoita, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines the design of the expert computer system and how fuzzy systems can be used to deal with imprecise information. As the author explores the effects of semantic systems on decision support systems, he asserts that the utilization of fuzzy set theory can help an expert system draw from its knowledge base more efficiently and therefore make more accurate and reliable decisions. The book includes realistic status reports in approximate reasoning and knowledge representation that are supported by a ''theory of categories'' mathematical approach. The differences between symbolic and semantic manipulation are outline, and detailed information is given on the actual theory of knowledge-based systems.

  11. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A.; Park, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system called CP Diagnostic has been developed for troubleshooting sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with the CP Diagnostic database system, which stores inventory and field measurement information for CP systems and flags problem areas. When a malfunction is detected, the expert system queries the user and the companion inventory and field measurement databases to determine its symptoms. The system will be described and examples of troubleshooting using the system will be presented.

  12. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  13. Expert elicitation on the uncertainties associated with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Tyshenko, Michael G; Oraby, Tamer; Darshan, Shalu; Westphal, Margit; Croteau, Maxine C; Aspinall, Willy; Elsaadany, Susie; Krewski, Daniel; Cashman, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A high degree of uncertainty exists for chronic wasting disease (CWD) transmission factors in farmed and wild cervids. Evaluating the factors is important as it helps to inform future risk management strategies. Expert opinion is often used to assist decision making in a number of health, science, and technology domains where data may be sparse or missing. Using the "Classical Model" of elicitation, a group of experts was asked to estimate the most likely values for several risk factors affecting CWD transmission. The formalized expert elicitation helped structure the issues and hence provide a rational basis for estimating some transmission risk factors for which evidence is lacking. Considered judgments regarding environmental transmission, latency of CWD transmission, management, and species barrier were provided by the experts. Uncertainties for many items were determined to be large, highlighting areas requiring more research. The elicited values may be used as surrogate values until research evidence becomes available. PMID:27556566

  14. Control of standing balance while using constructions stilts: comparison of expert and novice users.

    PubMed

    Noble, Jeremy W; Singer, Jonathan C; Prentice, Stephen D

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the control of standing balance while wearing construction stilts. Motion capture data were collected from nine expert stilt users and nine novices. Three standing conditions were analysed: ground, 60 cm stilts and an elevated platform. Each task was also performed with the head extended as a vestibular perturbation. Both expert and novice groups exhibited lower displacement of the whole body centre of mass and centre of pressure on construction stilts. Differences between the groups were only noted in the elevated condition with no stilts, where the expert group had lower levels of medial-lateral displacement of the centre of pressure. The postural manipulation revealed that the expert group had superior balance to the novice group. Conditions where stilts were worn showed lower levels of correspondence to the inverted pendulum model. Under normal conditions, both expert and novice groups were able to control their balance while wearing construction stilts. PMID:26323594

  15. IncobotulinumtoxinA in aesthetics: Russian multidisciplinary expert consensus recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana; Gubanova, Elena; Khrustaleva, Irina; Atamanov, Vasiliy; Saybel, Anastasiya; Parsagashvili, Elena; Dmitrieva, Irina; Sanchez, Elena; Lapatina, Natalia; Korolkova, Tatiana; Saromytskaya, Alena; Goltsova, Elena; Satardinova, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Background Although there are various international consensus recommendations on the use of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) in facial aesthetics, there are no global or Russian guidelines on the optimal dose of incobotulinumtoxinA, free from complexing proteins, within specific aesthetic indications. This article reports the outcomes of two expert consensus meetings, conducted to review and analyze efficacy and tolerability data for incobotulinumtoxinA in various facial aesthetic indications and to give expert consensus recommendations to ensure best clinical practice among Russian clinicians. Methods Thirteen dermatology and/or plastic surgery experts attended meetings held in Paris, France (November 2013), and Moscow, Russia (March 2014). The expert group reviewed and analyzed the existing evidence, consensus recommendations, and Russian experts’ extensive practical experience of incobotulinumtoxinA in aesthetics to reach consensus on optimal doses, potential dose adjustments, and injection sites of incobotulinumtoxinA for facial aesthetics. Results All experts developed guidance on the optimal doses for incobotulinumtoxinA treatment of different regions of the upper and lower face. The expert panel agreed that there are no differences in the efficacy and duration of the effect between the four BoNT/As that are commercially available for facial aesthetic indications in Russia and that, when administered correctly, all BoNT/As can achieve optimal results. Experts also agreed that nonresponse to BoNT/A can be caused by neutralizing antibodies. Conclusion On the basis of the scientific and clinical evidence available for incobotulinumtoxinA, coupled with the extensive clinical experience of the consensus group, experts recommended the optimal doses of incobotulinumtoxinA effective for treatment of wrinkles of the upper and lower face to achieve the expected aesthetic outcome. These first Russian guidelines on the optimal use of incobotulinumtoxinA for

  16. 49 CFR 805.735-23 - Submission of statements by special Government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interests in the case of a special Government employee who is not a consultant or an expert when it has been determined that the duties of the position held by the special Government employee are of a nature, and...

  17. Psychology of developing and designing expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; MacGregor, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses psychological problems relevant to developing and designing expert systems. With respect to the former, the psychological literature suggests that several cognitive biases may affect the elicitation of a valid knowledge base from the expert. The literature also suggests that common expert system inference engines may be quite inconsistent with reasoning heuristics employed by experts. With respect to expert system user interfaces, care should be taken when eliciting uncertainty estimates from users, presenting system conclusions, and ordering questions.

  18. Psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision making trends.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David L; Mixon, LeKisha; Jackson, Melissa; Shook, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the establishment of the Daubert standard in 1993, the evidentiary criteria are rarely used as a basis for admissibility of expert witness testimony in the behavioral sciences. Ever since the promulgation of Frye and the Federal Rules of Evidence, controversy has surrounded the admissibility of expert testimony in courtrooms. There appears to be no existing uniform application of standards governing the admissibility of psychological expert witness testimony. Therefore, it is essential for the psycho-legal communities to explore judicial decision-making trends regarding psychological expert witness evidence. In this current research, psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision-making will be explored. In preliminary examination, 97 criminal and civil case summaries from the LexisNexis Academic Database involved issues of admissibility. Analyses conducted by eight trained and paired coders revealed that reliability and assistance to the trier of fact were the most often cited reasons for admissibility in courts. Consistent with prior studies, it was also found that the most applied standards for admissibility of psychological evidence were the Federal Rules of Evidence. Interestingly, while the Daubert scientific criteria for admission of scientific testimony were mentioned, they were rarely utilized. A secondary analysis of 167 civil and criminal appellate cases indicated that the reliability of testimony (18% of all cases), ability to assist the trier of fact (17%), the expert witness' qualifications (17%), and the relevance of the testimony (16%) were the most commonly cited reasons for determining admissibility. A tertiary qualitative analysis focusing on these four categories then revealed eight major trends in admissibility of psychological expert evidence. PMID:26341310

  19. Teen Experts Guide Makerspace Makeover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    A makerspace is a place where makers can envision a project, find an expert, and create something. Libraries have always held programming during which patrons were able to come in and create. The makerspace at the Lamar Middle School in Flower Mound, Texas, is available for students every day, so that they can daily create and play with innovative…

  20. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A. ); Park, Y.T. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system has been developed for troubleshooting cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with a database that stores inventory and field measurement information and flags problem areas. The system is described, and examples of troubleshooting using the system are presented.

  1. Coupling expert systems and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Beale, G.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Hsieh, B. J.; Vinz, F.; Fernandez, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype coupled system called NESS (NASA Expert Simulation System) is described. NESS assists the user in running digital simulations of dynamic systems, interprets the output data to performance specifications, and recommends a suitable series compensator to be added to the simulation model.

  2. Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sary, Charisse; Gilstrap, Lewey; Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) provides an approach to developing expert system software. Because of the uncertainty associated with this process, an element of risk is involved. ESDM is designed to address the issue of risk and to acquire the information needed for this purpose in an evolutionary manner. ESDM presents a life cycle in which a prototype evolves through five stages of development. Each stage consists of five steps, leading to a prototype for that stage. Development may proceed to a conventional development methodology (CDM) at any time if enough has been learned about the problem to write requirements. ESDM produces requirements so that a product may be built with a CDM. ESDM is considered preliminary because is has not yet been applied to actual projects. It has been retrospectively evaluated by comparing the methods used in two ongoing expert system development projects that did not explicitly choose to use this methodology but which provided useful insights into actual expert system development practices and problems.

  3. Expert systems for superalloy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

  4. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  5. Computers that Think Like Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of expert systems, including various techniques they use to represent knowledge (such as production rules, semantic networks, frames, first-order logic, and others), system interactions, and such problem domains as science, medicine, computer configuration, trouble-shooting/repair, and oil/mineral exploration. Also discusses…

  6. The dermatologist as expert witness-revisited: know the risks before you agree.

    PubMed

    Piekarsky, Scott B

    2013-12-01

    Legal Standards and requirements exist for dermatologists wishing to serve as expert witnesses. Case law, statutes and licensing/credentialing groups exist to regulate the practice to ensure honesty and integrity. Penalties and sanctions exist for deceptive and fraudulent opinions. However, conversely, private groups must be careful in their efforts to not libel savvy experts or interfere with their legitimate work. PMID:24800432

  7. Group process among novice students.

    PubMed

    Blumkin, M K

    1996-03-01

    This paper explores the experiences of a group of registered nurses returning to graduate school. The organizing framework used is an integration of Tuckman and Jensen's group process theory and Benner's novice to expert model. PMID:8716180

  8. Expert systems for optimization of laser technology processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorov, Vladimir S.; Sternin, M. Y.

    2002-04-01

    Many users of laser technological processes are trying to create data bases accumulating their experience in laser processing of materials. The data bases are useful tools to render help to technicians working with laser machines. But it is only the first step in utilization of intelligent computer programs. In this paper we present the results of the development of expert system (ES) to help technicians in the choice of best conditions for laser processing of materials. The ES has been created on the basis of practical knowledge of experts and experimental results collected to the data base. The set of parameters was developed for the description of laser technological processes. Each of the processes was characterized by the values of such parameters changing in some reasonable diapasons. Those parameters were divided into input and output groups. The input group of parameters included the main technical characteristics of the laser, the type of the material and the demands on the quality of laser processing products. The output group of parameters consisted of the set of laser processing conditions recommended by the expert system. Generally, the ES presents a computer model of the expert's decision making process. The steps of such a process are a new task analysis, search of closest past cases, evaluation of tasks similarity and so on. The expert system called MALS (Machine Learning Shell) is presented in this paper as an example of ES which could give consultations on the best choice of the laser cutting process.

  9. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  10. Making a team of experts into an expert team.

    PubMed

    Charney, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Health care has traditionally been delivered primarily by experts working individually in a decentralized system lacking cohesive organization among professional disciplines. Only recently have the advantages of teamwork training been acknowledged in health care. This article explores the history, benefits, and recommendations for team training in neonatal care. TeamSTEPPS (Rockville, MD) and the revised Neonatal Resuscitation Program are cited as promising models for improved neonatal outcomes through professional teamwork. PMID:22123404

  11. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings. PMID:22420229

  12. Ridiculous statements by mental health experts.

    PubMed

    Bernet, William

    2011-07-01

    When mental health experts express their opinions in testimony, reports, and articles in professional literature, it is expected that their statements will accurately reflect the current state of knowledge. Experts may disagree about the data that they collected. In some cases, however, disagreement occurs because an expert has employed a methodology that is far outside usual procedures or simply disregarded objective facts. When that occurs, the expert's opinions may be considered ridiculous. The author presents examples of ridiculous statements by mental health experts and provides suggestions for how a forensic practitioner might address ridiculous statements by mental health experts. PMID:21683920

  13. IRES: image retrieval expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu Sheng, Olivia R.; Wang, Hui-Chin; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.

    1990-08-01

    Image Retrieval Expert System (IRES), a knowledge-based system for automatic image retrieval, is being prototyped at the University of Arizona (U of A). IRES is to couple with the distributed database system designed for Structured PACS (S-PACS)1 to achieve the high system performance required by radiologists. IRES encompasses the "intelligence" of multiple expert radiologists. The system will predict and migrate the "old" images needed for comparison purposes during radiological exam readings from slower or remote storage devices to the local buffers of workstations. The use of IRES with the PACS Distributed Database System (DDBS) is expected to shorten the PACS system response time, save the time of radiologists in selecting films, minimize the turnaround time of the exam interpretation function, and increase diagnostic effectiveness by providing relevant images automatically. This paper presents the implementation details of this IRES prototype.

  14. The Workplace Exposure Assessment Expert System (WORKSPERT).

    PubMed

    Tait, K

    1992-02-01

    The fundamental principles of industrial hygiene are based upon the recognition, evaluation, and control of workplace hazards. Occupational safety and health professionals (e.g., industrial hygienists) perform this task by assessing numerous complex factors. In many situations industrial hygienists are not available; therefore, an expert system has been developed to assist the performance of workplace exposure assessments (WEAs). The Workplace Exposure Assessment Expert System (WORKSPERT) evaluates various hazardous substances, workplace conditions, and worker exposures for designated homogeneous exposure groups (HEGs). The three major components of WORKSPERT (i.e., substance, workplace, and exposure factors) are described by 27 multiple attribute variables. An air monitoring program (AMP) may be recommended for each HEG based upon the WEA. The AMP provides recommendations for an appropriate sampling strategy, sampling duration, multiple substance exposures, and number of samples to be obtained in the future. The use of WORKSPERT or other expert systems should never supersede the judgment of occupational safety and health professionals. However, WORKSPERT can be a valuable tool when used by knowledgeable, qualified technical professionals (e.g., safety and health specialists, chemists, engineers, and toxicologists) who understand the specific substance, workplace, and exposure factors for designated HEGs. WORKSPERT allows these people to benefit from the expertise of an industrial hygienist by performing systematic evaluations and obtaining recommendations for corrective actions or an AMP. The use of WORKSPERT to perform WEAs promotes the protection of workers from hazardous substances and assists compliance with occupational safety and health regulations. It also facilitates the communication of substance hazards, workplace controls, and worker exposures in a succinct manner. PMID:1543134

  15. NESSUS/EXPERT - An expert system for probabilistic structural analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, H.; Palmer, K.; Fink, P.

    1988-01-01

    An expert system (NESSUS/EXPERT) is presented which provides assistance in using probabilistic structural analysis methods. NESSUS/EXPERT is an interactive menu-driven expert system that provides information to assist in the use of the probabilistic finite element code NESSUS/FEM and the fast probability integrator. NESSUS/EXPERT was developed with a combination of FORTRAN and CLIPS, a C language expert system tool, to exploit the strengths of each language.

  16. Expert System For Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagby, D. Gordon; Cormier, Reginald A.

    1991-01-01

    Diagnosis simplified for non-engineers. Developmental expert-system computer program assists operator in controlling, monitoring operation, diagnosing malfunctions, and ordering repairs of heat-exchanger system dissipating heat generated by 20-kW radio transmitter. System includes not only heat exchanger but also pumps, fans, sensors, valves, reservoir, and associated plumbing. Program conceived to assist operator while avoiding cost of keeping engineer in full-time attendance. Similar programs developed for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems.

  17. [Liability of the expert witness].

    PubMed

    Jansen, C

    1996-11-01

    Regarding the liability of the expert witness, is has to be differentiated between the responsibility according to the civil law and the criminal law. Responsibility in the criminal law means the punishableness for the guilty and illegal fulfillment of a criminal offense in the legal sense, while responsibility in the civil law means compensation towards another citizen. Criminal prosecution occurs ex officio. Prerequisite for prosecution in the civil law is an action of the victim. PMID:9064937

  18. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  19. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  20. Adaptive capture of expert knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C.L.; Jones, R.D.; Hand, Un Kyong |

    1995-05-01

    A method is introduced that can directly acquire knowledge-engineered, rule-based logic in an adaptive network. This adaptive representation of the rule system can then replace the rule system in simulated intelligent agents and thereby permit further performance-based adaptation of the rule system. The approach described provides both weight-fitting network adaptation and potentially powerful rule mutation and selection mechanisms. Nonlinear terms are generated implicitly in the mutation process through the emergent interaction of multiple linear terms. By this method it is possible to acquire nonlinear relations that exist in the training data without addition of hidden layers or imposition of explicit nonlinear terms in the network. We smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with an adaptive network. The motivation for this was to (1) realize a speed advantage over traditional rule-based simulations; (2) have variability in the intelligent objects not possible by rule-based systems but provided by adaptive systems: and (3) maintain the understandability of rule-based simulations. A set of binary rules was smoothed and converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements, where continuous, non-binary rules are permitted. A neural network, called the expert network, was developed to capture this rule set, which it was able to do with zero error. The expert network is also capable of learning a nonmonotonic term without a hidden layer. The trained network in feedforward operation is fast running, compact, and traceable to the rule base.

  1. Expert System for ASIC Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew

    1989-07-01

    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  2. Protection and governance of MPEG-21 music player MAF contents using MPEG-21 IPMP tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry; Kim, Munchurl

    2006-02-01

    MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Groups) is currently standardizing Multimedia Application Format (MAF) which targets to provide simple but practical multimedia applications to the industry. One of the interesting and on-going working items of MAF activity is the so-called Music Player MAF which combines MPEG-1/2 layer III (MP3), JPEG image, and metadata into a standard format. In this paper, we propose a protection and governance mechanism to the Music Player MAF by incorporating other MPEG technology, MPEG-21 IPMP (Intellectual Property Management and Protection). We show, in this paper, use-case of the distribution and consumption of this Music Player contents, requirements, and how this protection and governance can be implemented in conjunction with the current Music Player MAF architecture and file system. With the use of MPEG-21 IPMP, the protection and governance to the content of Music Player MAF fulfils flexibility, extensibility, and granular in protection requirements.

  3. Models Used to Select Strategic Planning Experts for High Technology Productions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Alexandra A.; Grigorjeva, Antonina A.; Tseplit, Anna P.; Ozgogov, Evgenij V.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the problems and specific aspects in organizing works of experts involved in assessment of companies that manufacture complex high-technology products. A model is presented that is intended for evaluating competences of experts in individual functional areas of expertise. Experts are selected to build a group on the basis of tables used to determine a competence level. An expert selection model based on fuzzy logic is proposed and additional requirements for the expert group composition can be taken into account, with regard to the needed quality and competence related preferences of decision-makers. A Web-based information system model is developed for the interaction between experts and decision-makers when carrying out online examinations.

  4. Renal replacement therapy in adult and pediatric intensive care : Recommendations by an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Society of Anesthesia Intensive Care (SFAR) French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP) the French Dialysis Society (SFD).

    PubMed

    Vinsonneau, Christophe; Allain-Launay, Emma; Blayau, Clarisse; Darmon, Michael; Ducheyron, Damien; Gaillot, Theophile; Honore, Patrick M; Javouhey, Etienne; Krummel, Thierry; Lahoche, Annie; Letacon, Serge; Legrand, Matthieu; Monchi, Mehran; Ridel, Christophe; Robert, René; Schortgen, Frederique; Souweine, Bertrand; Vaillant, Patrick; Velly, Lionel; Osman, David; Van Vong, Ly

    2015-12-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) in critically ill patients is currently very frequent and requires renal replacement therapy (RRT) in many patients. During the last 15 years, several studies have considered important issues regarding the use of RRT in ARF, like the time to initiate the therapy, the dialysis dose, the types of catheter, the choice of technique, and anticoagulation. However, despite an abundant literature, conflicting results do not provide evidence on RRT implementation. We present herein recommendations for the use of RRT in adult and pediatric intensive care developed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system by an expert group of French Intensive Care Society (SRLF), with the participation of the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP), and the French Dialysis Society (SFD). The recommendations cover 4 fields: criteria for RRT initiation, technical aspects (access routes, membranes, anticoagulation, reverse osmosis water), practical aspects (choice of the method, peritoneal dialysis, dialysis dose, adjustments), and safety (procedures and training, dialysis catheter management, extracorporeal circuit set-up). These recommendations have been designed on a practical point of view to provide guidance for intensivists in their daily practice. PMID:26714808

  5. Shared Governance at Sierra College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Jo; And Others

    The development of shared governance at Sierra College (SC) in California is chronicled in this report. The first sections of the report provide a chronology of team, board, and committee meetings and colloquia involved in the process of implementing shared governance at the college; present summaries of breakout group reports, evaluative…

  6. Expert Groups in the Building of European Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to building European public action, expertise is ubiquitous and polymorphic. This article intends to study the ways expertise is being used in the European Commission and the logics underlying its use. The massive use of expertise also has consequences for the practices and identities of actors with whom European institutions…

  7. Contribution to and Use of Online Knowledge Repositories: The Role of Governance Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayhan, Varol O.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon the concept of governance, this dissertation refers to the two most commonly employed mechanisms that ensure high quality knowledge in electronic repositories as expert-governance and community-governance. In three related but distinct essays, the dissertation examines the governance concept, and investigates contributing knowledge to…

  8. Becoming an Expert Teacher in Informal Primary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Elinor A.

    This paper discusses the development of the professional careers of a group of experienced and expert primary teachers (N=11) in England who share a commitment to informal primary education, a teaching approach that emphasizes first-hand experiences in learning along with integration of content areas of curriculum. During unstructured and…

  9. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  10. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  11. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expert witnesses. 511.44 Section 511.44 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who,...

  12. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expert witnesses. 511.44 Section 511.44 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who,...

  13. 32 CFR 516.49 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., with or without compensation, opinion or expert testimony either in private litigation or in litigation... personnel will not provide, with or without compensation, opinion or expert testimony concerning official...). An SJA or legal adviser is authorized to deny a request for expert testimony, which decision may...

  14. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may otherwise be ordered by the Presiding Officer, the direct testimony of an expert witness shall be in writing and shall be filed on the record and exchanged... testimony of an expert witness shall be incorporated into the record and shall constitute the...

  15. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific or technical knowledge. (b) Method of presenting testimony of expert witness. Except as may be... testimony of an expert witness shall be filed on the record and exchanged between the parties no later than... testimony of an expert witness shall not include points not contained in the written statement. A party...

  16. 12 CFR 1081.210 - Expert discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expert discovery. 1081.210 Section 1081.210... Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 1081.210 Expert discovery. (a) At a date set by the hearing... requirement of expert discovery in appropriate cases....

  17. Eliciting expert knowledge in conservation science.

    PubMed

    Martin, Tara G; Burgman, Mark A; Fidler, Fiona; Kuhnert, Petra M; Low-Choy, Samantha; McBride, Marissa; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-02-01

    Expert knowledge is used widely in the science and practice of conservation because of the complexity of problems, relative lack of data, and the imminent nature of many conservation decisions. Expert knowledge is substantive information on a particular topic that is not widely known by others. An expert is someone who holds this knowledge and who is often deferred to in its interpretation. We refer to predictions by experts of what may happen in a particular context as expert judgments. In general, an expert-elicitation approach consists of five steps: deciding how information will be used, determining what to elicit, designing the elicitation process, performing the elicitation, and translating the elicited information into quantitative statements that can be used in a model or directly to make decisions. This last step is known as encoding. Some of the considerations in eliciting expert knowledge include determining how to work with multiple experts and how to combine multiple judgments, minimizing bias in the elicited information, and verifying the accuracy of expert information. We highlight structured elicitation techniques that, if adopted, will improve the accuracy and information content of expert judgment and ensure uncertainty is captured accurately. We suggest four aspects of an expert elicitation exercise be examined to determine its comprehensiveness and effectiveness: study design and context, elicitation design, elicitation method, and elicitation output. Just as the reliability of empirical data depends on the rigor with which it was acquired so too does that of expert knowledge. PMID:22280323

  18. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expert witnesses. 1025.44 Section 1025.44... PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who, by reason of education, training, experience, or profession, has peculiar knowledge concerning the subject matter...

  19. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expert witnesses. 511.44 Section 511.44 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who,...

  20. 16 CFR 1025.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expert witnesses. 1025.44 Section 1025.44 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.44 Expert witnesses. (a) Definition. An expert witness is one who, by reason of education, training, experience,...

  1. What Is An Expert System? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    This digest describes and defines the various components of an expert system, e.g., a computerized tool designed to enhance the quality and availability of knowledge required by decision makers. It is noted that expert systems differ from conventional applications software in the following areas: (1) the existence of the expert systems shell, or…

  2. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  3. 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. marine energy industry is actively pursuing development of offshore wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy systems. Experience in the wind energy sector demonstrates that new technology development requires thorough measurement and characterization of the environmental conditions prevalent at installation sites and of technology operating in the field. Presently, there are no turn-key instrumentation system solutions that meet the measurement needs of the marine energy industry. The 1st Advanced Marine Renewable Energy Instrumentation Experts Workshop brought together technical experts from government laboratories, academia, and industry representatives from marine energy, wind, offshore oil and gas, and instrumentation developers to present and discuss the instrumentation needs of the marine energy industry. The goals of the meeting were to: 1. Share the latest relevant knowledge among technical experts; 2. Review relevant state-of-the-art field measurement technologies and methods; 3. Review lessons learned from recent field deployments; 4. Identify synergies across different industries; 5. Identify gaps between existing and needed instrumentation capabilities; 6. Understand who are the leading experts; 7. Provide a forum where stakeholders from the marine energy industry could provide substantive input in the development of new marine energy field deployable instrumentation packages.

  4. Expert system control of a six-legged walking telerobot

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, K R

    1989-01-01

    The Robotics Technology Group of the Savannah River Laboratory has implemented a three-stage expert system for a six-legged walking telerobot. Remote operation of this machine requires the knowledge of a highly skilled operator. Stability, size, and mode of operation considerations must take place continuously, in general, much more so than with a typical wheeled vehicle. The technology employed provides for quasi-real-time computer control, manual control, and an expert advisor -- all in the same package, which runs on the IBM PC/AT. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Explanation production by expert planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Susan; Jhannes, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Although the explanation capability of expert systems is usually listed as one of the distinguishing characteristics of these systems, the explanation facilities of most existing systems are quite primitive. Computer generated explanations are typically produced from canned text or by direct translation of the knowledge structures. Explanations produced in this manner bear little resemblance to those produced by humans for similar tasks. The focus of our research in explanation is the production of justifications for decisions by expert planning systems. An analysis of justifications written by people for planning tasks has been taken as the starting point. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. First, analysis of the information content of the justifications will provide a basis for deciding what knowledge must be represented if human-like justifications are to be produced. Second, an analysis of the textual organization of the justifications will be used in the development of a mechanism for selecting and organizing the knowledge to be included in a computer-produced explanation. This paper describes a preliminary analysis done of justifications written by people for a planning task. It is clear that these justifications differ significantly from those that would be produced by an expert system by tracing the firing of production rules. The results from the text analysis have been used to develop an augmented phrase structured grammar (APSG) describing the organization of the justifications. The grammar was designed to provide a computationally feasible method for determining textual organization that will allow the necessary information to be communicated in a cohesive manner.

  6. The Nature of Expertise in Fingerprint Matching: Experts Can Do a Lot with a Little

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew B.; Tangen, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Expert decision making often seems impressive, even miraculous. People with genuine expertise in a particular domain can perform quickly and accurately, and with little information. In the series of experiments presented here, we manipulate the amount of “information” available to a group of experts whose job it is to identify the source of crime scene fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we reduced the amount of information available to experts by inverting fingerprint pairs and adding visual noise. There was no evidence for an inversion effect—experts were just as accurate for inverted prints as they were for upright prints—but expert performance with artificially noisy prints was impressive. In Experiment 2, we separated matching and nonmatching print pairs in time. Experts were conservative, but they were still able to discriminate pairs of fingerprints that were separated by five-seconds, even though the task was quite different from their everyday experience. In Experiment 3, we separated the print pairs further in time to test the long-term memory of experts compared to novices. Long-term recognition memory for experts and novices was the same, with both performing around chance. In Experiment 4, we presented pairs of fingerprints quickly to experts and novices in a matching task. Experts were more accurate than novices, particularly for similar nonmatching pairs, and experts were generally more accurate when they had more time. It is clear that experts can match prints accurately when there is reduced visual information, reduced opportunity for direct comparison, and reduced time to engage in deliberate reasoning. These findings suggest that non-analytic processing accounts for a substantial portion of the variance in expert fingerprint matching accuracy. Our conclusion is at odds with general wisdom in fingerprint identification practice and formal training, and at odds with the claims and explanations that are offered in court during expert testimony

  7. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  8. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  9. The Diagnostic Value of Skin Disease Diagnosis Expert System

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Arabkermany, Zahra; Gilasi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluation is a necessary measure to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of all systems, including expert systems. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of expert system for diagnosis of complex skin diseases. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 2015 to determine the diagnostic value of an expert system. The study population included patients who were referred to Razi Specialized Hospital, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from patients without the selected skin diseases. Data collection tool was a checklist of clinical signs of diseases including pemphigus vulgaris, lichen planus, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and scabies. The sample size formula estimated 400 patients with skin diseases selected by experts and 200 patients without the selected skin diseases. Patient selection was undertaken with randomized stratified sampling and their sign and symptoms were logged into the system. Physician’s diagnosis was determined as the gold standard and was compared with the diagnosis of expert system by SPSS software version 16 and STATA. Kappa statistics, indicators of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and confidence intervals were calculated for each disease. An accuracy of 90% was considered appropriate. Results: Comparing the results of expert system and physician’s diagnosis at the evaluation stage showed an accuracy of 97.1%, sensitivity of 97.5% and specificity of 96.5% The Kappa test indicated a high agreement of 93.6%. Conclusion: The expert system can diagnose complex skin diseases. Development of such systems is recommended to identify all skin diseases. PMID:27046943

  10. Expert consensus-building for developing guidelines: lessons learned from a dengue economics workshop.

    PubMed

    Constenla, Dagna; Lefcourt, Noah; Garcia, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    A workshop with 20 experts of diverse backgrounds from five countries in the Americas was convened for two-and-a-half days in March 2012 to discuss and develop a standardized methodology for assessing the economic cost of dengue. This article discusses a number of factors that contributed to the workshop's success, including: engaging the experts at various stages of the process; convening a multidisciplinary group to reduce expert bias and provide a more comprehensive and integrated approach; facilitating guided small- and large-group discussions; developing effective cross-cultural collectivism, trust, communication, and empathy across the expert panel; establishing clear lines of responsibilities within each group of experts; breaking down the complex issues into smaller and simpler ideas; providing ample background materials in multiple languages prior to the workshop. Challenges and areas for improvement are also covered. PMID:24233113

  11. Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čančula, Maja Poklinek; Planinšič, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.

  12. Expert-novice differences in SMR activity during dart throwing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Yang; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Lo, Li-Chuan; Shen, Cheng; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence suggests that augmented sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity is related to the superior regulation of processing cognitive-motor information in motor performance. However, no published studies have examined the relationship between SMR and performance in precision sports; thus, this study examined the relationship between SMR activity and the level of skilled performance in tasks requiring high levels of attention (e.g., dart throwing). We hypothesized that skilled performance would be associated with higher SMR activity. Fourteen dart-throwing experts and eleven novices were recruited. Participants were requested to perform 60 dart throws while EEG was recorded. The 2(Group: Expert, Novice)×2(Time window: -2000 ms to -1000 ms, -1000 ms to 0 ms) ANOVA showed that the dart-throwing experts maintained a relatively higher SMR power than the novices before dart release. These results suggest that SMR might reflect the adaptive regulation of cognitive-motor processing during the preparatory period. PMID:26277266

  13. Formalization and representation of expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tausner, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of the canonical forms of expert systems, definitions of classical forward-chaining production rule-based expert systems and classical backward-chaining production rule based expert systems are isolated as the fundamental basic definitions of an expert system. Two representation theorems are presented for the two fundamental types of expert systems defined. Both the classical forward-chaining production rule based expert systems and classical backward chaining production rule based expert systems are shown to be representable as type 3 languages (finite state automata). The pragmatic usefulness of the finite state representation of an expert system is established in the design of a multilevel expert system for general systems problems solving. A type 3 language is used to encapsulate the knowledge base and reasoning strategies of the front-end of the expert system, thus representing the front-end as a deterministic finite automation. This provides a new approach to the problem of interfacing multilevel expert systems.

  14. Risk management and expert system development methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry; Gilstrap, Lewey

    1991-01-01

    A risk-based expert-system development methodology has been developed to provide guidance to managers and technical personnel and to serve as a standard for developing expert systems. Expert-system development differs from conventional software development in that the information needed to prepare system requirements for expert systems is not known at the outset of a project and is obtained by knowledge engineering methods. The paper describes the expert-system life cycle, development methodology, and the approach taken in this methodology to manage and reduce the risks in expert system development. Also examined are the risks of using and of not using a methodology, the studies undertaken to validate the provisions of the expert system development methodology, and the results of these validation studies.

  15. The Expert Witness in Medical Malpractice Litigation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Physicians may find serving as an expert witness to be interesting, intellectually stimulating, and financially beneficial. However, potential expert witnesses should be aware of the increased legal scrutiny being applied to expert witness testimony in medical malpractice litigation. In the past, expert witnesses received absolute immunity from civil litigation regarding their testimony. This is no longer the case. Expert witnesses may be subject to disciplinary sanctions from professional organizations and state medical boards. In addition, emerging case law is defining the legal duty owed by the expert witness to the litigating parties. Orthopaedic surgeons who serve as expert witnesses should be familiar with the relevant Standards of Professionalism issued by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. PMID:19052827

  16. Expert system for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Venoge, T.P. de; Stauffer, T.B.; Medina, M.; Jacobs, T.

    1994-12-31

    Hazardous waste site remedial investigations and feasibility studies generally involve some degree of groundwater modeling. A plethora of models exist and most models are difficult to use. An expert system has been developed to lead the user to the appropriate model(s) based on responses to questions about site conditions and data availability. The system is menu driven, user friendly, and provides assistance in estimating input parameters where field measurements are lacking. The system contains twelve models, both analytical and numerical models, that are in the public domain. Some of the models included in the system are MOC, MODFLOW, BIOPLUME, RESSQ, TDAST and PLUME2D. Preprocessors and post processors have been written to permit easy data input and to provide understandable and interpretable data output. There are two versions of the expert system that are available. One version is a UNIX based system that works through the windows environment and provides excellent graphics capabilities. The other version is DOS based and will run on a 386 processor or higher system with 10 megabytes of available hard disk space.

  17. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  18. XPRT: An expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrell, G.D.

    1988-09-01

    XPRT is a rule-based expert system shell written in the C programming language. This report contains a detailed description of the commands available in XPRT and also describes the syntax rules needed to construct a knowledge base. The shell's source code uses standard ANSI C, which allows it to run on any computer that can compile a C program. The executable code occupies 70K of PC memory. XPRT's inference engine can be commanded to backward chain or forward chain. Heuristics may be employed to reduce the search space of knowledge base rules. XPRT can read and write external files and spawn processes. The shell is mainly a symbolic processor but can handle numerical data as well. A mechanism of weighted facts and rules is used as an approach for handling uncertainty. XPRT is a no-frills shell with some very practical commands. The shell was used to write an expert system that is currently scheduling over a dozen software programs to maintain and manage a large departmental database. XPRT continues to evolve, and our organization is finding the shell to be a valuable programming tool. 6 refs.

  19. Expert Seeker: A People-Finder Knowledge Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becerra-Fernandez, Irma

    2000-01-01

    The first objective for this report was to perform a comprehensive research of industry models currently being used for similar purposes, in order to provide the Center with ideas of what is being done in area by private companies and government agencies. The second objective was to evaluate the use of taxonomies or ontologies to describe and catalog the areas of expertise at GSFC. The creation of a knowledge taxonomy is necessary for information extraction in order for The Expert Seeker to adequately search and find experts in a particular area of expertise. The requirements to develop a taxonomy are: provide minimal descriptive text; have the appropriate level of abstration; facilitate browsing; ease of use and speed of data entry are critical for success; customized to the organization and its culture; extent of knowledge areas; expandable, so new skills could be develop; could be complemented with free text fields to allow users the option to describe their knowledge in detail.

  20. Post-Secondary Students' Relationship to People They Consider to Be Scientific Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    This article is situated in contemporary debates about the ways to achieve a scientific literacy that encourages a greater lay participation in public debates and political decision making. Drawing on the notion of "relationship to scientific experts" (in French, "rapport aux experts scientifiques"), I explore the ways in which a group of 3 Quebec…

  1. Using Conference Calls to Bring an Expert into Your Classroom (My Favorite Assignment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Nan B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ways that business communication teachers can enable students to interact with nationally recognized experts for little or no cost by using an educational or corporate institution's existing telecommunications facilities. Describes how a group of students and an expert in nonverbal communication successfully interacted during a…

  2. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Weiss

    2000-12-31

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This third of ten semi-annual reports contains an account of the progress, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress.

  3. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic{trademark} programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them.

  4. "Auctoritas" psychiatric expert system shell.

    PubMed

    Kovács, M; Juranovics, J

    1995-01-01

    We present a short description of a complex psychiatric computer expert system, including functions that help the physicians and the hospital staff in the administrative, diagnostic, therapeutic, statistical, and scientific work. There are separate data-storing, health insurance-supporting, or simple advisory programs, but we can not avail a system--in our country--that provides us with all these functions together. Hence the aim of our program is to produce a universal computer system that makes the patients' long distance follow-up possible. Our diagnostic expert system shell, which is appropriate for using the symptoms and criteria scheme of the internationally accepted diagnostic systems such as DSM and ICD, helps to archive homogeneous, up-to-date psychiatric nosology; this is essential for the correct diagnostic, statistical, and scientific work. Let us introduce our expert system. It consists of four parts: administration, diagnostic decision support system, activities concerning treatment, and statistics. The part called "Administration" contains all data about actual and emitted in-patients and out-patients, including their particulars and data necessary for health insurance (duration of treatment, diagnosis); here we find and edit medical documents. The most important part of the "Auctoritas" system is the "Diagnostic decision support system." In practice, expert systems use decision trees with yes-no logic, fuzzy logic, and pattern matching on the basis of the method of deduction; and backward chaining or forward chaining on the basis of the direction of deduction. Our system uses the methods of fuzzy logic and backward chaining. In other medical disciplines, good results are achieved by applying the pattern matching method; to make validity and verification researches, however, these systems are inappropriate. The diagnoses relying on the up-to-date psychiatric diagnostic systems--DSM-IV and ICD-X--are based on classical logic and can be correctly

  5. [Medical expert assessment in civil and criminal law--legal evaluation of medical expert opinion].

    PubMed

    Schlund, G H

    1996-11-01

    The constitutional position of the judge and the medical expert witness during a lawsuit is explained. From this, the demands on a judicial expert witness for the preparation of his expert assessment are derived and the judge's function in the appointment of the expert witness is explained. Additionally, criteria, duties, and rules are worked out, which should be followed by the judge during assessment of the medical expert testimony. PMID:9064930

  6. Building the Next Generation of Scientific Explorers through Active Engagement with STEM Experts and International Space Station Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.; Stefanov, W. L.; Rampe, E.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity for all. These experts can share the benefits and utilization of resources from the International Space Station (ISS) while sharing and "translating" exciting science being conducted by professional scientists. Active engagement with these STEM experts involves students in the journey of science and exploration in an enthralling and understandable manner. This active engagement, connecting classrooms with scientific experts, helps inspire and build the next generation of scientific explorers in academia, private industry, and government.

  7. Experts and Novices Use the Same Factors–But Differently–To Evaluate Pearl Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Yusuke; Nagai, Takehiro; Koida, Kowa; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Well-trained experts in pearl grading have been thought to evaluate pearls according to their glossiness, interference color, and shape. However, the characteristics of their evaluations are not fully understood. Using pearl grading experiments, we investigate the consistency of novice (i.e., without knowledge of pearl grading) and expert participants’ pearl grading skill and then compare the novices’ grading with that of experts; furthermore, we discuss the relationship between grading, interference color, and glossiness. We found that novices’ grading was significantly less concordant with experts average grading than was experts’ grading; more than half of novices graded pearls the opposite of how experts graded those same pearls. However, while experts graded pearls more consistently than novices did, novices’ consistency was relatively high. We also found differences between the groups in regression analyses that used interference color and glossiness as explanatory variables and were conducted for each trial. Although the regression coefficient was significant in 60% of novices’ trials, there were fewer significant trials for the experts (20%). This indicates that novices can also make use of these two factors, but that their usage is simpler than that of the experts. These results suggest that experts and novices share some values about pearls but that the evaluation method is elaborated for experts. PMID:24466074

  8. Governing Methods: Policy Innovation Labs, Design and Data Science in the Digital Governance of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Policy innovation labs are emerging knowledge actors and technical experts in the governing of education. The article offers a historical and conceptual account of the organisational form of the policy innovation lab. Policy innovation labs are characterised by specific methods and techniques of design, data science, and digitisation in public…

  9. Third Space Weather Summit Held for Industry and Government Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.

    2009-12-01

    The potential for space weather effects has been increasing significantly in recent years. For instance, in 2008 airlines flew about 8000 transpolar flights, which experience greater exposure to space weather than nontranspolar flights. This is up from 368 transpolar flights in 2000, and the number of such flights is expected to continue to grow. Transpolar flights are just one example of the diverse technologies susceptible to space weather effects identified by the National Research Council's Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008). To discuss issues related to the increasing need for reliable space weather information, experts from industry and government agencies met at the third summit of the Commercial Space Weather Interest Group (CSWIG) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), held 30 April 2009 during Space Weather Week (SWW), in Boulder, Colo.

  10. [Swan Ganz catheter. Experts opinion].

    PubMed

    Cohen Arazi, Hernán; Nani, Sebastián; Giorgi, Mariano; Guardiani, Fernando; Caturla, Nicolás; Benzadón, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Investigators have raised doubts as to the safety of the Swan Ganz catheter (SGC). In order to define the point of view of cardiologists in our country, the Argentine Society of Cardiology's Emergency Council organized a meeting to analyze their views in different settings (non-cardiac surgery, cardiac surgery, acute coronary syndromes and heart failure) using the RAND-UCLA appropriateness method. A detailed review with the scientific evidence was sent to the experts in cardiology prior to the meeting in the SAC auditorium where the panellists selected the clinical variables create the specific situations. These hypothetic situations were resent to the panellists at a second stage for their individual evaluation, rating the benefit-to-harm ratio of the procedure on a scale of 1 to 9 (1 meant that the expected harms greatly outweighed the expected benefits, and 9 that the expected benefits greatly outweighed the expected harms, 5 could mean either that the harms and benefits were roughly equal). Two experts analyzed the results, describing the agreement/disagreement ratio. Finally, each indication was classified as "appropriate" "uncertain" or "inappropriate" ,for the procedure in accordance with the panelists' median score: median scores in the 1-3 range were classified as inappropriate, those in the 4-6 range as uncertain, and those in the 7-9 range as appropriate. We observed high disagreement rates in SGC indications between cardiologists. However, the panelists were in favor of SGC use when situations included shock and myocardial dysfunction, especially in the presence of organic dysfunction. There were some situations when panelists considered SGC not useful, in patients without organ failure. PMID:25188663

  11. The diagnosis of microcytic anemia by a rule-based expert system using VP-Expert.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M L; McKinney, T

    1989-09-01

    We describe our experience in creating a rule-based expert system for the interpretation of microcytic anemia using the expert system development tool, VP-Expert, running on an IBM personal computer. VP-Expert processes data (complete blood cell count results, age, and sex) according to a set of user-written logic rules (our program) to reach conclusions as to the following causes of microcytic anemia: alpha- and beta-thalassemia trait, iron deficiency, and anemia of chronic disease. Our expert system was tested using previously interpreted complete blood cell count data. In most instances, there was good agreement between the expert system and its pathologist-author, but many discrepancies were found in the interpretation of anemia of chronic disease. We conclude that VP-Expert has a useful level of power and flexibility, yet is simple enough that individuals with modest programming experience can create their own expert systems. Limitations of such expert systems are discussed. PMID:2774865

  12. Post-Secondary Students' Relationship to People They Consider to Be Scientific Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2011-03-01

    This article is situated in contemporary debates about the ways to achieve a scientific literacy that encourages a greater lay participation in public debates and political decision making. Drawing on the notion of "relationship to scientific experts" (in French, "rapport aux experts scientifiques"), I explore the ways in which a group of 3 Quebec post-secondary students describe the relationships they hold toward people whom they consider to be scientific experts, as revealed during a project in which they investigated the controversy surrounding cellular telephone use. To this end, I scrutinize how the members of the group go about describing scientific experts and picture a prospective face-to-face discussion with a scientific expert. The data come from a case study (conducted over a 15-week period). The findings show that the group maintains a relationship of intimidation by scientific experts, in which the latter are depicted in terms of their knowledge and qualifications. Accordingly, the group was overawed not only by the accumulation of knowledge held and produced by scientific experts but also by the latter's research experience and the high social recognition they occasionally enjoyed. Similarly, the group describes a prospective face-to-face discussion with a doctor or a researcher in terms of an impersonal, intimidating encounter during which its members' learning and comprehension in relation to the controversy are assumed to be unequal to the task. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed.

  13. Construct validity and expert benchmarking of the haptic virtual reality dental simulator.

    PubMed

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Chaisombat, Monthalee; Kongpunwijit, Thanapohn; Rhienmora, Phattanapon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate construct validation of the haptic virtual reality (VR) dental simulator and to define expert benchmarking criteria for skills assessment. Thirty-four self-selected participants (fourteen novices, fourteen intermediates, and six experts in endodontics) at one dental school performed ten repetitions of three mode tasks of endodontic cavity preparation: easy (mandibular premolar with one canal), medium (maxillary premolar with two canals), and hard (mandibular molar with three canals). The virtual instrument's path length was registered by the simulator. The outcomes were assessed by an expert. The error scores in easy and medium modes accurately distinguished the experts from novices and intermediates at the onset of training, when there was a significant difference between groups (ANOVA, p<0.05). The trend was consistent until trial 5. From trial 6 on, the three groups achieved similar scores. No significant difference was found between groups at the end of training. Error score analysis was not able to distinguish any group at the hard level of training. Instrument path length showed a difference in performance according to groups at the onset of training (ANOVA, p<0.05). This study established construct validity for the haptic VR dental simulator by demonstrating its discriminant capabilities between that of experts and non-experts. The experts' error scores and path length were used to define benchmarking criteria for optimal performance. PMID:25281678

  14. Generative design in architecture using an expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullichsen, E.; Chang, E.

    The mathematician-architect Christopher Alexander has devised a theory of objective architectural design. He believes that all architectural forms can be described as interacting patterns, all possible relationships of which are governed by generative rules. These form a pattern language' capable of generating forms appropriate for a given environmental context. The complexity of interaction among these rules leads to difficulties in their representation by conventional methods. Here, a Prolog-based expert system is presented which implements Alexander's design methodology to produce perspective views of partially and fully differentiated 3-dimensional architectural forms.

  15. Expert and novice categorization of introductory physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steven Frederick

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, Chi et al.'s seminal paper on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Chi et al. Cognitive Science 5, 121 -- 152 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems. The study firmly established the paradigm that novices categorize physics problems by "surface features" (e.g. "incline," "pendulum," "projectile motion,"... ), while experts use "deep structure" (e.g. "energy conservation," "Newton 2,"... ). While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In most experiments, the clean-cut outcome of the original study cannot be reproduced. Given the widespread implications of the original study, the frequent failure to reproduce its findings warrants a closer look. We developed a less subjective statistical analysis method for the card sorting outcome and studied how the "successful" outcome of the experiment depends on the choice of the original card set. Thus, in a first step, we are moving beyond descriptive statistics, and develop a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpret problem categorization experiments. These graphs are compared macroscopically, using standard graph theoretic statistics, and microscopically, using a distance metric that we have developed. This macroscopic sorting behavior is described using our Cognitive Categorization Model. The microscopic comparison allows us to visualize our sorters using Principal Components Analysis and compare the expert sorters to the novice sorters as a group. In the second step, we ask the question: Which properties of problems are most important in problem

  16. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  17. Expert evidence accountability: new developments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2011-12-01

    A series of developments in relation to the accountability of expert witnesses and the admissibility of their opinions is taking place. This extends to encroachments in the United Kingdom on expert witness immunity, the imposition of disciplinary liability for registered health practitioners in Australia and the United Kingdom, and recommendations from the United Kingdom Law Commission for a systematised procedure for reliability determination as a prerequisite for admissibility rulings. This combination of measures is indicative of international concern about the contemporary role of expert witnesses. It highlights the need for both empirical information about whether the anecdotal and experiential concerns about expert evidence are well-founded and for the provision of better and clearer guidance to experts and litigators alike about the underpinnings and methodologies that are permissible for admissible and probative expert opinions. PMID:22319996

  18. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  19. Interest Representation in School Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, M. Kent; Zeigler, Harmon

    Focusing on the origins and consequences of group activity, this paper discusses the effects of interest groups on school governance and policy in light of various theories. Data for the study were derived from interviews conducted in 1968 with board members and superintendents in 83 U.S. school districts. Major findings are that the intensity of…

  20. Hierarchical Model of Assessing and Selecting Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, T. Y.; Кorchuganova, M. A.; Borisov, V. V.; Min’kov, S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Revealing experts’ competences is a multi-objective issue. Authors of the paper deal with competence assessing methods of experts seen as objects, and criteria of qualities. An analytic hierarchy process of assessing and ranking experts is offered, which is based on paired comparison matrices and scores, quality parameters are taken into account as well. Calculation and assessment of experts is given as an example.

  1. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Wegerich, Stephan

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component has degraded.

  2. Expert Systems: An Overview for Teacher-Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…

  3. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  4. 75 FR 25307 - Request for Nominations of Experts for Consideration as Authors and/or Editors for the Fifth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...; environment and development priorities, challenges and policy; and environmental management or governance... Environment Outlook (GEO-5) ACTION: This is an announcement of an opportunity to recommend experts to the U.S... for the Fifth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5). SUMMARY: Governments, along with other...

  5. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a ``team`` of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.

  7. Cooperative expert system reasoning for waste remediations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, S.J.; Pennock, K.A.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a large task in completing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) for hazardous waste sites across the nation. One of the primary objectives of an RI/FS is the specification of viable sequences of technology treatment trains which can provide implementable site solutions. We present a methodology which integrates expert system technology within an object-oriented framework to create a cooperative reasoning system designed to provide a comprehensive list of these implementable solutions. The system accomplishes its goal of specifying technology trains by utilizing a team'' of expert system objects. The system distributes the problem solving among the individual expert objects, and then coordinates the combination of individual decisions into a joint solution. Each expert object possesses the knowledge of an expert in a particular technology. An expert object can examine the parameters and characteristics of the waste site, seek information and support from other expert objects, and then make decisions concerning its own applicability. This methodology has at least two primary benefits. First, the creation of multiple expert objects provides a more direct mapping from the actual process to a software system, making the system easier to build. Second, the distribution of the inferencing among a number of loosely connected expert objects allows for a more robust and maintainable final product.

  8. [The notion and classification of expert errors].

    PubMed

    Klevno, V A

    2012-01-01

    The author presents the analysis of the legal and forensic medical literature concerning currently accepted concepts and classification of expert malpractice. He proposes a new easy-to-remember definition of the expert error and considers the classification of such mistakes. The analysis of the cases of erroneous application of the medical criteria for estimation of the harm to health made it possible to reveal and systematize the causes accounting for the cases of expert malpractice committed by forensic medical experts and health providers when determining the degree of harm to human health. PMID:22686055

  9. Consensus of expertise: the role of consensus of experts in formulating public policy and estimating facts.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1991-08-01

    For years analysts have recognized the error of assuming that experts in medical science are also experts in deciding the clinically correct course for patients. This paper extends the analysis of the use of the consensus of experts to their use in public policy groups such as NIH Consensus Development panels. After arguing that technical experts cannot be expected to be expert on public policy decisions, the author extends the criticism to the use of the consensus of experts in estimating facts to provide a basis for policy decisions. It is argued that to the extent that (a) experts' views regarding a body of facts can be expected to correlate with their values relevant to those facts; and (b) the values of experts differ from the values of lay people, even the estimates of the facts given by the consensus of expert panels can be expected to differ from the estimates lay people would have given had they had the relevant scientific expertise. PMID:1895026

  10. Validation of an expert system intended for research in distributed artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossner, C.; Lyons, J.; Radhakrishnan, T.

    1991-01-01

    The expert system discussed in this paper is designed to function as a testbed for research on cooperating expert systems. Cooperating expert systems are members of an organization which dictates the manner in which the expert systems will interact when solving a problem. The Blackbox Expert described in this paper has been constructed using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), C++, and X windowing environment. CLIPS is embedded in a C++ program which provides objects that are used to maintain the state of the Blackbox puzzle. These objects are accessed by CLIPS rules through user-defined functions calls. The performance of the Blackbox Expert is validated by experimentation. A group of people are asked to solve a set of test cases for the Blackbox puzzle. A metric has been devised which evaluates the 'correctness' of a solution proposed for a test case of Blackbox. Using this metric and the solutions proposed by the humans, each person receives a rating for their ability to solve the Blackbox puzzle. The Blackbox Expert solves the same set of test cases and is assigned a rating for its ability. Then the rating obtained by the Blackbox Expert is compared with the ratings of the people, thus establishing the skill level of our expert system.

  11. Learning from the Experts: Gaining Insights into Best Practice during the Acquisition of Three Novel Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Nicola J.; Edwards, Christopher; Luttin, Shaun; Bowcock, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The amount and quality of practice predicts expertise, yet optimal conditions of practice have primarily been explored with novice learners. Ten expert musicians and ten novices practiced disc-throwing skills under self-regulated conditions. A third novice group practiced with the same schedule as the music experts (yoked). The groups did not…

  12. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  13. [Medical expert opinion--credibility, ethics, remuneration].

    PubMed

    Sahar, Avraham

    2007-07-01

    Israeli Law requires a Personal Injury Claim to be supported by an Expert Medical Opinion. Such evidence provides the Court with information essential for the evaluation of scientific material, which is beyond the Court's "judicial knowledge". Incongruent Expert Opinions are not necessarily the result of deceit. Experts are entitled to differences in their respective evaluation and interpretation of data and conflicting medical opinions may be legitimate. The Court's duty and prerogative is to select the "legally correct" opinion. The sole tool at the Court's disposal is precise and logical thinking, aided by principles set by the U.S. Supreme Court for the evaluation of scientific evidence, and adopted by the Israeli Court. The choice of the "correct" opinion centers on it's objectivity. A court-appointed expert is not necessarily an effective solution. Remuneration of the expert by the interested party increases the level of mistrust. The difficult questions concerning the credibility of an opinion arise as the result of insufficient specific expertise of the witness, presentation by a pretender to expertise or plain misrepresentation of data, excerpts of literature etc. Such transgressions are best exposed by the opposing party's expert and attorney. The court has effective means for the control of such behavior. The fraudulent expert witness is neither immune to criminal prosecution, nor to civil suit. IMA's Code of Ethics for Experts is adequate. Expert's fees should be consistent with the effort involved, as well as with the expert's rank and experience. Any linkage of fees to the outcome of the procedure should be prohibited, as well as the intervention of "contractors". Attempts to limit experts' fees, may result in the abstention of the most knowledgeable specialists from such duties. The blame for a false opinion does not lie with the paying party, it is mostly the witness who is responsible. PMID:17803167

  14. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  15. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Dan E; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  16. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  17. Expert systems should be more accurate than human experts - Evaluation procedures from human judgment and decisionmaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levi, Keith

    1989-01-01

    Two procedures for the evaluation of the performance of expert systems are illustrated: one procedure evaluates predictive accuracy; the other procedure is complementary in that it uncovers the factors that contribute to predictive accuracy. Using these procedures, it is argued that expert systems should be more accurate than human experts in two senses. One sense is that expert systems must be more accurate to be cost-effective. Previous research is reviewed and original results are presented which show that simple statistical models typically perform better than human experts for the task of combining evidence from a given set of information sources. The results also suggest the second sense in which expert systems should be more accurate than human experts. They reveal that expert systems should share factors that contribute to human accuracy, but not factors that detract from human accuracy. Thus the thesis is that one should both require and expect systems to be more accurate than humans.

  18. Satellite operations support expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

  19. Fast-ball sports experts depend on an inhibitory strategy to reprogram their movement timing.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ikudome, Sachi; Yotani, Kengo; Maruyama, Atsuo; Mori, Shiro

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to clarify whether an inhibitory strategy is used for reprogramming of movement timing by experts in fast-ball sports when they correct their movement timing due to unexpected environmental changes. We evaluated the influence of disruption of inhibitory function of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on reprogramming of movement timing of experts and non-experts in fast-ball sports. The task was to manually press a button to coincide with the arrival of a moving target. The target moved at a constant velocity, and its velocity was suddenly either increased or decreased in some trials. The task was performed either with or without transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which was delivered to the region of the rIFG. Under velocity change conditions without TMS, the experts showed significantly smaller timing errors and a higher rate of reprogramming of movement timing than the non-experts. Moreover, TMS application during the task significantly diminished the expert group's performance, but not the control group, particularly in the condition where the target velocity decreases. These results suggest that experts use an inhibitory strategy for reprogramming of movement timing. In addition, the rIFG inhibitory function contributes to the superior movement correction of experts in fast-ball sports. PMID:23660742

  20. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery. PMID:26683746

  1. Can journalistic "false balance" distort public perception of consensus in expert opinion?

    PubMed

    Koehler, Derek J

    2016-03-01

    Media critics have expressed concern that journalistic "false balance" can distort the public's perceptions of what ought to be noncontroversial subjects (e.g., climate change). I report several experiments testing the influence of presenting conflicting comments from 2 experts who disagree on an issue (balance condition) in addition to a complete count of the number of experts on a panel who favor either side. Compared with a control condition, who received only the complete count, participants in the balance condition gave ratings of the perceived agreement among the experts that did not discriminate as clearly between issues with and without strong expert consensus. Participants in the balance condition also perceived less agreement among the experts in general, and were less likely to think that there was enough agreement among experts on the high-consensus issues to guide government policy. Evidently, "false balance" can distort perceptions of expert opinion even when participants would seem to have all the information needed to correct for its influence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752513

  2. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  3. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  4. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Arthur J.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Brudnoy, David M.; Englund, James M.; Loomis, Kent C.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

  5. The Expert Ceiling in Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Paulsen and Wells (1998) stated that, "it seems unlikely that substantial differences in epistemological beliefs across domains would persist in studies of faculty or other more advanced experts," (p. 380). This statement implies the existence of an upper limit or ceiling effect in the epistemological beliefs among experts. Faculty members are…

  6. 12 CFR 1081.210 - Expert discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expert discovery. 1081.210 Section 1081.210... Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 1081.210 Expert discovery. (a) At a date set by the hearing... discovery in appropriate cases....

  7. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.J.; Oppenlander, J.E.; Brudnoy, D.M.; Englund, J.M.; Loomis, K.C.

    1994-08-16

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner. 21 figs.

  8. Toward the Development of Expert Assessment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselbring, Ted S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential application of "expert systems" to the diagnosis and assessment of special-needs children is examined and existing prototype systems are reviewed. The future of this artificial intelligence technology is discussed in relation to emerging development tools designed for the creation of expert systems by the lay public. (Author)

  9. An expert system for restructurable control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan

    1988-01-01

    Work in progress on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems on-line is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods for redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to system changes. The research is directed toward aircraft and jet engine applications. The implementation is written in LISP and is currently running on a special purpose LISP machine.

  10. Knowledge acquisition for a simple expert controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieker, B.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for process control which has the properties of being incremental, cyclic and top-down. It is described on the basis of the development of an expert controller for a simple, but nonlinear control route. A quality comparison between expert controller and process operator shows the ability of the method for knowledge acquisition.

  11. Expert system for imaging spectrometer analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    Information on an expert system for imaging spectrometer analysis results is outlined. Implementation requirements, the Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning (STAR) program that provides a software environment for the development and operation of rule-based expert systems, STAR data structures, and rule-based identification of surface materials are among the topics outlined.

  12. Computerized Adaptive Mastery Tests as Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of expert systems and computerized adaptive tests describes two versions of EXSPRT, a new approach that combines uncertain inference in expert systems with sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) stopping rules. Results of two studies comparing EXSPRT to adaptive mastery testing based on item response theory and SPRT approaches are…

  13. Getting Started in Library Expert Systems Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borko, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based expert system, MAPPER, which is being developed to help catalog maps by employing the cognitive processes used by catalogers in applying Anglo American Cataloging Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2). The design process is reviewed, including the choice of a model expert system, MYCIN, and a software package, EXSYS.…

  14. Using Expert Systems For Computational Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Brazee, Marylouise; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1990-01-01

    Transformation technique enables inefficient expert systems to run in real time. Paper suggests use of knowledge compiler to transform knowledge base and inference mechanism of expert-system computer program into conventional computer program. Main benefit, faster execution and reduced processing demands. In avionic systems, transformation reduces need for special-purpose computers.

  15. Expert systems relations in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael

    1987-01-01

    The problem of expert systems relations as they pertain to space applications is discussed. First, these systems are categorized and the relationships between them are analyzed. Then, the expert systems cooperation paradigm is proposed. This paradigm addresses various types of communication and coordination issues in an attempt to create a general model applicable in a number of situations.

  16. Graphic Novels in Libraries: An Expert's Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Katy

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Gordon a librarian and computer expert from Gotham city is a genius level intellect and photographic memory expert at research and analysis. According to her, graphic novels and comics are wildly appealing to readers of all ages and intensely popular with adolescents.

  17. An Expert System for Environmental Data Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berka, Petr; Jirku, Petr

    1995-01-01

    Examines the possibility of using expert system tools for environmental data management. Describes the domain-independent expert system shell SAK and Knowledge EXplorer, a system that learns rules from data. Demonstrates the functionality of Knowledge EXplorer on an example of water quality evaluation. (LZ)

  18. Working With Citizens' Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, James B.

    1974-01-01

    The growing demand for expert technical advice in the areas of environmental impact statements, testimony at public hearings, and testimony in consumer or environmental litigation is examined. Brief descriptions of thirteen of the most active public-interest science groups are included. (DT)

  19. Expert and competent non-expert visual cues during simulated diagnosis in intensive care

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Clare; Wiggins, Mark W.; Loveday, Thomas; Festa, Marino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the information acquisition strategies of expert and competent non-expert intensive care physicians during two simulated diagnostic scenarios involving respiratory distress in an infant. Specifically, the information acquisition performance of six experts and 12 competent non-experts was examined using an eye-tracker during the initial 90 s of the assessment of the patient. The results indicated that, in comparison to competent non-experts, experts recorded longer mean fixations, irrespective of the scenario. When the dwell times were examined against specific areas of interest, the results revealed that competent non-experts recorded greater overall dwell times on the nurse, where experts recorded relatively greater dwell times on the head and face of the manikin. In the context of the scenarios, experts recorded differential dwell times, spending relatively more time on the head and face during the seizure scenario than during the coughing scenario. The differences evident between experts and competent non-experts were interpreted as evidence of the relative availability of task-specific cues or heuristics in memory that might direct the process of information acquisition amongst expert physicians. The implications are discussed for the training and assessment of diagnostic skills. PMID:25206348

  20. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005).

    PubMed

    Langlois, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO's broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders-academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives-felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration's development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045

  1. Data governance requirements for distributed clinical research networks: triangulating perspectives of diverse stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Katherine K; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Holm, Roberta; Hack, Lori; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited information on best practices for the development of governance requirements for distributed research networks (DRNs), an emerging model that promotes clinical data reuse and improves timeliness of comparative effectiveness research. Much of the existing information is based on a single type of stakeholder such as researchers or administrators. This paper reports on a triangulated approach to developing DRN data governance requirements based on a combination of policy analysis with experts, interviews with institutional leaders, and patient focus groups. This approach is illustrated with an example from the Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research, which resulted in 91 requirements. These requirements were analyzed against the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protected versus non-protected health information. The requirements addressed all FIPPs, showing how a DRN's technical infrastructure is able to fulfill HIPAA regulations, protect privacy, and provide a trustworthy platform for research. PMID:24302285

  2. Data governance requirements for distributed clinical research networks: triangulating perspectives of diverse stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Katherine K; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Holm, Roberta; Hack, Lori; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited information on best practices for the development of governance requirements for distributed research networks (DRNs), an emerging model that promotes clinical data reuse and improves timeliness of comparative effectiveness research. Much of the existing information is based on a single type of stakeholder such as researchers or administrators. This paper reports on a triangulated approach to developing DRN data governance requirements based on a combination of policy analysis with experts, interviews with institutional leaders, and patient focus groups. This approach is illustrated with an example from the Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research, which resulted in 91 requirements. These requirements were analyzed against the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protected versus non-protected health information. The requirements addressed all FIPPs, showing how a DRN's technical infrastructure is able to fulfill HIPAA regulations, protect privacy, and provide a trustworthy platform for research. PMID:24302285

  3. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Balch; Ron Broadhead

    2005-03-01

    Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.

  4. Hybrid expert system implementation to determine core reload patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Greek, K.J.; Robinson, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Determining reactor reload fuel patterns is a computationally intensive problem solving process for which automation can be of significant benefit. Often much effort is expended in the search for an optimal loading. While any modern programming language could be used to automate solution, the specialized tools of artificial intelligence (AI) are the most efficient means of introducing the fuel management expert's knowledge into the search for an optimum reload pattern. Prior research in pressurized water reactor refueling strategies developed FORTRAN programs that automated an expert's basic knowledge to direct a search for an acceptable minimum peak power loading. The dissatisfaction with maintenance of compiled knowledge in FORTRAN programs has served as the motivation for the development of the SHUFFLE expert system. SHUFFLE is written in Smalltalk, an object-oriented programming language, and evaluates loadings as it generates them using a two-group, two-dimensional nodal power calculation compiled in a personal computer-based FORTRAN. This paper reviews the object-oriented representation developed to solve the core reload problem with an expert system tool and its operating prototype, SHUFFLE.

  5. Multiple strategies of reasoning for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yuchuan; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    In expert systems the heuristics used for combining the weight of evidence can be based on probabilistic, fuzzy set, or subjective confidence factors. Although the underlying assumptions for each of the methods differ, it can be shown that there are correspondences between them and that it is possible to develop a model of expert reasoning for medical consultation using any one of the methods. The authors have developed a system for representing expert knowledge, called ESMES, which is an outgrowth of the expert scheme developed earlier at Rutgers. ESMES allows the use of alternative strategies in the solution of a consultation problem. The authors report on the performance of ESMES for a prototype glaucoma consultation model, using reasoning mechanisms similar to those of the expert, MYCIN, Internist I, and Prospector systems. 9 references.

  6. EMMA: The expert system for munition maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Barry E.

    1988-01-01

    Expert Missile Maintenance Aid (EMMA) is a first attempt to enhance maintenance of the tactical munition at the field and depot level by using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The ultimate goal of EMMA is to help a novice maintenance technician isolate and diagnose electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment faults to the board/chassis level more quickly and consistently than the best human expert using the best currently available automatic test equipment (ATE). To this end, EMMA augments existing ATE with an expert system that captures the knowledge of design and maintenance experts. The EMMA program is described, including the evaluation of field-level expert system prototypes, the description of several study tasks performed during EMMA, and future plans for a follow-on program. This paper will briefly address several study tasks performed during EMMA. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans for a follow-on program and other areas of concern.

  7. A prototype expert system for fishway design.

    PubMed

    Bender, M J; Katopodis, C; Simonovic, S P

    1992-12-01

    The design of structures for fish passage in rivers and streams provides an opportunity to apply expert system concepts to a design problem. Fishways contribute to the sustainable development of water resources projects by providing a path that allows fish migrations to be maintained. A prototype expert system (FDES) has been developed to recommend the most suitable fishway type for given design conditions. A recommendation is provided on the basis of fishway hydraulics, fish passage performance, and cost requirements. Fishway design demands expertise in various scientific disciplines such as hydrology, hydraulics, and fish biology. Expert system technology may be used to reduce design time requirements and to serve as a teaching aid to inexperienced engineers by organizing and accessing the cumulative knowledge of the most experienced designers. The rule-based expert system development tool, VP-Expert, supplies the backward chaining control structure for accessing the knowledge within the prototype. PMID:24227094

  8. The Effect of Moderate and High-Intensity Fatigue on Groundstroke Accuracy in Expert and Non-Expert Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Mark; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Hankey, Joanne; Nevill, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player’s achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female) and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female) tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70%) and high-intensities (90%) set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test). Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA’s revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player’s achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on performance in

  9. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  10. Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, John C; Aloia, Thomas A; Crane, Christopher H; Heimbach, Julie K; Nagino, Masato; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree consensus statements. It was established that the treatment of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize the chances for both durable survival and effective palliation. An adequate diagnostic and staging work-up includes high-quality cross-sectional imaging; however, pathologic confirmation is not required prior to resection or initiation of a liver transplant trimodal treatment protocol. The ideal treatment for suitable patients with resectable hilar malignancy is resection of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as resection of the involved ipsilateral liver. Preoperative biliary drainage is best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic approaches and may be indicated for patients with cholangitis, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency. Portal vein embolization is a safe and effective strategy for increasing the future liver remnant (FLR) and is particularly useful for patients with an FLR of <30%. Selected patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be evaluated for a standard trimodal protocol incorporating external beam and endoluminal radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and liver transplantation. Post-resection chemoradiation should be offered to patients who show high-risk features on surgical pathology. Chemoradiation is also recommended for patients with locally advanced, unresectable hilar cancers. For patients with locally recurrent or metastatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma, first-line chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is recommended based on multiple Phase II trials and a large randomized controlled trial including a heterogeneous population of patients with biliary cancers. PMID:26172136

  11. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Mansour, John C; Aloia, Thomas A; Crane, Christopher H; Heimbach, Julie K; Nagino, Masato; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree consensus statements. It was established that the treatment of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize the chances for both durable survival and effective palliation. An adequate diagnostic and staging work-up includes high-quality cross-sectional imaging; however, pathologic confirmation is not required prior to resection or initiation of a liver transplant trimodal treatment protocol. The ideal treatment for suitable patients with resectable hilar malignancy is resection of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as resection of the involved ipsilateral liver. Preoperative biliary drainage is best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic approaches and may be indicated for patients with cholangitis, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency. Portal vein embolization is a safe and effective strategy for increasing the future liver remnant (FLR) and is particularly useful for patients with an FLR of <30%. Selected patients with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be evaluated for a standard trimodal protocol incorporating external beam and endoluminal radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and liver transplantation. Post-resection chemoradiation should be offered to patients who show high-risk features on surgical pathology. Chemoradiation is also recommended for patients with locally advanced, unresectable hilar cancers. For patients with locally recurrent or metastatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma, first-line chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is recommended based on multiple Phase II trials and a large randomized controlled trial including a heterogeneous population of patients with biliary cancers. PMID:26172136

  12. Gallbladder cancer: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Aloia, Thomas A; Járufe, Nicolas; Javle, Milind; Maithel, Shishir K; Roa, Juan C; Adsay, Volkan; Coimbra, Felipe J F; Jarnagin, William R

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists was convened on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of gallbladder carcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines. In summary, within high incidence areas, the assessment of routine gallbladder specimens should include the microscopic evaluation of a minimum of three sections and the cystic duct margin; specimens with dysplasia or proven cancer should be extensively sampled. Provided the patient is medically fit for surgery, data support the resection of all gallbladder polyps of >1.0 cm in diameter and those with imaging evidence of vascular stalks. The minimum staging evaluation of patients with suspected or proven gallbladder cancer includes contrasted cross-sectional imaging and diagnostic laparoscopy. Adequate lymphadenectomy includes assessment of any suspicious regional nodes, evaluation of the aortocaval nodal basin, and a goal recovery of at least six nodes. Patients with confirmed metastases to N2 nodal stations do not benefit from radical resection and should receive systemic and/or palliative treatments. Primary resection of patients with early T-stage (T1b-2) disease should include en bloc resection of adjacent liver parenchyma. Patients with T1b, T2 or T3 disease that is incidentally identified in a cholecystectomy specimen should undergo re-resection unless this is contraindicated by advanced disease or poor performance status. Re-resection should include complete portal lymphadenectomy and bile duct resection only when needed to achieve a negative margin (R0) resection. Patients with preoperatively staged T3 or T4 N1 disease should be considered for clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following R0 resection of T2-4 disease in N1 gallbladder cancer, patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26172135

  13. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sharon M; Ribero, Dario; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Kokudo, Norihiro; Miyazaki, Masaru; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree on consensus statements. The treatment of ICC requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize survival. Biopsy is not necessary if the surgeon suspects ICC and is planning curative resection, although biopsy should be obtained before systemic or locoregional therapies are initiated. Assessment of resectability is best accomplished using cross-sectional imaging [computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], but the role of positron emission tomography (PET) is unclear. Resectability in ICC is defined by the ability to completely remove the disease while leaving an adequate liver remnant. Extrahepatic disease, multiple bilobar or multicentric tumours, and lymph node metastases beyond the primary echelon are contraindications to resection. Regional lymphadenectomy should be considered a standard part of surgical therapy. In patients with high-risk features, the routine use of diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended. The preoperative diagnosis of combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) by imaging studies is extremely difficult. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment, but survival is worse than in HCC alone. There are no adequately powered, randomized Phase III trials that can provide definitive recommendations for adjuvant therapy for ICC. Patients with high-risk features (lymphovascular invasion, multicentricity or satellitosis, large tumours) should be encouraged to enrol in clinical trials and to consider adjuvant therapy. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine represents the standard-of-care, front-line systemic therapy for metastatic ICC. Genomic analyses of biliary cancers support the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID

  14. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Weiss

    2001-05-17

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This second annual report contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. During the second year of the project, data acquisition of the Brushy Canyon Formation was completed with the compiling and analyzing of well logs, geophysical data, and production information needed to characterize production potential in the Delaware Basin. A majority of this data now resides in several online databases on our servers and is in proper form to be accessed by external programs such as Web applications. A new concept was developed and tested in well log

  15. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    PubMed

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research. PMID:17621416

  16. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Balch

    2003-04-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  17. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Weiss

    2001-09-30

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. As a result, today's pool of experts is much reduced. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the May 2001 through September 2001 was directed toward development of rules for the fuzzy system.

  18. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  19. Ethics and constitutional government.

    PubMed

    Albright, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term ethics refers to a set of principles that govern acceptable, proper conduct. Attacks on the Constitution of the United States pose the most serious breach of ethics today. Our country was founded as a republic, not as a democracy. Our Founding Fathers' main concern was to protect citizens from the power of the federal government, so constitutionally, the central government has little or no authority over individual citizens except on federal property. One of the major problems today is the fact that we now have professional politicians. This is due in large part to the lure of financial gain from countless special interest groups. This would change under constitutional law because the federal budget would decrease drastically. Article 1 states that all legislative power is vested in Congress. Congress has only 18 enumerated powers, and almost half of these pertain to defense of the country. Many of our current problems are due to regulatory agencies that have become independent fiefdoms with unconstitutional legislative, as well as executive and judicial, powers. The regulatory agency most relevant to medicine, both clinical care and research, is the FDA. It is now obvious that its basic structure needs to be changed or abolished because its actions are identical to those inherent in authoritarian systems. Constructive change could come from Congress, but it would be most desirable if the Supreme Court would take the lead and reestablish the authority of the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land. The FDA's function could be limited to the determination of safety, but preferably its mission would be altered to that of product certification. Defenders of the current system claim that such a drastic change would be too dangerous and their prime example is thalidomide. But it is now known that the market has already solved that problem prior to the government-imposed sanctions. Realistically, market forces and their ramifications, including our legal

  20. Expert vs. novice: Problem decomposition/recomposition in engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design session, members participated in a group interview. This study used protocol analysis as the methodology. Video and audio data were transcribed, segmented, and coded. Two coding systems including the FBS ontology and "levels of the problem" were used in this study. A series of statistical techniques were used to analyze data. Interview data and participants' design sketches also worked as supplemental data to help answer the research questions. By analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data, it was found that students used less problem decomposition and problem recomposition than engineer experts in engineering design. This result implies that engineering education should place more importance on teaching problem decomposition and problem recomposition. Students were found to spend less cognitive effort when considering the problem as a whole and interactions between subsystems than engineer experts. In addition, students were also found to spend more cognitive effort when considering details of subsystems. These results showed that students tended to use dept-first decomposition and experts tended to use breadth-first decomposition in engineering design. The use of Function (F), Behavior (B), and Structure (S) among engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen was compared on three levels. Level 1 represents designers consider the problem as an integral whole, Level 2 represents designers consider interactions between

  1. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample’s prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these. PMID:26295247

  2. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors.

    PubMed

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M T E

    2015-08-01

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample's prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these. PMID:26295247

  3. Towards reasoning visualization in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selig, William John; Johannes, James D.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of ongoing research to develop visualization paradigms for expert systems reasoning processes. The results are based in part on a prototype implementation that is being developed to visualize the reasoning processes of a rule-based forward chaining expert system. The research is based on the premise that the presentation of information at the highest applicable conceptual level will enhance the assimilation of that information. Hierarchical levels in both the syntactic and semantic levels of reasoning in expert systems are described in detail.

  4. Expert systems for Space Station automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.; Firschein, O.

    1985-01-01

    The expert systems required for automating key functions of the Manned Space Station (MSS) are explored. It is necessary that the expert systems developed be flexible, degrade gracefully in the case of a failure, and be able to work with incomplete data. The AI systems will have to perform interpretation and diagnosis, design, prediction and induction, and monitoring and control functions. Both quantitative and qualitative reasoning capabilities need improvements, as do automatic verification techniques, explanation and learning capabilities, and the use of metaknowledge, i. e., knowledge about the knowledge contained in the knowledge base. Information retrieval, fault isolation and manufacturing process control demonstrations are needed to validate expert systems for the MSS.

  5. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  6. Communications and tracking expert systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfried, T. F.; Feagin, Terry; Overland, David

    1987-01-01

    The original objectives of the study consisted of five broad areas of investigation: criteria and issues for explanation of communication and tracking system anomaly detection, isolation, and recovery; data storage simplification issues for fault detection expert systems; data selection procedures for decision tree pruning and optimization to enhance the abstraction of pertinent information for clear explanation; criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs; and analysis of expert system interaction and modularization. Progress was made in all areas, but to a lesser extent in the criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs. Among the types of expert systems studied were those related to anomaly or fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

  7. An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

  8. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  9. DISPO Advisor: Expert System for Psychiatric Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Patrick; Barta, Wendy

    1988-01-01

    An expert system was designed to assist psychiatric residents at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. This microcomputer based decision support system helps residents find the proper disposition for patients who come to the emergency room. The system uses an inexpensive, commercially available expert system shell, VP-EXPERT by Paperback Software, to match patients with inpatient and outpatient resources appropriate to their needs. The inference engine uses both forward and backward chaining, and interfaces with data stored in DBase III files. The system is currently in daily use by residents.

  10. Robust mixture of experts modeling using the t distribution.

    PubMed

    Chamroukhi, F

    2016-07-01

    Mixture of Experts (MoE) is a popular framework for modeling heterogeneity in data for regression, classification, and clustering. For regression and cluster analyses of continuous data, MoE usually uses normal experts following the Gaussian distribution. However, for a set of data containing a group or groups of observations with heavy tails or atypical observations, the use of normal experts is unsuitable and can unduly affect the fit of the MoE model. We introduce a robust MoE modeling using the t distribution. The proposed t MoE (TMoE) deals with these issues regarding heavy-tailed and noisy data. We develop a dedicated expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the parameters of the proposed model by monotonically maximizing the observed data log-likelihood. We describe how the presented model can be used in prediction and in model-based clustering of regression data. The proposed model is validated on numerical experiments carried out on simulated data, which show the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed model in terms of modeling non-linear regression functions as well as in model-based clustering. Then, it is applied to the real-world data of tone perception for musical data analysis, and the one of temperature anomalies for the analysis of climate change data. The obtained results show the usefulness of the TMoE model for practical applications. PMID:27093693

  11. Who does it better? The corporate versus the nonprofit governance model.

    PubMed

    Larson, Laurie

    2005-05-01

    Weighing the corporate against the nonprofit governance model, the answer may be "neither." Both systems can learn from each other, experts say, and best practices in public companies do not automatically translate to health care boards. PMID:15926295

  12. Ocean acidification and its impacts: an expert survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattuso, J.; Mach, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    The number of scientists investigating ocean acidification as well as the number of papers published on this issue have increased considerably in the past few years. On the one hand, the advances are welcome for the assessment of ocean acidification and its impacts. On the other hand, the volume and rapidity of the scientific developments as well as some contradictory results have created challenges for assessing the current state of knowledge and informing policy makers. Two tools are being used to synthesize the current information: meta-analysis and expert survey. In January this year, Working Groups I and II of the IPCC organized an expert meeting on ocean acidification in Okinawa. Following this meeting, we built a set of 22 statements, in consultation with several of the meeting participants. An expert survey was then conducted. It involved 52 experts who provided a considerable amount of information. The statements covered a broad array of research fields and were grouped in 3 categories: chemical aspects, biological and biogeochemical responses, and policy and socio-economic aspects. The survey results indicate a relatively strong consensus for most statements related to the past, present and future chemical aspects. Examples of consensual issues are: non-anthropogenic ocean acidification events have occurred in the geological past, anthropogenic CO2 emissions is the main (but not the only) mechanism generating the current ocean acidification event, and ocean acidification will be felt for centuries. The experts generally agreed that there will be impacts on biological and ecological processes and biogeochemical feedbacks, but for such statements, the levels of agreement were lower overall, with more variability across responses. Levels of agreements among experts surveyed were comparatively higher for statements regarding calcification, primary production and nitrogen fixation, as compared to impacts on food-webs. The levels of agreement for statements

  13. MOM: A meteorological data checking expert system in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Meteorologists have long faced the problem of verifying the data they use. Experience shows that there is a sizable number of errors in the data reported by meteorological observers. This is unacceptable for computer forecast models, which depend on accurate data for accurate results. Most errors that occur in meteorological data are obvious to the meteorologist, but time constraints prevent hand-checking. For this reason, it is necessary to have a 'front end' to the computer model to ensure the accuracy of input. Various approaches to automatic data quality control have been developed by several groups. MOM is a rule-based system implemented in CLIPS and utilizing 'consistency checks' and 'range checks'. The system is generic in the sense that it knows some meteorological principles, regardless of specific station characteristics. Specific constraints kept as CLIPS facts in a separate file provide for system flexibility. Preliminary results show that the expert system has detected some inconsistencies not noticed by a local expert.

  14. The Expert System Programme of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafay, J. F.; Allard, F.

    1992-08-01

    ESA's Expert System Demonstration (ESD) program is discussed in terms of its goals, structure, three-phase approach, and initial results. ESD is intended to demonstrate the benefits of AI and knowledge-based systems for in-orbit infrastructures by developing a strategic technology to contribute to ESA missions. Three phases were defined for: (1) program definition and review of existing work; (2) demonstration of applications prototypes; and (3) the development of operational systems from successful prototypes. Applications of 16 proposed expert-system candidates are grouped into payload-engineering and crew/operations categories. The candidates are to be evaluated in terms of their potential contribution to strategic goals such as improving scientific return and automating operator functions to eliminate human error.

  15. Infrared Thermography And The Expert Witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Charles C.

    1985-03-01

    With the continued growth of legal activities involving litigation, lawsuits involving technical matters may be very complex. Expert witnesses are often hired by both plaintiffs and defendants to help clarify and simplify technical merits of a case in order for the jury to make an educated decision. The usage of infrared thermography in legal matters has also been growing. This paper reviews several areas where infrared thermography has been utilized in legal matters. These include analysis of building defects, fire analysis and equipment failures. Expert witness qualifications, test procedures and analyses are discussed. The role of industry and governmental standards is reviewed. Opinions from the infrared thermographic expert should be unbiased, factual and within the area of qualification of the expert.

  16. Validation and verification of expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilstrap, Lewey

    1991-01-01

    Validation and verification (V&V) are procedures used to evaluate system structure or behavior with respect to a set of requirements. Although expert systems are often developed as a series of prototypes without requirements, it is not possible to perform V&V on any system for which requirements have not been prepared. In addition, there are special problems associated with the evaluation of expert systems that do not arise in the evaluation of conventional systems, such as verification of the completeness and accuracy of the knowledge base. The criticality of most NASA missions make it important to be able to certify the performance of the expert systems used to support these mission. Recommendations for the most appropriate method for integrating V&V into the Expert System Development Methodology (ESDM) and suggestions for the most suitable approaches for each stage of ESDM development are presented.

  17. ZEX: An expert system for ZEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, U.; Flasinski, M.; Hagge, L.; Ohrenberg, K.

    1994-02-01

    ZEX is an expert system which is designed to support operation of ZEUS experiment. It is based on performance monitoring and offers diagnostic capabilities and instructions on how to proceed running the experiment. System architecture and implementation methods are discussed. A prototype version of the expert system, ZEX-P, has been implemented successfully and has been operating since the beginning of 1993. Experience gained in the design and implementation of ZEX-P and first results are reported.

  18. Debunking the myths around expert witnesses.

    PubMed

    Deal, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The expert witness is a well known legal role, which conjures up images of a glowering judge and fierce cross-examination by a Rumpole of the Bailey-style barrister. Nick Deal is a barrister who works for Bond Solon, a company that provides training for expert witnesses. Here, he considers some of the points raised during a course for pathologists at the Royal Veterinary College. PMID:25556145

  19. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  20. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  1. Expert System Enhanced Work Station for Dentists*

    PubMed Central

    Truax, Terry D.; Bailit, Howard L.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer based workstation has been created to provide the clinical dentist with an expert system enhanced, voice driven, IBM PC based program to support both the clinical and financial functions of a small dental practice. The data management system is complete and undergoing clinical tests. An initial expert system with knowledge bases for two clinical problems has been developed. Additional clinical and financial knowledge bases are under development.

  2. Content validation using an expert panel: assessment process for assistive technology adopted by farmers with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mathew, S N; Field, W E; French, B F

    2011-07-01

    This article reports the use of an expert panel to perform content validation of an experimental assessment process for the safety of assistive technology (AT) adopted by farmers with disabilities. The validation process was conducted by a panel of six experts experienced in the subject matter, i.e., design, use, and assessment of AT for farmers with disabilities. The exercise included an evaluation session and two focus group sessions. The evaluation session consisted of using the assessment process under consideration by the panel to evaluate a set of nine ATs fabricated by a farmer on his farm site. The expert panel also participated in the focus group sessions conducted immediately before and after the evaluation session. The resulting data were analyzed using discursive analysis, and the results were incorporated into the final assessment process. The method and the results are presented with recommendations for the use of expert panels in research projects and validation of assessment tools. PMID:21919319

  3. A parallel expert system for the control of a robotic air vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakley, Donald; Lamont, Gary B.

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems can be used to govern the intelligent control of vehicles, for example the Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV). Due to the nature of the RAV system the associated expert system needs to perform in a demanding real-time environment. The use of a parallel processing capability to support the associated expert system's computational requirement is critical in this application. Thus, algorithms for parallel real-time expert systems must be designed, analyzed, and synthesized. The design process incorporates a consideration of the rule-set/face-set size along with representation issues. These issues are looked at in reference to information movement and various inference mechanisms. Also examined is the process involved with transporting the RAV expert system functions from the TI Explorer, where they are implemented in the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART), to the iPSC Hypercube, where the system is synthesized using Concurrent Common LISP (CCLISP). The transformation process for the ART to CCLISP conversion is described. The performance characteristics of the parallel implementation of these expert systems on the iPSC Hypercube are compared to the TI Explorer implementation.

  4. Bury My Documents in Lenexa, Kansas: Expert Witness Work and the American Indian Records Repository.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Emily; Smith, Ian

    2015-02-01

    Restricted access to the American Indian Records Repository (AIRR) poses significant problems for expert witness historians working outside the federal government, as well as for academic historians and tribes. The authors discuss the creation of the AIRR in 2004, the records housed there, and the challenges they have experienced as expert witnesses seeking access to the AIRR. Although the AIRR preserves a far greater volume of federal records than might have otherwise occurred, the lack of public access may ultimately impede historians' ability to examine modern topics in Native American history and United States-tribal relations. PMID:26281239

  5. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  6. Implementation of the PR&PP methodology: the role of formal expert elicitations

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    The application of the methodology developed by the GenIV International Forum's (GIF's) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group is an expert elicitation. Although the framework of the methodology is structured and systematic, it does not by itself constitute or require a formal elicitation. However, formal elicitation can be utilized in the PR&PP context to provide a systematic, credible and transparent qualitative analysis and develop input for quantitative analyses. This section provides an overview of expert elicitations, a discussion of the role formal expert elicitations can play in the PR&PP methodology, an outline of the formal expert elicitation process and a brief practical guide to conducting formal expert elicitations. Expert elicitation is a process utilizing knowledgeable people in cases, for example, when an assessment is needed but physically based data is absent or open to interpretation. More specifically, it can be used to: (1) predict future events; (2) provide estimates on new, rare, complex or poorly understood phenomena; (3) integrate or interpret existing information; or (4) determine what is currently known, how well it is known or what is worth learning in a field. Expert elicitation can be informal or formal. The informal application of expert judgment is frequently used. Although it can produce good results, it often provides demonstrably biased or otherwise flawed answers to problems. This along with the absence of transparency can result in a loss of confidence when experts speak on issues. More formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. The reason for advocating formal use is that the quality and accuracy of expert judgment comes from the completeness of the expert's understanding of the phenomena and the process used to elicit and analyze the data. The use of a more formal process to obtain, lU1derstand and analyze expert

  7. [Government and training demands].

    PubMed

    van der Klaauw, J M

    1998-06-01

    The availability of adequately trained professionals in sufficient numbers is an essential condition for guaranteeing good quality of health care. The Individual Health Care Professions Act fosters the quality by defining the educational requirements and the area of professional competence. The proposal of the working group 'Competition, Deregulation and Quality of Legislation in the health care' to make the dental hygienist free accessible for the patient is in accordance with the policy of the government to foster the efficiency by task delegation. The replacement of sectorial EU-directives by general directives for the free movement of professionals within the European Economic Area has more drawbacks than advantages. Most EU-memberstates are not a proponent for a vocational year after the basic dental training. Deficiencies in the basic dental training should have been met by lengthening the basic training. PMID:12132401

  8. Expert analogy use in a naturalistic setting

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Donald R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker's goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption) of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance. PMID:25505437

  9. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  10. Training Future Physicians about Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Expert Panel on Bioterrorism Education for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to share their insights about the learning objectives and educational experiences that they would recommend for the training of future physicians about bioterrorism. The expert panel broadened the scope of their discussion beyond bioterrorism to…

  11. Surveys explore critical governance relationship.

    PubMed

    Grant, M K

    1987-01-01

    The transition in religious-sponsored health care from a ministry of direct service to one of governance has generated serious and penetrating questions, analyses, and retrenchment. Emphasis on and demand for value-laden leadership development programs are growing at the same time that sponsoring groups are becoming more actively involved in the governance and oversight of their corporate ministries. Two recent Catholic Health Association (CHA) studies focused on the critical governance relationship between the sponsoring group and its incorporated ministries. The first study asked religious institutes and dioceses that were sponsors of CHA member health care freestanding facilities and systems to describe their current governance structure. The second study represented an initial attempt to identify qualitative components of effective governance or sponsorship and asked 19 major superiors and system chief executive officers (CEOs) to characterize an ideal relationship between sponsor and ministry. The studies' findings included the following: In freestanding facilities, lay-religious governing boards have all but replaced the all-sponsor and all-lay advisory boards of the past. Trustee orientation, development, and evaluation were not equally stressed in the three groups surveyed, with trustee evaluation programs lagging behind in all three. Major superiors and CEOs had remarkably similar expectations relating to accountability for mission, relationships between sponsor and corporation, communication, and leadership development. Both major superiors and CEOs looked for greater collaboration in defining roles, translating mission into "business plan", and developing formation programs for leadership. Major superiors' emphasized simplicity of life-style, whereas the CEOs stressed stable commitment to corporate ministry. PMID:10280357

  12. Multiage Grouping and Student Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this action research project was to investigate students' social preferences and pro-social interactions in a multiage, high school classroom in order to better understand how to group students to maximize learning and collaboration. According to many educational experts and previous inquiries, mixed-age learning groups introduce…

  13. Responding to Today's Challenges: Is Governance Up to the Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Nancy; Howard, Muriel A.; Miles, David W.; Woolsey, Suzanne H.; Yudof, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    People around the country--students and families, government officials, legislators, public-policy experts, and others--are increasingly questioning higher education's quality, cost, and relevance to the nation's future. Colleges and universities are also grappling with issues of access, diversity, and student retention and completion. How can…

  14. Howard University Energy Expert Systems Institute Summer Program (EESI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Chuku, Arunsi; Abban, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Howard University, under the auspices of the Center for Energy Systems and Controls runs the Energy Expert Systems Institute (EESI) summer outreach program for high school/pre-college minority students. The main objectives are to introduce precollege minority students to research in the power industry using modern state-of-the-art technology such as Expert Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Artificial Neural Networks; to involve minority students in space power management, systems and failure diagnosis; to generate interest in career options in electrical engineering; and to experience problem-solving in a teamwork environment consisting of faculty, senior research associates and graduate students. For five weeks the students are exposed not only to the exciting experience of college life, but also to the inspiring field of engineering, especially electrical engineering. The program consists of lectures in the fundamentals of engineering, mathematics, communication skills and computer skills. The projects are divided into mini and major. Topics for the 1995 mini projects were Expert Systems for the Electric Bus and Breast Cancer Detection. Topics on the major projects include Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Solar Dynamics and Distribution Automation. On the final day, designated as 'EESI Day' the students did oral presentations of their projects and prizes were awarded to the best group. The program began in the summer of 1993. The reaction from the students has been very positive. The program also arranges field trips to special places of interest such as the NASA Goddard Space Center.

  15. The healthy food environment policy index: findings of an expert panel in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Clare; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess government actions to improve the healthiness of food environments in New Zealand, based on the healthy food environment policy index. Methods A panel of 52 public health experts rated the extent of government implementation against international best practice for 42 indicators of food environment policy and infrastructure support. Their ratings were informed by documented evidence, validated by government officials and international benchmarks. Findings There was a high level of implementation for some indicators: providing ingredient lists and nutrient declarations and regulating health claims on packaged foods; transparency in policy development; monitoring prevalence of noncommunicable diseases and monitoring risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. There was very little, if any implementation of the following indicators: restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children; fiscal and food retail policies and protection of national food environments within trade agreements. Interrater reliability was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.76–0.79). Based on the implementation gaps, the experts recommended 34 actions, and prioritized seven of these. Conclusion The healthy food environment policy index provides a useful set of indicators that can focus attention on where government action is needed. It is anticipated that this policy index will increase accountability of governments, stimulate government action and support civil society advocacy efforts. PMID:26229200

  16. A mathematical framework for combining decisions of multiple experts toward accurate and remote diagnosis of malaria using tele-microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mavandadi, Sam; Feng, Steve; Yu, Frank; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Prescott, William R; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a methodology for digitally fusing diagnostic decisions made by multiple medical experts in order to improve accuracy of diagnosis. Toward this goal, we report an experimental study involving nine experts, where each one was given more than 8,000 digital microscopic images of individual human red blood cells and asked to identify malaria infected cells. The results of this experiment reveal that even highly trained medical experts are not always self-consistent in their diagnostic decisions and that there exists a fair level of disagreement among experts, even for binary decisions (i.e., infected vs. uninfected). To tackle this general medical diagnosis problem, we propose a probabilistic algorithm to fuse the decisions made by trained medical experts to robustly achieve higher levels of accuracy when compared to individual experts making such decisions. By modelling the decisions of experts as a three component mixture model and solving for the underlying parameters using the Expectation Maximisation algorithm, we demonstrate the efficacy of our approach which significantly improves the overall diagnostic accuracy of malaria infected cells. Additionally, we present a mathematical framework for performing 'slide-level' diagnosis by using individual 'cell-level' diagnosis data, shedding more light on the statistical rules that should govern the routine practice in examination of e.g., thin blood smear samples. This framework could be generalized for various other tele-pathology needs, and can be used by trained experts within an efficient tele-medicine platform. PMID:23071544

  17. A Mathematical Framework for Combining Decisions of Multiple Experts toward Accurate and Remote Diagnosis of Malaria Using Tele-Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mavandadi, Sam; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Prescott, William R.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a methodology for digitally fusing diagnostic decisions made by multiple medical experts in order to improve accuracy of diagnosis. Toward this goal, we report an experimental study involving nine experts, where each one was given more than 8,000 digital microscopic images of individual human red blood cells and asked to identify malaria infected cells. The results of this experiment reveal that even highly trained medical experts are not always self-consistent in their diagnostic decisions and that there exists a fair level of disagreement among experts, even for binary decisions (i.e., infected vs. uninfected). To tackle this general medical diagnosis problem, we propose a probabilistic algorithm to fuse the decisions made by trained medical experts to robustly achieve higher levels of accuracy when compared to individual experts making such decisions. By modelling the decisions of experts as a three component mixture model and solving for the underlying parameters using the Expectation Maximisation algorithm, we demonstrate the efficacy of our approach which significantly improves the overall diagnostic accuracy of malaria infected cells. Additionally, we present a mathematical framework for performing ‘slide-level’ diagnosis by using individual ‘cell-level’ diagnosis data, shedding more light on the statistical rules that should govern the routine practice in examination of e.g., thin blood smear samples. This framework could be generalized for various other tele-pathology needs, and can be used by trained experts within an efficient tele-medicine platform. PMID:23071544

  18. Learning from experts on public engagement with CCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xenias, Dimitrios; Whitmarsh, Lorraine

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage is a key technology for the transition to a low carbon economy. There are thus strong normative, substantive and instrumental rationales for public acceptance of large scale CCS. In this study, we interviewed 12 experts in CCS from the UK, the Netherlands, and Germany. The experts had previous experience on public engagement on CCS, and were asked to identify barriers and drivers for CCS deployment and public engagement with CCS. Interviews lasted between 40 and 70 minutes. Thematic analysis revealed a small number of recurrent issues, including: (a) lack of political leadership on the matter; (b) lack of public knowledge on relevant technologies, which may not however always be necessary; and (c) difficulty communicating why CCS is not a direct substitute for renewable energy generation. Despite the recent government disengagement from CCS funding in the UK, another surprise finding was that lack of funding and political leadership was a perceived barrier internationally. These emergent views inform a follow-up online survey with the UK public, currently in preparation, which will expand on and triangulate the present findings and lead to development of a toolkit for the benefit of those involved with public engagement with CCS.

  19. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  20. System and method for creating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  1. Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

  2. Food-specific attribution of selected gastrointestinal illnesses: estimates from a Canadian expert elicitation survey.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Valerie J; Ravel, André; Nguyen, To N; Fazil, Aamir; Ruzante, Juliana M

    2011-09-01

    The study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of food-specific attribution for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in Canada. It was based on a similar survey conducted in the United States and focused on Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Norwalk-like virus. A snowball approach was used to identify food safety experts within Canada. Survey respondents provided background information as well as self-assessments of their expertise for each pathogen and the 12 food categories. Depending on the pathogen, food source attribution estimates were based on responses from between 10 and 35 experts. For each pathogen, experts divided their estimates of total foodborne illness across 12 food categories and they provided a best estimate for each category as well as 5th and 95th percentile limits for foods considered to be vehicles. Their responses were treated as triangular probability distributions, and linear aggregation was used to combine the opinions of each group of experts for each pathogen-food source group. Across the 108 pathogen-food groups, a majority of experts agreed on 30 sources and 48 nonsources for illness. The number of food groups considered to be pathogen sources by a majority of experts varied by pathogen from a low of one food source for Vibrio spp. (seafood) and C. parvum (produce) to a high of seven food sources for Salmonella spp. Beta distributions were fitted to the aggregated opinions and were reasonable representations for most of the pathogen-food group attributions. These results will be used to quantitatively assess the burden of foodborne illness in Canada as well as to analyze the uncertainty in our estimates. PMID:21561379

  3. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Balch

    2003-10-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This ninth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through September 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  4. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Balch

    2004-04-08

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  5. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  6. 77 FR 14528 - Preparation for International Conference on Harmonization Steering Committee and Expert Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Steering Committee and Expert Working Group Meetings in Fukuoka, Japan; Regional Public Meeting AGENCY... Working Group Meetings in Fukuoka, Japan'' to provide information and receive comments on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) as well as the upcoming meetings in Fukuoka, Japan. The...

  7. Experts' recommendations for the management of cardiogenic shock in children.

    PubMed

    Brissaud, Olivier; Botte, Astrid; Cambonie, Gilles; Dauger, Stéphane; de Saint Blanquat, Laure; Durand, Philippe; Gournay, Véronique; Guillet, Elodie; Laux, Daniela; Leclerc, Francis; Mauriat, Philippe; Boulain, Thierry; Kuteifan, Khaldoun

    2016-12-01

    Cardiogenic shock which corresponds to an acute state of circulatory failure due to impairment of myocardial contractility is a very rare disease in children, even more than in adults. To date, no international recommendations regarding its management in critically ill children are available. An experts' recommendations in adult population have recently been made (Levy et al. Ann Intensive Care 5(1):52, 2015; Levy et al. Ann Intensive Care 5(1):26, 2015). We present herein recommendations for the management of cardiogenic shock in children, developed with the grading of recommendations' assessment, development, and evaluation system by an expert group of the Groupe Francophone de Réanimation et Urgences Pédiatriques (French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies). The recommendations cover four major fields of application such as: recognition of early signs of shock and the patient pathway, management principles and therapeutic goals, monitoring hemodynamic and biological variables, and circulatory support (indications, techniques, organization, and transfer criteria). Major principle care for children with cardiogenic shock is primarily based on clinical and echocardiographic assessment. There are few drugs reported as effective in childhood in the medical literature. The use of circulatory support should be facilitated in terms of organization and reflected in the centers that support these children. Children with cardiogenic shock are vulnerable and should be followed regularly by intensivist cardiologists and pediatricians. The experts emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of management of children with cardiogenic shock and the importance of effective communication between emergency medical assistance teams (SAMU), mobile pediatric emergency units (SMUR), pediatric emergency departments, pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery departments, and pediatric intensive care units. PMID:26879087

  8. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  9. Adding an Expert to the Team: The Expert Flight Plan Critic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew; Waki, Randy; Fairweather, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a practical tool that provides expert feedback to students following an extended simulation exercise in cross-country flight planning. In contrast to development for laboratory settings, the development of an expert instructional product for everyday use posed some interesting challenges, including dealing…

  10. Clinical governance and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Crook, M

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at clinical governance and pathology. Clinical governance should be an important tool in seeking quality improvement within the Natinal Health Service. But how as pathologists should we go about it? PMID:11896066

  11. Reconfiguring the Governance of Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffrey; Ranson, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In England, school governing bodies are the largest volunteer group. For decades they have displayed a strong tradition of serving their communities with care and commitment. Research shows (DCSF, 2008b) that most governing bodies have made an effective contribution to the improvement of their schools. Yet concern about the disengagement of young…

  12. Government Certification and Accreditation: Make a Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by government officials today is securing information systems to make them more resilient to attack from increasingly complex challenges from cyber-criminals, state-sponsored groups, and other threats. Over the years, the federal government has developed and implemented Certification and Accreditation…

  13. Expert witness immunity: surveying the karnage!

    PubMed

    Pamplin, Chris

    2014-03-01

    For most expert witnesses, the decidedly disturbing decision-making of the Supreme Court in Jones v Kaney (2011) UKSC 13, has little immediate impact as, being conscientious professionals, they will be unlikely to be found negligent and will carry professional indemnity insurance just in case. Indeed, they will view existing professional disciplinary risks as a greater concern! But there are a number of potential consequences of this disturbing decision that should be considered by all expert witnesses and some clear actions that may be necessary. These include including obtain appropriate professional indemnity insurance, considering the potential for limiting liability through contract, becoming more circumspect about the way they express their opinions and consider whether accepting single joint expert instructions is still an option. PMID:24619841

  14. Ethical issues of expert witness testimony.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Alberto R

    2014-07-01

    Being a surgical expert witness (EW) in professional liability claims implies ethical responsibilities, which are usually unknown to the parties who try to obtain such testimony as well as to the surgeons involved in providing the expert opinion required by the courts. Giving medical testimony can be included in the field of surgery since (1) being an expert medical witness and judge the performance of another surgeon means that the witness must have a medical license and preferably be board-certified as a surgeon, and (2) the EW opinion sets the standard of care to be applied in each particular case. Thus, the role of the surgeon EW in the legal arena must have the same degree of integrity as the surgeon in his practice with direct patient care and it should be reviewed and subject to regulation. PMID:24852436

  15. How expert advice influences decision making.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2012-01-01

    People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor's opinion. This comparison, termed the "opinion difference", influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor's level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

  16. How Expert Advice Influences Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2012-01-01

    People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor’s opinion. This comparison, termed the “opinion difference”, influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor’s level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

  17. Fuzzy expert system shell for scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turksen, I. B.; Yurtsever, Tanju; Demirli, K.

    1993-12-01

    The Fuzzy Logic Expert System Scheduler (FLES) is a unique, on-line, interactive shop floor scheduler that is designed to produce detailed, realistic schedules for day-to-day production management. The user can exercise the control of FLES to produce scheduling assignments over short or long term scheduling horizons or to simulate different plant capacity conditions to analyze their effect on future work plans. The unique and proprietary feature of FLES is its `Decision Engine', a fuzzy knowledge base system that models the reasoning process of a human expert is used to give job releasing and job dispatching decisions. Expert knowledge in terms of fuzzy production rules represented by the use of linguistic variables. The values of these linguistic variables are defined by context dependent fuzzy sets whose meanings are specified by graded membership functions.

  18. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  19. [Nature of expert knowledge--psychological research].

    PubMed

    Vizek Vidović, Vlasta; Rovan, Daria

    2006-01-01

    The nature of expert knowledge is explored from two points of view. One of them questions the possibility of expert judgement making in practice and analyses the possible origins of bias of professional decision making. The second approach assumes that expertise manifests in different approaches in solving problems between beginners and experts who have proven high competence in the field. Shanteau's analysis of particular fields of expertise which shows differences in validity and reliability of professional decision making was also described. These differences to large extent can be attributed to different characteristics of problems specific to a particular field. In The last section of the paper gives an overview of the research results considering the origins of bias in medical expertise. PMID:16640229

  20. An expert system for window glazing design

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, R.V. ); Droste, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    An integrated expert system was developed to facilitate the design of window glass for structural strength, hydrostatic loads, sound attenuation, and solar control. The integrated software consists of a text-based interface, a rule-based expert system, and two neural networks. The text of a glazing design guide is linked by related topics and concepts. The software's design feature lets the user enter design parameters for the window choice via an interactive consultation in to a rule-based expert system that critiques the design. The technical aspects of the glass's structural strength are based primarily on linear methods published by the American Architectural Manufacturers Association Statistical correlations for the new nonlinear failure prediction for glass strength are used to automatically design for the minimum glass thickness required to withstand a specified load. Neural networks estimate values for sound attenuation and solar transmission characteristics from laboratory test data on selected glass constructions.

  1. Expert system for scheduling simulation lab sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Chet

    1990-01-01

    Implementation and results of an expert system used for scheduling session requests for the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are discussed. Weekly session requests are received from astronaut crew trainers, procedures developers, engineering assessment personnel, software developers, and various others who wish to access the computers, scene generators, and other simulation equipment available to them in the SES lab. The expert system under discussion is comprised of a data acquisition portion - two Pascal programs run on a personal computer - and a CLIPS program installed on a minicomputer. A brief introduction to the SES lab and its scheduling background is given. A general overview of the system is provided, followed by a detailed description of the constraint-reduction process and of the scheduler itself. Results from a ten-week trial period using this approach are discussed. Finally, a summary of the expert system's strengths and shortcomings are provided.

  2. Techniques for capturing expert knowledge - An expert systems/hypertext approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafferty, Larry; Taylor, Greg; Schumann, Robin; Evans, Randy; Koller, Albert M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The knowledge-acquisition strategy developed for the Explosive Hazards Classification (EHC) Expert System is described in which expert systems and hypertext are combined, and broad applications are proposed. The EHC expert system is based on rapid prototyping in which primary knowledge acquisition from experts is not emphasized; the explosive hazards technical bulletin, technical guidance, and minimal interviewing are used to develop the knowledge-based system. Hypertext is used to capture the technical information with respect to four issues including procedural, materials, test, and classification issues. The hypertext display allows the integration of multiple knowlege representations such as clarifications or opinions, and thereby allows the performance of a broad range of tasks on a single machine. Among other recommendations, it is suggested that the integration of hypertext and expert systems makes the resulting synergistic system highly efficient.

  3. [Utilization of expert systems in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M

    1993-04-01

    Are expert systems liable to be used as consultants in psychiatry? Most expert systems deal with an over-restricted part of psychiatry and cannot be a real help in everyday care. Moreover, most of them are not actually validated (the comparison between the system's and the expert's conclusions in a few cases is not enough). Another problem is that they reflect the uncertainties of nosographic problems. Validation of such systems needs the careful checking of the logical structure of the underlying nosography, the fitness of the structure's knowledge base and the fitness of the inference engine. Moreover, the naïve use of the system by untrained clinicians is the best means of validation since it provides real life proof of the ability of expert systems to make diagnoses in unselected cases where the need for a common diagnostic reference is clear (for example, epidemiologic, psychopharmacological ornosographic research). Some of the best known expert systems in the field of psychiatry are reviewed and another expert system, Adinfer, is presented. Developed since 1982, Adinfer is a forward-tracking level O system (in its simplified version for micro-computers). The knowledge base is a translation of the DSM-III-R into production rules. The program has been included in several software packages and used in many clinical studies, both among psychiatrists and physicians. The program has been validated with 1,141 unselected cases, and with 47 physicians: an 83% agreement rate was found between the system's and the physician's diagnoses, taking into account that the clinicians were asked to give their conclusions according to their usual nosography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8500073

  4. LACC Shared Governance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary

    This document discusses Los Angeles City College's (LACC) (California) Shared Governance Model. In response to California Assembly Bill 1725, LACC set forth a plan to implement the statutory requirements of shared governance. Shared governance is a concept grounded in the idea that decision-making is a process that affects the entire campus…

  5. Teaching about Comparative Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    As international relationships become increasingly important (with both friendly and not-so-friendly governments), the author believes that it is important for U.S. students to learn about how a parliamentary democracy works--how it is similar, but different from a presidential-style government. Learning about the systems of government of other…

  6. Taking Student Government Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the student government at La Mesa Middle School (California) that was modeled after the three-branch U.S. government as a means for increasing students' civic understanding. Describes the structure of the legislative, judicial, and executive branches, the different activities of the student government, and the reasons for the hiatus.…

  7. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  8. Governance in Strategic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a retrospective look at governance in community colleges based on a working understanding of governance as a correlate of decision making. In its simplest form, governance is "a process for distributing authority, power, and influence in decision making among constituencies" (Alfred and Smydra, 1985, pp. 201-202). What…

  9. Wyoming Government, Unit VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

  10. Expert system terms and building tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of an Expert System Building Tool (ESBT) capable of inference and hypothetical reasoning are discussed. The inference capabilities of ESBTs allow such functions as classification, design-synthesis, forecasting, decision-aiding, scheduling and planning, real-time monitoring, situation assessment, the discovery of novel relations, and debugging. ESBTs are noted to have made possible order-of-magnitude improvements in expert system construction. Higher-end ESBTs are moving from LISP machines to less expensive workstations, and lower-end ones are appearing on PCs.

  11. The Technologist As An Expert Witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, R. E. K.; Hall, Morse

    1985-03-01

    Decisions in our legal system are made by laymen. Even the most technical and complex cases are heard and decided by a judge or jury who may very well have no expertise on the questions which confront them. As a result, our legal system permits experts to explain complex phenomena to the fact finder and even to express his opinion on the issue which the fact finder ultimately has to decide. For example, an expert may explain not only how an airplane accident occurred, but also may testify that someone was at fault.

  12. Commercial Expert-System-Building Software Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Report evaluates commercially-available expert-system-building tools in terms of structures, representations of knowledge, inference mechanisms, interfaces with developers and end users, and capabilities of performing such functions as diagnosis and design. Software tools commercialized derivatives of artificial-intelligence systems developed by researchers at universities and research organizations. Reducing time to develop expert system by order of magnitude compared to that required with such traditional artificial development languages as LISP. Table lists 20 such tools, rating attributes as strong, fair, programmable by user, or having no capability in various criteria.

  13. Confessions of an expert ethics witness.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, K

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this essay is to describe and reflect upon the concrete particulars of one academician's work as an expert ethics witness. The commentary on my practices and the narrative descriptions of three cases are offered as evidence for the thesis that it is possible to act honorably within a role that some have considered to be inherently illicit. Practical measures are described for avoiding some of the best known pitfalls. The discussion concludes with a listing of the distinctive competencies and understandings that are useful in serving as an expert ethics witness. PMID:9309547

  14. Developing an Expert System for Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ozbolt, Judy G.; Schultz, Samuel; Swain, Mary Ann P.; Abraham, Ivo L.; Farchaus-Stein, Karen

    1984-01-01

    The American Nurses' Association has set eight Standards of Nursing Practice related to the nursing process. Computer-aided information systems intended to facilitate the nursing process must be designed to promote adherence to these professional standards. For each of the eight standards, the paper tells how a hypothetical expert system could help nurses to meet the standard. A prototype of such an expert system is being developed. The paper describes issues in conceptualizing clinical decision-making and developing decision strategies for the prototype system. The process of developing the prototype system is described.

  15. The Management and Security Expert (MASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Mark D.; Barr, Stanley J.; Gryphon, Coranth D.; Keegan, Jeff; Kniker, Catherine A.; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1991-01-01

    The Management and Security Expert (MASE) is a distributed expert system that monitors the operating systems and applications of a network. It is capable of gleaning the information provided by the different operating systems in order to optimize hardware and software performance; recognize potential hardware and/or software failure, and either repair the problem before it becomes an emergency, or notify the systems manager of the problem; and monitor applications and known security holes for indications of an intruder or virus. MASE can eradicate much of the guess work of system management.

  16. Rocket engine control and monitoring expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Crawford, Roger

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of expert systems technology to the automatic detection, verification and correction of anomalous rocket engine operations through interfacing with an intelligent adaptive control system. The design of a reliable and intelligent propulsion control and monitoring system is outlined which includes the architecture of an Integrated Expert System (IES) serving as the core component. The IES functions include automatic knowledge acquisition, integrated knowledge base, and fault diagnosis and prediction methodology. The results of fault analysis and diagnostic techniques are presented for an example fault in the SSME main combustion chamber injectors.

  17. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Adèle

    2012-01-01

    UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders—academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives—felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration’s development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045

  18. [Speech by Oscar Julian Bardeci, director of the Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), at the Latinamerican Regional Meeting prior to the International Conference on Population in recognition of the Second Meeting on Population by the Committee of Upper-Level Government Experts (CEGAN), Havana, Cuba, November 16-19, 1983].

    PubMed

    Bardeci, O J

    1983-12-01

    This work examines the relationship between population growth and economic development in Latin America and assesses progress in the 10 years since the Bucharest World Population Conference. The Latin American population increased from about 159 million in 1950 to 275 million in 1970 and around 325 million in 1980. The rate of growth reached a maximum of 2.8%/year in the early 1970s and has now declined to about 2.3%/year. The regional growth rate is a product of population dynamics that differ greatly in individual countries. Crude birth rates declined in every country of Latin America between 1975-80, but still exceeded 40/1000 in 1980-85 in Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Current fertility is the result of the different trajectories of the demographic transition in different countries. While fertility in Argentina, Cuba, and Uruguay underwent a slow but sustained decline that began prior to 1960, other countries including Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, and Venezuela began an accelerated fertility decline in the 1960s that diffused rapidly through all age and social groups. Other countries have still not entered a definite phase of fertility decline. Mortality rates have declined appreciably in Latin America in the past few decades although they remain high in some countries. After the end of World War II and until the mid-1970s, most countries of the region experienced rapid economic growth coupled with profound changes in the productive structure. The industrial labor force grew in almost all countries along with urbanization, the decline of agricultural employment, and the increase of the tertiary sector. These and other important economic advances through the mid-1970s occurred despite rapid population growth, and the beginning of the fertility decline coincided with slowing economic growth that saw negative rates in 1981-82. Various studies have shown that not all population sectors were incorporated in the process of economic

  19. Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Mason, Susan Dale

    Expert systems are computer programs that are designed to advise or assist users by storing the knowledge of human experts and applying the computer's mathematical ability to search and sort this information. This study investigated the use of an expert system as a mindtool and whether or not creating a simple expert system would facilitate the…

  20. 14 CFR 13.227 - Expert or opinion witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expert or opinion witnesses. 13.227 Section... Expert or opinion witnesses. An employee of the agency may not be called as an expert or opinion witness... respondent may not be called by an agency attorney as an expert or opinion witness for the FAA in...

  1. 14 CFR 13.227 - Expert or opinion witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expert or opinion witnesses. 13.227 Section... Expert or opinion witnesses. An employee of the agency may not be called as an expert or opinion witness... respondent may not be called by an agency attorney as an expert or opinion witness for the FAA in...

  2. 21 CFR 516.141 - Qualified expert panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of a qualified expert panel. Establishing a qualified expert panel is the first step in the process... expert panel member may not be an FDA employee. (4) A qualified expert panel must have at least three... panel meets the selection criteria listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section. (3)...

  3. Compendium of Public Employment: 2002 Census of Governments. Volume 3, Public Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a comprehensive summary of census findings on government employment and payrolls for March 2002. National and state-by-state data are shown for the federal government, state governments, and local governments by type of government. Additional data are provided on local governments by county area and by size groups. The…

  4. [Experiences with expert assessment in guardianship law from the forensic psychiatry viewpoint].

    PubMed

    von Oefele, K

    1994-04-01

    Analyzing the expert opinions given by an institution of public health on the prerequisites of guardianship, we can discriminate between three groups of individuals: Juveniles reaching majority and young adults who suffer from some form of imbecillity, persons between circa 30 and 70 years of age suffering mainly from schizophrenic psychosis or alcohol dependency, and persons over 70 years of age suffering from dementia. Each group presents special problems for the psychiatric expert, assessment being most difficult in the middle-age group. Further general problems arising in expertising in guardianship cases are discussed, such as the specific role of the expert, prerequisites for assuming limited legal competence, admission to psychiatric hospitals on a nonvoluntary basis and cooperation with other institutions. PMID:8019065

  5. Ultrasound quality assurance and equipment governance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case is presented to show the importance of good governance of ultrasound medical imaging equipment. Issues relating to the large numbers and diverse range of users and equipment are identified. Based on experience gained over 25 years, supporting upwards of 1000 systems, discussions consider why and how the testing of ultrasound systems should be approached by both the medical physics expert and end user. The management of the process is presented in the context of professional guidance and monitoring organisations’ standards are considered to give a suggested best practice.

  6. The International Cancer Expert Corps: A Unique Approach for Sustainable Cancer Care in Low and Lower-Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, C. Norman; Formenti, Silvia C.; Williams, Tim R.; Petereit, Daniel G.; Soo, Khee C.; Wong, John; Chao, Nelson; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Grover, Surbhi; Magrath, Ian; Hahn, Stephen; Liu, Fei-Fei; DeWeese, Theodore; Khleif, Samir N.; Steinberg, Michael; Roth, Lawrence; Pistenmaa, David A.; Love, Richard R.; Mohiuddin, Majid; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2014-01-01

    The growing burden of non-communicable diseases including cancer in low- and lower-middle income countries (LMICs) and in geographic-access limited settings within resource-rich countries requires effective and sustainable solutions. The International Cancer Expert Corps (ICEC) is pioneering a novel global mentorship–partnership model to address workforce capability and capacity within cancer disparities regions built on the requirement for local investment in personnel and infrastructure. Radiation oncology will be a key component given its efficacy for cure even for the advanced stages of disease often encountered and for palliation. The goal for an ICEC Center within these health disparities settings is to develop and retain a high-quality sustainable workforce who can provide the best possible cancer care, conduct research, and become a regional center of excellence. The ICEC Center can also serve as a focal point for economic, social, and healthcare system improvement. ICEC is establishing teams of Experts with expertise to mentor in the broad range of subjects required to establish and sustain cancer care programs. The Hubs are cancer centers or other groups and professional societies in resource-rich settings that will comprise the global infrastructure coordinated by ICEC Central. A transformational tenet of ICEC is that altruistic, human-service activity should be an integral part of a healthcare career. To achieve a critical mass of mentors ICEC is working with three groups: academia, private practice, and senior mentors/retirees. While in-kind support will be important, ICEC seeks support for the career time dedicated to this activity through grants, government support, industry, and philanthropy. Providing care for people with cancer in LMICs has been a recalcitrant problem. The alarming increase in the global burden of cancer in LMICs underscores the urgency and makes this an opportune time fornovel and sustainable solutions to transform cancer care

  7. Interaction Styles and Expert Social Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiamzade, Alain; Mugny, Gabriel; Cleopas, Agatta Dragulescu; Buchs, Celine

    2003-01-01

    An experiment examined the conditions under which an expert source induces less competent targets to adopt a point of view contradicting their own in a context of information transmission. In a 2x2 factorial design participants (N=86) were either 1st year or 4th year university students, and the style of the message delivered by the epistemic…

  8. [Expert systems and antibiotic sensitivity test].

    PubMed

    Flandrois, J; Carret, G

    1991-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a part of computer science that deals with programs mimicking intelligence of man. Artificial intelligence is now used to check the quality of the determination of antibiotics susceptibility of bacteria. This application is useful because antibiotic susceptibility is subject to biological and technical variation that have to be detected. Three types of reasoning are used either by the biologist or by expert systems: low level quality checking dealing with individual results, microbiological interpretation of the whole set of results and medical interpretation of the results. The use of artificial intelligence in these fields is sustained by the structured nature of the knowledge. Two type of expert systems are already of routine use, either based on production rules (ATB plus EXPERT, bioMerieux, La Balme-les-Grottes, France and SIR, 12A, Montpellier, France), or on object-oriented representation of the knowledge (EXPRIM from our laboratory). The main problem is, as usually in artificial intelligence applications, to transfer human expertise into an adapted knowledge base. The advantage of experts systems over man are their reproducibility of answer and their availability. PMID:2064087

  9. The Elements Of Adaptive Neural Expert Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Michael J.

    1989-03-01

    The generalization properties of a class of neural architectures can be modelled mathematically. The model is a parallel predicate calculus based on pattern recognition and self-organization of long-term memory in a neural network. It may provide the basis for adaptive expert systems capable of inductive learning and rapid processing in a highly complex and changing environment.

  10. Expert Concept Mapping Study on Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper introduces concept mapping as a structured participative conceptualization approach to identify clusters of ideas and opinions generated by experts within the domain of mobile learning. Utilizing this approach, the paper aims to contribute to a definition of key domain characteristics by identifying the main educational…

  11. Visual Cues for an Adaptive Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Helen B.

    NCR (National Cash Register) Corporation is pursuing opportunities to make their point of sale (POS) terminals easy to use and easy to learn. To approach the goal of making the technology invisible to the user, NCR has developed an adaptive expert prototype system for a department store POS operation. The structure for the adaptive system, the…

  12. A Virtual Panel of Expert Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the observations of a panel of research experts who have conducted research on music and the brain. States that the participants are Andrea Halpern, Larry Parsons, Ralph Spintge, and Sandra Trehub. After an introduction of each person, the participants characterized their principal findings. (CMK)

  13. The Selective Task Trainer: The Expert Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines simulator classification and design in light of new technology, current research, and a changing focus for using flight simulators in the military, and proposes a selective task trainer that addresses the expert's performance needs. Highlights include motor skill physiology; retention; automaticity skills; the novice to expert…

  14. Expert Behavior in Children's Video Game Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeventer, Stephanie S.; White, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the display of expert behavior by seven outstanding video game-playing children ages 10 and 11. Analyzes observation and debriefing transcripts for evidence of self-monitoring, pattern recognition, principled decision making, qualitative thinking, and superior memory, and discusses implications for educators regarding the development…

  15. Fuzzy Expert System to Characterize Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, T.

    2011-01-01

    Students wanting to succeed in higher education are required to adopt an adequate learning approach. By analyzing individual learning characteristics, teachers can give personal advice to help students identify their learning success factors. An expert system based on fuzzy logic can provide economically viable solutions to help students identify…

  16. Performance Engineering as an Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Considers three powerful techniques--heuristics, context trees, and search via backward chaining--that a knowledge engineer might employ to develop an expert system to automate performance engineering, i.e., the branch of instructional technology that focuses on the problems of business and industry. (MBR)

  17. Survey Questions Answered Only by Medication Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-eight tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 45 experts in the medication treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of specific disorders, ratings of various medications for specific disorders or symptoms, and preferences in mood stabilizers,…

  18. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  19. Concept of an expert system for EQCreator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Jiri; Telnarova, Zdenka; Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    This article deals with the design of an ideal, and to some extent general, expert system for evaluation of randomly generated algebra with the help of EQCreator program, which is able to generate EQ of algebra. It was created for the purpose of future expansion of the program for the possibility of generating any algebra specified by the user.

  20. Ethical Issues in Expert Opinions and Testimony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Roger O.

    2000-01-01

    This article provides an overview of ethical issues in private for-profit practice, with particular focus on expert testimony, using examples from a sample of claims filed with the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector and malpractice insurance companies. Complaints most frequently involve issues related to…